Science.gov

Sample records for research cooperation promotion

  1. COOP+ project: Promoting the cooperation among international Research Infrastructures to address global environmental challenges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonet-García, Francisco; Materia, Paola; Kutsch, Werner; de Lucas, Jesús Marco; Tjulin, Anders

    2016-04-01

    During the Anthropocene, mankind will face several global environmental challenges. One of the first and more successful responses provided by Science to these challenges is the collecting of long-term series of biophysical variables in order to improve our knowledge of natural systems. The huge amount of information gathered during the last decades by Research Infrastructures (RIs) has helped to understand the structure and functioning of natural systems at local and regional scales. But how can we address the global cross-scale and cross-disciplinary challenges posed by the global environment change? We believe that it will be necessary to observe, model better and understand the whole biosphere using long term data generated by international RIs. RIs play a key role on many of the last advances and discoveries in science, from the observation of the Higgs Boson at CERN to the exploration of the Universe by the telescopes of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. The scale of complexity, instrumentation, computing resources, technological advances, and also of the investments, and the size of research collaborations, do not have precedents in Science. RIs in environmental field are developing fast, but the corresponding communities need yet to further reflect the need for a wider global collaboration because the challenges to tackle are in essence of global nature. This contribution describes how COOP+ project (EU Horizon 2020 Coordination and Support Action) will promote the cooperation among RIs at a global scale to address global environmental challenges. Our project evolves from the experience of the sucessful FP7 COOPEUS project (see http://www.coopeus.eu), which explored the use and access to data from RIs in environmental research in Europe and USA. The general goal of COOP+ is to strengthen the links and coordination of the ESFRI RIs related to Marine Science (EMSO), Arctic and Atmospheric Research (EISCAT), Carbon Observation (ICOS) and Biodiversity

  2. An Integrated Strategy for Promoting Geoscience Education and Research in Developing Countries through International Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    2007-12-01

    Geoscience education and research in Developing countries should aim at achieving food, water and environmental security, and disaster preparedness, based on the synergetic application of earth (including atmospheric and oceanic realms), space and information sciences through economically-viable, ecologically- sustainable and people-participatory management of natural resources. The proposed strategy involves the integration of the following three principal elements: (i) What needs to be taught: Geoscience needs to be taught as earth system science incorporating geophysical, geochemical and geobiological approaches, with focus (say, 80 % of time) on surficial processes (e.g. dynamics of water, wind and waves, surface and groundwater, soil moisture, geomorphology, landuse, crops), and surficial materials (e.g. soils, water, industrial minerals, sediments, biota). Subjects such as the origin, structure and evolution of the earth, and deep-seated processes (e.g. dynamics of the crust-mantle interaction, plate tectonics) could be taught by way of background knowledge (say, 20 % of the time), (ii) How jobs are to be created: Jobs are to be created by merging geoscience knowledge with economic instruments (say, micro enterprises), and management structures at different levels (Policy level, Technology Transfer level and Implementation level), customized to the local biophysical and socioeconomic situations, and (iii) International cooperation: Web-based instruction (e.g. education portals, virtual laboratories) through South - South and North - South cooperation, customized to the local biophysical and socioeconomic situations, with the help of (say) UNDP, UNESCO, World Bank, etc.

  3. Gossip and ostracism promote cooperation in groups.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb; Schultz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The widespread existence of cooperation is difficult to explain because individuals face strong incentives to exploit the cooperative tendencies of others. In the research reported here, we examined how the spread of reputational information through gossip promotes cooperation in mixed-motive settings. Results showed that individuals readily communicated reputational information about others, and recipients used this information to selectively interact with cooperative individuals and ostracize those who had behaved selfishly, which enabled group members to contribute to the public good with reduced threat of exploitation. Additionally, ostracized individuals responded to exclusion by subsequently cooperating at levels comparable to those who were not ostracized. These results suggest that the spread of reputational information through gossip can mitigate egoistic behavior by facilitating partner selection, thereby helping to solve the problem of cooperation even in noniterated interactions. PMID:24463551

  4. The Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC) Conceptual Model to Promote Mental Health for Adolescents with ASD.

    PubMed

    Shochet, Ian M; Saggers, Beth R; Carrington, Suzanne B; Orr, Jayne A; Wurfl, Astrid M; Duncan, Bonnie M; Smith, Coral L

    2016-06-01

    Despite an increased risk of mental health problems in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is limited research on effective prevention approaches for this population. Funded by the Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism, a theoretically and empirically supported school-based preventative model has been developed to alter the negative trajectory and promote wellbeing and positive mental health in adolescents with ASD. This conceptual paper provides the rationale, theoretical, empirical and methodological framework of a multilayered intervention targeting the school, parents and adolescents on the spectrum. Two important interrelated protective factors have been identified in community adolescent samples, namely the sense of belonging (connectedness) to school and the capacity for self and affect regulation in the face of stress (i.e. resilience). We describe how a confluence of theories from social psychology, developmental psychology and family systems theory, along with empirical evidence (including emerging neurobiological evidence), supports the interrelationships between these protective factors and many indices of wellbeing. However, the characteristics of ASD (including social and communication difficulties, and frequently difficulties with changes and transitions, and diminished optimism and self-esteem) impair access to these vital protective factors. The paper describes how evidence-based interventions at the school level for promoting inclusive schools (using the Index for Inclusion) and interventions for adolescents and parents to promote resilience and belonging [using the Resourceful Adolescent Program (RAP)] are adapted and integrated for adolescents with ASD. This multisite proof-of-concept study will confirm whether this multilevel school-based intervention is promising, feasible and sustainable. PMID:27072681

  5. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner’s dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation. PMID:26238521

  6. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation. PMID:26238521

  7. Cooperative Cataloging: LC Promotes Cooperation at Asian Materials Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineberg, Gail

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Asian Materials Cataloging Seminar that the Library of Congress sponsored to promote the benefits of cooperative cataloging. Highlights include the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC); high-quality, standardized, core-level cataloging records for Asian materials; name authority and subject authority programs; and the CONSER…

  8. Benevolent characteristics promote cooperative behaviour among humans.

    PubMed

    Capraro, Valerio; Smyth, Conor; Mylona, Kalliopi; Niblo, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation is fundamental to the evolution of human society. We regularly observe cooperative behaviour in everyday life and in controlled experiments with anonymous people, even though standard economic models predict that they should deviate from the collective interest and act so as to maximise their own individual payoff. However, there is typically heterogeneity across subjects: some may cooperate, while others may not. Since individual factors promoting cooperation could be used by institutions to indirectly prime cooperation, this heterogeneity raises the important question of who these cooperators are. We have conducted a series of experiments to study whether benevolence, defined as a unilateral act of paying a cost to increase the welfare of someone else beyond one's own, is related to cooperation in a subsequent one-shot anonymous Prisoner's dilemma. Contrary to the predictions of the widely used inequity aversion models, we find that benevolence does exist and a large majority of people behave this way. We also find benevolence to be correlated with cooperative behaviour. Finally, we show a causal link between benevolence and cooperation: priming people to think positively about benevolent behaviour makes them significantly more cooperative than priming them to think malevolently. Thus benevolent people exist and cooperate more. PMID:25140707

  9. 77 FR 26413 - Promoting International Regulatory Cooperation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... HOUSE, May 1, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-10968 Filed 5-3-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ...;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Executive Order 13609 of May 1, 2012 Promoting International... United States of America, and in order to promote international regulatory cooperation, it is...

  10. Heterogeneous Link Weight Promotes the Cooperation in Spatial Prisoner's Dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhi-Qin; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Sun, Shi-Wen; Wang, Li; Wang, Huai-Bin; Wang, Juan

    The spatial structure has often been identified as a prominent mechanism that substantially promotes the cooperation level in prisoner's dilemma game. In this paper we introduce a weighting mechanism into the spatial prisoner's dilemma game to explore the cooperative behaviors on the square lattice. Here, three types of weight distributions: exponential, power-law and uniform distributions are considered, and the weight is assigned to links between players. Through large-scale numerical simulations we find, compared with the traditional spatial game, that this mechanism can largely enhance the frequency of cooperators. For most ranges of b, we find that the power-law distribution enables the highest promotion of cooperation and the uniform one leads to the lowest enhancement, whereas the exponential one lies often between them. The great improvement of cooperation can be caused by the fact that the distributional link weight yields inhomogeneous interaction strength among individuals, which can facilitate the formation of cooperative clusters to resist the defector's invasion. In addition, the impact of amplitude of the undulation of weight distribution and noise strength on cooperation is also investigated for three kinds of weight distribution. Current researches can aid in the further understanding of evolutionary cooperation in biological and social science.

  11. Inducing Peer Pressure to Promote Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Ankur; Rahwan, Iyad; Pentland, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation in a large society of self-interested individuals is notoriously difficult to achieve when the externality of one individual's action is spread thin and wide on the whole society. This leads to the ‘tragedy of the commons’ in which rational action will ultimately make everyone worse-off. Traditional policies to promote cooperation involve Pigouvian taxation or subsidies that make individuals internalize the externality they incur. We introduce a new approach to achieving global cooperation by localizing externalities to one's peers in a social network, thus leveraging the power of peer-pressure to regulate behavior. The mechanism relies on a joint model of externalities and peer-pressure. Surprisingly, this mechanism can require a lower budget to operate than the Pigouvian mechanism, even when accounting for the social cost of peer pressure. Even when the available budget is very low, the social mechanisms achieve greater improvement in the outcome. PMID:23619166

  12. Inducing peer pressure to promote cooperation.

    PubMed

    Mani, Ankur; Rahwan, Iyad; Pentland, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation in a large society of self-interested individuals is notoriously difficult to achieve when the externality of one individual's action is spread thin and wide on the whole society. This leads to the 'tragedy of the commons' in which rational action will ultimately make everyone worse-off. Traditional policies to promote cooperation involve Pigouvian taxation or subsidies that make individuals internalize the externality they incur. We introduce a new approach to achieving global cooperation by localizing externalities to one's peers in a social network, thus leveraging the power of peer-pressure to regulate behavior. The mechanism relies on a joint model of externalities and peer-pressure. Surprisingly, this mechanism can require a lower budget to operate than the Pigouvian mechanism, even when accounting for the social cost of peer pressure. Even when the available budget is very low, the social mechanisms achieve greater improvement in the outcome. PMID:23619166

  13. Inducing Peer Pressure to Promote Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Ankur; Rahwan, Iyad; Pentland, Alex

    2013-04-01

    Cooperation in a large society of self-interested individuals is notoriously difficult to achieve when the externality of one individual's action is spread thin and wide on the whole society. This leads to the `tragedy of the commons' in which rational action will ultimately make everyone worse-off. Traditional policies to promote cooperation involve Pigouvian taxation or subsidies that make individuals internalize the externality they incur. We introduce a new approach to achieving global cooperation by localizing externalities to one's peers in a social network, thus leveraging the power of peer-pressure to regulate behavior. The mechanism relies on a joint model of externalities and peer-pressure. Surprisingly, this mechanism can require a lower budget to operate than the Pigouvian mechanism, even when accounting for the social cost of peer pressure. Even when the available budget is very low, the social mechanisms achieve greater improvement in the outcome.

  14. Western Conifers Research Cooperative 1987 research plan

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.K.

    1987-08-01

    The Western Conifers Research Cooperative is part of the national Forest Response Program (FRP). The FRP is a federal program designed to determine the current and potential effects of atmospheric deposition on forests in the United States. Research is conducted regionally within four research Cooperatives. The Western Cooperative is concerned with the effects of atmospheric deposition on coniferous forests in the eleven conterminous western states. The 1987 Research Plan first outlines the objectives and research strategy of the FRP. The objectives and strategy of the Western Cooperative are then described in the context of the parent organization. The 1986 Western Cooperative program is reviewed followed by a description of the 1987 program. Brief descriptions of each of the individual 1987 research projects are also given.

  15. Centralized sanctioning and legitimate authority promote cooperation in humans.

    PubMed

    Baldassarri, Delia; Grossman, Guy

    2011-07-01

    Social sanctioning is widely considered a successful strategy to promote cooperation among humans. In situations in which individual and collective interests are at odds, incentives to free-ride induce individuals to refrain from contributing to public goods provision. Experimental evidence from public goods games shows that when endowed with sanctioning powers, conditional cooperators can discipline defectors, thus leading to greater levels of cooperation. However, extant evidence is based on peer punishment institutions, whereas in complex societies, systems of control are often centralized: for instance, we do not sanction our neighbors for driving too fast, the police do. Here we show the effect of centralized sanctioning and legitimate authority on cooperation. We designed an adaptation of the public goods game in which sanctioning power is given to a single monitor, and we experimentally manipulated the process by which the monitor is chosen. To increase the external validity of the study, we conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 1,543 Ugandan farmers from 50 producer cooperatives. This research provides evidence of the effectiveness of centralized sanctioning and demonstrates the causal effect of legitimacy on cooperation: participants are more responsive to the authority of an elected monitor than a randomly chosen monitor. Our essay contributes to the literature on the evolution of cooperation by introducing the idea of role differentiation. In complex societies, cooperative behavior is not only sustained by mechanisms of selection and reciprocity among peers, but also by the legitimacy that certain actors derive from their position in the social hierarchy. PMID:21690401

  16. Cooperative Market Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carels, Peter; McCullough, Lynette

    A pilot project was developed in which the Advertising and Market Research Center of the Vienna School of Economics and Business in Austria and the German Department as well as the Marketing Department of Miami University in Ohio are working together to collect market research data and formulate a market entry strategy for Roemerquelle, an…

  17. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section...

  18. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section...

  19. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section...

  20. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section...

  1. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section...

  2. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114...

  3. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section...

  4. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section...

  5. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section...

  6. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section...

  7. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section...

  8. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114...

  9. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section...

  10. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section...

  11. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114...

  12. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section...

  13. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114...

  14. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section...

  15. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section...

  16. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section...

  17. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section...

  18. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section...

  19. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section...

  20. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section...

  1. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section...

  2. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section...

  3. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section...

  4. Spontaneous Giving under Structural Inequality: Intuition Promotes Cooperation in Asymmetric Social Dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Lotz, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigates the role of intuitive mental processing on cooperation in experimental games involving structural inequality. Results from an experiment using conceptual priming to induce intuitive mental processing provide the first evidence that cooperation is promoted by intuition in an asymmetric context that distributes the gains from cooperation unequally among a group. Therefore, the results extend our understanding of the cognitive underpinnings of human cooperation by demonstrating the robustness of intuitive cooperation in games involving structural inequality regarding asymmetric gains from cooperation. Additionally, the results provide the first successful conceptual replication of the intuition-cooperation link using conceptual priming, therefore also contributing to the debate about the validity of previous research in other contexts. Taken together, the present research contributes to the literature on psychological and institutional mechanisms that promote cooperation. PMID:26154284

  5. Relational Diversity Promotes Cooperation in Prisoner’s Dilemma Games

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Jianwei; Deng, Ruipu; Li, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Relational diversity can be characterized by heterogeneous distributions of tie strengths in social networks and this diversity is present not only among humans, but throughout the animal world. We account for this observation by analyzing two network datasets from Facebook. We measure the strength of a tie by calculating the extent of overlap of friends between the two individuals. Based on the previous findings in human experiments, we argue that it is very unlikely that players will allocate their investments equally to their neighbors. There is a tendency that players prefer to donate more to their intimate friends. We find that if players preferentially allocate their investments to their good friends, cooperation will be promoted in PDG. We proved that the facilitation of the cooperative strategy relies mostly on the cooperative allies between best friends, resulting in the formation of cooperative clusters which are able to prevail against the defectors even when there is a large cost to cooperate. Moreover, we discover that the effect of relational diversity cannot be analyzed by adopting classical complex networks models, because neither of the artificial networks is able to produce networks with diverse distributions of tie strengths. It is of vital importance to introduce real social networks to study the influence of diverse relations especially when it comes to humans. This research proposes a brand new perspective to understand the influence of social relations on the emergence of cooperation in evolutionary prisoner’s dilemma games. PMID:25474354

  6. Relational diversity promotes cooperation in prisoner's dilemma games.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Jianwei; Deng, Ruipu; Li, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Relational diversity can be characterized by heterogeneous distributions of tie strengths in social networks and this diversity is present not only among humans, but throughout the animal world. We account for this observation by analyzing two network datasets from Facebook. We measure the strength of a tie by calculating the extent of overlap of friends between the two individuals. Based on the previous findings in human experiments, we argue that it is very unlikely that players will allocate their investments equally to their neighbors. There is a tendency that players prefer to donate more to their intimate friends. We find that if players preferentially allocate their investments to their good friends, cooperation will be promoted in PDG. We proved that the facilitation of the cooperative strategy relies mostly on the cooperative allies between best friends, resulting in the formation of cooperative clusters which are able to prevail against the defectors even when there is a large cost to cooperate. Moreover, we discover that the effect of relational diversity cannot be analyzed by adopting classical complex networks models, because neither of the artificial networks is able to produce networks with diverse distributions of tie strengths. It is of vital importance to introduce real social networks to study the influence of diverse relations especially when it comes to humans. This research proposes a brand new perspective to understand the influence of social relations on the emergence of cooperation in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games. PMID:25474354

  7. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more...

  8. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered...

  9. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section 225.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  10. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section...

  11. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section...

  12. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section...

  13. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114...

  14. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section...

  15. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section...

  16. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section...

  17. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section...

  18. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114...

  19. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114...

  20. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section...

  1. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114...

  2. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section...

  3. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26.114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative...

  4. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects... projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects and for... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section...

  5. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section...

  6. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects... projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects and for... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research....

  7. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects... projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects and for... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section...

  8. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects... projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects and for... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research....

  9. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects... projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects and for... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research....

  10. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects... projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects and for... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research....

  11. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects... projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects and for... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section...

  12. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects... projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects and for... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section...

  13. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section...

  14. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section...

  15. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  16. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section...

  17. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section...

  18. Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) describes intergranular environmental cracking of material exposed to ionizing radiation. The implications of IASCC are significant, both in terms of repair and outage costs as well as the potential for cracking in components that may be extremely difficult to repair or replace. Significant advancements have been made in the understanding of IASCC. However, it is clear that major unknowns persist and must be understood and quantified before the life of a reactor component at risk from IASCC can be predicted or significantly extended. Although individual organizations are continuing to effectively address IASCC, it became apparent that a more direct form of cooperation would be more timely and efficient in addressing the technical issues. Thus in 1995 EPRI formed the Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR) Program. This is a cooperative, jointly funded effort with participants from eight countries providing financial support and technical oversight. The efforts of the CIR Program are directed at the highest priority questions in the areas of material susceptibility, water chemistry and material stress. Major research areas of the Program are: (1) evaluation of IASCC mechanisms, (2) development of methodology for predicting IASCC, and (3) quantification of irradiation effects on metallurgy, mechanics and electrochemistry. Studies to evaluate various IASCC mechanisms include work to better understand the possible roles of radiation-induced segregation (RIS), radiation microstructure, bulk and localized deformation effects, overall effects on strength and ductility, hydrogen and helium effects, and others. Experiments are being conducted to isolate individual effects and determine the relative importance of each in the overall IASCC mechanism. Screening tests will be followed by detailed testing to identify the contribution of each effect over a range of conditions. The paper describes the completed and ongoing work being

  19. Using Cooperative Structures to Promote Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    The author explores concrete ways to help students learn more and have fun doing it while they support each other's learning. The article specifically shows the relationships between cooperative learning and deep learning. Readers will become familiar with the tenets of cooperative learning and its power to enhance learning--even more so when…

  20. Genetic information transfer promotes cooperation in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dimitriu, Tatiana; Lotton, Chantal; Bénard-Capelle, Julien; Misevic, Dusan; Brown, Sam P; Lindner, Ariel B; Taddei, François

    2014-07-29

    Many bacterial species are social, producing costly secreted "public good" molecules that enhance the growth of neighboring cells. The genes coding for these cooperative traits are often propagated via mobile genetic elements and can be virulence factors from a biomedical perspective. Here, we present an experimental framework that links genetic information exchange and the selection of cooperative traits. Using simulations and experiments based on a synthetic bacterial system to control public good secretion and plasmid conjugation, we demonstrate that horizontal gene transfer can favor cooperation. In a well-mixed environment, horizontal transfer brings a direct infectious advantage to any gene, regardless of its cooperation properties. However, in a structured population transfer selects specifically for cooperation by increasing the assortment among cooperative alleles. Conjugation allows cooperative alleles to overcome rarity thresholds and invade bacterial populations structured purely by stochastic dilution effects. Our results provide an explanation for the prevalence of cooperative genes on mobile elements, and suggest a previously unidentified benefit of horizontal gene transfer for bacteria. PMID:25024219

  1. Genetic information transfer promotes cooperation in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriu, Tatiana; Lotton, Chantal; Bénard-Capelle, Julien; Misevic, Dusan; Brown, Sam P.; Lindner, Ariel B.; Taddei, François

    2014-01-01

    Many bacterial species are social, producing costly secreted “public good” molecules that enhance the growth of neighboring cells. The genes coding for these cooperative traits are often propagated via mobile genetic elements and can be virulence factors from a biomedical perspective. Here, we present an experimental framework that links genetic information exchange and the selection of cooperative traits. Using simulations and experiments based on a synthetic bacterial system to control public good secretion and plasmid conjugation, we demonstrate that horizontal gene transfer can favor cooperation. In a well-mixed environment, horizontal transfer brings a direct infectious advantage to any gene, regardless of its cooperation properties. However, in a structured population transfer selects specifically for cooperation by increasing the assortment among cooperative alleles. Conjugation allows cooperative alleles to overcome rarity thresholds and invade bacterial populations structured purely by stochastic dilution effects. Our results provide an explanation for the prevalence of cooperative genes on mobile elements, and suggest a previously unidentified benefit of horizontal gene transfer for bacteria. PMID:25024219

  2. Population Fluctuation Promotes Cooperation in Networks

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Steve; Knowles, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation in dynamic network-structured populations. Building on seminal work by Poncela et al., which shows how cooperation (in one-shot prisoner’s dilemma) is supported in growing populations by an evolutionary preferential attachment (EPA) model, we investigate the effect of fluctuations in the population size. We find that a fluctuating model – based on repeated population growth and truncation – is more robust than Poncela et al.’s in that cooperation flourishes for a wider variety of initial conditions. In terms of both the temptation to defect, and the types of strategies present in the founder network, the fluctuating population is found to lead more securely to cooperation. Further, we find that this model will also support the emergence of cooperation from pre-existing non-cooperative random networks. This model, like Poncela et al.’s, does not require agents to have memory, recognition of other agents, or other cognitive abilities, and so may suggest a more general explanation of the emergence of cooperation in early evolutionary transitions, than mechanisms such as kin selection, direct and indirect reciprocity. PMID:26061705

  3. Population Fluctuation Promotes Cooperation in Networks.

    PubMed

    Miller, Steve; Knowles, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation in dynamic network-structured populations. Building on seminal work by Poncela et al., which shows how cooperation (in one-shot prisoner's dilemma) is supported in growing populations by an evolutionary preferential attachment (EPA) model, we investigate the effect of fluctuations in the population size. We find that a fluctuating model - based on repeated population growth and truncation - is more robust than Poncela et al.'s in that cooperation flourishes for a wider variety of initial conditions. In terms of both the temptation to defect, and the types of strategies present in the founder network, the fluctuating population is found to lead more securely to cooperation. Further, we find that this model will also support the emergence of cooperation from pre-existing non-cooperative random networks. This model, like Poncela et al.'s, does not require agents to have memory, recognition of other agents, or other cognitive abilities, and so may suggest a more general explanation of the emergence of cooperation in early evolutionary transitions, than mechanisms such as kin selection, direct and indirect reciprocity. PMID:26061705

  4. Adjusting learning motivation to promote cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Small, Michael; Yang, Hanxin; Wang, Binghong

    2010-11-01

    An evolutionary prisoner’s dilemma game with players adjusting their learning motivation is studied. At each time step, each player can adjust his/her learning motivation according to the difference between the current payoff and payoff aspiration. Greater payoff aspiration means stronger learning motivation, and vice versa. We find that the density of cooperation in a spatial prisoner’s dilemma game is enhanced when the learning motivation mechanism is considered. Meanwhile, we show that proper noise can not only induce the highest cooperation level but also can maintain the cooperation phenomenon even though there is more temptation to defect.

  5. Promoting Cooperative and Helping Behaviours in Student Work Groups through Training in Small Group Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Robyn M.; Ashman, Adrian F.

    Research in recent years has demonstrated that cooperative learning is a highly effective classroom intervention that promotes student learning and development across a range of curriculum areas. This study compared the effects on behavioral interactions and achievement of: (1) cooperative learning in which members were trained to collaborate to…

  6. Social image concerns promote cooperation more than altruistic punishment

    PubMed Central

    Grimalda, Gianluca; Pondorfer, Andreas; Tracer, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Human cooperation is enigmatic, as organisms are expected, by evolutionary and economic theory, to act principally in their own interests. However, cooperation requires individuals to sacrifice resources for each other's benefit. We conducted a series of novel experiments in a foraging society where social institutions make the study of social image and punishment particularly salient. Participants played simple cooperation games where they could punish non-cooperators, promote a positive social image or do so in combination with one another. We show that although all these mechanisms raise cooperation above baseline levels, only when social image alone is at stake do average economic gains rise significantly above baseline. Punishment, either alone or combined with social image building, yields lower gains. Individuals' desire to establish a positive social image thus emerges as a more decisive factor than punishment in promoting human cooperation. PMID:27504898

  7. Social image concerns promote cooperation more than altruistic punishment.

    PubMed

    Grimalda, Gianluca; Pondorfer, Andreas; Tracer, David P

    2016-01-01

    Human cooperation is enigmatic, as organisms are expected, by evolutionary and economic theory, to act principally in their own interests. However, cooperation requires individuals to sacrifice resources for each other's benefit. We conducted a series of novel experiments in a foraging society where social institutions make the study of social image and punishment particularly salient. Participants played simple cooperation games where they could punish non-cooperators, promote a positive social image or do so in combination with one another. We show that although all these mechanisms raise cooperation above baseline levels, only when social image alone is at stake do average economic gains rise significantly above baseline. Punishment, either alone or combined with social image building, yields lower gains. Individuals' desire to establish a positive social image thus emerges as a more decisive factor than punishment in promoting human cooperation. PMID:27504898

  8. Harnessing the power of reputation: strengths and limits for promoting cooperative behaviors.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary approaches have done much to identify the pressures that select for cooperative sentiment. This helps us understand when and why cooperation will arise, and applied research shows how these pressures can be harnessed to promote various types of cooperation. In particular, recent evidence shows how opportunities to acquire a good reputation can promote cooperation in laboratory and applied settings. Cooperation can be promoted by tapping into forces like indirect reciprocity, costly signaling, and competitive altruism. When individuals help others, they receive reputational benefits (or avoid reputational costs), and this gives people an incentive to help. Such findings can be applied to promote many kinds of helping and cooperation, including charitable donations, tax compliance, sustainable and pro-environmental behaviors, risky heroism, and more. Despite the potential advantages of using reputation to promote positive behaviors, there are several risks and limits. Under some circumstances, opportunities for reputation will be ineffective or promote harmful behaviors. By better understanding the dynamics of reputation and the circumstances under which cooperation can evolve, we can better design social systems to increase the rate of cooperation and reduce conflict. PMID:23253792

  9. Small groups and long memories promote cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alexander J.; Plotkin, Joshua B.

    2016-01-01

    Complex social behaviors lie at the heart of many of the challenges facing evolutionary biology, sociology, economics, and beyond. For evolutionary biologists the question is often how group behaviors such as collective action, or decision making that accounts for memories of past experience, can emerge and persist in an evolving system. Evolutionary game theory provides a framework for formalizing these questions and admitting them to rigorous study. Here we develop such a framework to study the evolution of sustained collective action in multi-player public-goods games, in which players have arbitrarily long memories of prior rounds of play and can react to their experience in an arbitrary way. We construct a coordinate system for memory-m strategies in iterated n-player games that permits us to characterize all cooperative strategies that resist invasion by any mutant strategy, and stabilize cooperative behavior. We show that, especially when groups are small, longer-memory strategies make cooperation easier to evolve, by increasing the number of ways to stabilize cooperation. We also explore the co-evolution of behavior and memory. We find that even when memory has a cost, longer-memory strategies often evolve, which in turn drives the evolution of cooperation, even when the benefits for cooperation are low. PMID:27247059

  10. Small groups and long memories promote cooperation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2016-01-01

    Complex social behaviors lie at the heart of many of the challenges facing evolutionary biology, sociology, economics, and beyond. For evolutionary biologists the question is often how group behaviors such as collective action, or decision making that accounts for memories of past experience, can emerge and persist in an evolving system. Evolutionary game theory provides a framework for formalizing these questions and admitting them to rigorous study. Here we develop such a framework to study the evolution of sustained collective action in multi-player public-goods games, in which players have arbitrarily long memories of prior rounds of play and can react to their experience in an arbitrary way. We construct a coordinate system for memory-m strategies in iterated n-player games that permits us to characterize all cooperative strategies that resist invasion by any mutant strategy, and stabilize cooperative behavior. We show that, especially when groups are small, longer-memory strategies make cooperation easier to evolve, by increasing the number of ways to stabilize cooperation. We also explore the co-evolution of behavior and memory. We find that even when memory has a cost, longer-memory strategies often evolve, which in turn drives the evolution of cooperation, even when the benefits for cooperation are low. PMID:27247059

  11. Promoting the Quality of Sino-Foreign Cooperation School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the history and situation of the current Sino-foreign cooperation in running school, some prominent differences on the college educations between China and developed countries are discussed. The paper aims to improve the level of Sino-foreign cooperation school running, and gives some methods to promote the education quality of Chinese…

  12. Promotion of cooperation by selective group extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Marvin A.; Nagler, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Multilevel selection is an important organizing principle that crucially underlies evolutionary processes from the emergence of cells to eusociality and the economics of nations. Previous studies on multilevel selection assumed that the effective higher-level selection emerges from lower-level reproduction. This leads to selection among groups, although only individuals reproduce. We introduce selective group extinction, where groups die with a probability inversely proportional to their group fitness. When accounting for this the critical benefit-to-cost ratio is substantially lowered. Because in game theory and evolutionary dynamics the degree of cooperation crucially depends on this ratio above which cooperation emerges, previous studies may have substantially underestimated the establishment and maintenance of cooperation.

  13. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.1114 Section... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1114 Cooperative research. In complying with this...

  14. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114...

  15. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114...

  16. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114...

  17. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114...

  18. Coevolution of teaching activity promotes cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2008-04-01

    Evolutionary games are studied where the teaching activity of players can evolve in time. Initially all players following either the cooperative or defecting strategy are distributed on a square lattice. The rate of strategy adoption is determined by the payoff difference and a teaching activity characterizing the donor's capability to enforce its strategy on the opponent. Each successful strategy adoption process is accompanied by an increase in the donor's teaching activity. By applying an optimum value of the increment, this simple mechanism spontaneously creates relevant inhomogeneities in the teaching activities that support the maintenance of cooperation for both the prisoner's dilemma and the snowdrift game.

  19. Repeated thinking promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Cai, Kai-Quan; Du, Wen-Bo; Cao, Xian-Bin

    2012-05-01

    Inspired by the realistic process of taking decisions in social life, we have proposed a repeated thinking mechanism in the evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game where players are denoted by the vertices and play games with their direct neighbors. Under our mechanism, a player i will randomly select a neighbor j and then deliberate for M times before strategy updating. It will remain unchanged if not all M considerations suggest it to learn the strategy of j. We mainly focus on the evolution of cooperation in the systems. Interestingly, we find that the cooperation level fC is remarkably promoted and fC has a monotonic dependence on the caution parameter M, indicating that being cautious facilitates the emergence and persistence of cooperation. We give a simple but clear explanation for this cooperation promotion via detecting the cooperator-defector transition process. Moreover, the robustness of this mechanism is also examined on different noise levels and game models.

  20. Role of collective influence in promoting cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.-G.; Wu, Z.-X.; Wu, A.-C.; Yang, L.; Wang, Y.-H.

    2008-12-01

    The collective influence on the individuals' behavior have attracted much attention, and interesting phenomena such as social facilitation and social loafing have been studied. In this paper, we consider how the collective influence affects the evolution of cooperation in a structured population of individuals who nourish and benefit from public goods in groups. Individuals are supposed to distribute endowments to different groups to nourish the corresponding public goods. The collective influence is indicated by a tunable parameter α, with larger α corresponding to the players' higher preference to contribute more to the larger groups, which is similar to the social-facilitation effect in the real world, whereas, with smaller α corresponding to individuals' contrary preference, i.e., the social-loafing effect. Interestingly, we find that the heterogeneity of public-goods setting favors cooperation. Furthermore, the system where social loafing occurs performs better than that with social facilitation, in the case of heterogeneous formation.

  1. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with...

  2. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with these regulations, institutions involved...

  3. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114...

  4. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114...

  5. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114...

  6. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114...

  7. Promoting cooperation in social dilemmas via simple coevolutionary rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, A.; Perc, M.

    2009-02-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in structured populations within popular models of social dilemmas, whereby simple coevolutionary rules are introduced that may enhance players abilities to enforce their strategy on the opponent. Coevolution thus here refers to an evolutionary process affecting the teaching activity of players that accompanies the evolution of their strategies. Particularly, we increase the teaching activity of a player after it has successfully reproduced, yet we do so depending on the disseminated strategy. We separately consider coevolution affecting either only the cooperators or only the defectors, and show that both options promote cooperation irrespective of the applied game. Opposite to intuitive reasoning, however, we reveal that the coevolutionary promotion of players spreading defection is, in the long run, more beneficial for cooperation than the likewise promotion of cooperators. We explain the contradictive impact of the two considered coevolutionary rules by examining the differences between resulting heterogeneities that segregate participating players, and furthermore, demonstrate that the influential individuals completely determine the final outcome of the games. Our findings are immune to changes defining the type of considered social dilemmas and highlight that the heterogeneity of players, resulting in a positive feedback mechanism, is a fundamental property promoting cooperation in groups of selfish individuals.

  8. Dynamic social networks promote cooperation in experiments with humans.

    PubMed

    Rand, David G; Arbesman, Samuel; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2011-11-29

    Human populations are both highly cooperative and highly organized. Human interactions are not random but rather are structured in social networks. Importantly, ties in these networks often are dynamic, changing in response to the behavior of one's social partners. This dynamic structure permits an important form of conditional action that has been explored theoretically but has received little empirical attention: People can respond to the cooperation and defection of those around them by making or breaking network links. Here, we present experimental evidence of the power of using strategic link formation and dissolution, and the network modification it entails, to stabilize cooperation in sizable groups. Our experiments explore large-scale cooperation, where subjects' cooperative actions are equally beneficial to all those with whom they interact. Consistent with previous research, we find that cooperation decays over time when social networks are shuffled randomly every round or are fixed across all rounds. We also find that, when networks are dynamic but are updated only infrequently, cooperation again fails. However, when subjects can update their network connections frequently, we see a qualitatively different outcome: Cooperation is maintained at a high level through network rewiring. Subjects preferentially break links with defectors and form new links with cooperators, creating an incentive to cooperate and leading to substantial changes in network structure. Our experiments confirm the predictions of a set of evolutionary game theoretic models and demonstrate the important role that dynamic social networks can play in supporting large-scale human cooperation. PMID:22084103

  9. Promotion of cooperation by payoff-driven migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ya-Shan; Yang, Han-Xin; Guo, Wen-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Migration plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation. Previous studies concerning mobile population often assumed that all agents move with the identical velocity. In this paper, we propose a payoff-driven migration in which the velocity of an agent depends on his/her payoff. A parameter α is introduced to adjust the influence of payoff, when α = 0 means that agents all move with the identical velocity while α > 0 means that the lower the payoff is, the faster the moving speed is, and vice versa. For the prisoner's dilemma game, we find that in comparison with the case that agents all move with the same speed, cooperation could be promoted strongly when payoff-dependent velocity is considered. Remarkably, the cooperation level is not a monotonic function of α, and there exists an optimal value of α which can lead to the maximum cooperation level. For the snowdrift game, the cooperation level increases with α.

  10. Cooperative Learning: Review of Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from pre-school through to tertiary level and across different subject domains. It involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks--goals and tasks that they would be unable to complete by…

  11. Reputation-based partner choice promotes cooperation in social networks

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Feng; Hauert, Christoph; Nowak, Martin A.; Wang, Long

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the cooperation dynamics attributed to the interplay between evolution of individual strategies and evolution of individual partnerships. We focus on the effect of reputation on individual's partner switching process. We assume individuals can either change their strategies by imitating their partners or adjust their partnerships based on local information about reputations. We manipulate the partner switching in two ways, that is, individuals can switch from the lowest reputation partners, either to their partners' partners who have the highest reputation (i.e., ordering in partnership) or to others randomly chosen from the entire population (i.e., randomness in partnership). We show that when individuals are able to alter their behavioral strategies and their social interaction partnerships on the basis of reputation, cooperation can prevail. We find that the larger temptation to defect and the denser the partner network, the more frequently individuals need shift their partnerships in order for cooperation to thrive. Furthermore, increasing tendency of switching to partners' partners is more likely to lead to higher level of cooperation. We show that when reputation is absent in such partner-switching process, cooperation is much less favored than that of reputation involved. Moreover, we investigate the effect of discounting individual's reputation on the evolution of cooperation. Our results highlight the importance of consideration of reputation (indirect reciprocity) on promotion of cooperation when individuals can adjust their partnerships. PMID:18850907

  12. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Cooperative research in coal liquefaction is presented. Topics include: Sulfate-promoted metal oxides as direct coal liquefaction catalysts; low temperature depolymerization and liquefaction of premium US coal samples; construction of continuous flow-through gas reactor for liquefaction investigations; examination of ferric sulfide as a liquefaction catalyst; generic structural characterization and liquefaction research; spectroscopic studies of coal macerals depolymerization catalyzed by iron chloride; characterization of catalysts used in coal hydrogenation systems; coal structure/liquefaction yield correlation by means of advanced NMR techniques; mass spectrometry of coal derived liquids: determination of molecular weight distributions; catalyst cracking, hydrogenation and liquefaction of coals under milder conditions; ENDOR investigations of coal liquefaction under mild conditions; direct determination of hydroaromatic structures in coal and coal conversion products by catalytic dehydrogenation; surface characterization of APCSB coals by XPS; computation chemistry of model compounds and molecular fragments of relevance to coal liquefaction; chemical characterization and hydrogenation reactions of single coal particles; the role of hydrogen during liquefaction using donor and non-donor solvents; solvent sorption and FTIR studies on the effect of catalytic depolymerization reactions in coal; bioprocessing of coal; chemical routes to breaking bonds: new approaches to low-temperature liquefaction; an investigation into the reactivity of isotetralin and tetralin using molecular orbital calculations; coal liquefaction modification for enhanced reactivity; catalytic hydropyrolysis and energized extraction of coals; gallium catalyst in mild coal liquefaction -- potential of temperature microscope in coal liquefaction; evaluation of nitride catalysts for hydrotreatment and coal liquefaction; and improved catalysts for coal liquefaction and coprocessing.

  13. Group preferential selection promotes cooperation in spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong-Bin; Wang, Hong

    2014-04-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in public goods games on the square lattice, focusing on the co-player learning mechanism based on the preferential selection that are brought about by wealthy information of groups where participants collect and search for potential imitators from those groups. We find that co-player learning mechanism based on the choice of weighted group can lead to the promotion of public cooperation by means of the information of wealthy groups that is obtained by participants, and after that the partial choice of public goods groups is enhanced with the tunable preferential parameter. Our results highlight that the learning interactions is not solely confined to the restricted connection among players, but co-players of wealthy groups have the opportunity to be as a role model in the promotion of cooperative evolution. Moreover, we also find the size of learning affects the choice of distant players, cooperators (defectors) having more paths to exploit the phalanx of opponents to survive when the value of preferential parameter is small. Besides, the extinction thresholds of cooperators and defectors for different values of noise are also investigated.

  14. Managing cooperative research and development ventures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    As cooperative ventures to conduct research and development become increasingly attractive, management of these collective undertakings poses new challenges to executives. In selecting the most appropriate organizational structure and strategy the author suggests that the collective enterprise executive must strike the best balance among three distinct but related elements: contribution of the participants; creation of benefits; and transfer of benefits to contributors. Eight types of cooperative R&D ventures are proposed with discussion of the unique management tasks associated with each type.

  15. A Journal-Club-Based Class that Promotes Active and Cooperative Learning of Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitazono, Ana A.

    2010-01-01

    A journal-club-based class has been developed to promote active and cooperative learning and expose seniors in biochemistry and cellular molecular biology to recent research in the field. Besides giving oral presentations, students also write three papers: one discussing an article of their own choosing and two, discussing articles presented by…

  16. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.1114 Section 26.1114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults...

  17. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.1114 Section 26.1114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults...

  18. Annual Report, 1995. California Educational Research Cooperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zykowski, Jane L.; And Others

    The California Educational Research Cooperative (CERC) of the School of Education, University of California, Riverside, was established in 1988 as a joint venture designed to bring educational professionals and researchers together. CERC is a partnership among the Riverside and San Bernadino County Offices of Education, 19 local school districts,…

  19. Wisdom of groups promotes cooperation in evolutionary social dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Wang, Zhen; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-08-01

    Whether or not to change strategy depends not only on the personal success of each individual, but also on the success of others. Using this as motivation, we study the evolution of cooperation in games that describe social dilemmas, where the propensity to adopt a different strategy depends both on individual fitness as well as on the strategies of neighbors. Regardless of whether the evolutionary process is governed by pairwise or group interactions, we show that plugging into the ``wisdom of groups'' strongly promotes cooperative behavior. The more the wider knowledge is taken into account the more the evolution of defectors is impaired. We explain this by revealing a dynamically decelerated invasion process, by means of which interfaces separating different domains remain smooth and defectors therefore become unable to efficiently invade cooperators. This in turn invigorates spatial reciprocity and establishes decentralized decision making as very beneficial for resolving social dilemmas.

  20. Cooperative research in space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This grant covered the period from July 1989 through September 30, 1995. The research covered a number of topics in the general area of space science. Specific research topics included: (1) Solar astronomy - largely in support of the Ulysses project; (2) Space Science - largely in support of instrumentation for several NASA satellite projects; (3) Cometary astronomy; and (4) Planetary Astronomy - largely supporting the NASA Infrared Heterodyne instrument.

  1. Social influence promotes cooperation in the public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Dou, Puxuan; Wang, Long

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies mainly consider the random selection pattern in which individuals randomly choose reference models from their neighbors for strategy updating. However, the random selection pattern is unable to capture all real world circumstances. We institute a spatial model to investigate the effects of influence-based reference selection pattern on the evolution of cooperation in the context of public goods games. Whenever experiencing strategy updating, all the individuals each choose one of its neighbors as a reference with the probability proportional to this neighbor’s influence. Levels of individuals’ influence are dynamical. When an individual is imitated, the level of its influence increases, thus constituting a positive feedback between the frequencies of individuals being imitated and the likelihood for them to be reference models. We find that the level of collective cooperation can be enhanced whenever the influence-based reference selection pattern is integrated into the strategy updating process. Results also show that the evolution of cooperation can be promoted when the increase in individuals’ frequency of being imitated upholds their influence in large magnitude. Our work may improve the understanding of how influence-based selection patterns promote cooperative behavior.

  2. Gossip Versus Punishment: The Efficiency of Reputation to Promote and Maintain Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junhui; Balliet, Daniel; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior theory suggests that reputation spreading (e.g., gossip) and punishment are two key mechanisms to promote cooperation in groups, but no behavioral research has yet examined their relative effectiveness and efficiency in promoting and maintaining cooperation. To examine these issues, we observed participants interacting in a four-round public goods game (PGG) with or without gossip and punishment options, and a subsequent two-round trust game (TG). We manipulated gossip as the option to send notes about other group members to these members’ future partners, and punishment as the option to assign deduction points to reduce other group members’ outcomes with a fee-to-fine ratio of 1:3. Findings revealed that in the four-round PGG, the option to gossip increased both cooperation and individual earnings, whereas the option to punish had no overall effect on cooperation (but a positive effect on cooperation in the last two rounds of the PGG) and significantly decreased individual earnings. Importantly, the initial option to gossip made people more trusting and trustworthy in the subsequent TG when gossip was no longer possible, compared to the no-gossip condition. Thus, we provide some initial evidence that gossip may be more effective and efficient than punishment to promote and maintain cooperation. PMID:27039896

  3. Gossip Versus Punishment: The Efficiency of Reputation to Promote and Maintain Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junhui; Balliet, Daniel; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2016-01-01

    Prior theory suggests that reputation spreading (e.g., gossip) and punishment are two key mechanisms to promote cooperation in groups, but no behavioral research has yet examined their relative effectiveness and efficiency in promoting and maintaining cooperation. To examine these issues, we observed participants interacting in a four-round public goods game (PGG) with or without gossip and punishment options, and a subsequent two-round trust game (TG). We manipulated gossip as the option to send notes about other group members to these members' future partners, and punishment as the option to assign deduction points to reduce other group members' outcomes with a fee-to-fine ratio of 1:3. Findings revealed that in the four-round PGG, the option to gossip increased both cooperation and individual earnings, whereas the option to punish had no overall effect on cooperation (but a positive effect on cooperation in the last two rounds of the PGG) and significantly decreased individual earnings. Importantly, the initial option to gossip made people more trusting and trustworthy in the subsequent TG when gossip was no longer possible, compared to the no-gossip condition. Thus, we provide some initial evidence that gossip may be more effective and efficient than punishment to promote and maintain cooperation. PMID:27039896

  4. Heterogeneity of allocation promotes cooperation in public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Chuang; Wu, Te; Jia, Jian-Yuan; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the effects of heterogeneous investment and distribution on the evolution of cooperation in the context of the public goods games. To do this, we develop a simple model in which each individual allocates differing funds to his direct neighbors based upon their difference in connectivity, because of the heterogeneity of real social ties. This difference is characterized by the weight of the link between paired individuals, with an adjustable parameter precisely controlling the heterogeneous level of ties. By numerical simulations, it is found that allocating both too much and too little funds to diverse neighbors can remarkably improve the cooperation level. However, there exists a worst mode of funds allocation leading to the most unfavorable cooperation induced by the moderate values of the parameter. In order to better reveal the potential causes behind these nontrivial phenomena we probe the microscopic characteristics including the average payoff and the cooperator density for individuals of different degrees. It demonstrates rather different dynamical behaviors between the modes of these two types of cooperation promoter. Besides, we also investigate the total link weights of individuals numerically and theoretically for negative values of the parameter, and conclude that the payoff magnitude of middle-degree nodes plays a crucial role in determining the cooperators’ fate.

  5. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1991-05-28

    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  6. Learning Microbiology Through Cooperation: Designing Cooperative Learning Activities that Promote Interdependence, Interaction, and Accountability

    PubMed Central

    TREMPY, JANINE E.; SKINNER, MONICA M.; SIEBOLD, WILLIAM A.

    2002-01-01

    A microbiology course and its corresponding learning activities have been structured according to the Cooperative Learning Model. This course, The World According to Microbes, integrates science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET) majors and non-SMET majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. In this study we describe development of learning activities that utilize key components of Cooperative Learning—positive interdependence, promotive interaction, individual accountability, teamwork skills, and group processing. Assessments and evaluations over an 8-year period demonstrate high retention of key concepts in microbiology and high student satisfaction with the course. PMID:23653547

  7. Collaborative action research: implementation of cooperative learning.

    PubMed

    Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Molle, Mary E

    2010-06-01

    Nurse educators must continually improve their teaching skills through innovation. However, research about the process used by faculty members to transform their teaching methods is limited. This collaborative study uses classroom action research to describe, analyze, and address problems encountered in implementing cooperative learning in two undergraduate nursing courses. After four rounds of action and reflection, the following themes emerged: students did not understand the need for structured cooperative learning; classroom structure and seating arrangement influenced the effectiveness of activities; highly structured activities engaged the students; and short, targeted activities that involved novel content were most effective. These findings indicate that designing specific activities to prepare students for class is critical to cooperative learning. PMID:20210268

  8. 76 FR 39901 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Development and Validation of FlawPRO for Assessing Defect Tolerance of Welded.... (``the Act''), Southwest Research Institute-- Cooperative Research Group on Development and Validation...

  9. Cooperative Research in High Energy Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trasco, John D.

    1997-01-01

    A joint agreement between NASA/Goddard and The University of Maryland currently supports cooperative research in Satellite Based Studies of Photons and Charged Particles in the following areas: 1) Detection of cosmic rays and studies of the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays; 2) Research with several past and upcoming X-ray satellites; 3) High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy of celestial sources; 4) Theoretical astrophysics.

  10. Stochastic Heterogeneous Interaction Promotes Cooperation in Spatial Prisoner's Dilemma Game

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ping; Wei, Guiyi

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies mostly investigate player's cooperative behavior as affected by game time-scale or individual diversity. In this paper, by involving both time-scale and diversity simultaneously, we explore the effect of stochastic heterogeneous interaction. In our model, the occurrence of game interaction between each pair of linked player obeys a random probability, which is further described by certain distributions. Simulations on a 4-neighbor square lattice show that the cooperation level is remarkably promoted when stochastic heterogeneous interaction is considered. The results are then explained by investigating the mean payoffs, the mean boundary payoffs and the transition probabilities between cooperators and defectors. We also show some typical snapshots and evolution time series of the system. Finally, the 8-neighbor square lattice and BA scale-free network results indicate that the stochastic heterogeneous interaction can be robust against different network topologies. Our work may sharpen the understanding of the joint effect of game time-scale and individual diversity on spatial games. PMID:24759921

  11. The glycocalyx promotes cooperative binding and clustering of adhesion receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Qian, Jin; Hu, Jinglei

    2016-05-18

    Cell adhesion plays a pivotal role in various biological processes, e.g., immune responses, cancer metastasis, and stem cell differentiation. The adhesion behaviors depend subtly on the binding kinetics of receptors and ligands restricted at the cell-substrate interfaces. Although much effort has been directed toward investigating the kinetics of adhesion molecules, the role of the glycocalyx, anchored on cell surfaces as an exterior layer, is still unclear. In this paper, we propose a theoretical approach to study the collective binding kinetics of a few and a large number of binders in the presence of the glycocalyx, representing the cases of initial and mature adhesions of cells, respectively. The analytical results are validated by finding good agreement with our Monte Carlo simulations. In the force loading case, the on-rate and affinity increase as more bonds form, whereas this cooperative effect is not observed in the displacement loading case. The increased thickness and stiffness of the glycocalyx tend to decrease the affinity for a few bonds, while they have less influence on the affinity for a large number of bonds. Moreover, for a flexible membrane with thermally-excited shape fluctuations, the glycocalyx is exhibited to promote the formation of bond clusters, mainly due to the cooperative binding of binders. This study helps to understand the cooperative kinetics of adhesion receptors under physiologically relevant loading conditions and sheds light on the novel role of the glycocalyx in cell adhesion. PMID:27102288

  12. 14 CFR § 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SUBJECTS (Eff. until 2-14-14) § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those... research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of human... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. § 1230.114 Section...

  13. In Brief: European cooperation in polar research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    A new European Polar Framework agreement aims to increase research cooperation, streamline links between many European national research programs in the Arctic and Antarctic, and possibly create international research teams similar to the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. The new framework includes commitments to collaborate on new multinational research initiatives and to have national polar programs converge where appropriate. “Recent environmental shifts in the poles have been large and rapid. By linking together Europe's polar research more closely we can get a better grasp on the wide-ranging series of changes taking place,” said Paul Egerton, executive director of the European Science Foundation's European Polar Board, which aims to facilitate cooperation among various organizations. The agreement was signed on 24 June by 26 European scientific institutions, including the British Antarctic Survey; the Agency of Culture, Education, Research and the Church Affairs, Greenland; the Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Germany; Italy's Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide; Norway's Norsk Polarinstitutt; and the Romanian Antarctic Foundation.

  14. Cooperative research and development agreements at METC

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlow, J.C.; Jarr, L.A.; Anderson, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    The Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-502) provided a new mechanism for joint research between private parties and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Joint projects under this law are called Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADAs) and are simply agreements between METC and the private sector to work together on a mutually beneficial project. Of primary interest to METC is the development and deployment of: (1) clean, efficient power generation technologies, (2) technologies for the characterization and exploitation of the Nation`s natural gas resource, and (3) environmental remediation technologies.

  15. EPA`s cooperative research opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Gatchett, A.M.; Fradkin, L.; James, S.

    1994-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the private sector find an increasing need for new cost-effective environmental technologies to treat, control, and prevent pollution. Many cooperative research programs to address this concern are available through the EPA. The Office of Research and Development (ORD) currently operates two of the most visible innovative technology development programs: (1) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program; (2) Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA) Program. These programs work very closely with the other EPA program offices. A brief overview of these activities and the new Environmental Technology Initiative within EPA are presented in this paper.

  16. 77 FR 47882 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cooperative Research Group on Clean Diesel VI Notice is hereby given that, on July 16, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative...

  17. 76 FR 39901 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Development of a Predictive Model for Corrosion-Fatigue of Materials in Sour Environment Notice is hereby given that, on May 17, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative...-- Cooperative Research Group on Development of a Predictive Model for Corrosion-Fatigue of Materials in...

  18. [African research in odontostomatology and international cooperation].

    PubMed

    Berard, A; Page, T; Brouste, Ph; Ndobo-Epoy, Ph

    2004-09-01

    In this study, the authors measure the efficacy of the African odonto-stomatologic research in the International Assocation for Dental Research (I.A.D.R.) and value the impact of the international cooperation upon that research. This evaluation is realized from the number of publications presented by the African countries at the congressess of I.A.D.R. The obtained results show: 1. The African odonto-stomatologic is the less successful in the world and produced, in 1997, 0.4% of the studies published on the world, 2. Some of the African countries are able to produce scientific results of International valour (South Africa, Egypt and Nigeria in a less degree). Generally, these countries work jointly with anglo-saxon universities. 3. During these last two years, Cameroon obtained very encouraging results thanks to his collaboration with the University of Bordeaux 2 (France), represented by the regretted Professeur Ph. NDOBO-EPOY. PMID:15900824

  19. Industry-university cooperation/research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, Raymond P.

    1991-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the commercial development of space programs through cooperative research with the U.S. universities and industry. The origins of the programs are discussed, beginning with the Communication Satellite Act of 1963. The National Space Policy is outlined, and the creation of NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is emphasized, along with its Centers for the Commercial Development of Space. It is noted that the centers are consortia of university, industry, and government involved in commercial-space-technology database development and research and testing of potentially valuable products and services. The center titles, locations, and brief descriptions for such area of research as remote sensing, life sciences, materials processing, space power, space propulsion, materials and space structures, and automation and robotics centers are listed, along with some results of the programs.

  20. Cooperation Among Research Libraries: The Committee on Institutional Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a background on the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC) partnership with the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and notes its achievements. Discusses the CIC Center for Library Initiatives; leveraging investments in libraries; maximizing use of information resources; improving delivery of information/library services; the…

  1. Cooperation, Trust, and Antagonism: How Public Goods Are Promoted.

    PubMed

    Parks, Craig D; Joireman, Jeff; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-12-01

    One of the most continually vexing problems in society is the variability with which citizens support endeavors that are designed to help a great number of people. In this article, we examine the twin roles of cooperative and antagonistic behavior in this variability. We find that each plays an important role, though their contributions are, understandably, at odds. It is this opposition that produces seeming unpredictability in citizen response to collective need. In fact, we suggest that careful consideration of the research allows one to often predict when efforts to provide a collectively beneficial good will succeed and when they will fail. To understand the dynamics of participation in response to collective need, it is necessary to distinguish between the primary types of need situations. A public good is an entity that relies in whole or in part on contributions to be provided. Examples of public goods are charities and public broadcasting. Public goods require that citizens experience a short-term loss (of their contribution) in order to realize a long-term gain (of the good). However, because everyone can use the good once it is provided, there is also an incentive to not contribute, let others give, and then take advantage of their efforts. This state of affairs introduces a conflict between doing what is best for oneself and what is best for the group. In a public goods situation, cooperation and antagonism impact how one resolves this conflict. The other major type of need situation is a common-pool resource problem. Here, a good is fully provided at the outset, and citizens may sample from it. The resource is usually, but not necessarily, partially replenished. Examples of replenished resources are drinking water and trees; examples of resources that are functionally not replenished are oil and minerals. Common-pool resources allow citizens to experience a short-term gain (by getting what they want in the early life of the resource) but also present

  2. 76 FR 63659 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... methodology that allows P3 to identify fluids that improve LSPI performance. Membership in this group research... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative Research Group on Pre-Ignition Prevention Program Notice is hereby given that, on September...

  3. 76 FR 58539 - Notice Pursuant to The National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on July 7, 2011 (76 FR 39901). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil...--Cooperative Research Group on Development and Validation of FlawPRO for Assessing Defect Tolerance of Welded.... (``the Act''), Southwest Research Institute--Cooperative Research Group on Development and Validation...

  4. Promoting research in rock deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Steve

    In response to informal discussions at the 1988 AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore, Md., a dinner colloquium was held December 5, 1988, in San Francisco. Our purpose was to explore ways of promoting basic research in rock deformation, for which no professional organization exists that spans the full range of research interests. In spite of an informal distribution of announcements of the meeting, 54 people attended.Rock deformation is the materials science of the crystalline and amorphous materials that make up the solid Earth. As such, it includes not only the physical processes responsible for brittle and ductile deformation but also the important chemical processes that influence time-dependent inelastic deformation. Consequently, there is a continuing need to engage interest and collaboration from materials scientists, mineral physicists, metallurgists, surface chemists, and geochemists in the study of the inelastic mechanical behavior of these complex materials.

  5. Training Preschool Staff To Promote Cooperative Participation among Young Children with Severe Disabilities and Their Classmates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepis, Maureen M.; Reid, Dennis H.; Ownbey, Jean; Clary, Jamie

    2003-01-01

    A study evaluated a program for training two preschool educators to promote cooperative participation between preschoolers with and without disabilities. The training program consisted of viewing examples of how to promote and praise cooperative participation, along with specific instructions and on-the-job feedback. Instruction resulted in…

  6. Feedback reciprocity mechanism promotes the cooperation of highly clustered scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Zhihai; Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2010-10-01

    We study how the clustering coefficient influences the evolution of cooperation in scale-free public goods games. In games played by groups of individuals, triangle loops provide stronger support for mutual cooperation to resist invasion of selfish behavior than that in the absence of such loops, so that diffusion of cooperative behavior is relatively promoted. The feedback reciprocity mechanism of triangle plays a key role in facilitating cooperation in high clustered networks.

  7. 76 FR 70759 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cooperative Research Group on Energy Storage System Evaluation and Safety Notice is hereby given that, on October 6, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of...

  8. 75 FR 14191 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cooperative Research Group On: Diesel After Treatment Accelerated Aging Cycles--Heavy Duty Notice is hereby given that, on February 23, 2010, pursuant...

  9. Evaluation of the NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers: Descriptive and Correlative Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Engineering.

    This report presents results of a survey of participants in the National Science Foundation (NSF) Industry-University Cooperative Research Centers program. The program promotes more rapid technological innovation by creating linkages between industry and university scientists. The Centers function as university research groups, with partial…

  10. Conditional imitation might promote cooperation under high temptations to defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Qionglin; Li, Haihong; Cheng, Hongyan; Qian, Xiaolan; Zhang, Mei; Yang, Junzhong

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we introduce a conditional imitation rule into an evolutionary game, in which the imitation probabilities of individuals are determined by a function of payoff difference and two crucial parameters μ and σ. The parameter μ characterizes the most adequate goal for individuals and the parameter σ characterizes the tolerance of individuals. By using the pair approximation method and numerical simulations, we find an anomalous cooperation enhancement in which the cooperation level shows a nonmonotonic variation with the increase of temptation. The parameter μ affects the regime of the payoff parameter which supports the anomalous cooperation enhancement, whereas the parameter σ plays a decisive role on the appearance of the nonmonotonic variation of the cooperation level. Furthermore, to give explicit implications for the parameters μ and σ we present an alterative form of the conditional imitation rule based on the benefit and the cost incurred to individuals during strategy updates. In this way, we also provide a phenomenological interpretation for the nonmonotonic behavior of cooperation with the increase of temptation. The results give a clue that a higher cooperation level could be obtained under adverse environments for cooperation by applying the conditional imitation rule, which is possible to be manipulated in real life. More generally, the results in this work might point out an efficient way to maintain cooperation in the risky environments to cooperators.

  11. 77 FR 23754 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--3D PDF... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), 3D PDF Consortium, Inc... Specifications among members and non- members, as well as create basic marketing promotional collateral...

  12. 77 FR 26583 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Evaluation of Distributed Leak Detection Systems--Performance Testing Notice is... Research Group on Evaluation of Distributed Leak Detection Systems--Performance Testing (``LDS-PT'')...

  13. The shadow of the future promotes cooperation in a repeated prisoner's dilemma for children.

    PubMed

    Blake, Peter R; Rand, David G; Tingley, Dustin; Warneken, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation among genetically unrelated individuals can be supported by direct reciprocity. Theoretical models and experiments with adults show that the possibility of future interactions with the same partner can promote cooperation via conditionally cooperative strategies such as tit-for-tat (TFT). Here, we introduce a novel implementation of the repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) designed for children to examine whether repeated interactions can successfully promote cooperation in 10 and 11 year olds. We find that children cooperate substantially more in repeated PDs than in one-shot PDs. We also find that girls cooperate more than boys, and that children with more conduct problems cooperate less. Finally, we find that children use conditional cooperation strategies but that these strategies vary by gender and conduct problem rating. Specifically, girls and children with few conduct problems appear to follow an altruistic version of win-stay, lose-shift (WSLS), attempting to re-establish cooperation after they had defected. Boys and children with more conduct problems appear to follow a Grim strategy, defecting for the duration after the partner defects. Thus we provide evidence that children utilize the power of direct reciprocity to promote cooperation in strategic interactions and that, by late elementary school, distinct strategies of conditional cooperation have emerged. PMID:26417661

  14. The shadow of the future promotes cooperation in a repeated prisoner’s dilemma for children

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Peter R.; Rand, David G.; Tingley, Dustin; Warneken, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation among genetically unrelated individuals can be supported by direct reciprocity. Theoretical models and experiments with adults show that the possibility of future interactions with the same partner can promote cooperation via conditionally cooperative strategies such as tit-for-tat (TFT). Here, we introduce a novel implementation of the repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) designed for children to examine whether repeated interactions can successfully promote cooperation in 10 and 11 year olds. We find that children cooperate substantially more in repeated PDs than in one-shot PDs. We also find that girls cooperate more than boys, and that children with more conduct problems cooperate less. Finally, we find that children use conditional cooperation strategies but that these strategies vary by gender and conduct problem rating. Specifically, girls and children with few conduct problems appear to follow an altruistic version of win-stay, lose-shift (WSLS), attempting to re-establish cooperation after they had defected. Boys and children with more conduct problems appear to follow a Grim strategy, defecting for the duration after the partner defects. Thus we provide evidence that children utilize the power of direct reciprocity to promote cooperation in strategic interactions and that, by late elementary school, distinct strategies of conditional cooperation have emerged. PMID:26417661

  15. Shape matters: lifecycle of cooperative patches promotes cooperation in bulky populations.

    PubMed

    Misevic, Dusan; Frénoy, Antoine; Lindner, Ariel B; Taddei, François

    2015-03-01

    Natural cooperative systems take many forms, ranging from one-dimensional cyanobacteria arrays to fractal-like biofilms. We use in silico experimental systems to study a previously overlooked factor in the evolution of cooperation, physical shape of the population. We compare the emergence and maintenance of cooperation in populations of digital organisms that inhabit bulky (100 × 100 cells) or slender (4 × 2500) toroidal grids. Although more isolated subpopulations of secretors in a slender population could be expected to favor cooperation, we find the opposite: secretion evolves to higher levels in bulky populations. We identify the mechanistic explanation for the shape effect by analyzing the lifecycle and dynamics of cooperator patches, from their emergence and growth, to invasion by noncooperators and extinction. Because they are constrained by the population shape, the cooperator patches expand less in slender than in bulky populations, leading to fewer cooperators, less public good secretion, and generally lower cooperation. The patch dynamics and mechanisms of shape effect are robust across several digital cooperation systems and independent of the underlying basis for cooperation (public good secretion or a cooperation game). Our results urge for a greater consideration of population shape in the study of the evolution of cooperation across experimental and modeling systems. PMID:25639379

  16. Shape matters: Lifecycle of cooperative patches promotes cooperation in bulky populations

    PubMed Central

    Misevic, Dusan; Frénoy, Antoine; Lindner, Ariel B; Taddei, François

    2015-01-01

    Natural cooperative systems take many forms, ranging from one-dimensional cyanobacteria arrays to fractal-like biofilms. We use in silico experimental systems to study a previously overlooked factor in the evolution of cooperation, physical shape of the population. We compare the emergence and maintenance of cooperation in populations of digital organisms that inhabit bulky (100 × 100 cells) or slender (4 × 2500) toroidal grids. Although more isolated subpopulations of secretors in a slender population could be expected to favor cooperation, we find the opposite: secretion evolves to higher levels in bulky populations. We identify the mechanistic explanation for the shape effect by analyzing the lifecycle and dynamics of cooperator patches, from their emergence and growth, to invasion by noncooperators and extinction. Because they are constrained by the population shape, the cooperator patches expand less in slender than in bulky populations, leading to fewer cooperators, less public good secretion, and generally lower cooperation. The patch dynamics and mechanisms of shape effect are robust across several digital cooperation systems and independent of the underlying basis for cooperation (public good secretion or a cooperation game). Our results urge for a greater consideration of population shape in the study of the evolution of cooperation across experimental and modeling systems. PMID:25639379

  17. Distinguishing the opponents promotes cooperation in well-mixed populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardil, Lucas; da Silva, Jafferson K. L.

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation has been widely studied when an individual strategy is adopted against all coplayers. In this context, some extra mechanisms, such as punishment, reward, memory, and network reciprocity must be introduced in order to keep cooperators alive. Here, we adopt a different point of view. We study the adoption of different strategies against different opponents instead of adoption of the same strategy against all of them. In the context of the prisoner dilemma, we consider an evolutionary process in which strategies that provide more benefits are imitated and the players replace the strategy used in one of the interactions furnishing the worst payoff. Individuals are set in a well-mixed population, so that network reciprocity effect is excluded and both synchronous and asynchronous updates are analyzed. As a consequence of the replacement rule, we show that mutual cooperation is never destroyed and the initial fraction of mutual cooperation is a lower bound for the level of cooperation. We show by simulation and mean-field analysis that (i) cooperation dominates for synchronous update and (ii) only the initial mutual cooperation is maintained for asynchronous update. As a side effect of the replacement rule, an “implicit punishment” mechanism comes up in a way that exploitations are always neutralized providing evolutionary stability for cooperation.

  18. Friendship-based partner switching promotes cooperation in heterogeneous populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Wu, Te; Li, Zhiwu; Wang, Long

    2016-02-01

    The forming of human social ties tends to be with similar individuals. This study concentrates on the emergence of cooperation among heterogeneous populations. A simple model is proposed by considering the impact of interplay between the evolution of strategies and that of social partnerships on cooperation dynamics. Whenever two individuals acquire the rewards by playing prisoner's dilemma game with each other, the friendship (friendship is quantified as the weight of a link) between the two individuals deepens. Individuals can switch off the social ties with the partners who are unfriendly and rewire to similar new ones. Under this partner switching mechanism, population structure is divided into several groups and cooperation can prevail. It is observed that the frequent tendency of partner switching can lead to the enhancement of cooperative behavior under the enormous temptation to defect. Moreover, the influence of discounting the relationship between different individuals is also investigated. Meanwhile, the cooperation prevails when the adjustment of friendships mainly depends on the incomes of selected individuals rather than that of their partners. Finally, it is found that too similar population fail to maximize the cooperation and there exists a moderate similarity that can optimize cooperation.

  19. Climate-mediated cooperation promotes niche expansion in burying beetles

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Syuan-Jyun; Rubenstein, Dustin R; Chen, Bo-Fei; Chan, Shih-Fan; Liu, Jian-Nan; Liu, Mark; Hwang, Wenbe; Yang, Ping-Shih; Shen, Sheng-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The ability to form cooperative societies may explain why humans and social insects have come to dominate the earth. Here we examine the ecological consequences of cooperation by quantifying the fitness of cooperative (large groups) and non-cooperative (small groups) phenotypes in burying beetles (Nicrophorus nepalensis) along an elevational and temperature gradient. We experimentally created large and small groups along the gradient and manipulated interspecific competition with flies by heating carcasses. We show that cooperative groups performed as thermal generalists with similarly high breeding success at all temperatures and elevations, whereas non-cooperative groups performed as thermal specialists with higher breeding success only at intermediate temperatures and elevations. Studying the ecological consequences of cooperation may not only help us to understand why so many species of social insects have conquered the earth, but also to determine how climate change will affect the success of these and other social species, including our own. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02440.001 PMID:24842999

  20. Memory does not necessarily promote cooperation in dilemma games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Zhigang; Li, Kenli; Deng, Xiaoheng; Li, Deng

    2014-02-01

    Evolutionary games can model dilemmas for which cooperation can exist in rational populations. According to intuition, memory of the history can help individuals to overcome the dilemma and increase cooperation. However, here we show that no such general predictions can be made for dilemma games with memory. Agents play repeated prisoner’s dilemma, snowdrift, or stag hunt games in well-mixed populations or on a lattice. We compare the cooperation ratio and fitness for systems with or without memory. An interesting result is that cooperation is demoted in snowdrift and stag hunt games with memory when cost-to-benefit ratio is low, while system fitness still increases with memory in the snowdrift game. To illustrate this interesting phenomenon, two further experiments were performed to study R, ST, and P reciprocity and investigate 16 agent strategies for one-step memory. The results show that memory plays different roles in different dilemma games.

  1. Summary of Research Report Cooperative Agreement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Several areas of work related to commercialization of technology developed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) are discussed in this report. The areas are: (1) perform a feasibility study to develop a software commercialization center is at ARC; (2) perform preliminary work for formation of joint development of sensor technology for telemedicine applications; (3) development of a discovery interview process and staff training to assist the commercialization of technology developed at Ames, specifically aimed at working with researchers; (4) develop partners to further develop and commercialize image compression technology developed at AMES; (5) assist efforts to commercialize a software technology which imparts the ability to establish relevance-based retrieval in the handling of large repositories of information; (6) explore the development of cryocooler technology using pulse tube refrigeration; (7) assess interest in commercialization of a new method of measuring skin friction drag on wind tunnel models using liquid crystal material; (8) attempt to incorporate emerging technologies in the infrastructure of natural hazards mitigation; and (9) forming a nonprofit organization, "The Bootstrap Alliance", whose mission is to promote the use of digital technologies for collaborative problem solving. The results of these initiatives are discussed.

  2. 3 CFR 13609 - Executive Order 13609 of May 1, 2012. Promoting International Regulatory Cooperation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) shall convene the Working Group as... International Regulatory Cooperation 13609 Order 13609 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13609 of May 1, 2012 EO 13609 Promoting International Regulatory Cooperation By the authority vested...

  3. 77 FR 15395 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle Ford Formation and... Mechanical Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle Ford Formation and Equivalent Boquillas Formation... planned activity is to understand mechanical stratigraphy and natural deformation in Eagle Ford...

  4. Heterogeneous Coupling between Interdependent Lattices Promotes the Cooperation in the Prisoner’s Dilemma Game

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meng, Xiao-Kun; Wang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    In the research realm of game theory, interdependent networks have extended the content of spatial reciprocity, which needs the suitable coupling between networks. However, thus far, the vast majority of existing works just assume that the coupling strength between networks is symmetric. This hypothesis, to some extent, seems inconsistent with the ubiquitous observation of heterogeneity. Here, we study how the heterogeneous coupling strength, which characterizes the interdependency of utility between corresponding players of both networks, affects the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner’s dilemma game with two types of coupling schemes (symmetric and asymmetric ones). Compared with the traditional case, we show that heterogeneous coupling greatly promotes the collective cooperation. The symmetric scheme seems much better than the asymmetric case. Moreover, the role of varying amplitude of coupling strength is also studied on these two interdependent ways. Current findings are helpful for us to understand the evolution of cooperation within many real-world systems, in particular for the interconnected and interrelated systems. PMID:26102082

  5. Expectation-driven migration promotes cooperation by group interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

    2012-06-01

    “Voting with feet” describes the prominent social phenomenon that people tend to move away from deteriorating neighborhoods and search for and join prosperous groups. To quantify the role this kind of expectation-driven migration plays in the evolution of cooperation, here we study a simple yet effective model of cooperation based on spatial public goods games. The population structure is characterized by a square lattice with some nodes being left empty. Individuals have expectations toward their current habitats. Dissatisfied players, whose expectation is not met after interacting with all directly connected neighbors, tend to abstain from the groups of low quality by moving away and explore the physical niches of avail. How fast interaction happens relatively to selection is regulated by the time-scale ratio of game interaction to natural selection. Under strong selection, simulation results show that cooperation is greatly improved for either low, moderate, or high expectations compared to whenever the expectation-driven migration is absent. Further explorations reveal that neither too high nor too low but rather a combination of moderate expectations and rapid interaction establishes cooperation for a moderate public goods enhancement factor. There exists an optimal interval of expectation level most favoring the evolution of cooperation as the required time-scale ratio is minimized.

  6. Diversity of contribution promotes cooperation in public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jia; Li, Zhi; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

    2010-08-01

    In most previous studies of public goods game, individuals conventionally donate their contributions equally to the games they participate in. We develop an extended public goods game model, in which individuals distribute their contributions based on the groups’ qualities. Namely, the individuals are allowed to increase their investment to the superior groups at the expense of the nasty ones. The quality of a group is positively correlated with its cooperation level. In numerical simulations, synchronized stochastic strategy updating rule based on pairwise comparison for a fixed noise level is adopted. The results show that the high-quality group preference mechanism can greatly improve cooperation, compared with conventional models. Besides, the system with stronger preference toward high-quality groups performs better. Investigation of wealth distribution at equilibrium reveals that cooperators’ wealth appreciates with the increase of preference degree when cooperators take up the same fraction of the population.

  7. When Triple Helix Unravels: A Multi-Case Analysis of Failures in Industry-University Cooperative Research Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Denis; Sundstrom, Eric; Tornatzky, Louis G.; McGowen, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative research centres (CRCs) increasingly foster Triple Helix (industry-university-government) collaboration and represent significant vehicles for cooperation across sectors, the promotion of knowledge and technology transfer and ultimately the acceleration of innovation. A growing social science literature on CRCs focuses on their…

  8. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report is a coordinated effort of the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science. The topics concerning coal liquefaction discussed are: sulfate promoted metal oxides as direct coal liquefaction catalysts; low temperature depolymerization and liquefaction of premium R.S. coal samples; construction of continuous flow-through gas reactor for liquefaction investigations; generic structural characterization and liquefaction research; macerals, model compounds and iron catalyst dispersion; coal structure/liquefaction yield correlation by means of advanced NMR techniques; GC/MS of model compound mixtures; catalytic cracking, hydrogenation and liquefaction of coals under milder conditions; ENDOR investigations of coal liquefaction under mild conditions; catalytic dehydrogenation of model compounds in relation to direct coal liquefaction; surface characterization of catalyst added coal samples; computational chemistry of model compounds and molecular fragments of relevance to coal liquefaction; chemical characterization and hydrogenation reactions of single coal particles; thermolytic cleavage of selected coal-related linkages at mild temperatures; solvent sorption and FTIR studies on the effect of catalytic depolymerization reactions in coal; bioprocessing of coal; chemical routes to breaking bonds; novel liquefaction concepts cyclic olefins: novel new donors for coal liquefaction; better hydrogen transfer in coal liquefaction; catalytic hydropyrolysis and energized extraction of coals; gallium catalyst in mild coal liquefaction; potential of temperature microscope in coal liquefaction; evaluation of nitride catalysts for hydrotreatment and coal liquefaction; coprocessing and coal liquefaction with novel catalysts.

  9. Implementing a Research-Based Model of Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The author used qualitative research methods to explore an 8th-grade mathematics teacher's personal definition of cooperative learning and the enactment of cooperative learning in his classroom according to that definition. Data collection involved interviews and classroom observations. The author used coding schemes and descriptive statistics for…

  10. Scarcity may promote cooperation in populations of simple agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requejo, R. J.; Camacho, J.

    2013-02-01

    In the study of the evolution of cooperation, resource limitations are usually assumed just to provide a finite population size. Recently, however, it has been pointed out that resource limitation may also generate dynamical payoffs able to modify the original structure of the games. Here we study analytically a phase transition from a homogeneous population of defectors when resources are abundant to the survival of unconditional cooperators when resources reduce below a threshold. To this end, we introduce a model of simple agents, with no memory or ability of recognition, interacting in well-mixed populations. The result might shed light on the role played by resource constraints on the origin of multicellularity.

  11. CEMA cooperation in microelectronics research, production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-03-01

    The assignments resulting from an agreement concerning multilateral specialization and cooperation among European socialist countries in the development and production of microelectronic components for computer technology are enumerated. Several areas which impact directly on the manufacture of large scale and very large scale integrated components are identified.

  12. First carrot, then stick: how the adaptive hybridization of incentives promotes cooperation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojie; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Brännström, Åke; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Social institutions often use rewards and penalties to promote cooperation. Providing incentives tends to be costly, so it is important to find effective and efficient policies for the combined use of rewards and penalties. Most studies of cooperation, however, have addressed rewarding and punishing in isolation and have focused on peer-to-peer sanctioning as opposed to institutional sanctioning. Here, we demonstrate that an institutional sanctioning policy we call 'first carrot, then stick' is unexpectedly successful in promoting cooperation. The policy switches the incentive from rewarding to punishing when the frequency of cooperators exceeds a threshold. We find that this policy establishes and recovers full cooperation at lower cost and under a wider range of conditions than either rewards or penalties alone, in both well-mixed and spatial populations. In particular, the spatial dynamics of cooperation make it evident how punishment acts as a 'booster stage' that capitalizes on and amplifies the pro-social effects of rewarding. Together, our results show that the adaptive hybridization of incentives offers the 'best of both worlds' by combining the effectiveness of rewarding in establishing cooperation with the effectiveness of punishing in recovering it, thereby providing a surprisingly inexpensive and widely applicable method of promoting cooperation. PMID:25551138

  13. Punishment does not promote cooperation under exploration dynamics when anti-social punishment is possible.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Oliver P; Nowak, Martin A; Rand, David G

    2014-11-01

    It has been argued that punishment promotes the evolution of cooperation when mutation rates are high (i.e. when agents engage in 'exploration dynamics'). Mutations maintain a steady supply of agents that punish free-riders, and thus free-riders are at a disadvantage. Recent experiments, however, have demonstrated that free-riders sometimes also pay to punish cooperators. Inspired by these empirical results, theoretical work has explored evolutionary dynamics where mutants are rare, and found that punishment does not promote the evolution of cooperation when this 'anti-social punishment' is allowed. Here we extend previous theory by studying the effect of anti-social punishment on the evolution of cooperation across higher mutation rates, and by studying voluntary as well as compulsory Public Goods Games. We find that for intermediate and high mutation rates, adding punishment does not promote cooperation in either compulsory or voluntary public goods games if anti-social punishment is possible. This is because mutations generate agents that punish cooperators just as frequently as agents that punish defectors, and these two effects cancel each other out. These results raise questions about the effectiveness of punishment for promoting cooperation when mutations are common, and highlight how decisions about which strategies to include in the strategy set can have profound effects on the resulting dynamics. PMID:25014473

  14. Promoting Interdisciplinary Research among Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Elena; Zhao, Weinan; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    With the growing recognition of the importance of interdisciplinary research, many faculty have increased their efforts to form interdisciplinary research teams. Oftentimes, attempts to put together such teams are hampered because faculty have a limited picture of the research interests and expertise of their colleagues. This paper reports on…

  15. Heritability promotes cooperation in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Run-Ran; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2010-12-01

    Heritability is ubiquitous within most real biological or social systems. A heritable trait is most simply an offspring’s trait that resembles the parent’s corresponding trait, which can be fitness, strategy, or the way of strategy adoption for evolutionary games. Here we study the effects of heritability on the evolution of spatial public goods games. In our model, the fitness of players is determined by the payoffs from the current interactions and their history. Based on extensive simulations, we find that the density of cooperators is enhanced by increasing the heritability of players over a wide range of the multiplication factor. We attribute the enhancement of cooperation to the inherited fitness that stabilizes the fitness of players, and thus prevents the expansion of defectors effectively.

  16. Population heterogeneity promotes a preference for blind cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Escudero, Alfonso; Friedman, Jonathan; Gore, Jeff

    Game theory--and common sense--recommend to carefully weigh costs and benefits before deciding on a course of action. Yet we often disapprove of people who do so, even when their actual decision benefits us. For example, we prefer people who directly agree to do us a favor over those who agree only after securing enough information to ensure that the favor will not be too costly. Why should we care about how people make their decisions, rather than just focus on the decisions themselves? Hoffman et al. (2015) have shown that such aversion to information gathering may be beneficial when it is strong enough to increase the level of cooperation. Here we show that the same type of aversion arises in heterogeneous populations, but for a different reason: individuals who seek additional information may reveal themselves to be undesirable partners, since they are less likely to cooperate in the future when conditions change. Aversion to information gathering thus facilitates preferential interactions with blind cooperators, who are more favorable partners. Due to this new mechanism the prevalence of such aversion rapidly increases with population diversity, because partner discrimination is more useful in populations which harbor partners of a more varied quality. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the Paul G. Allen Family Foundation, EMBO and Human Frontier Science Program.

  17. 76 FR 78290 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Register (73 FR 3316). Cooperative Research and Development Agreements Cooperative Research and Development... SECURITY Coast Guard Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within... technology enhancements, performance, costs, and other issues associated with using biodiesel fuel blends...

  18. The role of institutional incentives and the exemplar in promoting cooperation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Jia; Li, Cong; Zhang, Bo-Yu; Cressman, Ross; Tao, Yi

    2014-01-01

    People on average do not play their individually rational Nash equilibrium (NE) strategy in game experiments based on the public goods game (PGG) that model social dilemmas. Differences from NE behavior have also been observed in PGG experiments that include incentives to cooperate, especially when these are peer-incentives administered by the players themselves. In our repeated PGG experiment, an institution rewards and punishes individuals based on their contributions. The primary experimental result is that institutions which both reward and punish (IRP) promote cooperation significantly better than either institutions which only punish (IP) or which only reward (IR), and that IP has contribution levels significantly above IR. Although comparing their single-round NE strategies correctly predicts which incentives are best at promoting cooperation, individuals do not play these strategies overall. Our analysis shows that other intrinsic motivations that combine conforming behavior with reactions to being rewarded/punished provide a better explanation of observed outcomes. In our experiments, some individuals who display more cooperation than other individuals can be regarded as the exemplars (or leaders). The role of these exemplars in promoting cooperation provides important insights into understanding cooperation in PGG and the effectiveness of institutional incentives at promoting desirable societal behavior. PMID:25242265

  19. Learning Microbiology through Cooperation: Designing Cooperative Learning Activities That Promote Interdependence, Interaction, and Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trempy, Janine E.; Skinner, Monica M.; Siebold, William A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the course "The World According to Microbes" which puts science, mathematics, engineering, and technology majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. Describes the development of learning activities that utilize key components of cooperative learning including positive…

  20. Promotion of cooperation in social dilemma games via generalised indirect reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiong, Raymond; Kirley, Michael

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a novel generalised indirect reciprocity approach for promoting cooperation in social dilemma games. Here, players decide upon an action to play in the game based on public information (or "external cues") rather than individual-specific information. The public information is constantly updated according to the underlying learning model. Comprehensive simulation experiments using the N-player Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) and Snowdrift (SD) games show that generalised indirect reciprocity promotes high levels of cooperation across a wide range of conditions. This is despite the fact that the make-up of player groups is continually changing. As expected, the extent of cooperative behaviour observed in the "constraint-relaxed" N-player SD game is significantly higher than the N-player PD game. Our proposed generalised indirect reciprocity model may shed light on the conundrum of cooperation between anonymous individuals.

  1. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  2. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  6. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  7. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  8. 77 FR 40085 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-FDI Cooperation LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--FDI Cooperation LLC Notice is hereby given that, on June 6, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  9. 78 FR 40746 - Urban Indian Education and Research Organization Cooperative Agreement Program; Office of Urban...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Urban Indian Education and Research Organization Cooperative... Statutory Authority The Indian Health Service (IHS) is accepting competitive cooperative agreement applications for the Urban Indian Education and Research Organization Cooperative Agreement Program...

  10. Collective punishment is more effective than collective reward for promoting cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Zhen; Pansini, Riccardo; Li, Yao-Tang; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2015-12-01

    Collective punishment and reward are usually regarded as two potential mechanisms to explain the evolution of cooperation. Both scenarios, however, seem problematic to understand cooperative behavior, because they can raise the second-order free-rider problem and many organisms are not able to discriminate less cooperating individuals. Even though they have been proved to increase cooperation, there has been a debate about which one being more effective. To address this issue, we resort to the N-player evolutionary snowdrift game (NESG), where a collective punishment/reward mechanism is added by allowing some players to display punishment/reward towards all remaining players. By means of numerous simulations and analyses, we find that collective punishment is more effective in promoting cooperation for a relatively high initial frequency of cooperation or for a relatively small group. When the intensity of punishment exceeds a certain threshold, a stable state of full cooperation emerges for both small and large groups. In contrast, such state does not appear for large groups playing a NESG with reward mechanism. In the case of mutualistic interactions, finally, our results show the new payoff with collective punishment/reward can lead to the coexistence of cooperators and defectors when discrimination between these two is not possible.

  11. Collective punishment is more effective than collective reward for promoting cooperation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Zhen; Pansini, Riccardo; Li, Yao-Tang; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Collective punishment and reward are usually regarded as two potential mechanisms to explain the evolution of cooperation. Both scenarios, however, seem problematic to understand cooperative behavior, because they can raise the second-order free-rider problem and many organisms are not able to discriminate less cooperating individuals. Even though they have been proved to increase cooperation, there has been a debate about which one being more effective. To address this issue, we resort to the N-player evolutionary snowdrift game (NESG), where a collective punishment/reward mechanism is added by allowing some players to display punishment/reward towards all remaining players. By means of numerous simulations and analyses, we find that collective punishment is more effective in promoting cooperation for a relatively high initial frequency of cooperation or for a relatively small group. When the intensity of punishment exceeds a certain threshold, a stable state of full cooperation emerges for both small and large groups. In contrast, such state does not appear for large groups playing a NESG with reward mechanism. In the case of mutualistic interactions, finally, our results show the new payoff with collective punishment/reward can lead to the coexistence of cooperators and defectors when discrimination between these two is not possible. PMID:26634907

  12. Collective punishment is more effective than collective reward for promoting cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Zhen; Pansini, Riccardo; Li, Yao-Tang; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Collective punishment and reward are usually regarded as two potential mechanisms to explain the evolution of cooperation. Both scenarios, however, seem problematic to understand cooperative behavior, because they can raise the second-order free-rider problem and many organisms are not able to discriminate less cooperating individuals. Even though they have been proved to increase cooperation, there has been a debate about which one being more effective. To address this issue, we resort to the N-player evolutionary snowdrift game (NESG), where a collective punishment/reward mechanism is added by allowing some players to display punishment/reward towards all remaining players. By means of numerous simulations and analyses, we find that collective punishment is more effective in promoting cooperation for a relatively high initial frequency of cooperation or for a relatively small group. When the intensity of punishment exceeds a certain threshold, a stable state of full cooperation emerges for both small and large groups. In contrast, such state does not appear for large groups playing a NESG with reward mechanism. In the case of mutualistic interactions, finally, our results show the new payoff with collective punishment/reward can lead to the coexistence of cooperators and defectors when discrimination between these two is not possible. PMID:26634907

  13. Heterogeneous networks do not promote cooperation when humans play a Prisoner’s Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Tarancón, Alfonso; Cuesta, José A.; Sánchez, Angel; Moreno, Yamir

    2012-01-01

    It is not fully understood why we cooperate with strangers on a daily basis. In an increasingly global world, where interaction networks and relationships between individuals are becoming more complex, different hypotheses have been put forward to explain the foundations of human cooperation on a large scale and to account for the true motivations that are behind this phenomenon. In this context, population structure has been suggested to foster cooperation in social dilemmas, but theoretical studies of this mechanism have yielded contradictory results so far; additionally, the issue lacks a proper experimental test in large systems. We have performed the largest experiments to date with humans playing a spatial Prisoner’s Dilemma on a lattice and a scale-free network (1,229 subjects). We observed that the level of cooperation reached in both networks is the same, comparable with the level of cooperation of smaller networks or unstructured populations. We have also found that subjects respond to the cooperation that they observe in a reciprocal manner, being more likely to cooperate if, in the previous round, many of their neighbors and themselves did so, which implies that humans do not consider neighbors’ payoffs when making their decisions in this dilemma but only their actions. Our results, which are in agreement with recent theoretical predictions based on this behavioral rule, suggest that population structure has little relevance as a cooperation promoter or inhibitor among humans. PMID:22773811

  14. 75 FR 62569 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on April 2, 2009 (74 FR 15003). The last notification was filed with...(b) of the Act on May 6, 2010 (75 FR 24972). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations...--Cooperative Research Group on High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given that,...

  15. 75 FR 4423 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... 2, 2009 (74 FR 15003). The last notification was filed with the Department on November 9, 2009. A... FR 66995). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE 4410-11...--Cooperative Research Group on High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given that,...

  16. 76 FR 9811 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... the Act on April 2, 2009 (74 FR 15003) The last notification was filed with the Department on November... 17, 2010 (75 FR 79024) Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING...--Cooperative Research Group on High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given that,...

  17. 75 FR 14192 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... 2, 2009 (74 FR 15003). The last notification was filed with the Department of Justice on December 10..., 2010 (75 FR 4423). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE...--Cooperative Research Group on High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given that,...

  18. 75 FR 79024 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... the Act on April 2, 2009 (74 FR 15003). The last notification was filed with the Department on... October 12, 2010 (75 FR 62569). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division...--Cooperative Research Group on High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given, on November...

  19. 77 FR 31040 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... the Act on March 15, 2012 (77 FR 15395). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust...--Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle Ford Formation and... Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle Ford Formation and Equivalent Boquillas Formation,...

  20. 77 FR 36292 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Particle Sensor Performance and Durability Notice is hereby given that, on May... Particle Sensor Performance and Durability (``PSPD'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with... the performance and durability of various particle sensor technologies on a diesel engine...

  1. 76 FR 66325 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Act on July 7, 2011 (76 FR 39901). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust...--Cooperative Research Group on Development of a Predictive Model for Corrosion-Fatigue of Materials in Sour Environment Notice is hereby given that, on September 26, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the...

  2. 77 FR 73676 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on July 7, 2011 (76 FR 39901). The last... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on September 21, 2011 (76 FR 58539). Patricia A. Brink, Director of...; Cooperative Research Group on Development and Validation of Flawpro for Assessing Defect Tolerance of...

  3. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and...

  4. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and...

  5. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and...

  6. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and...

  7. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval...

  8. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval...

  9. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval...

  10. Promoting the Priorities of Practitioner Research Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    One of the aims of the Library and Information Science Research Coalition is to promote library and information science practitioner research. Successfully meeting this aim should result in greater use of the existing knowledge base and the creation of new knowledge on Library and Information Science (LIS) practice. LIS practitioner engagement in…

  11. Promoting research integrity in the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Tony

    2015-04-01

    Conducting research in a responsible manner in compliance with codes of research integrity is essential. The geosciences, as with all other areas of research endeavour, has its fair share of misconduct cases and causes celebres. As research becomes more global, more collaborative and more cross-disciplinary, the need for all concerned to work to the same high standards becomes imperative. Modern technology makes it far easier to 'cut and paste', to use Photoshop to manipulate imagery to falsify results at the same time as making research easier and more meaningful. So we need to promote the highest standards of research integrity and the responsible conduct of research. While ultimately, responsibility for misconduct rests with the individual, institutions and the academic research system have to take steps to alleviate the pressure on researchers and promote good practice through training programmes and mentoring. The role of the World Conferences on Research Integrity in promoting the importance of research integrity and statements about good practice will be presented and the need for training and mentoring programmes will be discussed

  12. Diverse strategy-learning styles promote cooperation in evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Run-Ran; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Rong, Zhihai

    2015-11-01

    Observational learning and practice learning are two important learning styles and play important roles in our information acquisition. In this paper, we study a spacial evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game, where players can choose the observational learning rule or the practice learning rule when updating their strategies. In the proposed model, we use a parameter p controlling the preference of players choosing the observational learning rule, and found that there exists an optimal value of p leading to the highest cooperation level, which indicates that the cooperation can be promoted by these two learning rules collaboratively and one single learning rule is not favor the promotion of cooperation. By analysing the dynamical behavior of the system, we find that the observational learning rule can make the players residing on cooperative clusters more easily realize the bad sequence of mutual defection. However, a too high observational learning probability suppresses the players to form compact cooperative clusters. Our results highlight the importance of a strategy-updating rule, more importantly, the observational learning rule in the evolutionary cooperation.

  13. The `MOON Mapping' Project to Promote Cooperation Between Students of Italy and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaioni, M.; Giommi, P.; Brunetti, M. T.; Carli, C.; Cerroni, P.; Cremonese, G.; Forlani, G.; Gamba, P.; Lavagna, M.; Melis, M. T.; Massironi, M.; Ori, G.; Salese, F.; Zinzi, A.; Xie, G.; Kang, Z.; Shi, R.; Sun, Y.; Wu, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The research project `Moon Mapping' has been established in 2014 between the Italian and Chinese Governments to promote cooperation and exchange between undergraduate students from both countries. The operational phase of the project started in early 2015, and will end in 2017, for a total length of three years. The main aim is to train new scholars to be able to work on different kinds of remotely-sensed data collected over the Moon surface by the Chinese space missions Chang'E-1/2. The project coordination has been assigned to the Italian Space Agency for the Italian side and to the Center of Space Exploration, China Ministry of Education, for the Chinese side. Several Chinese universities and Italian national research institutes and universities have been officially involved in this project. Six main research topics have been identified: (1) map of the solar wind ion; (2) geomorphological map of the Moon; (3) data preprocessing of Chang'E-1 mission; (4) map of element distribution; (5) establishment of 3D digital visualization system; and (6) compilation and publication of a tutorial on joint lunar mapping.

  14. Investment and Return in International Space Life Sciences Research Cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPhee, Jancy C.; White, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    Today, a worldwide community of life scientists interested in space research is attempting to improve the understanding of general biological processes, aid the development of procedures to reduce the biomedically-related risks of space flight, and/or directly support the health care of people who fly in space. Unfortunately, limited resource and subject availability and the technical challenges of performing space experiments have all hampered the full growth and development of space life sciences research. For many years, international cooperation in this field has been considered an attractive approach towards overcoming some of these difficulties, since pooling resources and sharing results would enhance the knowledge of all cooperating partners. International cooperative activities, however, require an investment by each partner and, just as in many other endeavors, the research gain can be directly related to the investment made. In this paper, the authors will discuss three possible levels of cooperation: sharing of data from independent investigations, harmonious integration of pre-designed independent investigations, and de novo design of an integrated suite of investigations using a joint investigator team. The degree of investment and potential return for each level of cooperation will be described.

  15. Together and Equal: Fostering Cooperative Play and Promoting Gender Equity in Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlank, Carol Hilgartner; Metzger, Barbara

    Noting the need to promote gender equity and foster cooperative play between boys and girls in early childhood programs, this guide presents ways that teachers and parents of young children can help all children realize their potential, regardless of gender, and help children learn to work and play together. Chapter 1, "Teaching for Change,"…

  16. Aspiration promotes cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game with the imitation rule.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuesong; He, Mingfeng; Kang, Yibin; Pan, Qiuhui

    2016-07-01

    A model of stochastic evolutionary game dynamics with finite population of size N+M was built. Among these individuals, N individuals update strategies with aspiration updating, while the other M individuals update strategies with imitation updating. In the proposed model, we obtain the expression of the mean fraction of cooperators and analyze some concrete cases. Compared with the standard imitation dynamics, there is always a positive probability to support the formation of cooperation in the system with the aspiration and imitation rules. Moreover, the numerical results indicate that more aspiration-driven individuals lead to a higher mean fraction of imitation-driven cooperators, which means the invasion of the aspiration-driven individuals is conducive to promoting the cooperation of the imitation-driven individuals. PMID:27575094

  17. Aspiration promotes cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game with the imitation rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuesong; He, Mingfeng; Kang, Yibin; Pan, Qiuhui

    2016-07-01

    A model of stochastic evolutionary game dynamics with finite population of size N +M was built. Among these individuals, N individuals update strategies with aspiration updating, while the other M individuals update strategies with imitation updating. In the proposed model, we obtain the expression of the mean fraction of cooperators and analyze some concrete cases. Compared with the standard imitation dynamics, there is always a positive probability to support the formation of cooperation in the system with the aspiration and imitation rules. Moreover, the numerical results indicate that more aspiration-driven individuals lead to a higher mean fraction of imitation-driven cooperators, which means the invasion of the aspiration-driven individuals is conducive to promoting the cooperation of the imitation-driven individuals.

  18. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer...

  19. Cooperative research in high energy astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Details of the activities conducted under the joint effort of the University of Maryland and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics are detailed for the period July 1989 through April 1994. The research covered a variety of topics including: (1) detection of cosmic rays and studies of the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays; (2) support work for several x-ray satellites; (3) high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy of celestial sources; (4)theoretical astrophysics; and (5) active galaxies.

  20. Cooperative analysis expert situation assessment research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccown, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    For the past few decades, Rome Air Development Center (RADC) has been conducting research in Artificial Intelligence (AI). When the recent advances in hardware technology made many AI techniques practical, the Intelligence and Reconnaissance Directorate of RADC initiated an applications program entitled Knowledge Based Intelligence Systems (KBIS). The goal of the program is the development of a generic Intelligent Analyst System, an open machine with the framework for intelligence analysis, natural language processing, and man-machine interface techniques, needing only the specific problem domain knowledge to be operationally useful. The development of KBIS is described.

  1. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and...

  2. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and...

  3. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and...

  4. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and...

  5. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and...

  6. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., sales promotion, and consumer education with respect to the use of eggs, egg products, spent fowl, and... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion §...

  7. Developing Entrepreneurial and Technology Commercialization Policies to Promote Cooperative Ventures Between NIH and Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossomando, Edward F.

    2001-03-01

    The NIH has had a great influence in guiding the biological research agenda for the last half of the 20th century. This may change if the increases in research funding from the private sector that occurred in the last ten years continue into the 21st century. Ten years ago, industry supplied 55% of the US R&D funds. In 2000, industry support of R&D had increased to 76%, with industry carrying out 70% of the nations applied and 91% of its development research. Given this shift, one of the biggest challenges that NIH may face in coming years is sharing control of America's research agenda with industry. For this to occur policies that encourage cooperative ventures with industry are needed. In a unique experiment, I was invited to the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), one of the 25 NIH Institutes and Centers, to develop programs and policies that would promote interactions with industry. This talk will introduce the strategy and programs developed to commercialize products and technologies from basic science discoveries and introducing an entrepreneurial atmosphere within the Institute. The results of this experiment will be discussed by comparing differences between discovery-driven and customer-driven innovation. One outcome of this experience is a greater appreciation of the obstacles to introducing disruptive technologies into the market place and of the paradigms that serve as barriers to commercialization. One recommendation is that the NIDCR consider a policy that allows for some participation by industry in setting the research and training agenda of the Institute, and that a mechanism for industry input be introduced into its administrative organization.

  8. 75 FR 38605 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... implementation of a national research agenda that includes: (1) Conducting research to develop climate change... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...-LU) established the Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...

  9. Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) Implementation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, John H.; Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Ball, Donald J.

    1998-01-01

    New technological advances have made possible new active remote sensing capabilities from space. Utilizing these technologies, the Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) will provide high spatial resolution measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols in the stratosphere and lower troposphere. Simultaneous measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols will assist in the understanding of global change, atmospheric chemistry and meteorology.

  10. Inter-Organizational Cooperation in a Competitive Research Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Lars G.

    Inter-organizational cooperation was investigated as one factor associated with the development of the University of New Mexico from an undergraduate teaching institution toward becoming a nationally-ranked graduate research university. A longitudinal, ethnohistorical study was undertaken for the 1967-1978 period. The qualitative research…

  11. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH IN C1 CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2001-04-30

    Faculty and students from five universities (Kentucky, West Virginia, Utah, Pittsburgh and Auburn) are collaborating on a basic research program to develop novel C1 chemistry processes for the production of clean, high quality transportation fuel. An Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) with members from Chevron, Eastman Chemical, Energy International, Teir Associates, and the Department of Defense has been formed to provide practical guidance to the program. The program has two principal objectives. (1) Develop technology for conversion of C1 source materials (natural gas, synthesis gas, carbon dioxide and monoxide, and methanol) into clean, high efficiency transportation fuel. (2) Develop novel processes for producing hydrogen from natural gas and other hydrocarbons. Some of the principal accomplishments of the program in its first two years are: (1) The addition of acetylenic compounds in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is found to produce significant amounts of oxygenated products in FT diesel fuels. Such oxygenated products should decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. (2) Nanoscale, binary, Fe-based catalysts supported on alumina have been shown to have significant activity for the decomposition of methane into pure hydrogen and potentially valuable multi-walled carbon nanotubes. (3) Catalytic synthesis processes have been developed for synthesis of diethyl carbonate, higher ethers, and higher alcohols from C1 source materials. Testing of the effect of adding these oxygenates to diesel fuel on PM emissions has begun using a well-equipped small diesel engine test facility. (4) Supercritical fluid (SCF) FT synthesis has been conducted under SCF hexane using both Fe and Co catalysts. There is a marked effect on the hydrocarbon product distribution, with a shift to higher carbon number products. These and other results are summarized.

  12. Multi-Vehicle Cooperative Control Research at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, 2000-2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt

    2014-01-01

    A brief introductory overview of multi-vehicle cooperative control research conducted at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center from 2000 - 2014. Both flight research projects and paper studies are included. Since 2000, AFRC has been almost continuously pursuing research in the areas of formation flight for drag reduction and automated cooperative trajectories. An overview of results is given, including flight experiments done on the FA-18 and with the C-17. Other multi-vehicle cooperative research is discussed, including small UAV swarming projects and automated aerial refueling.

  13. Fusing enacted and expected mimicry generates a winning strategy that promotes the evolution of cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Ilan; Frid, Alex; Goerg, Sebastian J.; Levin, Simon A.; Rubenstein, Daniel I.; Selten, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Although cooperation and trust are essential features for the development of prosperous populations, they also put cooperating individuals at risk for exploitation and abuse. Empirical and theoretical evidence suggests that the solution to the problem resides in the practice of mimicry and imitation, the expectation of opponent’s mimicry and the reliance on similarity indices. Here we fuse the principles of enacted and expected mimicry and condition their application on two similarity indices to produce a model of mimicry and relative similarity. Testing the model in computer simulations of behavioral niches, populated with agents that enact various strategies and learning algorithms, shows how mimicry and relative similarity outperforms all the opponent strategies it was tested against, pushes noncooperative opponents toward extinction, and promotes the development of cooperative populations. The proposed model sheds light on the evolution of cooperation and provides a blueprint for intentional induction of cooperation within and among populations. It is suggested that reducing conflict intensities among human populations necessitates (i) instigation of social initiatives that increase the perception of similarity among opponents and (ii) efficient lowering of the similarity threshold of the interaction, the minimal level of similarity that makes cooperation advisable. PMID:23733952

  14. Cooperative Research between NREL and Solar Junction Corp: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-306

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, D.

    2015-03-01

    NREL and Solar Junction Corp. will perform cooperative research on materials and devices that are alternatives to standard approaches with the goal of improving solar cell efficiency while lowering cost. The general purpose of this work is to model the performance of a multi-junction concentrator cell of Solar Junction, Inc. design under normal concentrator operating conditions.

  15. 77 FR 38709 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... project delivery while improving environmental outcomes; (2) Conducting research to develop climate change... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...-LU) established the Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...

  16. 76 FR 50312 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... research to develop climate change mitigation, adaptation and livability strategies; (2) Developing and/or... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...-LU) established the Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...

  17. Success-driven distribution of public goods promotes cooperation but preserves defection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perc, Matjaž

    2011-09-01

    Established already in Biblical times, the Matthew effect refers to the fact that in societies the rich tend to get richer and the potent even more powerful. Here we investigate a game theoretical model describing the evolution of cooperation on structured populations where the distribution of public goods is driven by the reproductive success of individuals. Phase diagrams reveal that cooperation is promoted irrespective of the uncertainty by strategy adoptions and the type of interaction graph, yet the complete dominance of cooperators is elusive due to the spontaneous emergence of superpersistent defectors that owe their survival to extremely rare microscopic patterns. This indicates that success-driven mechanisms are crucial for effectively harvesting benefits from collective actions but that they may also account for the observed persistence of maladaptive behavior.

  18. 7 CFR 966.48 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Research and Development § 966.48 Research and promotion. The committee may, with the... research, marketing research and development projects, and marketing promotion including paid...

  19. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own...

  20. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own...

  1. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own...

  2. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own...

  3. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own...

  4. Cooperative Research in High Energy Astrophysics between JHU and GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vishniac, Ethan

    2004-01-01

    This grant was awarded to establish and support cooperative research programs between the Center of Astrophysical Sciences (CAS) at the Johns Hopkins University and the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics (LHEA) at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The goals o f the program are to facilitate, encourage and initiate: (1) sharing of resources, knowledge and expertise in the general astrophysics, and relevant databases; (2) new collaborations and projects between the two institutions and its scientists, (3) training and mentoring of JHU students and junior researchers by way of connecting them with appropriate researchers and experts at the LHEA.

  5. How do leaders promote cooperation? The effects of charisma and procedural fairness.

    PubMed

    De Cremer, David; van Knippenberg, Daan

    2002-10-01

    The present research examined the effect of leaders' procedural fairness and perceived charisma on an important organizational process: cooperation. Both charisma and procedural fairness were predicted to have a positive effect on cooperation, and procedural fairness and charisma were predicted to interact such that their effects are stronger alone than in conjunction. Results from a scenario experiment, a cross-sectional survey, and a laboratory experiment supported these predictions. Results from the laboratory study also showed that the interactive effect of leader charisma and procedural fairness on cooperation was mediated by their interactive effect on the sense of group belongingness. It is concluded that leader charisma and procedural fairness may engender cooperation because they appeal to relational concerns. PMID:12395810

  6. Social diversity promotes the emergence of cooperation in public goods games.

    PubMed

    Santos, Francisco C; Santos, Marta D; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2008-07-10

    Humans often cooperate in public goods games and situations ranging from family issues to global warming. However, evolutionary game theory predicts that the temptation to forgo the public good mostly wins over collective cooperative action, and this is often also seen in economic experiments. Here we show how social diversity provides an escape from this apparent paradox. Up to now, individuals have been treated as equivalent in all respects, in sharp contrast with real-life situations, where diversity is ubiquitous. We introduce social diversity by means of heterogeneous graphs and show that cooperation is promoted by the diversity associated with the number and size of the public goods game in which each individual participates and with the individual contribution to each such game. When social ties follow a scale-free distribution, cooperation is enhanced whenever all individuals are expected to contribute a fixed amount irrespective of the plethora of public goods games in which they engage. Our results may help to explain the emergence of cooperation in the absence of mechanisms based on individual reputation and punishment. Combining social diversity with reputation and punishment will provide instrumental clues on the self-organization of social communities and their economical implications. PMID:18615084

  7. Social diversity and promotion of cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila

    2008-01-01

    The diversity in wealth and social status is present not only among humans, but throughout the animal world. We account for this observation by generating random variables that determine the social diversity of players engaging in the prisoner’s dilemma game. Here the term social diversity is used to address extrinsic factors that determine the mapping of game payoffs to individual fitness. These factors may increase or decrease the fitness of a player depending on its location on the spatial grid. We consider different distributions of extrinsic factors that determine the social diversity of players, and find that the power-law distribution enables the best promotion of cooperation. The facilitation of the cooperative strategy relies mostly on the inhomogeneous social state of players, resulting in the formation of cooperative clusters which are ruled by socially high-ranking players that are able to prevail against the defectors even when there is a large temptation to defect. To confirm this, we also study the impact of spatially correlated social diversity and find that cooperation deteriorates as the spatial correlation length increases. Our results suggest that the distribution of wealth and social status might have played a crucial role by the evolution of cooperation amongst egoistic individuals.

  8. Promote or hinder? The role of punishment in the emergence of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shiping; Wu, Te; Nie, Suli; Wang, Long

    2015-12-01

    Investigation of anti-social punishment has shaken the positive role of punishment in the evolution of cooperation. However, punishment is ubiquitous in nature, and the centralized, apposed to decentralized, punishment is more favored by certain modern societies in particular. To explore the underlying principle of such phenomenon, we study the evolution of cooperation in the context of pro- and anti-social punishments subject to two distinct patterns: costly centralized and decentralized punishments. The results suggest that the pattern of punishment has a great effect on the role of punishment in the evolution of cooperation. In the absence of anti-social punishment, the costly centralized punishment is more effective in promoting the emergence of cooperation. Anti-social punishment can subvert the positive role of punishment when anti- and pro-social punishments are in the same pattern. However, driven by centralized pro-social punishment, cooperation can be more advantageous than defection even in the presence of decentralized anti-social punishment. PMID:26408337

  9. Inferring reputation promotes the evolution of cooperation in spatial social dilemma games.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Yin, Zi-Yu; Xia, Cheng-Yi

    2012-01-01

    In realistic world individuals with high reputation are more likely to influence the collective behaviors. Due to the cost and error of information dissemination, however, it is unreasonable to assign each individual with a complete cognitive power, which means that not everyone can accurately realize others' reputation situation. Here we introduce the mechanism of inferring reputation into the selection of potential strategy sources to explore the evolution of cooperation. Before the game each player is assigned with a randomly distributed parameter p denoting his ability to infer the reputation of others. The parameter p of each individual is kept constant during the game. The value of p indicates that the neighbor possessing highest reputation is chosen with the probability p and randomly choosing an opponent is left with the probability 1-p. We find that this novel mechanism can be seen as an universally applicable promoter of cooperation, which works on various interaction networks and in different types of evolutionary game. Of particular interest is the fact that, in the early stages of evolutionary process, cooperators with high reputation who are easily regarded as the potential strategy donors can quickly lead to the formation of extremely robust clusters of cooperators that are impervious to defector attacks. These clusters eventually help cooperators reach their undisputed dominance, which transcends what can be warranted by the spatial reciprocity alone. Moreover, we provide complete phase diagrams to depict the impact of uncertainty in strategy adoptions and conclude that the effective interaction topology structure may be altered under such a mechanism. When the estimation of reputation is extended, we also show that the moderate value of evaluation factor enables cooperation to thrive best. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous cooperative behaviors in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve social

  10. The Antarctic Seismic Data Library System for Cooperative Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, J. R.; Wardell, N.; Cooper, A. K.; Brancolini, G.

    2001-12-01

    The Antarctic Seismic Data Library System for Cooperative Research (SDLS) was designed by members of the Antarctic geoscience community to facilitate open access to multichannel seismic reflection data, and to promote collaborative research based on these data. The SDLS was formally adopted in 1991 under the auspices of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and mandates of Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting Recommendation XVI-12. Since that time, library branches have been established in countries worldwide, and more than 50,000 km of digital seismic reflection profile data have been provided to the SDLS by data collectors in 10 countries. The library system is a dynamic library where data resides for use by all members of the research community in collaboration with data collectors. Data are available at the SDLS during the period between 4 and 8 years following data collection, after which they go to the World Data Center. The SDLS system protects intellectual property rights of data collectors and provides open access to data, as required by the Antarctic Treaty, to facilitate timely and multinational geoscience research products. This abstract outlines recommendations to update the data-access technology used by the SDLS, while retaining the basic tenets and guidelines upon which the library system was adopted and now operates. In the early 1990's when the SDLS was developed, the computer technologies were by today's standards primitive. We propose an updated SDLS design that incorporates a variety of new features and capabilities utilizing modern technology and current standards for the organization and dissemination of geospatial data. Some of the features of the proposed SDLS design include: ” The new SDLS will be principally Web-based, allowing on-line access to digital datasets. Security and access to data will be controlled according to the terms of the original SDLS agreement, either by limiting on-line access to sensitive data files