Science.gov

Sample records for research framework dpsir

  1. Web Tutorials on Systems Thinking Using the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    This set of tutorials provides an overview of incorporating systems thinking into decision-making, an introduction to the DPSIR framework as one approach that can assist in the decision analysis process, and an overview of DPSIR tools, including concept mapping and keyword lists,...

  2. Decision support system based on DPSIR framework for a low flow Mediterranean river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangash, Rubab Fatima; Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2013-04-01

    The application of decision making practices are effectively enhanced by adopting a procedural approach setting out a general methodological framework within which specific methods, models and tools can be integrated. Integrated Catchment Management is a process that recognizes the river catchment as a basic organizing unit for understanding and managing ecosystem process. Decision support system becomes more complex by considering unavoidable human activities within a catchment that are motivated by multiple and often competing criteria and/or constraints. DPSIR is a causal framework for describing the interactions between society and the environment. This framework has been adopted by the European Environment Agency and the components of this model are: Driving forces, Pressures, States, Impacts and Responses. The proposed decision support system is a two step framework based on DPSIR. Considering first three component of DPSIR, Driving forces, Pressures and States, hydrological and ecosystem services models are developed. The last two components, Impact and Responses, helped to develop Bayesian Network to integrate the models. This decision support system also takes account of social, economic and environmental aspects. A small river of Catalonia (Northeastern Spain), Francoli River with a low flow (~2 m3/s) is selected for integration of catchment assessment models and to improve knowledge transfer from research to the stakeholders with a view to improve decision making process. DHI's MIKE BASIN software is used to evaluate the low-flow Francolí River with respect to the water bodies' characteristics and also to assess the impact of human activities aiming to achieve good water status for all waters to comply with the WFD's River Basin Management Plan. Based on ArcGIS, MIKE BASIN is a versatile decision support tool that provides a simple and powerful framework for managers and stakeholders to address multisectoral allocation and environmental issues in river

  3. Combining ecosystem service relationships and DPSIR framework to manage multiple ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui; Li, Shiyu; Chang, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Ecosystem service (ES) relationship occurs due to two types of mechanisms: (1) interact directly or (2) interact through the impact of a shared factor. Identifying such mechanisms behind ES relationship within a single land-use/land-cover category and combining it with a system thinking framework is especially necessary for effective decision-making to manage multiple ESs generated by this land-use/land-cover. In this study, we use tea plantations in China to investigate mechanisms behind ES relationships. We find that tea production is positively correlated with four regulating services (i.e., carbon sequestration, soil N protection, soil P protection, and water conservation). Several regulating services, such as carbon sequestration and soil N, P, and K protection, have positive correlations with each other. Tea production, carbon sequestration, and soil retention are significantly correlated with local annual mean temperature and precipitation. We then establish driver-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework for tea plantations, which has been widely used for environmental management issues. Integrating our findings of ES relationship into DPSIR framework, we can estimate how ES change is responding to two types of responses: response to control drivers and response to maintain or restore state. Scenario analysis showed that the responses to control drivers have a larger impact on ES. We discuss that DPSIR would favor managing multiple ES because it enables a more precise understanding of how ES interacts through the effects of factors from various hierarchies. Finally, we suggest integrating ES direct interaction into DPSIR framework. We think such integration could improve the ability of DPSIR framework to support decision-making in multiple ES management, specifically in at least three aspects: (1) favor to identify all possible response alternatives, (2) enable us to evaluate ES which cannot be assessed if without such combining, and (3) help to

  4. Integrating Human Health and Environmental Health into the DPSIR Framework: A Tool to Identify Research Opportunities for Sustainable and Healthy Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has recently realigned its research enterprise around the concept of sustainability. Scientists from across multiple disciplines have a role to play in contributing the information, methods, and tools to more fully understand the long-term...

  5. Managing database under the DPSIR tool for the implementation of European Water Framework Directive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinnirella, S.; Trombino, G.; Pesenti, E.; Algieri, A.; Pirrone, N.

    2003-04-01

    With the purpose of establishing an European legislation aimed to protect inland surface waters, transitional waters, coastal waters and groundwater the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union adopted the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD). The holistic approach of the WFD for the management of waters have been adopted to protect water bodies considered as interlinked systems from the spring to the sea. Having the above in mind, two years ago was started the EUROCAT project funded by the European Commission as part of the FP5 which is aimed to define for different catchment-coastal zone continuums in Europe a possible policy responses to mitigate environmental pressures driven by main economic activities existing in the area. In order to account for different aspects related to spatial interactions between the watershed and coastal zone, the Drivers-Pressures-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework was developed for the Po Catchment-Adriatic Coastal Zone continuum and applied as policy tool to evaluate important aspects to be considered during the implementation of the WFD. The DPSIR includes ecological as well as socio-economic indicators that represent the Drivers that create Pressures which are gradually integrated as the Status of the system is assessed. Evaluation of the Impact for different Drivers and Pressure factors allows to identify the optimal strategy(-ies) for achieving the objectives and goals of the WFD. The aim of this paper is to discuss and present a multi-layer database that includes socio-economic, physical and ecological indicators that have been used to run different biogeochemical and socio-economic models including the one for assessing nutrient fluxes in the catchment (MONERIS, Behrendt, 1996), the nutrient cycle in surface and deep seawaters of the Adriatic Sea (WASP model) and socio-economic models (i.e., DEFINITE) for different socio-economic and environmental scenarios including the Business As Usual (BAU) and

  6. The EBM-DPSER conceptual model: integrating ecosystem services into the DPSIR framework.

    PubMed

    Kelble, Christopher R; Loomis, Dave K; Lovelace, Susan; Nuttle, William K; Ortner, Peter B; Fletcher, Pamela; Cook, Geoffrey S; Lorenz, Jerry J; Boyer, Joseph N

    2013-01-01

    There is a pressing need to integrate biophysical and human dimensions science to better inform holistic ecosystem management supporting the transition from single species or single-sector management to multi-sector ecosystem-based management. Ecosystem-based management should focus upon ecosystem services, since they reflect societal goals, values, desires, and benefits. The inclusion of ecosystem services into holistic management strategies improves management by better capturing the diversity of positive and negative human-natural interactions and making explicit the benefits to society. To facilitate this inclusion, we propose a conceptual model that merges the broadly applied Driver, Pressure, State, Impact, and Response (DPSIR) conceptual model with ecosystem services yielding a Driver, Pressure, State, Ecosystem service, and Response (EBM-DPSER) conceptual model. The impact module in traditional DPSIR models focuses attention upon negative anthropomorphic impacts on the ecosystem; by replacing impacts with ecosystem services the EBM-DPSER model incorporates not only negative, but also positive changes in the ecosystem. Responses occur as a result of changes in ecosystem services and include inter alia management actions directed at proactively altering human population or individual behavior and infrastructure to meet societal goals. The EBM-DPSER conceptual model was applied to the Florida Keys and Dry Tortugas marine ecosystem as a case study to illustrate how it can inform management decisions. This case study captures our system-level understanding and results in a more holistic representation of ecosystem and human society interactions, thus improving our ability to identify trade-offs. The EBM-DPSER model should be a useful operational tool for implementing EBM, in that it fully integrates our knowledge of all ecosystem components while focusing management attention upon those aspects of the ecosystem most important to human society and does so within

  7. The EBM-DPSER Conceptual Model: Integrating Ecosystem Services into the DPSIR Framework

    PubMed Central

    Kelble, Christopher R.; Loomis, Dave K.; Lovelace, Susan; Nuttle, William K.; Ortner, Peter B.; Fletcher, Pamela; Cook, Geoffrey S.; Lorenz, Jerry J.; Boyer, Joseph N.

    2013-01-01

    There is a pressing need to integrate biophysical and human dimensions science to better inform holistic ecosystem management supporting the transition from single species or single-sector management to multi-sector ecosystem-based management. Ecosystem-based management should focus upon ecosystem services, since they reflect societal goals, values, desires, and benefits. The inclusion of ecosystem services into holistic management strategies improves management by better capturing the diversity of positive and negative human-natural interactions and making explicit the benefits to society. To facilitate this inclusion, we propose a conceptual model that merges the broadly applied Driver, Pressure, State, Impact, and Response (DPSIR) conceptual model with ecosystem services yielding a Driver, Pressure, State, Ecosystem service, and Response (EBM-DPSER) conceptual model. The impact module in traditional DPSIR models focuses attention upon negative anthropomorphic impacts on the ecosystem; by replacing impacts with ecosystem services the EBM-DPSER model incorporates not only negative, but also positive changes in the ecosystem. Responses occur as a result of changes in ecosystem services and include inter alia management actions directed at proactively altering human population or individual behavior and infrastructure to meet societal goals. The EBM-DPSER conceptual model was applied to the Florida Keys and Dry Tortugas marine ecosystem as a case study to illustrate how it can inform management decisions. This case study captures our system-level understanding and results in a more holistic representation of ecosystem and human society interactions, thus improving our ability to identify trade-offs. The EBM-DPSER model should be a useful operational tool for implementing EBM, in that it fully integrates our knowledge of all ecosystem components while focusing management attention upon those aspects of the ecosystem most important to human society and does so within

  8. The environmental state of rivers in the Balkans--a review within the DPSIR framework.

    PubMed

    Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th

    2009-04-01

    Fifteen major Balkan rivers with over 80% of the inflows in Eastern Mediterranean were examined for their environmental state within the DPSIR framework. Physicogeographic and hydrochemical conditions differ substantially among river basins, which may be roughly classified into three main zones. Despite strong fragmentation, most of the rivers are liable to flash floods and have low summer flow. Decreasing precipitation and (mis)management caused a dramatic discharge reduction over the last decades. Wars, political instability, economical crises over the past decades, combined with administrative and structural constraints, poor environmental planning and inspection and, frequently, a lack of environmental awareness imposed significant pressures on rivers. Large wetland areas were drained in favour of widespread intensive agriculture. The treatment of municipal wastewaters is barely adequate in Greece and insufficient elsewhere, while management and treatment of mining and industrial wastewaters is overall poor. In general, lowland river sections are hydro-morphologically modified and are at the greatest pollution risk, while upstream areas mostly retain their natural conditions. Nutrient concentrations in a number of central and eastern Balkan rivers often exceed quality standards, whereas pesticides and heavy metals, partly of geochemical origin, occasionally exceed quality standards. Reservoirs retain vast masses of sediments, thus adversely affecting delta evolution, while dam operation disturbs the seasonal hydrological and hydrochemical regimes. Almost all Balkan countries face daunting water resource challenges because of urgently needed investments in water supply, sanitation, irrigation, and hydroelectricity. International treaties and designations and European Union Directives have mobilized pollution mitigation and conservation efforts. However, the application of environmental legislation has proved in a number of cases inadequate. Constraints arise

  9. The soils of Champaign are still alive. An assessment of socio-ecological co-evolution in viticulture using DPSIR framework.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolai, Annegret; Cluzeau, Daniel; Descotes, Arnaud; Georget, Cédric; Chaussod, Rémi; Nouaim-Chaussod, Rachida; Peres, Guénola; Guernion, Muriel; Cylly, Daniel; Rougé, Laurence; Garcia, Olivier; Panigai, Laurent; Moncomble, Dominique

    2016-04-01

    Conventional agricultural practices have lead to a loss of ecosystem services, such as soil fertility and soil integrity, water quality, and carbon storage. The importance of soil health to sustain agriculture in the future has raised sociological and political awareness. Wine growers in the Champaign have been the top one users of pesticides in France, and soils were declared by media "being dead" in the 1980ies. Using the DPSIR framework (Driving forces, Pressure, State, Impact, Response circle) we show the mechanism for the evolution of practices in viticulture between 1990 and 2010 in this region. The observed change from 90% to 33% conventional pesticide use is the result of the interaction between scientists and stakeholders via impact studies and technical advices, thereby modulating socio-economic driving forces. Until 1995, 100% of newly planted vineyard were subjected to fumigation by nematicides which represented the highest pressure in Champaign observed through the negative impact on Lombricidae biomass and diversity as well as on aging of vine. In response, a first warning message was published in 1993 in the Professional Technical Guide for Champaign's Viticulture followed by systematic yearly recommendation of alternative practices, such as 3 years of fallow before plantation. The increased fear of economic losses for vine farmers drove the nematicide treatment gradually down to 1% in 2010. The restoration of the soil's biological activities was observed progressively since 2000, associated to an improvement in ecosystem services. The assessment of Champaign's viticulture show, how studying and communicating indicators within a DPSIR framework at a regional scale allow for a directed evolution of management measures in socio-ecosystems.

  10. The European Water Framework Directive and the DPSIR, a methodological approach to assess the risk of failing to achieve good ecological status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borja, Ángel; Galparsoro, Ibon; Solaun, Oihana; Muxika, Iñigo; Tello, Eva María; Uriarte, Ainhize; Valencia, Victoriano

    2006-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a framework for the protection of groundwater, inland surface waters, estuarine waters, and coastal waters. The WFD constitutes a new view of water resources management in Europe, based mainly upon ecological elements; its final objective is achieving at least 'good ecological quality status' for all water bodies by 2015. The approach to identify these water bodies includes, amongst others, the sub-division of a water body into smaller water bodies, according to pressures and resulting impacts. The analyses of pressures and impacts must consider how pressures would be likely to develop, prior to 2015, in ways that would place water bodies at risk of failing to achieve ecological good status, if appropriate programmes of measures were not designed and implemented. This contribution focuses on the use of the DPSIR (Driver, Pressure, State, Impact, Response) approach, in assessing the pressures and risk of failing the abovementioned objective, using the Basque (northern Spain) estuarine and coastal waters as a case study, using the following steps: (i) determination of the water bodies to be analysed; (ii) identification and description of the driving forces producing pressures over the region; (iii) identification of all existing pressures within the water bodies; (iv) identification, from them, of the most relevant pressures; (v) determination, from the relevant pressures, of those which are significant; (vi) assessing the impacts on water bodies (in terms of ecological and chemical impacts); and (vii) assessing the risk of failing the WFD objectives.

  11. Urbanization and subsurface environmental issues: an attempt at DPSIR model application in Asian cities.

    PubMed

    Jago-on, Karen Ann Bianet; Kaneko, Shinji; Fujikura, Ryo; Fujiwara, Akimasa; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Toru; Zhang, Junyi; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Tanaka, Katsuya; Lee, Backjin; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2009-04-15

    This paper synthesizes existing information and knowledge on subsurface environments to understand the major cause and effect relationships of subsurface environmental issues by using the DPSIR (Driving force-Pressure-Status-Impact-Response) approach as the framework of analysis. Description is given to the major subsurface environmental issues common among the selected Asian cities (Bangkok, Jakarta, Manila, Osaka, Seoul, Taipei and Tokyo), such as excessive groundwater abstraction, land subsidence and groundwater contamination. The DPSIR framework is used to analyze the issues and problems of subsurface in key stages and suggestions are made for additional indicators to improve our description of the stages of urban development for the future. PMID:18922564

  12. Adaptive policy responses to water shortage mitigation in the arid regions--a systematic approach based on eDPSIR, DEMATEL, and MCDA.

    PubMed

    Azarnivand, Ali; Chitsaz, Nastaran

    2015-02-01

    Most of the arid and semi-arid regions are located in the developing countries, while the availability of water in adequate quantity and quality is an essential condition to approach sustainable development. In this research, "enhanced Driving force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (eDPSIR)" sustainability framework was applied to deal with water shortage in Yazd, an arid province of Iran. Then, the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) technique was integrated into the driven components of eDPSIR, to quantify the inter-linkages among fundamental anthropogenic indicators (i.e. causes and effects). The paper's structure included: (1) identifying the indicators of DPSIR along with structuring eDPSIR causal networks, (2) using the DEMATEL technique to evaluate the inter-relationships among the causes and effects along with determining the key indicators, (3) decomposing the problem into a system of hierarchies, (4) employing the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique to evaluate the weight of each criterion, and (5) applying complex proportional assessment with Grey interval numbers (COPRAS-G) method to obtain the most conclusive adaptive policy response. The systematic quantitative analysis of causes and effects revealed that the root sources of water shortage in the study area were the weak enforcement of law and regulations, decline of available freshwater resources for development, and desertification consequences. According to the results, mitigating the water shortage in Yazd could be feasible by implementation of such key adaptive policy-responses as providing effective law enforcement, updating the standards and regulations, providing social learning, and boosting stakeholders' collaboration. PMID:25626561

  13. Socioeconomic influences on biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being: a quantitative application of the DPSIR model in Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ying; Zhou, Shudong; Burkhard, Benjamin; Müller, Felix

    2014-08-15

    One focus of ecosystem service research is the connection between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being as well as the socioeconomic influences on them. Despite existing investigations, exact impacts from the human system on the dynamics of biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being are still uncertain because of the insufficiency of the respective quantitative analyses. Our research aims are discerning the socioeconomic influences on biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being and demonstrating mutual impacts between these items. We propose a DPSIR framework coupling ecological integrity, ecosystem services as well as human well-being and suggest DPSIR indicators for the case study area Jiangsu, China. Based on available statistical and surveying data, we revealed the factors significantly impacting biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being in the research area through factor analysis and correlation analysis, using the 13 prefecture-level cities of Jiangsu as samples. The results show that urbanization and industrialization in the urban areas have predominant positive influences on regional biodiversity, agricultural productivity and tourism services as well as rural residents' living standards. Additionally, the knowledge, technology and finance inputs for agriculture also have generally positive impacts on these system components. Concerning regional carbon storage, non-cropland vegetation cover obviously plays a significant positive role. Contrarily, the expansion of farming land and the increase of total food production are two important negative influential factors of biodiversity, ecosystem's food provisioning service capacity, regional tourism income and the well-being of the rural population. Our study provides a promising approach based on the DPSIR model to quantitatively capture the socioeconomic influential factors of biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being for human-environmental systems

  14. An integrated Pan-European perspective on coastal Lagoons management through a mosaic-DPSIR approach.

    PubMed

    Dolbeth, Marina; Stålnacke, Per; Alves, Fátima L; Sousa, Lisa P; Gooch, Geoffrey D; Khokhlov, Valeriy; Tuchkovenko, Yurii; Lloret, Javier; Bielecka, Małgorzata; Różyński, Grzegorz; Soares, João A; Baggett, Susan; Margonski, Piotr; Chubarenko, Boris V; Lillebø, Ana I

    2016-01-01

    A decision support framework for the management of lagoon ecosystems was tested using four European Lagoons: Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), Mar Menor (Spain), Tyligulskyi Liman (Ukraine) and Vistula Lagoon (Poland/Russia). Our aim was to formulate integrated management recommendations for European lagoons. To achieve this we followed a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impacts-Responses) approach, with focus on integrating aspects of human wellbeing, welfare and ecosystem sustainability. The most important drivers in each lagoon were identified, based on information gathered from the lagoons' stakeholders, complemented by scientific knowledge on each lagoon as seen from a land-sea perspective. The DPSIR cycles for each driver were combined into a mosaic-DPSIR conceptual model to examine the interdependency between the multiple and interacting uses of the lagoon. This framework emphasizes the common links, but also the specificities of responses to drivers and the ecosystem services provided. The information collected was used to formulate recommendations for the sustainable management of lagoons within a Pan-European context. Several common management recommendations were proposed, but specificities were also identified. The study synthesizes the present conditions for the management of lagoons, thus analysing and examining the activities that might be developed in different scenarios, scenarios which facilitate ecosystem protection without compromising future generations. PMID:26776151

  15. An integrated Pan-European perspective on coastal Lagoons management through a mosaic-DPSIR approach

    PubMed Central

    Dolbeth, Marina; Stålnacke, Per; Alves, Fátima L.; Sousa, Lisa P.; Gooch, Geoffrey D.; Khokhlov, Valeriy; Tuchkovenko, Yurii; Lloret, Javier; Bielecka, Małgorzata; Różyński, Grzegorz; Soares, João A.; Baggett, Susan; Margonski, Piotr; Chubarenko, Boris V.; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2016-01-01

    A decision support framework for the management of lagoon ecosystems was tested using four European Lagoons: Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), Mar Menor (Spain), Tyligulskyi Liman (Ukraine) and Vistula Lagoon (Poland/Russia). Our aim was to formulate integrated management recommendations for European lagoons. To achieve this we followed a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impacts-Responses) approach, with focus on integrating aspects of human wellbeing, welfare and ecosystem sustainability. The most important drivers in each lagoon were identified, based on information gathered from the lagoons’ stakeholders, complemented by scientific knowledge on each lagoon as seen from a land-sea perspective. The DPSIR cycles for each driver were combined into a mosaic-DPSIR conceptual model to examine the interdependency between the multiple and interacting uses of the lagoon. This framework emphasizes the common links, but also the specificities of responses to drivers and the ecosystem services provided. The information collected was used to formulate recommendations for the sustainable management of lagoons within a Pan-European context. Several common management recommendations were proposed, but specificities were also identified. The study synthesizes the present conditions for the management of lagoons, thus analysing and examining the activities that might be developed in different scenarios, scenarios which facilitate ecosystem protection without compromising future generations. PMID:26776151

  16. A Decision Support Framework for Science-Based, Multi-Stakeholder Deliberation: A Coral Reef Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehr, Amanda P.; Small, Mitchell J.; Bradley, Patricia; Fisher, William S.; Vega, Ann; Black, Kelly; Stockton, Tom

    2012-12-01

    We present a decision support framework for science-based assessment and multi-stakeholder deliberation. The framework consists of two parts: a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses) analysis to identify the important causal relationships among anthropogenic environmental stressors, processes, and outcomes; and a Decision Landscape analysis to depict the legal, social, and institutional dimensions of environmental decisions. The Decision Landscape incorporates interactions among government agencies, regulated businesses, non-government organizations, and other stakeholders. It also identifies where scientific information regarding environmental processes is collected and transmitted to improve knowledge about elements of the DPSIR and to improve the scientific basis for decisions. Our application of the decision support framework to coral reef protection and restoration in the Florida Keys focusing on anthropogenic stressors, such as wastewater, proved to be successful and offered several insights. Using information from a management plan, it was possible to capture the current state of the science with a DPSIR analysis as well as important decision options, decision makers and applicable laws with a the Decision Landscape analysis. A structured elicitation of values and beliefs conducted at a coral reef management workshop held in Key West, Florida provided a diversity of opinion and also indicated a prioritization of several environmental stressors affecting coral reef health. The integrated DPSIR/Decision landscape framework for the Florida Keys developed based on the elicited opinion and the DPSIR analysis can be used to inform management decisions, to reveal the role that further scientific information and research might play to populate the framework, and to facilitate better-informed agreement among participants.

  17. Hotspots of coastal vulnerability: A DPSIR analysis to find societal pathways and responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Alice; Weichselgartner, Juergen

    2014-03-01

    Dramatic loss of life and economic losses in coastal zones have focused attention on natural and man-made hazards. The paper starts with a review of the coastal vulnerability terminology. Coastal zones are then presented as complex, socio-ecological systems. Four main coastal hotspots of vulnerability; namely Arctic coasts, small islands, river-mouth systems and urban coasts (including megacities) are analysed to demonstrate the complexity of coastal vulnerability. A DPSIR framework is used to explore the causes and consequences of coastal vulnerability. The paper then focuses in particular on societal, as well as floods, storm-surges and tsunamis to technological and engineering solutions. These include raising awareness, advancing forecasting, enhancing preparedness and improving governance.

  18. A Decision Support Framework For Science-Based, Multi-Stakeholder Deliberation: A Coral Reef Example

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a decision support framework for science-based assessment and multi-stakeholder deliberation. The framework consists of two parts: a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses) analysis to identify the important causal relationships among anthropogenic environ...

  19. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR DIAGNOSTICS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of Diagnostics Research is to provide tools to simplify diagnosis of the causes of biological impairment, in support of State and Tribe 303(d) impaired waters lists. The Diagnostics Workgroup has developed conceptual models for four major aquatic stressors that cause im...

  20. A Framework for Readability Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert J.; Jacobson, Milton D.

    There is a need for basic readability research and for an easily applied and accurate new readability formula. Two steps taken toward the development of such a formula are the revision of a vocabulary list for primary grades and the combination of reading exercises given at different grade levels into a single scale of ascending difficulty. Much…

  1. Academic Libraries and the Research Quality Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddow, Gaby

    2007-01-01

    The Federal Government is introducing a new funding model for research in Australian higher education institutions, the Research Quality Framework (RQF). This paper provides an overview of the RQF and looks at possible impacts of the RQF on academic libraries in Australia. These impacts are drawn from experience at one Australian university,…

  2. Australia's Research Quality Framework and Gender Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austen, Siobhan

    2008-01-01

    This article presents quantitative evidence that shows that the introduction of a research assessment scheme similar to the proposed Research Quality Framework (RQF) is likely to exacerbate gender inequity in the Australian university sector. It contributes new measures of gender differences in the publications records of Australian academics. It…

  3. Curriculum Research: Toward a Framework for "Research-based Curricula"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Douglas H.

    2007-01-01

    Government agencies and members of the educational research community have petitioned for research-based curricula. The ambiguity of the phrase "research-based", however, undermines attempts to create a shared research foundation for the development of, and informed choices about, classroom curricula. This article presents a framework for the…

  4. Describing the impact of health research: a Research Impact Framework

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, Shyama; Mays, Nicholas; Pleasant, Andrew; Walt, Gill

    2006-01-01

    Background Researchers are increasingly required to describe the impact of their work, e.g. in grant proposals, project reports, press releases and research assessment exercises. Specialised impact assessment studies can be difficult to replicate and may require resources and skills not available to individual researchers. Researchers are often hard-pressed to identify and describe research impacts and ad hoc accounts do not facilitate comparison across time or projects. Methods The Research Impact Framework was developed by identifying potential areas of health research impact from the research impact assessment literature and based on research assessment criteria, for example, as set out by the UK Research Assessment Exercise panels. A prototype of the framework was used to guide an analysis of the impact of selected research projects at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Additional areas of impact were identified in the process and researchers also provided feedback on which descriptive categories they thought were useful and valid vis-à-vis the nature and impact of their work. Results We identified four broad areas of impact: I. Research-related impacts; II. Policy impacts; III. Service impacts: health and intersectoral and IV. Societal impacts. Within each of these areas, further descriptive categories were identified. For example, the nature of research impact on policy can be described using the following categorisation, put forward by Weiss: Instrumental use where research findings drive policy-making; Mobilisation of support where research provides support for policy proposals; Conceptual use where research influences the concepts and language of policy deliberations and Redefining/wider influence where research leads to rethinking and changing established practices and beliefs. Conclusion Researchers, while initially sceptical, found that the Research Impact Framework provided prompts and descriptive categories that helped them

  5. New Software Framework to Share Research Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Kevin; Becker, Thorsten W.; Boschi, Lapo; Sain, Jared; Schorlemmer, Danijel; Waterhouse, Hannah

    2009-03-01

    Solid Earth Teaching and Research Environment (SEATREE) is a modular and user-friendly software to facilitate the use of solid Earth research tools in the classroom and for interdisciplinary research collaboration. The software provides a stand-alone open-source package that allows users to operate in a “black box” mode, which hides implementation details, while also allowing them to dig deeper into the underlying source code. The overlying user interfaces are written in the Python programming language using a modern, object-oriented design, including graphical user interactions. SEATREE, which provides an interface to a range of new and existing lower level programs that can be written in any computer programming language, may in the long run contribute to new ways of sharing scientific research. By sharing both data and modeling tools in a consistent framework, published (numerical) experiments can be made truly reproducible again.

  6. [Research on tumor information grid framework].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haowei; Qin, Zhu; Liu, Ying; Tan, Jianghao; Cao, Haitao; Chen, Youping; Zhang, Ke; Ding, Yuqing

    2013-10-01

    In order to realize tumor disease information sharing and unified management, we utilized grid technology to make the data and software resources which distributed in various medical institutions for effective integration so that we could make the heterogeneous resources consistent and interoperable in both semantics and syntax aspects. This article describes the tumor grid framework, the type of the service being packaged in Web Service Description Language (WSDL) and extensible markup language schemas definition (XSD), the client use the serialized document to operate the distributed resources. The service objects could be built by Unified Modeling Language (UML) as middle ware to create application programming interface. All of the grid resources are registered in the index and released in the form of Web Services based on Web Services Resource Framework (WSRF). Using the system we can build a multi-center, large sample and networking tumor disease resource sharing framework to improve the level of development in medical scientific research institutions and the patient's quality of life. PMID:24459945

  7. Biomedical research in a Digital Health Framework.

    PubMed

    Cano, Isaac; Lluch-Ariet, Magí; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Maier, Dieter; Kalko, Susana; Cascante, Marta; Tegnér, Jesper; Miralles, Felip; Herrera, Diego; Roca, Josep

    2014-11-28

    This article describes a Digital Health Framework (DHF), benefitting from the lessons learnt during the three-year life span of the FP7 Synergy-COPD project. The DHF aims to embrace the emerging requirements--data and tools--of applying systems medicine into healthcare with a three-tier strategy articulating formal healthcare, informal care and biomedical research. Accordingly, it has been constructed based on three key building blocks, namely, novel integrated care services with the support of information and communication technologies, a personal health folder (PHF) and a biomedical research environment (DHF-research). Details on the functional requirements and necessary components of the DHF-research are extensively presented. Finally, the specifics of the building blocks strategy for deployment of the DHF, as well as the steps toward adoption are analyzed. The proposed architectural solutions and implementation steps constitute a pivotal strategy to foster and enable 4P medicine (Predictive, Preventive, Personalized and Participatory) in practice and should provide a head start to any community and institution currently considering to implement a biomedical research platform. PMID:25472554

  8. Biomedical research in a Digital Health Framework

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a Digital Health Framework (DHF), benefitting from the lessons learnt during the three-year life span of the FP7 Synergy-COPD project. The DHF aims to embrace the emerging requirements - data and tools - of applying systems medicine into healthcare with a three-tier strategy articulating formal healthcare, informal care and biomedical research. Accordingly, it has been constructed based on three key building blocks, namely, novel integrated care services with the support of information and communication technologies, a personal health folder (PHF) and a biomedical research environment (DHF-research). Details on the functional requirements and necessary components of the DHF-research are extensively presented. Finally, the specifics of the building blocks strategy for deployment of the DHF, as well as the steps toward adoption are analyzed. The proposed architectural solutions and implementation steps constitute a pivotal strategy to foster and enable 4P medicine (Predictive, Preventive, Personalized and Participatory) in practice and should provide a head start to any community and institution currently considering to implement a biomedical research platform. PMID:25472554

  9. National Qualification Frameworks: Developing Research Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernie, Scott; Pilcher, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Arguments for National Qualification Frameworks (NQF) are compelling. Indeed, such frameworks are now an international phenomenon. Yet, few studies take a critical perspective and challenge the broad assumptions underpinning NQF. Arguments presented in this paper attempt to open a debate within the higher education community that draws attention…

  10. Conceptual Frameworks in the Doctoral Research Process: A Pedagogical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Jeanette; Smyth, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to consideration of the role of conceptual frameworks in the doctoral research process. Through reflection on the two authors' own conceptual frameworks for their doctoral studies, a pedagogical model has been developed. The model posits the development of a conceptual framework as a core element of the doctoral…

  11. A comparison of justice frameworks for international research.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe

    2015-07-01

    Justice frameworks have been developed for international research that provide guidance on the selection of research targets, ancillary care, research capacity strengthening, and post-trial benefits. Yet there has been limited comparison of the different frameworks. This paper examines the underlying aims and theoretical bases of three such frameworks--the fair benefits framework, the human development approach and research for health justice--and considers how their aims impact their guidance on the aforementioned four ethical issues. It shows that the frameworks' underlying objectives vary across two dimensions. First, whether they seek to prevent harmful or exploitative international research or to promote international research with health benefits for low and middle-income countries. Second, whether they address justice at the micro level or the macro level. The fair benefits framework focuses on reforming contractual elements in individual international research collaborations to ensure fairness, whereas the other two frameworks aim to connect international research with the reduction of global health inequities. The paper then highlights where there is overlap between the frameworks' requirements and where differences in the strength and content of the obligations they identify arise as a result of their varying objectives and theoretical bases. In doing so, it does not offer a critical comparison of the frameworks but rather seeks to add clarity to current debates on justice and international research by showing how they are positioned relative to one another. PMID:25378552

  12. Theoretical Framework of Researcher Knowledge Development in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontorovich, Igor'

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a framework of researcher knowledge development in conducting a study in mathematics education. The key components of the framework are: knowledge germane to conducting a particular study, processes of knowledge accumulation, and catalyzing filters that influence a researcher's decision making. The components…

  13. The Instrumental Value of Conceptual Frameworks in Educational Technology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonenko, Pavlo D.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars from diverse fields and research traditions agree that the conceptual framework is a critically important component of disciplined inquiry. Yet, there is a pronounced lack of shared understanding regarding the definition and functions of conceptual frameworks, which impedes our ability to design effective research and mentor novice…

  14. A Framework for Theory and Research on Adult Education Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter S.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed is a comprehensive, multivariate, multirealm theoretical framework with which to integrate and advance the theory and research of adult education participation. This article describes elements of the framework that have already been investigated and those for which there are gaps in the literature. Suggestions for further research to…

  15. Toward a Unified Validation Framework in Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dellinger, Amy B.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to further discussions of validity in mixed methods research by introducing a validation framework to guide thinking about validity in this area. To justify the use of this framework, the authors discuss traditional terminology and validity criteria for quantitative and qualitative research, as well as…

  16. An Evolutionary Framework for Behavioral Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, D. G.

    The author proposes a framework for the study of behavior and personality that takes into account phylogeny (development of genetically related groups of organisms) as well as ontogeny (course of development of an individual organism). The adaptive function of behavior is stressed. The author states that individual personality is a unique…

  17. A Framework for Research at Canadian Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Roger

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of the post-industrial 21st century knowledge-based economy and the demands of global competitiveness, Canada's community colleges are under increased pressure to extend their historical mandates (of career-related education and regional economic development) by incorporating "research", especially "applied research," into their…

  18. Toward a Framework for Comparative HRD Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Greg G.; Sun, Judy Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to address the recent challenges in the international human resource development (HRD) research and the related methodological strategy. Design/methodology/approach: This inquiry is based on a survey of literatures and integrates various comparative research strategies adopted in other major social science disciplines.…

  19. A FRAMEWORK FOR A COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY RESEARCH PROGRAM IN ORD

    EPA Science Inventory

    "A Framework for a Computational Toxicology Research Program in ORD" was drafted by a Technical Writing Team having representatives from all of ORD's Laboratories and Centers. The document describes a framework for the development of an program within ORD to utilize approaches d...

  20. A Conceptual Framework for the Future of Successful Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintz, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    Research administration has experienced dramatic changes over the past decades. As scientific research has evolved, higher education institutions have tried to adapt, with varying degrees of success. This paper presents a conceptual framework based on six cornerstones of research administration: mission, information, communication, collaboration,…

  1. Missions of Research University and Choice of Its Organizational Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuan, Yong

    2006-01-01

    This paper delineates the distinctive facets of the research university and further explores the features of scientific research. On this basis, it is established that the mission of the research university is to achieve knowledge creation and academic advances. With a comparison of the organizational framework between the general university and…

  2. A Framework for Studying Organizational Innovation in Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantz, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is two-fold: to propose a theoretical framework and model for studying organizational innovation in research libraries and to set forth propositions that can provide directions for future empirical studies of innovation in research libraries. Research libraries can be considered members of a class of organizations…

  3. A Conceptual Framework for Teaching Legal Research to Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolo, Laura M.

    1991-01-01

    Relates bibliographic instruction concepts to the teaching of legal research at the undergraduate level and describes a conceptual framework for teaching legal research and critical thinking skills to a journalism class. Legal research instruction for law students is also described, the expected retention level is considered, and the librarian's…

  4. Using the DPSIR Framework to Develop a Conceptual Model: Technical Support Document

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern problems (e.g., pollution, urban sprawl, environmental equity) are complex and often transcend spatial and temporal scales. Systems thinking is an approach to problem solving that is based on the belief that the component parts of a system are best understood in the contex...

  5. AGING AND THE ENVIRONMENT: A RESEARCH FRAMEWORK.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript discusses the development of a research program on health effects and environmental exposures to older adults. It summarizes input to this process from experts and the public, and outlines the critical elements necessary to fully address issues of environmental p...

  6. Framework for Building Collaborative Research Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Palanisamy, Giriprakash; San Gil, Inigo

    2014-10-25

    Wide range of expertise and technologies are the key to solving some global problems. Semantic web technology can revolutionize the nature of how scientific knowledge is produced and shared. The semantic web is all about enabling machine-machine readability instead of a routine human-human interaction. Carefully structured data, as in machine readable data is the key to enabling these interactions. Drupal is an example of one such toolset that can render all the functionalities of Semantic Web technology right out of the box. Drupal’s content management system automatically stores the data in a structured format enabling it to be machine. Within this paper, we will discuss how Drupal promotes collaboration in a research setting such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Long Term Ecological Research Center (LTER) and how it is effectively using the Semantic Web in achieving this.

  7. Framework for Building Collaborative Research Environment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Palanisamy, Giriprakash; San Gil, Inigo

    2014-10-25

    Wide range of expertise and technologies are the key to solving some global problems. Semantic web technology can revolutionize the nature of how scientific knowledge is produced and shared. The semantic web is all about enabling machine-machine readability instead of a routine human-human interaction. Carefully structured data, as in machine readable data is the key to enabling these interactions. Drupal is an example of one such toolset that can render all the functionalities of Semantic Web technology right out of the box. Drupal’s content management system automatically stores the data in a structured format enabling it to be machine. Withinmore » this paper, we will discuss how Drupal promotes collaboration in a research setting such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Long Term Ecological Research Center (LTER) and how it is effectively using the Semantic Web in achieving this.« less

  8. Pilot based frameworks for Weather Research Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathi, Dinesh Prasanth

    The Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) domain consists of complex workflows that demand the use of Distributed Computing Infrastructure (DCI). Weather forecasting requires that weather researchers use different set of initial conditions and one or a combination of physics models on the same set of input data. For these type of simulations an ensemble based computing approach becomes imperative. Most DCIs have local job-schedulers that have no smart way of dealing with the execution of an ensemble type of computational problem as the job-schedulers are built to cater to the bare essentials of resource allocation. This means the weather scientists have to submit multiple jobs to the job-scheduler. In this dissertation we use Pilot-Job based tools to decouple work-load submission and resource allocation therefore streamlining the complex workflows in Weather Research and Forecasting domain and reduce their overall time to completion. We also achieve location independent job execution, data movement, placement and processing. Next, we create the necessary enablers to run an ensemble of tasks bearing the capability to run on multiple heterogeneous distributed computing resources there by creating the opportunity to minimize the overall time consumed in running the models. Our experiments show that the tools developed exhibit very good, strong and weak scaling characteristics. These results bear the potential to change the way weather researchers are submitting traditional WRF jobs to the DCIs by giving them a powerful weapon in their arsenal that can exploit the combined power of various heterogeneous DCIs that could otherwise be difficult to harness owing to interoperability issues.

  9. Genetic and Molecular Ecotoxicology: A Research Framework

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Susan; Sadinski, Walter; Shugart, Lee; Brussard, Peter; Depledge, Michael; Ford, Tim; Hose, JoEllen; Stegeman, John; Suk, William; Wirgin, Isaac; Wogan, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Participants at the Napa Conference on Genetic and Molecular Ecotoxicology assessed the status of this field in light of heightened concerns about the genetic effects of exposure to hazardous substances and recent advancements in our capabilities to measure those effects. We present here a synthesis of the ideas discussed throughout the conference, including definitions of important concepts in the field and critical research needs and opportunities. While there were many opinions expressed on these topics, there was general agreement that there are substantive new opportunities to improve the impact of genetic and molecular ecotoxicology on prediction of sublethal effects of exposure to hazardous substances. Future studies should emphasize integration of genetic ecotoxicology, ecological genetics, and molecular biology and should be directed toward improving our understanding of the ecological implications of genotoxic responses. Ecological implications may be assessed at either the population or ecosystem level; however, a population-level focus may be most pragmatic. Recent technical advancements in measuring genetic and molecular responses to toxicant exposure will spur rapid progress. These new techniques have considerable promise for increasing our understanding of both mechanisms of toxicity on genes or gene products and the relevance of detrimental effects to individual fitness. — Environ Health Perspect 102(Suppl 12):3–8 (1994) PMID:7713030

  10. A framework for integrating thermal biology into fragmentation research.

    PubMed

    Tuff, K T; Tuff, T; Davies, K F

    2016-04-01

    Habitat fragmentation changes thermal conditions in remnant patches, and thermal conditions strongly influence organism morphology, distribution, and activity patterns. However, few studies explore temperature as a mechanism driving ecological responses to fragmentation. Here we offer a conceptual framework that integrates thermal biology into fragmentation research to better understand individual, species, community, and ecosystem-level responses to fragmentation. Specifically, the framework addresses how fragmentation changes temperature and how the effects of those temperature changes spread through the ecosystem, from organism response via thermal sensitivity, to changes in species distribution and activity patterns, to shifts in community structure following species' responses, and ultimately to changes in ecosystem functions. We place a strong emphasis on future research directions by outlining "Critical gaps" for each step of the framework. Empirical efforts to apply and test this framework promise new understanding of fragmentation's ecological consequences and new strategies for conservation in an increasingly fragmented and warmer world. PMID:26892491

  11. Second Language Instructors and CALL: A Multidisciplinary Research Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Gabriela C.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing importance of computer assisted language learning (CALL) in second language (L2) classes has added a new dimension to L2 research, and it has challenged scholars to find valid research methods and theoretical frameworks that can be applied in the analysis of the linguistic and social aspects of the interaction among students and…

  12. Arts Integration Frameworks, Research & Practice. A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaford, Gail

    2007-01-01

    This literature review is an essential resource for anyone involved in the research, theories, or methods and practices of arts integration. It covers what has been written between 1995 and 2007 in the U.S. and abroad and includes an historical overview, definitions and theoretical frameworks for arts integration, research and evaluation studies…

  13. A Framework for Building Research Partnerships with First Nations Communities

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Lalita

    2014-01-01

    Solutions to complex health and environmental issues experienced by First Nations communities in Canada require the adoption of collaborative modes of research. The traditional “helicopter” approach to research applied in communities has led to disenchantment on the part of First Nations people and has impeded their willingness to participate in research. University researchers have tended to develop projects without community input and to adopt short term approaches to the entire process, perhaps a reflection of granting and publication cycles and other realities of academia. Researchers often enter communities, collect data without respect for local culture, and then exit, having had little or no community interaction or consideration of how results generated could benefit communities or lead to sustainable solutions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative to the helicopter approach and is promoted here as a method to research that will meet the objectives of both First Nations and research communities. CBPR is a collaborative approach that equitably involves all partners in the research process. Although the benefits of CBPR have been recognized by segments of the University research community, there exists a need for comprehensive changes in approaches to First Nations centered research, and additional guidance to researchers on how to establish respectful and productive partnerships with First Nations communities beyond a single funded research project. This article provides a brief overview of ethical guidelines developed for researchers planning studies involving Aboriginal people as well as the historical context and principles of CBPR. A framework for building research partnerships with First Nations communities that incorporates and builds upon the guidelines and principles of CBPR is then presented. The framework was based on 10 years’ experience working with First Nations communities in Saskatchewan. The

  14. A DPSIR Model for Ecological Security Assessment through Indicator Screening: A Case Study at Dianchi Lake in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Zhou, Jingqing; Loaiciga, Hugo; Guo, Huaicheng; Hong, Song

    2015-01-01

    Given the important role of lake ecosystems in social and economic development, and the current severe environmental degradation in China, a systematic diagnosis of the ecological security of lakes is essential for sustainable development. A Driving-force, Pressure, Status, Impact, and Risk (DPSIR) model, combined with data screening for lake ecological security assessment was developed to overcome the disadvantages of data selection in existing assessment methods. Correlation and principal component analysis were used to select independent and representative data. The DPSIR model was then applied to evaluate the ecological security of Dianchi Lake in China during 1988-2007 using an ecological security index. The results revealed a V-shaped trend. The application of the DPSIR model with data screening provided useful information regarding the status of the lake’s ecosystem, while ensuring information efficiency and eliminating multicollinearity. The modeling approach described here is practical and operationally efficient, and provides an attractive alternative approach to assess the ecological security of lakes. PMID:26107170

  15. Frameworks for evaluating health research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health research capacity strengthening (RCS) projects are often complex and hard to evaluate. In order to inform health RCS evaluation efforts, we aimed to describe and compare key characteristics of existing health RCS evaluation frameworks: their process of development, purpose, target users, structure, content and coverage of important evaluation issues. A secondary objective was to explore what use had been made of the ESSENCE framework, which attempts to address one such issue: harmonising the evaluation requirements of different funders. Methods We identified and analysed health RCS evaluation frameworks published by seven funding agencies between 2004 and 2012, using a mixed methods approach involving structured qualitative analyses of documents, a stakeholder survey and consultations with key contacts in health RCS funding agencies. Results The frameworks were intended for use predominantly by the organisations themselves, and most were oriented primarily towards funders’ internal organisational performance requirements. The frameworks made limited reference to theories that specifically concern RCS. Generic devices, such as logical frameworks, were typically used to document activities, outputs and outcomes, but with little emphasis on exploring underlying assumptions or contextual constraints. Usage of the ESSENCE framework appeared limited. Conclusions We believe that there is scope for improving frameworks through the incorporation of more accessible information about how to do evaluation in practice; greater involvement of stakeholders, following evaluation capacity building principles; greater emphasis on explaining underlying rationales of frameworks; and structuring frameworks so that they separate generic and project-specific aspects of health RCS evaluation. The third and fourth of these improvements might assist harmonisation. PMID:24330628

  16. Computational structural mechanics methods research using an evolving framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, N. F., Jr.; Lotts, C. G.; Gillian, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Advanced structural analysis and computational methods that exploit high-performance computers are being developed in a computational structural mechanics research activity sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center. These new methods are developed in an evolving framework and applied to representative complex structural analysis problems from the aerospace industry. An overview of the methods development environment is presented, and methods research areas are described. Selected application studies are also summarized.

  17. A Research Framework for Creative and Imitative Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lithner, Johan

    2008-01-01

    This conceptual research framework addresses the problem of rote learning by characterising key aspects of the dominating imitative reasoning and the lack of creative mathematical reasoning found in empirical data. By relating reasoning to thinking processes, student competencies, and the learning milieu it explains origins and consequences of…

  18. Decision Support Framework (DSF) Team Research Implementation Plan

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of ORD's Ecosystem Services Research Program (ESRP) is to provide the information and methods needed by decision-makers to assess the benefits of ecosystem goods and services to human well-being for inclusion in management alternatives. The Decision Support Framework...

  19. Principal Leadership: A Theoretical Framework for Research. Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Douglas

    A theoretical framework for leadership development is developed in this paper that links prior research findings to a cultural theory of principal influence on school performance. Four core dimensions of principal work--supervision, administration, management, and leadership--are analyzed in terms of their contributions to underlying cultural…

  20. Games and Simulations in Online Learning: Research and Development Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David; Aldrich, Clark; Prensky, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Games and Simulations in Online Learning: Research and Development Frameworks examines the potential of games and simulations in online learning, and how the future could look as developers learn to use the emerging capabilities of the Semantic Web. It presents a general understanding of how the Semantic Web will impact education and how games and…

  1. Proposing an Integrated Research Framework for Connectivism: Utilising Theoretical Synergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boitshwarelo, Bopelo

    2011-01-01

    Connectivism is receiving acknowledgement as a fresh way of conceptualising learning in the digital age. Thus, as a relatively new instructional framework, it is imperative that research on its applicability and effectiveness in a variety of educational contexts is advanced. In particular, a high premium should be placed on context-specific…

  2. Integrating Advance Research Directives into the European Legal Framework.

    PubMed

    Andorno, Roberto; Gennet, Eloïse; Jongsma, Karin; Elger, Bernice

    2016-04-01

    The possibility of using advance directives to prospectively consent to research participation in the event of dementia remains largely unexplored in Europe. Moreover, the legal status of advance directives for research is unclear in the European regulations governing biomedical research. The article explores the place that advance research directives have in the current European legal framework, and considers the possibility of integrating them more explicitly into the existing regulations. Special focus is placed on issues regarding informed consent, the role of proxies, and the level of acceptable risks and burdens. PMID:27228684

  3. Assessing excellence in translational cancer research: a consensus based framework

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It takes several years on average to translate basic research findings into clinical research and eventually deliver patient benefits. An expert-based excellence assessment can help improve this process by: identifying high performing Comprehensive Cancer Centres; best practices in translational cancer research; improving the quality and efficiency of the translational cancer research process. This can help build networks of excellent Centres by aiding focused partnerships. In this paper we report on a consensus building exercise that was undertaken to construct an excellence assessment framework for translational cancer research in Europe. Methods We used mixed methods to reach consensus: a systematic review of existing translational research models critically appraised for suitability in performance assessment of Cancer Centres; a survey among European stakeholders (researchers, clinicians, patient representatives and managers) to score a list of potential excellence criteria, a focus group with selected representatives of survey participants to review and rescore the excellence criteria; an expert group meeting to refine the list; an open validation round with stakeholders and a critical review of the emerging framework by an independent body: a committee formed by the European Academy of Cancer Sciences. Results The resulting excellence assessment framework has 18 criteria categorized in 6 themes. Each criterion has a number of questions/sub-criteria. Stakeholders favoured using qualitative excellence criteria to evaluate the translational research “process” rather than quantitative criteria or judging only the outputs. Examples of criteria include checking if the Centre has mechanisms that can be rated as excellent for: involvement of basic researchers and clinicians in translational research (quality of supervision and incentives provided to clinicians to do a PhD in translational research) and well designed clinical trials based on ground

  4. A conceptual framework for teaching research in nursing.

    PubMed

    Wright, S C D

    2005-08-01

    Though research is often referred to the lifeblood, hallmark or cornerstone in the development of a profession (Brink, 1996:2), teaching research in nursing is a challenge. The challenge does not just lie in teaching the subject, but in resistance and unwillingness of students to engage in the subject. In the experience of the researcher, registered nurses identify themselves with being a nurse and a caregiver; the role of researcher has never been internalised. The challenge is to achieve the outcome envisaged, namely, nurses who are knowledgeable consumers of research as well as continuous productive scholars in their application of nursing. Research generates knowledge and knowledge is the basis of caring with excellence. Nursing is an art and a science and the science must produce the knowledge upon which the art is based. The purpose of this article is to propose a conceptual framework of how to teach research in order to achieve such a successful outcome. The conceptual framework proposed in this article is based on four pillars, theoretical knowledge of research, scientific writing, psychological support and experiential learning. The importance of the research facilitator, not just as a teacher but also as a positive role model, is also described. PMID:16245474

  5. Variation of Kozinets' framework and application to nursing research.

    PubMed

    Witney, Cynthia; Hendricks, Joyce; Cope, Vicki

    2016-05-01

    Background Online communities are new sites for undertaking research, with their textual interactions providing a rich source of data in real time. 'Ethnonetnography' is a research methodology based on ethnography that can be used in these online communities. In this study, the researcher and a specialist breast care nurse (SBCN) were immersed in the online community, adding to patients' breast cancer care and providing a nursing research component to the community. Aim To examine Kozinets' ( 2010 ) framework for ethnonetnography and how it may be varied for use in a purpose-built, disease-specific, online support community. Discussion The online community provided an area where members could communicate with each other. Kozinets' ( 2010 ) framework was varied in that the research was carried out in a purpose-built community opf which an SBCN was a member who could provide support and advice. The application of the ethnonetnographic methodology has wide implications for clinical nursing practice and research. Conclusion Ethnonetnography can be used to study disease-specific communities in a focused manner and can provide immediate benefits through the inclusion of an expert nurse and contemporaneous application of research findings to patient care. Implications for practice With ethical permission and the permission of online community members, nurse researchers can enter already established online communities. Ethnonetnography is ideally suited to nursing research as it provides the immediacy of evidence-based interaction with an expert nurse. These real-time responses improve support for those experiencing a critical life event. PMID:27188572

  6. A relational conceptual framework for multidisciplinary health research centre infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Although multidisciplinary and team-based approaches are increasingly acknowledged as necessary to address some of the most pressing contemporary health challenges, many researchers struggle with a lack of infrastructure to facilitate and formalise the requisite collaborations. Specialised research centres have emerged as an important organisational solution, yet centre productivity and sustainability are frequently dictated by the availability and security of infrastructure funds. Despite being widely cited as a core component of research capacity building, infrastructure as a discrete concept has been rather analytically neglected, often treated as an implicit feature of research environments with little specification or relegated to a narrow category of physical or administrative inputs. The terms research infrastructure, capacity, and culture, among others, are deployed in overlapping and inconsistent ways, further obfuscating the crucial functions of infrastructure specifically and its relationships with associated concepts. The case is made for an expanded conceptualisation of research infrastructure, one that moves beyond conventional 'hardware' notions. Drawing on a case analysis of NEXUS, a multidisciplinary health research centre based at the University of British Columbia, Canada, a conceptual framework is proposed that integrates the tangible and intangible structures that interactively underlie research centre functioning. A relational approach holds potential to allow for more comprehensive accounting of the returns on infrastructure investment. For those developing new research centres or seeking to reinvigorate existing ones, this framework may be a useful guide for both centre design and evaluation. PMID:20925953

  7. A relational conceptual framework for multidisciplinary health research centre infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Coen, Stephanie E; Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Ratner, Pamela A

    2010-01-01

    Although multidisciplinary and team-based approaches are increasingly acknowledged as necessary to address some of the most pressing contemporary health challenges, many researchers struggle with a lack of infrastructure to facilitate and formalise the requisite collaborations. Specialised research centres have emerged as an important organisational solution, yet centre productivity and sustainability are frequently dictated by the availability and security of infrastructure funds.Despite being widely cited as a core component of research capacity building, infrastructure as a discrete concept has been rather analytically neglected, often treated as an implicit feature of research environments with little specification or relegated to a narrow category of physical or administrative inputs. The terms research infrastructure, capacity, and culture, among others, are deployed in overlapping and inconsistent ways, further obfuscating the crucial functions of infrastructure specifically and its relationships with associated concepts.The case is made for an expanded conceptualisation of research infrastructure, one that moves beyond conventional 'hardware' notions. Drawing on a case analysis of NEXUS, a multidisciplinary health research centre based at the University of British Columbia, Canada, a conceptual framework is proposed that integrates the tangible and intangible structures that interactively underlie research centre functioning.A relational approach holds potential to allow for more comprehensive accounting of the returns on infrastructure investment. For those developing new research centres or seeking to reinvigorate existing ones, this framework may be a useful guide for both centre design and evaluation. PMID:20925953

  8. Transnationalism: A Framework for Advancing Nursing Research With Contemporary Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S; Boutain, Doris M; Mohammed, Selina A

    2016-01-01

    This article advances nursing research by presenting transnationalism as a framework for inquiry with contemporary immigrants. Transnationalism occurs when immigrants maintain relationships that transcend the geographical borders of their origin and host countries. Immigrants use those relationships to experience health differently within concurrent socioeconomic, political, and cultural contexts than national situated populations. Nurse researchers are called upon to consider these trans-border relationships when exploring the health of contemporary immigrants. Such consideration is needed to develop relevant research designs, methods, analysis, and dissemination strategies. PMID:26836998

  9. Advancing Aeronautics: A Decision Framework for Selecting Research Agendas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anton, Philip S.; Ecola, Liisa; Kallimani, James G.; Light, Thomas; Ohlandt, Chad J. R.; Osburg, Jan; Raman, Raj; Grammich, Clifford A.

    2011-01-01

    Publicly funded research has long played a role in the development of aeronautics, ranging from foundational research on airfoils to development of the air-traffic control system. Yet more than a century after the research and development of successful controlled, sustained, heavier-than-air flight vehicles, there are questions over the future of aeronautics research. The field of aeronautics is relatively mature, technological developments within it have become more evolutionary, and funding decisions are sometimes motivated by the continued pursuit of these evolutionary research tracks rather than by larger factors. These developments raise questions over whether public funding of aeronautics research continues to be appropriate or necessary and at what levels. Tightened federal budgets and increasing calls to address other public demands make these questions sharper still. To help it address the questions of appropriate directions for publicly funded aeronautics research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) asked the RAND Corporation to assess the elements required to develop a strategic view of aeronautics research opportunities; identify candidate aeronautic grand challenges, paradigms, and concepts; outline a framework for evaluating them; and exercise the framework as an example of how to use it. Accordingly, this research seeks to address these questions: What aeronautics research should be supported by the U.S. government? What compelling and desirable benefits drive government-supported research? How should the government--especially NASA--make decisions about which research to support? Advancing aeronautics involves broad policy and decisionmaking challenges. Decisions involve tradeoffs among competing perspectives, uncertainties, and informed judgment.

  10. Radically changing the research framework during a health geography study.

    PubMed

    Baer, Leonard D

    2002-11-01

    This paper focuses on the issue of how a research project can shift from a positivist to a nonpositivist framework. Specific attention is given to changes in research methods and philosophical paradigm that emerged while conducting a study on the replacement of immigrant physicians in rural America. In its original conceptualization, the study was expected to yield a simple, right answer. Specifically, one or more types of health professionals (e.g., nurse practitioners, National Health Service Corps physicians) would be identified as expected replacements in the event of a cutback on immigrant physicians. However, as the research progressed, the quest for a simple, right answer became less realistic. The theoretical framework, methods, and research question changed, thereby allowing for greater complexity and ambiguity than anticipated at the outset of the study. What had been a positivist, statistical study was now a nonpositivist, qualitative study, and the research question shifted to include individual perspectives. An overview of such transitions leads to a discussion of the importance of context and ambiguity in research. PMID:12383467

  11. A framework to analyse gender bias in epidemiological research

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz‐Cantero, María Teresa; Vives‐Cases, Carmen; Artazcoz, Lucía; Delgado, Ana; del Mar García Calvente, Maria; Miqueo, Consuelo; Montero, Isabel; Ortiz, Rocío; Ronda, Elena; Ruiz, Isabel; Valls, Carme

    2007-01-01

    The design and analysis of research may cause systematic gender dependent errors to be produced in results because of gender insensitivity or androcentrism. Gender bias in research could be defined as a systematically erroneous gender dependent approach related to social construct, which incorrectly regards women and men as similar/different. Most gender bias can be found in the context of discovery (development of hypotheses), but it has also been found in the context of justification (methodological process), which must be improved. In fact, one of the main effects of gender bias in research is partial or incorrect knowledge in the results, which are systematically different from the real values. This paper discusses some forms of conceptual and methodological bias that may affect women's health. It proposes a framework to analyse gender bias in the design and analysis of research carried out on women's and men's health problems, and on specific women's health issues. Using examples, the framework aims to show the different theoretical perspectives in a social or clinical research context where forms of selection, measurement and confounding bias are produced as a result of gender insensitivity. Finally, this paper underlines the importance of re‐examining results so that they may be reinterpreted to produce new gender based knowledge. PMID:18000118

  12. Detecting the unexpected: a research framework for ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Catherine A; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Frieder, Christina A; Baumann, Hannes; Bockmon, Emily E; White, Meredith M; Carter, Brendan R; Benway, Heather M; Blanchette, Carol A; Carrington, Emily; McClintock, James B; McCorkle, Daniel C; McGillis, Wade R; Mooney, T Aran; Ziveri, Patrizia

    2014-09-01

    The threat that ocean acidification (OA) poses to marine ecosystems is now recognized and U.S. funding agencies have designated specific funding for the study of OA. We present a research framework for studying OA that describes it as a biogeochemical event that impacts individual species and ecosystems in potentially unexpected ways. We draw upon specific lessons learned about ecosystem responses from research on acid rain, carbon dioxide enrichment in terrestrial plant communities, and nitrogen deposition. We further characterize the links between carbon chemistry changes and effects on individuals and ecosystems, and enumerate key hypotheses for testing. Finally, we quantify how U.S. research funding has been distributed among these linkages, concluding that there is an urgent need for research programs designed to anticipate how the effects of OA will reverberate throughout assemblages of species. PMID:25084232

  13. A conceptual framework for early adolescence: a platform for research.

    PubMed

    Blum, Robert W; Astone, Nan Marie; Decker, Michele R; Mouli, Venkatraman Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Early adolescence (ages 10-14 years) is among the most neglected stages of development, yet there are few stages during the life course where changes are as dramatic. The present conceptual framework proposes four central goals to be achieved by early adolescence: engagement with learning, emotional and physical safety, positive sense of self/self-efficacy, acquisition of life/decision-making skills. The framework proposes an ecological model where the macro level factors (economic forces, historical events, national priorities, laws/policies/norms and values, national events, and political realities) all set the contexts that influence community, family, school and peer factors that all in turn influence the adolescent. Existing indicators for points of development are noted as are future areas of research priority. PMID:24486726

  14. Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity

  15. Fostering Undergraduate Research Experiences in Management Information Systems through the "Research Group" Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartkus, Ken; Mills, Robert; Olsen, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an innovative approach to engaged learning. Founded on the principles of a scholarly think-tank and administered along the lines of a consulting organization, the proposed "Research Group" framework is designed to facilitate effective and efficient undergraduate research experiences in Management…

  16. Social media: A contextual framework to guide research and practice.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Lynn A; Ployhart, Robert E

    2015-11-01

    Social media are a broad collection of digital platforms that have radically changed the way people interact and communicate. However, we argue that social media are not simply a technology but actually represent a context that differs in important ways from traditional (e.g., face-to-face) and other digital (e.g., email) ways of interacting and communicating. As a result, social media is a relatively unexamined type of context that may affect the cognition, affect, and behavior of individuals within organizations. We propose a contextual framework that identifies the discrete and ambient stimuli that distinguish social media contexts from digital communication media (e.g., email) and physical (e.g., face-to-face) contexts. We then use this contextual framework to demonstrate how it changes more person-centered theories of organizational behavior (e.g., social exchange, social contagion, and social network theories). These theoretical insights are also used to identify a number of practical implications for individuals and organizations. This study's major contribution is creating a theoretical understanding of social media features so that future research may proceed in a theory-based, rather than platform-based, manner. Overall, we intend for this article to stimulate and broadly shape the direction of research on this ubiquitous, but poorly understood, phenomenon. PMID:26052712

  17. A Sex-Positive Framework for Research on Adolescent Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Harden, K Paige

    2014-09-01

    In this article, I propose a sex-positive framework for research on adolescent sexuality in which I consider consensual sexual activities in adolescence as developmentally normative and potentially healthy. The sex-positive framework is contrasted with the predominant "risk" perspective that presumes that abstinence from sexual activity is the ideal behavioral outcome for teenagers. Evidence from longitudinal and behavioral genetic studies indicates that engaging in sexual intercourse in adolescence does not typically cause worse psychological functioning. The relationship context of sexual experience may be a critical moderator of its psychological impact. Moreover, cross-cultural data on adolescents' contraception usage, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections suggest that, despite the unacceptably high rate of negative health consequences among U.S. teenagers, adolescents can have the developmental capacity to regulate the health risks inherent in sexual activity. Understanding adolescent sexuality can be fostered by considering sexual well-being, a multidimensional construct that incorporates an adolescent's sexual self-efficacy, sexual self-esteem, feelings of sexual pleasure and satisfaction, and freedom from pain and negative affect regarding sexuality. New research is necessary to understand the development of adolescent sexual well-being, including its normative age trends, its reciprocal links with sexual behavior, and its impact on psychological and physical health. PMID:26186753

  18. Evolution of natural risk: research framework and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufschmidt, G.; Crozier, M.; Glade, T.

    2005-05-01

    This study presents a conceptual framework for addressing temporal variation in natural risk. Numerous former natural risk analyses and investigations have demonstrated that time and related changes have a crucial influence on risk. For natural hazards, time becomes a factor for a number of reasons. Using the example of landslides to illustrate this point, it is shown that: 1. landslide history is important in determining probability of occurrence, 2. the significance of catchment variables in explaining landslide susceptibility is dependent on the time scale chosen, 3. the observer's perception of the geosystem's state changes with different time spans, and 4. the system's sensitivity varies with time. Natural hazards are not isolated events but complex features that are connected with the social system. Similarly, elements at risk and their vulnerability are highly dynamic through time, an aspect that is not sufficiently acknowledged in research. Since natural risk is an amalgam of hazard and vulnerability, its temporal behaviour has to be considered as well. Identifying these changes and their underlying processes contributes to a better understanding of natural risk today and in the future. However, no dynamic models for natural risks are currently available. Dynamic behaviour of factors affecting risk is likely to create increasing connectivity and complexity. This demands a broad approach to natural risk, since the concept of risk encapsulates aspects of many disciplines and has suffered from single-discipline approaches in the past. In New Zealand, dramatic environmental and social change has occurred in a relatively short period of time, graphically demonstrating the temporal variability of the geosystem and the social system. To understand these changes and subsequent interactions between both systems, a holistic perspective is needed. This contribution reviews available frameworks, demonstrates the need for further concepts, and gives research

  19. Partners in Science: A Suggested Framework for Inclusive Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Public participation in scientific research, also known as citizen science, is effective on many levels: it produces sound, publishable science and data, helps participants gain scientific knowledge and learn about the methods and practices of modern science, and can help communities advance their own priorities. Unfortunately, the demographics of citizen science programs do not reflect the demographics of the US; in general people of color and less affluent members of society are under-represented. To understand the reasons for this disparity, it is useful to look to the broader research about participation in science in a variety of informal and formal settings. From this research, the causes for unequal participation in science can be grouped into three broad categories: accessibility challenges, cultural differences, and a gap between scientific goals and community priorities. Many of these challenges are addressed in working with communities to develop an integrated program of scientific research, education, and community action that addresses community priorities and invites community participation at every stage of the process from defining the question to applying the results. In the spectrum of ways to engage the public in scientific research, this approach of "co-creation" is the most intensive. This talk will explore several examples of co-creation of science, including collaborations with tribal communities around climate change adaptation, work in the Louisiana Delta concerning land loss, and the link between weather and disease in Africa. We will articulate some of the challenges of working this intensively with communities, and suggest a general framework for guiding this kind of work with communities. This model of intensive collaboration at every stage is a promising one for adding to the diversity of citizen science efforts. It also provides a powerful strategy for science more generally, and may help us diversify our field, ensure the use and

  20. Affect in Mathematics Education--Exploring Theoretical Frameworks. Research Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannula, Markku; Evans, Jeff; Philippou, George; Zan, Rosetta

    2004-01-01

    This document brings into a dialogue some of the theoretical frameworks used to study affect in mathematics education. It presents affect as a representational system, affect as one regulator of the dynamic self, affect in a socio-constructivist framework, and affect as embodied. It also evaluates these frameworks from different perspectives:…

  1. An emerging research framework for studying informal learning and schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Laura M. W.

    2004-07-01

    In recognition of the fact that science centers and other informal educational institutions can play a role in the reform of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, several major research and professional programs are currently underway. This article discusses one such effort, the Center for Informal Learning and Schools (CILS), a collaboration of the Exploratorium, the University of California, Santa Cruz, and King's College, London and the need for a theoretical framework based on socio-cultural theory to link discussion of varied efforts characterizing science learning in informal settings. The article discusses two key problematics related to developments in the science education field of the past decade: (1) integrating studies that are undertaken from multiple disciplinary perspectives, namely, science education, developmental psychology, and cultural studies, and (2) characterizing critical properties of informal learning in museums. It reviews work that has been conducted in nonschool settings and, using examples from research conducted by the Center for Informal Learning and Schools, it reviews questions currently under investigation.

  2. Integrated brokering framework for multi-disciplinary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craglia, M.; Vaccari, L.; Santoro, M.; Nativi, S.

    2012-04-01

    EuroGEOSS is a research project supporting the development of the GEOSS Common Infrastructure and the multi-disciplinary research efforts needed to address global sustainability research. The framework it has developed to integrate data, services, and models from different disciplines is based on a brokering approach that advances the traditional Service Oriented Architecture of spatial data infrastructures. In this paper we demonstrate the added value of this approach. The scientific question we address in this example is o identify ecosystems similar to the ones found in the protected area of "Sierra De Queixa Montes De Invernadeiro Nature Park" in Galicia, Spain. To do this, the user would identify an analytical model suitable to address the question such as the eHabitat model developed by the European Commission Joint Research Centre. It would then use the EuroGEOSS broker to look for the data necessary to run the model such boundaries of the select park, mean drought index, %forest cover, temperature and rainfall, and elevation. The eHabitat model is used to compute the likelihood to find ecosystems in the selected window that are similar to the one found in the selected protected area. The end-user would therefore run the model directly on the web as a web processing service with the data identified in the broker (no need to download the data) and use this information to draw a new area to be protected that would have similar ecological conditions to the initial protected area and display the list of endangered species (to be defined) expected to be found in the new location. Finally, the user can also mine Web 2.0 social networks via the broker to identify pictures of the selected species in the area of interest. This integrated approach based on open standards and interfaces allows the user to find, access, and use the data and models in a transparent way focusing on the research questions to be addressed rather than the technology that delivers the inputs

  3. Comparative effectiveness research for the clinician researcher: a framework for making a methodological design choice.

    PubMed

    Williams, Cylie M; Skinner, Elizabeth H; James, Alicia M; Cook, Jill L; McPhail, Steven M; Haines, Terry P

    2016-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research compares two active forms of treatment or usual care in comparison with usual care with an additional intervention element. These types of study are commonly conducted following a placebo or no active treatment trial. Research designs with a placebo or non-active treatment arm can be challenging for the clinician researcher when conducted within the healthcare environment with patients attending for treatment.A framework for conducting comparative effectiveness research is needed, particularly for interventions for which there are no strong regulatory requirements that must be met prior to their introduction into usual care. We argue for a broader use of comparative effectiveness research to achieve translatable real-world clinical research. These types of research design also affect the rapid uptake of evidence-based clinical practice within the healthcare setting.This framework includes questions to guide the clinician researcher into the most appropriate trial design to measure treatment effect. These questions include consideration given to current treatment provision during usual care, known treatment effectiveness, side effects of treatments, economic impact, and the setting in which the research is being undertaken. PMID:27530915

  4. Optimizing Health Care Coalitions: Conceptual Frameworks and a Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Hupert, Nathaniel; Biala, Karen; Holland, Tara; Baehr, Avi; Hasan, Aisha; Harvey, Melissa

    2015-12-01

    The US health care system has maintained an objective of preparedness for natural or manmade catastrophic events as part of its larger charge to deliver health services for the American population. In 2002, support for hospital-based preparedness activities was bolstered by the creation of the National Bioterrorism Hospital Preparedness Program, now called the Hospital Preparedness Program, in the US Department of Health and Human Services. Since 2012, this program has promoted linking health care facilities into health care coalitions that build key preparedness and emergency response capabilities. Recognizing that well-functioning health care coalitions can have a positive impact on the health outcomes of the populations they serve, this article informs efforts to optimize health care coalition activity. We first review the landscape of health care coalitions in the United States. Then, using principles from supply chain management and high-reliability organization theory, we present 2 frameworks extending beyond the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response's current guidance in a way that may help health care coalition leaders gain conceptual insight into how different enterprises achieve similar ends relevant to emergency response. We conclude with a proposed research agenda to advance understanding of how coalitions can contribute to the day-to-day functioning of health care systems and disaster preparedness. PMID:26545194

  5. Time and Identity: A Framework for Research and Theory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; van Geert, Paul; Bosma, Harke; Kunnen, Saskia

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework for the study of identity in the context of developmental and real-time. The framework consists of two dimensions related to the notion of time. One dimension involves the distinction between short- and long-term processes, or, as we call them, the micro- and macro-perspective on time. The second…

  6. Empirical Research of College Students' Alternative Frameworks of Particle Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hongmei

    2010-01-01

    Based on the constructive theory, about 300 college students of grade 05 of the electronic information specialty of Dezhou University are surveyed for their alternative frameworks of particle mechanics in college physics in this article. In the survey, the questionnaires are used to find out college students' alternative frameworks, and the…

  7. Risk-factor research and prevention programs for anxiety disorders: a translational research framework.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B; Bernstein, Amit; Keough, Meghan E

    2006-09-01

    The aim of the present essay is to discuss the interconnection between risk-factor research and prevention program development for panic-spectrum psychopathology. We argue that prevention of panic-spectrum psychopathology specifically, and anxiety disorders more generally, is likely to be best advanced through active, systematic translation of basic, risk-factor research. After operationalizing key terminology, we present some exemplar risk-factor candidates for panic-spectrum psychopathology, summarize research related to their role as risk-factors for panic problems, and link this discussion to risk-factor nomenclature. We then present a translational framework for extrapolating extant knowledge on these and other potential risk-factors for panic-spectrum psychopathology with respect to the development of preventative interventions. The proposed translational framework is intended to describe a forward-feeding process by which risk-factor research could be used by clinical researchers to inform prevention programs; and reciprocally, how such prevention knowledge could be most effectively utilized to drive new, clinically focused risk-factor research. PMID:16867299

  8. The Adolescent Community of Engagement: A Framework for Research on Adolescent Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borup, Jered; West, Richard E.; Graham, Charles R.; Davies, Randall S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the Adolescent Community of Engagement (ACE) framework as a lens to guide research and design in adolescent online learning environments. Several online learning frameworks have emerged from higher education contexts, but these frameworks do not explicitly address the unique student and environmental characteristics of the…

  9. Measuring the Impact of Research: Lessons from the UK’s Research Excellence Framework 2014

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Gobinda; Koya, Kushwanth; Philipson, Pete

    2016-01-01

    Impactful academic research plays a stellar role in society, pressing to ask the question of how one measures the impact created by different areas of academic research. Measuring the societal, cultural, economic and scientific impact of research is currently the priority of the National Science Foundation, European Commission and several research funding agencies. The recently concluded United Kingdom’s national research quality exercise, the Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2014, which piloted impact assessment as part of the overall evaluation offers a lens to view how impact of research in different disciplines can be measured. Overall research quality was assessed through quality of outputs, ‘impact’ and research environment. We performed two studies using the REF 2014 as a case study. The first study on 363 Impact Case Studies (ICSs) submitted in 5 research areas (UoAs) reveals that, in general, the impact scores were constructed upon a combination of factors i.e. quantity of quartile-one (Q1) publications, quantity and value of grants/income, number of researchers stated in the ICSs, spin-offs created, discoveries/patents and presentation of esteem data, informing researchers/ academics of the factors to consider in order to achieve a better impact score in research impact assessments. However, there were differences among disciplines in terms of the role played by the factors in achieving their overall scores for the ICSs. The outcome of this study is thus a set of impact indicators, and their relationship with the overall score of impact of research in different disciplines as determined in REF2014, which would in the first instance provide some answers to impact measures that would be useful for researchers in different disciplines. The second study extracts the general themes of impact reported by universities by performing a word frequency analysis in all the ICSs submitted in the five chosen research areas, which were substantially varied

  10. The Astrophysics Simulation Collaboratory portal: A framework foreffective distributed research

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarescu, Ruxandra; Allen, Gabrielle; Daues, Gregory; Kelly,Ian; Russell, Michael; Seidel, Edward; Shalf, John; Tobias, Malcolm

    2003-03-03

    We describe the motivation, architecture, and implementation of the Astrophysics Simulation Collaboratory (ASC) portal. The ASC project provides a web-based problem solving framework for the astrophysics community that harnesses the capabilities of emerging computational grids.

  11. An Overview of a Theoretical Framework of Phenomenography in Qualitative Education Research: An Example from Physics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornek, Funda

    2008-01-01

    One or more theoretical frameworks or orientations are used in qualitative education research. In this paper, the main tenets, the background and the appropriateness of phenomenography, which is one of the theoretical frameworks used in qualitative research, will be depicted. Further, the differences among phenomenography, phenomenology and…

  12. Strengthening implementation and utilization of nutrition interventions through research: a framework and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Menon, Purnima; Covic, Namukolo M; Harrigan, Paige B; Horton, Susan E; Kazi, Nabeeha M; Lamstein, Sascha; Neufeld, Lynnette; Oakley, Erica; Pelletier, David

    2014-12-01

    Undernutrition among women and children contributes to almost half the global burden of child mortality in developing countries. The impact of nutrition on economic development has highlighted the need for evidence-based solutions and yielded substantial global momentum. However, it is now recognized that the impact of evidence-based interventions is limited by the lack of evidence on the best operational strategies for scaling up nutrition interventions. With the goal of encouraging greater engagement in implementation research in nutrition and generating evidence on implementation and utilization of nutrition interventions, this paper brings together a framework and a broad analysis of literature to frame and highlight the crucial importance of research on the delivery and utilization of nutrition interventions. The paper draws on the deliberations of a high-level working group, an e-consultation, a conference, and the published literature. It proposes a framework and areas of research that have been quite neglected, and yet are critical to better understanding through careful research to enable better translation of global and national political momentum for nutrition into public health impact. PMID:24934307

  13. Exploring the Concepts of Knowledge Adoption and Conceptual Impact: Implications for Educational Research Submissions to the Research Excellence Framework (2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how research(ers) can impact upon policy, a pertinent issue in light of England's 2014 Research Excellence Framework. It presents the findings of a literature review and interviews with educational researchers and policymakers in England and Wales. The projects' aims were (i) to understand the actions researchers should…

  14. Perceptions of the UK's Research Excellence Framework 2014: A Small Survey of Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Tony; Sage, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Earlier work inspired by a body of literature raised important questions about the workings of the UK's Research Excellence Framework (REF) and its predecessor the Research Assessment Framework (RAE), and noted the possible adverse outcomes of such processes. This paper builds on this by examining the findings of a small survey of social science…

  15. Response to Discussion Paper on a Mobile Student Research Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlinski, Jean

    2010-01-01

    In November 2009, the BC Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) hosted a "Visioning Session" to revisit the framework and definitions that have been used to measure the mobility of transfer students in British Columbia. Members of BCCAT's standing committees participated along with representatives from the Ministry of Advanced Education and…

  16. A Theoretical Framework for Physics Education Research: Modeling Student Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redish, Edward F.

    2004-01-01

    Education is a goal-oriented field. But if we want to treat education scientifically so we can accumulate, evaluate, and refine what we learn, then we must develop a theoretical framework that is strongly rooted in objective observations and through which different theoretical models of student thinking can be compared. Much that is known in the…

  17. Orchestration in Learning Technology Research: Evaluation of a Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Luis P.; Dimitriadis, Yannis; Asensio-Pérez, Juan I.; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2015-01-01

    The term "orchestrating learning" is being used increasingly often, referring to the coordination activities performed while applying learning technologies to authentic settings. However, there is little consensus about how this notion should be conceptualised, and what aspects it entails. In this paper, a conceptual framework for…

  18. Research on a Modified Framework of Implicit Personality Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2010-01-01

    There is ample evidence that labeled gifted students exhibit maladaptive behavior patterns. According to Carol Dweck those students who subscribe to a fixed view of their abilities are particularly at risk. In this contribution we extended Dweck's framework and distinguished two aspects of the implicit theory of one's own abilities. We…

  19. Cyber Security Research Frameworks For Coevolutionary Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Rush, George D.; Tauritz, Daniel Remy

    2015-12-03

    Several architectures have been created for developing and testing systems used in network security, but most are meant to provide a platform for running cyber security experiments as opposed to automating experiment processes. In the first paper, we propose a framework termed Distributed Cyber Security Automation Framework for Experiments (DCAFE) that enables experiment automation and control in a distributed environment. Predictive analysis of adversaries is another thorny issue in cyber security. Game theory can be used to mathematically analyze adversary models, but its scalability limitations restrict its use. Computational game theory allows us to scale classical game theory to larger, more complex systems. In the second paper, we propose a framework termed Coevolutionary Agent-based Network Defense Lightweight Event System (CANDLES) that can coevolve attacker and defender agent strategies and capabilities and evaluate potential solutions with a custom network defense simulation. The third paper is a continuation of the CANDLES project in which we rewrote key parts of the framework. Attackers and defenders have been redesigned to evolve pure strategy, and a new network security simulation is devised which specifies network architecture and adds a temporal aspect. We also add a hill climber algorithm to evaluate the search space and justify the use of a coevolutionary algorithm.

  20. Educational Communities of Inquiry: Theoretical Framework, Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyol, Zehra; Garrison, D. Randy

    2013-01-01

    Communications technologies have been continuously integrated into learning and training environments which has revealed the need for a clear understanding of the process. The Community of Inquiry (COI) Theoretical Framework has a philosophical foundation which provides planned guidelines and principles to development useful learning environments…

  1. International participatory research framework: triangulating procedures to build health research capacity in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rogério M.; da Silva, Sueli Bulhões; Penido, Cláudia; Spector, Anya Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study advances Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) by presenting a set of triangulated procedures (steps and actions) that can facilitate participatory research in myriad international settings. By using procedural triangulation—the combination of specific steps and actions as the basis for the International Participatory Research Framework (IPRF)—our approach can improve the abilities of researchers and practitioners worldwide to systematize the development of research partnerships. The IPRF comprises four recursive steps: (i) contextualizing the host country; (ii) identifying collaborators in the host country; (iii) seeking advice and endorsement from gatekeepers and (iv) matching partners’ expertise, needs and interests. IPRF includes the following sets of recursive participatory actions: (A1) becoming familiar with local languages and culture; (A2) sharing power, ideas, influence and resources; (A3) gathering oral and written information about partners; (A4) establishing realistic expectations and (A5) resolving personal and professional differences. We show how these steps and actions were used recursively to build a partnership to study the roles of community health workers (CHWs) in Brazil's Family Health Program (PSF). The research conducted using IPRF focused on HIV prevention, and it included nearly 200 CHWs. By using the IPRF, our partnership achieved several participatory outcomes: community-defined research aims, capacity for future research and creation of new policies and programs. We engaged CHWs who requested that we study their training needs, and we engaged CHWs’ supervisors who used the data collected to modify CHW training. Data collected from CHWs will form the basis for a grant to test CHW training curricula. Researchers and community partners can now use the IPRF to build partnerships in different international contexts. By triangulating steps and actions, the IPRF advances knowledge about the use of CBPR methods

  2. Assessing research impact in academic clinical medicine: a study using Research Excellence Framework pilot impact indicators

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Funders of medical research the world over are increasingly seeking, in research assessment, to complement traditional output measures of scientific publications with more outcome-based indicators of societal and economic impact. In the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) developed proposals for the Research Excellence Framework (REF) to allocate public research funding to higher education institutions, inter alia, on the basis of the social and economic impact of their research. In 2010, it conducted a pilot exercise to test these proposals and refine impact indicators and criteria. Methods The impact indicators proposed in the 2010 REF impact pilot exercise are critically reviewed and appraised using insights from the relevant literature and empirical data collected for the University of Oxford’s REF pilot submission in clinical medicine. The empirical data were gathered from existing administrative sources and an online administrative survey carried out by the university’s Medical Sciences Division among 289 clinical medicine faculty members (48.1% response rate). Results The feasibility and scope of measuring research impact in clinical medicine in a given university are assessed. Twenty impact indicators from seven categories proposed by HEFCE are presented; their strengths and limitations are discussed using insights from the relevant biomedical and research policy literature. Conclusions While the 2010 pilot exercise has confirmed that the majority of the proposed indicators have some validity, there are significant challenges in operationalising and measuring these indicators reliably, as well as in comparing evidence of research impact across different cases in a standardised manner. It is suggested that the public funding agencies, medical research charities, universities, and the wider medical research community work together to develop more robust methodologies for capturing and describing impact

  3. International Participatory Research Framework: triangulating procedures to build health research capacity in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rogério M; da Silva, Sueli Bulhões; Penido, Cláudia; Spector, Anya Y

    2012-12-01

    This study advances Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) by presenting a set of triangulated procedures (steps and actions) that can facilitate participatory research in myriad international settings. By using procedural triangulation-the combination of specific steps and actions as the basis for the International Participatory Research Framework (IPRF)-our approach can improve the abilities of researchers and practitioners worldwide to systematize the development of research partnerships. The IPRF comprises four recursive steps: (i) contextualizing the host country; (ii) identifying collaborators in the host country; (iii) seeking advice and endorsement from gatekeepers and (iv) matching partners' expertise, needs and interests. IPRF includes the following sets of recursive participatory actions: (A(1)) becoming familiar with local languages and culture; (A(2)) sharing power, ideas, influence and resources; (A(3)) gathering oral and written information about partners; (A(4)) establishing realistic expectations and (A(5)) resolving personal and professional differences. We show how these steps and actions were used recursively to build a partnership to study the roles of community health workers (CHWs) in Brazil's Family Health Program (PSF). The research conducted using IPRF focused on HIV prevention, and it included nearly 200 CHWs. By using the IPRF, our partnership achieved several participatory outcomes: community-defined research aims, capacity for future research and creation of new policies and programs. We engaged CHWs who requested that we study their training needs, and we engaged CHWs' supervisors who used the data collected to modify CHW training. Data collected from CHWs will form the basis for a grant to test CHW training curricula. Researchers and community partners can now use the IPRF to build partnerships in different international contexts. By triangulating steps and actions, the IPRF advances knowledge about the use of CBPR methods

  4. Human subjects protections in community-engaged research: a research ethics framework.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Loup, Allan; Nelson, Robert M; Botkin, Jeffrey R; Kost, Rhonda; Smith, George R; Gehlert, Sarah

    2010-03-01

    In the 30 years since the Belmont Report, the role of the community in research has evolved and has taken on greater moral significance. Today, more and more translational research is being performed with the active engagement of individuals and communities rather than merely upon them. This engagement requires a critical examination of the range of risks that may arise when communities become partners in research. In attempting to provide such an examination, one must distinguish between established communities (groups that have their own organizational structure and leadership and exist regardless of the research) and unstructured groups (groups that may exist because of a shared trait but do not have defined leadership or internal cohesiveness). In order to participate in research as a community, unstructured groups must develop structure either by external means (by partnering with a Community-Based Organization) or by internal means (by empowering the group to organize and establish structure and leadership). When groups participate in research, one must consider risks to well-being due to process and outcomes. These risks may occur to the individual qua individual, but there are also risks that occur to the individual qua member of a group and also risks that occur to the group qua group. There are also risks to agency, both to the individual and the group. A 3-by-3 grid including 3 categories of risks (risks to well-being secondary to process, risks to well-being secondary to outcome and risks to agency) must be evaluated against the 3 distinct agents: individuals as individual participants, individuals as members of a group (both as participants and as nonparticipants) and to communities as a whole. This new framework for exploring the risks in community-engaged research can help academic researchers and community partners ensure the mutual respect that community-engaged research requires. PMID:20235860

  5. Human Subjects Protections in Community-Engaged Research: A Research Ethics Framework1

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Loup, Allan; Nelson, Robert M.; Botkin, Jeffrey R.; Kost, Rhonda; Smith, George R.; Gehlert, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    in the 30 years since the belmont Report, the role of the community in research has evolved and has taken on greater moral significance. Today, more and more translational research is being performed with the active engagement of individuals and communities rather than merely upon them. This engagement requires a critical examination of the range of risks that may arise when communities become partners in research. In attempting to provide such an examination, one must distinguish between established communities (groups that have their own organizational structure and leadership and exist regardless of the research) and unstructured groups (groups that may exist because of a shared trait but do not have defined leadership or internal cohesiveness). In order to participate in research as a community, unstructured groups must develop structure either by external means (by partnering with a Community-Based Organization) or by internal means (by empowering the group to organize and establish structure and leadership). When groups participate in research, one must consider risks to well-being due to process and outcomes. These risks may occur to the individual qua individual, but there are also risks that occur to the individual qua member of a group and also risks that occur to the group qua group. There are also risks to agency, both to the individual and the group. A 3-by-3 grid including 3 categories of risks (risks to well-being secondary to process, risks to well-being secondary to outcome and risks to agency) must be evaluated against the 3 distinct agents: individuals as individual participants, individuals as members of a group (both as participants and as non-participants) and to communities as a whole. This new framework for exploring the risks in community-engaged research can help academic researchers and community partners ensure the mutual respect that community-engaged research requires. PMID:20235860

  6. Framework for Empirical Research on Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Hans Ernst; Klemm, Klaus; Leutner, Detlev; Sumfleth, Elke; Tiemann, Rudiger; Wirth, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    In view of the research on education--and subject-related education in particular--that has been conducted in recent years, it would seem useful to describe the current state and future trends of research on science teaching and learning. In the present article, research findings are described, the deficits of science education are analyzed, and…

  7. A Proposed Framework of Institutional Research Development Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Anita; Taylor, John

    2011-01-01

    Globally, research has become a key driver for the achievement of status and the procurement of funding for higher education institutions. Although there is mounting pressure on institutions to become research active, many institutions are rooted in a strong tradition of teaching. These institutions find it challenging to develop research capacity…

  8. Framework for Empirical Research on Science Teaching and Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Hans Ernst; Klemm, Klaus; Leutner, Detlev; Sumfleth, Elke; Tiemann, Rüdiger; Wirth, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    In view of the research on education—and subject-related education in particular—that has been conducted in recent years, it would seem useful to describe the current state and future trends of research on science teaching and learning. In the present article, research findings are described, the deficits of science education are analyzed, and medium- and long-term research goals are specified from the perspective of an interdisciplinary cooperative effort between specialists in the fields of empirical educational research; the psychology of learning and instruction; and biology, chemistry, and physics education.

  9. Assessing Institutional Frameworks of Inter- and Transdisciplinary Research and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Gerhard; Steiner, Regina; Eckmullner, Otto

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a concept for analysing the bearing of institutional settings on inter- and transdisciplinary research and education for sustainable development and applies it to a concrete case example. It asks in how far the funding programme requirements and the institutional project arrangements impacted on the research process and project…

  10. Choosing a Research Higher Degree Supervisor: A Framework for Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abigail, Wendy; Hill, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Nursing is a relatively new discipline in research with a small number of registered nurses holding a research higher degree (RHD). Entry into RHD study for nurses is often via a less direct route than the traditional bachelor's degree through honours to PhD pathway. The supervisor-candidate relationship is an important factor in RHD completions…

  11. Acquisition of Literacy in Bilingual Children: A Framework for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Much of the research that contributes to understanding how bilingual children become literate is not able to isolate the contribution of bilingualism to the discussion of literacy acquisition for these children. This article begins by identifying three areas of research that are relevant to examining literacy acquisition in bilinguals, explaining…

  12. An Integrative Conceptual Framework of Disability: New Directions for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Denise G.; Pledger, Constance

    2003-01-01

    Examines various disability paradigms across time, assessing the relative contribution of the socioecological perspective in guiding research designed to improve the lives of people with disabilities. Recommends new research directions that include a focus on life span issues, biomedicine, biotechnology, the efficacy and effectiveness of current…

  13. A Framework for Teaching Practice-Based Research with a Focus on Service Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Michael J.; Isokuortti, Nanne

    2016-01-01

    The integration of research and practice in social work education and agency practice is both complex and challenging. The analysis presented here builds upon the classic social work generalist framework (engagement, assessment, service planning and implementation, service evaluation, and termination) by developing a three-part framework to…

  14. Utility of a Conceptual Framework within Doctoral Study: A Researcher's Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    The author of this paper provides an example of a conceptual framework that supported her doctoral study and written dissertation in the field of educational psychology. The study was carried out prior to the more recent explicit emphasis on conceptual frameworks in postgraduate research texts and academic literature. The instigation for the…

  15. Food security in a perfect storm: using the ecosystem services framework to increase understanding

    PubMed Central

    Poppy, G. M.; Chiotha, S.; Eigenbrod, F.; Harvey, C. A.; Honzák, M.; Hudson, M. D.; Jarvis, A.; Madise, N. J.; Schreckenberg, K.; Shackleton, C. M.; Villa, F.; Dawson, T. P.

    2014-01-01

    Achieving food security in a ‘perfect storm’ scenario is a grand challenge for society. Climate change and an expanding global population act in concert to make global food security even more complex and demanding. As achieving food security and the millennium development goal (MDG) to eradicate hunger influences the attainment of other MDGs, it is imperative that we offer solutions which are complementary and do not oppose one another. Sustainable intensification of agriculture has been proposed as a way to address hunger while also minimizing further environmental impact. However, the desire to raise productivity and yields has historically led to a degraded environment, reduced biodiversity and a reduction in ecosystem services (ES), with the greatest impacts affecting the poor. This paper proposes that the ES framework coupled with a policy response framework, for example Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR), can allow food security to be delivered alongside healthy ecosystems, which provide many other valuable services to humankind. Too often, agro-ecosystems have been considered as separate from other natural ecosystems and insufficient attention has been paid to the way in which services can flow to and from the agro-ecosystem to surrounding ecosystems. Highlighting recent research in a large multi-disciplinary project (ASSETS), we illustrate the ES approach to food security using a case study from the Zomba district of Malawi. PMID:24535394

  16. A Framework for Global Collaborative Data Management for Malaria Research

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Juan B.; Harb, Omar S.; Zheng, Jie; Tisch, Daniel J.; Charlebois, Edwin D.; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Sullivan, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Data generated during the course of research activities carried out by the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) is heterogeneous, large, and multi-scaled. The complexity of federated and global data operations and the diverse uses planned for the data pose tremendous challenges and opportunities for collaborative research. In this article, we present the foundational principles for data management across the ICEMR Program, the logistics associated with multiple aspects of the data life cycle, and describe a pilot centralized web information system created in PlasmoDB to query a subset of this data. The paradigm proposed as a solution for the data operations in the ICEMR Program is widely applicable to large, multifaceted research projects, and could be reproduced in other contexts that require sophisticated data management. PMID:26259944

  17. A Framework for Global Collaborative Data Management for Malaria Research.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Juan B; Harb, Omar S; Zheng, Jie; Tisch, Daniel J; Charlebois, Edwin D; Stoeckert, Christian J; Sullivan, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    Data generated during the course of research activities carried out by the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) is heterogeneous, large, and multi-scaled. The complexity of federated and global data operations and the diverse uses planned for the data pose tremendous challenges and opportunities for collaborative research. In this article, we present the foundational principles for data management across the ICEMR Program, the logistics associated with multiple aspects of the data life cycle, and describe a pilot centralized web information system created in PlasmoDB to query a subset of this data. The paradigm proposed as a solution for the data operations in the ICEMR Program is widely applicable to large, multifaceted research projects, and could be reproduced in other contexts that require sophisticated data management. PMID:26259944

  18. LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY CAPACITY: A FRAMEWORK FOR RESEARCH. (R825226)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. [Clinical research methods in the nursing discipline framework].

    PubMed

    Goulet, C

    1999-12-01

    Within the nursing discipline, the research helps or should help to develop and assess the theories related to the relevant phenomena. A professional discipline such as ours determines the relevant phenomena through its sphere of activity and the priorities of the society in general. With time, the disciplines develop a preference in the way of thinking about their discipline. At that point, there is no singular approach to the development of knowledge inside the nursing discipline, and no consensus either on the way of carrying out nursing research, whether it is applied or not. From time immemorial, the logical and systematic chain of reasoning coupled with the minute observation, the reflection and the intuition have built up the processes essential to the understanding of the human natural phenomena. Thus, the nursing research was mainly influenced by the two prevailing approaches (quantitative and qualitative) both focused on the experience, but using different strategies to get in touch with reality. Recently, the triangulation of the research elements seems more frequent, whether it is the combination of theories, of methods or of researchers of different disciplines with different perspectives. Each approach has its own methods and criteria to collect and analyse the data, then to interpret and check the results. The reproduction and the confirmation of this knowledge through additional and critical research are essential if we want this knowledge to be recognized by this discipline. PMID:12037839

  20. Knowledge for better health: a conceptual framework and foundation for health research systems.

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Tikki; Sadana, Ritu; Hanney, Steve; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Simon, Jonathon

    2003-01-01

    Health research generates knowledge that can be utilized to improve health system performance and, ultimately, health and health equity. We propose a conceptual framework for health research systems (HRSs) that defines their boundaries, components, goals, and functions. The framework adopts a systems perspective towards HRSs and serves as a foundation for constructing a practical approach to describe and analyse HRSs. The analysis of HRSs should, in turn, provide a better understanding of how research contributes to gains in health and health equity. In this framework, the intrinsic goals of the HRS are the advancement of scientific knowledge and the utilization of knowledge to improve health and health equity. Its four principal functions are stewardship, financing, creating and sustaining resources, and producing and using research. The framework, as it is applied in consultation with countries, will provide countries and donor agencies with relevant inputs to policies and strategies for strengthening HRSs and using knowledge for better health. PMID:14758408

  1. Improving children's oral health: an interdisciplinary research framework.

    PubMed

    Casamassimo, P S; Lee, J Y; Marazita, M L; Milgrom, P; Chi, D L; Divaris, K

    2014-10-01

    Despite the concerted efforts of research and professional and advocacy stakeholders, recent evidence suggests that improvements in the oral health of young children in the United States has not followed the prevailing trend of oral health improvement in other age groups. In fact, oral health disparities in the youngest children may be widening, yet efforts to translate advances in science and technology into meaningful improvements in populations' health have had limited success. Nevertheless, the great strides in genomics, biological, behavioral, social, and health services research in the past decade have strengthened the evidence base available to support initiatives and translational efforts. Concerted actions to accelerate this translation and implementation process are warranted; at the same time, policies that can help tackle the upstream determinants of oral health disparities are imperative. This article summarizes the proceedings from the symposium on the interdisciplinary continuum of pediatric oral health that was held during the 43rd annual meeting of the American Association for Dental Research, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. This report showcases the latest contributions across the interdisciplinary continuum of pediatric oral health research and provides insights into future research priorities and necessary intersectoral synergies. Issues are discussed as related to the overwhelming dominance of social determinants on oral disease and the difficulty of translating science into action. PMID:25122218

  2. Natural disasters: a framework for research and teaching.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D

    1991-09-01

    Natural disasters are defined in this paper by relating the impact of extreme geophysical events to patterns of human vulnerability. Hazard perception is shown to be a factor that limits the mitigation of risk. The historical development of disaster studies is traced and five different schools of thought are identified. The current International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) is evaluated critically with regard to its potential for unifying the disparate strands of knowledge and its scope as a vehicle for education. A pedagogical framework for disaster studies is presented. Time and space provide valuable unifying factors, while the subject matter can be differentiated according to the continua and dichotomies that it presents. In disaster studies as in other branches of higher education, an ecocentric approach is preferable to a technocentric one, as many of the poorer nations of the world, which are most afflicted by natural catastrophe, will have to rely for mitigation on maintaining their ecological sustainability, instead of depending on sophisticated technology. Valuable insights into the impact of environmental extremes on mankind are gained from the study of disasters as human ecology. PMID:20958724

  3. A novel framework for assessing metadata quality in epidemiological and public health research settings

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Christiana; Denaxas, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    Metadata are critical in epidemiological and public health research. However, a lack of biomedical metadata quality frameworks and limited awareness of the implications of poor quality metadata renders data analyses problematic. In this study, we created and evaluated a novel framework to assess metadata quality of epidemiological and public health research datasets. We performed a literature review and surveyed stakeholders to enhance our understanding of biomedical metadata quality assessment. The review identified 11 studies and nine quality dimensions; none of which were specifically aimed at biomedical metadata. 96 individuals completed the survey; of those who submitted data, most only assessed metadata quality sometimes, and eight did not at all. Our framework has four sections: a) general information; b) tools and technologies; c) usability; and d) management and curation. We evaluated the framework using three test cases and sought expert feedback. The framework can assess biomedical metadata quality systematically and robustly. PMID:27570670

  4. Understanding, Selecting, and Integrating a Theoretical Framework in Dissertation Research: Creating the Blueprint for Your "House"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Cynthia; Osanloo, Azadeh

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical framework is one of the most important aspects in the research process, yet is often misunderstood by doctoral candidates as they prepare their dissertation research study. The importance of theory-driven thinking and acting is emphasized in relation to the selection of a topic, the development of research questions, the…

  5. [Developing and applying the Payback Framework to assess the socioeconomic impact of health research].

    PubMed

    Buxton, Martin J; Hanney, Steve

    2008-12-01

    There is increasing pressure for assessments of the wider socioeconomic impacts of health research. Governments are making greater demands to justify the expenditure of public money. However, there is also a belief that assessing how the wider effects or benefits of health research arise should help to inform the management and organization of health research so as to increase future impacts. Since the mid- 1990s, Buxton and Hanney at the Health Economics Research Group, Brunel University, have been developing and applying the Payback Framework to assess the impacts of health research. Together with their colleagues, these researchers have applied this model in a series of studies to assess the payback from research programs in various fields (including diabetes, arthritis and cardiovascular disease) and in various countries (including the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Ireland, Australia and Canada). Other teams of researchers have applied the Payback Framework in, for example, Spain and Hong Kong. The Payback Framework consists of two elements, the first being the multi-dimensional categorization of the benefits of health research, which covers five main categories ranging from traditional knowledge production and research training and targeting, to impacts on policy and product development through to health and economic gains. The second element is a logic model of how best to assess these impacts. Application of this framework can be resource intensive, but has provided illustrative 'good news' stories on the payback resulting from research and has helped to inform research management. PMID:19631821

  6. How Europe Shapes Academic Research: Insights from Participation in European Union Framework Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primeri, Emilia; Reale, Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the effects of participating in European Union Framework Programmes (EUFPs) at the level of research units and researchers. We consider EUFPs as policy instruments that contribute to the Europeanisation of academic research and study the changes they produce with respect to: 1) the organisation and activities of Departments,…

  7. Research Data Storage: A Framework for Success. ECAR Working Group Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Douglas; Dawson, Barbara E.; Fary, Michael; Hillegas, Curtis W.; Hopkins, Brian W.; Lyons, Yolanda; McCullough, Heather; McMullen, Donald F.; Owen, Kim; Ratliff, Mark; Williams, Harry

    2014-01-01

    The EDUCAUSE Center for Analysis and Research Data Management Working Group (ECAR-DM) has created a framework for research data storage as an aid for higher education institutions establishing and evaluating their institution's research data storage efforts. This paper describes areas for consideration and suggests graduated criteria to assist in…

  8. Variables to Consider in Planning Research for Effective Instruction: A Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uprichard, A. Edward

    In this paper the belief is stated that researchers need to develop some type of conceptual frame for improving continuity of studies and specificity of treatment. This paper describes such a conceptual frame and its implications for research. The paper states that the framework was designed to help researchers identify, classify, and/or quantify…

  9. Professional Development in Higher Education. A Theoretical Framework for Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun

    This book proposes that action research can give higher education professional development a theoretical framework by integrating educational research and teaching in higher education. The book offers an alternative paradigm in higher education research and development and explains the differences between the traditional and alternative paradigms…

  10. A Framework of Operating Models for Interdisciplinary Research Programs in Clinical Service Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian; Currie, Melissa; Smith, Linda; Servais, Michelle; McDougall, Janette

    2008-01-01

    A framework of operating models for interdisciplinary research programs in clinical service organizations is presented, consisting of a "clinician-researcher" skill development model, a program evaluation model, a researcher-led knowledge generation model, and a knowledge conduit model. Together, these models comprise a tailored, collaborative…

  11. Social Aspects of CSCL Environments: A Research Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreijns, Karel; Kirschner, Paul A.; Vermeulen, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    Although there are research findings supporting the positive effects of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), problems have been reported regarding the learning process itself, group formation, and group dynamics. These problems can be traced back to impeded social interaction between group members. Social interaction is necessary (a)…

  12. An Emerging Research Framework for Studying Informal Learning and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Laura M. W.

    2004-01-01

    In recognition of the fact that science centers and other informal educational institutions can play a role in the reform of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, several major research and professional programs are currently underway. This article discusses one such effort, the Center for Informal Learning and…

  13. Research on Data Use: A Framework and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Cynthia E.; Turner, Erica O.

    2011-01-01

    One of the central lessons from research on data use in schools and school districts is that assessments, student tests, and other forms of data are only as good as how they are used. But what influences how they are used? This relatively straightforward question turns out to be fairly complex to answer. Data use implicates a number of processes,…

  14. IT Infrastructure Projects: A Framework for Analysis. ECAR Research Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grochow, Jerrold M.

    2014-01-01

    Just as maintaining a healthy infrastructure of water delivery and roads is essential to the functioning of cities and towns, maintaining a healthy infrastructure of information technology is essential to the functioning of universities. Deterioration in IT infrastructure can lead to deterioration in research, teaching, and administration. Given…

  15. What Does Application of Research Mean within a Constructivist Framework?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erion, R. L.; Steinley, Gary

    What it means to use research is a potentially contentious topic. With the emphasis on constructivist approaches in teacher education programs, the traditional explanations involving generalizability are inadequate in that there is no consideration of what the user brings to the use. Discussion of the various ways in which use can be framed leads…

  16. A Conceptual Framework and Empirical Research for Classifying Visual Descriptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Corinne; Jaimes, Alejandro; Benitez, Ana B.; Chang, Shih-Fu

    2001-01-01

    Presents exploratory research evaluating a conceptual structure for the description of visual content of images. The structure classifies visual attributes into a "Pyramid" containing four syntactic levels and six semantic levels. Experiments performed suggest the Pyramid is conceptually robust and can be used to: organize visual content for…

  17. An Alternative Framework for Conceptualizing and Analysing Special Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausstatter, Rune Sarromaa

    2004-01-01

    According to Kuhn, a paradigm is shared by the people who belong to the same scientific field, and a mature science is governed by a single paradigm that sets the standard for legitimate work within the particular science. In the field of special education research, scientists have used the concept of paradigm to explain how they approach the area…

  18. Using the framework method for the analysis of qualitative data in multi-disciplinary health research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Framework Method is becoming an increasingly popular approach to the management and analysis of qualitative data in health research. However, there is confusion about its potential application and limitations. Discussion The article discusses when it is appropriate to adopt the Framework Method and explains the procedure for using it in multi-disciplinary health research teams, or those that involve clinicians, patients and lay people. The stages of the method are illustrated using examples from a published study. Summary Used effectively, with the leadership of an experienced qualitative researcher, the Framework Method is a systematic and flexible approach to analysing qualitative data and is appropriate for use in research teams even where not all members have previous experience of conducting qualitative research. PMID:24047204

  19. Practice-Based Knowledge Discovery for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Organizing Framework

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Robert J.; Bakken, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Electronic health information systems can increase the ability of health-care organizations to investigate the effects of clinical interventions. The authors present an organizing framework that integrates outcomes and informatics research paradigms to guide knowledge discovery in electronic clinical databases. They illustrate its application using the example of hospital acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU). The Knowledge Discovery through Informatics for Comparative Effectiveness Research (KDI-CER) framework was conceived as a heuristic to conceptualize study designs and address potential methodological limitations imposed by using a single research perspective. Advances in informatics research can play a complementary role in advancing the field of outcomes research including CER. The KDI-CER framework can be used to facilitate knowledge discovery from routinely collected electronic clinical data. PMID:25278645

  20. Overview of a new scenario framework for climate change research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebi, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    The scientific community is developing new integrated global, regional, and sectoral scenarios to facilitate interdisciplinary research and assessment to explore the range of possible future climates and related physical changes; the risks these could pose to human and natural systems, particularly how these changes could interact with social, economic, and environmental development pathways; the degree to which mitigation and adaptation policies can avoid and reduce the risks; the costs and benefits of various policy mixes; residual impacts under alternative pathways; and the relationship with sustainable development. Developing new scenarios for use in impacts, adaptation, and mitigation research requires more than emissions of greenhouse gases and resulting climate change. Scenarios also require assumptions about socioeconomic development, including a narrative, and qualitative and quantitative assumptions about development patterns. An insight recently gained is that the magnitude and extent of greenhouse gas emissions is relatively independent of demographic and socioeconomic development; that is, multiple demographic and socioeconomic development pathways can lead to any particular emission scenario. A relatively wealthy world with high population density could have low greenhouse gas emissions because of policies that encourage energy efficiency and sufficient low emission technology. The opposite also is plausible. Therefore, demographic and socioeconomic development pathways can be described separately from the Representative Concentration Pathways and then combined using a matrix architecture into a broader range of scenarios than was possible with the SRES. Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) define the state of human and natural societies at a macro scale. To encompass a wide range of possible development pathways, five SSPs are defined along two axes describing worlds with increasing socioeconomic challenges to mitigation (y-axis) and adaptation (x

  1. An Ecological Framework for Cancer Communication: Implications for Research

    PubMed Central

    Intille, Stephen S; Zabinski, Marion F

    2005-01-01

    The field of cancer communication has undergone a major revolution as a result of the Internet. As recently as the early 1990s, face-to-face, print, and the telephone were the dominant methods of communication between health professionals and individuals in support of the prevention and treatment of cancer. Computer-supported interactive media existed, but this usually required sophisticated computer and video platforms that limited availability. The introduction of point-and-click interfaces for the Internet dramatically improved the ability of non-expert computer users to obtain and publish information electronically on the Web. Demand for Web access has driven computer sales for the home setting and improved the availability, capability, and affordability of desktop computers. New advances in information and computing technologies will lead to similarly dramatic changes in the affordability and accessibility of computers. Computers will move from the desktop into the environment and onto the body. Computers are becoming smaller, faster, more sophisticated, more responsive, less expensive, and—essentially—ubiquitous. Computers are evolving into much more than desktop communication devices. New computers include sensing, monitoring, geospatial tracking, just-in-time knowledge presentation, and a host of other information processes. The challenge for cancer communication researchers is to acknowledge the expanded capability of the Web and to move beyond the approaches to health promotion, behavior change, and communication that emerged during an era when language- and image-based interpersonal and mass communication strategies predominated. Ecological theory has been advanced since the early 1900s to explain the highly complex relationships among individuals, society, organizations, the built and natural environments, and personal and population health and well-being. This paper provides background on ecological theory, advances an Ecological Model of Internet

  2. Towards a Research Framework for Race in Education: Critical Race Theory and Judith Butler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadderton, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    There has been much debate around the extent to which post-structuralist theory can be applied to critical research. In this article, it is argued that aspects of the two approaches can be combined, resulting in productive tensions that point towards a possible new framework for researching race and racism in education in the UK. The article…

  3. Campus Sustainability Audit Research in Atlantic Canada: Pioneering the Campus Sustainability Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beringer, Almut

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce the campus sustainability assessment framework (CSAF) as a campus sustainability audit methodology; to share student campus sustainability audit research; to reflect on using the CSAF for pedagogy; to review the usefulness of the CSAF as an action research instrument; to encourage other faculty/sustainability educators to…

  4. Equipped for the Future Research Report: Building the Framework, 1993-1997. EFF Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, Juliet

    This report focuses on the research aspects of the Equipped for the Future (EFF) project that works toward system reform for adult literacy and lifelong learning. Section 1 describes the EFF process 1993-97, the impetus for EFF, and approaches to system reform. Section 2 explores the research processes EFF uses to build a framework that could…

  5. Recommendations for Replication Research in Special Education: A Framework of Systematic, Conceptual Replications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Michael D.; Cook, Bryan G.; Therrien, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Special education researchers conduct studies that can be considered replications. However, they do not often refer to them as replication studies. The purpose of this article is to consider the potential benefits of conceptualizing special education intervention research within a framework of systematic, conceptual replication. Specifically, we…

  6. The Potential of Threshold Concepts: An Emerging Framework for Educational Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Ursula; Mladenovic, Rosina

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of a "threshold concept" and discusses its possible implications for higher education research and practice. Using the case of introductory accounting as an illustration, it is argued that the idea of a threshold concept provides an emerging theoretical framework for a "re-view" of educational research and practice.…

  7. Utilising the Concept of Pathway as a Framework for Indigenous Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on Gregory Cajete's (1994, p. 55) explanation of "Pathway" (Path denoting structure, Way implying a process), a research framework was developed exploring Aboriginal women's perceptions and experiences of health and health services. Developing the research methodology was like laying out the Path, as a well thought out structure or the…

  8. Argumentation, Dialogue Theory, and Probability Modeling: Alternative Frameworks for Argumentation Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaum, E. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Toulmin's model of argumentation, developed in 1958, has guided much argumentation research in education. However, argumentation theory in philosophy and cognitive science has advanced considerably since 1958. There are currently several alternative frameworks of argumentation that can be useful for both research and practice in education. These…

  9. A Conceptual Framework for Systematic Reviews of Research in Educational Leadership and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for scholars carrying out reviews of research that meet international standards for publication. Design/methodology/approach: This is primarily a conceptual paper focusing on the methodology of conducting systematic reviews of research. However, the paper draws on a database of reviews…

  10. Preservice Teachers' Thinking within a Research-Based Framework: What Informs Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joanne K.

    2007-01-01

    A research-based framework for teaching science is a heuristic tool used to help preservice teachers conceptualize many complexities of teaching while making explicit the strategy to use a research-based body of professional knowledge to inform instructional decision-making (Clough, 2003, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association…

  11. The US federal framework for research on endocrine disrupters and an analysis of research programs supported during fiscal year 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiter, L.W.; DeRosa, C.; Kavlock, R.J.; Lucier, G.; Mac, M.J.; Melillo, J.; Melnick, R.L.; Sinks, T.; Walton, B.T.

    1998-01-01

    The potential health and ecological effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals has become a high visibility environmental issue. The 1990s have witnessed a growing concern, both on the part of the scientific community and the public, that environmental chemicals may be causing widespread effects in humans and in a variety of fish and wildlife species. This growing concern led the Committee on the Environment and Natural Resources (CENR) of the National Science and Technology Council to identify the endocrine disrupter issue as a major research initiative in early 1995 and subsequently establish an ad hoc Working Group on Endocrine Disrupters. The objectives of the working group are to 1) develop a planning framework for federal research related to human and ecological health effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals; 2) conduct an inventory of ongoing federal research programs; and 3) identify research gaps and develop a coordinated interagency plan to address priority research needs. This communication summarizes the activities of the federal government in defining a common framework for planning an endocrine disrupter research program and in assessing the status of the current effort. After developing the research framework and compiling an inventory of active research projects supported by the federal government in fiscal year 1996, the CENR working group evaluated the current federal effort by comparing the ongoing activities with the research needs identified in the framework. The analysis showed that the federal government supports considerable research on human health effects, ecological effects, and exposure assessment, with a predominance of activity occurring under human health effects. The analysis also indicates that studies on reproductive development and carcinogenesis are more prevalent than studies on neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity, that mammals (mostly laboratory animals) are the main species under study, and that chlorinated dibenzodioxins and

  12. An exploratory study to develop a practical ethical framework for reproductive health research

    PubMed Central

    Farajkhoda, Tahmineh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Abbasi, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research in reproductive health (RH) has been located in the core of women’s health research. Providing accurate information through conducting scientific and controlled research is essential, but increased number of research in the world especially in developing countries in RH area in order to introduce advanced technologies has been resulted in much unethical, illegal and abusive research on women, which needs particular attention to ethical issues by the practitioners who are involved in RH research. Objective: This study was conducted to develop a practical ethical framework for RH research. Materials and Methods: 45 expert academics and clinicians in various disciplines included in a three rounds Delphi study through purposeful sampling method. In round 1 Delphi data were gathered using open-ended questions by e-mail and answers were analyzed by conventional content analysis and the findings merged and validated with the results of a thorough literature review. Face and content validity index were determined in round 2 Delphi and consensuses were attained in round 3. Results: Emerged categories were 1) management of the research process 2) protection of participants’ rights 3) third party consent 4) gender sensitive research and 5) conflict of interest. Conclusion: This study has provided a practical ethical framework according to the socio-cultural context of Iran for all practitioners who are involved in research on women. Adherence to this framework may protect practitioners against unethical and illegal lawsuits and help them to respect their clients’ reproductive rights. PMID:24639690

  13. Conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Chuen-Yen; Swann, Edith M.; Singh, Sagri; Kafaar, Zuhayr; Meissner, Helen I.; Stansbury, James P.

    2011-01-01

    HIV vaccine clinical research occurs within a context where biomedical science and social issues are interlinked. Previous HIV vaccine research has considered behavioral and social issues, but often treated them as independent of clinical research processes. Systematic attention to the intersection of behavioral and social issues within a defined clinical research framework is needed to address gaps, such as those related to participation in trials, completion of trials, and the overall research experience. Rigorous attention to these issues at project inception can inform trial design and conduct by matching research approaches to the context in which trials are to be conducted. Conducting behavioral and social sciences research concurrent with vaccine clinical research is important because it can help identify potential barriers to trial implementation, as well as ultimate acceptance and dissemination of trial results. We therefore propose a conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research and use examples from the behavioral and social science literature to demonstrate how the model can facilitate identification of significant areas meriting additional exploration. Standardized use of the conceptual framework could improve HIV vaccine clinical research efficiency and relevance. PMID:21821083

  14. A Conceptual Framework for Graduate Teaching Assistant Professional Development Evaluation and Research.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Todd D; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Miller, Kristen R; Ridgway, Judith; Gardner, Grant E; Schussler, Elisabeth E; Wischusen, E William

    2016-01-01

    Biology graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are significant contributors to the educational mission of universities, particularly in introductory courses, yet there is a lack of empirical data on how to best prepare them for their teaching roles. This essay proposes a conceptual framework for biology GTA teaching professional development (TPD) program evaluation and research with three overarching variable categories for consideration: outcome variables, contextual variables, and moderating variables. The framework's outcome variables go beyond GTA satisfaction and instead position GTA cognition, GTA teaching practice, and undergraduate learning outcomes as the foci of GTA TPD evaluation and research. For each GTA TPD outcome variable, key evaluation questions and example assessment instruments are introduced to demonstrate how the framework can be used to guide GTA TPD evaluation and research plans. A common conceptual framework is also essential to coordinating the collection and synthesis of empirical data on GTA TPD nationally. Thus, the proposed conceptual framework serves as both a guide for conducting GTA TPD evaluation at single institutions and as a means to coordinate research across institutions at a national level. PMID:27193291

  15. A Framework for Understanding and Applying Ethical Principles in Network and Security Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenneally, Erin; Bailey, Michael; Maughan, Douglas

    Current information and communications technology poses a variety of ethical challenges for researchers. In this paper, we present an intellectual framework for understanding and applying ethical principles in networking and security research rooted in the guidance suggested by an ongoing Department of Homeland Security working group on ethics. By providing this prototype ethical impact assessment, we seek to encourage community feedback on the working group's nascent efforts and spur researchers to concretely evaluate the ethical impact of their work.

  16. The Community-First Land-Centred Theoretical Framework: Bringing a "Good Mind" to Indigenous Education Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styres, Sandra D.; Zinga, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an emergent research theoretical framework, the community-first Land-centred research framework. Carefully examining the literature within Indigenous educational research, we noted the limited approaches for engaging in culturally aligned and relevant research within Indigenous communities. The community-first Land-centred…

  17. A Framework for Evaluating and Enhancing Alignment in Self-Regulated Learning Research

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Amy L.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the articles of this special issue with reference to an important yet previously only implicit dimension of study quality: alignment across the theoretical and methodological decisions that collectively define an approach to self-regulated learning. Integrating and extending work by leaders in the field, we propose a framework for evaluating alignment in the way self-regulated learning research is both conducted and reported. Within this framework, the special issue articles provide a springboard for discussing methodological promises and pitfalls of increasingly sophisticated research on the dynamic, contingent, and contextualized features of self-regulated learning. PMID:25825589

  18. Perspectives for food research and European collaboration in the European Research Area and the new Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Breslin, L

    2001-08-01

    Since 1987, successive framework programmes have contributed to strengthen European food research through the establishment of networks between research institutions, universities and companies from various European countries. In the FAIR programme (1994-1998), 118 research projects comprising nearly 1,000 participants from the European Union and Associated States have been supported in the food area with a European funding of about [symbol: see text] 108 million. Within the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources programme (1998-2002), food research is mostly supported within the key action 'food, nutrition and health' with a budget of [symbol: see text] 290 million. After the first four deadlines, 735 eligible research proposals have already been received. Further to their evaluation by a panel of independent experts, 108 proposals have been funded or selected for funding representing a total contribution of about [symbol: see text] 168 million. Among those, several clusters of projects are now running on important topics such as probiotics, coeliac diseases, mycotoxins, GMO, safety and food for the elderly. In addition, technology stimulation measures are largely benefiting SMEs to foster their innovation potential. In January 2000, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Towards the European Research Area (ERA)" with the objective to contribute to developing better framework conditions for research in Europe. On 21 February 2001, the Commission adopted proposals to be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for the next framework programme for research and innovation (2002-2006). The new framework programme that is becoming one of the financial instruments of the ERA aims at catalysing the integration of European research by: strengthening of links between the Community research effort and national and regional research policies; concentrating on a limited number of priority fields or research to which activities at the

  19. Fostering integrity in postgraduate research: an evidence-based policy and support framework.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Saadia; Bretag, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    Postgraduate research students have a unique position in the debate on integrity in research as students and novice researchers. To assess how far policies for integrity in postgraduate research meet the needs of students as "research trainees," we reviewed online policies for integrity in postgraduate research at nine particular Australian universities against the Australian Code for Responsible Conduct of Research (the Code) and the five core elements of exemplary academic integrity policy identified by Bretag et al. (2011 ), i.e., access, approach, responsibility, detail, and support. We found inconsistency with the Code in the definition of research misconduct and a lack of adequate detail and support. Based on our analysis, previous research, and the literature, we propose a framework for policy and support for postgraduate research that encompasses a consistent and educative approach to integrity maintained across the university at all levels of scholarship and for all stakeholders. PMID:24228976

  20. A Framework for Successful Research Experiences in the Classroom: Combining the Power of Technology and Mentors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama; Stefanov, William L.; Willis, Kim; Runco, Susan; McCollum, Tim; Lindgren, Charles F.; Baker, Marshalyn; Mailhot, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Authentic research opportunities in the classroom are most impactful when they are student-driven and inquiry-based. These experiences are even more powerful when they involve technology and meaningful connections with scientists. In today's classrooms, activities are driven by state required skills, education standards, and state mandated testing. Therefore, programs that incorporate authentic research must address the needs of teachers. NASA's Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program has developed a framework that addresses teacher needs and incorporates the use of technology and access to mentors to promote and enhance authentic research in the classroom. EEAB is a student involvement program that facilitates student investigations of Earth or planetary comparisons using NASA data. To promote student-led research, EEAB provides standards-aligned, inquiry-based curricular resources, an implementation structure to facilitate research, educator professional development, and ongoing support. This framework also provides teachers with the option to incorporate the use of technology and connect students with a mentor, both of which can enrich student research experiences. The framework is structured by a modeled 9-step process of science which helps students organize their research. With more schools gaining increased access to technology, EEAB has created an option to help schools take advantage of students' interest and comfort with technology by leveraging the use of available technologies to enhance student research. The use of technology not only allows students to collaborate and share their research, it also provides a mechanism for them to work with a mentor. This framework was tested during the 2010/2011 school year. Team workspaces hosted on Wikispaces for Educators allow students to initiate their research and refine their research question initially without external input. This allows teams to work independently and rely on the skills and interests of

  1. A Framework for Successful Research Experiences in the Classroom: Combining the Power of Technology and Mentors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K.; Runco, S.; McCollum, T.; Lindgren, C. F.; Baker, M.; Mailhot, M.

    2011-12-01

    Authentic research opportunities in the classroom are most impactful when they are student-driven and inquiry-based. These experiences are even more powerful when they involve technology and meaningful connections with scientists. In today's classrooms, activities are driven by state required skills, education standards, and state mandated testing. Therefore, programs that incorporate authentic research must address the needs of teachers. NASA's Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program has developed a framework that addresses teacher needs and incorporates the use of technology and access to mentors to promote and enhance authentic research in the classroom. EEAB is a student involvement program that facilitates student investigations of Earth or planetary comparisons using NASA data. To promote student-led research, EEAB provides standards-aligned, inquiry-based curricular resources, an implementation structure to facilitate research, educator professional development, and ongoing support. This framework also provides teachers with the option to incorporate the use of technology and connect students with a mentor, both of which can enrich student research experiences. The framework is structured by a modeled 9-step process of science which helps students organize their research. With more schools gaining increased access to technology, EEAB has created an option to help schools take advantage of students' interest and comfort with technology by leveraging the use of available technologies to enhance student research. The use of technology not only allows students to collaborate and share their research, it also provides a mechanism for them to work with a mentor. This framework was tested during the 2010/2011 school year. Team workspaces hosted on Wikispaces for Educators allow students to initiate their research and refine their research question initially without external input. This allows teams to work independently and rely on the skills and interests of

  2. A Decision Support Framework for Feasibility Analysis of International Space Station (ISS) Research Capability Enhancing Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, James N.; Scott,Kelly; Smith, Harold

    2004-01-01

    The assembly and operation of the ISS has generated significant challenges that have ultimately impacted resources available to the program's primary mission: research. To address this, program personnel routinely perform trade-off studies on alternative options to enhance research. The approach, content level of analysis and resulting outputs of these studies vary due to many factors, however, complicating the Program Manager's job of selecting the best option. To address this, the program requested a framework be developed to evaluate multiple research-enhancing options in a thorough, disciplined and repeatable manner, and to identify the best option on the basis of cost, benefit and risk. The resulting framework consisted of a systematic methodology and a decision-support toolset. The framework provides quantifiable and repeatable means for ranking research-enhancing options for the complex and multiple-constraint domain of the space research laboratory. This paper describes the development, verification and validation of this framework and provides observations on its operational use.

  3. Development, implementation and critique of a bioethics framework for pharmaceutical sponsors of human biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Van Campen, Luann E; Therasse, Donald G; Klopfenstein, Mitchell; Levine, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Pharmaceutical human biomedical research is a multi-dimensional endeavor that requires collaboration among many parties, including those who sponsor, conduct, participate in, or stand to benefit from the research. Human subjects' protections have been promulgated to ensure that the benefits of such research are accomplished with respect for and minimal risk to individual research participants, and with an overall sense of fairness. Although these protections are foundational to clinical research, most ethics guidance primarily highlights the responsibilities of investigators and ethics review boards. Currently, there is no published resource that comprehensively addresses bioethical responsibilities of industry sponsors; including their responsibilities to parties who are not research participants, but are, nevertheless key stakeholders in the endeavor. To fill this void, in 2010 Eli Lilly and Company instituted a Bioethics Framework for Human Biomedical Research. This paper describes how the framework was developed and implemented and provides a critique based on four years of experience. A companion article provides the actual document used by Eli Lilly and Company to guide ethical decisions regarding all phases of human clinical trials. While many of the concepts presented in this framework are not novel, compiling them in a manner that articulates the ethical responsibilities of a sponsor is novel. By utilizing this type of bioethics framework, we have been able to develop bioethics positions on various topics, provide research ethics consultations, and integrate bioethics into the daily operations of our human biomedical research. We hope that by sharing these companion papers we will stimulate discussion within and outside the biopharmaceutical industry for the benefit of the multiple parties involved in pharmaceutical human biomedical research. PMID:26325424

  4. RIPOSTE: a framework for improving the design and analysis of laboratory-based research.

    PubMed

    Masca, Nicholas Gd; Hensor, Elizabeth Ma; Cornelius, Victoria R; Buffa, Francesca M; Marriott, Helen M; Eales, James M; Messenger, Michael P; Anderson, Amy E; Boot, Chris; Bunce, Catey; Goldin, Robert D; Harris, Jessica; Hinchliffe, Rod F; Junaid, Hiba; Kingston, Shaun; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Nelson, Christopher P; Peacock, Janet; Seed, Paul T; Shinkins, Bethany; Staples, Karl J; Toombs, Jamie; Wright, Adam Ka; Teare, M Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Lack of reproducibility is an ongoing problem in some areas of the biomedical sciences. Poor experimental design and a failure to engage with experienced statisticians at key stages in the design and analysis of experiments are two factors that contribute to this problem. The RIPOSTE (Reducing IrreProducibility in labOratory STudiEs) framework has been developed to support early and regular discussions between scientists and statisticians in order to improve the design, conduct and analysis of laboratory studies and, therefore, to reduce irreproducibility. This framework is intended for use during the early stages of a research project, when specific questions or hypotheses are proposed. The essential points within the framework are explained and illustrated using three examples (a medical equipment test, a macrophage study and a gene expression study). Sound study design minimises the possibility of bias being introduced into experiments and leads to higher quality research with more reproducible results. PMID:25951517

  5. Servant leadership in nursing: a framework for developing sustainable research capacity in nursing.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the current professional climate, research activities are highly valued with nurses in all sectors actively encouraged to participate. However, working environments for many nurses are such that it can be difficult to privilege research activities in any sustained way. A number of organisational challenges coalesce to impede participation in research activities, including limited resources, lack of skills, knowledge and opportunities, and a culture of individualism. Strong, effective research leadership is essential to help mediate some of these negative aspects of organisational life, and promote creative environments to facilitate the development of research capacity. Servant leadership is a service-oriented approach that focuses on valuing and developing people, and offers a participatory and collaborative framework within which to build creative and productive research communities. Such communities can encourage connectedness between people, deepen the capacity for supportive collegiality, and foster a holistic social learning milieu to support researchers of all levels, including early career researchers and research higher degree candidates. PMID:18341074

  6. Pain Research Forum: application of scientific social media frameworks in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sudeshna; McCaffrey, Patricia G.; Talkington, Megan W. T.; Andrews, Neil A.; Corlosquet, Stéphane; Ivinson, Adrian J.; Clark, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social media has the potential to accelerate the pace of biomedical research through online collaboration, discussions, and faster sharing of information. Focused web-based scientific social collaboratories such as the Alzheimer Research Forum have been successful in engaging scientists in open discussions of the latest research and identifying gaps in knowledge. However, until recently, tools to rapidly create such communities and provide high-bandwidth information exchange between collaboratories in related fields did not exist. Methods: We have addressed this need by constructing a reusable framework to build online biomedical communities, based on Drupal, an open-source content management system. The framework incorporates elements of Semantic Web technology combined with social media. Here we present, as an exemplar of a web community built on our framework, the Pain Research Forum (PRF) (http://painresearchforum.org). PRF is a community of chronic pain researchers, established with the goal of fostering collaboration and communication among pain researchers. Results: Launched in 2011, PRF has over 1300 registered members with permission to submit content. It currently hosts over 150 topical news articles on research; more than 30 active or archived forum discussions and journal club features; a webinar series; an editor-curated weekly updated listing of relevant papers; and several other resources for the pain research community. All content is licensed for reuse under a Creative Commons license; the software is freely available. The framework was reused to develop other sites, notably the Multiple Sclerosis Discovery Forum (http://msdiscovery.org) and StemBook (http://stembook.org). Discussion: Web-based collaboratories are a crucial integrative tool supporting rapid information transmission and translation in several important research areas. In this article, we discuss the success factors, lessons learned, and ongoing challenges in using PRF as

  7. Troubling Criteria: A Critical Commentary on Furlong and Oancea's Framework for Assessing Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammersley, Martyn

    2008-01-01

    Furlong and Oancea's influential framework for assessing the products of applied and practice-based educational inquiry raises some important issues about the criteria by which research should be judged. They begin by outlining the current significance of the issue, and some of the uncertainties surrounding the definition of applied and…

  8. The Influence of the Pedagogical Content Knowledge Theoretical Framework on Research on Preservice Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecoli, Storey

    2013-01-01

    Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Lee S. Shulman's theoretical framework, has had a substantial influence on research in preservice teacher education, and consequently, schools of education. This review builds from Grossman's case studies that concluded that beginning teachers provided with excellent teacher education developed more substantial PCK…

  9. Anthropology and International Business Research Methods in DBA Teaching: Frameworks for Cultural Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Alma

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for introducing anthropology into a doctoral-level international business research methods course. Describes three anthropological frameworks designed for the course: a cultural awareness model adapted from G. Morgan's (1980) idea of paradigmatic orthodoxy; key organizing principles; and a mapping model allowing researchers…

  10. Re-Imagining the Human Dimension of Mentoring: A Framework for Research Administration and the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    This article offers mentoring frameworks for higher education that are applicable to research administrators and academic scholars. The author describes theories of adult education, mentoring, and leadership that relate to these populations. In addition to the pertinent literature, support is drawn from the author's scholarship and professional…

  11. Generalizability Theory as a Unifying Framework of Measurement Reliability in Adolescent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Xitao; Sun, Shaojing

    2014-01-01

    In adolescence research, the treatment of measurement reliability is often fragmented, and it is not always clear how different reliability coefficients are related. We show that generalizability theory (G-theory) is a comprehensive framework of measurement reliability, encompassing all other reliability methods (e.g., Pearson "r,"…

  12. Teacher Competencies for the Implementation of Collaborative Learning in the Classroom: A Framework and Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaendler, Celia; Wiedmann, Michael; Rummel, Nikol; Spada, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This article describes teacher competencies for implementing collaborative learning in the classroom. Research has shown that the effectiveness of collaborative learning largely depends on the quality of student interaction. We therefore focus on what a "teacher" can do to foster student interaction. First, we present a framework that…

  13. RISK MANAGEMENT OF SEDIMENT STRESS: A FRAMEWORK FOR SEDIMENT RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research related to the ecological risk management of sediment stress in watersheds is placed under a common conceptual framework in order to help promote the timely advance of decision support methods for aquatic resource managers and watershed-level planning. The proposed risk ...

  14. A Framework for Designing a Research-Based "Maths Counsellor" Teacher Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas; Niss, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses one way in which decades of mathematics education research results can inform practice, by offering a framework for designing and implementing an in-service teacher education programme for upper secondary mathematics teachers in Denmark. The programme aims to educate a "task force" of so-called "maths…

  15. Developing a Framework for Social Technologies in Learning via Design-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmaxi, Antigoni; Zaphiris, Panayiotis

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of design-based research (DBR) for the development of a framework that grounds the use of social technologies in learning. The paper focuses on three studies which step on the learning theory of constructionism. Constructionism assumes that knowledge is better gained when students find this knowledge for themselves…

  16. Promoting Student Learning and Productive Persistence in Developmental Mathematics: Research Frameworks Informing the Carnegie Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ann R.; Beattie, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on two research-based frameworks that inform the design of instruction and promote student success in accelerated, developmental mathematics pathways. These are Learning Opportunities--productive struggle on challenging and relevant tasks, deliberate practice, and explicit connections, and Productive Persistence--promoting…

  17. Individual and Family Resilience: Definitions, Research, and Frameworks Relevant for All Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    The author provides a brief review of the clinical and research literature on individual and family resilience. The review includes resilience-focused frameworks that may have relevance to counselors working in varied contexts who provide strength-based counseling. School, family, and mental health counselors are encouraged to consider the…

  18. Towards a Framework for Attention Cueing in Instructional Animations: Guidelines for Research and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Koning, Bjorn B.; Tabbers, Huib K.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Paas, Fred

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the transferability of successful cueing approaches from text and static visualization research to animations. Theories of visual attention and learning as well as empirical evidence for the instructional effectiveness of attention cueing are reviewed and, based on Mayer's theory of multimedia learning, a framework was…

  19. Unpacking Teacher-Researcher Collaboration with Three Theoretical Frameworks: A Case of Expansive Learning Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gade, Sharada

    2015-01-01

    Long association with a mathematics teacher at a Grade 4-6 school in Sweden, is basis for reporting a case of teacher-researcher collaboration. Three theoretical frameworks used to study its development over time are relational knowing, relational agency and cogenerative dialogue. While relational knowing uses narrative perspectives to explore the…

  20. Conceptualizing Debates in Learning and Educational Research: Toward a Complex Systems Conceptual Framework of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael J.; Kapur, Manu; Reimann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a conceptual framework of learning based on perspectives and methodologies being employed in the study of complex physical and social systems to inform educational research. We argue that the contexts in which learning occurs are complex systems with elements or agents at different levels--including neuronal, cognitive,…

  1. An Argument Framework for the Application of Null Hypothesis Statistical Testing in Support of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMire, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an argument framework for the teaching of null hypothesis statistical testing and its application in support of research. Elements of the Toulmin (1958) model of argument are used to illustrate the use of p values and Type I and Type II error rates in support of claims about statistical parameters and subject matter research…

  2. A Conceptual Framework for Graduate Teaching Assistant Professional Development Evaluation and Research

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Todd D.; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Miller, Kristen R.; Ridgway, Judith; Gardner, Grant E.; Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Wischusen, E. William

    2016-01-01

    Biology graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are significant contributors to the educational mission of universities, particularly in introductory courses, yet there is a lack of empirical data on how to best prepare them for their teaching roles. This essay proposes a conceptual framework for biology GTA teaching professional development (TPD) program evaluation and research with three overarching variable categories for consideration: outcome variables, contextual variables, and moderating variables. The framework’s outcome variables go beyond GTA satisfaction and instead position GTA cognition, GTA teaching practice, and undergraduate learning outcomes as the foci of GTA TPD evaluation and research. For each GTA TPD outcome variable, key evaluation questions and example assessment instruments are introduced to demonstrate how the framework can be used to guide GTA TPD evaluation and research plans. A common conceptual framework is also essential to coordinating the collection and synthesis of empirical data on GTA TPD nationally. Thus, the proposed conceptual framework serves as both a guide for conducting GTA TPD evaluation at single institutions and as a means to coordinate research across institutions at a national level. PMID:27193291

  3. Metacognitive Research and Development Framework (MRDF) for Internet Instructional Science Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    2000-01-01

    This project established a metacognitive research and development framework (MRDF) and production process for the development of Web-based instructional science programming for early elementary and at-risk students. Mapped cognitive variables to metacognitive learning strategies for those variables, to metadata for the instructional design of the…

  4. A Theoretical Framework for Research in Algebra: Modification of Janvier's "Star" Model of Function Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Anita H.

    A pentagonal model, based on the star model of function understanding of C. Janvier (1987), is presented as a framework for the design and interpretation of research in the area of learning the concept of mathematical function. The five vertices of the pentagon correspond to five common representations of mathematical function: (1) graph; (2)…

  5. Understanding Critical Race Theory as a Framework in Higher Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savas, Gokhan

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing literature to discuss how critical race theory has been applied as a theoretical framework to higher educational research in the United States and what its contributions are. To provide necessary context, I will discuss race and racism in the United States, the background of US higher education in relation to race,…

  6. Lakatos' Scientific Research Programmes as a Framework for Analysing Informal Argumentation about Socio-Scientific Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shu-Nu; Chiu, Mei-Hung

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how Lakatos' scientific research programmes might serve as a theoretical framework for representing and evaluating informal argumentation about socio-scientific issues. Seventy undergraduate science and non-science majors were asked to make written arguments about four socio-scientific issues. Our analysis…

  7. Perceptions of the UK's Research Excellence Framework 2014: A Media Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Tony; Sage, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores perceptions of the UK's Research Excellence Framework (REF) and its implications for individuals, institutions and wider academia through an analysis of media coverage of the REF over a 2-year period. In recent years, the importance attached to the REF has become an increasing focus of concern for academics and other…

  8. A proposal for a new scenario framework to support research and assessment in different climate research communities

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vuuren, Detlef; Riahi, Keywan; Moss, Richard H.; Edmonds, James A.; Thomson, Allison M.; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Kram, Tom; Berkhout, Frans; Swart, Robert; Janetos, Anthony C.; Rose, Steven K.; Arnell, Nigel

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a scenario framework that could provide a scenario thread through the different climate research communities (climate change vulnerability, impact, and adaptation (VIA) and mitigation) in order to provide assessment of mitigation and adaptation strategies and other VIA challenges. The scenario framework is defined across two main axes. One is defined by the radiative forcing levels (climate signal) of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The second axis is defined by socio-economic development and comprises elements that affect the capacity for adaptation and mitigation but also exposure to climate impacts. The proposed set of scenarios derived from this framework are limited in number, allow for comparison across various mitigation and adaptation levels, address a range of vulnerability characteristics, provide information across climate forcing and vulnerability states and spans a full century time scale. Scenario assessment based on the proposed framework would strengthen cooperation between integrated-assessment modelers, climate modelers and the VIA research community, and most importantly, facilitate the development of more consistent and comparable research within and across communities.

  9. Mining the Mind Research Network: A Novel Framework for Exploring Large Scale, Heterogeneous Translational Neuroscience Research Data Sources

    PubMed Central

    Bockholt, Henry J.; Scully, Mark; Courtney, William; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Scott, Adam; Caprihan, Arvind; Fries, Jill; Kalyanam, Ravi; Segall, Judith M.; de la Garza, Raul; Lane, Susan; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2009-01-01

    A neuroinformatics (NI) system is critical to brain imaging research in order to shorten the time between study conception and results. Such a NI system is required to scale well when large numbers of subjects are studied. Further, when multiple sites participate in research projects organizational issues become increasingly difficult. Optimized NI applications mitigate these problems. Additionally, NI software enables coordination across multiple studies, leveraging advantages potentially leading to exponential research discoveries. The web-based, Mind Research Network (MRN), database system has been designed and improved through our experience with 200 research studies and 250 researchers from seven different institutions. The MRN tools permit the collection, management, reporting and efficient use of large scale, heterogeneous data sources, e.g., multiple institutions, multiple principal investigators, multiple research programs and studies, and multimodal acquisitions. We have collected and analyzed data sets on thousands of research participants and have set up a framework to automatically analyze the data, thereby making efficient, practical data mining of this vast resource possible. This paper presents a comprehensive framework for capturing and analyzing heterogeneous neuroscience research data sources that has been fully optimized for end-users to perform novel data mining. PMID:20461147

  10. The ESRC research ethics framework and research ethics review at UK universities: rebuilding the Tower of Babel REC by REC.

    PubMed

    Hunter, D L H

    2008-11-01

    The history of the National Health Service research ethics system in the UK and some of the key drivers for its change into the present system are described. It is suggested that the key drivers were the unnecessary delay of research, the complexity of the array of processes and contradictions between research ethics committee (REC) decisions. It is then argued that the primary drivers for this change are and will be replicated by the systems of research ethics review being put in place at UK universities in response to the Economic and Social Research Council research ethics framework. It is argued that this is particularly problematic for multi-centre review and for researchers who switch institutions. Finally, some potential solutions to this problem and their feasibility are discussed. PMID:18974417

  11. Research on a three-systems framework of carrying capacity evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Chen, Jing

    2013-03-01

    Carrying capacity research is one of the most appealing topics as well as a theoretical frontier in modern ecology. Based on an overall review of the studies of carrying capacity, the paper surveyed the evolution and development process of the carrying capacity concepts and a framework including three systems (natural ecosystem; human ecosystem; socio-economic activity system) are presented. This framework shows clearly the evolution process of the concept of carrying capacity and this work reveals the relations, similarities and differences of all of the carrying capacity concepts.

  12. Creating a Framework for Online Cancer Services Research to Facilitate Timely and Interdisciplinary Applications

    PubMed Central

    Whitten, Pamela; Eastin, Matthew S

    2005-01-01

    Researchers from a wide array of disciplines have conducted engaging and informative studies in recent years concerning the use of the Internet for cancer-related services. Typically, these publications provide key data related to utilization statistics, how online information can be used, what users want or expect from the Internet, outcomes or impacts, and quality and credibility of websites. These are important themes for understanding online cancer issues. However, this special issue of the Journal of Medical Internet Research seeks to recast these themes in a way that will facilitate pragmatic and applied means of employing data in prescriptive and interdisciplinary ways. This issue includes 14 papers that exemplify applications for the research framework recommended in this paper. This framework includes an expanded focus on the development and design of online cancer services, online consumer behavior/communication, behavior change, and living with cancer. PMID:15998625

  13. RAMP: a bioinformatics framework for researching imaging agents through molecular pathways.

    PubMed

    Khokhlovich, Edward; Wahl, Daniel; Masiello, Anthony; Parisot, Pierre; El-Ghatta, Stefan; Szustakowski, Joseph D; Nirmala, Nanguneri; Tuch, David S

    2013-01-01

    Signaling pathways are the fundamental grammar of cellular communication, yet few frameworks are available to analyze molecular imaging probes in the context of signaling pathways. Such a framework would aid in the design and selection of imaging probes for measuring specific signaling pathways and, vice versa, help illuminate which pathways are being assayed by a given probe. RAMP (Researching imaging Agents through Molecular Pathways) is a bioinformatics framework for connecting signaling pathways and imaging probes using a controlled vocabulary of the imaging targets. RAMP contains signaling pathway data from MetaCore, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and the Gene Ontology project; imaging probe data from the Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database (MICAD); and tissue protein expression data from The Human Protein Atlas. The RAMP search tool is available at . Examples are presented to demonstrate the utility of RAMP for pathway-based searches of molecular imaging probes. PMID:23348786

  14. Alternatives Assessment Frameworks: Research Needs for the Informed Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Molly M.; Malloy, Timothy F.; Tickner, Joel A.; Edwards, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Background Given increasing pressures for hazardous chemical replacement, there is growing interest in alternatives assessment to avoid substituting a toxic chemical with another of equal or greater concern. Alternatives assessment is a process for identifying, comparing, and selecting safer alternatives to chemicals of concern (including those used in materials, processes, or technologies) on the basis of their hazards, performance, and economic viability. Objectives The purposes of this substantive review of alternatives assessment frameworks are to identify consistencies and differences in methods and to outline needs for research and collaboration to advance science policy practice. Methods This review compares methods used in six core components of these frameworks: hazard assessment, exposure characterization, life-cycle impacts, technical feasibility evaluation, economic feasibility assessment, and decision making. Alternatives assessment frameworks published from 1990 to 2014 were included. Results Twenty frameworks were reviewed. The frameworks were consistent in terms of general process steps, but some differences were identified in the end points addressed. Methodological gaps were identified in the exposure characterization, life-cycle assessment, and decision–analysis components. Methods for addressing data gaps remain an issue. Discussion Greater consistency in methods and evaluation metrics is needed but with sufficient flexibility to allow the process to be adapted to different decision contexts. Conclusion Although alternatives assessment is becoming an important science policy field, there is a need for increased cross-disciplinary collaboration to refine methodologies in support of the informed substitution and design of safer chemicals, materials, and products. Case studies can provide concrete lessons to improve alternatives assessment. Citation Jacobs MM, Malloy TF, Tickner JA, Edwards S. 2016. Alternatives assessment frameworks: research

  15. A Framework to Explore the Knowledge Structure of Multidisciplinary Research Fields

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Shahadat; Khan, Arif; Baur, Louise A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding emerging areas of a multidisciplinary research field is crucial for researchers, policymakers and other stakeholders. For them a knowledge structure based on longitudinal bibliographic data can be an effective instrument. But with the vast amount of available online information it is often hard to understand the knowledge structure for data. In this paper, we present a novel approach for retrieving online bibliographic data and propose a framework for exploring knowledge structure. We also present several longitudinal analyses to interpret and visualize the last 20 years of published obesity research data. PMID:25915521

  16. A Framework for Conducting Deceased Donor Research in the United States.

    PubMed

    Glazier, Alexandra K; Heffernan, Kate Gallin; Rodrigue, James R

    2015-11-01

    There are a number of regulatory barriers both perceived and real that have hampered widespread clinical research in the field of donation and transplantation. This article sets forth a framework clarifying the existing legal requirements and their application to the conduct of research on deceased donors and donor organs within the United States. Recommendations are focused on resolving some of the ambiguity surrounding deceased donor authorization for research, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act requirements and the role of institutional review board oversight. The successful conduct of clinical research in the field of donation and transplantation requires an understanding of these regulatory nuances as well as identification of important ethical principles to consider. Facilitation of these concepts will ultimately provide support for innovative research designed to increase the availability of organs for transplantation. Further work identifying the optimal infrastructure for overview of clinical research in the field should be given priority. PMID:26244717

  17. Researching Prescription Drug Misuse among First Nations in Canada: Starting from a Health Promotion Framework

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Roberts, Gary; Kilty, Jennifer; Taylor, Kelli; Daschuk, Mitch; Hopkins, Carol; Dell, Debra

    2012-01-01

    The intentional misuse of psychotropic drugs is recognized as a significant public health concern in Canada, although there is a lack of empirical research detailing this. Even less research has been documented on the misuse of prescription drugs among First Nations in Canada. In the past, Western biomedical and individual-based approaches to researching Indigenous health have been applied, whereas First Nations’ understandings of health are founded on a holistic view of wellbeing. Recognition of this disjuncture, alongside the protective influence of First Nations traditional culture, is foundational to establishing an empirical understanding of and comprehensive response to prescription drug misuse. We propose health promotion as a framework from which to begin to explore this. Our work with a health promotion framework has conveyed its potential to support the consideration of Western and Indigenous worldviews together in an ‘ethical space’, with illustrations provided. Health promotion also allots for the consideration of Canada’s colonial history of knowledge production in public health and supports First Nations’ self-determination. Based on this, we recommend three immediate ways in which a health promotion framework can advance research on prescription drug misuse among First Nations in Canada. PMID:22879752

  18. Craniux: A LabVIEW-Based Modular Software Framework for Brain-Machine Interface Research

    PubMed Central

    Degenhart, Alan D.; Kelly, John W.; Ashmore, Robin C.; Collinger, Jennifer L.; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C.; Weber, Douglas J.; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents “Craniux,” an open-access, open-source software framework for brain-machine interface (BMI) research. Developed in LabVIEW, a high-level graphical programming environment, Craniux offers both out-of-the-box functionality and a modular BMI software framework that is easily extendable. Specifically, it allows researchers to take advantage of multiple features inherent to the LabVIEW environment for on-the-fly data visualization, parallel processing, multithreading, and data saving. This paper introduces the basic features and system architecture of Craniux and describes the validation of the system under real-time BMI operation using simulated and real electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals. Our results indicate that Craniux is able to operate consistently in real time, enabling a seamless work flow to achieve brain control of cursor movement. The Craniux software framework is made available to the scientific research community to provide a LabVIEW-based BMI software platform for future BMI research and development. PMID:21687575

  19. Craniux: a LabVIEW-based modular software framework for brain-machine interface research.

    PubMed

    Degenhart, Alan D; Kelly, John W; Ashmore, Robin C; Collinger, Jennifer L; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Weber, Douglas J; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents "Craniux," an open-access, open-source software framework for brain-machine interface (BMI) research. Developed in LabVIEW, a high-level graphical programming environment, Craniux offers both out-of-the-box functionality and a modular BMI software framework that is easily extendable. Specifically, it allows researchers to take advantage of multiple features inherent to the LabVIEW environment for on-the-fly data visualization, parallel processing, multithreading, and data saving. This paper introduces the basic features and system architecture of Craniux and describes the validation of the system under real-time BMI operation using simulated and real electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals. Our results indicate that Craniux is able to operate consistently in real time, enabling a seamless work flow to achieve brain control of cursor movement. The Craniux software framework is made available to the scientific research community to provide a LabVIEW-based BMI software platform for future BMI research and development. PMID:21687575

  20. EU-funded malaria research under the 6th and 7th Framework Programmes for research and technological development.

    PubMed

    Holtel, Andreas; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Penas-Jimenez, Inmaculada

    2011-01-01

    While malaria research has traditionally been strong in Europe, targeted and sustained support for cooperative malaria research at EU level, namely through the EU's 6th and 7th Framework Programmes for research and technological development, FP6 (2002-2006) and FP7 (2007-2013), has boosted both impact and visibility of European malaria research. Most of the European malaria research community is now organized under a number of comprehensive and complementary research networks and projects, assembled around four key areas: (1) fundamental research on the malaria parasite and the disease, (2) development of new malaria drugs, (3) research and development of a malaria vaccine, and (4) research to control the malaria-transmitting mosquito vector. Considerable efforts were undertaken to ensure adequate participation of research groups from disease-endemic countries, in particular from Africa, with the long-term aim to strengthen cooperative links and research capacities in these countries. The concept of organizing European research through major strategic projects to form a "European Research Area" (ERA) was originally developed in the preparation of FP6, and ERA formation has now turned into a major EU policy objective explicitly inscribed into the Lisbon Treaty. EU-funded malaria research may serve as a showcase to demonstrate how ERA formation can successfully be implemented in a given area of science when several surrounding parameters converge to support implementation of this strategic concept: timely coincidence of political stimuli, responsive programming, a clearly defined--and well confined--area of research, and the readiness of the targeted research community who is well familiar with transnational cooperation at EU level. Major EU-funded malaria projects have evolved into thematic and organizational platforms that can collaborate with other global players. Europe may thus contribute more, and better, to addressing the global research agenda for malaria

  1. Beyond STS: A research-based framework for socioscientific issues education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, Dana L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Simmons, Michael L.; Howes, Elaine V.

    2005-05-01

    An important distinction can be made between the science, technology, and society (STS) movement of past years and the domain of socioscientific issues (SSI). STS education as typically practiced does not seem embedded in a coherent developmental or sociological framework that explicitly considers the psychological and epistemological growth of the child, nor the development of character or virtue. In contrast, the SSI movement focuses on empowering students to consider how science-based issues reflect, in part, moral principles and elements of virtue that encompass their own lives, as well as the physical and social world around them. The focus of this paper is to describe a research-based framework of current research and practice that identifies factors associated with reasoning about socioscientific issues and provide a working model that illustrates theoretical and conceptual links among key psychological, sociological, and developmental factors central to SSI and science education.

  2. A new scenario framework for Climate Change Research: Scenario matrix architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vuuren, Detlef; Kriegler, Elmar; O'Neill, Brian; Ebi, Kristie L.; Riahi, Keywan; Carter, Tim; Edmonds, James A.; Hallegatte, Stephane; Kram, Tom; Mathur, Ritu; Winkler, Harald

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present the scenario matrix architecture as part of the new scenario framework for climate change research. The matrix architecture focuses on a key question of current climate research, namely the identification of trade-offs and synergies (in terms of risks, costs and other consequences) of different adaptation and mitigation strategies. The framework has two main axes: 1) the level of forcing (as represented by the RCPs) and 2) different socio-economic reference pathways. The matrix can be used as a tool to guide new scenario development and analytical analysis. It can also be used as a heuristic tool for classifying new and existing scenarios for assessment. Key elements of the architecture, in particular the shared socio-economic reference pathways and the shared policy assumptions, are elaborated in other papers in this special issue.

  3. Building a Student-Centred Learning Framework Using Social Software in the Middle Years Classroom: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Gail

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the development of the online spaces that were used to create a learning framework: a student-centred framework that combined face-to-face teaching with online social and participatory media. The author, as part of her Doctoral research study, used action research as a mechanism for continual improvement as she redesigned…

  4. International Service Learning: Conceptual Frameworks and Research. IUPUI Series on Service Learning Research 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringle, Robert G., Ed.; Hatcher, Julie A., Ed.; Jones, Steven G., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book focuses on conducting research on International Service Learning (ISL), which includes developing and evaluating hypotheses about ISL outcomes and measuring its impact on students, faculty, and communities. The book argues that rigorous research is essential to improving the quality of ISL's implementation and delivery, and providing the…

  5. Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice: A Framework for Building Research Agendas in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Kelleher, Constance

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the history behind efforts to transfer school psychology research into practice and review the literature pertaining to treatment acceptability, participatory action research, organizational change, and generalization programming. We then present a model for the systematic programming of this transfer and propose a…

  6. A Framework for Improving the Quality of Research in the Biological Sciences.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Ellis, Lee M; Davies, Erika W; McFall-Ngai, Margaret; Fang, Ferric C

    2016-01-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to discuss problems in the biological sciences, with emphasis on identifying mechanisms to improve the quality of research. Participants from various disciplines made six recommendations: (i) design rigorous and comprehensive evaluation criteria to recognize and reward high-quality scientific research; (ii) require universal training in good scientific practices, appropriate statistical usage, and responsible research practices for scientists at all levels, with training content regularly updated and presented by qualified scientists; (iii) establish open data at the timing of publication as the standard operating procedure throughout the scientific enterprise; (iv) encourage scientific journals to publish negative data that meet methodologic standards of quality; (v) agree upon common criteria among scientific journals for retraction of published papers, to provide consistency and transparency; and (vi) strengthen research integrity oversight and training. These recommendations constitute an actionable framework that, in combination, could improve the quality of biological research. PMID:27578756

  7. A Framework for Improving the Quality of Research in the Biological Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Lee M.; Davies, Erika W.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret; Fang, Ferric C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to discuss problems in the biological sciences, with emphasis on identifying mechanisms to improve the quality of research. Participants from various disciplines made six recommendations: (i) design rigorous and comprehensive evaluation criteria to recognize and reward high-quality scientific research; (ii) require universal training in good scientific practices, appropriate statistical usage, and responsible research practices for scientists at all levels, with training content regularly updated and presented by qualified scientists; (iii) establish open data at the timing of publication as the standard operating procedure throughout the scientific enterprise; (iv) encourage scientific journals to publish negative data that meet methodologic standards of quality; (v) agree upon common criteria among scientific journals for retraction of published papers, to provide consistency and transparency; and (vi) strengthen research integrity oversight and training. These recommendations constitute an actionable framework that, in combination, could improve the quality of biological research. PMID:27578756

  8. Dance for Parkinson's: a new framework for research on its physical, mental, emotional, and social benefits.

    PubMed

    McGill, Ashley; Houston, Sara; Lee, Raymond Y W

    2014-06-01

    Parkinson's is a neurodegenerative disease commonly associated with symptoms such as tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, freezing during gait, motor control deficits and instability. These physical symptoms can cause a myriad of psychological problems including depression, feelings of loneliness, and low self-esteem. Current research suggests pharmacological interventions do not sufficiently address all symptoms and thus alternative therapies have been deemed an important part of treatment for people with Parkinson's. Dance has shown to be a beneficial activity for this population. Upon reviewing recent dance for Parkinson's studies it is clear that there are developing trends with respect to overall approach. The tendency to place more emphasis on changes to clinical signs is creating a gap whereby research neglects to look at how dance is influencing a particular individual in all aspects of their life. There is a need for a framework that allows for and encourages the analysis of the dancing experience for people with Parkinson's on a variety of levels including physically, mentally, emotionally, and socially. With such a framework it would be possible to triangulate the information gathered to draw stronger conclusions that are more meaningful to the people with Parkinson's. This paper would like to propose the use of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health as a possible framework for dance for Parkinson's research. PMID:24906580

  9. A novel framework for reflecting on the functioning of research ethics review panels.

    PubMed

    Macduff, Colin; McKie, Andrew; Martindale, Sheelagh; Rennie, Anne Marie; West, Bernice; Wilcock, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade structures and processes for the ethical review of UK health care research have undergone rapid change. Although this has focused users' attention on the functioning of review committees, it remains rare to read a substantive view from the inside. This article presents details of processes and findings resulting from a novel structured reflective exercise undertaken by a newly formed research ethics review panel in a university school of nursing and midwifery. By adopting and adapting some of the knowledge to be found in the art and science of malt whisky tasting, a framework for critical reflection is presented and applied. This enables analysis of the main contemporary issues for a review panel that is primarily concerned with research into nursing education and practice. In addition to structuring the panel's own literary narrative, the framework also generates useful visual representation for further reflection. Both the analysis of issues and the framework itself are presented as of potential value to all nurses, health care professionals and educationalists with an interest in ethical review. PMID:17334174

  10. Emerging technologies and perspectives for nutrition research in European Union 7th Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    de Froidmont-Görtz, Isabelle B M

    2009-12-01

    Nutrition trends in Europe are driven by taste, health and convenience. The possibilities of research using new technologies and tools such as nutrigenomics, imaging techniques, nanotechnology, bioinformatics, cognitive sciences, innovative processes are very promising to support these nutrition trends and in particular their health aspects. This is supported by European Union research. The opportunities offered in the 7th Framework Programme (FP7), among other innovations, will contribute to the general aim of improving nutrition policy as well as improving products from the food industry in accordance with the Lisbon strategy to create employment and improve the quality of life of the European citizens. PMID:19937440

  11. Supporting Research using Satellite Data: A Framework for Spatiotemporal Queries in SciDB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, S. S.; Krcal, L.

    2015-12-01

    Natural phenomena such as haze, hurricane, and blizzard that evolve over time usually do not have well-defined boundaries. Their features may be captured by multiple satellites. To process and extract information from the large-scale satellite data, one needs a data-intensive architecture for distributed storage and computation resources. Such architecture allows end users such as scientists to effectively run their computation tasks with sharing computational resources and intermediate results, but without data replication. The satellite data is most conveniently represented using arrays, exploiting its multidimensional nature. For our investigation, we use the open-source distributed, array-based SciDB as a platform for our spatiotemporal framework. SciDB conforms with the data-intensive architecture, providing a highly effectively computational and data storage platform. Moreover, it provides standard extension points, i.e., user defined data types, operators and functions. Our current work focuses on more sophisticated indices including cartesian-coordinate indices, hierarchical triangular mesh and hybrid indices with data statistics and indexing. Furthermore, we introduce a spatiotemporal framework that allows us to generate and maintain indices according to given criteria and perform spatial and temporal operators and predicates. This framework overcomes weaknesses in SciDB where standard underlying array operations are less effective. We will demonstrate some examples (e.g., hurricane research using satellite data) of the functionalities in the proposed spatiotemporal framework.

  12. Validation of the theoretical domains framework for use in behaviour change and implementation research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An integrative theoretical framework, developed for cross-disciplinary implementation and other behaviour change research, has been applied across a wide range of clinical situations. This study tests the validity of this framework. Methods Validity was investigated by behavioural experts sorting 112 unique theoretical constructs using closed and open sort tasks. The extent of replication was tested by Discriminant Content Validation and Fuzzy Cluster Analysis. Results There was good support for a refinement of the framework comprising 14 domains of theoretical constructs (average silhouette value 0.29): ‘Knowledge’, ‘Skills’, ‘Social/Professional Role and Identity’, ‘Beliefs about Capabilities’, ‘Optimism’, ‘Beliefs about Consequences’, ‘Reinforcement’, ‘Intentions’, ‘Goals’, ‘Memory, Attention and Decision Processes’, ‘Environmental Context and Resources’, ‘Social Influences’, ‘Emotions’, and ‘Behavioural Regulation’. Conclusions The refined Theoretical Domains Framework has a strengthened empirical base and provides a method for theoretically assessing implementation problems, as well as professional and other health-related behaviours as a basis for intervention development. PMID:22530986

  13. A federated semantic metadata registry framework for enabling interoperability across clinical research and care domains.

    PubMed

    Sinaci, A Anil; Laleci Erturkmen, Gokce B

    2013-10-01

    In order to enable secondary use of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) by bridging the interoperability gap between clinical care and research domains, in this paper, a unified methodology and the supporting framework is introduced which brings together the power of metadata registries (MDR) and semantic web technologies. We introduce a federated semantic metadata registry framework by extending the ISO/IEC 11179 standard, and enable integration of data element registries through Linked Open Data (LOD) principles where each Common Data Element (CDE) can be uniquely referenced, queried and processed to enable the syntactic and semantic interoperability. Each CDE and their components are maintained as LOD resources enabling semantic links with other CDEs, terminology systems and with implementation dependent content models; hence facilitating semantic search, much effective reuse and semantic interoperability across different application domains. There are several important efforts addressing the semantic interoperability in healthcare domain such as IHE DEX profile proposal, CDISC SHARE and CDISC2RDF. Our architecture complements these by providing a framework to interlink existing data element registries and repositories for multiplying their potential for semantic interoperability to a greater extent. Open source implementation of the federated semantic MDR framework presented in this paper is the core of the semantic interoperability layer of the SALUS project which enables the execution of the post marketing safety analysis studies on top of existing EHR systems. PMID:23751263

  14. [Fundamental ethical principles in the European framework programmes for research and development].

    PubMed

    Hirsch, François; Karatzas, Isidoros; Zilgalvis, Pēteris

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission is one of the most important international funding bodies for research conducted in Europe and beyond, including developing countries and countries in transition. Through its framework programmes for research and development, the European Union finances a vast array of projects concerning fields affecting the citizens' health, as well as the researchers' mobility, the development of new technologies or the safeguard of the environment. With the agreement of the European Parliament and of the Council of Ministers, the two decisional authorities of the European Union, the 7th framework programmes was started on December 2006. This program has a budget of 54 billion Euros to be distributed over a 7-year period. Therefore, the European Union aims to fully address the challenge as stated by the European Council of Lisbon (of March 2000) which declared the idea of providing 3% of the GDP of all the Member States for the purpose of research and development. One of the important conditions stated by the Members of the European Parliament to allocate this financing is to ensuring that "the funding research activities respect the fundamental ethical principles". In this article, we will approach this aspect of the evaluation. PMID:19765393

  15. A conceptual framework for research on subjective cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Jessen, Frank; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; van Boxtel, Martin; Breteler, Monique; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Dufouil, Carole; Ellis, Kathryn A.; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Glodzik, Lidia; van Harten, Argonde C.; de Leon, Mony J.; McHugh, Pauline; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, Jose Luis; Mosconi, Lisa; Osorio, Ricardo S.; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rabin, Laura A.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; de la Sayette, Vincent; Saykin, Andrew J.; Scheltens, Philip; Shulman, Melanie B.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Stewart, Robert; Uspenskaya, Olga; Vellas, Bruno; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Wagner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in individuals with unimpaired performance on cognitive tests may represent the first symptomatic manifestation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The research on SCD in early AD, however, is limited by the absence of common standards. The working group of the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) addressed this deficiency by reaching consensus on terminology and on a conceptual framework for research on SCD in AD. In this publication, research criteria for SCD in pre-mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are presented. In addition, a list of core features proposed for reporting in SCD studies is provided, which will enable comparability of research across different settings. Finally, a set of features is presented, which in accordance with current knowledge, increases the likelihood of the presence of preclinical AD in individuals with SCD. This list is referred to as SCD plus. PMID:24798886

  16. What constitutes the field of health information systems? Fostering a systematic framework and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Tobias; Raptis, Dimitri Aristotle

    2012-06-01

    The main aim of this article is to present a research agenda and systematic framework of what the field of health information systems is about, namely its central topics and connecting areas. In doing so, we try to provide a cohesive 'big picture' for academics and professionals that are interested in conducting research in this broad area. By using a large number of disparate data sources, we identified 3 major research fields and 18 sub-fields. As this discipline is quite new and heterogeneous in terms of themes and the educational backgrounds of its researchers, we see our conceptualisation as a first step in obtaining a collective understanding of this field, as well as being a common starting point for discussing future directions. PMID:22733682

  17. AIBench: a rapid application development framework for translational research in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Glez-Peña, D; Reboiro-Jato, M; Maia, P; Rocha, M; Díaz, F; Fdez-Riverola, F

    2010-05-01

    Applied research in both biomedical discovery and translational medicine today often requires the rapid development of fully featured applications containing both advanced and specific functionalities, for real use in practice. In this context, new tools are demanded that allow for efficient generation, deployment and reutilization of such biomedical applications as well as their associated functionalities. In this context this paper presents AIBench, an open-source Java desktop application framework for scientific software development with the goal of providing support to both fundamental and applied research in the domain of translational biomedicine. AIBench incorporates a powerful plug-in engine, a flexible scripting platform and takes advantage of Java annotations, reflection and various design principles in order to make it easy to use, lightweight and non-intrusive. By following a basic input-processing-output life cycle, it is possible to fully develop multiplatform applications using only three types of concepts: operations, data-types and views. The framework automatically provides functionalities that are present in a typical scientific application including user parameter definition, logging facilities, multi-threading execution, experiment repeatability and user interface workflow management, among others. The proposed framework architecture defines a reusable component model which also allows assembling new applications by the reuse of libraries from past projects or third-party software. PMID:20047774

  18. RIPOSTE: a framework for improving the design and analysis of laboratory-based research

    PubMed Central

    Masca, Nicholas GD; Hensor, Elizabeth MA; Cornelius, Victoria R; Buffa, Francesca M; Marriott, Helen M; Eales, James M; Messenger, Michael P; Anderson, Amy E; Boot, Chris; Bunce, Catey; Goldin, Robert D; Harris, Jessica; Hinchliffe, Rod F; Junaid, Hiba; Kingston, Shaun; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Nelson, Christopher P; Peacock, Janet; Seed, Paul T; Shinkins, Bethany; Staples, Karl J; Toombs, Jamie; Wright, Adam KA; Teare, M Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Lack of reproducibility is an ongoing problem in some areas of the biomedical sciences. Poor experimental design and a failure to engage with experienced statisticians at key stages in the design and analysis of experiments are two factors that contribute to this problem. The RIPOSTE (Reducing IrreProducibility in labOratory STudiEs) framework has been developed to support early and regular discussions between scientists and statisticians in order to improve the design, conduct and analysis of laboratory studies and, therefore, to reduce irreproducibility. This framework is intended for use during the early stages of a research project, when specific questions or hypotheses are proposed. The essential points within the framework are explained and illustrated using three examples (a medical equipment test, a macrophage study and a gene expression study). Sound study design minimises the possibility of bias being introduced into experiments and leads to higher quality research with more reproducible results. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05519.001 PMID:25951517

  19. Contributions of Attachment Theory and Research: A Framework for Future Research, Translation, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D.; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive “working models” and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious “transmission gap” between parental AAI classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology, (b) neurobiology, (c) health and immune function, (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism, (e) school readiness, and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses. PMID:24342848

  20. An Evaluation Framework for EU Research and Development e-Health Projects' Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavridis, Androklis; Katriou, Stamatia-Ann; Koumpis, Adamantios

    Over the past years it has become evident that an evaluation system was necessary for the European Research and Competitive funded projects which are large and complex structures needing constant monitoring. This is especially so for e-Health projects. The race to complete assignments means that this area is usually neglected. A proposed framework for the evaluation of R & D project systems using ATAM, ISO 14598 and ISO 9126 standards is presented. The evaluation framework covers a series of steps which ensures that the offered system satisfies quality, attributes such as operability, usability and maintainability imposed by the end users. The main advantage of this step by step procedure is that faults in the architecture, software or prototype can be recognised early in the development phase and corrected more rapidly. The system has a common set of attributes against which the various project’s deliverables are assessed.

  1. Research on classified real-time flood forecasting framework based on K-means cluster and rough set.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Peng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This research presents a new classified real-time flood forecasting framework. In this framework, historical floods are classified by a K-means cluster according to the spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation, the time variance of precipitation intensity and other hydrological factors. Based on the classified results, a rough set is used to extract the identification rules for real-time flood forecasting. Then, the parameters of different categories within the conceptual hydrological model are calibrated using a genetic algorithm. In real-time forecasting, the corresponding category of parameters is selected for flood forecasting according to the obtained flood information. This research tests the new classified framework on Guanyinge Reservoir and compares the framework with the traditional flood forecasting method. It finds that the performance of the new classified framework is significantly better in terms of accuracy. Furthermore, the framework can be considered in a catchment with fewer historical floods. PMID:26442493

  2. Embracing value co-creation in primary care services research: a framework for success.

    PubMed

    Janamian, Tina; Crossland, Lisa; Jackson, Claire L

    2016-04-18

    Value co-creation redresses a key criticism of researcher-driven approaches to research - that researchers may lack insight into the end users' needs and values across the research journey. Value co-creation creates, in a step-wise way, value with, and for, multiple stakeholders through regular, ongoing interactions leading to innovation, increased productivity and co-created outcomes of value to all parties - thus creating a "win more-win more" environment. The Centre of Research Excellence (CRE) in Building Primary Care Quality, Performance and Sustainability has co-created outcomes of value that have included robust and enduring partnerships, research findings that have value to end users (such as the Primary Care Practice Improvement Tool and the best-practice governance framework), an International Implementation Research Network in Primary Care and the International Primary Health Reform Conference. Key lessons learned in applying the strategies of value co-creation have included the recognition that partnership development requires an investment of time and effort to ensure meaningful interactions and enriched end user experiences, that research management systems including governance, leadership and communication also need to be "co-creative", and that openness and understanding is needed to work across different sectors and cultures with flexibility, fairness and transparency being essential to the value co-creation process. PMID:27078794

  3. Unpacking teacher-researcher collaboration with three theoretical frameworks: a case of expansive learning activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gade, Sharada

    2015-09-01

    Long association with a mathematics teacher at a Grade 4-6 school in Sweden, is basis for reporting a case of teacher-researcher collaboration. Three theoretical frameworks used to study its development over time are relational knowing, relational agency and cogenerative dialogue. While relational knowing uses narrative perspectives to explore the experiential and relational nature of collaboration; relational agency, draws on activity theory perspectives and identifies the change in the purpose of collaboration, from initially conducting classroom interventions to co-authoring research. Finally, cogenerative dialogue, deploys hermeneutic-phenomenological perspectives and investigates the dialogue that transpired between Lotta and the author, as they co-authored their research report. Such analysis sheds invaluable light on a case of expansive learning activity.

  4. A translational research framework for enhanced validity of mouse models of psychopathological states in depression.

    PubMed

    Pryce, Christopher R; Seifritz, Erich

    2011-04-01

    Depression presents as a disorder of feelings and thoughts that debilitate daily functioning and can be life threatening. Increased understanding of these specific emotional-cognitive pathological states and their underlying pathophysiologies and neuropathologies is fundamental to an increased understanding of the disorder and, therefore, to development of much-needed improved therapies. Despite this, there is a current lack of emphasis on development and application of translational (i.e. valid) neuropsychological measures in depression research. The appropriate strategy is neuropsychological research translated, bi-directionally, between epidemiological and clinical human research and in vivo - ex vivo preclinical research conducted, primarily, with mice. This paper presents a translational framework to stimulate and inform such research, in four inter-dependent sections. (1) A depression systems-model describes the pathway between human environment-gene (E-G) epidemiology, pathophysiology, psycho- and neuropathology, symptoms, and diagnosis. This model indicates that G→emotional-cognitive endophenotypes and E-G/endophenotype→emotional-cognitive state markers are central to experimental and translational depression research. (2) Human neuropsychological tests with (potential) translational value for the quantitative study of these endophenotypes and state markers are presented. (3) The analogous rodent behavioural tests are presented and their translational validity in terms of providing analogue emotional-cognitive endophenotypes and state markers are discussed. (4) The need for aetiological validity of mouse models in terms of G→endophenotypes and E-G→state markers is presented. We conclude that the informed application of the proposed neuropsychological translational framework will yield mouse models of high face, construct and aetiological validity with respect to emotional-cognitive dysfunction in depression. These models, together with the available

  5. A Framework to Evaluate Wildlife Feeding in Research, Wildlife Management, Tourism and Recreation

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Sara; Fraser, David

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Human feeding of wildlife is a world-wide phenomenon with very diverse effects on conservation, animal welfare and public safety. From a review of the motivations, types and consequences of wildlife feeding, an evaluative framework is presented to assist policy-makers, educators and managers to make ethical- and biologically-based decisions about the appropriateness of feeding wildlife in the context of research, wildlife management, tourism and recreation. Abstract Feeding of wildlife occurs in the context of research, wildlife management, tourism and in opportunistic ways. A review of examples shows that although feeding is often motivated by good intentions, it can lead to problems of public safety and conservation and be detrimental to the welfare of the animals. Examples from British Columbia illustrate the problems (nuisance animal activity, public safety risk) and consequences (culling, translocation) that often arise from uncontrolled feeding. Three features of wildlife feeding can be distinguished: the feasibility of control, the effects on conservation and the effects on animal welfare. An evaluative framework incorporating these three features was applied to examples of feeding from the literature. The cases of feeding for research and management purposes were generally found to be acceptable, while cases of feeding for tourism or opportunistic feeding were generally unacceptable. The framework should allow managers and policy-makers to distinguish acceptable from unacceptable forms of wildlife feeding as a basis for policy, public education and enforcement. Many harmful forms of wildlife feeding seem unlikely to change until they come to be seen as socially unacceptable. PMID:26479747

  6. Optimizing learning and quality of life throughout the lifespan: a global framework for research and application.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Joseph

    2009-08-01

    This overview surveys the new optimism about the aging mind/brain, focusing on the potential for self-regulation practices to advance research in stress-protection and optimal health. It reviews recent findings and offers a research framework. The review links the age-related biology of stress and regeneration to the variability of mind/brain function found under a range of conditions from trauma to enrichment. The framework maps this variation along a biphasic continuum from atrophic dysfunction to peak performance. It adopts the concept of allostatic load as a measure of the wear-and-tear caused by stress, and environmental enrichment as a measure of the use-dependent enhancement caused by positive reinforcement. It frames the dissociation, aversive affect and stereotyped reactions linked with stress as cognitive, affective and behavioral forms of allostatic drag; and the association, positive affect, and creative responses in enrichment as forms of allostatic lift. It views the human mind/brain as a heterarchy of higher intelligence systems that shift between a conservative, egocentric mode heightening self-preservation and memory and a generative, altruistic mode heightening self-correction and learning. Cultural practices like meditation and psychotherapy work by teaching the self-regulation of shifts from the conservative to the generative mode. This involves a systems shift from allostatic drag to allostatic lift, minimizing wear-and-tear and optimizing plasticity and learning. For cultural practices to speed research and application, a universal typology is needed. This framework includes a typology aligning current brain models of stress and learning with traditional Indo-Tibetan models of meditative stress-cessation and learning enrichment. PMID:19743554

  7. The global status of freshwater fish age validation studies and a prioritization framework for future research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Kevin L.; Hamel, Martin J.; Pegg, Mark A.; Spurgeon, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Age information derived from calcified structures is commonly used to estimate recruitment, growth, and mortality for fish populations. Validation of daily or annual marks on age structures is often assumed, presumably due to a lack of general knowledge concerning the status of age validation studies. Therefore, the current status of freshwater fish age validation studies was summarized to show where additional effort is needed, and increase the accessibility of validation studies to researchers. In total, 1351 original peer-reviewed articles were reviewed from freshwater systems that studied age in fish. Periodicity and age validation studies were found for 88 freshwater species comprising 21 fish families. The number of age validation studies has increased over the last 30 years following previous calls for more research; however, few species have validated structures spanning all life stages. In addition, few fishes of conservation concern have validated ageing structures. A prioritization framework, using a combination of eight characteristics, is offered to direct future age validation studies and close the validation information gap. Additional study, using the offered prioritization framework, and increased availability of published studies that incorporate uncertainty when presenting research results dealing with age information are needed.

  8. Development of a privacy and security policy framework for a multistate comparative effectiveness research network.

    PubMed

    Kim, Katherine K; McGraw, Deven; Mamo, Laura; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2013-08-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) conducted in distributed research networks (DRNs) is subject to different state laws and regulations as well as institution-specific policies intended to protect privacy and security of health information. The goal of the Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research (SCANNER) project is to develop and demonstrate a scalable, flexible technical infrastructure for DRNs that enables near real-time CER consistent with privacy and security laws and best practices. This investigation began with an analysis of privacy and security laws and state health information exchange (HIE) guidelines applicable to SCANNER participants from California, Illinois, Massachusetts, and the Federal Veteran's Administration. A 7-member expert panel of policy and technical experts reviewed the analysis and gave input into the framework during 5 meetings held in 2011-2012. The state/federal guidelines were applied to 3 CER use cases: safety of new oral hematologic medications; medication therapy management for patients with diabetes and hypertension; and informational interventions for providers in the treatment of acute respiratory infections. The policy framework provides flexibility, beginning with a use-case approach rather than a one-size-fits-all approach. The policies may vary depending on the type of patient data shared (aggregate counts, deidentified, limited, and fully identified datasets) and the flow of data. The types of agreements necessary for a DRN may include a network-level and data use agreements. The need for flexibility in the development and implementation of policies must be balanced with responsibilities of data stewardship. PMID:23774516

  9. A new scenario framework for climate change research. Background, process, and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Ebi, Kristie L.; Hallegatte, Stephane; Kram, Tom; Arnell, Nigel W.; Carter, Tim; Edmonds, James A.; Kriegler, Elmar; Mathur, Ritu; O'Neill, Brian; Riahi, Keywan; Winkler, Harald; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Zwickel, Timm

    2013-09-27

    The scientific community is developing new integrated global, regional, and sectoral scenarios to facilitate interdisciplinary research and assessment to explore the range of possible future climates and related physical changes could pose to human and natural systems; how these could interact with social, economic, and environmental development pathways; the degree to which mitigation and adaptation policies can avoid and reduce those risks; the costs and benefits of various policy mixes; residual impacts under alternative pathways; and the relationship with sustainable development. This paper provides the background to, and process of, developing the conceptual framework for these scenarios, described in three other papers in this Special Issue (van Vuuren et al.; O'Neill et al.; Kriegler et al.). The paper also discusses research needs to further develop and apply this framework. The goal is to encourage climate change researchers from a broad range of perspectives and disciplines to work together to develop policy-relevant scenarios and explore the implications of different possible futures for the challenges and opportunities human and natural systems could face with increasing climate change.

  10. openBIS: a flexible framework for managing and analyzing complex data in biology research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Modern data generation techniques used in distributed systems biology research projects often create datasets of enormous size and diversity. We argue that in order to overcome the challenge of managing those large quantitative datasets and maximise the biological information extracted from them, a sound information system is required. Ease of integration with data analysis pipelines and other computational tools is a key requirement for it. Results We have developed openBIS, an open source software framework for constructing user-friendly, scalable and powerful information systems for data and metadata acquired in biological experiments. openBIS enables users to collect, integrate, share, publish data and to connect to data processing pipelines. This framework can be extended and has been customized for different data types acquired by a range of technologies. Conclusions openBIS is currently being used by several SystemsX.ch and EU projects applying mass spectrometric measurements of metabolites and proteins, High Content Screening, or Next Generation Sequencing technologies. The attributes that make it interesting to a large research community involved in systems biology projects include versatility, simplicity in deployment, scalability to very large data, flexibility to handle any biological data type and extensibility to the needs of any research domain. PMID:22151573

  11. Towards a conceptual framework to support one-health research for policy on emerging zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Coker, Richard; Rushton, Jonathan; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Karimuribo, Esron; Lutumba, Pascal; Kambarage, Dominic; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Stärk, Katharina; Rweyemamu, Mark

    2011-04-01

    In the past two decades there has been a growing realisation that the livestock sector was in a process of change, resulting from an expansion of intensive animal production systems and trade to meet a globalised world's increasing demand for livestock products. One unintended consequence has been the emergence and spread of transboundary animal diseases and, more specifically, the resurgence and emergence of zoonotic diseases. Concurrent with changes in the livestock sector, contact with wildlife has increased. This development has increased the risk of transmission of infections from wildlife to human beings and livestock. Two overarching questions arise with respect to the real and perceived threat from emerging infectious diseases: why are these problems arising with increasing frequency, and how should we manage and control them? A clear conceptual research framework can provide a guide to ensure a research strategy that coherently links to the overarching goals of policy makers. We propose such a new framework in support of a research and policy-generation strategy to help to address the challenges posed by emerging zoonoses. PMID:21376670

  12. The Role of Students in Data Use: Commentary on Coburn and Turner's "Research on Data Use: A Framework and Analysis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura S.

    2011-01-01

    Cynthia Coburn and Erica Turner have made an important contribution by developing a framework to synthesize the various strands of research and theory related to data use in schools. The framework illustrates the complexity of the pathways between the adoption of a data-use intervention and the attainment of desired outcomes, and it clarifies the…

  13. Sociological Perspectives on Energy and Rural Development: A Review of Major Frameworks for Research on Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppel, Bruce; Schlegel, Charles

    The principal sociological frameworks used in energy research on developing countries can be appraised in terms of the view of the energy-rural development problem that each framework implies. "Socio-Technical Analysis," which is used most in industrial and organizational sociology and in ecological anthropology, is oriented to the decomposition…

  14. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part IX: Risk-Reduction Framework.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P; Loretti, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    A disaster is a failure of resilience to an event. Mitigating the risks that a hazard will progress into a destructive event, or increasing the resilience of a society-at-risk, requires careful analysis, planning, and execution. The Disaster Logic Model (DLM) is used to define the value (effects, costs, and outcome(s)), impacts, and benefits of interventions directed at risk reduction. A Risk-Reduction Framework, based on the DLM, details the processes involved in hazard mitigation and/or capacity-building interventions to augment the resilience of a community or to decrease the risk that a secondary event will develop. This Framework provides the structure to systematically undertake and evaluate risk-reduction interventions. It applies to all interventions aimed at hazard mitigation and/or increasing the absorbing, buffering, or response capacities of a community-at-risk for a primary or secondary event that could result in a disaster. The Framework utilizes the structure provided by the DLM and consists of 14 steps: (1) hazards and risks identification; (2) historical perspectives and predictions; (3) selection of hazard(s) to address; (4) selection of appropriate indicators; (5) identification of current resilience standards and benchmarks; (6) assessment of the current resilience status; (7) identification of resilience needs; (8) strategic planning; (9) selection of an appropriate intervention; (10) operational planning; (11) implementation; (12) assessments of outputs; (13) synthesis; and (14) feedback. Each of these steps is a transformation process that is described in detail. Emphasis is placed on the role of Coordination and Control during planning, implementation of risk-reduction/capacity building interventions, and evaluation. Birnbaum ML , Daily EK , O'Rourke AP , Loretti A . Research and evaluations of the health aspects of disasters, part IX: Risk-Reduction Framework. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):309-325. PMID:27033777

  15. Development of a data management framework in support of southeastern tidal creek research.

    PubMed

    White, David L; Wolf, Danna; Porter, Dwayne E; Sanger, Denise M; Riekerk, George H M; DiDonato, Guy; Holland, A Fred; Dabney, David

    2009-03-01

    The NOAA Center of Excellence for Oceans and Human Health Initiative (OHHI) at the Hollings Marine Laboratory (HML) is developing a data management framework that supports an integrated research program across scientific disciplines. The primary focus of the database is to support environmental research focused on tidal creek watershed systems. Specifically, the current data holdings include physical water quality parameters, nutrients, pathogens, chemical contaminants, benthic and nekton species abundances and human dimensions data from Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina dating to 1994. These data are not from a single long-term research project but are derived from several state and federal research programs and integrated into a common database model to support current research being conducted under the OHHI program at HML. The Tidal Creek database was developed with the intent to support a well documented and open system, thus metadata elements from common metadata standards including the Dublin Core ISO 15836:2003 and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC-STD-001-1998) are components of the database model. The result is a semantic database framework with descriptive ancillary data at the record level including methods, investigator names, date, locations and other descriptive elements. The primary users of the database are project personnel to meet analytical needs. The database is also available through a number of web-based applications that are designed to give users the necessary information to evaluate and access data. In addition, data can be accessed with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards, and species records and abundances are being made available to the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS). Overall, the Tidal Creek database summarizes the response of tidal creeks and watersheds to coastal development, and serves as a repository for environmental, demographic, and socioeconomic data in the Southeast. PMID:18418722

  16. Integrating Women's Human Rights into Global Health Research: An Action Framework

    PubMed Central

    Kapungu, Chisina; Khare, Manorama H.; Lewis, Yvonne; Barlow-Mosha, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This article uses Scale of Change theory as a framework to guide global health researchers to synergistically target women's health outcomes in the context of improving their right to freedom, equity, and equality of opportunities. We hypothesize that health researchers can do so through six action strategies. These strategies include (1) becoming fully informed of women's human rights directives to integrate them into research, (2) mainstreaming gender in the research, (3) using the expertise of grass roots women's organizations in the setting, (4) showcasing women's equity and equality in the organizational infrastructure, (5) disseminating research findings to policymakers in the study locale to influence health priorities, and (6) publicizing the social conditions that are linked to women's diseases. We explore conceptual and logistical dilemmas in transforming a study using these principles and also provide a case study of obstetric fistula reduction in Nigeria to illustrate how these strategies can be operationalized. Our intent is to offer a feasible approach to health researchers who, conceptually, may link women's health to social and cultural conditions but are looking for practical implementation strategies to examine a women's health issue through the lens of their human rights. PMID:20973667

  17. Developing a framework for qualitative engineering: Research in design and analysis of complex structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franck, Bruno M.

    1990-01-01

    The research is focused on automating the evaluation of complex structural systems, whether for the design of a new system or the analysis of an existing one, by developing new structural analysis techniques based on qualitative reasoning. The problem is to identify and better understand: (1) the requirements for the automation of design, and (2) the qualitative reasoning associated with the conceptual development of a complex system. The long-term objective is to develop an integrated design-risk assessment environment for the evaluation of complex structural systems. The scope of this short presentation is to describe the design and cognition components of the research. Design has received special attention in cognitive science because it is now identified as a problem solving activity that is different from other information processing tasks (1). Before an attempt can be made to automate design, a thorough understanding of the underlying design theory and methodology is needed, since the design process is, in many cases, multi-disciplinary, complex in size and motivation, and uses various reasoning processes involving different kinds of knowledge in ways which vary from one context to another. The objective is to unify all the various types of knowledge under one framework of cognition. This presentation focuses on the cognitive science framework that we are using to represent the knowledge aspects associated with the human mind's abstraction abilities and how we apply it to the engineering knowledge and engineering reasoning in design.

  18. The Cycle of Bias in Health Research: A Framework and Toolbox for Critical Appraisal Training

    PubMed Central

    Odierna, Donna H.; Forsyth, Susan R.; White, Jenny; Bero, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing bias in health research is crucial for evidence-based decision making. We worked with eight community groups to develop materials for nine modular, individualized critical appraisal workshops we conducted with 102 consumers (four workshops), 43 healthcare providers (three workshops), and 33 journalists (two workshops) in California. We presented workshops using a “cycle of bias” framework, and developed a toolbox of presentations, problem-based small group sessions, and skill-building materials to improve participants’ ability to evaluate research for financial and other conflicts of interest, bias, validity, and applicability. Participant feedback indicated that the adaptability of the toolbox and our focus on bias were critical elements in the success of our workshops. PMID:23432773

  19. Observational research with adolescents: a framework for the management of the parental permission

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Waiving parent permission can be an option in some epidemiological and social research with adolescents. However, exemptions have not been uniformly considered or applied. Our aim is to critically assess the different factors that could be taken into account when making decisions about waiving active parental permission in observational research with adolescents. Discussion In some cases alternatives to parental permission could be applied to protect the rights of both adolescents and parents and also to assure the benefits to adolescents as a group that can come from appropriately conducted studies. However, the criteria of ensuring minimal risk can be difficult to define and apply and a distinction between harm and discomfort is reviewed. Waiving active parental permission could be acceptable when the risk of harm is minimal; when the research questions are related to an activity for which adolescents are not legally considered to be children; when the risk of harm or discomfort may increase if parental permission is required; and when risk of discomfort is low because the questionnaire is not potentially offensive for some adolescents and/or for some parents. Summary Stringent rules concerning parental permission in some studies could be detrimental to adolescents. A framework and a decision tree guide are proposed to help researchers and Research Ethics Committees in their decisions on whether active parental permission must be obtained. PMID:23286743

  20. Framework for automatic information extraction from research papers on nanocrystal devices

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, Masaharu; Hara, Shinjiro; Newton, Marcus C

    2015-01-01

    Summary To support nanocrystal device development, we have been working on a computational framework to utilize information in research papers on nanocrystal devices. We developed an annotated corpus called “ NaDev” (Nanocrystal Device Development) for this purpose. We also proposed an automatic information extraction system called “NaDevEx” (Nanocrystal Device Automatic Information Extraction Framework). NaDevEx aims at extracting information from research papers on nanocrystal devices using the NaDev corpus and machine-learning techniques. However, the characteristics of NaDevEx were not examined in detail. In this paper, we conduct system evaluation experiments for NaDevEx using the NaDev corpus. We discuss three main issues: system performance, compared with human annotators; the effect of paper type (synthesis or characterization) on system performance; and the effects of domain knowledge features (e.g., a chemical named entity recognition system and list of names of physical quantities) on system performance. We found that overall system performance was 89% in precision and 69% in recall. If we consider identification of terms that intersect with correct terms for the same information category as the correct identification, i.e., loose agreement (in many cases, we can find that appropriate head nouns such as temperature or pressure loosely match between two terms), the overall performance is 95% in precision and 74% in recall. The system performance is almost comparable with results of human annotators for information categories with rich domain knowledge information (source material). However, for other information categories, given the relatively large number of terms that exist only in one paper, recall of individual information categories is not high (39–73%); however, precision is better (75–97%). The average performance for synthesis papers is better than that for characterization papers because of the lack of training examples for

  1. Beyond Criminalization: Toward a Criminologically Informed Framework for Mental Health Policy and Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Eric; Wolff, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    The problems posed by persons with mental illness involved with the criminal justice system are vexing ones that have received attention at the local, state and national levels. The conceptual model currently guiding research and social action around these problems is shaped by the “criminalization” perspective and the associated belief that reconnecting individuals with mental health services will by itself reduce risk for arrest. This paper argues that such efforts are necessary but possibly not sufficient to achieve that reduction. Arguing for the need to develop a services research framework that identifies a broader range of risk factors for arrest, we describe three potentially useful criminological frameworks—the “life course,” “local life circumstances” and “routine activities” perspectives. Their utility as platforms for research in a population of persons with mental illness is discussed and suggestions are provided with regard to how services research guided by these perspectives might inform the development of community-based services aimed at reducing risk of arrest. PMID:16791518

  2. Future development, innovation and promotion of European unique food: an interdisciplinary research framework perspective.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Derek V; Waehrens, Sandra S; O'Sullivan, Maurice G

    2013-11-01

    Unique food products constitute a very important element of European food business, culture, identity and heritage. Understanding the uniqueness of food in Europe from a research-based interdisciplinary perspective will be a critical factor in promoting the competitiveness of artisanal food industries going forward both locally and internationally. Success will support the competitiveness of the European food industry, in particular, small and medium enterprises, by enabling substantial product differentiation potential for producers and providing ample variety in food choice for the consumer. In addition, it will contribute to promotion of sustainable agriculture and development of rural areas, protecting them from depopulation. In order to meet the demands of a developing fundamental shift in European Union agricultural focus to greener, sustainable farming practices and wider rural development and to ensure success for local small-scale producers, this paper discusses the future direction of research in the field of unique European foods. The paper presents a perspective which promotes optimisation and innovation in unique food products in Europe through the integration of advanced knowledge and technologies. A framework is presented covering location, identity, perception and well-being as research areas needing synergy to bridge the research knowledge deficit in determination and specification of food identity in the European Union. The ultimate aim being promotion of sustainable agriculture and rural development, particularly in territories across the European Union where unique food is strategically and scientifically under-defined. PMID:23963919

  3. Exploring the Decision Landscape using System Sketch: Integration and Display of Ecosystem Services & Indicators Using the DPSIR Framework and Dynamic Web Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stakeholders can use the tool to accomplish their sustainability goals by: Understanding interactions and feedback loops within human-environmental systems; Identifying areas of the system not previously considered and avoiding unintended consequences; Identifying metrics, indica...

  4. A framework of pediatric hospital discharge care informed by legislation, research, and practice.

    PubMed

    Berry, Jay G; Blaine, Kevin; Rogers, Jayne; McBride, Sarah; Schor, Edward; Birmingham, Jackie; Schuster, Mark A; Feudtner, Chris

    2014-10-01

    To our knowledge, no widely used pediatric standards for hospital discharge care exist, despite nearly 10 000 pediatric discharges per day in the United States. This lack of standards undermines the quality of pediatric hospital discharge, hinders quality-improvement efforts, and adversely affects the health and well-being of children and their families after they leave the hospital. In this article, we first review guidance regarding the discharge process for adult patients, including federal law within the Social Security Act that outlines standards for hospital discharge; a variety of toolkits that aim to improve discharge care; and the research evidence that supports the discharge process. We then outline a framework within which to organize the diverse activities that constitute discharge care to be executed throughout the hospitalization of a child from admission to the actual discharge. In the framework, we describe processes to (1) initiate pediatric discharge care, (2) develop discharge care plans, (3) monitor discharge progress, and (4) finalize discharge. We contextualize these processes with a clinical case of a child undergoing hospital discharge. Use of this narrative review will help pediatric health care professionals (eg, nurses, social workers, and physicians) move forward to better understand what works and what does not during hospital discharge for children, while steadily improving their quality of care and health outcomes. PMID:25155156

  5. An episodic framework of outgroup interaction processing: Integration and redirection for the expatriate adjustment research.

    PubMed

    Maertz, Carl P; Takeuchi, Riki; Chen, Jieying

    2016-06-01

    Cross-cultural research has traditionally emphasized predicting adjustment, treating it as a level to be achieved more than a change process to be understood and controlled. The lack of focus on process integration has inhibited our understanding of precisely why and how adjustment processes unfold and ultimately cause (dys)functional change in criteria. In response, we review the motives and processes of cross-cultural adjustment and integrate these into a theoretical framework, examining the discrete episode of expatriate-host national interaction as the focal vehicle for change. First, we synthesize the general causal sequence within an interaction episode. We then summarize state inputs that condition processing. Next, we describe identity management and learning processing in depth. Then, we discuss key interactions among the motive and processing categories. Finally, we orient the cross-cultural interaction episode within the nomological network of cross-cultural adjustment predictors and criteria. This framework prescribes that an expatriate should initially reduce acculturative stress through repeated, functional identity management and learning processing of novelty encountered in cross-cultural interaction episodes. To do so, one must avoid inhibitory input states and the many potential processing failures identified here. If the expatriate experiences enough such functional interaction episodes, a "Stage 2" is reached where the motive to reduce stress has been largely overcome, and thereafter, interaction episode processing proceeds more functionally in general. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26689085

  6. ENVRI PLUS project: Developing an ethical framework for Environmental and Earth System Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peppoloni, Silvia; Di Capua, Giuseppe; Haslinger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    ENVRI PLUS is a Horizon 2020 project bringing together Environmental and Earth System Research Infrastructures (RIs), projects and networks with technical specialist partners to create a more coherent, interdisciplinary and interoperable cluster of Environmental Research Infrastructures across Europe (http://www.envriplus.eu/). One theme of the project deals with the societal relevance and understanding, and within that theme an entire work-package (WP) aims at developing an ethical framework for RIs. Objectives of this WP are: • increase the awareness of both the scientists and the public on the importance of ethical aspects in Earth sciences; • establish a shared ethical framework of reference, to be adopted by RIs governing bodies; • increase the awareness of RIs management and operational levels and of the individual involved scientists on their social role in conducting research activities and research work environment; • assess the ethical and social aspects related to the results achieved and deliverables released within the project. The ongoing activities include: • reviewing the state of art on ethical issues useful for the goals of the project (collection and analysis of materials already existing within scientific organizations, institutions all over the world); • the creation of a questionnaire, through which to investigate how each RI participating in ENVRI PLUS faces ethical issues in relation to its activities, and so to understand the level of perception that researchers and technicians involved in the project have on the ethical implications of their scientific activities; • the definition of ethics guidelines to be used by partners for building their policies and their own codes of conduct; • the elaboration of an ethical label template to characterize each product of the project, that partners will be able to use in order to give essential information about the ethical and social implications of their products; • the

  7. MARVIN: a medical research application framework based on open source software.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Tobias; Puls, Marc; Anderegg, Christoph; Ebert, Lars; Broehan, Martina; Rudin, Adrian; Kowal, Jens

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the open source framework MARVIN for rapid application development in the field of biomedical and clinical research. MARVIN applications consist of modules that can be plugged together in order to provide the functionality required for a specific experimental scenario. Application modules work on a common patient database that is used to store and organize medical data as well as derived data. MARVIN provides a flexible input/output system with support for many file formats including DICOM, various 2D image formats and surface mesh data. Furthermore, it implements an advanced visualization system and interfaces to a wide range of 3D tracking hardware. Since it uses only highly portable libraries, MARVIN applications run on Unix/Linux, Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows. PMID:18541330

  8. A Strategic Framework for Utilizing Late-Stage (T4) Translation Research to Address Health Inequities.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Class, Maria; Peprah, Emmanuel; Zhang, Xinzhi; Kaufmann, Peter G; Engelgau, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Achieving health equity requires that every person has the opportunity to attain their full health potential and no one is disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of social position or other socially determined circumstances. Inequity experienced by populations of lower socioeconomic status is reflected in differences in health status and mortality rates, as well as in the distribution of disease, disability and illness across these population groups. This article gives an overview of the health inequities literature associated with heart, lung, blood and sleep (HLBS) disorders. We present an ecological framework that provides a theoretical foundation to study late-stage T4 translation research that studies implementation strategies for proven effective interventions to address health inequities. PMID:27440979

  9. Industrial Internet of Things-Based Collaborative Sensing Intelligence: Framework and Research Challenges.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanfang; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Shu, Lei; Crespi, Noel

    2016-01-01

    The development of an efficient and cost-effective solution to solve a complex problem (e.g., dynamic detection of toxic gases) is an important research issue in the industrial applications of the Internet of Things (IoT). An industrial intelligent ecosystem enables the collection of massive data from the various devices (e.g., sensor-embedded wireless devices) dynamically collaborating with humans. Effectively collaborative analytics based on the collected massive data from humans and devices is quite essential to improve the efficiency of industrial production/service. In this study, we propose a collaborative sensing intelligence (CSI) framework, combining collaborative intelligence and industrial sensing intelligence. The proposed CSI facilitates the cooperativity of analytics with integrating massive spatio-temporal data from different sources and time points. To deploy the CSI for achieving intelligent and efficient industrial production/service, the key challenges and open issues are discussed, as well. PMID:26861345

  10. Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS): A conceptual framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, Gregory S.; Rowell, William F.; Valusek, John R.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in applying the computer based problem solving techniques of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Operations Research (OR), and Decision Support Systems (DSS) to analyze extremely complex problems. A conceptual framework is developed for successfully integrating these three techniques. First, the fields of AI, OR, and DSS are defined and the relationships among the three fields are explored. Next, a comprehensive adaptive design methodology for AI and OR modeling within the context of a DSS is described. These observations are made: (1) the solution of extremely complex knowledge problems with ill-defined, changing requirements can benefit greatly from the use of the adaptive design process, (2) the field of DSS provides the focus on the decision making process essential for tailoring solutions to these complex problems, (3) the characteristics of AI, OR, and DSS tools appears to be converging rapidly, and (4) there is a growing need for an interdisciplinary AI/OR/DSS education.