Science.gov

Sample records for research cooperation promotion

  1. COOP+ project: Promoting the cooperation among international Research Infrastructures to address global environmental challenges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonet-García, Francisco; Materia, Paola; Kutsch, Werner; de Lucas, Jesús Marco; Tjulin, Anders

    2016-04-01

    During the Anthropocene, mankind will face several global environmental challenges. One of the first and more successful responses provided by Science to these challenges is the collecting of long-term series of biophysical variables in order to improve our knowledge of natural systems. The huge amount of information gathered during the last decades by Research Infrastructures (RIs) has helped to understand the structure and functioning of natural systems at local and regional scales. But how can we address the global cross-scale and cross-disciplinary challenges posed by the global environment change? We believe that it will be necessary to observe, model better and understand the whole biosphere using long term data generated by international RIs. RIs play a key role on many of the last advances and discoveries in science, from the observation of the Higgs Boson at CERN to the exploration of the Universe by the telescopes of the European Southern Observatory in Chile. The scale of complexity, instrumentation, computing resources, technological advances, and also of the investments, and the size of research collaborations, do not have precedents in Science. RIs in environmental field are developing fast, but the corresponding communities need yet to further reflect the need for a wider global collaboration because the challenges to tackle are in essence of global nature. This contribution describes how COOP+ project (EU Horizon 2020 Coordination and Support Action) will promote the cooperation among RIs at a global scale to address global environmental challenges. Our project evolves from the experience of the sucessful FP7 COOPEUS project (see http://www.coopeus.eu), which explored the use and access to data from RIs in environmental research in Europe and USA. The general goal of COOP+ is to strengthen the links and coordination of the ESFRI RIs related to Marine Science (EMSO), Arctic and Atmospheric Research (EISCAT), Carbon Observation (ICOS) and Biodiversity

  2. An Integrated Strategy for Promoting Geoscience Education and Research in Developing Countries through International Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    2007-12-01

    Geoscience education and research in Developing countries should aim at achieving food, water and environmental security, and disaster preparedness, based on the synergetic application of earth (including atmospheric and oceanic realms), space and information sciences through economically-viable, ecologically- sustainable and people-participatory management of natural resources. The proposed strategy involves the integration of the following three principal elements: (i) What needs to be taught: Geoscience needs to be taught as earth system science incorporating geophysical, geochemical and geobiological approaches, with focus (say, 80 % of time) on surficial processes (e.g. dynamics of water, wind and waves, surface and groundwater, soil moisture, geomorphology, landuse, crops), and surficial materials (e.g. soils, water, industrial minerals, sediments, biota). Subjects such as the origin, structure and evolution of the earth, and deep-seated processes (e.g. dynamics of the crust-mantle interaction, plate tectonics) could be taught by way of background knowledge (say, 20 % of the time), (ii) How jobs are to be created: Jobs are to be created by merging geoscience knowledge with economic instruments (say, micro enterprises), and management structures at different levels (Policy level, Technology Transfer level and Implementation level), customized to the local biophysical and socioeconomic situations, and (iii) International cooperation: Web-based instruction (e.g. education portals, virtual laboratories) through South - South and North - South cooperation, customized to the local biophysical and socioeconomic situations, with the help of (say) UNDP, UNESCO, World Bank, etc.

  3. Gossip and ostracism promote cooperation in groups.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb; Schultz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The widespread existence of cooperation is difficult to explain because individuals face strong incentives to exploit the cooperative tendencies of others. In the research reported here, we examined how the spread of reputational information through gossip promotes cooperation in mixed-motive settings. Results showed that individuals readily communicated reputational information about others, and recipients used this information to selectively interact with cooperative individuals and ostracize those who had behaved selfishly, which enabled group members to contribute to the public good with reduced threat of exploitation. Additionally, ostracized individuals responded to exclusion by subsequently cooperating at levels comparable to those who were not ostracized. These results suggest that the spread of reputational information through gossip can mitigate egoistic behavior by facilitating partner selection, thereby helping to solve the problem of cooperation even in noniterated interactions. PMID:24463551

  4. The Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC) Conceptual Model to Promote Mental Health for Adolescents with ASD.

    PubMed

    Shochet, Ian M; Saggers, Beth R; Carrington, Suzanne B; Orr, Jayne A; Wurfl, Astrid M; Duncan, Bonnie M; Smith, Coral L

    2016-06-01

    Despite an increased risk of mental health problems in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is limited research on effective prevention approaches for this population. Funded by the Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism, a theoretically and empirically supported school-based preventative model has been developed to alter the negative trajectory and promote wellbeing and positive mental health in adolescents with ASD. This conceptual paper provides the rationale, theoretical, empirical and methodological framework of a multilayered intervention targeting the school, parents and adolescents on the spectrum. Two important interrelated protective factors have been identified in community adolescent samples, namely the sense of belonging (connectedness) to school and the capacity for self and affect regulation in the face of stress (i.e. resilience). We describe how a confluence of theories from social psychology, developmental psychology and family systems theory, along with empirical evidence (including emerging neurobiological evidence), supports the interrelationships between these protective factors and many indices of wellbeing. However, the characteristics of ASD (including social and communication difficulties, and frequently difficulties with changes and transitions, and diminished optimism and self-esteem) impair access to these vital protective factors. The paper describes how evidence-based interventions at the school level for promoting inclusive schools (using the Index for Inclusion) and interventions for adolescents and parents to promote resilience and belonging [using the Resourceful Adolescent Program (RAP)] are adapted and integrated for adolescents with ASD. This multisite proof-of-concept study will confirm whether this multilevel school-based intervention is promising, feasible and sustainable. PMID:27072681

  5. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner’s dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation. PMID:26238521

  6. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation. PMID:26238521

  7. Cooperative Cataloging: LC Promotes Cooperation at Asian Materials Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineberg, Gail

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Asian Materials Cataloging Seminar that the Library of Congress sponsored to promote the benefits of cooperative cataloging. Highlights include the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC); high-quality, standardized, core-level cataloging records for Asian materials; name authority and subject authority programs; and the CONSER…

  8. Benevolent characteristics promote cooperative behaviour among humans.

    PubMed

    Capraro, Valerio; Smyth, Conor; Mylona, Kalliopi; Niblo, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Cooperation is fundamental to the evolution of human society. We regularly observe cooperative behaviour in everyday life and in controlled experiments with anonymous people, even though standard economic models predict that they should deviate from the collective interest and act so as to maximise their own individual payoff. However, there is typically heterogeneity across subjects: some may cooperate, while others may not. Since individual factors promoting cooperation could be used by institutions to indirectly prime cooperation, this heterogeneity raises the important question of who these cooperators are. We have conducted a series of experiments to study whether benevolence, defined as a unilateral act of paying a cost to increase the welfare of someone else beyond one's own, is related to cooperation in a subsequent one-shot anonymous Prisoner's dilemma. Contrary to the predictions of the widely used inequity aversion models, we find that benevolence does exist and a large majority of people behave this way. We also find benevolence to be correlated with cooperative behaviour. Finally, we show a causal link between benevolence and cooperation: priming people to think positively about benevolent behaviour makes them significantly more cooperative than priming them to think malevolently. Thus benevolent people exist and cooperate more. PMID:25140707

  9. 77 FR 26413 - Promoting International Regulatory Cooperation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... HOUSE, May 1, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-10968 Filed 5-3-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ...;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Executive Order 13609 of May 1, 2012 Promoting International... United States of America, and in order to promote international regulatory cooperation, it is...

  10. Heterogeneous Link Weight Promotes the Cooperation in Spatial Prisoner's Dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhi-Qin; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Sun, Shi-Wen; Wang, Li; Wang, Huai-Bin; Wang, Juan

    The spatial structure has often been identified as a prominent mechanism that substantially promotes the cooperation level in prisoner's dilemma game. In this paper we introduce a weighting mechanism into the spatial prisoner's dilemma game to explore the cooperative behaviors on the square lattice. Here, three types of weight distributions: exponential, power-law and uniform distributions are considered, and the weight is assigned to links between players. Through large-scale numerical simulations we find, compared with the traditional spatial game, that this mechanism can largely enhance the frequency of cooperators. For most ranges of b, we find that the power-law distribution enables the highest promotion of cooperation and the uniform one leads to the lowest enhancement, whereas the exponential one lies often between them. The great improvement of cooperation can be caused by the fact that the distributional link weight yields inhomogeneous interaction strength among individuals, which can facilitate the formation of cooperative clusters to resist the defector's invasion. In addition, the impact of amplitude of the undulation of weight distribution and noise strength on cooperation is also investigated for three kinds of weight distribution. Current researches can aid in the further understanding of evolutionary cooperation in biological and social science.

  11. Western Conifers Research Cooperative 1987 research plan

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.K.

    1987-08-01

    The Western Conifers Research Cooperative is part of the national Forest Response Program (FRP). The FRP is a federal program designed to determine the current and potential effects of atmospheric deposition on forests in the United States. Research is conducted regionally within four research Cooperatives. The Western Cooperative is concerned with the effects of atmospheric deposition on coniferous forests in the eleven conterminous western states. The 1987 Research Plan first outlines the objectives and research strategy of the FRP. The objectives and strategy of the Western Cooperative are then described in the context of the parent organization. The 1986 Western Cooperative program is reviewed followed by a description of the 1987 program. Brief descriptions of each of the individual 1987 research projects are also given.

  12. Inducing Peer Pressure to Promote Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Ankur; Rahwan, Iyad; Pentland, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation in a large society of self-interested individuals is notoriously difficult to achieve when the externality of one individual's action is spread thin and wide on the whole society. This leads to the ‘tragedy of the commons’ in which rational action will ultimately make everyone worse-off. Traditional policies to promote cooperation involve Pigouvian taxation or subsidies that make individuals internalize the externality they incur. We introduce a new approach to achieving global cooperation by localizing externalities to one's peers in a social network, thus leveraging the power of peer-pressure to regulate behavior. The mechanism relies on a joint model of externalities and peer-pressure. Surprisingly, this mechanism can require a lower budget to operate than the Pigouvian mechanism, even when accounting for the social cost of peer pressure. Even when the available budget is very low, the social mechanisms achieve greater improvement in the outcome. PMID:23619166

  13. Inducing Peer Pressure to Promote Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Ankur; Rahwan, Iyad; Pentland, Alex

    2013-04-01

    Cooperation in a large society of self-interested individuals is notoriously difficult to achieve when the externality of one individual's action is spread thin and wide on the whole society. This leads to the `tragedy of the commons' in which rational action will ultimately make everyone worse-off. Traditional policies to promote cooperation involve Pigouvian taxation or subsidies that make individuals internalize the externality they incur. We introduce a new approach to achieving global cooperation by localizing externalities to one's peers in a social network, thus leveraging the power of peer-pressure to regulate behavior. The mechanism relies on a joint model of externalities and peer-pressure. Surprisingly, this mechanism can require a lower budget to operate than the Pigouvian mechanism, even when accounting for the social cost of peer pressure. Even when the available budget is very low, the social mechanisms achieve greater improvement in the outcome.

  14. Inducing peer pressure to promote cooperation.

    PubMed

    Mani, Ankur; Rahwan, Iyad; Pentland, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation in a large society of self-interested individuals is notoriously difficult to achieve when the externality of one individual's action is spread thin and wide on the whole society. This leads to the 'tragedy of the commons' in which rational action will ultimately make everyone worse-off. Traditional policies to promote cooperation involve Pigouvian taxation or subsidies that make individuals internalize the externality they incur. We introduce a new approach to achieving global cooperation by localizing externalities to one's peers in a social network, thus leveraging the power of peer-pressure to regulate behavior. The mechanism relies on a joint model of externalities and peer-pressure. Surprisingly, this mechanism can require a lower budget to operate than the Pigouvian mechanism, even when accounting for the social cost of peer pressure. Even when the available budget is very low, the social mechanisms achieve greater improvement in the outcome. PMID:23619166

  15. Centralized sanctioning and legitimate authority promote cooperation in humans.

    PubMed

    Baldassarri, Delia; Grossman, Guy

    2011-07-01

    Social sanctioning is widely considered a successful strategy to promote cooperation among humans. In situations in which individual and collective interests are at odds, incentives to free-ride induce individuals to refrain from contributing to public goods provision. Experimental evidence from public goods games shows that when endowed with sanctioning powers, conditional cooperators can discipline defectors, thus leading to greater levels of cooperation. However, extant evidence is based on peer punishment institutions, whereas in complex societies, systems of control are often centralized: for instance, we do not sanction our neighbors for driving too fast, the police do. Here we show the effect of centralized sanctioning and legitimate authority on cooperation. We designed an adaptation of the public goods game in which sanctioning power is given to a single monitor, and we experimentally manipulated the process by which the monitor is chosen. To increase the external validity of the study, we conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 1,543 Ugandan farmers from 50 producer cooperatives. This research provides evidence of the effectiveness of centralized sanctioning and demonstrates the causal effect of legitimacy on cooperation: participants are more responsive to the authority of an elected monitor than a randomly chosen monitor. Our essay contributes to the literature on the evolution of cooperation by introducing the idea of role differentiation. In complex societies, cooperative behavior is not only sustained by mechanisms of selection and reciprocity among peers, but also by the legitimacy that certain actors derive from their position in the social hierarchy. PMID:21690401

  16. Cooperative Market Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carels, Peter; McCullough, Lynette

    A pilot project was developed in which the Advertising and Market Research Center of the Vienna School of Economics and Business in Austria and the German Department as well as the Marketing Department of Miami University in Ohio are working together to collect market research data and formulate a market entry strategy for Roemerquelle, an…

  17. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section...

  18. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section...

  19. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section...

  20. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section...

  1. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section...

  2. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114...

  3. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section...

  4. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section...

  5. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section...

  6. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section...

  7. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section...

  8. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114...

  9. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section...

  10. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section...

  11. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114...

  12. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section...

  13. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114...

  14. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section...

  15. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section...

  16. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section...

  17. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section...

  18. 14 CFR 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Cooperative research. 1230.114 Section...

  19. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section...

  20. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section...

  1. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section...

  2. 16 CFR 1028.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 1028.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1028.114 Section...

  3. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section...

  4. Spontaneous Giving under Structural Inequality: Intuition Promotes Cooperation in Asymmetric Social Dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Lotz, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigates the role of intuitive mental processing on cooperation in experimental games involving structural inequality. Results from an experiment using conceptual priming to induce intuitive mental processing provide the first evidence that cooperation is promoted by intuition in an asymmetric context that distributes the gains from cooperation unequally among a group. Therefore, the results extend our understanding of the cognitive underpinnings of human cooperation by demonstrating the robustness of intuitive cooperation in games involving structural inequality regarding asymmetric gains from cooperation. Additionally, the results provide the first successful conceptual replication of the intuition-cooperation link using conceptual priming, therefore also contributing to the debate about the validity of previous research in other contexts. Taken together, the present research contributes to the literature on psychological and institutional mechanisms that promote cooperation. PMID:26154284

  5. Relational diversity promotes cooperation in prisoner's dilemma games.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Jianwei; Deng, Ruipu; Li, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Relational diversity can be characterized by heterogeneous distributions of tie strengths in social networks and this diversity is present not only among humans, but throughout the animal world. We account for this observation by analyzing two network datasets from Facebook. We measure the strength of a tie by calculating the extent of overlap of friends between the two individuals. Based on the previous findings in human experiments, we argue that it is very unlikely that players will allocate their investments equally to their neighbors. There is a tendency that players prefer to donate more to their intimate friends. We find that if players preferentially allocate their investments to their good friends, cooperation will be promoted in PDG. We proved that the facilitation of the cooperative strategy relies mostly on the cooperative allies between best friends, resulting in the formation of cooperative clusters which are able to prevail against the defectors even when there is a large cost to cooperate. Moreover, we discover that the effect of relational diversity cannot be analyzed by adopting classical complex networks models, because neither of the artificial networks is able to produce networks with diverse distributions of tie strengths. It is of vital importance to introduce real social networks to study the influence of diverse relations especially when it comes to humans. This research proposes a brand new perspective to understand the influence of social relations on the emergence of cooperation in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games. PMID:25474354

  6. Relational Diversity Promotes Cooperation in Prisoner’s Dilemma Games

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bo; Wang, Jianwei; Deng, Ruipu; Li, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Relational diversity can be characterized by heterogeneous distributions of tie strengths in social networks and this diversity is present not only among humans, but throughout the animal world. We account for this observation by analyzing two network datasets from Facebook. We measure the strength of a tie by calculating the extent of overlap of friends between the two individuals. Based on the previous findings in human experiments, we argue that it is very unlikely that players will allocate their investments equally to their neighbors. There is a tendency that players prefer to donate more to their intimate friends. We find that if players preferentially allocate their investments to their good friends, cooperation will be promoted in PDG. We proved that the facilitation of the cooperative strategy relies mostly on the cooperative allies between best friends, resulting in the formation of cooperative clusters which are able to prevail against the defectors even when there is a large cost to cooperate. Moreover, we discover that the effect of relational diversity cannot be analyzed by adopting classical complex networks models, because neither of the artificial networks is able to produce networks with diverse distributions of tie strengths. It is of vital importance to introduce real social networks to study the influence of diverse relations especially when it comes to humans. This research proposes a brand new perspective to understand the influence of social relations on the emergence of cooperation in evolutionary prisoner’s dilemma games. PMID:25474354

  7. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered...

  8. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section 225.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  9. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section...

  10. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section...

  11. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section...

  12. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114...

  13. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section...

  14. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section...

  15. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section...

  16. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section...

  17. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114...

  18. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114...

  19. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section...

  20. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114...

  1. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section...

  2. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more...

  3. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26.114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative...

  4. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects... projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects and for... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section...

  5. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section...

  6. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects... projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects and for... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research....

  7. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects... projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects and for... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section...

  8. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects... projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects and for... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research....

  9. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects... projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects and for... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research....

  10. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects... projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects and for... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooperative research....

  11. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects... projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects and for... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section...

  12. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects... projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of human subjects and for... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section...

  13. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section...

  14. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section...

  15. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  16. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section...

  17. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section...

  18. Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) describes intergranular environmental cracking of material exposed to ionizing radiation. The implications of IASCC are significant, both in terms of repair and outage costs as well as the potential for cracking in components that may be extremely difficult to repair or replace. Significant advancements have been made in the understanding of IASCC. However, it is clear that major unknowns persist and must be understood and quantified before the life of a reactor component at risk from IASCC can be predicted or significantly extended. Although individual organizations are continuing to effectively address IASCC, it became apparent that a more direct form of cooperation would be more timely and efficient in addressing the technical issues. Thus in 1995 EPRI formed the Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR) Program. This is a cooperative, jointly funded effort with participants from eight countries providing financial support and technical oversight. The efforts of the CIR Program are directed at the highest priority questions in the areas of material susceptibility, water chemistry and material stress. Major research areas of the Program are: (1) evaluation of IASCC mechanisms, (2) development of methodology for predicting IASCC, and (3) quantification of irradiation effects on metallurgy, mechanics and electrochemistry. Studies to evaluate various IASCC mechanisms include work to better understand the possible roles of radiation-induced segregation (RIS), radiation microstructure, bulk and localized deformation effects, overall effects on strength and ductility, hydrogen and helium effects, and others. Experiments are being conducted to isolate individual effects and determine the relative importance of each in the overall IASCC mechanism. Screening tests will be followed by detailed testing to identify the contribution of each effect over a range of conditions. The paper describes the completed and ongoing work being

  19. Using Cooperative Structures to Promote Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    The author explores concrete ways to help students learn more and have fun doing it while they support each other's learning. The article specifically shows the relationships between cooperative learning and deep learning. Readers will become familiar with the tenets of cooperative learning and its power to enhance learning--even more so when…

  20. Genetic information transfer promotes cooperation in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dimitriu, Tatiana; Lotton, Chantal; Bénard-Capelle, Julien; Misevic, Dusan; Brown, Sam P; Lindner, Ariel B; Taddei, François

    2014-07-29

    Many bacterial species are social, producing costly secreted "public good" molecules that enhance the growth of neighboring cells. The genes coding for these cooperative traits are often propagated via mobile genetic elements and can be virulence factors from a biomedical perspective. Here, we present an experimental framework that links genetic information exchange and the selection of cooperative traits. Using simulations and experiments based on a synthetic bacterial system to control public good secretion and plasmid conjugation, we demonstrate that horizontal gene transfer can favor cooperation. In a well-mixed environment, horizontal transfer brings a direct infectious advantage to any gene, regardless of its cooperation properties. However, in a structured population transfer selects specifically for cooperation by increasing the assortment among cooperative alleles. Conjugation allows cooperative alleles to overcome rarity thresholds and invade bacterial populations structured purely by stochastic dilution effects. Our results provide an explanation for the prevalence of cooperative genes on mobile elements, and suggest a previously unidentified benefit of horizontal gene transfer for bacteria. PMID:25024219

  1. Genetic information transfer promotes cooperation in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriu, Tatiana; Lotton, Chantal; Bénard-Capelle, Julien; Misevic, Dusan; Brown, Sam P.; Lindner, Ariel B.; Taddei, François

    2014-01-01

    Many bacterial species are social, producing costly secreted “public good” molecules that enhance the growth of neighboring cells. The genes coding for these cooperative traits are often propagated via mobile genetic elements and can be virulence factors from a biomedical perspective. Here, we present an experimental framework that links genetic information exchange and the selection of cooperative traits. Using simulations and experiments based on a synthetic bacterial system to control public good secretion and plasmid conjugation, we demonstrate that horizontal gene transfer can favor cooperation. In a well-mixed environment, horizontal transfer brings a direct infectious advantage to any gene, regardless of its cooperation properties. However, in a structured population transfer selects specifically for cooperation by increasing the assortment among cooperative alleles. Conjugation allows cooperative alleles to overcome rarity thresholds and invade bacterial populations structured purely by stochastic dilution effects. Our results provide an explanation for the prevalence of cooperative genes on mobile elements, and suggest a previously unidentified benefit of horizontal gene transfer for bacteria. PMID:25024219

  2. Population Fluctuation Promotes Cooperation in Networks

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Steve; Knowles, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation in dynamic network-structured populations. Building on seminal work by Poncela et al., which shows how cooperation (in one-shot prisoner’s dilemma) is supported in growing populations by an evolutionary preferential attachment (EPA) model, we investigate the effect of fluctuations in the population size. We find that a fluctuating model – based on repeated population growth and truncation – is more robust than Poncela et al.’s in that cooperation flourishes for a wider variety of initial conditions. In terms of both the temptation to defect, and the types of strategies present in the founder network, the fluctuating population is found to lead more securely to cooperation. Further, we find that this model will also support the emergence of cooperation from pre-existing non-cooperative random networks. This model, like Poncela et al.’s, does not require agents to have memory, recognition of other agents, or other cognitive abilities, and so may suggest a more general explanation of the emergence of cooperation in early evolutionary transitions, than mechanisms such as kin selection, direct and indirect reciprocity. PMID:26061705

  3. Population Fluctuation Promotes Cooperation in Networks.

    PubMed

    Miller, Steve; Knowles, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation in dynamic network-structured populations. Building on seminal work by Poncela et al., which shows how cooperation (in one-shot prisoner's dilemma) is supported in growing populations by an evolutionary preferential attachment (EPA) model, we investigate the effect of fluctuations in the population size. We find that a fluctuating model - based on repeated population growth and truncation - is more robust than Poncela et al.'s in that cooperation flourishes for a wider variety of initial conditions. In terms of both the temptation to defect, and the types of strategies present in the founder network, the fluctuating population is found to lead more securely to cooperation. Further, we find that this model will also support the emergence of cooperation from pre-existing non-cooperative random networks. This model, like Poncela et al.'s, does not require agents to have memory, recognition of other agents, or other cognitive abilities, and so may suggest a more general explanation of the emergence of cooperation in early evolutionary transitions, than mechanisms such as kin selection, direct and indirect reciprocity. PMID:26061705

  4. Adjusting learning motivation to promote cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Small, Michael; Yang, Hanxin; Wang, Binghong

    2010-11-01

    An evolutionary prisoner’s dilemma game with players adjusting their learning motivation is studied. At each time step, each player can adjust his/her learning motivation according to the difference between the current payoff and payoff aspiration. Greater payoff aspiration means stronger learning motivation, and vice versa. We find that the density of cooperation in a spatial prisoner’s dilemma game is enhanced when the learning motivation mechanism is considered. Meanwhile, we show that proper noise can not only induce the highest cooperation level but also can maintain the cooperation phenomenon even though there is more temptation to defect.

  5. Promoting Cooperative and Helping Behaviours in Student Work Groups through Training in Small Group Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Robyn M.; Ashman, Adrian F.

    Research in recent years has demonstrated that cooperative learning is a highly effective classroom intervention that promotes student learning and development across a range of curriculum areas. This study compared the effects on behavioral interactions and achievement of: (1) cooperative learning in which members were trained to collaborate to…

  6. Social image concerns promote cooperation more than altruistic punishment.

    PubMed

    Grimalda, Gianluca; Pondorfer, Andreas; Tracer, David P

    2016-01-01

    Human cooperation is enigmatic, as organisms are expected, by evolutionary and economic theory, to act principally in their own interests. However, cooperation requires individuals to sacrifice resources for each other's benefit. We conducted a series of novel experiments in a foraging society where social institutions make the study of social image and punishment particularly salient. Participants played simple cooperation games where they could punish non-cooperators, promote a positive social image or do so in combination with one another. We show that although all these mechanisms raise cooperation above baseline levels, only when social image alone is at stake do average economic gains rise significantly above baseline. Punishment, either alone or combined with social image building, yields lower gains. Individuals' desire to establish a positive social image thus emerges as a more decisive factor than punishment in promoting human cooperation. PMID:27504898

  7. Social image concerns promote cooperation more than altruistic punishment

    PubMed Central

    Grimalda, Gianluca; Pondorfer, Andreas; Tracer, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Human cooperation is enigmatic, as organisms are expected, by evolutionary and economic theory, to act principally in their own interests. However, cooperation requires individuals to sacrifice resources for each other's benefit. We conducted a series of novel experiments in a foraging society where social institutions make the study of social image and punishment particularly salient. Participants played simple cooperation games where they could punish non-cooperators, promote a positive social image or do so in combination with one another. We show that although all these mechanisms raise cooperation above baseline levels, only when social image alone is at stake do average economic gains rise significantly above baseline. Punishment, either alone or combined with social image building, yields lower gains. Individuals' desire to establish a positive social image thus emerges as a more decisive factor than punishment in promoting human cooperation. PMID:27504898

  8. Harnessing the power of reputation: strengths and limits for promoting cooperative behaviors.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary approaches have done much to identify the pressures that select for cooperative sentiment. This helps us understand when and why cooperation will arise, and applied research shows how these pressures can be harnessed to promote various types of cooperation. In particular, recent evidence shows how opportunities to acquire a good reputation can promote cooperation in laboratory and applied settings. Cooperation can be promoted by tapping into forces like indirect reciprocity, costly signaling, and competitive altruism. When individuals help others, they receive reputational benefits (or avoid reputational costs), and this gives people an incentive to help. Such findings can be applied to promote many kinds of helping and cooperation, including charitable donations, tax compliance, sustainable and pro-environmental behaviors, risky heroism, and more. Despite the potential advantages of using reputation to promote positive behaviors, there are several risks and limits. Under some circumstances, opportunities for reputation will be ineffective or promote harmful behaviors. By better understanding the dynamics of reputation and the circumstances under which cooperation can evolve, we can better design social systems to increase the rate of cooperation and reduce conflict. PMID:23253792

  9. Small groups and long memories promote cooperation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2016-01-01

    Complex social behaviors lie at the heart of many of the challenges facing evolutionary biology, sociology, economics, and beyond. For evolutionary biologists the question is often how group behaviors such as collective action, or decision making that accounts for memories of past experience, can emerge and persist in an evolving system. Evolutionary game theory provides a framework for formalizing these questions and admitting them to rigorous study. Here we develop such a framework to study the evolution of sustained collective action in multi-player public-goods games, in which players have arbitrarily long memories of prior rounds of play and can react to their experience in an arbitrary way. We construct a coordinate system for memory-m strategies in iterated n-player games that permits us to characterize all cooperative strategies that resist invasion by any mutant strategy, and stabilize cooperative behavior. We show that, especially when groups are small, longer-memory strategies make cooperation easier to evolve, by increasing the number of ways to stabilize cooperation. We also explore the co-evolution of behavior and memory. We find that even when memory has a cost, longer-memory strategies often evolve, which in turn drives the evolution of cooperation, even when the benefits for cooperation are low. PMID:27247059

  10. Small groups and long memories promote cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alexander J.; Plotkin, Joshua B.

    2016-01-01

    Complex social behaviors lie at the heart of many of the challenges facing evolutionary biology, sociology, economics, and beyond. For evolutionary biologists the question is often how group behaviors such as collective action, or decision making that accounts for memories of past experience, can emerge and persist in an evolving system. Evolutionary game theory provides a framework for formalizing these questions and admitting them to rigorous study. Here we develop such a framework to study the evolution of sustained collective action in multi-player public-goods games, in which players have arbitrarily long memories of prior rounds of play and can react to their experience in an arbitrary way. We construct a coordinate system for memory-m strategies in iterated n-player games that permits us to characterize all cooperative strategies that resist invasion by any mutant strategy, and stabilize cooperative behavior. We show that, especially when groups are small, longer-memory strategies make cooperation easier to evolve, by increasing the number of ways to stabilize cooperation. We also explore the co-evolution of behavior and memory. We find that even when memory has a cost, longer-memory strategies often evolve, which in turn drives the evolution of cooperation, even when the benefits for cooperation are low. PMID:27247059

  11. Promoting the Quality of Sino-Foreign Cooperation School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the history and situation of the current Sino-foreign cooperation in running school, some prominent differences on the college educations between China and developed countries are discussed. The paper aims to improve the level of Sino-foreign cooperation school running, and gives some methods to promote the education quality of Chinese…

  12. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114...

  13. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114...

  14. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114...

  15. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114...

  16. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.1114 Section... SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults § 26.1114 Cooperative research. In complying with this...

  17. Promotion of cooperation by selective group extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Marvin A.; Nagler, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Multilevel selection is an important organizing principle that crucially underlies evolutionary processes from the emergence of cells to eusociality and the economics of nations. Previous studies on multilevel selection assumed that the effective higher-level selection emerges from lower-level reproduction. This leads to selection among groups, although only individuals reproduce. We introduce selective group extinction, where groups die with a probability inversely proportional to their group fitness. When accounting for this the critical benefit-to-cost ratio is substantially lowered. Because in game theory and evolutionary dynamics the degree of cooperation crucially depends on this ratio above which cooperation emerges, previous studies may have substantially underestimated the establishment and maintenance of cooperation.

  18. Coevolution of teaching activity promotes cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2008-04-01

    Evolutionary games are studied where the teaching activity of players can evolve in time. Initially all players following either the cooperative or defecting strategy are distributed on a square lattice. The rate of strategy adoption is determined by the payoff difference and a teaching activity characterizing the donor's capability to enforce its strategy on the opponent. Each successful strategy adoption process is accompanied by an increase in the donor's teaching activity. By applying an optimum value of the increment, this simple mechanism spontaneously creates relevant inhomogeneities in the teaching activities that support the maintenance of cooperation for both the prisoner's dilemma and the snowdrift game.

  19. Repeated thinking promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Cai, Kai-Quan; Du, Wen-Bo; Cao, Xian-Bin

    2012-05-01

    Inspired by the realistic process of taking decisions in social life, we have proposed a repeated thinking mechanism in the evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game where players are denoted by the vertices and play games with their direct neighbors. Under our mechanism, a player i will randomly select a neighbor j and then deliberate for M times before strategy updating. It will remain unchanged if not all M considerations suggest it to learn the strategy of j. We mainly focus on the evolution of cooperation in the systems. Interestingly, we find that the cooperation level fC is remarkably promoted and fC has a monotonic dependence on the caution parameter M, indicating that being cautious facilitates the emergence and persistence of cooperation. We give a simple but clear explanation for this cooperation promotion via detecting the cooperator-defector transition process. Moreover, the robustness of this mechanism is also examined on different noise levels and game models.

  20. Role of collective influence in promoting cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.-G.; Wu, Z.-X.; Wu, A.-C.; Yang, L.; Wang, Y.-H.

    2008-12-01

    The collective influence on the individuals' behavior have attracted much attention, and interesting phenomena such as social facilitation and social loafing have been studied. In this paper, we consider how the collective influence affects the evolution of cooperation in a structured population of individuals who nourish and benefit from public goods in groups. Individuals are supposed to distribute endowments to different groups to nourish the corresponding public goods. The collective influence is indicated by a tunable parameter α, with larger α corresponding to the players' higher preference to contribute more to the larger groups, which is similar to the social-facilitation effect in the real world, whereas, with smaller α corresponding to individuals' contrary preference, i.e., the social-loafing effect. Interestingly, we find that the heterogeneity of public-goods setting favors cooperation. Furthermore, the system where social loafing occurs performs better than that with social facilitation, in the case of heterogeneous formation.

  1. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114...

  2. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114...

  3. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114...

  4. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114...

  5. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with...

  6. 21 CFR 56.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative research. 56.114 Section 56.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.114 Cooperative research. In complying with these regulations, institutions involved...

  7. Promoting cooperation in social dilemmas via simple coevolutionary rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, A.; Perc, M.

    2009-02-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in structured populations within popular models of social dilemmas, whereby simple coevolutionary rules are introduced that may enhance players abilities to enforce their strategy on the opponent. Coevolution thus here refers to an evolutionary process affecting the teaching activity of players that accompanies the evolution of their strategies. Particularly, we increase the teaching activity of a player after it has successfully reproduced, yet we do so depending on the disseminated strategy. We separately consider coevolution affecting either only the cooperators or only the defectors, and show that both options promote cooperation irrespective of the applied game. Opposite to intuitive reasoning, however, we reveal that the coevolutionary promotion of players spreading defection is, in the long run, more beneficial for cooperation than the likewise promotion of cooperators. We explain the contradictive impact of the two considered coevolutionary rules by examining the differences between resulting heterogeneities that segregate participating players, and furthermore, demonstrate that the influential individuals completely determine the final outcome of the games. Our findings are immune to changes defining the type of considered social dilemmas and highlight that the heterogeneity of players, resulting in a positive feedback mechanism, is a fundamental property promoting cooperation in groups of selfish individuals.

  8. Dynamic social networks promote cooperation in experiments with humans.

    PubMed

    Rand, David G; Arbesman, Samuel; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2011-11-29

    Human populations are both highly cooperative and highly organized. Human interactions are not random but rather are structured in social networks. Importantly, ties in these networks often are dynamic, changing in response to the behavior of one's social partners. This dynamic structure permits an important form of conditional action that has been explored theoretically but has received little empirical attention: People can respond to the cooperation and defection of those around them by making or breaking network links. Here, we present experimental evidence of the power of using strategic link formation and dissolution, and the network modification it entails, to stabilize cooperation in sizable groups. Our experiments explore large-scale cooperation, where subjects' cooperative actions are equally beneficial to all those with whom they interact. Consistent with previous research, we find that cooperation decays over time when social networks are shuffled randomly every round or are fixed across all rounds. We also find that, when networks are dynamic but are updated only infrequently, cooperation again fails. However, when subjects can update their network connections frequently, we see a qualitatively different outcome: Cooperation is maintained at a high level through network rewiring. Subjects preferentially break links with defectors and form new links with cooperators, creating an incentive to cooperate and leading to substantial changes in network structure. Our experiments confirm the predictions of a set of evolutionary game theoretic models and demonstrate the important role that dynamic social networks can play in supporting large-scale human cooperation. PMID:22084103

  9. Promotion of cooperation by payoff-driven migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ya-Shan; Yang, Han-Xin; Guo, Wen-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Migration plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation. Previous studies concerning mobile population often assumed that all agents move with the identical velocity. In this paper, we propose a payoff-driven migration in which the velocity of an agent depends on his/her payoff. A parameter α is introduced to adjust the influence of payoff, when α = 0 means that agents all move with the identical velocity while α > 0 means that the lower the payoff is, the faster the moving speed is, and vice versa. For the prisoner's dilemma game, we find that in comparison with the case that agents all move with the same speed, cooperation could be promoted strongly when payoff-dependent velocity is considered. Remarkably, the cooperation level is not a monotonic function of α, and there exists an optimal value of α which can lead to the maximum cooperation level. For the snowdrift game, the cooperation level increases with α.

  10. Cooperative Learning: Review of Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from pre-school through to tertiary level and across different subject domains. It involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks--goals and tasks that they would be unable to complete by…

  11. Reputation-based partner choice promotes cooperation in social networks

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Feng; Hauert, Christoph; Nowak, Martin A.; Wang, Long

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the cooperation dynamics attributed to the interplay between evolution of individual strategies and evolution of individual partnerships. We focus on the effect of reputation on individual's partner switching process. We assume individuals can either change their strategies by imitating their partners or adjust their partnerships based on local information about reputations. We manipulate the partner switching in two ways, that is, individuals can switch from the lowest reputation partners, either to their partners' partners who have the highest reputation (i.e., ordering in partnership) or to others randomly chosen from the entire population (i.e., randomness in partnership). We show that when individuals are able to alter their behavioral strategies and their social interaction partnerships on the basis of reputation, cooperation can prevail. We find that the larger temptation to defect and the denser the partner network, the more frequently individuals need shift their partnerships in order for cooperation to thrive. Furthermore, increasing tendency of switching to partners' partners is more likely to lead to higher level of cooperation. We show that when reputation is absent in such partner-switching process, cooperation is much less favored than that of reputation involved. Moreover, we investigate the effect of discounting individual's reputation on the evolution of cooperation. Our results highlight the importance of consideration of reputation (indirect reciprocity) on promotion of cooperation when individuals can adjust their partnerships. PMID:18850907

  12. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Cooperative research in coal liquefaction is presented. Topics include: Sulfate-promoted metal oxides as direct coal liquefaction catalysts; low temperature depolymerization and liquefaction of premium US coal samples; construction of continuous flow-through gas reactor for liquefaction investigations; examination of ferric sulfide as a liquefaction catalyst; generic structural characterization and liquefaction research; spectroscopic studies of coal macerals depolymerization catalyzed by iron chloride; characterization of catalysts used in coal hydrogenation systems; coal structure/liquefaction yield correlation by means of advanced NMR techniques; mass spectrometry of coal derived liquids: determination of molecular weight distributions; catalyst cracking, hydrogenation and liquefaction of coals under milder conditions; ENDOR investigations of coal liquefaction under mild conditions; direct determination of hydroaromatic structures in coal and coal conversion products by catalytic dehydrogenation; surface characterization of APCSB coals by XPS; computation chemistry of model compounds and molecular fragments of relevance to coal liquefaction; chemical characterization and hydrogenation reactions of single coal particles; the role of hydrogen during liquefaction using donor and non-donor solvents; solvent sorption and FTIR studies on the effect of catalytic depolymerization reactions in coal; bioprocessing of coal; chemical routes to breaking bonds: new approaches to low-temperature liquefaction; an investigation into the reactivity of isotetralin and tetralin using molecular orbital calculations; coal liquefaction modification for enhanced reactivity; catalytic hydropyrolysis and energized extraction of coals; gallium catalyst in mild coal liquefaction -- potential of temperature microscope in coal liquefaction; evaluation of nitride catalysts for hydrotreatment and coal liquefaction; and improved catalysts for coal liquefaction and coprocessing.

  13. Group preferential selection promotes cooperation in spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong-Bin; Wang, Hong

    2014-04-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in public goods games on the square lattice, focusing on the co-player learning mechanism based on the preferential selection that are brought about by wealthy information of groups where participants collect and search for potential imitators from those groups. We find that co-player learning mechanism based on the choice of weighted group can lead to the promotion of public cooperation by means of the information of wealthy groups that is obtained by participants, and after that the partial choice of public goods groups is enhanced with the tunable preferential parameter. Our results highlight that the learning interactions is not solely confined to the restricted connection among players, but co-players of wealthy groups have the opportunity to be as a role model in the promotion of cooperative evolution. Moreover, we also find the size of learning affects the choice of distant players, cooperators (defectors) having more paths to exploit the phalanx of opponents to survive when the value of preferential parameter is small. Besides, the extinction thresholds of cooperators and defectors for different values of noise are also investigated.

  14. Managing cooperative research and development ventures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    As cooperative ventures to conduct research and development become increasingly attractive, management of these collective undertakings poses new challenges to executives. In selecting the most appropriate organizational structure and strategy the author suggests that the collective enterprise executive must strike the best balance among three distinct but related elements: contribution of the participants; creation of benefits; and transfer of benefits to contributors. Eight types of cooperative R&D ventures are proposed with discussion of the unique management tasks associated with each type.

  15. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.1114 Section 26.1114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults...

  16. Annual Report, 1995. California Educational Research Cooperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zykowski, Jane L.; And Others

    The California Educational Research Cooperative (CERC) of the School of Education, University of California, Riverside, was established in 1988 as a joint venture designed to bring educational professionals and researchers together. CERC is a partnership among the Riverside and San Bernadino County Offices of Education, 19 local school districts,…

  17. 40 CFR 26.1114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.1114 Section 26.1114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults...

  18. A Journal-Club-Based Class that Promotes Active and Cooperative Learning of Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitazono, Ana A.

    2010-01-01

    A journal-club-based class has been developed to promote active and cooperative learning and expose seniors in biochemistry and cellular molecular biology to recent research in the field. Besides giving oral presentations, students also write three papers: one discussing an article of their own choosing and two, discussing articles presented by…

  19. Cooperative research in space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This grant covered the period from July 1989 through September 30, 1995. The research covered a number of topics in the general area of space science. Specific research topics included: (1) Solar astronomy - largely in support of the Ulysses project; (2) Space Science - largely in support of instrumentation for several NASA satellite projects; (3) Cometary astronomy; and (4) Planetary Astronomy - largely supporting the NASA Infrared Heterodyne instrument.

  20. Wisdom of groups promotes cooperation in evolutionary social dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Wang, Zhen; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-08-01

    Whether or not to change strategy depends not only on the personal success of each individual, but also on the success of others. Using this as motivation, we study the evolution of cooperation in games that describe social dilemmas, where the propensity to adopt a different strategy depends both on individual fitness as well as on the strategies of neighbors. Regardless of whether the evolutionary process is governed by pairwise or group interactions, we show that plugging into the ``wisdom of groups'' strongly promotes cooperative behavior. The more the wider knowledge is taken into account the more the evolution of defectors is impaired. We explain this by revealing a dynamically decelerated invasion process, by means of which interfaces separating different domains remain smooth and defectors therefore become unable to efficiently invade cooperators. This in turn invigorates spatial reciprocity and establishes decentralized decision making as very beneficial for resolving social dilemmas.

  1. Social influence promotes cooperation in the public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Dou, Puxuan; Wang, Long

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies mainly consider the random selection pattern in which individuals randomly choose reference models from their neighbors for strategy updating. However, the random selection pattern is unable to capture all real world circumstances. We institute a spatial model to investigate the effects of influence-based reference selection pattern on the evolution of cooperation in the context of public goods games. Whenever experiencing strategy updating, all the individuals each choose one of its neighbors as a reference with the probability proportional to this neighbor’s influence. Levels of individuals’ influence are dynamical. When an individual is imitated, the level of its influence increases, thus constituting a positive feedback between the frequencies of individuals being imitated and the likelihood for them to be reference models. We find that the level of collective cooperation can be enhanced whenever the influence-based reference selection pattern is integrated into the strategy updating process. Results also show that the evolution of cooperation can be promoted when the increase in individuals’ frequency of being imitated upholds their influence in large magnitude. Our work may improve the understanding of how influence-based selection patterns promote cooperative behavior.

  2. Gossip Versus Punishment: The Efficiency of Reputation to Promote and Maintain Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junhui; Balliet, Daniel; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior theory suggests that reputation spreading (e.g., gossip) and punishment are two key mechanisms to promote cooperation in groups, but no behavioral research has yet examined their relative effectiveness and efficiency in promoting and maintaining cooperation. To examine these issues, we observed participants interacting in a four-round public goods game (PGG) with or without gossip and punishment options, and a subsequent two-round trust game (TG). We manipulated gossip as the option to send notes about other group members to these members’ future partners, and punishment as the option to assign deduction points to reduce other group members’ outcomes with a fee-to-fine ratio of 1:3. Findings revealed that in the four-round PGG, the option to gossip increased both cooperation and individual earnings, whereas the option to punish had no overall effect on cooperation (but a positive effect on cooperation in the last two rounds of the PGG) and significantly decreased individual earnings. Importantly, the initial option to gossip made people more trusting and trustworthy in the subsequent TG when gossip was no longer possible, compared to the no-gossip condition. Thus, we provide some initial evidence that gossip may be more effective and efficient than punishment to promote and maintain cooperation. PMID:27039896

  3. Gossip Versus Punishment: The Efficiency of Reputation to Promote and Maintain Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junhui; Balliet, Daniel; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2016-01-01

    Prior theory suggests that reputation spreading (e.g., gossip) and punishment are two key mechanisms to promote cooperation in groups, but no behavioral research has yet examined their relative effectiveness and efficiency in promoting and maintaining cooperation. To examine these issues, we observed participants interacting in a four-round public goods game (PGG) with or without gossip and punishment options, and a subsequent two-round trust game (TG). We manipulated gossip as the option to send notes about other group members to these members' future partners, and punishment as the option to assign deduction points to reduce other group members' outcomes with a fee-to-fine ratio of 1:3. Findings revealed that in the four-round PGG, the option to gossip increased both cooperation and individual earnings, whereas the option to punish had no overall effect on cooperation (but a positive effect on cooperation in the last two rounds of the PGG) and significantly decreased individual earnings. Importantly, the initial option to gossip made people more trusting and trustworthy in the subsequent TG when gossip was no longer possible, compared to the no-gossip condition. Thus, we provide some initial evidence that gossip may be more effective and efficient than punishment to promote and maintain cooperation. PMID:27039896

  4. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1991-05-28

    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  5. Heterogeneity of allocation promotes cooperation in public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Chuang; Wu, Te; Jia, Jian-Yuan; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the effects of heterogeneous investment and distribution on the evolution of cooperation in the context of the public goods games. To do this, we develop a simple model in which each individual allocates differing funds to his direct neighbors based upon their difference in connectivity, because of the heterogeneity of real social ties. This difference is characterized by the weight of the link between paired individuals, with an adjustable parameter precisely controlling the heterogeneous level of ties. By numerical simulations, it is found that allocating both too much and too little funds to diverse neighbors can remarkably improve the cooperation level. However, there exists a worst mode of funds allocation leading to the most unfavorable cooperation induced by the moderate values of the parameter. In order to better reveal the potential causes behind these nontrivial phenomena we probe the microscopic characteristics including the average payoff and the cooperator density for individuals of different degrees. It demonstrates rather different dynamical behaviors between the modes of these two types of cooperation promoter. Besides, we also investigate the total link weights of individuals numerically and theoretically for negative values of the parameter, and conclude that the payoff magnitude of middle-degree nodes plays a crucial role in determining the cooperators’ fate.

  6. Learning Microbiology Through Cooperation: Designing Cooperative Learning Activities that Promote Interdependence, Interaction, and Accountability

    PubMed Central

    TREMPY, JANINE E.; SKINNER, MONICA M.; SIEBOLD, WILLIAM A.

    2002-01-01

    A microbiology course and its corresponding learning activities have been structured according to the Cooperative Learning Model. This course, The World According to Microbes, integrates science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET) majors and non-SMET majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. In this study we describe development of learning activities that utilize key components of Cooperative Learning—positive interdependence, promotive interaction, individual accountability, teamwork skills, and group processing. Assessments and evaluations over an 8-year period demonstrate high retention of key concepts in microbiology and high student satisfaction with the course. PMID:23653547

  7. Collaborative action research: implementation of cooperative learning.

    PubMed

    Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Molle, Mary E

    2010-06-01

    Nurse educators must continually improve their teaching skills through innovation. However, research about the process used by faculty members to transform their teaching methods is limited. This collaborative study uses classroom action research to describe, analyze, and address problems encountered in implementing cooperative learning in two undergraduate nursing courses. After four rounds of action and reflection, the following themes emerged: students did not understand the need for structured cooperative learning; classroom structure and seating arrangement influenced the effectiveness of activities; highly structured activities engaged the students; and short, targeted activities that involved novel content were most effective. These findings indicate that designing specific activities to prepare students for class is critical to cooperative learning. PMID:20210268

  8. 76 FR 39901 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Development and Validation of FlawPRO for Assessing Defect Tolerance of Welded.... (``the Act''), Southwest Research Institute-- Cooperative Research Group on Development and Validation...

  9. Cooperative Research in High Energy Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trasco, John D.

    1997-01-01

    A joint agreement between NASA/Goddard and The University of Maryland currently supports cooperative research in Satellite Based Studies of Photons and Charged Particles in the following areas: 1) Detection of cosmic rays and studies of the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays; 2) Research with several past and upcoming X-ray satellites; 3) High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy of celestial sources; 4) Theoretical astrophysics.

  10. The glycocalyx promotes cooperative binding and clustering of adhesion receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Qian, Jin; Hu, Jinglei

    2016-05-18

    Cell adhesion plays a pivotal role in various biological processes, e.g., immune responses, cancer metastasis, and stem cell differentiation. The adhesion behaviors depend subtly on the binding kinetics of receptors and ligands restricted at the cell-substrate interfaces. Although much effort has been directed toward investigating the kinetics of adhesion molecules, the role of the glycocalyx, anchored on cell surfaces as an exterior layer, is still unclear. In this paper, we propose a theoretical approach to study the collective binding kinetics of a few and a large number of binders in the presence of the glycocalyx, representing the cases of initial and mature adhesions of cells, respectively. The analytical results are validated by finding good agreement with our Monte Carlo simulations. In the force loading case, the on-rate and affinity increase as more bonds form, whereas this cooperative effect is not observed in the displacement loading case. The increased thickness and stiffness of the glycocalyx tend to decrease the affinity for a few bonds, while they have less influence on the affinity for a large number of bonds. Moreover, for a flexible membrane with thermally-excited shape fluctuations, the glycocalyx is exhibited to promote the formation of bond clusters, mainly due to the cooperative binding of binders. This study helps to understand the cooperative kinetics of adhesion receptors under physiologically relevant loading conditions and sheds light on the novel role of the glycocalyx in cell adhesion. PMID:27102288

  11. Stochastic Heterogeneous Interaction Promotes Cooperation in Spatial Prisoner's Dilemma Game

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ping; Wei, Guiyi

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies mostly investigate player's cooperative behavior as affected by game time-scale or individual diversity. In this paper, by involving both time-scale and diversity simultaneously, we explore the effect of stochastic heterogeneous interaction. In our model, the occurrence of game interaction between each pair of linked player obeys a random probability, which is further described by certain distributions. Simulations on a 4-neighbor square lattice show that the cooperation level is remarkably promoted when stochastic heterogeneous interaction is considered. The results are then explained by investigating the mean payoffs, the mean boundary payoffs and the transition probabilities between cooperators and defectors. We also show some typical snapshots and evolution time series of the system. Finally, the 8-neighbor square lattice and BA scale-free network results indicate that the stochastic heterogeneous interaction can be robust against different network topologies. Our work may sharpen the understanding of the joint effect of game time-scale and individual diversity on spatial games. PMID:24759921

  12. 14 CFR § 1230.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SUBJECTS (Eff. until 2-14-14) § 1230.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those... research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of human... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. § 1230.114 Section...

  13. In Brief: European cooperation in polar research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    A new European Polar Framework agreement aims to increase research cooperation, streamline links between many European national research programs in the Arctic and Antarctic, and possibly create international research teams similar to the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. The new framework includes commitments to collaborate on new multinational research initiatives and to have national polar programs converge where appropriate. “Recent environmental shifts in the poles have been large and rapid. By linking together Europe's polar research more closely we can get a better grasp on the wide-ranging series of changes taking place,” said Paul Egerton, executive director of the European Science Foundation's European Polar Board, which aims to facilitate cooperation among various organizations. The agreement was signed on 24 June by 26 European scientific institutions, including the British Antarctic Survey; the Agency of Culture, Education, Research and the Church Affairs, Greenland; the Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Germany; Italy's Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide; Norway's Norsk Polarinstitutt; and the Romanian Antarctic Foundation.

  14. EPA`s cooperative research opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Gatchett, A.M.; Fradkin, L.; James, S.

    1994-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the private sector find an increasing need for new cost-effective environmental technologies to treat, control, and prevent pollution. Many cooperative research programs to address this concern are available through the EPA. The Office of Research and Development (ORD) currently operates two of the most visible innovative technology development programs: (1) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program; (2) Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA) Program. These programs work very closely with the other EPA program offices. A brief overview of these activities and the new Environmental Technology Initiative within EPA are presented in this paper.

  15. Cooperative research and development agreements at METC

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlow, J.C.; Jarr, L.A.; Anderson, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    The Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-502) provided a new mechanism for joint research between private parties and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Joint projects under this law are called Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADAs) and are simply agreements between METC and the private sector to work together on a mutually beneficial project. Of primary interest to METC is the development and deployment of: (1) clean, efficient power generation technologies, (2) technologies for the characterization and exploitation of the Nation`s natural gas resource, and (3) environmental remediation technologies.

  16. 77 FR 47882 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cooperative Research Group on Clean Diesel VI Notice is hereby given that, on July 16, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative...

  17. 76 FR 39901 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Development of a Predictive Model for Corrosion-Fatigue of Materials in Sour Environment Notice is hereby given that, on May 17, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative...-- Cooperative Research Group on Development of a Predictive Model for Corrosion-Fatigue of Materials in...

  18. Industry-university cooperation/research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, Raymond P.

    1991-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the commercial development of space programs through cooperative research with the U.S. universities and industry. The origins of the programs are discussed, beginning with the Communication Satellite Act of 1963. The National Space Policy is outlined, and the creation of NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is emphasized, along with its Centers for the Commercial Development of Space. It is noted that the centers are consortia of university, industry, and government involved in commercial-space-technology database development and research and testing of potentially valuable products and services. The center titles, locations, and brief descriptions for such area of research as remote sensing, life sciences, materials processing, space power, space propulsion, materials and space structures, and automation and robotics centers are listed, along with some results of the programs.

  19. [African research in odontostomatology and international cooperation].

    PubMed

    Berard, A; Page, T; Brouste, Ph; Ndobo-Epoy, Ph

    2004-09-01

    In this study, the authors measure the efficacy of the African odonto-stomatologic research in the International Assocation for Dental Research (I.A.D.R.) and value the impact of the international cooperation upon that research. This evaluation is realized from the number of publications presented by the African countries at the congressess of I.A.D.R. The obtained results show: 1. The African odonto-stomatologic is the less successful in the world and produced, in 1997, 0.4% of the studies published on the world, 2. Some of the African countries are able to produce scientific results of International valour (South Africa, Egypt and Nigeria in a less degree). Generally, these countries work jointly with anglo-saxon universities. 3. During these last two years, Cameroon obtained very encouraging results thanks to his collaboration with the University of Bordeaux 2 (France), represented by the regretted Professeur Ph. NDOBO-EPOY. PMID:15900824

  20. Cooperation Among Research Libraries: The Committee on Institutional Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a background on the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC) partnership with the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and notes its achievements. Discusses the CIC Center for Library Initiatives; leveraging investments in libraries; maximizing use of information resources; improving delivery of information/library services; the…

  1. Cooperation, Trust, and Antagonism: How Public Goods Are Promoted.

    PubMed

    Parks, Craig D; Joireman, Jeff; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2013-12-01

    One of the most continually vexing problems in society is the variability with which citizens support endeavors that are designed to help a great number of people. In this article, we examine the twin roles of cooperative and antagonistic behavior in this variability. We find that each plays an important role, though their contributions are, understandably, at odds. It is this opposition that produces seeming unpredictability in citizen response to collective need. In fact, we suggest that careful consideration of the research allows one to often predict when efforts to provide a collectively beneficial good will succeed and when they will fail. To understand the dynamics of participation in response to collective need, it is necessary to distinguish between the primary types of need situations. A public good is an entity that relies in whole or in part on contributions to be provided. Examples of public goods are charities and public broadcasting. Public goods require that citizens experience a short-term loss (of their contribution) in order to realize a long-term gain (of the good). However, because everyone can use the good once it is provided, there is also an incentive to not contribute, let others give, and then take advantage of their efforts. This state of affairs introduces a conflict between doing what is best for oneself and what is best for the group. In a public goods situation, cooperation and antagonism impact how one resolves this conflict. The other major type of need situation is a common-pool resource problem. Here, a good is fully provided at the outset, and citizens may sample from it. The resource is usually, but not necessarily, partially replenished. Examples of replenished resources are drinking water and trees; examples of resources that are functionally not replenished are oil and minerals. Common-pool resources allow citizens to experience a short-term gain (by getting what they want in the early life of the resource) but also present

  2. 76 FR 58539 - Notice Pursuant to The National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on July 7, 2011 (76 FR 39901). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil...--Cooperative Research Group on Development and Validation of FlawPRO for Assessing Defect Tolerance of Welded.... (``the Act''), Southwest Research Institute--Cooperative Research Group on Development and Validation...

  3. 76 FR 63659 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... methodology that allows P3 to identify fluids that improve LSPI performance. Membership in this group research... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative Research Group on Pre-Ignition Prevention Program Notice is hereby given that, on September...

  4. Promoting research in rock deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Steve

    In response to informal discussions at the 1988 AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore, Md., a dinner colloquium was held December 5, 1988, in San Francisco. Our purpose was to explore ways of promoting basic research in rock deformation, for which no professional organization exists that spans the full range of research interests. In spite of an informal distribution of announcements of the meeting, 54 people attended.Rock deformation is the materials science of the crystalline and amorphous materials that make up the solid Earth. As such, it includes not only the physical processes responsible for brittle and ductile deformation but also the important chemical processes that influence time-dependent inelastic deformation. Consequently, there is a continuing need to engage interest and collaboration from materials scientists, mineral physicists, metallurgists, surface chemists, and geochemists in the study of the inelastic mechanical behavior of these complex materials.

  5. Training Preschool Staff To Promote Cooperative Participation among Young Children with Severe Disabilities and Their Classmates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepis, Maureen M.; Reid, Dennis H.; Ownbey, Jean; Clary, Jamie

    2003-01-01

    A study evaluated a program for training two preschool educators to promote cooperative participation between preschoolers with and without disabilities. The training program consisted of viewing examples of how to promote and praise cooperative participation, along with specific instructions and on-the-job feedback. Instruction resulted in…

  6. Feedback reciprocity mechanism promotes the cooperation of highly clustered scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Zhihai; Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2010-10-01

    We study how the clustering coefficient influences the evolution of cooperation in scale-free public goods games. In games played by groups of individuals, triangle loops provide stronger support for mutual cooperation to resist invasion of selfish behavior than that in the absence of such loops, so that diffusion of cooperative behavior is relatively promoted. The feedback reciprocity mechanism of triangle plays a key role in facilitating cooperation in high clustered networks.

  7. 76 FR 70759 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cooperative Research Group on Energy Storage System Evaluation and Safety Notice is hereby given that, on October 6, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of...

  8. 75 FR 14191 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Cooperative Research Group On: Diesel After Treatment Accelerated Aging Cycles--Heavy Duty Notice is hereby given that, on February 23, 2010, pursuant...

  9. Evaluation of the NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers: Descriptive and Correlative Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Engineering.

    This report presents results of a survey of participants in the National Science Foundation (NSF) Industry-University Cooperative Research Centers program. The program promotes more rapid technological innovation by creating linkages between industry and university scientists. The Centers function as university research groups, with partial…

  10. 77 FR 26583 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Evaluation of Distributed Leak Detection Systems--Performance Testing Notice is... Research Group on Evaluation of Distributed Leak Detection Systems--Performance Testing (``LDS-PT'')...

  11. 77 FR 23754 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--3D PDF... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), 3D PDF Consortium, Inc... Specifications among members and non- members, as well as create basic marketing promotional collateral...

  12. Conditional imitation might promote cooperation under high temptations to defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Qionglin; Li, Haihong; Cheng, Hongyan; Qian, Xiaolan; Zhang, Mei; Yang, Junzhong

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we introduce a conditional imitation rule into an evolutionary game, in which the imitation probabilities of individuals are determined by a function of payoff difference and two crucial parameters μ and σ. The parameter μ characterizes the most adequate goal for individuals and the parameter σ characterizes the tolerance of individuals. By using the pair approximation method and numerical simulations, we find an anomalous cooperation enhancement in which the cooperation level shows a nonmonotonic variation with the increase of temptation. The parameter μ affects the regime of the payoff parameter which supports the anomalous cooperation enhancement, whereas the parameter σ plays a decisive role on the appearance of the nonmonotonic variation of the cooperation level. Furthermore, to give explicit implications for the parameters μ and σ we present an alterative form of the conditional imitation rule based on the benefit and the cost incurred to individuals during strategy updates. In this way, we also provide a phenomenological interpretation for the nonmonotonic behavior of cooperation with the increase of temptation. The results give a clue that a higher cooperation level could be obtained under adverse environments for cooperation by applying the conditional imitation rule, which is possible to be manipulated in real life. More generally, the results in this work might point out an efficient way to maintain cooperation in the risky environments to cooperators.

  13. The shadow of the future promotes cooperation in a repeated prisoner's dilemma for children.

    PubMed

    Blake, Peter R; Rand, David G; Tingley, Dustin; Warneken, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation among genetically unrelated individuals can be supported by direct reciprocity. Theoretical models and experiments with adults show that the possibility of future interactions with the same partner can promote cooperation via conditionally cooperative strategies such as tit-for-tat (TFT). Here, we introduce a novel implementation of the repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) designed for children to examine whether repeated interactions can successfully promote cooperation in 10 and 11 year olds. We find that children cooperate substantially more in repeated PDs than in one-shot PDs. We also find that girls cooperate more than boys, and that children with more conduct problems cooperate less. Finally, we find that children use conditional cooperation strategies but that these strategies vary by gender and conduct problem rating. Specifically, girls and children with few conduct problems appear to follow an altruistic version of win-stay, lose-shift (WSLS), attempting to re-establish cooperation after they had defected. Boys and children with more conduct problems appear to follow a Grim strategy, defecting for the duration after the partner defects. Thus we provide evidence that children utilize the power of direct reciprocity to promote cooperation in strategic interactions and that, by late elementary school, distinct strategies of conditional cooperation have emerged. PMID:26417661

  14. The shadow of the future promotes cooperation in a repeated prisoner’s dilemma for children

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Peter R.; Rand, David G.; Tingley, Dustin; Warneken, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation among genetically unrelated individuals can be supported by direct reciprocity. Theoretical models and experiments with adults show that the possibility of future interactions with the same partner can promote cooperation via conditionally cooperative strategies such as tit-for-tat (TFT). Here, we introduce a novel implementation of the repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) designed for children to examine whether repeated interactions can successfully promote cooperation in 10 and 11 year olds. We find that children cooperate substantially more in repeated PDs than in one-shot PDs. We also find that girls cooperate more than boys, and that children with more conduct problems cooperate less. Finally, we find that children use conditional cooperation strategies but that these strategies vary by gender and conduct problem rating. Specifically, girls and children with few conduct problems appear to follow an altruistic version of win-stay, lose-shift (WSLS), attempting to re-establish cooperation after they had defected. Boys and children with more conduct problems appear to follow a Grim strategy, defecting for the duration after the partner defects. Thus we provide evidence that children utilize the power of direct reciprocity to promote cooperation in strategic interactions and that, by late elementary school, distinct strategies of conditional cooperation have emerged. PMID:26417661

  15. Shape matters: Lifecycle of cooperative patches promotes cooperation in bulky populations

    PubMed Central

    Misevic, Dusan; Frénoy, Antoine; Lindner, Ariel B; Taddei, François

    2015-01-01

    Natural cooperative systems take many forms, ranging from one-dimensional cyanobacteria arrays to fractal-like biofilms. We use in silico experimental systems to study a previously overlooked factor in the evolution of cooperation, physical shape of the population. We compare the emergence and maintenance of cooperation in populations of digital organisms that inhabit bulky (100 × 100 cells) or slender (4 × 2500) toroidal grids. Although more isolated subpopulations of secretors in a slender population could be expected to favor cooperation, we find the opposite: secretion evolves to higher levels in bulky populations. We identify the mechanistic explanation for the shape effect by analyzing the lifecycle and dynamics of cooperator patches, from their emergence and growth, to invasion by noncooperators and extinction. Because they are constrained by the population shape, the cooperator patches expand less in slender than in bulky populations, leading to fewer cooperators, less public good secretion, and generally lower cooperation. The patch dynamics and mechanisms of shape effect are robust across several digital cooperation systems and independent of the underlying basis for cooperation (public good secretion or a cooperation game). Our results urge for a greater consideration of population shape in the study of the evolution of cooperation across experimental and modeling systems. PMID:25639379

  16. Shape matters: lifecycle of cooperative patches promotes cooperation in bulky populations.

    PubMed

    Misevic, Dusan; Frénoy, Antoine; Lindner, Ariel B; Taddei, François

    2015-03-01

    Natural cooperative systems take many forms, ranging from one-dimensional cyanobacteria arrays to fractal-like biofilms. We use in silico experimental systems to study a previously overlooked factor in the evolution of cooperation, physical shape of the population. We compare the emergence and maintenance of cooperation in populations of digital organisms that inhabit bulky (100 × 100 cells) or slender (4 × 2500) toroidal grids. Although more isolated subpopulations of secretors in a slender population could be expected to favor cooperation, we find the opposite: secretion evolves to higher levels in bulky populations. We identify the mechanistic explanation for the shape effect by analyzing the lifecycle and dynamics of cooperator patches, from their emergence and growth, to invasion by noncooperators and extinction. Because they are constrained by the population shape, the cooperator patches expand less in slender than in bulky populations, leading to fewer cooperators, less public good secretion, and generally lower cooperation. The patch dynamics and mechanisms of shape effect are robust across several digital cooperation systems and independent of the underlying basis for cooperation (public good secretion or a cooperation game). Our results urge for a greater consideration of population shape in the study of the evolution of cooperation across experimental and modeling systems. PMID:25639379

  17. Distinguishing the opponents promotes cooperation in well-mixed populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardil, Lucas; da Silva, Jafferson K. L.

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation has been widely studied when an individual strategy is adopted against all coplayers. In this context, some extra mechanisms, such as punishment, reward, memory, and network reciprocity must be introduced in order to keep cooperators alive. Here, we adopt a different point of view. We study the adoption of different strategies against different opponents instead of adoption of the same strategy against all of them. In the context of the prisoner dilemma, we consider an evolutionary process in which strategies that provide more benefits are imitated and the players replace the strategy used in one of the interactions furnishing the worst payoff. Individuals are set in a well-mixed population, so that network reciprocity effect is excluded and both synchronous and asynchronous updates are analyzed. As a consequence of the replacement rule, we show that mutual cooperation is never destroyed and the initial fraction of mutual cooperation is a lower bound for the level of cooperation. We show by simulation and mean-field analysis that (i) cooperation dominates for synchronous update and (ii) only the initial mutual cooperation is maintained for asynchronous update. As a side effect of the replacement rule, an “implicit punishment” mechanism comes up in a way that exploitations are always neutralized providing evolutionary stability for cooperation.

  18. Friendship-based partner switching promotes cooperation in heterogeneous populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Wu, Te; Li, Zhiwu; Wang, Long

    2016-02-01

    The forming of human social ties tends to be with similar individuals. This study concentrates on the emergence of cooperation among heterogeneous populations. A simple model is proposed by considering the impact of interplay between the evolution of strategies and that of social partnerships on cooperation dynamics. Whenever two individuals acquire the rewards by playing prisoner's dilemma game with each other, the friendship (friendship is quantified as the weight of a link) between the two individuals deepens. Individuals can switch off the social ties with the partners who are unfriendly and rewire to similar new ones. Under this partner switching mechanism, population structure is divided into several groups and cooperation can prevail. It is observed that the frequent tendency of partner switching can lead to the enhancement of cooperative behavior under the enormous temptation to defect. Moreover, the influence of discounting the relationship between different individuals is also investigated. Meanwhile, the cooperation prevails when the adjustment of friendships mainly depends on the incomes of selected individuals rather than that of their partners. Finally, it is found that too similar population fail to maximize the cooperation and there exists a moderate similarity that can optimize cooperation.

  19. Climate-mediated cooperation promotes niche expansion in burying beetles

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Syuan-Jyun; Rubenstein, Dustin R; Chen, Bo-Fei; Chan, Shih-Fan; Liu, Jian-Nan; Liu, Mark; Hwang, Wenbe; Yang, Ping-Shih; Shen, Sheng-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The ability to form cooperative societies may explain why humans and social insects have come to dominate the earth. Here we examine the ecological consequences of cooperation by quantifying the fitness of cooperative (large groups) and non-cooperative (small groups) phenotypes in burying beetles (Nicrophorus nepalensis) along an elevational and temperature gradient. We experimentally created large and small groups along the gradient and manipulated interspecific competition with flies by heating carcasses. We show that cooperative groups performed as thermal generalists with similarly high breeding success at all temperatures and elevations, whereas non-cooperative groups performed as thermal specialists with higher breeding success only at intermediate temperatures and elevations. Studying the ecological consequences of cooperation may not only help us to understand why so many species of social insects have conquered the earth, but also to determine how climate change will affect the success of these and other social species, including our own. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02440.001 PMID:24842999

  20. Memory does not necessarily promote cooperation in dilemma games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Zhigang; Li, Kenli; Deng, Xiaoheng; Li, Deng

    2014-02-01

    Evolutionary games can model dilemmas for which cooperation can exist in rational populations. According to intuition, memory of the history can help individuals to overcome the dilemma and increase cooperation. However, here we show that no such general predictions can be made for dilemma games with memory. Agents play repeated prisoner’s dilemma, snowdrift, or stag hunt games in well-mixed populations or on a lattice. We compare the cooperation ratio and fitness for systems with or without memory. An interesting result is that cooperation is demoted in snowdrift and stag hunt games with memory when cost-to-benefit ratio is low, while system fitness still increases with memory in the snowdrift game. To illustrate this interesting phenomenon, two further experiments were performed to study R, ST, and P reciprocity and investigate 16 agent strategies for one-step memory. The results show that memory plays different roles in different dilemma games.

  1. Summary of Research Report Cooperative Agreement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Several areas of work related to commercialization of technology developed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) are discussed in this report. The areas are: (1) perform a feasibility study to develop a software commercialization center is at ARC; (2) perform preliminary work for formation of joint development of sensor technology for telemedicine applications; (3) development of a discovery interview process and staff training to assist the commercialization of technology developed at Ames, specifically aimed at working with researchers; (4) develop partners to further develop and commercialize image compression technology developed at AMES; (5) assist efforts to commercialize a software technology which imparts the ability to establish relevance-based retrieval in the handling of large repositories of information; (6) explore the development of cryocooler technology using pulse tube refrigeration; (7) assess interest in commercialization of a new method of measuring skin friction drag on wind tunnel models using liquid crystal material; (8) attempt to incorporate emerging technologies in the infrastructure of natural hazards mitigation; and (9) forming a nonprofit organization, "The Bootstrap Alliance", whose mission is to promote the use of digital technologies for collaborative problem solving. The results of these initiatives are discussed.

  2. 3 CFR 13609 - Executive Order 13609 of May 1, 2012. Promoting International Regulatory Cooperation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) shall convene the Working Group as... International Regulatory Cooperation 13609 Order 13609 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13609 of May 1, 2012 EO 13609 Promoting International Regulatory Cooperation By the authority vested...

  3. 77 FR 15395 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle Ford Formation and... Mechanical Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle Ford Formation and Equivalent Boquillas Formation... planned activity is to understand mechanical stratigraphy and natural deformation in Eagle Ford...

  4. Heterogeneous Coupling between Interdependent Lattices Promotes the Cooperation in the Prisoner’s Dilemma Game

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meng, Xiao-Kun; Wang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    In the research realm of game theory, interdependent networks have extended the content of spatial reciprocity, which needs the suitable coupling between networks. However, thus far, the vast majority of existing works just assume that the coupling strength between networks is symmetric. This hypothesis, to some extent, seems inconsistent with the ubiquitous observation of heterogeneity. Here, we study how the heterogeneous coupling strength, which characterizes the interdependency of utility between corresponding players of both networks, affects the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner’s dilemma game with two types of coupling schemes (symmetric and asymmetric ones). Compared with the traditional case, we show that heterogeneous coupling greatly promotes the collective cooperation. The symmetric scheme seems much better than the asymmetric case. Moreover, the role of varying amplitude of coupling strength is also studied on these two interdependent ways. Current findings are helpful for us to understand the evolution of cooperation within many real-world systems, in particular for the interconnected and interrelated systems. PMID:26102082

  5. Expectation-driven migration promotes cooperation by group interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

    2012-06-01

    “Voting with feet” describes the prominent social phenomenon that people tend to move away from deteriorating neighborhoods and search for and join prosperous groups. To quantify the role this kind of expectation-driven migration plays in the evolution of cooperation, here we study a simple yet effective model of cooperation based on spatial public goods games. The population structure is characterized by a square lattice with some nodes being left empty. Individuals have expectations toward their current habitats. Dissatisfied players, whose expectation is not met after interacting with all directly connected neighbors, tend to abstain from the groups of low quality by moving away and explore the physical niches of avail. How fast interaction happens relatively to selection is regulated by the time-scale ratio of game interaction to natural selection. Under strong selection, simulation results show that cooperation is greatly improved for either low, moderate, or high expectations compared to whenever the expectation-driven migration is absent. Further explorations reveal that neither too high nor too low but rather a combination of moderate expectations and rapid interaction establishes cooperation for a moderate public goods enhancement factor. There exists an optimal interval of expectation level most favoring the evolution of cooperation as the required time-scale ratio is minimized.

  6. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report is a coordinated effort of the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science. The topics concerning coal liquefaction discussed are: sulfate promoted metal oxides as direct coal liquefaction catalysts; low temperature depolymerization and liquefaction of premium R.S. coal samples; construction of continuous flow-through gas reactor for liquefaction investigations; generic structural characterization and liquefaction research; macerals, model compounds and iron catalyst dispersion; coal structure/liquefaction yield correlation by means of advanced NMR techniques; GC/MS of model compound mixtures; catalytic cracking, hydrogenation and liquefaction of coals under milder conditions; ENDOR investigations of coal liquefaction under mild conditions; catalytic dehydrogenation of model compounds in relation to direct coal liquefaction; surface characterization of catalyst added coal samples; computational chemistry of model compounds and molecular fragments of relevance to coal liquefaction; chemical characterization and hydrogenation reactions of single coal particles; thermolytic cleavage of selected coal-related linkages at mild temperatures; solvent sorption and FTIR studies on the effect of catalytic depolymerization reactions in coal; bioprocessing of coal; chemical routes to breaking bonds; novel liquefaction concepts cyclic olefins: novel new donors for coal liquefaction; better hydrogen transfer in coal liquefaction; catalytic hydropyrolysis and energized extraction of coals; gallium catalyst in mild coal liquefaction; potential of temperature microscope in coal liquefaction; evaluation of nitride catalysts for hydrotreatment and coal liquefaction; coprocessing and coal liquefaction with novel catalysts.

  7. When Triple Helix Unravels: A Multi-Case Analysis of Failures in Industry-University Cooperative Research Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Denis; Sundstrom, Eric; Tornatzky, Louis G.; McGowen, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative research centres (CRCs) increasingly foster Triple Helix (industry-university-government) collaboration and represent significant vehicles for cooperation across sectors, the promotion of knowledge and technology transfer and ultimately the acceleration of innovation. A growing social science literature on CRCs focuses on their…

  8. Implementing a Research-Based Model of Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The author used qualitative research methods to explore an 8th-grade mathematics teacher's personal definition of cooperative learning and the enactment of cooperative learning in his classroom according to that definition. Data collection involved interviews and classroom observations. The author used coding schemes and descriptive statistics for…

  9. Diversity of contribution promotes cooperation in public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jia; Li, Zhi; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

    2010-08-01

    In most previous studies of public goods game, individuals conventionally donate their contributions equally to the games they participate in. We develop an extended public goods game model, in which individuals distribute their contributions based on the groups’ qualities. Namely, the individuals are allowed to increase their investment to the superior groups at the expense of the nasty ones. The quality of a group is positively correlated with its cooperation level. In numerical simulations, synchronized stochastic strategy updating rule based on pairwise comparison for a fixed noise level is adopted. The results show that the high-quality group preference mechanism can greatly improve cooperation, compared with conventional models. Besides, the system with stronger preference toward high-quality groups performs better. Investigation of wealth distribution at equilibrium reveals that cooperators’ wealth appreciates with the increase of preference degree when cooperators take up the same fraction of the population.

  10. CEMA cooperation in microelectronics research, production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-03-01

    The assignments resulting from an agreement concerning multilateral specialization and cooperation among European socialist countries in the development and production of microelectronic components for computer technology are enumerated. Several areas which impact directly on the manufacture of large scale and very large scale integrated components are identified.

  11. Scarcity may promote cooperation in populations of simple agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requejo, R. J.; Camacho, J.

    2013-02-01

    In the study of the evolution of cooperation, resource limitations are usually assumed just to provide a finite population size. Recently, however, it has been pointed out that resource limitation may also generate dynamical payoffs able to modify the original structure of the games. Here we study analytically a phase transition from a homogeneous population of defectors when resources are abundant to the survival of unconditional cooperators when resources reduce below a threshold. To this end, we introduce a model of simple agents, with no memory or ability of recognition, interacting in well-mixed populations. The result might shed light on the role played by resource constraints on the origin of multicellularity.

  12. First carrot, then stick: how the adaptive hybridization of incentives promotes cooperation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojie; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Brännström, Åke; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Social institutions often use rewards and penalties to promote cooperation. Providing incentives tends to be costly, so it is important to find effective and efficient policies for the combined use of rewards and penalties. Most studies of cooperation, however, have addressed rewarding and punishing in isolation and have focused on peer-to-peer sanctioning as opposed to institutional sanctioning. Here, we demonstrate that an institutional sanctioning policy we call 'first carrot, then stick' is unexpectedly successful in promoting cooperation. The policy switches the incentive from rewarding to punishing when the frequency of cooperators exceeds a threshold. We find that this policy establishes and recovers full cooperation at lower cost and under a wider range of conditions than either rewards or penalties alone, in both well-mixed and spatial populations. In particular, the spatial dynamics of cooperation make it evident how punishment acts as a 'booster stage' that capitalizes on and amplifies the pro-social effects of rewarding. Together, our results show that the adaptive hybridization of incentives offers the 'best of both worlds' by combining the effectiveness of rewarding in establishing cooperation with the effectiveness of punishing in recovering it, thereby providing a surprisingly inexpensive and widely applicable method of promoting cooperation. PMID:25551138

  13. Punishment does not promote cooperation under exploration dynamics when anti-social punishment is possible.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Oliver P; Nowak, Martin A; Rand, David G

    2014-11-01

    It has been argued that punishment promotes the evolution of cooperation when mutation rates are high (i.e. when agents engage in 'exploration dynamics'). Mutations maintain a steady supply of agents that punish free-riders, and thus free-riders are at a disadvantage. Recent experiments, however, have demonstrated that free-riders sometimes also pay to punish cooperators. Inspired by these empirical results, theoretical work has explored evolutionary dynamics where mutants are rare, and found that punishment does not promote the evolution of cooperation when this 'anti-social punishment' is allowed. Here we extend previous theory by studying the effect of anti-social punishment on the evolution of cooperation across higher mutation rates, and by studying voluntary as well as compulsory Public Goods Games. We find that for intermediate and high mutation rates, adding punishment does not promote cooperation in either compulsory or voluntary public goods games if anti-social punishment is possible. This is because mutations generate agents that punish cooperators just as frequently as agents that punish defectors, and these two effects cancel each other out. These results raise questions about the effectiveness of punishment for promoting cooperation when mutations are common, and highlight how decisions about which strategies to include in the strategy set can have profound effects on the resulting dynamics. PMID:25014473

  14. Promoting Interdisciplinary Research among Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Elena; Zhao, Weinan; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    With the growing recognition of the importance of interdisciplinary research, many faculty have increased their efforts to form interdisciplinary research teams. Oftentimes, attempts to put together such teams are hampered because faculty have a limited picture of the research interests and expertise of their colleagues. This paper reports on…

  15. Heritability promotes cooperation in spatial public goods games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Run-Ran; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2010-12-01

    Heritability is ubiquitous within most real biological or social systems. A heritable trait is most simply an offspring’s trait that resembles the parent’s corresponding trait, which can be fitness, strategy, or the way of strategy adoption for evolutionary games. Here we study the effects of heritability on the evolution of spatial public goods games. In our model, the fitness of players is determined by the payoffs from the current interactions and their history. Based on extensive simulations, we find that the density of cooperators is enhanced by increasing the heritability of players over a wide range of the multiplication factor. We attribute the enhancement of cooperation to the inherited fitness that stabilizes the fitness of players, and thus prevents the expansion of defectors effectively.

  16. 76 FR 78290 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Register (73 FR 3316). Cooperative Research and Development Agreements Cooperative Research and Development... SECURITY Coast Guard Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Usage of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Within... technology enhancements, performance, costs, and other issues associated with using biodiesel fuel blends...

  17. Population heterogeneity promotes a preference for blind cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Escudero, Alfonso; Friedman, Jonathan; Gore, Jeff

    Game theory--and common sense--recommend to carefully weigh costs and benefits before deciding on a course of action. Yet we often disapprove of people who do so, even when their actual decision benefits us. For example, we prefer people who directly agree to do us a favor over those who agree only after securing enough information to ensure that the favor will not be too costly. Why should we care about how people make their decisions, rather than just focus on the decisions themselves? Hoffman et al. (2015) have shown that such aversion to information gathering may be beneficial when it is strong enough to increase the level of cooperation. Here we show that the same type of aversion arises in heterogeneous populations, but for a different reason: individuals who seek additional information may reveal themselves to be undesirable partners, since they are less likely to cooperate in the future when conditions change. Aversion to information gathering thus facilitates preferential interactions with blind cooperators, who are more favorable partners. Due to this new mechanism the prevalence of such aversion rapidly increases with population diversity, because partner discrimination is more useful in populations which harbor partners of a more varied quality. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the Paul G. Allen Family Foundation, EMBO and Human Frontier Science Program.

  18. The role of institutional incentives and the exemplar in promoting cooperation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Jia; Li, Cong; Zhang, Bo-Yu; Cressman, Ross; Tao, Yi

    2014-01-01

    People on average do not play their individually rational Nash equilibrium (NE) strategy in game experiments based on the public goods game (PGG) that model social dilemmas. Differences from NE behavior have also been observed in PGG experiments that include incentives to cooperate, especially when these are peer-incentives administered by the players themselves. In our repeated PGG experiment, an institution rewards and punishes individuals based on their contributions. The primary experimental result is that institutions which both reward and punish (IRP) promote cooperation significantly better than either institutions which only punish (IP) or which only reward (IR), and that IP has contribution levels significantly above IR. Although comparing their single-round NE strategies correctly predicts which incentives are best at promoting cooperation, individuals do not play these strategies overall. Our analysis shows that other intrinsic motivations that combine conforming behavior with reactions to being rewarded/punished provide a better explanation of observed outcomes. In our experiments, some individuals who display more cooperation than other individuals can be regarded as the exemplars (or leaders). The role of these exemplars in promoting cooperation provides important insights into understanding cooperation in PGG and the effectiveness of institutional incentives at promoting desirable societal behavior. PMID:25242265

  19. Learning Microbiology through Cooperation: Designing Cooperative Learning Activities That Promote Interdependence, Interaction, and Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trempy, Janine E.; Skinner, Monica M.; Siebold, William A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the course "The World According to Microbes" which puts science, mathematics, engineering, and technology majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. Describes the development of learning activities that utilize key components of cooperative learning including positive…

  20. Promotion of cooperation in social dilemma games via generalised indirect reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiong, Raymond; Kirley, Michael

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a novel generalised indirect reciprocity approach for promoting cooperation in social dilemma games. Here, players decide upon an action to play in the game based on public information (or "external cues") rather than individual-specific information. The public information is constantly updated according to the underlying learning model. Comprehensive simulation experiments using the N-player Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) and Snowdrift (SD) games show that generalised indirect reciprocity promotes high levels of cooperation across a wide range of conditions. This is despite the fact that the make-up of player groups is continually changing. As expected, the extent of cooperative behaviour observed in the "constraint-relaxed" N-player SD game is significantly higher than the N-player PD game. Our proposed generalised indirect reciprocity model may shed light on the conundrum of cooperation between anonymous individuals.

  1. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Research continues on coal liquefaction in the following areas: (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  2. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  3. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  8. 77 FR 40085 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-FDI Cooperation LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--FDI Cooperation LLC Notice is hereby given that, on June 6, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  9. 78 FR 40746 - Urban Indian Education and Research Organization Cooperative Agreement Program; Office of Urban...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Urban Indian Education and Research Organization Cooperative... Statutory Authority The Indian Health Service (IHS) is accepting competitive cooperative agreement applications for the Urban Indian Education and Research Organization Cooperative Agreement Program...

  10. Collective punishment is more effective than collective reward for promoting cooperation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Zhen; Pansini, Riccardo; Li, Yao-Tang; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Collective punishment and reward are usually regarded as two potential mechanisms to explain the evolution of cooperation. Both scenarios, however, seem problematic to understand cooperative behavior, because they can raise the second-order free-rider problem and many organisms are not able to discriminate less cooperating individuals. Even though they have been proved to increase cooperation, there has been a debate about which one being more effective. To address this issue, we resort to the N-player evolutionary snowdrift game (NESG), where a collective punishment/reward mechanism is added by allowing some players to display punishment/reward towards all remaining players. By means of numerous simulations and analyses, we find that collective punishment is more effective in promoting cooperation for a relatively high initial frequency of cooperation or for a relatively small group. When the intensity of punishment exceeds a certain threshold, a stable state of full cooperation emerges for both small and large groups. In contrast, such state does not appear for large groups playing a NESG with reward mechanism. In the case of mutualistic interactions, finally, our results show the new payoff with collective punishment/reward can lead to the coexistence of cooperators and defectors when discrimination between these two is not possible. PMID:26634907

  11. Collective punishment is more effective than collective reward for promoting cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Zhen; Pansini, Riccardo; Li, Yao-Tang; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Collective punishment and reward are usually regarded as two potential mechanisms to explain the evolution of cooperation. Both scenarios, however, seem problematic to understand cooperative behavior, because they can raise the second-order free-rider problem and many organisms are not able to discriminate less cooperating individuals. Even though they have been proved to increase cooperation, there has been a debate about which one being more effective. To address this issue, we resort to the N-player evolutionary snowdrift game (NESG), where a collective punishment/reward mechanism is added by allowing some players to display punishment/reward towards all remaining players. By means of numerous simulations and analyses, we find that collective punishment is more effective in promoting cooperation for a relatively high initial frequency of cooperation or for a relatively small group. When the intensity of punishment exceeds a certain threshold, a stable state of full cooperation emerges for both small and large groups. In contrast, such state does not appear for large groups playing a NESG with reward mechanism. In the case of mutualistic interactions, finally, our results show the new payoff with collective punishment/reward can lead to the coexistence of cooperators and defectors when discrimination between these two is not possible. PMID:26634907

  12. Collective punishment is more effective than collective reward for promoting cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Zhen; Pansini, Riccardo; Li, Yao-Tang; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2015-12-01

    Collective punishment and reward are usually regarded as two potential mechanisms to explain the evolution of cooperation. Both scenarios, however, seem problematic to understand cooperative behavior, because they can raise the second-order free-rider problem and many organisms are not able to discriminate less cooperating individuals. Even though they have been proved to increase cooperation, there has been a debate about which one being more effective. To address this issue, we resort to the N-player evolutionary snowdrift game (NESG), where a collective punishment/reward mechanism is added by allowing some players to display punishment/reward towards all remaining players. By means of numerous simulations and analyses, we find that collective punishment is more effective in promoting cooperation for a relatively high initial frequency of cooperation or for a relatively small group. When the intensity of punishment exceeds a certain threshold, a stable state of full cooperation emerges for both small and large groups. In contrast, such state does not appear for large groups playing a NESG with reward mechanism. In the case of mutualistic interactions, finally, our results show the new payoff with collective punishment/reward can lead to the coexistence of cooperators and defectors when discrimination between these two is not possible.

  13. Heterogeneous networks do not promote cooperation when humans play a Prisoner’s Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Tarancón, Alfonso; Cuesta, José A.; Sánchez, Angel; Moreno, Yamir

    2012-01-01

    It is not fully understood why we cooperate with strangers on a daily basis. In an increasingly global world, where interaction networks and relationships between individuals are becoming more complex, different hypotheses have been put forward to explain the foundations of human cooperation on a large scale and to account for the true motivations that are behind this phenomenon. In this context, population structure has been suggested to foster cooperation in social dilemmas, but theoretical studies of this mechanism have yielded contradictory results so far; additionally, the issue lacks a proper experimental test in large systems. We have performed the largest experiments to date with humans playing a spatial Prisoner’s Dilemma on a lattice and a scale-free network (1,229 subjects). We observed that the level of cooperation reached in both networks is the same, comparable with the level of cooperation of smaller networks or unstructured populations. We have also found that subjects respond to the cooperation that they observe in a reciprocal manner, being more likely to cooperate if, in the previous round, many of their neighbors and themselves did so, which implies that humans do not consider neighbors’ payoffs when making their decisions in this dilemma but only their actions. Our results, which are in agreement with recent theoretical predictions based on this behavioral rule, suggest that population structure has little relevance as a cooperation promoter or inhibitor among humans. PMID:22773811

  14. 77 FR 31040 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... the Act on March 15, 2012 (77 FR 15395). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust...--Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle Ford Formation and... Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle Ford Formation and Equivalent Boquillas Formation,...

  15. 77 FR 36292 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Particle Sensor Performance and Durability Notice is hereby given that, on May... Particle Sensor Performance and Durability (``PSPD'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with... the performance and durability of various particle sensor technologies on a diesel engine...

  16. 75 FR 62569 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on April 2, 2009 (74 FR 15003). The last notification was filed with...(b) of the Act on May 6, 2010 (75 FR 24972). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations...--Cooperative Research Group on High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given that,...

  17. 75 FR 4423 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... 2, 2009 (74 FR 15003). The last notification was filed with the Department on November 9, 2009. A... FR 66995). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE 4410-11...--Cooperative Research Group on High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given that,...

  18. 76 FR 9811 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... the Act on April 2, 2009 (74 FR 15003) The last notification was filed with the Department on November... 17, 2010 (75 FR 79024) Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING...--Cooperative Research Group on High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given that,...

  19. 75 FR 14192 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... 2, 2009 (74 FR 15003). The last notification was filed with the Department of Justice on December 10..., 2010 (75 FR 4423). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE...--Cooperative Research Group on High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given that,...

  20. 75 FR 79024 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... the Act on April 2, 2009 (74 FR 15003). The last notification was filed with the Department on... October 12, 2010 (75 FR 62569). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division...--Cooperative Research Group on High-Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine II Notice is hereby given, on November...

  1. 77 FR 73676 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on July 7, 2011 (76 FR 39901). The last... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on September 21, 2011 (76 FR 58539). Patricia A. Brink, Director of...; Cooperative Research Group on Development and Validation of Flawpro for Assessing Defect Tolerance of...

  2. 76 FR 66325 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Act on July 7, 2011 (76 FR 39901). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust...--Cooperative Research Group on Development of a Predictive Model for Corrosion-Fatigue of Materials in Sour Environment Notice is hereby given that, on September 26, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the...

  3. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and...

  4. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and...

  5. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and...

  6. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval...

  7. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval...

  8. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval...

  9. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and...

  10. Promoting the Priorities of Practitioner Research Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Hazel

    2010-01-01

    One of the aims of the Library and Information Science Research Coalition is to promote library and information science practitioner research. Successfully meeting this aim should result in greater use of the existing knowledge base and the creation of new knowledge on Library and Information Science (LIS) practice. LIS practitioner engagement in…

  11. Promoting research integrity in the geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Tony

    2015-04-01

    Conducting research in a responsible manner in compliance with codes of research integrity is essential. The geosciences, as with all other areas of research endeavour, has its fair share of misconduct cases and causes celebres. As research becomes more global, more collaborative and more cross-disciplinary, the need for all concerned to work to the same high standards becomes imperative. Modern technology makes it far easier to 'cut and paste', to use Photoshop to manipulate imagery to falsify results at the same time as making research easier and more meaningful. So we need to promote the highest standards of research integrity and the responsible conduct of research. While ultimately, responsibility for misconduct rests with the individual, institutions and the academic research system have to take steps to alleviate the pressure on researchers and promote good practice through training programmes and mentoring. The role of the World Conferences on Research Integrity in promoting the importance of research integrity and statements about good practice will be presented and the need for training and mentoring programmes will be discussed

  12. Diverse strategy-learning styles promote cooperation in evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Run-Ran; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Rong, Zhihai

    2015-11-01

    Observational learning and practice learning are two important learning styles and play important roles in our information acquisition. In this paper, we study a spacial evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game, where players can choose the observational learning rule or the practice learning rule when updating their strategies. In the proposed model, we use a parameter p controlling the preference of players choosing the observational learning rule, and found that there exists an optimal value of p leading to the highest cooperation level, which indicates that the cooperation can be promoted by these two learning rules collaboratively and one single learning rule is not favor the promotion of cooperation. By analysing the dynamical behavior of the system, we find that the observational learning rule can make the players residing on cooperative clusters more easily realize the bad sequence of mutual defection. However, a too high observational learning probability suppresses the players to form compact cooperative clusters. Our results highlight the importance of a strategy-updating rule, more importantly, the observational learning rule in the evolutionary cooperation.

  13. Investment and Return in International Space Life Sciences Research Cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPhee, Jancy C.; White, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    Today, a worldwide community of life scientists interested in space research is attempting to improve the understanding of general biological processes, aid the development of procedures to reduce the biomedically-related risks of space flight, and/or directly support the health care of people who fly in space. Unfortunately, limited resource and subject availability and the technical challenges of performing space experiments have all hampered the full growth and development of space life sciences research. For many years, international cooperation in this field has been considered an attractive approach towards overcoming some of these difficulties, since pooling resources and sharing results would enhance the knowledge of all cooperating partners. International cooperative activities, however, require an investment by each partner and, just as in many other endeavors, the research gain can be directly related to the investment made. In this paper, the authors will discuss three possible levels of cooperation: sharing of data from independent investigations, harmonious integration of pre-designed independent investigations, and de novo design of an integrated suite of investigations using a joint investigator team. The degree of investment and potential return for each level of cooperation will be described.

  14. The `MOON Mapping' Project to Promote Cooperation Between Students of Italy and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaioni, M.; Giommi, P.; Brunetti, M. T.; Carli, C.; Cerroni, P.; Cremonese, G.; Forlani, G.; Gamba, P.; Lavagna, M.; Melis, M. T.; Massironi, M.; Ori, G.; Salese, F.; Zinzi, A.; Xie, G.; Kang, Z.; Shi, R.; Sun, Y.; Wu, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The research project `Moon Mapping' has been established in 2014 between the Italian and Chinese Governments to promote cooperation and exchange between undergraduate students from both countries. The operational phase of the project started in early 2015, and will end in 2017, for a total length of three years. The main aim is to train new scholars to be able to work on different kinds of remotely-sensed data collected over the Moon surface by the Chinese space missions Chang'E-1/2. The project coordination has been assigned to the Italian Space Agency for the Italian side and to the Center of Space Exploration, China Ministry of Education, for the Chinese side. Several Chinese universities and Italian national research institutes and universities have been officially involved in this project. Six main research topics have been identified: (1) map of the solar wind ion; (2) geomorphological map of the Moon; (3) data preprocessing of Chang'E-1 mission; (4) map of element distribution; (5) establishment of 3D digital visualization system; and (6) compilation and publication of a tutorial on joint lunar mapping.

  15. Together and Equal: Fostering Cooperative Play and Promoting Gender Equity in Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlank, Carol Hilgartner; Metzger, Barbara

    Noting the need to promote gender equity and foster cooperative play between boys and girls in early childhood programs, this guide presents ways that teachers and parents of young children can help all children realize their potential, regardless of gender, and help children learn to work and play together. Chapter 1, "Teaching for Change,"…

  16. Aspiration promotes cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game with the imitation rule.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuesong; He, Mingfeng; Kang, Yibin; Pan, Qiuhui

    2016-07-01

    A model of stochastic evolutionary game dynamics with finite population of size N+M was built. Among these individuals, N individuals update strategies with aspiration updating, while the other M individuals update strategies with imitation updating. In the proposed model, we obtain the expression of the mean fraction of cooperators and analyze some concrete cases. Compared with the standard imitation dynamics, there is always a positive probability to support the formation of cooperation in the system with the aspiration and imitation rules. Moreover, the numerical results indicate that more aspiration-driven individuals lead to a higher mean fraction of imitation-driven cooperators, which means the invasion of the aspiration-driven individuals is conducive to promoting the cooperation of the imitation-driven individuals. PMID:27575094

  17. Aspiration promotes cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game with the imitation rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuesong; He, Mingfeng; Kang, Yibin; Pan, Qiuhui

    2016-07-01

    A model of stochastic evolutionary game dynamics with finite population of size N +M was built. Among these individuals, N individuals update strategies with aspiration updating, while the other M individuals update strategies with imitation updating. In the proposed model, we obtain the expression of the mean fraction of cooperators and analyze some concrete cases. Compared with the standard imitation dynamics, there is always a positive probability to support the formation of cooperation in the system with the aspiration and imitation rules. Moreover, the numerical results indicate that more aspiration-driven individuals lead to a higher mean fraction of imitation-driven cooperators, which means the invasion of the aspiration-driven individuals is conducive to promoting the cooperation of the imitation-driven individuals.

  18. Cooperative analysis expert situation assessment research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccown, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    For the past few decades, Rome Air Development Center (RADC) has been conducting research in Artificial Intelligence (AI). When the recent advances in hardware technology made many AI techniques practical, the Intelligence and Reconnaissance Directorate of RADC initiated an applications program entitled Knowledge Based Intelligence Systems (KBIS). The goal of the program is the development of a generic Intelligent Analyst System, an open machine with the framework for intelligence analysis, natural language processing, and man-machine interface techniques, needing only the specific problem domain knowledge to be operationally useful. The development of KBIS is described.

  19. Cooperative research in high energy astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Details of the activities conducted under the joint effort of the University of Maryland and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics are detailed for the period July 1989 through April 1994. The research covered a variety of topics including: (1) detection of cosmic rays and studies of the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays; (2) support work for several x-ray satellites; (3) high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy of celestial sources; (4)theoretical astrophysics; and (5) active galaxies.

  20. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer...

  1. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and...

  2. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and...

  3. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and...

  4. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and...

  5. 7 CFR 1207.335 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Research and Promotion § 1207.335 Research and promotion. The... administration of appropriate programs or projects for the advertising and promotion of potatoes and...

  6. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., sales promotion, and consumer education with respect to the use of eggs, egg products, spent fowl, and... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion §...

  7. 75 FR 38605 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... implementation of a national research agenda that includes: (1) Conducting research to develop climate change... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...-LU) established the Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...

  8. Developing Entrepreneurial and Technology Commercialization Policies to Promote Cooperative Ventures Between NIH and Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossomando, Edward F.

    2001-03-01

    The NIH has had a great influence in guiding the biological research agenda for the last half of the 20th century. This may change if the increases in research funding from the private sector that occurred in the last ten years continue into the 21st century. Ten years ago, industry supplied 55% of the US R&D funds. In 2000, industry support of R&D had increased to 76%, with industry carrying out 70% of the nations applied and 91% of its development research. Given this shift, one of the biggest challenges that NIH may face in coming years is sharing control of America's research agenda with industry. For this to occur policies that encourage cooperative ventures with industry are needed. In a unique experiment, I was invited to the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), one of the 25 NIH Institutes and Centers, to develop programs and policies that would promote interactions with industry. This talk will introduce the strategy and programs developed to commercialize products and technologies from basic science discoveries and introducing an entrepreneurial atmosphere within the Institute. The results of this experiment will be discussed by comparing differences between discovery-driven and customer-driven innovation. One outcome of this experience is a greater appreciation of the obstacles to introducing disruptive technologies into the market place and of the paradigms that serve as barriers to commercialization. One recommendation is that the NIDCR consider a policy that allows for some participation by industry in setting the research and training agenda of the Institute, and that a mechanism for industry input be introduced into its administrative organization.

  9. Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) Implementation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, John H.; Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Ball, Donald J.

    1998-01-01

    New technological advances have made possible new active remote sensing capabilities from space. Utilizing these technologies, the Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) will provide high spatial resolution measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols in the stratosphere and lower troposphere. Simultaneous measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols will assist in the understanding of global change, atmospheric chemistry and meteorology.

  10. Inter-Organizational Cooperation in a Competitive Research Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Lars G.

    Inter-organizational cooperation was investigated as one factor associated with the development of the University of New Mexico from an undergraduate teaching institution toward becoming a nationally-ranked graduate research university. A longitudinal, ethnohistorical study was undertaken for the 1967-1978 period. The qualitative research…

  11. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH IN C1 CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2001-04-30

    Faculty and students from five universities (Kentucky, West Virginia, Utah, Pittsburgh and Auburn) are collaborating on a basic research program to develop novel C1 chemistry processes for the production of clean, high quality transportation fuel. An Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) with members from Chevron, Eastman Chemical, Energy International, Teir Associates, and the Department of Defense has been formed to provide practical guidance to the program. The program has two principal objectives. (1) Develop technology for conversion of C1 source materials (natural gas, synthesis gas, carbon dioxide and monoxide, and methanol) into clean, high efficiency transportation fuel. (2) Develop novel processes for producing hydrogen from natural gas and other hydrocarbons. Some of the principal accomplishments of the program in its first two years are: (1) The addition of acetylenic compounds in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is found to produce significant amounts of oxygenated products in FT diesel fuels. Such oxygenated products should decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. (2) Nanoscale, binary, Fe-based catalysts supported on alumina have been shown to have significant activity for the decomposition of methane into pure hydrogen and potentially valuable multi-walled carbon nanotubes. (3) Catalytic synthesis processes have been developed for synthesis of diethyl carbonate, higher ethers, and higher alcohols from C1 source materials. Testing of the effect of adding these oxygenates to diesel fuel on PM emissions has begun using a well-equipped small diesel engine test facility. (4) Supercritical fluid (SCF) FT synthesis has been conducted under SCF hexane using both Fe and Co catalysts. There is a marked effect on the hydrocarbon product distribution, with a shift to higher carbon number products. These and other results are summarized.

  12. Multi-Vehicle Cooperative Control Research at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, 2000-2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt

    2014-01-01

    A brief introductory overview of multi-vehicle cooperative control research conducted at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center from 2000 - 2014. Both flight research projects and paper studies are included. Since 2000, AFRC has been almost continuously pursuing research in the areas of formation flight for drag reduction and automated cooperative trajectories. An overview of results is given, including flight experiments done on the FA-18 and with the C-17. Other multi-vehicle cooperative research is discussed, including small UAV swarming projects and automated aerial refueling.

  13. Fusing enacted and expected mimicry generates a winning strategy that promotes the evolution of cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Ilan; Frid, Alex; Goerg, Sebastian J.; Levin, Simon A.; Rubenstein, Daniel I.; Selten, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Although cooperation and trust are essential features for the development of prosperous populations, they also put cooperating individuals at risk for exploitation and abuse. Empirical and theoretical evidence suggests that the solution to the problem resides in the practice of mimicry and imitation, the expectation of opponent’s mimicry and the reliance on similarity indices. Here we fuse the principles of enacted and expected mimicry and condition their application on two similarity indices to produce a model of mimicry and relative similarity. Testing the model in computer simulations of behavioral niches, populated with agents that enact various strategies and learning algorithms, shows how mimicry and relative similarity outperforms all the opponent strategies it was tested against, pushes noncooperative opponents toward extinction, and promotes the development of cooperative populations. The proposed model sheds light on the evolution of cooperation and provides a blueprint for intentional induction of cooperation within and among populations. It is suggested that reducing conflict intensities among human populations necessitates (i) instigation of social initiatives that increase the perception of similarity among opponents and (ii) efficient lowering of the similarity threshold of the interaction, the minimal level of similarity that makes cooperation advisable. PMID:23733952

  14. Cooperative Research between NREL and Solar Junction Corp: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-306

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, D.

    2015-03-01

    NREL and Solar Junction Corp. will perform cooperative research on materials and devices that are alternatives to standard approaches with the goal of improving solar cell efficiency while lowering cost. The general purpose of this work is to model the performance of a multi-junction concentrator cell of Solar Junction, Inc. design under normal concentrator operating conditions.

  15. 77 FR 38709 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... project delivery while improving environmental outcomes; (2) Conducting research to develop climate change... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...-LU) established the Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...

  16. 76 FR 50312 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... research to develop climate change mitigation, adaptation and livability strategies; (2) Developing and/or... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...-LU) established the Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...

  17. 7 CFR 966.48 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Research and Development § 966.48 Research and promotion. The committee may, with the... research, marketing research and development projects, and marketing promotion including paid...

  18. Success-driven distribution of public goods promotes cooperation but preserves defection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perc, Matjaž

    2011-09-01

    Established already in Biblical times, the Matthew effect refers to the fact that in societies the rich tend to get richer and the potent even more powerful. Here we investigate a game theoretical model describing the evolution of cooperation on structured populations where the distribution of public goods is driven by the reproductive success of individuals. Phase diagrams reveal that cooperation is promoted irrespective of the uncertainty by strategy adoptions and the type of interaction graph, yet the complete dominance of cooperators is elusive due to the spontaneous emergence of superpersistent defectors that owe their survival to extremely rare microscopic patterns. This indicates that success-driven mechanisms are crucial for effectively harvesting benefits from collective actions but that they may also account for the observed persistence of maladaptive behavior.

  19. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own...

  20. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own...

  1. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own...

  2. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own...

  3. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own...

  4. Cooperative Research in High Energy Astrophysics between JHU and GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vishniac, Ethan

    2004-01-01

    This grant was awarded to establish and support cooperative research programs between the Center of Astrophysical Sciences (CAS) at the Johns Hopkins University and the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics (LHEA) at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The goals o f the program are to facilitate, encourage and initiate: (1) sharing of resources, knowledge and expertise in the general astrophysics, and relevant databases; (2) new collaborations and projects between the two institutions and its scientists, (3) training and mentoring of JHU students and junior researchers by way of connecting them with appropriate researchers and experts at the LHEA.

  5. How do leaders promote cooperation? The effects of charisma and procedural fairness.

    PubMed

    De Cremer, David; van Knippenberg, Daan

    2002-10-01

    The present research examined the effect of leaders' procedural fairness and perceived charisma on an important organizational process: cooperation. Both charisma and procedural fairness were predicted to have a positive effect on cooperation, and procedural fairness and charisma were predicted to interact such that their effects are stronger alone than in conjunction. Results from a scenario experiment, a cross-sectional survey, and a laboratory experiment supported these predictions. Results from the laboratory study also showed that the interactive effect of leader charisma and procedural fairness on cooperation was mediated by their interactive effect on the sense of group belongingness. It is concluded that leader charisma and procedural fairness may engender cooperation because they appeal to relational concerns. PMID:12395810

  6. The Antarctic Seismic Data Library System for Cooperative Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, J. R.; Wardell, N.; Cooper, A. K.; Brancolini, G.

    2001-12-01

    The Antarctic Seismic Data Library System for Cooperative Research (SDLS) was designed by members of the Antarctic geoscience community to facilitate open access to multichannel seismic reflection data, and to promote collaborative research based on these data. The SDLS was formally adopted in 1991 under the auspices of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and mandates of Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting Recommendation XVI-12. Since that time, library branches have been established in countries worldwide, and more than 50,000 km of digital seismic reflection profile data have been provided to the SDLS by data collectors in 10 countries. The library system is a dynamic library where data resides for use by all members of the research community in collaboration with data collectors. Data are available at the SDLS during the period between 4 and 8 years following data collection, after which they go to the World Data Center. The SDLS system protects intellectual property rights of data collectors and provides open access to data, as required by the Antarctic Treaty, to facilitate timely and multinational geoscience research products. This abstract outlines recommendations to update the data-access technology used by the SDLS, while retaining the basic tenets and guidelines upon which the library system was adopted and now operates. In the early 1990's when the SDLS was developed, the computer technologies were by today's standards primitive. We propose an updated SDLS design that incorporates a variety of new features and capabilities utilizing modern technology and current standards for the organization and dissemination of geospatial data. Some of the features of the proposed SDLS design include: ” The new SDLS will be principally Web-based, allowing on-line access to digital datasets. Security and access to data will be controlled according to the terms of the original SDLS agreement, either by limiting on-line access to sensitive data files

  7. Promote or hinder? The role of punishment in the emergence of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shiping; Wu, Te; Nie, Suli; Wang, Long

    2015-12-01

    Investigation of anti-social punishment has shaken the positive role of punishment in the evolution of cooperation. However, punishment is ubiquitous in nature, and the centralized, apposed to decentralized, punishment is more favored by certain modern societies in particular. To explore the underlying principle of such phenomenon, we study the evolution of cooperation in the context of pro- and anti-social punishments subject to two distinct patterns: costly centralized and decentralized punishments. The results suggest that the pattern of punishment has a great effect on the role of punishment in the evolution of cooperation. In the absence of anti-social punishment, the costly centralized punishment is more effective in promoting the emergence of cooperation. Anti-social punishment can subvert the positive role of punishment when anti- and pro-social punishments are in the same pattern. However, driven by centralized pro-social punishment, cooperation can be more advantageous than defection even in the presence of decentralized anti-social punishment. PMID:26408337

  8. Social diversity and promotion of cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila

    2008-01-01

    The diversity in wealth and social status is present not only among humans, but throughout the animal world. We account for this observation by generating random variables that determine the social diversity of players engaging in the prisoner’s dilemma game. Here the term social diversity is used to address extrinsic factors that determine the mapping of game payoffs to individual fitness. These factors may increase or decrease the fitness of a player depending on its location on the spatial grid. We consider different distributions of extrinsic factors that determine the social diversity of players, and find that the power-law distribution enables the best promotion of cooperation. The facilitation of the cooperative strategy relies mostly on the inhomogeneous social state of players, resulting in the formation of cooperative clusters which are ruled by socially high-ranking players that are able to prevail against the defectors even when there is a large temptation to defect. To confirm this, we also study the impact of spatially correlated social diversity and find that cooperation deteriorates as the spatial correlation length increases. Our results suggest that the distribution of wealth and social status might have played a crucial role by the evolution of cooperation amongst egoistic individuals.

  9. Social diversity promotes the emergence of cooperation in public goods games.

    PubMed

    Santos, Francisco C; Santos, Marta D; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2008-07-10

    Humans often cooperate in public goods games and situations ranging from family issues to global warming. However, evolutionary game theory predicts that the temptation to forgo the public good mostly wins over collective cooperative action, and this is often also seen in economic experiments. Here we show how social diversity provides an escape from this apparent paradox. Up to now, individuals have been treated as equivalent in all respects, in sharp contrast with real-life situations, where diversity is ubiquitous. We introduce social diversity by means of heterogeneous graphs and show that cooperation is promoted by the diversity associated with the number and size of the public goods game in which each individual participates and with the individual contribution to each such game. When social ties follow a scale-free distribution, cooperation is enhanced whenever all individuals are expected to contribute a fixed amount irrespective of the plethora of public goods games in which they engage. Our results may help to explain the emergence of cooperation in the absence of mechanisms based on individual reputation and punishment. Combining social diversity with reputation and punishment will provide instrumental clues on the self-organization of social communities and their economical implications. PMID:18615084

  10. Inferring reputation promotes the evolution of cooperation in spatial social dilemma games.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Yin, Zi-Yu; Xia, Cheng-Yi

    2012-01-01

    In realistic world individuals with high reputation are more likely to influence the collective behaviors. Due to the cost and error of information dissemination, however, it is unreasonable to assign each individual with a complete cognitive power, which means that not everyone can accurately realize others' reputation situation. Here we introduce the mechanism of inferring reputation into the selection of potential strategy sources to explore the evolution of cooperation. Before the game each player is assigned with a randomly distributed parameter p denoting his ability to infer the reputation of others. The parameter p of each individual is kept constant during the game. The value of p indicates that the neighbor possessing highest reputation is chosen with the probability p and randomly choosing an opponent is left with the probability 1-p. We find that this novel mechanism can be seen as an universally applicable promoter of cooperation, which works on various interaction networks and in different types of evolutionary game. Of particular interest is the fact that, in the early stages of evolutionary process, cooperators with high reputation who are easily regarded as the potential strategy donors can quickly lead to the formation of extremely robust clusters of cooperators that are impervious to defector attacks. These clusters eventually help cooperators reach their undisputed dominance, which transcends what can be warranted by the spatial reciprocity alone. Moreover, we provide complete phase diagrams to depict the impact of uncertainty in strategy adoptions and conclude that the effective interaction topology structure may be altered under such a mechanism. When the estimation of reputation is extended, we also show that the moderate value of evaluation factor enables cooperation to thrive best. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous cooperative behaviors in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve social

  11. Promoting participatory research by family physicians.

    PubMed

    Macaulay, Ann C

    2007-01-01

    In the past, researchers have inadvertently caused stigmatization of various populations, first by not involving community members and then through publishing negative findings. In contrast, participatory research, which is based on a partnership between researchers and those affected by the issue being studied, promotes the voice of those being researched. This essay highlights key principles, processes, complexities, and challenges of participatory research and outlines when participatory research is not appropriate. It also reflects on the training and skills of family physicians that make them especially suited to participatory research. Family physicians have established clinical partnerships with their patients and sometimes entire communities, are trained in patient-centered care-a good basis for community centered research-and are accustomed to working with uncertainty. In addition, they are frequently pragmatic, interested in questions arising from their patients and communities, and likely to respond well to community requests. The main challenges to participatory research are lack of funding, expertise, and time, which may improve as more funding agencies and universities support this approach to research. PMID:18025494

  12. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  13. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  14. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  15. Hidden Paths from Morality to Cooperation: Moral Judgments Promote Trust and Trustworthiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Brent; Harrell, Ashley; Willer, Robb

    2013-01-01

    Classic sociological solutions to cooperation problems were rooted in the moral judgments group members make about one another's behaviors, but more recent research on prosocial behaviors has largely ignored this foundational work. Here, we extend theoretical accounts of the social effect of moral judgments. Where scholars have emphasized the…

  16. Aspiring to the fittest and promotion of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Perc, Matjaž

    2010-08-01

    Strategy changes are an essential part of evolutionary games. Here, we introduce a simple rule that, depending on the value of a single parameter w , influences the selection of players that are considered as potential sources of the new strategy. For positive w players with high payoffs will be considered more likely, while for negative w the opposite holds. Setting w equal to zero returns the frequently adopted random selection of the opponent. We find that increasing the probability of adopting the strategy from the fittest player within reach, i.e., setting w positive, promotes the evolution of cooperation. The robustness of this observation is tested against different levels of uncertainty in the strategy adoption process and for different interaction networks. Since the evolution to widespread defection is tightly associated with cooperators having a lower fitness than defectors, the fact that positive values of w facilitate cooperation is quite surprising. We show that the results can be explained by means of a negative feedback effect that increases the vulnerability of defectors although initially increasing their survivability. Moreover, we demonstrate that the introduction of w effectively alters the interaction network and thus also the impact of uncertainty by strategy adoptions on the evolution of cooperation.

  17. Aspiring to the fittest and promotion of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Perc, Matjaz

    2010-08-01

    Strategy changes are an essential part of evolutionary games. Here, we introduce a simple rule that, depending on the value of a single parameter w , influences the selection of players that are considered as potential sources of the new strategy. For positive w players with high payoffs will be considered more likely, while for negative w the opposite holds. Setting w equal to zero returns the frequently adopted random selection of the opponent. We find that increasing the probability of adopting the strategy from the fittest player within reach, i.e., setting w positive, promotes the evolution of cooperation. The robustness of this observation is tested against different levels of uncertainty in the strategy adoption process and for different interaction networks. Since the evolution to widespread defection is tightly associated with cooperators having a lower fitness than defectors, the fact that positive values of w facilitate cooperation is quite surprising. We show that the results can be explained by means of a negative feedback effect that increases the vulnerability of defectors although initially increasing their survivability. Moreover, we demonstrate that the introduction of w effectively alters the interaction network and thus also the impact of uncertainty by strategy adoptions on the evolution of cooperation. PMID:20866783

  18. A Cooperative File-Library for Electronic Experimental Research: The Consortium for Lexical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Yorick; Candelaria de Ram, Sylvia

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Consortium for Lexical Research (CLR), a cooperative archive of electronic materials (e.g., software programs, research reports) for lexical research available through the Internet. Discussion covers CLR membership, archive administration, using the facility, types of materials stored, and documentation on materials. Samples of CLR…

  19. Research on the Industry-Academia-Research Cooperation Mechanism of Local University and College--Take Changchun University of Science and Technology as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Qiong; Li, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Local university and college take as their own responsibilities to serve local economy and promote social development. For them, the cooperation mechanism "Industry-Academia-Research" is not only inevitable to keep up with the development of the times and education, but also necessary to adapt themselves to market demands. It is also the…

  20. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301...

  1. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301...

  2. Cooperative Learning that Includes Students with Disabilities: An Effective Teaching Strategy, Cooperative Learning Promotes Student Interaction, Benefiting Students with and without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenier, Michelle; Dyson, Ben; Yeaton, Pat

    2005-01-01

    In this article, cooperative learning is discussed as an instructional strategy that encourages students to work together and that enhances motivation for learning (Johnson & Johnson, 1989; Polloway, Patton, & Serna, 2001). Cooperative learning is presented through the depiction of a scenario inspired by observations made during a research study,…

  3. CTCF cooperates with noncoding RNA MYCNOS to promote neuroblastoma progression through facilitating MYCN expression.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X; Li, D; Pu, J; Mei, H; Yang, D; Xiang, X; Qu, H; Huang, K; Zheng, L; Tong, Q

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have indicated the important roles of MYCN in tumorigenesis and progression of neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extracranial solid tumor derived from neural crest in childhood. However, the regulatory mechanisms of MYCN expression in NB still remain largely unknown. In this study, through mining public microarray databases and analyzing the cis-regulatory elements and chromatin immunoprecipitation data sets, we identified CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) as a crucial transcription factor facilitating the MYCN expression in NB. RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay, RNA pull down and in vitro binding assay indicated the physical interaction between CTCF and MYCN opposite strand (MYCNOS), a natural noncoding RNA surrounding the MYNC promoter. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that MYCNOS facilitated the recruitment of CTCF to its binding sites within the MYCN promoter to induce chromatin remodeling, resulting in enhanced MYCN levels and altered downstream gene expression, in cultured NB cell lines. CTCF cooperated with MYCNOS to suppress the differentiation and promote the growth, invasion and metastasis of NB cells in vitro and in vivo. In clinical NB tissues and cell lines, CTCF and MYCNOS were upregulated and positively correlated with MYCN expression. CTCF was an independent prognostic factor for unfavorable outcome of NB, and patients with high MYCNOS expression had lower survival probability. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CTCF cooperates with noncoding RNA MYCNOS to exhibit oncogenic activity that affects the aggressiveness and progression of NB through transcriptional upregulation of MYCN. PMID:26549029

  4. 76 FR 13530 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1206 Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order... address provided above. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Veronica Douglass, Marketing Specialist, Research... procedure, Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Mango Promotion, Reporting...

  5. Promoting Cooperative Learning Experiences for Students with Reading, Writing, and Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Karen D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the definition of cooperative learning; cooperative-learning groups and learning disabilities; cooperative-learning methods used in reading and in writing; and perspectives on cooperative-learning groups. (RS)

  6. 7 CFR 1205.333 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Research and promotion. 1205.333 Section 1205.333 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion...

  7. 77 FR 26911 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1208 RIN 0581-AC79 Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order... Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order). The program will be implemented under the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (1996 Act). Under the...

  8. Technology certification and technology acceptance: Promoting interstate cooperation and market development for innovative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brockbank, B.R.

    1995-03-01

    In the past two years, public and private efforts to promote development and deployment of innovative environmental technologies have shifted from the analysis of barriers to the implementation of a variety of initiatives aimed at surmounting those barriers. Particular attention has been directed at (1) streamlining fragmented technology acceptance processes within and among the states, and (2) alleviating disincentives, created by inadequate or unverified technology cost and performance data, for users and regulators to choose innovative technologies. Market fragmentation currently imposes significant cost burdens on technology developers and inhibits the investment of private capital in environmental technology companies. Among the responses to these problems are state and federal technology certification/validation programs, efforts to standardize cost/performance data reporting, and initiatives aimed at promoting interstate cooperation in technology testing and evaluation. This paper reviews the current status of these initiatives, identifies critical challenges to their success, and recommends strategies for addressing those challenges.

  9. Cooperativity Between Low-Valent Iron and Potassium Promoters in Dinitrogen Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Figg, Travis M.; Holland, Patrick L.; Cundari, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    A DFT study was performed to understand the role of cooperativity between iron-β-diketiminate fragments and potassium promoters in N2 activation. Sequential addition of iron fragments to N2 reveals that a minimum of three iron centers interact with N2 in order to break the triple bond. The potassium promoter stabilizes the N3− ligand formed upon N2 scission, thus making the activated iron-nitride complex more energetically accessible. Reduction of the complex and stabilization of N3− by K+ have similar impact on the energetics in the gas phase. However, upon inclusion of continuum THF solvent effects, coordination of K+ has a reduced influence upon the overall energetics of dinitrogen fixation; thus, reduction of the trimetallic Fe complex becomes more impactful than coordination of K+ vis-à-vis N2 activation upon the inclusion of solvent effects. PMID:22734966

  10. Prospects for international cooperation in SPS research, development and demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, R. A.; Wasserman, A.

    1982-09-01

    Positive and negative aspects of international cooperation for the development of SPS satellites are discussed. The points raised are a result of a review by the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment, which projected a possible worldwide demand for 295-465 GW of SPS-derived electricity by the year 2030. The visibility of an SPS in the sky could possibly be a significant psychological factor for developing nations, although it may be impossible for any one nation to construct an SPS unilaterally. Sharing the expenses and resources among nations is calculated to make the construction of an SPS feasible. Member nations of the construction team would share in the power produced. Measures to avoid interference with other nations' spacecraft are noted to be necessary, as well as international agreements which prohibit antisatellite weapons. Attention is given to a distribution of research, the sharing of research data, and the sharing of financial burdens.

  11. Cooperative research on safety fundamentals of lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selman, J. Robert; Al Hallaj, Said; Uchida, Isamu; Hirano, Y.

    A cooperative research program on the thermal characterization and safety of lithium batteries is being carried out at IIT/Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering and Tohoku University. This research includes experimental work for commercial lithium secondary batteries and performance prediction for scaled-up batteries. In this work, we present a set of thermal characterization experiments for lithium secondary battery cells under normal and abuse conditions. These show that the rise in cell temperature depends strongly on cell chemistry as well as discharge rate. Computer simulation of the cycling of scaled-up lithium batteries shows that the cell temperature profile also depends strongly on the surface cooling rate. An effective thermal management system is required to operate these batteries safely. This paper reviews the basic information needed for intrinsically safe design.

  12. A new model in teaching undergraduate research: A collaborative approach and learning cooperatives.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Pamela V; McClellan, Lynx Carlton; Jarosinski, Judith M

    2016-05-01

    Forming new, innovative collaborative approaches and cooperative learning methods between universities and hospitals maximize learning for undergraduate nursing students in a research course and provide professional development for nurses on the unit. The purpose of this Collaborative Approach and Learning Cooperatives (CALC) Model is to foster working relations between faculty and hospital administrators, maximize small group learning of undergraduate nursing students, and promote onsite knowledge of evidence based care for unit nurses. A quality improvement study using the CALC Model was implemented in an undergraduate nursing research course at a southern university. Hospital administrators provided a list of clinical concerns based on national performance outcome measures. Undergraduate junior nursing student teams chose a clinical question, gathered evidence from the literature, synthesized results, demonstrated practice application, and developed practice recommendations. The student teams developed posters, which were evaluated by hospital administrators. The administrators selected several posters to display on hospital units for continuing education opportunity. This CALC Model is a systematic, calculated approach and an economically feasible plan to maximize personnel and financial resources to optimize collaboration and cooperative learning. Universities and hospital administrators, nurses, and students benefit from working together and learning from each other. PMID:27067903

  13. AGU Activities to Promote Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, K.; Johnson, R.; Giesler, J.

    2001-05-01

    A primary goal of the AGU Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR) is to significantly increase the participation of undergraduate students at AGU meetings. Involving students in scientific meetings at this level of their education helps them to better prepare for graduate school and for a career in the geophysical sciences. Ongoing CEHR activities to promote undergraduate participation include: (1) sponsoring technical sessions to showcase undergraduate research; (2) sponsoring sessions about careers and other topics of special interest to students; (3) sponsoring workshops to inform faculty about doing research with undergraduates; (4) sponsoring meeting events to partner graduate student mentors with first-time undergraduate attendees; (5) working with sections to create situations where undergraduates and section scientists can interact; (6) creating a guide for first-time meeting attendees; (7) sponsoring an Academic Recruiting Forum at meetings to connect undergraduates with geophysical graduate programs; (8) running a Career Center at meetings to connect students and employers; (9) raising funds for more travel grants to provide more student support to attend meetings; (10) developing a listserve to inform AGU members about opportunities to do research with undergraduates and to involve more members in mentoring activities; and (11) collecting data, such as career outcomes and demographic characteristics of recent Ph.D. recipients, that are of interest to students.

  14. Research

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance.

  15. 7 CFR 930.48 - Research, market development and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Research, market development and promotion. 930.48... Order Regulating Handling Research, Market Development and Promotion § 930.48 Research, market... establishment of production and processing research, market research and development, and/or...

  16. My university. What I learned from the Productive Cooperative Movement to Promotion of Humanistic Family Planning.

    PubMed

    Kunii, C

    1990-07-01

    Based on experiences with the Productive Cooperative Movement and the Parasite Control Movement in Japan, the Japanese Family Planning Movement began in April 1954. The resultant private and nonprofit Japan Family Planning Association (JFPA) followed and it served to help Japan achieve its goal of reducing fertility by promoting family planning. It did so by publishing a monthly newsletter on family planning, hosting meetings and national conventions, spreading information via the mass media, and selling contraceptives and educational materials. JFPA earned funding from these sales with no support from the government thereby establishing self dependence and freedom to speak candidly to the government. The JFPA learned that families wanted to improve their standard of living and were willing to limit family size to 2 children. After the birth rate peaked in 1955, the birth rate and the number of illegal abortions decreased. In the 1950s, JFPA joined the International Planned Parenthood Federation and subsequently learned of the problems faced by developing countries. Based on the successful reduction of fertility in Japan and a strong economic base, JFPA and the government were in a position to organize an international cooperation program for family planning. Therefore, the leader of JFPA resigned to found the Japanese Organization for International Cooperation in Family Planning which promotes family planning in developing countries via its integrated family planning, nutrition, and parasite control program. A steering committee composed of leaders from government, universities, and private organizations sets the policies for the program in each country. It is to the Japanese government's advantage to work with private organizations instead of providing all social services because they are flexible and provide administrative stability and national expenses are minimized. PMID:12316428

  17. 76 FR 65781 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research and...

  18. 78 FR 50424 - NIH Cooperative Research and Development Agreement Program: Invitation To Solicit Nonclinical and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health NIH Cooperative Research and Development Agreement Program: Invitation To Solicit Nonclinical and Clinical Research Proposals From NIH Intramural Research Program... organizations); public and private foundations and nonprofit organizations to solicit research proposals...

  19. 78 FR 53015 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Chief Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research...

  20. 78 FR 41198 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research and...

  1. Autonomous Mobile Platform for Research in Cooperative Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daemi, Ali; Pena, Edward; Ferguson, Paul

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a platform for research in cooperative mobile robotics. The structure and mechanics of the vehicles are based on R/C cars. The vehicle is rendered mobile by a DC motor and servo motor. The perception of the robot's environment is achieved using IR sensors and a central vision system. A laptop computer processes images from a CCD camera located above the testing area to determine the position of objects in sight. This information is sent to each robot via RF modem. Each robot is operated by a Motorola 68HC11E micro-controller, and all actions of the robots are realized through the connections of IR sensors, modem, and motors. The intelligent behavior of each robot is based on a hierarchical fuzzy-rule based approach.

  2. 78 FR 15953 - Cooperative Agreement To Support Regulatory Research Related to Food and Drug Administration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement To Support Regulatory Research Related...) announces its intention to accept and consider a single source application for award of a cooperative... accomplishment of these PDUFA V commitments. FDA is therefore seeking to establish a cooperative agreement...

  3. Effects of Cooperative Learning on Achievement in Secondary Schools: A Summary of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newmann, Fred M.; Thompson, Judith A.

    This synthesis offers a descriptive inventory of research studies of cooperative learning at the secondary level. While cooperative learning techniques vary, they all share an interest in finding an alternative to "frontal teaching"--the teacher instructing the whole class or individual seatwork by students. Cooperative methods allow students to…

  4. Punitive preferences, monetary incentives and tacit coordination in the punishment of defectors promote cooperation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Diekmann, Andreas; Przepiorka, Wojtek

    2015-01-01

    Peer-punishment is effective in promoting cooperation, but the costs associated with punishing defectors often exceed the benefits for the group. It has been argued that centralized punishment institutions can overcome the detrimental effects of peer-punishment. However, this argument presupposes the existence of a legitimate authority and leaves an unresolved gap in the transition from peer-punishment to centralized punishment. Here we show that the origins of centralized punishment could lie in individuals’ distinct ability to punish defectors. In our laboratory experiment, we vary the structure of the punishment situation to disentangle the effects of punitive preferences, monetary incentives, and individual punishment costs on the punishment of defectors. We find that actors tacitly coordinate on the strongest group member to punish defectors, even if the strongest individual incurs a net loss from punishment. Such coordination leads to a more effective and more efficient provision of a cooperative environment than we observe in groups of all equals. Our results show that even an arbitrary assignment of an individual to a focal position in the social hierarchy can trigger the endogenous emergence of more centralized forms of punishment. PMID:25988875

  5. Punitive preferences, monetary incentives and tacit coordination in the punishment of defectors promote cooperation in humans.

    PubMed

    Diekmann, Andreas; Przepiorka, Wojtek

    2015-01-01

    Peer-punishment is effective in promoting cooperation, but the costs associated with punishing defectors often exceed the benefits for the group. It has been argued that centralized punishment institutions can overcome the detrimental effects of peer-punishment. However, this argument presupposes the existence of a legitimate authority and leaves an unresolved gap in the transition from peer-punishment to centralized punishment. Here we show that the origins of centralized punishment could lie in individuals' distinct ability to punish defectors. In our laboratory experiment, we vary the structure of the punishment situation to disentangle the effects of punitive preferences, monetary incentives, and individual punishment costs on the punishment of defectors. We find that actors tacitly coordinate on the strongest group member to punish defectors, even if the strongest individual incurs a net loss from punishment. Such coordination leads to a more effective and more efficient provision of a cooperative environment than we observe in groups of all equals. Our results show that even an arbitrary assignment of an individual to a focal position in the social hierarchy can trigger the endogenous emergence of more centralized forms of punishment. PMID:25988875

  6. Punitive preferences, monetary incentives and tacit coordination in the punishment of defectors promote cooperation in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Przepiorka, Wojtek

    2015-05-01

    Peer-punishment is effective in promoting cooperation, but the costs associated with punishing defectors often exceed the benefits for the group. It has been argued that centralized punishment institutions can overcome the detrimental effects of peer-punishment. However, this argument presupposes the existence of a legitimate authority and leaves an unresolved gap in the transition from peer-punishment to centralized punishment. Here we show that the origins of centralized punishment could lie in individuals’ distinct ability to punish defectors. In our laboratory experiment, we vary the structure of the punishment situation to disentangle the effects of punitive preferences, monetary incentives, and individual punishment costs on the punishment of defectors. We find that actors tacitly coordinate on the strongest group member to punish defectors, even if the strongest individual incurs a net loss from punishment. Such coordination leads to a more effective and more efficient provision of a cooperative environment than we observe in groups of all equals. Our results show that even an arbitrary assignment of an individual to a focal position in the social hierarchy can trigger the endogenous emergence of more centralized forms of punishment.

  7. 77 FR 72438 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of proposed projects...

  8. 78 FR 70102 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies; Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies; Scientific Evaluation... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... the Director of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and...

  9. Cooperation during cultural group formation promotes trust towards members of out-groups

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaofei Sophia; Houser, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    People often cooperate with members of their own group, and discriminate against members of other groups. Previous research establishes that cultural groups can form endogenously, and that these groups demonstrate in-group favouritism. Given the presence of cultural groups, the previous literature argues that cultural evolution selects for groups that exhibit parochial altruism. The source of initial variation in these traits, however, remains uninformed. We show here that a group's economic production environment may substantially influence parochial tendencies, with groups formed around more cooperative production (CP) displaying less parochialism than groups formed around more independent production (IP) processes. Participants randomized into CP and IP production tasks formed cultural groups, and subsequently played hidden-action trust games with in-group and out-group trustees. We found CP to be associated with significantly greater sharing and exchanging behaviours than IP. In trust games, significant parochial altruism (in-group favouritism combined with out-group discrimination) was displayed by members of IP groups. By contrast, members of CP groups did not engage in either in-group favouritism or out-group discrimination. Further, we found the absence of out-group discrimination in CP to persist even following ‘betrayal’. Finally, belief data suggest that members of CP are not more intrinsically generous than IP members, but rather more likely to believe that out-group trustees will positively reciprocate. Our results have important implications for anyone interested in building cooperative teams, and shed new light on connections between culture and cooperation. PMID:23658200

  10. Cooperative research and development opportunities with the National Cancer Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sybert, Kathleen

    1991-01-01

    The Office of Technology Development (OTD) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is responsible for negotiating Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs), whereby the knowledge resulting from NCI investigators' government-sponsored research is developed in collaboration with universities and/or industry into new products of importance for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The NCI has recently executed a unique 'clinical trials' CRADA and is developing a model agreement based upon it for the development and commercialization of products for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and AIDS. NCI drug screening, preclinical testing, clinical trials, and AIDS program capabilities form the basis for this new technology development/technology transfer vehicle. NCI's extensive drug screening program and 'designer foods' program serve as potential sources of investigational new drugs (INDs) and cancer preventatives. Collaborations between NCI and pharmaceutical companies having the facilities, experience, and expertise necessary to develop INDs into approved drugs available to the public are being encouraged where the companies have proprietary rights to INDs, or where NCI has proprietary rights to INDs and invites companies to respond to a collaborator announcement published in the Federal Register. The joint efforts of the NCI and the chosen collaborator are designed to generate the data necessary to obtain pharmaceutic regulatory approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to market the drugs developed, and thereby make them available to health care providers for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and AIDS.

  11. The CRC Contribution to Research Training: Report of a Scoping Study for the Cooperative Research Centres Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This report summarises findings from a scoping study conducted for the Cooperative Research Centres Association (CRCA) by the Centre for the Study of Higher Education. The purpose of the scoping study is to inform the research training activities of Cooperative Research Centres (CRCs). While previous studies have focussed on the outcomes supported…

  12. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH (AIR POLLUTION TECHNOLOGY BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Air Pollution Technology Branch (APTB) is always interested in the potential for cooperative research if overlap occurs between the research goals of external organizations and APTB's research goals.APTB has participated i...

  13. 76 FR 19189 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of proposed projects and...

  14. 75 FR 28686 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Committee advises the Chief Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical...

  15. 77 FR 31072 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... the Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of...

  16. 76 FR 73781 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of proposed projects...

  17. 75 FR 79446 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service... Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of proposed projects...

  18. Overview of USEPA/NERL Cooperative Agreement Research Program on Air Pollution Exposure and Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) recently initiated a two-year Cooperative Agreement Research Program between EPA and three academic institutions: Emory University, Rutgers University and University of Washington. Under this EPA/NERL sponsored research, nov...

  19. 7 CFR 930.48 - Research, market development and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, market development and promotion. 930.48 Section 930.48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Order Regulating Handling Research, Market Development and Promotion § 930.48 Research,...

  20. NASA LeRC/Akron University Graduate Cooperative Fellowship Program and Graduate Student Researchers Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fertis, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    On June 1, 1980, the University of Akron and the NASA Lewis Research Center (LERC) established a Graduate Cooperative Fellowship Program in the specialized areas of Engine Structural Analysis and Dynamics, Computational Mechanics, Mechanics of Composite Materials, and Structural Optimization, in order to promote and develop requisite technologies in these areas of engine technology. The objectives of this program are consistent with those of the NASA Engine Structure Program in which graduate students of the University of Akron participate by conducting research at Lewis. This report is the second on this grant and summarizes the second and third year research effort, which includes the participation of five graduate students where each student selects one of the above areas as his special field of interest. Each student is required to spend 30 percent of his educational training time at the NASA Lewis Research Center and the balance at the University of Akron. His course work is judiciously selected and tailored to prepare him for research work in his field of interest. A research topic is selected for each student while in residence at the NASA Lewis Research Center, which is also approved by the faculty of the University of Akron as his thesis topic for a Master's and/or a Ph.D. degree.

  1. 78 FR 64248 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--ASTM... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''),...

  2. 78 FR 24780 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Concrete...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Concrete... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Concrete... principal place of business of the standards development organization is Concrete Reinforcing...

  3. 78 FR 39326 - Notice Pursuant To the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Opendaylight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant To the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Opendaylight Project, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on May 23, 2013, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act...

  4. 75 FR 24971 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Intellegere...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Intellegere Foundation Notice is hereby given that, on April 7, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Intellegere...

  5. Ethics and Accountability: Participatory Research in a Worker Co-Operative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, Mary

    1988-01-01

    The author describes a participatory research project that took place in a garment workers' co-operative. The project's purpose was to record the history and working relationships of the co-operative in an attempt to help similar ventures. Problems of participatory research are considered. (CH)

  6. 77 FR 19678 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Asset Tracking and Reporting Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Register (73 FR 3316). Cooperative Research and Development Agreements Cooperative Research and Development... (CRADA) with General Dynamics C4 Systems, Inc. (General Dynamics), to test, evaluate, and document the... participants would test, evaluate, and document the strengths and weaknesses of at least one technical...

  7. 77 FR 1708 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Technology To Provide Wireless Precise Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Register (73 FR 3316). Cooperative Research and Development Agreements Cooperative Research and Development... conducting live, on-air tests that will be broadcast from former Long Range Navigation (LORAN) sites, using... these test broadcasts are planned at both on-shore and off-shore locations. The testing will...

  8. EFFECTS OF SELECTED ANTI-TUMOR-PROMOTING CHEMICALS ON METABOLIC COOPERATION BETWEEN CHINESE HAMSTER V79 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many tumor-promoting chemicals inhibit gap junctional communication between cells. we investigated the possibility that antipromoting chemicals may act inversely and enhance gap junctional communication. he V79/metabolic cooperation assay is an in vitro test that measures pp junc...

  9. 7 CFR 987.33 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Market Development § 987.33 Research and... establishment of marketing research and development projects, including marketing promotion and paid...

  10. U.S. Department of Energy Program of International Technical Cooperation for Research Reactor Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, D.; Manning, M.; Ellis, R.; Apt, K.; Flaim, S.; Sylvester, K.

    2004-10-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) has initiated collaborations with the national nuclear authorities of Egypt, Peru, and Romania for the purpose of advancing the commercial potential and utilization of their respective research reactors. Under its Office of International Safeguards ''Sister Laboratory'' program, DOE/NNSA has undertaken numerous technical collaborations over the past decade intended to promote peaceful applications of nuclear technology. Among these has been technical assistance in research reactor applications, such as neutron activation analysis, nuclear analysis, reactor physics, and medical radioisotope production. The current collaborations are intended to provide the subject countries with a methodology for greater commercialization of research reactor products and services. Our primary goal is the transfer of knowledge, both in administrative and technical issues, needed for the establishment of an effective business plan and utilization strategy for the continued operation of the countries' research reactors. Technical consultation, cooperation, and the information transfer provided are related to: identification, evaluation, and assessment of current research reactor capabilities for products and services; identification of opportunities for technical upgrades for new or expanded products and services; advice and consultation on research reactor upgrades and technical modifications; characterization of markets for reactor products and services; identification of competition and estimation of potential for market penetration; integration of technical constraints; estimation of cash flow streams; and case studies.

  11. 75 FR 14491 - Potato Research and Promotion Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1207 Potato Research and Promotion Plan AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... Potato Research and Promotion plan regulations to reflect the modification of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for imported potatoes by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (Customs). This document also...

  12. Health Promotion and Industry: Where Interdisciplinary Research Meets Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Thomas C.; Kaluzny, Arnold D.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation research in work-site health promotion offers an opportunity to test the effectiveness of work-site health promotion and disease prevention programs. Based on an evaluation of the research, an interdisciplinary approach to data collection and analysis is suggested, and policy implications are outlined. (TJH)

  13. 76 FR 18422 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...This proposed rule would adjust representation on the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board (Board), established under the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985 (Act), to reflect changes in cattle inventories and cattle and beef imports that have occurred since the most recent Board reapportionment rule became effective in October 2008. These adjustments are required by the Beef......

  14. 77 FR 26583 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ...--Petroleum Environmental Research Forum Project No. 2011-01, Ultra Low Nutrient Control in Wastewater... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Petroleum...

  15. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR APPLICATION OF CFD TO ESTIMATING HUMAN EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), Fluent, Inc. and the US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) propose to improve the ability of environmental scientists to use computer modeling for environmental exposure to air pollutants in human exp...

  16. Promoting the confluence of tropical cyclone research

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Contributions of biologists to tropical cyclone research may improve by integrating concepts from other disciplines. Employing accumulated cyclone energy into protocols may foster greater integration of ecology and meteorology research. Considering experienced ecosystems as antifragile instead of just resilient may improve cross-referencing among ecological and social scientists. Quantifying ecosystem capital as distinct from ecosystem services may improve integration of tropical cyclone ecology research into the expansive global climate change research community. PMID:26480001

  17. COSPAR, a platform for international cooperation in space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellous, Jean-Louis

    The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) was founded by the International Council for Science (ICSU) in 1958, with the aim of favouring the dialogue between the USSR and USA in the time of the Cold War. Fifty-six years later, COSPAR is continuing its mission of service to the worldwide space research community. Thousands of scientists attend COSPAR assemblies, read and publish their results in its journals, participate in its workshops, colloquia and symposia, but many are unaware of the wealth of activities that COSPAR undertakes or supports. Many of them ignore the processes through which this organisation develops its activities, how it is structured, how to get involved in its governance, how to promote new initiatives with its help, etc. Young space scientists do not know the history of, and prominent roles played by COSPAR, past and present, and more importantly need to understand better the benefits that can be accrued from their involvement within COSPAR. This presentation will review these aspects and offer all interested scientists a detailed overview of COSPAR activities and plans for the future.

  18. Ephrin-as cooperate with EphA4 to promote trunk neural crest migration.

    PubMed

    McLennan, R; Krull, C E

    2002-01-01

    Trunk neural crest cells delaminate from the dorsal neural tube and migrate on two distinct pathways: a dorsolateral route, between the ectoderm and somites,and a ventromedial route, through the somitic mesoderm. Neural crest cells that migrate ventromedially travel in a segmental manner through rostral half-somites, avoiding caudal halves. Recent studies demonstrate that various molecular cues guide the migration of neural crest cells, primarily by serving as inhibitors to premature pathway entry orby preventing neural crest from entering inappropriate territories. Trajectories of migrating trunk neural crest are well organized and generally linear in nature, suggesting that positive, migration-promoting factors may be responsible for this organized cell behavior. However, the identity of these factors and their function are not well understood. Here we examine the expression of members of the EphA subclass of receptor tyrosine kinases and ephrins using RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. Neural crest cells express ephrins and EphA4 at distinct stages during their migration. In functional analyses, addition of ephrin-A2-, ephrin-A5-, and EphA4-Fc disrupted the segmental organization of trunk neural crest migration in explants: neural crest cells entered rostral and caudal halves of somites. Finally, to test the specific effects of these factors on cell behavior, neural crest cells were exposed in vitro to substrate-bound EphA and ephrin-As. Surprisingly, neural crest cells avoided ephrin-A2 or ephrin-A5 substrates; this avoidance was abolished by the addition of EphA4. Together, these data suggest that ephrin-As and EphA4 cooperate to positively promote the migration of neural crest cells through rostral half somites in vivo. PMID:12450221

  19. 76 FR 26930 - Dairy Promotion and Research Program; Importer Nominations to the Dairy Promotion and Research Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Order, as amended under the Final Rule [76 FR 14777; published in the Federal Register on March 18, 2011... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1150 Dairy Promotion and Research Program; Importer Nominations to the Dairy Promotion and Research Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION:...

  20. Cooperative demethylation by JMJD2C and LSD1 promotes androgen receptor-dependent gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wissmann, Melanie; Yin, Na; Müller, Judith M; Greschik, Holger; Fodor, Barna D; Jenuwein, Thomas; Vogler, Christine; Schneider, Robert; Günther, Thomas; Buettner, Reinhard; Metzger, Eric; Schüle, Roland

    2007-03-01

    Posttranslational modifications of histones, such as methylation, regulate chromatin structure and gene expression. Recently, lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), the first histone demethylase, was identified. LSD1 interacts with the androgen receptor and promotes androgen-dependent transcription of target genes by ligand-induced demethylation of mono- and dimethylated histone H3 at Lys 9 (H3K9) only. Here, we identify the Jumonji C (JMJC) domain-containing protein JMJD2C as the first histone tridemethylase regulating androgen receptor function. JMJD2C interacts with androgen receptor in vitro and in vivo. Assembly of ligand-bound androgen receptor and JMJD2C on androgen receptor-target genes results in demethylation of trimethyl H3K9 and in stimulation of androgen receptor-dependent transcription. Conversely, knockdown of JMJD2C inhibits androgen-induced removal of trimethyl H3K9, transcriptional activation and tumour cell proliferation. Importantly, JMJD2C colocalizes with androgen receptor and LSD1 in normal prostate and in prostate carcinomas. JMJD2C and LSD1 interact and both demethylases cooperatively stimulate androgen receptor-dependent gene transcription. In addition, androgen receptor, JMJD2C and LSD1 assemble on chromatin to remove methyl groups from mono, di and trimethylated H3K9. Thus, our data suggest that specific gene regulation requires the assembly and coordinate action of demethylases with distinct substrate specificities. PMID:17277772

  1. Multiple P-TEFbs cooperatively regulate the release of promoter-proximally paused RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaodong; Zhu, Xinxing; Li, You; Liu, Min; Yu, Bin; Wang, Yu; Rao, Muhua; Yang, Haiyang; Zhou, Kai; Wang, Yao; Chen, Yanheng; Chen, Meihua; Zhuang, Songkuan; Chen, Lin-Feng; Liu, Runzhong; Chen, Ruichuan

    2016-08-19

    The association of DSIF and NELF with initiated RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) is the general mechanism for inducing promoter-proximal pausing of Pol II. However, it remains largely unclear how the paused Pol II is released in response to stimulation. Here, we show that the release of the paused Pol II is cooperatively regulated by multiple P-TEFbs which are recruited by bromodomain-containing protein Brd4 and super elongation complex (SEC) via different recruitment mechanisms. Upon stimulation, Brd4 recruits P-TEFb to Spt5/DSIF via a recruitment pathway consisting of Med1, Med23 and Tat-SF1, whereas SEC recruits P-TEFb to NELF-A and NELF-E via Paf1c and Med26, respectively. P-TEFb-mediated phosphorylation of Spt5, NELF-A and NELF-E results in the dissociation of NELF from Pol II, thereby transiting transcription from pausing to elongation. Additionally, we demonstrate that P-TEFb-mediated Ser2 phosphorylation of Pol II is dispensable for pause release. Therefore, our studies reveal a co-regulatory mechanism of Brd4 and SEC in modulating the transcriptional pause release by recruiting multiple P-TEFbs via a Mediator- and Paf1c-coordinated recruitment network. PMID:27353326

  2. Shp2 and Pten have antagonistic roles in myeloproliferation but cooperate to promote erythropoiesis in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Helen He; Luo, Xiaolin; Zhang, Kaiqing; Cui, Jian; Zhao, Huifang; Ji, Zhongzhong; Zhou, Zhicheng; Yao, Jufang; Zeng, Lifan; Ji, Kaihong; Gao, Wei-Qiang; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Feng, Gen-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Previous data suggested a negative role of phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) and a positive function of SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatase (Shp2)/Ptpn11 in myelopoiesis and leukemogenesis. Herein we demonstrate that ablating Shp2 indeed suppressed the myeloproliferative effect of Pten loss, indicating directly opposing functions between pathways regulated by these two enzymes. Surprisingly, the Shp2 and Pten double-knockout mice suffered lethal anemia, a phenotype that reveals previously unappreciated cooperative roles of Pten and Shp2 in erythropoiesis. The lethal anemia was caused collectively by skewed progenitor differentiation and shortened erythrocyte lifespan. Consistently, treatment of Pten-deficient mice with a specific Shp2 inhibitor suppressed myeloproliferative neoplasm while causing anemia. These results identify concerted actions of Pten and Shp2 in promoting erythropoiesis, while acting antagonistically in myeloproliferative neoplasm development. This study illustrates cell type-specific signal cross-talk in blood cell lineages, and will guide better design of pharmaceuticals for leukemia and other types of cancer in the era of precision medicine. PMID:26460004

  3. China-Japan enhance joint research cooperation for drug discoveries and development: News from CJMWDDT 2007 in Jinan, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, X Y; Qu, X J; Tang, W

    2007-08-01

    Viral hepatitis is currently a major global cause of morbidity and mortality. In some Asian countries like China and Japan, Hepatitis B and C in particular are the most common extremely infectious diseases and are likely to develop into liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, statistics indicate that patients with liver cirrhosis resulting from hepatitis B and C have an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Scientists have worked tirelessly to find curative therapeutic strategies to control chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis, accompanied by improvements in public health and living conditions. China's Shandong University and the University of Tokyo in Japan previously established a longterm cooperative relationship. Cooperative programs include co-training of postgraduates, exchanges of visiting scholars, academic symposia, and a bilateral international joint research program. Some substantive progress has been made as a result of bilateral endeavors. For instance, the Shandong University China-Japan Cooperation Center for Drug Discovery & Screening (SDU-DDSC) has enhanced to serve as an important platform for further close cooperation. At the same time, the International Advancement Center for Medicine & Health Research (IACMHR) - "Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics" and International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement (IRCA-BSSA) - "BioScience Trends" were established (Visit http://www.ddtjournal.com and http://www.biosciencetrends.com ). The first China-Japan conference on new drug discoveries and therapeutics (CJMWDDT 2007) was recently held in Jinan, China May 27-29, 2007, which provided opportunities for further communication and cooperation and increased knowledge of new drug research and clinical cures for hepatitis. Financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the conference covered a wide range of topics in

  4. [Promotion of public health research: attempting to balance relevance and excellence].

    PubMed

    de los Ríos, R

    1999-01-01

    Those in charge of directing scientific research face a daunting task: finding a proper balance between excellence in research and that research's relevance to people's health problems. In developing countries, this task is further hampered by deficient scientific and technological infrastructure, the lack of competitiveness of its research community, and the shortage of research funds. This article explains some of the mechanisms that have been put in place in Latin America to achieve a balance between excellence and relevance, especially by promoting research that targets pertinent public health problems. Within this context, the multicenter studies being conducted under the auspices of the Pan American Health Organization's Program for the Support of Research are described. The article also lays out the fundamental features of a new model for international cooperation to generate knowledge to help resolve the public health problems of the countries of the Americas. PMID:10355330

  5. EPA-WERF Cooperative Agreement: Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a brief slide presentation that will provide an overview of several projects that are being conducted in EPA-WERF Cooperative Agreement, Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century. The cooperative agreement objectives are to produce, evaluate, &...

  6. Cooperative Science: A National Study of University and Industry Researchers. Case Studies. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Elmima C.; And Others

    This report presents nine case studies of Industry/University Cooperative Research (IUCR) projects supported during 1978-1980 by the National Science Foundation. The intent of this document is to provide readers with a qualitative picture of cooperative science as practiced under the IUCR program. The information presented in this report is…

  7. Cooperative Learning and the Academically Talented Student. Research-Based Decision Making Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Ann

    The research base on cooperative learning was examined for its applicability to academically talented students. Common types of cooperative learning are described with highlights of the model characteristics as they apply to academically talented students. The models include: Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT); Student Teams Achievement Divisions…

  8. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative: Multidisciplinary data management from the ground up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, L. M.; Gibeaut, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    As more journals and funding organizations require data to be made available, more and more scientists are being exposed to the world of data science, metadata development, and data standards so they can ensure future funding and publishing success. The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information and Data Cooperative (GRIIDC) is the vehicle by which the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GOMRI) is making all data collected in this program publically available. This varied group of researchers all have different levels of experience with data management standards and protocols, thus GRIIDC has evolved to embrace the cooperative nature of our work and develop a number of tools and training materials to help ensure data managers and researchers in the GoMRI program are submitting high quality data and metadata that will be useful for years to come. GRIIDC began with a group of 8 data managers many of which had only ever managed their own data, who were then expected to manage the data of a large group of geographically distant researchers. As the program continued to evolve these data managers worked with the GRIIDC team to help identify and develop much needed resources for training and communication for themselves and the scientists they represented. This essential cooperation has developed a team of highly motivated scientists, computer programmers and data scientists who are working to ensure a data and information legacy that promotes continual scientific discovery and public awareness of the Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem and beyond.

  9. Promoting Employability Skills Development in a Research-Intensive University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Geoff; Henson, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to consider the place of employability in universities, with a focus on research-intensive institutions, and to outline an initiative that was introduced to promote employability skills development at the University of Nottingham. Design/methodology/approach: Following a discussion of literature on the promotion of…

  10. Molecular imaging promotes progress in orthopedic research.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp; Boskey, Adele L

    2006-11-01

    Modern orthopedic research is directed towards the understanding of molecular mechanisms that determine development, maintenance and health of musculoskeletal tissues. In recent years, many genetic and proteomic discoveries have been made which necessitate investigation under physiological conditions in intact, living tissues. Molecular imaging can meet this demand and is, in fact, the only strategy currently available for noninvasive, quantitative, real-time biology studies in living subjects. In this review, techniques of molecular imaging are summarized, and applications to bone and joint biology are presented. The imaging modality most frequently used in the past was optical imaging, particularly bioluminescence and near-infrared fluorescence imaging. Alternate technologies including nuclear and magnetic resonance imaging were also employed. Orthopedic researchers have applied molecular imaging to murine models including transgenic mice to monitor gene expression, protein degradation, cell migration and cell death. Within the bone compartment, osteoblasts and their stem cells have been investigated, and the organic and mineral bone phases have been assessed. These studies addressed malignancy and injury as well as repair, including fracture healing and cell/gene therapy for skeletal defects. In the joints, molecular imaging has focused on the inflammatory and tissue destructive processes that cause arthritis. As described in this review, the feasibility of applying molecular imaging to numerous areas of orthopedic research has been demonstrated and will likely result in an increase in research dedicated to this powerful strategy. Molecular imaging holds great promise in the future for preclinical orthopedic research as well as next-generation clinical musculoskeletal diagnostics. PMID:16843078

  11. Dragons' Den: promoting healthcare research and innovation.

    PubMed

    Mazhindu, Deborah; Gregory, Siobhan

    2015-07-01

    The changing health and social care landscape, and, in particular, the financial challenges affecting the NHS, can present difficulties for staff looking for funding to support innovation and new ways of working. One method of competitive tendering that is becoming more accepted as a way of allocating funds, encouraging staff engagement and developing innovation for research is a format based the BBC television series, Dragons' Den. This article describes how Hounslow and Richmond Community Healthcare NHS Trust, London, has developed a 'Dragons' Den initiative' of annual competitive research funding allocation to ensure that some of the most dynamic practice in the trust is captured. PMID:26135194

  12. Promoting Efficacy Research on Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Daniel W. M.; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a form of therapy grounded in behavioral principles that utilizes therapist reactions to shape target behavior. Despite a growing literature base, there is a paucity of research to establish the efficacy of FAP. As a general approach to psychotherapy, and how the therapeutic relationship produces change,…

  13. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research

    PubMed Central

    Southwell, Brian G.; Rupert, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. PMID:26927597

  14. Promoting Teacher Autonomy through University-School Collaborative Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the pursuit of teachers-as-researchers has become an ideal for developing teacher autonomy to which many in the world of curriculum development and language teacher education try to promote (Benson, 2001). Nevertheless, research into how teachers learn to do research has been scarce, and there are pressing needs for…

  15. Promoting Research Writing in an Undergraduate Measurement Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Anita N.; Matthews, Tracey D.; Cucina, Irene M.; Tritschler, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce a 12-step approach for an abbreviated research project to promote research writing in an undergraduate measurement course. This 12-step approach assumes a 14-week semester schedule that is common among many colleges and universities. The steps for the proposed research project include selecting a topic,…

  16. Reduced-Order Modeling: Cooperative Research and Development at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Beran, Philip S.; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Guendel, Randal E.; Kurdila, Andrew; Prazenica, Richard J.; Librescu, Liviu; Marzocca, Piergiovanni; Raveh, Daniella E.

    2001-01-01

    Cooperative research and development activities at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) involving reduced-order modeling (ROM) techniques are presented. Emphasis is given to reduced-order methods and analyses based on Volterra series representations, although some recent results using Proper Orthogonal Deco in position (POD) are discussed as well. Results are reported for a variety of computational and experimental nonlinear systems to provide clear examples of the use of reduced-order models, particularly within the field of computational aeroelasticity. The need for and the relative performance (speed, accuracy, and robustness) of reduced-order modeling strategies is documented. The development of unsteady aerodynamic state-space models directly from computational fluid dynamics analyses is presented in addition to analytical and experimental identifications of Volterra kernels. Finally, future directions for this research activity are summarized.

  17. Bimetallic promotion of cooperative hydrogen transfer and heteroatom removal in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Eisch, J.J.

    1992-04-07

    The ultimate objective of this research has been to uncover novel reagents and experimental conditions for heteroatom removal and hydrogen transfer processes, which would be applicable to the liquefaction of coal under low-severity conditions. To this end, one phase of this research has investigated the cleavage of carbon-heteroatom bonds involving sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and halogen by subvalent transition-metal complexes. A second phase of the study has assessed the capability of the same transition-metal complexes or of organoaluminum Lewis acids to catalyze the cleavage of carbon-hydrogen bonds in aromatics and hence to promote hydrogen shuttling. Finally, a third phase of our work has uncovered a remarkable synergistic effect of combinations of transition metals with organoaluminum Lewis acids on hydrogen shuttling between aromatics and hydroaromatics. (VC)

  18. 34 CFR 350.33 - What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Engineering Research Center meet? 350.33 Section 350.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.33 What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet? A Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center— (a)...

  19. Management Guidance and Advisory Services: Promoting Cooperative Ventures. Governor's Commission on the Financing of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Gail S., Comp.

    Issues concerning a state policy supporting cooperative ventures among colleges and universities in Pennsylvania are discussed. It is suggested that a state policy encouraging successful interinstitutional cooperation must: avoid threatening the institutions, recognize that they must be the actual bargaining entities, inspire their interest…

  20. Promoting Gender Parity in Basic Education: Lessons from a Technical Cooperation Project in Yemen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuki, Takako; Mizuno, Keiko; Ogawa, Keiichi; Mihoko, Sakai

    2013-01-01

    Many girls are not sent to school in Yemen, despite basic education being free as well as compulsory for all children aged 6-15. Aiming to improve girls' enrollment by increasing parental and community involvement, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) offered a technical cooperation project in June 2005 called Broadening Regional…

  1. The cooperative research unit program and wildlife education: Historic development, future challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bissonette, J.A.; Loftin, C.S.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Nordstrom, L.A.; Fleming, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1932, J. N. 'Ding' Darling proposed a 3-year tripartite arrangement between the Iowa Fish and Game Commission, Iowa State University, and himself to establish the first Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit. Three years later, the Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit Program was broadened to include 9 land-grant colleges representing recognized ecoregions in the United States. In 1960, the Units were given statutory recognition by Public Law 86-686 that also included provision for establishing Cooperative Fishery Units. The Cooperative Research Unit idea has evolved to 39 Units in 2000. Today, the main cooperators of the Unit program are the land-grant university, the state fish and game or conservation agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the Wildlife Management Institute. The Cooperative Units mission, as stated in Public Law 86-686, remains: 'To facilitate cooperation between the Federal Government, colleges and universities, and private organizations for cooperative unit programs of research and education relating to fish and wildlife and for other purposes.' Graduate research and education continue to be the program's primary missions. In any given year >600 graduate and post-graduate students are involved. Post-graduate employment of Unit-afffiliated students is >90%. Perhaps the primary benefit to the education process is the Units' formal connection to the state cooperator and to their federal agency that might not otherwise be available to university faculty and students. Units are conduits to state and federal funding for research projects conducted by university faculty and students. The CRU program is well positioned to educate a multitalented, ethnically diverse cadre of graduate students who will be prepared not only for their first professional job but also for their career by having been instilled with a desire for life-long professional accomplishment.

  2. 76 FR 10067 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ...--Industrial Macromolecular Crystallography Association Correction In notice document 2011--2412 appearing on... and Production Act of 1993--Industrial Nacromolecular Crystallography Association'' should read ``Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  3. Aspiration-based learning promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongkui; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Long; Li, Bin; Zhang, Wenge; Wang, Huifeng

    2011-06-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma by proposing an aspiration-based preference learning, under which individuals switch the learning agents only if the achieved payoffs are lower than their aspirations. Both synchronous and asynchronous updates are considered. We find that the aspiration level can substantially influence the evolution of cooperation, with the moderate aspiration level leading to a plateau of the high cooperation level. There exist phase transitions for proper combinations of parameters and we give an analysis for the phase transition points. We also investigate the stationary configuration patterns and the stationary distributions of cooperators and defectors on the square lattice for a comprehensive understanding. The behavior of the well-mixed system of our model has also been discussed. Our results may provide further insights into understanding the role played by individual aspiration in the emergence of cooperation.

  4. Global health research to promote social justice: a critical perspective.

    PubMed

    Bathum, Mary Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Researchers who use a critical perspective analyze the historical, political, economic, social, cultural, and gender factors that impact on the people being studied. Research is regarded as a way to promote social justice. The purpose of this article is to describe why and how a critical perspective was used in designing and implementing research with Aymara women healers in the high plains of Peru. The study is used to demonstrate the usefulness of a critical perspective in global health nursing research to promote social justice. PMID:18025866

  5. Using Geowall to Promote Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scec EIT Intern Team; Perry, S.; Jordan, T.

    2003-12-01

    The principal use of our Geowall system is to showcase the 3-D visualizations created by SCEC/EITR (Southern California Earthquake Center/Earthquake Information Technology Research) interns. These visualizations, called LA3D, are devised to educate the public, assist researchers, inspire students, and attract new interns. With the design criteria that LA3D code must be object-oriented and open-source, and that all datasets should be in internet-accessible databases, our interns have made interactive visualizations of southern California's earthquakes, faults, landforms, and other topographic features, that allow unlimited additions of new datasets and map objects. The interns built our Geowall system, and made a unique contribution to the Geowall consortium when they devised a simple way to use Java3D to create and send images to Geowall's projectors. The EIT interns are enormously proud of their accomplishments, and for most, working on LA3D has been the high point of their college careers. Their efforts have become central to testbed development of the system level science that SCEC is orchestrating in its Community Modeling Environment. In addition, SCEC's Communication, Education and Outreach Program uses LA3D on Geowall to communicate concepts about earthquakes and earthquake processes. Then, projecting LA3D on Geowall, it becomes easy to impress students from elementary to high school ages with what can be accomplished if they keep learning math and science. Finally, we bring Geowall to undergraduate research symposia and career-day open houses, to project LA3D and attract additional students to our intern program, which to date has united students in computer science, engineering, geoscience, mathematics, communication, pre-law, and cinema. (Note: distribution copies of LA3D will be available in early 2004.) The Southern California Earthquake Center Earthquake Information Technology Intern Team on this project: Adam Bongarzone, Hunter Francoeur, Lindsay

  6. Interferon regulatory factors and TFIIB cooperatively regulate interferon-responsive promoter activity in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, I M; Blanco, J C; Tsai, S Y; Tsai, M J; Ozato, K

    1996-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) bind to the interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) and regulate interferon- and virus-mediated gene expression. IRF-1 acts as a transcriptional activator, while IRF-2 acts as a repressor. Here we show that IRF-1 and IRF-2 bind to both cellular TFIIB, a component of the basal transcription machinery, and recombinant TFIIB (rTFIIB) and that this protein-protein interaction facilitates binding of IRFs to the ISRE. A functional interaction between TFIIB and IRF was assessed by a newly established in vitro transcription assay in which recombinant IRF-1 (rIRF-1) stimulated transcription specifically from an ISRE-containing template. With this assay we show that rIRF-1 and rTFIIB cooperatively enhance the ISRE promoter in vitro. We found that the activity of an ISRE-containing promoter was cooperatively enhanced upon cotransfection of TFIIB and IRF-1 cDNAs into P19 embryonal carcinoma cells, further demonstrating functional interactions in vivo. The cooperative enhancement by TFIIB and IRF-1 was independent of the TATA sequence in the ISRE promoter but dependent on the initiator sequence (Inr) and was abolished when P19 cells were induced to differentiate by retinoic acid treatment. In contrast, cotransfection of TFIIB and IRF-1 into NIH 3T3 cells resulted in a dose-dependent repression of promoter activation which occurred in a TATA-dependent manner. Our results indicate the presence of a cell type-specific factor that mediates the functional interaction between IRFs and TFIIB and that acts in conjunction with the requirement of TATA and Inr for promoter activation. PMID:8887661

  7. Promotion of research on in vitro immunotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Balls, M; Sabbioni, E

    2001-04-10

    ECVAM was established to play a leading role at the European level in the independent evaluation of the reliability and relevance of test methods and testing strategies for specific purposes through research on advanced methods and new test development and validation, so that chemicals and products of various kinds, including medicines, vaccines, medical devices, cosmetics, household products and agricultural products, can be manufactured, transported and used more economically and more safely, whilst the current relevance on animal test procedures is progressively reduced. Nowhere is this activity more necessary than in the field of immunotoxicology, where we know that chemicals and products of many kinds have the potential to stimulate, modulate or suppress the induction or expression of various types of immune responses. The problem is to effectively evaluate the potency of these effectors, and, since the available information is currently based on rather qualitative animal tests, to evaluate the true relevance of this knowledge and apply it intelligently in risk assessment processes which will protect human beings without unnecessarily limiting the development and use of materials which otherwise have economic, health and social benefits. The way forward must depend on the following: (a) a better understanding of immunotoxicological processes, based on a sounder understanding of the immune system itself (and of its network of control systems and interrelationships with other body systems); (b) The use of in vitro (not in vivo) systems based on human (not animal) cells and tissues; (c) integrated and tiered testing strategies, incorporating QSAR, as well as in vitro approaches; (d) taking advantage of the use of cells or factors from humans who have been exposed to potential immunotoxins, be this voluntarily, occupationally, environmentally or by accident; and (e) the recognition that virtually everything will effect one or more aspects of the immune system at

  8. Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin Proteins and Flotillins Cooperate to Promote Uropod Formation in T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Sibylla; Chen, Emily J. H.; Clarke, Fiona; Lyck, Ruth; Affentranger, Sarah; Burkhardt, Janis K.; Niggli, Verena

    2013-01-01

    T cell uropods are enriched in specific proteins including adhesion receptors such as P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), lipid raft-associated proteins such as flotillins and ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins which associate with cholesterol-rich raft domains and anchor adhesion receptors to the actin cytoskeleton. Using dominant mutants and siRNA technology we have tested the interactions among these proteins and their role in shaping the T cell uropod. Expression of wild type (WT) ezrin-EGFP failed to affect the morphology of human T cells or chemokine-induced uropod recruitment of PSGL-1 and flotillin-1 and -2. In contrast, expression of constitutively active T567D ezrin-EGFP induced a motile, polarized phenotype in some of the transfected T cells, even in the absence of chemokine. These cells featured F-actin-rich ruffles in the front and uropod enrichment of PSGL-1 and flotillins. T567D ezrin-EGFP was itself strongly enriched in the rear of the polarized T cells. Uropod formation induced by T567D ezrin-EGFP was actin-dependent as it was attenuated by inhibition of Rho-kinase or myosin II, and abolished by disruption of actin filaments. While expression of constitutively active ezrin enhanced cell polarity, expression of a dominant-negative deletion mutant of ezrin, 1–310 ezrin-EGFP, markedly reduced uropod formation induced by the chemokine SDF-1, T cell front-tail polarity, and capping of PSGL-1 and flotillins. Transfection of T cells with WT or T567D ezrin did not affect chemokine-mediated chemotaxis whereas 1–310 ezrin significantly impaired spontaneous 2D migration and chemotaxis. siRNA-mediated downregulation of flotillins in murine T cells attenuated moesin capping and uropod formation, indicating that ERM proteins and flotillins cooperate in uropod formation. In summary, our results indicate that activated ERM proteins function together with flotillins to promote efficient chemotaxis of T cells by structuring the uropod of migrating T

  9. Cooperation between distinct viral variants promotes growth of H3N2 influenza in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Xue, Katherine S; Hooper, Kathryn A; Ollodart, Anja R; Dingens, Adam S; Bloom, Jesse D

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses rapidly diversify into quasispecies of related genotypes. This genetic diversity has long been known to facilitate adaptation, but recent studies have suggested that cooperation between variants might also increase population fitness. Here, we demonstrate strong cooperation between two H3N2 influenza variants that differ by a single mutation at residue 151 in neuraminidase, which normally mediates viral exit from host cells. Residue 151 is often annotated as an ambiguous amino acid in sequenced isolates, indicating mixed viral populations. We show that mixed populations grow better than either variant alone in cell culture. Pure populations of either variant generate the other through mutation and then stably maintain a mix of the two genotypes. We suggest that cooperation arises because mixed populations combine one variant's proficiency at cell entry with the other's proficiency at cell exit. Our work demonstrates a specific cooperative interaction between defined variants in a viral quasispecies. PMID:26978794

  10. Power-law distributed temporal heterogeneity of human activities promotes cooperation on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Li, Rong

    2016-09-01

    An evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) with players located on Barabási-Albert scale-free networks is studied. The impact of players' heterogeneous temporal activity pattern on the evolution of cooperation is investigated. To this end, the normal procedure that players update their strategies immediately after a round of game is discarded. Instead, players update strategies according to their assigned reproduction time, which follows a power-law distribution. We find that the temporal heterogeneity of players' activities facilitates the prosperity of cooperation, indicating the important role of hubs in the maintenance of cooperation on scale-free networks. When the reproduction time is assigned to individuals negatively related to their degrees, a fluctuation of the cooperation level with the increase of the exponent β is observed.

  11. Motivation for Healthy Behavior: A Review of Health Promotion Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmore, Sarah; Goodson, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Authors reviewed the theoretical history of the "motivation" construct, and its utilization within past/current health behavior research. Textbooks and review articles functioned as sources for the theoretical history review. Research published within a 10-year period (1993-2002) in four health promotion journals (all with impact factors greater…

  12. 7 CFR 966.48 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Research and promotion. 966.48 Section 966.48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Research...

  13. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, promotion, and market development. 982.58 Section 982.58 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Market Development § 982.58 Research,...

  14. 7 CFR 966.48 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research and promotion. 966.48 Section 966.48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Research...

  15. 76 FR 314 - Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum AGENCY..., Research, and Information Referendum. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is announcing that..., USDA published in the Federal Register (75 FR 70573), a final rule that sets forth procedures that...

  16. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... establishment and carrying on of research, marketing, and development projects and studies with respect to sale... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section 1250.341 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.333 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research and promotion. 1205.333 Section 1205.333 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.333 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., issuance, effectuation, and administration of appropriate plans or projects for the advertising and sales... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and promotion. 1205.333 Section 1205.333... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND...

  19. Research Use by Cooperative Extension Educators in New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Chen, Emily K.; Pillemer, Karl; Meador, Rhoda H.

    2013-01-01

    A Web-based survey of 388 off-campus Cornell Extension educators in New York State examined their attitudes toward research, sources of research-based information, knowledge and beliefs about evidence-based programs, and involvement in research activities. Strong consensus emerged that research is central and that educators are capable of reading…

  20. 34 CFR 350.33 - What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.33 What cooperation requirements must a... Engineering Research Center meet? 350.33 Section 350.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the...

  1. 34 CFR 350.33 - What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.33 What cooperation requirements must a... Engineering Research Center meet? 350.33 Section 350.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the...

  2. 34 CFR 350.33 - What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EDUCATION DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROJECTS AND CENTERS PROGRAM What Rehabilitation Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.33 What cooperation requirements must a... Engineering Research Center meet? 350.33 Section 350.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the...

  3. Behavioral economics: areas of cooperative research between economics and applied behavioral analysis1

    PubMed Central

    Kagel, John H.; Winkler, Robin C.

    1972-01-01

    The current research methods of behavioral economics are characterized by inadequate empirical foundations. Psychologists involved in the experimental analysis of behavior with their research strategies and their experimental technology, particularly that of the Token Economy, can assist in providing empirical foundations for behavioral economics. Cooperative research between economists and psychologists to this end should be immediately fruitful and mutually beneficial. PMID:16795356

  4. Discriminative host sanction together with relatedness promote the cooperation in fig/fig wasp mutualism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Sun, Bao-Fa; Yang, Yan

    2015-07-01

    Sanctioning or punishing is regarded as one of the most important dynamics in the evolution of cooperation. However, it has not been empirically examined yet whether or not such enforcement selection by sanctioning or punishing and classical theories like kin or reciprocity selection are separate mechanisms contributing to the evolution of cooperation. In addition, it remains largely unclear what factors determine the intensity or effectiveness of sanction. Here, we show that in the obligate, interspecific cooperation between figs and fig wasps, the hosted figs can discriminatively sanction cheating individuals by decreasing the offspring development ratio. Concurrently, the figs can reward the cooperative pollinators with a higher offspring development ratio. This sanction intensity and effectiveness largely depend on how closely the host and symbiont are related either in terms of reciprocity exchange or genetic similarity as measured by the reciprocal of the foundress number. Our results imply that in asymmetric systems, symbionts might be forced to evolve to be cooperative or even altruistic through discriminative sanction against the noncooperative symbiont and reward to the cooperative symbiont by the host (i.e. through a game of 'carrot and stick'). PMID:25661043

  5. Long-term social bonds promote cooperation in the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Angèle; Larose, Karine; Dubois, Frédérique

    2009-12-01

    Reciprocal altruism, one of the most probable explanations for cooperation among non-kin, has been modelled as a Prisoner's Dilemma. According to this game, cooperation could evolve when individuals, who expect to play again, use conditional strategies like tit-for-tat or Pavlov. There is evidence that humans use such strategies to achieve mutual cooperation, but most controlled experiments with non-human animals have failed to find cooperation. One reason for this could be that subjects fail to cooperate because they behave as if they were to play only once. To assess this hypothesis, we conducted an experiment with monogamous zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) that were tested in a two-choice apparatus, with either their social partner or an experimental opponent of the opposite sex. We found that zebra finches maintained high levels of cooperation in an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game only when interacting with their social partner. Although other mechanisms may have contributed to the observed difference between the two treatments, our results support the hypothesis that animals do not systematically give in to the short-term temptation of cheating when long-term benefits exist. Thus, our findings contradict the commonly accepted idea that reciprocal altruism will be rare in non-human animals. PMID:19740884

  6. Hunting for wealthy encounters promotes cooperation in spatial Prisoner's Dilemma games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhihu; Wu, Te; Li, Zhi; Wang, Long

    2013-04-01

    We consider an evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma game on the lattice where a parameter α is employed to determine with whom individuals aspire to interact in future iterations. Specifically, for positive α, rich environments are preferentially considered when individuals hunt for new surroundings, while for negative α, the opposite holds. When α = 0, individuals adopt `random move'-like migration. The results indicate that aspiring for wealthy ambience makes cooperation survive and even thrive under certain circumstances. Moreover, there exist the optimal population densities that most uphold cooperation. We also investigate the expansion of cooperators. And the discovery of utmost salience is that cooperators can spontaneously break out for the population consisting of full defectors in the presence of strategy mutation. Our results relax the requirements for cooperation to outbreak and suggest that spying into others' strategies is not always necessary for the cooperation to burst. Finally, we deepen our studies by exploring the situation that each individual has an independent α and find that the fate of evolution is mainly determined by the population composition in this scenario.

  7. Evaluating fitness by integrating the highest payoff within the neighborhood promotes cooperation in social dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Cheng-yi; Ma, Zhi-qin; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Juan

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a modified fitness evaluation mechanism, which integrates the environmental factors into the focal player’s fitness calculation, to investigate the evolution of cooperative behaviors in the prisoner’s dilemma game. Here, the fitness of a player is computed by combining the individual raw payoff and the highest payoff within the neighborhood, which is regulated by a single parameter termed as trust level η. We show, compared to the traditional version (η=0), that the cooperation level can be highly enhanced for η>0. Meanwhile, we illustrate the dynamical evolution of cooperators on the square lattice, and for different defection parameters b the FC-K curves are utilized to investigate the impact of noise during the strategy updates. Likely, the role of pursuing the highest payoff within the neighborhood also favors the survival of cooperators in the spatial snowdrift game. In addition, the sensibility of knowing the external factors is often not identical for all individuals and we consider the distributed trust level in which η is a distributed parameter, and the results indicate that pursuing the highest payoff in the neighborhood is also inspiring as a consequence of its positive effect on cooperation. The current results are highly instructive for us to further understand the maintenance and emergence of cooperation under the framework of evolutionary game theory.

  8. Cooperation in the Game and Sport Structure of Children: One Dimension of Psychosocial Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Wayne K.

    1984-01-01

    Examines benefits to individuals and society of cooperative--as opposed to competitive--interpersonal relationships. Discusses children's sports, games, and play as means to promote cooperation and reviews research showing positive effects of children's cooperative play. Provides standards for a cooperative philosophy that would promote positive…

  9. Debating Whether Dinosaurs Should Be "Cloned" from Ancient DNA To Promote Cooperative Learning in an Introductory Evolution Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soja, Constance M.; Huerta, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Describes an interactive internet exercise that enables students to engage in cooperative library and web research on a controversial topic in science, specifically the cloning of extinct lifeforms. Creates a dynamic learning environment in a large introductory geology course and demonstrates the importance of scientific literacy. (Author/SAH)

  10. Integrating neighborhoods in the evaluation of fitness promotes cooperation in the spatial prisoner’s dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Du, Wen-Bo; Cao, Xian-Bin; Zhang, Lian-Zhong

    2011-04-01

    A fundamental question of human society is the evolution of cooperation. Many previous studies explored this question via setting spatial background, where players obtain their payoffs by playing game with their nearest neighbors. Another undoubted fact is that the environment plays an important role in the individual development. Inspired by these phenomena, we reconsider the definition of individual fitness which integrates the environment, denoted by the average payoff of all individual neighbors, with the traditional individual payoffs by introducing a selection parameter u. Tuning u equal to zero returns the traditional version, while increasing u bears the influence of environment. We find that considering the environment, i.e., integrating neighborhoods in the evaluation of fitness, promotes cooperation. If we enhance the value of u, the invasion of defection could be resisted better. We also provide quantitative explanations and complete phase diagrams presenting the influence of the environment on the evolution of cooperation. Finally, the universality of this mechanism is testified for different neighborhood sizes, different topology structures and different game models. Our work may shed light on the emergence and persistence of cooperation in our life.

  11. 7 CFR 1260.169 - Promotion, research, consumer information and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information and... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Beef...

  12. Conditional cooperativity in toxin-antitoxin regulation prevents random toxin activation and promotes fast translational recovery.

    PubMed

    Cataudella, Ilaria; Trusina, Ala; Sneppen, Kim; Gerdes, Kenn; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-08-01

    Many toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci are known to strongly repress their own transcription. This auto-inhibition is often called 'conditional cooperativity' as it relies on cooperative binding of TA complexes to operator DNA that occurs only when toxins are in a proper stoichiometric relationship with antitoxins. There has recently been an explosion of interest in TA systems due to their role in bacterial persistence, however the role of conditional cooperativity is still unclear. We reveal the biological function of conditional cooperativity by constructing a mathematical model of the well studied TA system, relBE of Escherichia coli. We show that the model with the in vivo and in vitro established parameters reproduces experimentally observed response to nutritional stress. We further demonstrate that conditional cooperativity stabilizes the level of antitoxin in rapidly growing cells such that random induction of relBE is minimized. At the same time it enables quick removal of free toxin when the starvation is terminated. PMID:22495927

  13. Challenging our own practices in Indigenous health promotion and research.

    PubMed

    Pyett, Priscilla; Waples-Crowe, Peter; van der Sterren, Anke

    2008-12-01

    At the 2006 National Conference of the Australian Health Promotion, Māori academic and public health physician Dr Papaarangi Reid challenged us to critique our own practice and asked whether health promotion needs to be de-colonised. In this paper, one Indigenous and two non-Indigenous researchers working within the Aboriginal community controlled health sector reflect on ways in which research and health promotion interventions with Indigenous populations challenge or reinforce the very values that have led to the disadvantage, neglect and apathy experienced by Indigenous populations in the first place. While our practice is framed by the principles of Aboriginal self-determination and community control, we suggest that de-colonising is not so much about the need to invent new research methods nor to search for research methods in traditional Aboriginal culture; it is much more about values, processes and relationships. We recognise the need to challenge the deficit model in health promotion and research, and we do not want to inflict any more damage to the community, through reinforcing stereotypes, creating fear, or contributing to further bad press. We argue for adopting a methodology that shifts power and enables Indigenous people to frame research in ways they want it framed, and for taking a holistic approach and focusing on community strength and resilience. PMID:19053933

  14. Cooperative Learning: Experiencing the Constitution in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Lawrence; Foyle, Harvey C.

    Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy involving students in small group learning activities that promote positive interaction. Research studies have consistently found that cooperative learning promotes increased academic achievement and involves relative use of implementation and reasonable costs. Improved behavior, increased positive…

  15. Integrating the environmental factor into the strategy updating rule to promote cooperation in evolutionary games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lin; Zhou, Xin; Liang, Zhi; Wu, Jia-Rui

    2012-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that the environment plays an important role for social individuals. In this paper, we integrate the environmental factor, which is defined as the average payoff of all a player's neighbours, with the standard Fermi updating rule by introducing a tunable parameter, ω. It is found that the level of cooperation increases remarkably, and that the cooperators can better resist the invasion of defection with an increase in ω. This interesting phenomenon is then explained from a microscopic view. In addition, the universality of this mechanism is also proved with the help of the small-world network and the random regular graph. This work may be helpful in understanding cooperation behaviour in species from unicellular organisms up to human beings.

  16. Cooperative research in space geodesy and crustal dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This research grant, which covered the period of July 1991 to August 1994, was concerned with a variety of topics within the geodesy and crustal dynamics fields. The specific topics of this grant included satellite tracking and gravity field determinations and crustal dynamics (this concentrated of space geodetic site stability for VLBI sites). Summaries of the specific research projects are included along with a list of publications and presentations supported by this research grant.

  17. Research and development at ORNL/CESAR towards cooperating robotic systems for hazardous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.; Fujimura, K.; Unseren, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    One of the frontiers in intelligent machine research is the understanding of how constructive cooperation among multiple autonomous agents can be effected. The effort at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR)at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focuses on two problem areas: (1) cooperation by multiple mobile robots in dynamic, incompletely known environments; and (2) cooperating robotic manipulators. Particular emphasis is placed on experimental evaluation of research and developments using the CESAR robot system testbeds, including three mobile robots, and a seven-axis, kinematically redundant mobile manipulator. This paper summarizes initial results of research addressing the decoupling of position and force control for two manipulators holding a common object, and the path planning for multiple robots in a common workspace. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Research and development at ORNL/CESAR towards cooperating robotic systems for hazardous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, R. C.; Fujimura, K.; Unseren, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the frontiers in intelligent machine research is the understanding of how constructive cooperation among multiple autonomous agents can be effected. The effort at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focuses on two problem areas: (1) cooperation by multiple mobile robots in dynamic, incompletely known environments; and (2) cooperating robotic manipulators. Particular emphasis is placed on experimental evaluation of research and developments using the CESAR robot system testbeds, including three mobile robots, and a seven-axis, kinematically redundant mobile manipulator. This paper summarizes initial results of research addressing the decoupling of position and force control for two manipulators holding a common object, and the path planning for multiple robots in a common workspace.

  19. A structured population model suggests that long life and post-reproductive lifespan promote the evolution of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Ross, Caitlin; Rychtář, Jan; Rueppell, Olav

    2015-03-21

    Social organization correlates with longevity across animal taxa. This correlation has been explained by selection for longevity by social evolution. The reverse causality is also conceivable but has not been sufficiently considered. We constructed a simple, spatially structured population model of asexually reproducing individuals to study the effect of temporal life history structuring on the evolution of cooperation. Individuals employed fixed strategies of cooperation or defection towards all neighbours in a basic Prisoner's Dilemma paradigm. Individuals aged and transitioned through different life history stages asynchronously without migration. An individual's death triggered a reproductive event by one immediate neighbour. The specific neighbour was chosen probabilistically according to the cumulative payoff from all local interactions. Varying the duration of pre-reproductive, reproductive, and post-reproductive life history stages, long-term simulations allowed a systematic evaluation of the influence of the duration of these specific life history stages. Our results revealed complex interactions among the effects of the three basic life history stages and the benefit to defect. Overall, a long post-reproductive stage promoted the evolution of cooperation, while a prolonged pre-reproductive stage has a negative effect. In general, the total length of life also increased the probability of the evolution of cooperation. Thus, our specific model suggests that the timing of life history transitions and total duration of life history stages may affect the evolution of cooperative behaviour. We conclude that the causation of the empirically observed association of life expectancy and sociality may be more complex than previously realized. PMID:25637763

  20. Promotion of cooperation induced by a self-questioning update rule in the spatial traveler's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Qing; Wang, Juan; Hu, Meng-long; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Qiu-shi; Xia, Cheng-yi

    2014-01-01

    In sociology and economics, evolutionary game theory has provided a powerful framework to illustrate the social dilemma's problems, and many evolutionary game models are presented, such as prisoner's dilemma game, snowdrift game, public goods game, and so on. In this paper, however, we focus on another typical pair-wise game model: Traveler's Dilemma Game (TDG), which has been deeply investigated in economics, but less attention has been paid to this topic within the physics community. We mainly discuss the influence of strategy update rules on the evolution of cooperation in the spatial TDG, and in detail explore the role of a novel self-questioning or self-learning update mechanism in the evolution of cooperation of the TDG model on the square lattice. In our self-questioning rule, each player does not imitate the strategy state of his or her nearest neighbors and simply plays the traveler's dilemma games twice with nearest neighbors: one is to calculate the actual payoff in the current game round; the other is to perform a virtual game which is used to obtain an intangible payoff if he or she adopts another random strategy. Then, the focal player decides to keep the current strategy or to change into that virtual strategy according to the Fermi-like dynamics. A great number of Monte Carlo simulations indicate that our self-questioning rule is a low information game decision-making mechanism which can greatly promote the evolution of cooperation for some specific conditions in the spatial TDG model. Furthermore, this novel rule can also be applied into the prisoner's dilemma game, and likewise the behavior of cooperation can be largely enhanced. Our results are of high importance to analyze and understand the emergence of cooperation within many real social and economical systems.

  1. A structured population model suggests that long life and post-reproductive lifespan promote the evolution of cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Caitlin; Rychtář, Jan; Rueppell, Olav

    2015-01-01

    Social organization correlates with longevity across animal taxa. This correlation has been explained by selection for longevity by social evolution. The reverse causality is also conceivable but has not been sufficiently considered. We constructed a simple, spatially structured population model of asexually reproducing individuals to study the effect of temporal life history structuring on the evolution of cooperation. Individuals employed fixed strategies of cooperation or defection towards all neighbours in a basic Prisoner’s Dilemma paradigm. Individuals aged and transitioned through different life history stages asynchronously without migration. An individual’s death triggered a reproductive event by one immediate neighbour. The specific neighbour was chosen probabilistically according to the cumulative payoff from all local interactions. Varying the duration of pre-reproductive, reproductive, and post-reproductive life history stages, long-term simulations allowed a systematic evaluation of the influence of the duration of these specific life history stages. Our results revealed complex interactions among the effects of the three basic life history stages and the benefit to defect. Overall, a long post-reproductive stage promoted the evolution of cooperation, while a prolonged pre-reproductive stage has a negative effect. In general, the total length of life also increased the probability of the evolution of cooperation. Thus, our specific model suggests that the timing of life history transitions and total duration of life history stages may affect the evolution of cooperative behaviour. We conclude that the causation of the empirically observed association of life expectancy and sociality may be more complex than previously realized. PMID:25637763

  2. Cooperative Instructional Application of Writing Research. Final Report. Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronnell, Bruce; And Others

    The second of three volumes on the relationship between writing research and instruction, this report first describes a 1982 conference on writing policies and problems sponsored by the Educational Research and Development division of the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) and the California State University, Long Beach. The second section…

  3. Semiconductor Research Corporation: A Case Study in Cooperative Innovation Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logar, Nathaniel; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    In the study of innovation institutions, it is important to consider how different institutional models can affect a research organization in conducting or funding successful work. As an industry collaborative, Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) provides an example of a privately funded institution that leverages the inputs of several member…

  4. Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century: Cooperative Agreement

    EPA Science Inventory

    Through this $10 million cooperative agreement, The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) will increase its recognition as an active leader and supporter of research that seeks innovative solutions to problems posed by aging water i...

  5. Leadership in University-Based Cooperative Research Centres: A Qualitative Investigation of Performance Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, S. Bartholomew; Hess, Clara E.; McGinnis, Jennifer Lindberg; Gray, Denis O.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the importance often attached to the role played by leadership in university-based cooperative research centres, we know very little about what "leadership" means in this specific context. The research reported here used a qualitative approach to identify fifteen dimensions of leadership performance for directors of university-based…

  6. 78 FR 35323 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Gender-Informed Research (Women): Enhanced Approaches to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... National Institute of Corrections Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement--Gender-Informed Research (Women... gender-informed knowledge specific to women that will both inform a future research agenda and define a... specific to justice-involved women and the most significant innovation in policy, practice, and...

  7. FINAL REPORT: EPA/AWWARF COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT PROGRAM FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning in 1984 and continuing in 1985 and 1986, Congress agreed to support a joint research program and approved adding $1 million to the EPA annual budget for the purpose of establishing a cooperative agreement (CA) with the American Water Works Association Research Foundatio...

  8. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction infratechnology and generic technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1990-01-01

    A summary of research is presented on coal liquefaction. Programs include: bioprocessing of coal, University of Kentucky; materials characterization study of coal liquefaction processes, University of Kentucky; novel approaches to catalysis in coprocessing and in direct liquefaction of coal, University of Pittsburgh; liquefaction research in pyrolysis, catalysis and coal dissolution, West Virginia University; enhanced reactivity and selectivity in coal liquefaction and coprocessing systems, Auburn University; integrated liquefaction/characterization, University of Utah; basic process/resource evaluation task, center for applied energy research; and project integration and database development, University of Kentucky.

  9. Cooperative research in terrestrial planetary geology and geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This final report for the period of July 1991 to August 1994 covered a variety of topics concerning the study of Earth and Mars. The Earth studies stressed the interpretation of the MAGSAT crustal magnetic anomalies in order to determine the geological structure, mineralogical composition, magnetic nature, and the historical background of submarine features, and also featured work in the area of terrestrial remote sensing. Mars research included the early evolution of the Martian atmosphere and hydrosphere and the investigations of the large Martian impact basins. Detailed summaries of the research is included, along with lists of the publications resulting from this research.

  10. Co-operative DNA binding by GAGA transcription factor requires the conserved BTB/POZ domain and reorganizes promoter topology.

    PubMed Central

    Katsani, K R; Hajibagheri, M A; Verrijzer, C P

    1999-01-01

    The POZ domain is a conserved protein-protein interaction motif present in a variety of transcription factors involved in development, chromatin remodelling and human cancers. Here, we study the role of the POZ domain of the GAGA transcription factor in promoter recognition. Natural target promoters for GAGA typically contain multiple GAGA-binding elements. Our results show that the POZ domain mediates strong co-operative binding to multiple sites but inhibits binding to single sites. Protein cross-linking and gel filtration chromatography experiments established that the POZ domain is required for GAGA oligomerization into higher order complexes. Thus, GAGA oligomerization increases binding specificity by selecting only promoters with multiple sites. Electron microscopy revealed that GAGA binds to multiple sites as a large oligomer and induces bending of the promoter DNA. Our results indicate a novel mode of DNA binding by GAGA, in which a large GAGA complex binds multiple GAGA elements that are spread out over a region of a few hundred base pairs. We suggest a model in which the promoter DNA is wrapped around a GAGA multimer in a conformation that may exclude normal nucleosome formation. PMID:9927429

  11. A 2-stage strategy updating rule promotes cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiang-Sheng; Zhu, Ping; Liu, Run-Ran; Liu, En-Yu; Wei, Gui-Yi

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we propose a spatial prisoner's dilemma game model with a 2-stage strategy updating rule, and focus on the cooperation behavior of the system. In the first stage, i.e., the pre-learning stage, a focal player decides whether to update his strategy according to the pre-learning factor β and the payoff difference between himself and the average of his neighbors. If the player makes up his mind to update, he enters into the second stage, i.e., the learning stage, and adopts a strategy of a randomly selected neighbor according to the standard Fermi updating rule. The simulation results show that the cooperation level has a non-trivial dependence on the pre-learning factor. Generally, the cooperation frequency decreases as the pre-learning factor increases; but a high cooperation level can be obtained in the intermediate region of -3 < β < -1. We then give some explanations via studying the co-action of pre-learning and learning. Our results may sharpen the understanding of the influence of the strategy updating rule on evolutionary games.

  12. Cooperation between distinct viral variants promotes growth of H3N2 influenza in cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Katherine S; Hooper, Kathryn A; Ollodart, Anja R; Dingens, Adam S; Bloom, Jesse D

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses rapidly diversify into quasispecies of related genotypes. This genetic diversity has long been known to facilitate adaptation, but recent studies have suggested that cooperation between variants might also increase population fitness. Here, we demonstrate strong cooperation between two H3N2 influenza variants that differ by a single mutation at residue 151 in neuraminidase, which normally mediates viral exit from host cells. Residue 151 is often annotated as an ambiguous amino acid in sequenced isolates, indicating mixed viral populations. We show that mixed populations grow better than either variant alone in cell culture. Pure populations of either variant generate the other through mutation and then stably maintain a mix of the two genotypes. We suggest that cooperation arises because mixed populations combine one variant’s proficiency at cell entry with the other’s proficiency at cell exit. Our work demonstrates a specific cooperative interaction between defined variants in a viral quasispecies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13974.001 PMID:26978794

  13. Fish Protection: Cooperative research advances fish-friendly turbine design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Ahmann, Martin L.; Trumbo, Bradly A.; Foust, Jason

    2012-12-01

    Renewable hydropower is a tremendous resource within the Pacific Northwest that is managed with considerable cost and consideration for the safe migration of salmon. Recent research conducted in this region has provided results that could lower the impacts of hydro power production and make the technology more fish-friendly. This research is now being applied during a period when a huge emphasis is being made to develop clean, renewable energy sources.

  14. 7 CFR 987.33 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Research and promotion. 987.33 Section 987.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC DATES PRODUCED OR PACKED IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA...

  15. 7 CFR 930.48 - Research, market development and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Research, market development and promotion. 930.48 Section 930.48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN,...

  16. 7 CFR 982.58 - Research, promotion, and market development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research, promotion, and market development. 982.58 Section 982.58 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON...

  17. 7 CFR 987.33 - Research and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research and promotion. 987.33 Section 987.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC DATES PRODUCED OR PACKED IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA...

  18. 7 CFR 930.48 - Research, market development and promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Research, market development and promotion. 930.48 Section 930.48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN,...

  19. Promoting Effective Use of Technology through Teacher-Researcher Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanik, H. Bahadir; Porter, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a case study in which researcher-practitioner collaboration took place to promote effective use of technology in an urban elementary school mathematics classroom. Data were primarily gathered through classroom observations and interviews. The aim of this study was twofold. First, to increase our understanding of the effects…

  20. 75 FR 55255 - Egg Research and Promotion Order; Referendum Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... in the Federal Register on September 28, 2009 (74 FR 49342), with a 60-day comment period. No... September 25, 2009, issue of the Federal Register (74 FR 48865). This final rule adds a new subpart and... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1250 Egg Research and Promotion Order; Referendum Procedures...

  1. 76 FR 42012 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... published in 2008 (73 FR 60097). The Board recommended the use of a combined total of the average of the... Register (76 FR 18422) for public comment a proposed rule providing for the adjustment in Board membership... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment...

  2. Evolution of a Teacher Professional Development Program that Promotes Teacher and Student Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, S. M.; Croft, S. K.; Garmany, C. D.; Walker, C. E.

    2005-12-01

    The Research Based Science Education (RBSE) and Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science (TLRBSE) programs at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory have been evolving for nearly ten years. Our current program is actually a team of programs aiding teachers in doing research with small telescopes, large research-grade telescopes, astronomical data archives, and the Spitzer Space Telescope. Along the way, as these programs evolved, a number of basic questions were continuously discussed by the very talented program team. These questions included: 1) What is real research and why should we encourage it? 2) How can it be successfully brought to the classroom? 3) What is the relative importance of teacher content knowledge versus science process knowledge? 4) How frustrating should an authentic research experience be? 5) How do we measure the success of our professional development program? 6) How should be evaluate and publish student work? 7) How can teachers work together on a team to pursue research? 8) What is the model for interaction of teachers and researchers - equal partners versus the graduate student/apprentice model? 9) What is the ideal mix of skills for a professional development team at NOAO? 10) What role can distance learning play in professional preparation? 11) What tools are needed for data analysis? 12) How can we stay funded? Our evolving program has also been used as a test bed to examine new models of teacher's professional development that may aid our outreach efforts in the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope program, the Thirty-Meter Telescope program, and the National Virtual Observatory program. We will describe a variety of lessons learned (and relearned) and try to describe best practices in promoting teacher and student research. The TLRBSE Program is funded by the National Science Foundation under ESI 0101982, funded through the AURA/NSF Cooperative Agreement AST-9613615. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research

  3. Reputation Effects in Social Networks Do Not Promote Cooperation: An Experimental Test of the Raub & Weesie Model

    PubMed Central

    Corten, Rense; Rosenkranz, Stephanie; Buskens, Vincent; Cook, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the popularity of the notion that social cohesion in the form of dense social networks promotes cooperation in Prisoner’s Dilemmas through reputation, very little experimental evidence for this claim exists. We address this issue by testing hypotheses from one of the few rigorous game-theoretic models on this topic, the Raub & Weesie model, in two incentivized lab experiments. In the experiments, 156 subjects played repeated two-person PDs in groups of six. In the “atomized interactions” condition, subjects were only informed about the outcomes of their own interactions, while in the “embedded” condition, subjects were informed about the outcomes of all interactions in their group, allowing for reputation effects. The design of the experiments followed the specification of the RW model as closely as possible. For those aspects of the model that had to be modified to allow practical implementation in an experiment, we present additional analyses that show that these modifications do not affect the predictions. Contrary to expectations, we do not find that cooperation is higher in the embedded condition than in the atomized interaction. Instead, our results are consistent with an interpretation of the RW model that includes random noise, or with learning models of cooperation in networks. PMID:27366907

  4. Promotion of cooperation due to diversity of players in the spatial public goods game with increasing neighborhood size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Cheng-jie; Sun, Shi-wen; Wang, Li; Ding, Shuai; Wang, Juan; Xia, Cheng-yi

    2014-07-01

    It is well-known that individual diversity is a typical feature within the collective population. To model this kind of characteristics, we propose an evolutionary model of public goods game with two types of players (named as A and B), where players are located on the sites of a square lattice satisfying the periodic boundary conditions. The evolution of the strategy distribution is governed by iterated strategy adoption from a randomly selected neighbor with a probability, which not only depends on the payoff difference between players, but also on the type of the neighbor. For B-type agents, we pose a pre-factor (0cooperators characterizing the promotion of cooperation. Current findings are of utmost importance for us to understand the evolution of cooperation under many real-world circumstances, such as the natural, biological, economic and even social systems.

  5. Cooperative Water Resources Research and Training 1969 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Office of Water Resources Research.

    This report is presented in four parts: (1) Research Results and Their Application; (2) Manpower, Training and Public Involvements; (3) OWRR Activities; (4) Highlight Reports by the 51 State Institute Directors. Part 1 reviews the results expected to be forthcoming through projects financed during the Calendar Year 1969. This section focuses on 12…

  6. Cooperative earthquake research between the United States and the People’s Republic of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russ, D.P.; Johnson, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Cooperative research by scientists of the United States and the People's Republic of China (PRC) has resulted in important new finding concerning the fundamental characteristics of earthquakes and new insight into mitigating earthquake hazards. Much of the research is being conducted under the U.S State Department Protocol for Scientific and Technical Cooperation in Earthquake Studies between the PRC State Seismological Bureau (SSB) and the U.S Geological Survey and the National Science Foundation. Activites and prgoress accomplished under the protocol were the subject of two special sessions at the 1985 American Geophyiscal Union Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. 

  7. Functional and cooperative interactions between the homeodomain PDX1, Pbx, and Prep1 factors on the somatostatin promoter.

    PubMed

    Goudet, G; Delhalle, S; Biemar, F; Martial, J A; Peers, B

    1999-02-12

    Expression of the somatostatin gene in endocrine pancreatic cells is controlled by several regulatory cis-elements located in the promoter region. Among these, the adjacent UE-A and TSEI elements, located from -113 to -85 relative to the transcription initiation site, function in combination and act as a pancreas-specific mini-enhancer. The TSEI element is recognized by the pancreatic homeodomain factor PDX1. In the present study, we show that the UE-A element binds a heterodimeric complex composed of a Pbx factor and the Prep1 protein, both belonging to the atypical three-amino acid loop extension homeodomain family. Recombinant Pbx1 and Prep1 proteins bind cooperatively to the UE-A site, whereas neither protein can bind this site alone. Transient transfection experiments reveal that both Pbx1 and Prep1 are required to generate a strong transcriptional activation from the UE-A element when this element is inserted close to the TATA box. In contrast, in the context of the intact somatostatin promoter or mini-enhancer, Pbx1 and Prep1 alone have no effect, but they produce a drastic activation when the pancreatic homeodomain factor PDX1 is also coexpressed. Thus, the activity of the somatostatin mini-enhancer is mediated by a cooperative interaction between the Pbx-Prep1 heterodimeric complex and the pancreatic factor PDX1. PMID:9933599

  8. Promoting Quality for Teacher Action Research: Lessons Learned from Science Teachers' Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Feldman, Allan

    2006-01-01

    In this article we explore the concept of quality in teacher action research by re-examining our participation with science teachers in several different collaborative action research projects. We conducted second-order action research and generated a series reflexive conditions for promoting and ensuring quality action research. We assert that a…

  9. 78 FR 24152 - Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order; Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information..., Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information Order (Order). DATES: Comments must be received by... INFORMATION: Title: Softwood Lumber Research, Promotion, Consumer Education and Industry Information...

  10. Selfish third parties act as peacemakers by transforming conflicts and promoting cooperation.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Nir; Halali, Eliran

    2015-06-01

    The tremendous costs of conflict have made humans resourceful not only at warfare but also at peacemaking. Although third parties have acted as peacemakers since the dawn of history, little is known about voluntary, informal third-party intervention in conflict. Here we introduce the Peacemaker Game, a novel experimental paradigm, to model and study the interdependence between disputants and third parties in conflict. In the game, two disputants choose whether to cooperate or compete and a third party chooses whether or not to intervene in the conflict. Intervention introduces side payments that transform the game disputants are playing; it also introduces risk for the third party by making it vulnerable to disputants' choices. Six experiments revealed three robust effects: (i) The mere possibility of third-party intervention significantly increases cooperation in interpersonal and intergroup conflicts; (ii) reducing the risk to third parties dramatically increases intervention rates, to everyone's benefit; and (iii) disputants' cooperation rates are consistently higher than third parties' intervention rates. These findings explain why, how, and when self-interested third parties facilitate peaceful conflict resolution. PMID:26038546

  11. Double-dealing behavior potentially promotes cooperation in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Qionglin; Li, Haihong; Cheng, Hongyan; Li, Yuting; Yang, Junzhong

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the effects of double-dealing behavior on cooperation in evolutionary games. Each individual in a population has two attributes: character and action. One's action may be consistent with one's character or not. We provide analytical results by a mean-field description of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games (PDGs). Moreover, we give numerical results on different networks, ranging from square lattices to scale-free networks (SFNs). Two important conclusions have been drawn from the results on SFNs. Firstly, if only non-influential individuals (those with low degrees) have chances of becoming double-dealers, cooperation is certain to deteriorate. Secondly, when influential individuals (those with high degrees) adopt double-dealing behavior moderately, cooperation would be enhanced, which is in opposition to the traditional belief. These results help us to understand better the social phenomenon of the existence of double-dealers. In addition to the PDG, other types of games including the snowdrift game, the stag-hunt game and the harmony game have also been studied on our model. The results for these three games are also presented, which are consistent with the results for the PDG qualitatively. Furthermore, we consider our model under the co-evolution framework, in which the probability of an individual changing into a double-dealer and the individual strategy both could evolve during the evolutionary process.

  12. Selfish third parties act as peacemakers by transforming conflicts and promoting cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Halevy, Nir; Halali, Eliran

    2015-01-01

    The tremendous costs of conflict have made humans resourceful not only at warfare but also at peacemaking. Although third parties have acted as peacemakers since the dawn of history, little is known about voluntary, informal third-party intervention in conflict. Here we introduce the Peacemaker Game, a novel experimental paradigm, to model and study the interdependence between disputants and third parties in conflict. In the game, two disputants choose whether to cooperate or compete and a third party chooses whether or not to intervene in the conflict. Intervention introduces side payments that transform the game disputants are playing; it also introduces risk for the third party by making it vulnerable to disputants’ choices. Six experiments revealed three robust effects: (i) The mere possibility of third-party intervention significantly increases cooperation in interpersonal and intergroup conflicts; (ii) reducing the risk to third parties dramatically increases intervention rates, to everyone’s benefit; and (iii) disputants’ cooperation rates are consistently higher than third parties’ intervention rates. These findings explain why, how, and when self-interested third parties facilitate peaceful conflict resolution. PMID:26038546

  13. Partner switching promotes cooperation among myopic agents on a geographical plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yixiao; Min, Yong; Zhu, Xiaodong; Cao, Jie

    2013-02-01

    We study the coupling dynamics between the evolution of cooperation and the evolution of partnership network on a geographical plane. While agents play networked prisoner’s dilemma games, they can dynamically adjust their partnerships based on local information about reputation. We incorporate geographical features into the process of the agent’s partner switching and investigate the corresponding effects. At each time step of the coevolution, a random agent can either update his strategy by imitation or adjust his partnership by switching from the lowest reputation partner to the highest reputation one among his neighbors. We differentiate two types of neighbors: geographical neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in terms of geographical distance) and connectivity neighbors (i.e., the set of agents who are close to the focal agent in the partnership network in terms of geodesic distance). We find that switching to either geographical neighbors or connectivity neighbors enhances cooperation greatly in a wide parameter range. Cooperation can be favored in a much stricter condition when agents switch to connectivity neighbors more frequently. However, an increasing tendency of reconnecting to geographical neighbors shortens the geographical distance between a pair of partners on average. When agents consider the cost of geographical distance in adjusting the partnership, they are prone to reconnect to geographical neighbors.

  14. Cooperative program of applied energy research technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    Studies conducted by groups at Atlanta University and the Georgia Institute of Technology Engineering Experiment Station are described. These efforts were proposed as exploratory studies in the area of alternative energy technologies as preliminary work leading to a multi-year program of specific developmental efforts. Topics chosen were supportive of on-going research programs at the two institutions. Work proposed included pertinent literature search, computer modeling, initial choices of systems, and preliminary parametric studies.

  15. Cooperative stabilization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis rrnAP3 promoter open complexes by RbpA and CarD

    PubMed Central

    Rammohan, Jayan; Ruiz Manzano, Ana; Garner, Ashley L.; Prusa, Jerome; Stallings, Christina L.; Galburt, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The essential mycobacterial transcriptional regulators RbpA and CarD act to modulate transcription by associating to the initiation complex and increasing the flux of transcript production. Each of these factors interacts directly with the promoter DNA template and with RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme. We recently reported on the energetics of CarD-mediated open complex stabilization on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis rrnAP3 ribosomal promoter using a stopped-flow fluorescence assay. Here, we apply this approach to RbpA and show that RbpA stabilizes RNAP-promoter open complexes (RPo) via a distinct mechanism from that of CarD. Furthermore, concentration-dependent stopped-flow experiments with both factors reveal positive linkage (cooperativity) between RbpA and CarD with regard to their ability to stabilize RPo. The observation of positive linkage between RbpA and CarD demonstrates that the two factors can act on the same transcription initiation complex simultaneously. Lastly, with both factors present, the kinetics of open complex formation is significantly faster than in the presence of either factor alone and approaches that of E. coli RNAP on the same promoter. This work provides a quantitative framework for the molecular mechanisms of these two essential transcription factors and the critical roles they play in the biology and pathology of mycobacteria. PMID:27342278

  16. Cooperative stabilization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis rrnAP3 promoter open complexes by RbpA and CarD.

    PubMed

    Rammohan, Jayan; Ruiz Manzano, Ana; Garner, Ashley L; Prusa, Jerome; Stallings, Christina L; Galburt, Eric A

    2016-09-01

    The essential mycobacterial transcriptional regulators RbpA and CarD act to modulate transcription by associating to the initiation complex and increasing the flux of transcript production. Each of these factors interacts directly with the promoter DNA template and with RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme. We recently reported on the energetics of CarD-mediated open complex stabilization on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis rrnAP3 ribosomal promoter using a stopped-flow fluorescence assay. Here, we apply this approach to RbpA and show that RbpA stabilizes RNAP-promoter open complexes (RPo) via a distinct mechanism from that of CarD. Furthermore, concentration-dependent stopped-flow experiments with both factors reveal positive linkage (cooperativity) between RbpA and CarD with regard to their ability to stabilize RPo The observation of positive linkage between RbpA and CarD demonstrates that the two factors can act on the same transcription initiation complex simultaneously. Lastly, with both factors present, the kinetics of open complex formation is significantly faster than in the presence of either factor alone and approaches that of E. coli RNAP on the same promoter. This work provides a quantitative framework for the molecular mechanisms of these two essential transcription factors and the critical roles they play in the biology and pathology of mycobacteria. PMID:27342278

  17. Promotion and Reporting of Research from Resource-Limited Settings

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal

    2015-01-01

    Driven by global burden of disease and inequalities in health care, research activities in resource-poor settings have radically increased. However, a corresponding increase in reporting of research from these settings has not been observed. This article critically explores the importance of promoting and reporting of health research from resource-poor settings, current trends, and practices, and discusses the key challenges faced by researchers from such settings. These challenges include changing face of open-access (OA) and online publishing, the threat of predatory OA journals, authorship and international partnership ethics, attitudinal problems hindering research reporting, and a lack of alternative publishing spaces. A combined, decisive effort is needed to bridge the gap between research activity and reporting in resource-poor settings. PMID:26396528

  18. The Decline of Competition: A Study of Cooperative Approaches to University Research Management. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara A.

    This paper analyzes the organizational strategies and dynamics of cooperation appropriate to research consortia. The experiences of nine existing research consortia are reviewed in an effort to propose guidelines for practice in the design of research consortia, and to expand understanding of the nature of interinstitutional cooperation. The nine…

  19. 7 CFR 1220.230 - Promotion, research, consumer information, and industry information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion, research, consumer information, and...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Expenses and Assessments § 1220.230 Promotion, research, consumer information, and...

  20. Referring to the social performance promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigaki, Keizo; Tanimoto, Jun; Wang, Zhen; Kokubo, Satoshi; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2012-09-01

    We propose a new pairwise Fermi updating rule by considering a social average payoff when an agent copies a neighbor's strategy. In the update rule, a focal agent compares her payoff with the social average payoff of the same strategy that her pairwise opponent has. This concept might be justified by the fact that people reference global and, somehow, statistical information, not local information when imitating social behaviors. We presume several possible ways for the social average. Simulation results prove that the social average of some limited agents realizes more significant cooperation than that of the entire population.

  1. Ku80 cooperates with CBP to promote COX-2 expression and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yu; Xuan, Yang; Jia, Yunlu; Hu, Wenxian; Yu, Wendan; Dai, Meng; Li, Zhenglin; Yi, Canhui; Zhao, Shilei; Li, Mei; Du, Sha; Cheng, Wei; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Chen, Yiming; Wu, Taihua; Meng, Songshu; Yuan, Yuhui; Liu, Quentin; Huang, Wenlin; Guo, Wei; Wang, Shusen; Deng, Wuguo

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in lung cancer development and progression. Using streptavidin-agarose pulldown and proteomics assay, we identified and validated Ku80, a dimer of Ku participating in the repair of broken DNA double strands, as a new binding protein of the COX-2 gene promoter. Overexpression of Ku80 up-regulated COX-2 promoter activation and COX-2 expression in lung cancer cells. Silencing of Ku80 by siRNA down-regulated COX-2 expression and inhibited tumor cell growth in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model. Ku80 knockdown suppressed phosphorylation of ERK, resulting in an inactivation of the MAPK pathway. Moreover, CBP, a transcription co-activator, interacted with and acetylated Ku80 to co-regulate the activation of COX-2 promoter. Overexpression of CBP increased Ku80 acetylation, thereby promoting COX-2 expression and cell growth. Suppression of CBP by a CBP-specific inhibitor or siRNA inhibited COX-2 expression as well as tumor cell growth. Tissue microarray immunohistochemical analysis of lung adenocarcinomas revealed a strong positive correlation between levels of Ku80 and COX-2 and clinicopathologic variables. Overexpression of Ku80 was associated with poor prognosis in patients with lung cancers. We conclude that Ku80 promotes COX-2 expression and tumor growth and is a potential therapeutic target in lung cancer. PMID:25797267

  2. Efficacy of the Cooperative Learning Method on Mathematics Achievement and Attitude: A Meta-Analysis Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capar, Gulfer; Tarim, Kamuran

    2015-01-01

    This research compiles experimental studies from 1988 to 2010 that examined the influence of the cooperative learning method, as compared with that of traditional methods, on mathematics achievement and on attitudes towards mathematics. The related field was searched using the following key words in Turkish "matematik ve isbirlikli ögrenme,…

  3. 34 CFR 350.33 - What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet? 350.33 Section 350.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND...

  4. Cooperative Research Projects. A Seven-Year Summary, July 1, 1956-June 30, 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    The Cooperative Research Program (CRP) was organized in 1956 by the U.S. Office of Education. This 7-year program developed new knowledge about major educational problems and devised new applications of existing knowledge for solving problems. The average contribution of the Federal Government to each project was $50,000 for a 2-year project or…

  5. 76 FR 34252 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the... the Act on March 7, 2011 (76 FR 12370). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993;...

  6. 77 FR 61786 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the... Act on June 8, 2012 (77 FR 34069). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  7. 77 FR 34069 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the Department on... March 8, 2012 (77 FR 14046). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  8. 76 FR 12370 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was... to Section 6(b) of the Act on January 10, 2011 (76 FR 1459). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  9. 78 FR 1884 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the... the Act on October 11, 2012 (77 FR 61786). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  10. CIRA: Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere Newsletter, Volume 28, Fall 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McInnis-Efaw, Mary (Editor); Leinen, Laura (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    The articles in this issue of the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Newsletter are: "Unmanned Aerial Systems: An Overview of NOAA's Unmanned Aircraft System Program," "International Activities: Weather Briefings and Training Via the Internet," "Cloudsat's One-Year Anniversary: An Abundance of Exciting New Cloud Observations," and "The Migration of NCAR'S Auto-Nowcaster into NWS AWIPS."

  11. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2015 Year In Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Organ, John; Thompson, John; Dennerline, Don; Childs, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    In this Year in Review report, you will find details on staffing, vacancies, research funding, and other pertinent information. You will also see snapshots of Unit projects with information on how results have been or are being applied by cooperators. That is the essence of what we do: science that matter.

  12. 77 FR 9266 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Interchangeable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on July 30, 2001 (66 FR 39336). The last notification was... to Section 6(b) of the Act on December 23, 2011 (76 FR 80405). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  13. 76 FR 16820 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Interchangeable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on July 30, 2001 (66 FR 39336). The last notification was... Section 6(b) of the Act September 8, 2010 (75 FR 54652). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  14. 75 FR 28294 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Interchangeable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on July 30, 2001 (66 FR 39336). The... Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on December 21, 2009 (74 FR 67902). Patricia A. Brink... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  15. Radiometer Evaluation - Equipment Only: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-00382

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, S.

    2013-10-01

    This project will place instrumentation at the NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in cooperation with Yankee Environmental Systems (Participant). One or more Participant instruments will be deployed for the purpose of evaluation under controlled conditions. The scope of the project will be a year-long comparison of the instruments vs. other NREL baseline instruments with awell-characterized history.

  16. 75 FR 45156 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Act on March 14, 1986 (51 FR 8903). The last notification was filed with the Department on February 27..., 2009 (74 FR 15003). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  17. 75 FR 65511 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... published a notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on January 29, 1999 (64 FR... the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on June 21, 2010 (75 FR 35089). Patricia A... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  18. Academic Procrastination and the Performance of Graduate-Level Cooperative Groups in Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Qun G.; DaRos-Voseles, Denise A.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which academic procrastination predicted the performance of cooperative groups in graduate-level research methods courses. A total of 28 groups was examined (n = 83 students), ranging in size from 2 to 5 (M = 2.96, SD = 1.10). Multiple regression analyses revealed that neither within-group mean nor within-group…

  19. 76 FR 25362 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Butanol Fuel Blend Usage With Marine Outboard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... SECURITY Coast Guard Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Butanol Fuel Blend Usage With Marine... Agreement (CRADA) to identify and investigate the use of butanol fuel blends within marine outboard...

  20. 77 FR 25488 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Federally Integrated Communications System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ...The Coast Guard is announcing its intent to enter into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with General Dynamics C4 Systems, Inc. to lab demonstrate, field test, evaluate, and document at least one technical approach to show interoperability, with end-to-end encryption, for disparate Federal communications systems at the Internet Protocol level. The Coast Guard invites......

  1. 77 FR 48165 - Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) Opportunity With the Department of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) Opportunity With the Department of Homeland Security for the Efficacy Testing of Vaporous Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP) and Chlorine Dioxide (ClO 2 )...

  2. 76 FR 6497 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on December 3, 1990 (55 FR 49952). The last... pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on February 26, 2009 (74 FR 8811). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  3. 77 FR 54612 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... (51 FR 8903). The last notification was filed with the Department on June 8, 2012. A notice was published in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on July 6, 2012 (77 FR 40086... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  4. 77 FR 3007 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... published a notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on January 29, 1099 (64 FR... in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on December 17, 2010 (75 FR 79025... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  5. 75 FR 20003 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Wireless...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Register pursuant to section 6(b) of the Act on September 18, 2008 (73 FR 54170). The last notification was... to section 6(b) of the Act on January 21, 2009 (74 FR 3641). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  6. 77 FR 64128 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Wireless...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... September 18, 2008 (73 FR 54170). The last notification was filed with the Department on November 2, 2010. A... FR 79025). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE P ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  7. 75 FR 79025 - Notice Pursuant to The National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Wireless...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... 6(b) of the ] Act on September 18, 2008 (73 FR 54170). The last notification was filed with the... Act on April 16, 2010 (75 FR 20003). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to The National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  8. The American Freshman: Twenty Year Trends, 1966-1985. Cooperative Institutional Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Alexander W.; And Others

    Results of the Cooperative Institutional Research Program's annual surveys of college freshmen since 1966 are presented separately for men, women, and all freshmen. In addition to a narrative summary, the normative data are presented under seven headings: academic skills and preparation, demographic trends, high school experiences, educational and…

  9. The Cooperative Institutional Research Program: A National, Regional, and Institutional Perspective of Trends in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.; King, Margo R.

    The results of the 1980 Freshman Survey, which is part of the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP), are summarized, and trend data concerning students enrolled in colleges in the western states and in the nation are examined. Among the findings of the 1980 Freshman Survey are the following: grade inflation in the nation's high schools…

  10. 77 FR 73676 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... 30, 2000 (65 FR 40693). The last notification was filed with the Department on August 7, 2012. A... FR 54611). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE P ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993;...

  11. The Council of Research and Academic Libraries: An Example of Interlibrary Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Mark E.

    This paper examines the history, organization, and activities of the Council of Research and Academic Libraries, a multitype library cooperative composed of academic, public and special libraries and located in San Antonio, Texas. The consortium's history is traced from the events preceding and leading to its founding in 1966 to the present time,…

  12. Theoretical Framework for Cooperative Participatory Action Research (CPAR) in a Multicultural Campus: The Social Drama Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Zelniker, Tamar; Azaiza, Faisal

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a long-term research seminar, developed in 2001 by Hertz-Lazarowitz at the University of Haifa (UH). The goal of the seminar was to involve students in a meaningful, experiential and cooperative-interactive learning environment, based on topics relevant to their development as individuals coming from diverse collectives to the…

  13. 77 FR 34067 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... published a notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on November 30, 2009 (74 FR... in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the ] Act on December 21, 2011 (76 FR 79218... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  14. 75 FR 57502 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Robotics Technology Consortium, Inc. Correction In notice document 2010-22215 beginning on page 54914 in the issue...

  15. 76 FR 79218 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... 30, 2009 (74 FR 62599). The last notification was filed with the Department on July 27, 2011. A... (76 FR 59160). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE P ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  16. 76 FR 59160 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... November 30, 2009 (74 FR 62599). The last notification was filed with the Department on July 26, 2010. A... FR 54914). Patricia A. Brink, Director of Civil Enforcement, Antitrust Division. BILLING CODE 4410-11... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  17. Administrators and Researchers -- Coworkers in University Planning. A Case Study of a Successful Cooperative Venture in Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouch, Kathleen; And Others

    A cooperative effort by administrators and institutional researchers to assess the public image of an institution of higher education as one step in the planning process is described. Discussed are the interpersonal dynamics occurring in the recognition of the general problem, the formulation of specific questions, the design of the survey…

  18. Cooperative Research Program in Coal-Waste Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Huffman

    2000-03-31

    The results of a feasibility study for a demonstration plant for the liquefaction of waste plastic and tires and the coprocessing of these waste polymers with coal are presented. The study was conducted by a committee that included nine representatives from the CFFS, six from the U.S. Department of Energy - Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), and four from Burns and Roe, Inc. The study included: (1) An assessment of current recycling practices, particularly feedstock recycling in Germany; (2) A review of pertinent research, and a survey of feedstock availability for various types of waste polymers; and (3) A conceptual design for a demonstration plant was developed and an economic analysis for various feedstock mixes. The base case for feedstock scenarios was chosen to be 200 tons per day of waste plastic and 100 tons per day of waste tires. For this base case with oil priced at $20 per barrel, the return on investment (ROI) was found to range from 9% to 20%, using tipping fees for waste plastic and tires typical of those existing in the U.S. The most profitable feedstock appeared to waste plastic alone, with a plant processing 300 t/d of plastic yielding ROI's from 13 to 27 %, depending on the tipping fees for waste plastic. Feedstock recycling of tires was highly dependent on the price that could be obtained for recovered carbon. Addition of even relatively small amounts (20 t/d) of coal to waste plastic and/or coal feeds lowered the ROI's substantially. It should also be noted that increasing the size of the plant significantly improved all ROI's. For example, increasing plant size from 300 t/d to1200 t/d approximately doubles the estimated ROI's for a waste plastic feedstock.

  19. Spain-Chile and Spain-Ecuador cooperation in the field of research nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Avendano, G.; Rodriguez, M.L.; Manas, L.; Masalleras, E.; Montes, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Spanish Board of Nuclear Energy (JEN) has been cooperating for the last several years with the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (Chilean Commission of Nuclear Energy (CCHEN)), on the one hand, and with the Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica (Ecuadorian Commission of Atomic Energy (CEEA)), on the other. The result of this cooperation has been the implementation of projects in both countries to create research centers around a nuclear reactor as the main working tool: the Lo Aguirre reactor in Chile and the Ruminahui reactor in Ecuador.

  20. Common Ground: Practical Ideas To Promote Interdisciplinary Cooperation between Social Studies and Second Language Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Mike

    This document promotes teaching about foreign cultures through the combined efforts of school social studies and foreign language departments. Using the example of Germany and the German language, the document shows how instructors can take an interdisciplinary approach that broadens student exposure to, and thereby learning of, second cultures.…

  1. Pokemon and MEF2D co-operationally promote invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xin; Hong, Xing-Yu; Li, Tao; He, Cheng-Yan

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most deadly human malignancy, and frequent invasion and metastasis is closely associated with its poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying HCC invasion is still not completely elucidated. Pokemon is a well-established oncogene for HCC growth, but its contribution to HCC invasion has not been studied yet. In this paper, Pokemon was found to be overexpressed in MHCC-97H HCC cell line, which possesses higher invasiveness. Downregulation of Pokemon abolished the invasion of MHCC-97H HCC cell lines. Pokemon overexpression was able to enhance the invasion of MHCC-97L cells with lower invasiveness. MEF2D, an oncogene promoting the invasion of HCC cells, was further detected to be upregulated and downregulated when Pokemon was overexpressed and silenced, respectively. Online database analysis indicated that one Pokemon recognition site was located within the promoter of MEF2D. Chromatin co-precipitation, luciferase, and qPCR assays all proved that Pokemon can promote the expression of MEF2D in HCC cells. Restoration of MEF2D expression can prevent the impaired invasion of HCC cells with Pokemon silencing, while suppression of MEF2D abolished the effect of Pokemon overexpression on HCC invasion. More interestingly, MEF2D was also found to increase the transcription of Pokemon by binding myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) sites within its promoter region, implying an auto-regulatory circuit consisting of these two oncogenes that can promote HCC invasion. Our findings can contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanism underlying HCC invasion, and provided evidence that targeting this molecular loop may be a promising strategy for anti-invasion therapy. PMID:26164003

  2. Research on Multirobot Pursuit Task Allocation Algorithm Based on Emotional Cooperation Factor

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Baofu; Chen, Lu; Wang, Hao; Dai, Shuanglu; Zhong, Qiubo

    2014-01-01

    Multirobot task allocation is a hot issue in the field of robot research. A new emotional model is used with the self-interested robot, which gives a new way to measure self-interested robots' individual cooperative willingness in the problem of multirobot task allocation. Emotional cooperation factor is introduced into self-interested robot; it is updated based on emotional attenuation and external stimuli. Then a multirobot pursuit task allocation algorithm is proposed, which is based on emotional cooperation factor. Combined with the two-step auction algorithm recruiting team leaders and team collaborators, set up pursuit teams, and finally use certain strategies to complete the pursuit task. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, some comparing experiments have been done with the instantaneous greedy optimal auction algorithm; the results of experiments show that the total pursuit time and total team revenue can be optimized by using this algorithm. PMID:25152925

  3. Promoting Transparency in Pharmaceutical Industry–Sponsored Research

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Cary P.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2012-01-01

    Strong, evidence-based practice requires that objective, unbiased research be available to inform individual clinical decisions, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and expert guideline recommendations. Industry has used seeding trials, publication planning, messaging, ghostwriting, and selective publication and reporting of trial outcomes to distort the medical literature and undermine clinical trial research by obscuring information relevant to patients and physicians. Policies that promote transparency in the clinical trial research process, through improved and expanded disclosure of investigator contributions and funding, comprehensive publicly available trial registration, and independent analysis of clinical trial data analysis may address these subversive practices by improving accountability among industry and investigators. Minimizing marketing's impact on clinical trial research and strengthening the science will protect medical literature's integrity and the public's health. PMID:22095335

  4. The role of nuclear societies in the promotion of international cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Velez, C. )

    1992-01-01

    International cooperation in the peaceful uses of atomic energy started with the Atoms for Peace initiative in 1955. The satisfaction of the foreseeable world demand for electricity requires a large increase in nuclear power. Such an increase will not be realized unless a number of current nuclear issues, both real and perceived, are resolved first. Most of the problems have acquired an international character and many of them are amenable only to international treatments. The nuclear societies can have an important role in this development. The last years of the present century will be decisive for the immediate future of nuclear power. The nuclear societies should coordinate efforts, join forces and speak out with one clear and distinct voice in all important issues.

  5. Promoting gender parity in basic education: Lessons from a technical cooperation project in Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuki, Takako; Mizuno, Keiko; Ogawa, Keiichi; Mihoko, Sakai

    2013-06-01

    Many girls are not sent to school in Yemen, despite basic education being free as well as compulsory for all children aged 6-15. Aiming to improve girls' enrolment by increasing parental and community involvement, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) offered a technical cooperation project in June 2005 called Broadening Regional Initiative for Developing Girls' Education (BRIDGE). Phase 1 of this project ran for three and a half years, piloting a participatory school management model supported by school grants in six districts of the Taiz Governorate in the Southwest of Yemen. To find out how successful this approach has been in a traditional society, the authors of this paper analysed the gender parity index (GPI) of the project's pilot schools. Based on data collected at three points in time (in the initial and final years of the project, and two years after the project's end), their findings suggest that interventions in school management which strongly emphasise girls' education can be effective in improving gender parity rather quickly, regardless of the schools' initial conditions. However, the authors also observe that the pilot schools' post-project performance in terms of gender parity is mixed. While the local government allocated budgets for school grants to all pilot schools even after the project's end, training and monitoring activities were cut back. The authors further observe that the variation in performance appears to be significantly correlated with school leaders' initial perceptions of gender equality and with the number of female teachers employed. These findings point to the importance of providing schools with continuous long-term guidance and of monitoring those which implement school improvement programmes.

  6. 78 FR 45565 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993 -- tranSMART...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993 -- tranSMART Foundation Notice is hereby given that, on July 3, 2013, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act...

  7. 77 FR 54611 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on July 16, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research...

  8. 78 FR 37571 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on May 30, 2013, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research...

  9. 75 FR 51114 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on July 13, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research...

  10. 75 FR 31816 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-INS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--INS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on April 26, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research...

  11. 78 FR 79498 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Open-IX Association

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Open-IX... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. Sec. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Open-IX... performance and common and uniform specifications for incoming and outgoing data, as well as...

  12. 75 FR 69705 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Marine Well...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Marine Well Containment Venture Notice is hereby given that, on September 29, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research...

  13. 76 FR 27351 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Marine Well...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Marine Well Containment Venture Notice is hereby given that, on March 04, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and...

  14. 75 FR 62570 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Marine Well...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Marine Well Containment Venture Notice is hereby given that, on August 18, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the...

  15. 75 FR 11564 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act Of 1993-Telemanagement Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act Of 1993--Telemanagement Forum Notice is hereby given that, on February 1, 2010 pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act...

  16. 77 FR 71830 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-SGIP 2.0, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--SGIP 2.0... Cooperative ] Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), SGIP 2.0, Inc... organized exclusively for charitable, religious, educational, literary, and scientific purposes, within...

  17. 78 FR 9939 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-U.S. Photovoltaic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--U.S. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on January 15, 2013, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et...

  18. 75 FR 54652 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-National Center...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--National Center for Manufacturing Sciences, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on July 26, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et...

  19. 76 FR 59162 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-National Center...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--National Center for Manufacturing Sciences, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on July 27, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et...

  20. 78 FR 58559 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-U.S. Photovoltaic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--U.S. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on August 20, 2013, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et...

  1. 78 FR 37572 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-U.S. Photovoltaic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--U.S. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on May 21, 2013, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq....

  2. 76 FR 79218 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-U.S. Photovoltaic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--U.S. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on November 14, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et...

  3. 76 FR 79217 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-National Center...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--National Center for Manufacturing Sciences, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on November 22, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et...

  4. 78 FR 16869 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ODVA, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--ODVA, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on February 22, 2013, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15...

  5. 76 FR 43346 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Open Mobile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Open Mobile Alliance Notice is hereby given that, on June 2, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  6. 76 FR 72723 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Fieldbus Foundation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Fieldbus Foundation Notice is hereby given that, on October 20, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Fieldbus...

  7. 78 FR 47006 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Readium Foundation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Readium Foundation Notice is hereby given that, on July 10, 2013, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Readium...

  8. 75 FR 14192 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Joint Venture...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Joint..., pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et... assessed and rehabilitated, and to provide a unique tool that enables the sustainable management of...

  9. 75 FR 45155 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ODVA, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--ODVA, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on June 30, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15...

  10. 75 FR 20002 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-OpenSAF Foundation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Act on October 22, 2009 (74 FR 54594). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations, Antitrust... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--OpenSAF... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), OpenSAF Foundation...

  11. 75 FR 24971 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Advanced Media...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Advanced...) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act..., BroadView Software, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA; Grass Valley/Thomson, Beaverton, OR; Panasonic...

  12. 75 FR 65657 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Alliance for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Alliance for Water Stewardship Notice is hereby given that, on September 10, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research...

  13. 77 FR 40085 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-American Gap...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--American Gap Association Notice is hereby given that, on June 6, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), American...

  14. 75 FR 11197 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act Of 1993-Information Card...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act Of 1993--Information Card Foundation Notice is hereby given that, on January 29, 2010, pursuant to section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and...

  15. 70 FR 5483 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cool Roof Rating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-02-02

    ... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Cool Roof... principal place of business of the standards development organization is: Cool Roof Rating Council, Oakland... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of...

  16. 75 FR 8116 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Ice Crystal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on August 26, 2009 (74 FR 43157). Patricia A. Brink, Deputy Director of Operations... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Ice... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), the...

  17. 78 FR 14837 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Health Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Health... Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq...) provide for testing and conformity assessment of implementations in order to ensure and/or...

  18. 75 FR 20003 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Connected Media...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993... the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act... order to ensure compliance with Specifications, creating and owning distinctive trademarks, and...

  19. 76 FR 9812 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Marinenet, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), MarineNet, LLC... the ability to electronically transmit order, status, and invoice information between...

  20. Exploring Pre-Service Teachers' Historical Thinking through the Cooperative Biography: A Design-Based Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Through Design-Based Research (Cobb, et al., 2003), this study explores the intended outcomes and processes of the Cooperative Biography project. This research provides an "iterative analysis" (Cobb, et al., 2003) of how pre-service teachers experienced history while engaged in a Cooperative Biography, in a teacher-education setting.…