Science.gov

Sample records for research group crg

  1. Small Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  2. Control of pili and sialyltransferase expression in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is mediated by the transcriptional regulator CrgA.

    PubMed

    Matthias, Kathryn A; Rest, Richard F

    2014-03-01

    Contact-regulated gene A (CrgA) is a transcriptional regulator present in the pathogenic Neisseria that functions as both an activator and a repressor of transcription following contact with host cells. While its mechanism of action has been studied extensively in Neisseria meningitidis, the specific subset of genes that CrgA targets has been debated. Although the majority of these constitute virulence genes, suggesting that CrgA is important in pathogenesis, no study to date has examined the effects of CrgA in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In this report, we generated a knockout mutant of crgA (ΔcrgA) in the serum-sensitive gonococcal strain F62. crgA deletion resulted in a reduction in the transcript and protein levels of the primary pilin component pilE via mechanisms that were both contact-dependent and -independent. In contrast, ΔcrgA overexpressed the main determinant of serum resistance in F62, lipooligosaccharide sialyltransferase (Lst). CrgA-mediated lst repression was direct as both recombinant and native CrgA bound to the lst promoter at multiple locations in EMSA and ChIP assays respectively. The increase in Lst levels associated with crgA deletion correlated with enhanced protection against killing by normal human serum. These data suggest a role for CrgA in virulence regulation during both cell adherence and planktonic growth. PMID:24433334

  3. National Melon Research Group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Melon Research Group met with the Cucurbitaceae 2010 conference in Charleston, South Carolina at 7:00 P.M. on November 17. The discussion was focused solely on cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM). Several reported increased problem with CPM or apparent changes in race. Ales Lebeda (Palacký Un...

  4. Constructing a Community Response Grid (CRG): The Dublin, Ohio Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, John F., III.

    2012-01-01

    During an emergency, information availability is critical to preserving life and minimizing damages. During the emergency response, however, information may not be available to those who need it. A community response grid (CRG) can help ameliorate this lack of availability by allowing people to document and distribute emergency information to…

  5. Group Work. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  6. Qualitative research. Introducing focus groups.

    PubMed Central

    Kitzinger, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces focus group methodology, gives advice on group composition, running the groups, and analysing the results. Focus groups have advantages for researchers in the field of health and medicine: they do not discriminate against people who cannot read or write and they can encourage participation from people reluctant to be interviewed on their own or who feel they have nothing to say. Images p301-a PMID:7633241

  7. Supporting Student Research Group Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopatin, Dennis E.

    1993-01-01

    This discussion describes methods that foster a healthy Student Research Group (SRG) and permits it to fulfill its responsibility in the development of the student researcher. The model used in the discussion is that of the University of Michigan School of Dentistry SRG. (GLR)

  8. Conducting Research With Community Groups.

    PubMed

    Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Ayoola, Adejoke; Topp, Robert; Zandee, Gail Landheer

    2015-10-01

    Nurse scientists are increasingly recognizing the necessity of conducting research with community groups to effectively address complex health problems and successfully translate scientific advancements into the community. Although several barriers to conducting research with community groups exist, community-based participatory research (CBPR) has the potential to mitigate these barriers. CBPR has been employed in programs of research that respond in culturally sensitive ways to identify community needs and thereby address current health disparities. This article presents case studies that demonstrate how CBPR principles guided the development of (a) a healthy body weight program for urban, underserved African American women; (b) a reproductive health educational intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women; and (c) a pilot anxiety/depression intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women. These case studies illustrate the potential of CBPR as an orientation to research that can be employed effectively in non-research-intensive academic environments. PMID:25724557

  9. Conducting Research with Community Groups

    PubMed Central

    Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Ayoola, Adejoke; Topp, Robert; Zandee, Gail Landheer

    2016-01-01

    Nurse scientists are increasingly recognizing the necessity of conducting research with community groups to effectively address complex health problems and successfully translate scientific advancements into the community. While several barriers to conducting research with community groups exist, community based participatory research (CBPR) has the potential to mitigate these barriers. CBPR has been employed in programs of research that respond in culturally sensitive ways to identify community needs and thereby address current health disparities. This manuscript presents case studies that demonstrate how CBPR principles guided the development of: (a) a healthy body weight program for urban, underserved African-American women, (b) a reproductive health educational intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women, and (c) a pilot anxiety/depression intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women. These case studies illustrate the potential of CBPR as an orientation to research that can be employed effectively in non-research intensive academic environments. PMID:25724557

  10. Ames vision group research overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    A major goal of the reseach group is to develop mathematical and computational models of early human vision. These models are valuable in the prediction of human performance, in the design of visual coding schemes and displays, and in robotic vision. To date researchers have models of retinal sampling, spatial processing in visual cortex, contrast sensitivity, and motion processing. Based on their models of early human vision, researchers developed several schemes for efficient coding and compression of monochrome and color images. These are pyramid schemes that decompose the image into features that vary in location, size, orientation, and phase. To determine the perceptual fidelity of these codes, researchers developed novel human testing methods that have received considerable attention in the research community. Researchers constructed models of human visual motion processing based on physiological and psychophysical data, and have tested these models through simulation and human experiments. They also explored the application of these biological algorithms to applications in automated guidance of rotorcraft and autonomous landing of spacecraft. Researchers developed networks for inhomogeneous image sampling, for pyramid coding of images, for automatic geometrical correction of disordered samples, and for removal of motion artifacts from unstable cameras.

  11. Structure of CrgA, a cell division structural and regulatory protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nabanita; Dai, Jian; Hung, Ivan; Rajagopalan, Malini; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Cross, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    The 93-residue transmembrane protein CrgA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a central component of the divisome, a large macromolecular machine responsible for cell division. Through interactions with multiple other components including FtsZ, FtsQ, FtsI (PBPB), PBPA, and CwsA, CrgA facilitates the recruitment of the proteins essential for peptidoglycan synthesis to the divisome and stabilizes the divisome. CrgA is predicted to have two transmembrane helices. Here, the structure of CrgA was determined in a liquid–crystalline lipid bilayer environment by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Oriented-sample data yielded orientational restraints, whereas magic-angle spinning data yielded interhelical distance restraints. These data define a complete structure for the transmembrane domain and provide rich information on the conformational ensembles of the partially disordered N-terminal region and interhelical loop. The structure of the transmembrane domain was refined using restrained molecular dynamics simulations in an all-atom representation of the same lipid bilayer environment as in the NMR samples. The two transmembrane helices form a left-handed packing arrangement with a crossing angle of 24° at the conserved Gly39 residue. This helix pair exposes other conserved glycine and alanine residues to the fatty acyl environment, which are potential sites for binding CrgA’s partners such as CwsA and FtsQ. This approach combining oriented-sample and magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy in native-like lipid bilayers with restrained molecular dynamics simulations represents a powerful tool for structural characterization of not only isolated membrane proteins, but their complexes, such as those that form macromolecular machines. PMID:25548160

  12. Structure of CrgA, a cell division structural and regulatory protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Das, Nabanita; Dai, Jian; Hung, Ivan; Rajagopalan, Malini R; Rajagopalan, Malini R; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Cross, Timothy A

    2015-01-13

    The 93-residue transmembrane protein CrgA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a central component of the divisome, a large macromolecular machine responsible for cell division. Through interactions with multiple other components including FtsZ, FtsQ, FtsI (PBPB), PBPA, and CwsA, CrgA facilitates the recruitment of the proteins essential for peptidoglycan synthesis to the divisome and stabilizes the divisome. CrgA is predicted to have two transmembrane helices. Here, the structure of CrgA was determined in a liquid-crystalline lipid bilayer environment by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Oriented-sample data yielded orientational restraints, whereas magic-angle spinning data yielded interhelical distance restraints. These data define a complete structure for the transmembrane domain and provide rich information on the conformational ensembles of the partially disordered N-terminal region and interhelical loop. The structure of the transmembrane domain was refined using restrained molecular dynamics simulations in an all-atom representation of the same lipid bilayer environment as in the NMR samples. The two transmembrane helices form a left-handed packing arrangement with a crossing angle of 24° at the conserved Gly39 residue. This helix pair exposes other conserved glycine and alanine residues to the fatty acyl environment, which are potential sites for binding CrgA's partners such as CwsA and FtsQ. This approach combining oriented-sample and magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy in native-like lipid bilayers with restrained molecular dynamics simulations represents a powerful tool for structural characterization of not only isolated membrane proteins, but their complexes, such as those that form macromolecular machines. PMID:25548160

  13. Definition of a lipopolysaccharide-responsive element in the 5'-flanking regions of MuRantes and crg-2.

    PubMed Central

    Shin, H S; Drysdale, B E; Shin, M L; Noble, P W; Fisher, S N; Paznekas, W A

    1994-01-01

    Macrophages are stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative organisms. The changes in LPS-stimulated macrophages include transcriptional activation of multiple immediate-early genes, which may contribute to the natural immunity to microorganisms. We have defined by deletion and mutational analysis LPS-responsive elements (LREs) in two chemokine genes, MuRantes and crg-2, which are activated in an immediate-early manner. LRE consists of two motifs, TCAYR, which is an AP-1 half site with two flanking bases, and (A/T) (G/C)NTTYC(A/T)NTTY, which resembles in part the interferon-stimulated responsive element (ISRE). The orientation of these two motifs relative to each other in MuRantes differed from that in crg-2. These two motifs are separated by 10 and 6 nonconsensus nucleotides in the MuRantes and crg-2 LREs, respectively. Stimulation of macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells with alpha/beta interferon did not activate MuRantes, indicating that the ISRE-like motif in MuRantes does not have ISRE activity. Upon stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with LPS, proteins capable of binding to LRE accumulate in the nuclei as measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. These LRE-binding proteins include c-Jun and CREB. Images PMID:7513046

  14. The structure of CrgA from Neisseria meningitidis reveals a new octameric assembly state for LysR transcriptional regulators

    PubMed Central

    Sainsbury, Sarah; Lane, Laura A.; Ren, Jingshan; Gilbert, Robert J.; Saunders, Nigel J.; Robinson, Carol V.; Stuart, David I.; Owens, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) form the largest family of bacterial regulators acting as both auto-repressors and activators of target promoters, controlling operons involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. The LTTR, CrgA, from the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, is upregulated during bacterial–host cell contact. Here, we report the crystal structures of both regulatory domain and full-length CrgA, the first of a novel subclass of LTTRs that form octameric rings. Non-denaturing mass spectrometry analysis and analytical ultracentrifugation established that the octameric form of CrgA is the predominant species in solution in both the presence and absence of an oligonucleotide encompassing the CrgA-binding sequence. Furthermore, analysis of the isolated CrgA–DNA complex by mass spectrometry showed stabilization of a double octamer species upon DNA binding. Based on the observed structure and the mass spectrometry findings, a model is proposed in which a hexadecameric array of two CrgA oligomers binds to its DNA target site. PMID:19474343

  15. Organization of an undergraduate research group

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.; Noteboom, E.

    1995-04-01

    Traditionally, research groups consist of senior physicists, staff members, and graduate students. The physics department at Creighton University has formed a Relativistic Heavy Ion physics research group consisting primarily of undergraduate students. Although senior staff and graduate students are actively involved, undergraduate research and the education of undergraduates is the focus of the group. The presentation, given by two undergraduate members of the group, will outline progress made in the group`s organization, discuss the benefits to the undergraduate group members, and speak to the balance which must be struck between education concerns and research goals.

  16. Group marginalization: extending research on interpersonal rejection to small groups.

    PubMed

    Betts, Kevin R; Hinsz, Verlin B

    2013-11-01

    An extensive research literature has examined the reactions of individuals facing interpersonal rejection. Small groups can also be rejected, but current research tells us little about the experiences of groups and their members directly. We integrate findings from various literatures to gain insight into shared rejection experiences and their outcomes. Of most practical importance, we argue that groups can be expected to react with more hostility than individuals when rejected. Four existing models that account for how group processes might alter such reactions are examined: a need-threat model, a rejection-identification model, a multimotive model, and a dual attitudes model. Aspects of these models are then integrated into a unifying framework that is useful for understanding hostile reactions to group marginalization. Implications for natural groups such as terrorist cells, school cliques, racial and ethnic minorities, and gangs are discussed. PMID:23928559

  17. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

  18. The phosphocarrier protein HPr of Neisseria meningitidis interacts with the transcription regulator CrgA and its deletion affects capsule production, cell adhesion, and virulence.

    PubMed

    Derkaoui, Meriem; Antunes, Ana; Poncet, Sandrine; Nait Abdallah, Jamila; Joyet, Philippe; Mazé, Alain; Henry, Céline; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Deutscher, Josef; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine

    2016-06-01

    The bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS) transports and phosphorylates sugars, but also carries out numerous regulatory functions. The β-proteobacterium Neisseria meningitidis possesses an incomplete PTS unable to transport carbon sources because it lacks a membrane component. Nevertheless, the residual phosphorylation cascade is functional and the meningococcal PTS was therefore expected to carry out regulatory roles. Interestingly, a ΔptsH mutant (lacks the PTS protein HPr) exhibited reduced virulence in mice and after intraperitoneal challenge it was rapidly cleared from the bloodstream of BALB/c mice. The rapid clearance correlates with lower capsular polysaccharide production by the ΔptsH mutant, which is probably also responsible for its increased adhesion to Hec-1-B epithelial cells. In addition, compared to the wild-type strain more apoptotic cells were detected when Hec-1-B cells were infected with the ΔptsH strain. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed an interaction of HPr and P-Ser-HPr with the LysR type transcription regulator CrgA, which among others controls its own expression. Moreover, ptsH deletion caused increased expression of a ΦcrgA-lacZ fusion. Finally, the presence of HPr or phospho-HPr's during electrophoretic mobility shift assays enhanced the affinity of CrgA for its target sites preceding crgA and pilE, but HPr did not promote CrgA binding to the sia and pilC1 promoter regions. PMID:26858137

  19. Using Focus Group Research in Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunig, Larissa A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a recent instance of focus group research applied to a public relations case (rather than a marketing case). Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of this qualitative method, and describes the case of a county department of mental health relying on focus group research to help plan a program aimed at reducing the stigma of mental…

  20. Feminist Research Methodology Groups: Origins, Forms, Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinharz, Shulamit

    Feminist Research Methodology Groups (FRMGs) have developed as a specific type of women's group in which feminist academics can find supportive audiences for their work while contributing to a feminist redefinition of research methods. An analysis of two FRMGs reveals common characteristics, dynamics, and outcomes. Both were limited to small…

  1. [Nursing history research groups: a Brazilian reality].

    PubMed

    Padilha, Maria Itayra; Borenstein, Miriam Susskind; Carvalho, Maria Aline Lima; Ferreira, Aline Coelho

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the activities of Nursing History research groups in Brazil and their relationships with the nursing undergraduate and graduate courses. This exploratory, descriptive, qualitative documental study was performed from July 2008 to March 2010. We identified 34 research groups that had Nursing History as the focus of at least one of the lines of research. Results showed that the groups have produced a great amount of bibliographical material, research lines and broad participation of undergraduate and graduate students. It was also found that there is a communication network among groups working within the same line of research. In conclusion, there is a need to increase interdisciplinarity and also strengthen some lines of research in order to support knowledge of the history of Brazilian nursing. PMID:22441284

  2. Learning from Older Citizens' Research Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn-Giddings, Carol; McVicar, Andy; Boyce, Melanie; O'Brien, Niamh

    2016-01-01

    This article adds to an ongoing conversation in gerontology about the importance of training and involving older people in research. Currently, the literature rarely distinguishes between the one-off involvement of older citizens in research projects and the development of research groups led by older people that sustain over time as well as the…

  3. Including Everyone in Research: The Burton Street Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abell, Simon; Ashmore, Jackie; Wilson, Dorothy; Beart, Suzie; Brownley, Peter; Butcher, Adam; Clarke, Zara; Combes, Helen; Francis, Errol; Hayes, Stefan; Hemmingham, Ian; Hicks, Kerry; Ibraham, Amina; Kenyon, Elinor; Lee, Darren; McClimens, Alex; Collins, Michelle; Newton, John; Wilson, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    In our paper we talk about what it is like to be a group of people with and without learning disabilities researching together. We describe the process of starting and maintaining the research group and reflect on the obstacles that we have come across, and the rewards such research has brought us. Lastly we put forward some ideas about the role…

  4. Researching Group Assessment: Jazz in the Conservatoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barratt, Elisabeth; Moore, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of research into methods and scorings for jazz assessment in Trinity College of Music, London, focusing on the possibility of introducing group assessment. It considers the advantages of group assessment methods, contrasting these with the more traditional approach, firmly established in conservatoires, of…

  5. Overview of Research on Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raze, Nasus

    Although over 77 percent of American school districts use ability grouping, or tracking, research overwhelmingly indicates that the practice benefits only the gifted. High schools commonly have two or three tracks. Regardless of the methods used to place students, the effects of ability grouping are uniform; furthermore, placement in low ability…

  6. The Research Libraries Group: Making a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalko, James; Haeger, John

    1994-01-01

    This overview of the Research Libraries Group (RLG) discusses historical background, collaboration, new needs and expectations, the Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN), the CitaDel service, the ARIEL service, the Eureka service, the Zephyr server, and JACKPHY-Plus Script Development, and preservation. (JLB)

  7. The Research Libraries Group's Multilingual Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Russell G.

    1984-01-01

    The Research Libraries group (headquartered at Stanford University) has a computer terminal that can be used to create and retrieve bibliographic information in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean vernacular scripts as well as in roman alphabet languages. The development, operation, and future of the system is described. (JN)

  8. Focus group research and "the patient's view".

    PubMed

    Lehoux, Pascale; Poland, Blake; Daudelin, Genevieve

    2006-10-01

    A clear emphasis on the patient's view is discernible in the health services research literature of the past decades. Such a switch to patients' perspectives has been greatly facilitated by a wider acceptance and use of qualitative methods. In particular, focus groups are often used to uncover the range and depth of experiences of health services users and chronically ill individuals. Although this method contributes to a better understanding of patients' perspectives and practices, a number of analytical considerations have been overlooked. The aim of this paper is to consider how to conceptualise and analyse interactions in focus group research. We argue that focus groups are social spaces in which participants co-construct the "patient's view" by sharing, contesting and acquiring knowledge. Focus groups conducted with home care patients in Quebec, Canada (on antibiotic intravenous therapy, parenteral nutrition, peritoneal dialysis and oxygen therapy) are used to illustrate three interactive processes at work in focus groups: (1) establishing oneself as experienced and knowledgeable; (2) establishing oneself as in search of information and advice; and (3) validating or challenging one another's knowledge claims. We develop an analytical template focused on the subtle dynamics underpinning the various and at times competing claims of patients. This template acknowledges the processes through which participants attribute authority to the claims of others, including the focus group moderator. We find that focus group research does not derive epistemological authority simply from the identity of its participants. Rather, an emerging consensus about what constitutes the patient's view is the result of context-dependent social interactions that need to be scrutinised. PMID:16797811

  9. Scientific investigations of the Space Research Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbay, J. S.; Lynn, K. J. W.

    The origin and charter of the Space Research Group of the American Projects Division is presented. Some of the achievements of the Very Long Base Interferometer (VLBI) team is traced through the deployment of outstanding personnel and facilities to which it had access. The pioneering work in charting the higher regions of the ionosphere to define features and trace progress over time are examined. The potential of the resources within the American Projects Division to determine VLF propagation characteristics are discussed.

  10. Crafting the group: Care in research management.

    PubMed

    Davies, Sarah R; Horst, Maja

    2015-06-01

    This article reports findings from an interview study with group leaders and principal investigators in Denmark, the United Kingdom and the United States. Taking as our starting point current interest in the need to enhance 'responsible research and innovation', we suggest that these debates can be developed through attention to the talk and practices of scientists. Specifically, we chart the ways in which interview talk represented research management and leadership as processes of caring craftwork. Interviewees framed the group as the primary focus of their attention (and responsibilities), and as something to be tended and crafted; further, this process required a set of affective skills deployed flexibly in response to the needs of individuals. Through exploring the presence of notions of care in the talk of principal investigators and group leaders, we discuss the relation between care and craft, reflect on the potential implications of the promotion of a culture of care and suggest how mundane scientific understandings of responsibility might relate to a wider discussion of responsible research and innovation. PMID:26477197

  11. Research groups: How big should they be?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Isabelle; Grange, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between scientific productivity and research group size is important for deciding how science should be funded. We have investigated the relationship between these variables in the life sciences in the United Kingdom using data from 398 principle investigators (PIs). We show that three measures of productivity, the number of publications, the impact factor of the journals in which papers are published and the number of citations, are all positively correlated to group size, although they all show a pattern of diminishing returns—doubling group size leads to less than a doubling in productivity. The relationships for the impact factor and the number of citations are extremely weak. Our analyses suggest that an increase in productivity will be achieved by funding more PIs with small research groups, unless the cost of employing post-docs and PhD students is less than 20% the cost of a PI. We also provide evidence that post-docs are more productive than PhD students both in terms of the number of papers they produce and where those papers are published. PMID:26082872

  12. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group: Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    Information Sciences Research Group (ISRG) research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. Particular focus in on the needs of the remote sensing research and application science community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence and both natural and cultural vegetation analysis and modeling research will be expanded.

  13. Lysimeter Research Group - A scientific community network for lysimeter research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which

  14. Productive Group Work for Students. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    There is clear evidence that students who are involved in productive collaborative groups outperform their peers. Cooperative group work also results in improved self-esteem, improved relationships and enhanced social and decision-making skills. Johnson and Johnson (1993) identified the elements of a successful collaborative activity. They include…

  15. A Collaborative Group Method of Inclusive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine; Frawley, Patsie; Ramcharan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Funding bodies in Australia and the United Kingdom require research on issues that affect the lives of people with intellectual disability to be inclusive. Debate continues about the nature and benefits of inclusive research, which has become an umbrella term encompassing a broad spectrum of approaches. Method: This study proposes one…

  16. Remote sensing information sciences research group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    Research conducted under this grant was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing activities at the University of California, Santa Barbara in the areas of georeferenced information systems, matching assisted information extraction from image data and large spatial data bases, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. The research thrusts during the past year are summarized. The projects are discussed in some detail.

  17. SELECT RESEARCH GROUP IN AIR POLLUTION METEOROLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six individual investigators, who have conducted different but related meteorological research, present in-depth technical reviews of their work. Prime conclusions are that (1) a scale analysis shows that different models are necessary for meteorological processes on urban, regio...

  18. Theory Loves Practice: A Teacher Researcher Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochtritt, Lisa; Thulson, Anne; Delaney, Rachael; Dornbush, Talya; Shay, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Once a month, art educators from the Denver metro area have been gathering together in the spirit of inquiry to explore issues of the perceived theory and daily practice divide. The Theory Loves Practice (TLP) group was started in 2010 by Professors Rachael Delaney and Anne Thulson from Metropolitan State University of Denver (MSU) and now has 40…

  19. Ideological Divergences in a Teacher Research Group. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schecter, Sandra R.; Parkhurst, Shawn

    Examining the role played by ideology in a teacher research group, a study focused on the differing ideologies on research, teaching/learning, and writing held and developed by the members of the group. Treatments of teacher research remain directed mainly at clarifying the content, the status, and the boundaries of the research practice engaged…

  20. USE OF FOCUS GROUPS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Qualitative research techniques are often under-utilized by the environmental health researcher. Focus groups, one such qualitative method, can provide rich data sets for study planning and implementation, risk perception, program and policy research, and exploration into future...

  1. Modern International Research Groups: Networks and Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katehi, Linda

    2009-05-01

    In a globalized economy, education and research are becoming increasing international in content and context. Academic and research institutions worldwide try to internationalize their programs by setting formal or informal collaborations. An education that is enhanced by international experiences leads to mobility of the science and technology workforce. Existing academic cultures and research structures are at odds with efforts to internationalize education. For the past 20-30 years, the US has recognized the need to improve the abroad experience of our scientists and technologists: however progress has been slow. Despite a number of both federally and privately supported programs, efforts to scale up the numbers of participants have not been satisfactory. The exchange is imbalanced as more foreign scientists and researchers move to the US than the other way around. There are a number of issues that contribute to this imbalance but we could consider the US academic career system, as defined by its policies and practices, as a barrier to internationalizing the early career faculty experience. Strict curricula, pre-tenure policies and financial commitments discourage students, post doctoral fellows and pre-tenure faculty from taking international leaves to participate in research abroad experiences. Specifically, achieving an international experience requires funding that is not provided by the universities. Furthermore, intellectual property requirements and constraints in pre-tenure probationary periods may discourage students and faculty from collaborations with peers across the Atlantic or Pacific or across the American continent. Environments that support early career networking are not available. This presentation will discuss the increasing need for international collaborations and will explore the need for additional programs, more integration, better conditions and improved infrastructures that can encourage and support mobility of scientists. In addition

  2. Simulated Group Counseling for Group Work Training: A Four-Year Research Study of Group Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, John L.; Sullivan, Brandon A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines Simulated Group Counseling (SGC), a training model for graduate-level group workers. During a four-year period, 98 graduate students participated in 12 role-played SGC groups. SGC followed a model of group development and was highly consistent with expected changes in non-role-played groups. Discusses SGC advantages, especially related to…

  3. Researching Style: Epistemology, Paradigm Shifts and Research Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…

  4. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches.  The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available for additional research: |

  5. A Laboratory Group Model for Engaging Undergraduates in Faculty Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Thomas G.

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a laboratory group program for engaging large numbers of undergraduate psychology students in faculty research at small liberal arts colleges with limited research resources. Participating in the group enhances the students' interest in and understanding of research and improves their chances of being accepted into a graduate program.…

  6. Using a Professional Moderator in Library Focus Group Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoaf, Eric C.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the use of a professional marketing and opinion research firm at Brown University Library to conduct focus group meetings with users and to provide data analysis. Highlights include a review of library literature on focus group use; focus group methodology; benefits of employing professionals; logistics of focus group preparation; and…

  7. (Re)searching Methods: Reading Fiction in Literary Response Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janzen, Melanie D.

    2015-01-01

    The trouble with education research is that the research is burdened with trouble before it begins. Working as a poststructural education researcher and engaged in a recent research project that sought to engage with questions of teacher identity, I employed an alternative data elicitation method of literary response groups--similar to that of…

  8. Dynamics of Change in Research Work: Constructing a New Research Area in a Research Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saari, Eveliina; Miettinen, Reijo

    2001-01-01

    Studies how an aerosol technology research group constructed a research agenda for itself and how its activity was changed in the process. Analyzes the development of the production of ultrafine particles and employs the concept of mediated activity. (Contains 29 references.) (DDR)

  9. Focus Groups: A Practical and Applied Research Approach for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Victoria E.; Shoffner, Marie F.

    2007-01-01

    Focus groups are becoming a popular research approach that counselors can use as an efficient, practical, and applied method of gathering information to better serve clients. In this article, the authors describe focus groups and their potential usefulness to professional counselors and researchers. Practical implications related to the use of…

  10. Making the Most of Ability Grouping. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Laurie

    This summary presents the major findings of recent research carried out at the Center for Research on Elementary and Middle Schools at Johns Hopkins University and published in "Ability Grouping and Student Achievement in Elementary Schools: A Best-Evidence Synthesis." The center examined more than 100 studies of five ability-grouping plans…

  11. Group Training Apprenticeships and Traineeships. Research at a Glance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    A search of recent research on group training apprenticeships and traineeships in Australia found that group training companies (GTCs) are making a strong contribution to Australia's apprentice and trainee system. Key findings include the following: (1) group training apprentice and trainee numbers doubled over the period of 1995-2000; (2) over…

  12. Mediating Academic Research: The Assessment Reform Group Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The interface between education research and education policy in the UK has been discussed, explored and redefined over nearly two decades since the "Education Reform Act" of 1988. This contribution analyses how one group of researchers, in the field of assessment, has attempted to exploit the potential for evidence from research to influence…

  13. The impact of Cochrane Systematic Reviews: a mixed method evaluation of outputs from Cochrane Review Groups supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a growing emphasis on evidence-informed decision-making in health care. Systematic reviews, such as those produced by the Cochrane Collaboration, have been a key component of this movement. The UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Systematic Review Programme currently supports 20 Cochrane Review Groups (CRGs). The aim of this study was to identify the impacts of Cochrane reviews published by NIHR-funded CRGs during the years 2007–2011. Methods We sent questionnaires to CRGs and review authors, interviewed guideline developers and used bibliometrics and documentary review to get an overview of CRG impact and to evaluate the impact of a sample of 60 Cochrane reviews. We used a framework with four categories (knowledge production, research targeting, informing policy development and impact on practice/services). Results A total of 1,502 new and updated reviews were produced by the 20 NIHR-funded CRGs between 2007 and 2011. The clearest impacts were on policy with a total of 483 systematic reviews cited in 247 sets of guidance: 62 were international, 175 national (87 from the UK) and 10 local. Review authors and CRGs provided some examples of impact on practice or services, for example, safer use of medication, the identification of new effective drugs or treatments and potential economic benefits through the reduction in the use of unproven or unnecessary procedures. However, such impacts are difficult to objectively document, and the majority of reviewers were unsure if their review had produced specific impacts. Qualitative data suggested that Cochrane reviews often play an instrumental role in informing guidance, although a poor fit with guideline scope or methods, reviews being out of date and a lack of communication between CRGs and guideline developers were barriers to their use. Conclusions Health and economic impacts of research are generally difficult to measure. We found that to be the case with this evaluation

  14. Ability grouping and science education reform: Policy and research base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Sharon

    This article reviews current policy trends concerning the practice of ability grouping in K-12 science education. Relevant statements of key policy-making, policy-influencing organizations such as the NSTA, AAAS, NSF, the National Research Council, the U.S. Office of Education Department of Civil Rights, NAACP, the National Governors' Association, programs related to the Jacob Javits Grants for the Gifted and Talented, and others are summarized. The author's interpretation of the various positions are presented herein. The article also explores the research base supporting the various policies on grouping by examining selected general research literature on grouping, followed by research that is science education specific. Methodological issues color the research findings. The ethical and pragmatic implications of developing research and policy are discussed. The conclusions are that there is a dearth of recent empirical research specifically related to ability grouping in science, and that the time is ripe for the concerted development of a research agenda by key players in science education reform. Moreover, as controversial and value-laden as the topic is, it should be noted that grouping practices alone are unlikely to influence science education reform unless considered in the context of comprehensive restructuring efforts at the local school level.Received: 10 April 1993; Revised: 26 August 1993;

  15. ESA/ESTEC Meteor Research Group - behind the scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudawska, R.

    2016-01-01

    The ESA/ESTEC Meteor Research Group consists of a team people with one goal: understand the effects of meteoric phenomena on planetary atmospheres and surfaces, as well as on spacecraft. The team carries out observational and theoretical studies in order to increase our knowledge of the small particle complex in the solar system. This talk addresses a number of tasks within the group seen from a perspective of a research fellow.

  16. UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1983-11-01

    The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end.

  17. Formal Group Communication with Older Adults: A Research Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger-Vartabedian, Laurel C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the "social interaction" of older adults as a communication phenomenon which influences self-concept. Explores older adult group processes, and gives specific applications of group methods. Suggests the importance of assessing and applying communication constructs to research on detection and prevention of social isolation through formal…

  18. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Smith, T.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. The focus is on remote sensing and application for the Earth Observing System (Eos) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The remote sensing research activities are being expanded, integrated, and extended into the areas of global science, georeferenced information systems, machine assissted information extraction from image data, and artificial intelligence. The accomplishments in these areas are examined.

  19. Group analytic psychotherapy (im)possibilities to research

    PubMed Central

    Vlastelica, Mirela

    2011-01-01

    In the course of group analytic psychotherapy, where we discovered the power of the therapeutic effects, there occurred the need of group analytic psychotherapy researches. Psychotherapeutic work in general, and group psychotherapy in particular, are hard to measure and put into some objective frames. Researches, i. e. measuring of changes in psychotherapy is a complex task, and there are large disagreements. For a long time, the empirical-descriptive method was the only way of research in the field of group psychotherapy. Problems of researches in group psychotherapy in general, and particularly in group analytic psychotherapy can be reviewed as methodology problems at first, especially due to unrepeatability of the therapeutic process. The basic polemics about measuring of changes in psychotherapy is based on the question whether a change is to be measured by means of open measuring of behaviour or whether it should be evaluated more finely by monitoring inner psychological dimensions. Following the therapy results up, besides providing additional information on the patient's improvement, strengthens the psychotherapist's self-respect, as well as his respectability and credibility as a scientist. PMID:25478094

  20. Exploring Forms of Triangulation to Facilitate Collaborative Research Practice: Reflections from a Multidisciplinary Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiainen, Tarja; Koivunen, Emma-Reetta

    2006-01-01

    This article contains critical reflections of a multidisciplinary research group studying the human and technological dynamics around some newly offered electronic services in a specific rural area of Finland. For their research, the group adopted ethnography. On facing the challenges of doing ethnographic research in a multidisciplinary setting,…

  1. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field. PMID:25674353

  2. The focus group technique in library research: an introduction.

    PubMed Central

    Glitz, B

    1997-01-01

    The focus group technique is one example of a qualitative research methodology used to explore the opinions, knowledge, perceptions, and concerns of individuals in regard to a particular topic. The focus group typically involves six to ten individuals who have some knowledge of or experience with the topic. The group discussion is led by a moderator who guides participants through a series of open-ended questions. The information gathered can provide important clues to human attitudes and values as they relate to the topic. Such information can be extremely useful to libraries that are trying to gain a better understanding of their patrons' needs and thus make better management decisions to help satisfy those needs. The technique can also be used successfully in conjunction with other research tools, such as surveys, either to help develop a questionnaire or to explain specific survey results. This paper introduces the use of focus groups in library research, the skills needed to conduct groups, and their strengths and weaknesses. Examples of the use of focus groups in health sciences libraries are presented, including the results of a survey from these libraries. PMID:9431428

  3. Developing a physics expert identity in a biophysics research group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the development of expert identities through the use of the sociocultural perspective of learning as participating in a community of practice. An ethnographic case study of biophysics graduate students focuses on the experiences the students have in their research group meetings. The analysis illustrates how the communities of practice-based identity constructs of competencies characterize student expert membership. A microanalysis of speech, sound, tones, and gestures in video data characterize students' social competencies in the physics community of practice. Results provide evidence that students at different stages of their individual projects have opportunities to develop social competencies such as mutual engagement, negotiability of the repertoire, and accountability to the enterprises as they interact with group members. The biophysics research group purposefully designed a learning trajectory including conducting research and writing it for publication in the larger community of practice as a pathway to expertise. The students of the research group learn to become socially competent as specific experts of their project topic and methodology, ensuring acceptance, agency, and membership in their community of practice. This work expands research on physics expertise beyond the cognitive realm and has implications for how to design graduate learning experiences to promote expert identity development.

  4. [The virtual environment of a research group: the tutors' perspective].

    PubMed

    Prado, Cláudia; Casteli, Christiane Pereira Martins; Lopes, Tania Oliveira; Kobayashi, Rika M; Peres, Heloísa Helena Ciqueto; Leite, Maria Madalena Januário

    2012-02-01

    The Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas de Tecnologia da Informação nos Processos de Trabalho em Enfermagem (Study and Research Group for Information Technology in the Nursing Working Processes, GEPETE) has the purpose of producing and socializing knowledge in information technology and health and nursing communication, making associations with research groups in this field and promoting student participation. This study was performed by the group tutors with the objective to report on the development of the virtual learning environment (VLE) and the tutors' experience as mediators of a research group using the Moodle platform. To do this, a VLE was developed and pedagogical mediation was performed following the theme of mentoring. An initial diagnosis was made of the difficulties in using this technology in interaction and communication, which permitted the proposal of continuing to use the platform as a resource to support research activities, offer lead researchers the mechanisms to socialize projects and offer the possibility of giving advice at a distance. PMID:22441291

  5. About the Cancer Biomarkers Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Biomarkers Research Group promotes research to identify, develop, and validate biological markers for early cancer detection and cancer risk assessment. Activities include development and validation of promising cancer biomarkers, collaborative databases and informatics systems, and new technologies or the refinement of existing technologies. NCI DCP News Note Consortium on Imaging and Biomarkers (CIB) Created: Eight Grants Awarded to Improve Accuracy of Cancer Screening, Detection, and Diagnosis |

  6. Collaborating in Life Science Research Groups: The Question of Authorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how life science postdocs' perceptions of contemporary academic career rationales influence how they relate to collaboration within research groups. One consequential dimension of these perceptions is the high value assigned to publications. For career progress, postdocs consider producing publications and…

  7. Use of group-randomized trials in pet population research.

    PubMed

    Lord, L K; Wittum, T E; Scarlett, J M

    2007-12-14

    Communities invest considerable resources to address the animal welfare and public health concerns resulting from unwanted pet animals. Traditionally, research in this area has enumerated the pet-owning population, described pet population dynamics in individual communities, and estimated national euthanasia figures. Recent research has investigated the human-animal bond and explored the community implications of managed feral cat colonies. These reports have utilized traditional epidemiologic study designs to generate observational data to describe populations and measure associations. However, rigorous scientific evaluations of potential interventions at the group level have been lacking. Group-randomized trials have been used extensively in public health research to evaluate interventions that change a population's behavior, not just the behavior of selected individuals. We briefly describe the strengths and limitations of group-randomized trials as they are used to evaluate interventions that promote social and behavioral changes in the human public health field. We extend these examples to suggest the appropriate application of group-randomized trials for pet population dynamics research. PMID:17707934

  8. Engaging Research Groups: Rethinking Information Literacy for Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Bonnie L.; Hansen, Darren B.

    2012-01-01

    Librarians have traditionally taught information literacy skills to science graduate students in separate courses dedicated to information-seeking, during assignment(s)-based library sessions for other courses, or through workshops. There is little mention in the professional literature of teaching graduate students within their research groups.…

  9. Youth Participatory Action Research Groups as School Counseling Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Laura; Davis, Kathryn; Bhowmik, Malika

    2010-01-01

    Youth participatory action research (YPAR) projects offer young people the opportunity to increase their sociocultural awareness, critical thinking abilities, and sense of agency within a collaborative group experience. Thus far, however, such projects have been primarily the province of educators and social psychologists, and not substantively…

  10. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  11. Developing a Physics Expert Identity in a Biophysics Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the development of expert identities through the use of the sociocultural perspective of learning as participating in a community of practice. An ethnographic case study of biophysics graduate students focuses on the experiences the students have in their research group meetings. The analysis illustrates how the communities of…

  12. Being Researchers for the First Time: Reflections on the Development of an Inclusive Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilly, Liz

    2015-01-01

    Money, Friends and Making Ends Meet was an inclusive research project; it enabled a group of people with a learning disability who do not receive specialist support services to explore their own lives. This group are often labelled as having a mild learning disability. The research project focused on the strategies they used to cope with day to…

  13. UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, 1993 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nefkens, B.M.K.; Clajus, M.; Price, J.W.; Tippens, W.B.; White, D.B.

    1993-09-01

    The research programs of the UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, the research objectives, results of experiments, the continuing activities and new initiatives are presented. The primary goal of the research is to test the symmetries and invariances of particle/nuclear physics with special emphasis on investigating charge symmetry, isospin invariance, charge conjugation, and CP. Another important part of our work is baryon spectroscopy, which is the determination of the properties (mass, width, decay modes, etc.) of particles and resonances. We also measure some basic properties of light nuclei, for example the hadronic radii of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He. Special attention is given to the eta meson, its production using photons, electrons, {pi}{sup {plus_minus}}, and protons, and its rare and not-so-rare decays. In Section 1, the physics motivation of our research is outlined. Section 2 provides a summary of the research projects. The status of each program is given in Section 3. We discuss the various experimental techniques used, the results obtained, and we outline the plans for the continuing and the new research. Details are presented of new research that is made possible by the use of the Crystal Ball Detector, a highly segmented NaI calorimeter and spectrometer with nearly 4{pi} acceptance (it was built and used at SLAC and is to be moved to BNL). The appendix contains an update of the bibliography, conference participation, and group memos; it also indicates our share in the organization of conferences, and gives a listing of the colloquia and seminars presented by us.

  14. Enhancing Astronomy Major Learning Through Group Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Allison M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Turner, J.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-Lafollette, A.; Scott, A.; Guvenen, B.; Raphael, B.; Sanford, B.; Smart, B.; Nguyen, C.; Jones, C.; Smith, C.; Cates, I.; Romine, J.; Cook, K.; Pearson, K.; Biddle, L.; Small, L.; Donnels, M.; Nieberding, M.; Kwon, M.; Thompson, R.; De La Rosa, R.; Hofmann, R.; Tombleson, R.; Smith, T.; Towner, A. P.; Wallace, S.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been using group research projects to enhance the learning experience of undergraduates in astronomy and related fields. Students work on two projects that employ a peer-mentoring system so they can learn crucial skills and concepts necessary in research environments. Students work on a transiting exoplanet project using the 1.55-meter Kuiper Telescope on Mt. Bigelow in Southern Arizona to collect near-UV and optical wavelength data. The goal of the project is to refine planetary parameters and to attempt to detect exoplanet magnetic fields by searching for near-UV light curve asymmetries. The other project is a survey that utilizes the 12-meter Arizona Radio Observatory on Kitt Peak to search for the spectroscopic signature of infall in nearby starless cores. These are unique projects because students are involved throughout the entire research process, including writing proposals for telescope time, observing at the telescopes, data reduction and analysis, writing papers for publication in journals, and presenting research at scientific conferences. Exoplanet project members are able to receive independent study credit for participating in the research, which helps keep the project on track. Both projects allow students to work on professional research and prepare for several astronomy courses early in their academic career. They also encourage teamwork and mentor-style peer teaching, and can help students identify their own research projects as they expand their knowledge.

  15. Building Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Networks: Reflections on Qualitative Research Group (QRG) at the University of Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…

  16. Improving animal research with an institutional electronic discussion group.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Norman C

    2005-09-01

    To remain at the forefront of scientific discovery, investigators continually are challenged to apply new approaches, instruments, and models to their work. Research institutions work to foster the exchange of ideas and resources, but this objective becomes more difficult to meet as the organization's size and complexity increase. To facilitate communication among researchers that use mice in their work and to provide increased opportunities for resource sharing, an electronic discussion group was formed at The Johns Hopkins University. The discussion group (jhu-mousers) is restricted to individuals within the institution's three campuses, and its 145 subscribers comprise faculty (including veterinarians), postdoctoral fellows, graduate students, and technicians. During its beginning 2 1/2-year period, jhu-mousers has received 207 postings that include seminar announcements; resource information; requests for mice, equipment, biological reagents, and technical assistance; and responses to these requests. The value of the electronic mailing list is evidenced by the fact that 70% of requests for resources or technical help have received at least one response, and this figure is likely to be underestimated because off-line responses are not included. Because the mailing list provides opportunities for tissue sharing and is conducive to refining experimental procedures used in mice, its application promotes the use of alternatives in animal research. To promote and assist the development of animal-user discussion groups at other institutions, the administration, applications, and benefits of an electronic mailing list for mouse users are discussed here. PMID:16138783

  17. Using Research Cruise Data to Improve Group Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    Group activities can be used to create an interactive classroom learning environment. POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) is a pedagogical approach that uses group activities to teach content and process skills. In these group activities an initial model and a series of critical thinking questions are used to guide students through the introduction to new content. These activities have primarily been developed for chemistry courses, using general information in the model. New activities have been developed for an environmental chemistry course using real-world data as the model. The data used for one of these activities were collected during a research cruise in the Pacific Ocean. Halocarbons were measured in surface seawater and the overlying atmosphere as part of a research study on the natural cycling of compounds involved in ozone depletion. The coupled air and water measurements are used to help students learn about the solubility of gases in water. Students are first given a graph of atmospheric mixing ratios as a function of latitude for several halocarbons and then asked to predict what the corresponding graph of seawater concentrations will look like. The students are then guided through the interpretation of the seawater concentration graph. Plotting the data as a function of latitude enables the discussion of the temperature dependence of the solubility. This activity will be presented as an example of how research data can be incorporated into a classroom module. The effectiveness of this approach will be discussed.

  18. Future Research Directions in Asthma. An NHLBI Working Group Report.

    PubMed

    Levy, Bruce D; Noel, Patricia J; Freemer, Michelle M; Cloutier, Michelle M; Georas, Steve N; Jarjour, Nizar N; Ober, Carole; Woodruff, Prescott G; Barnes, Kathleen C; Bender, Bruce G; Camargo, Carlos A; Chupp, Geoff L; Denlinger, Loren C; Fahy, John V; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Fuhlbrigge, Anne; Gaston, Ben M; Hartert, Tina V; Kolls, Jay K; Lynch, Susan V; Moore, Wendy C; Morgan, Wayne J; Nadeau, Kari C; Ownby, Dennis R; Solway, Julian; Szefler, Stanley J; Wenzel, Sally E; Wright, Rosalind J; Smith, Robert A; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease without cure. Our understanding of asthma onset, pathobiology, classification, and management has evolved substantially over the past decade; however, significant asthma-related morbidity and excess healthcare use and costs persist. To address this important clinical condition, the NHLBI convened a group of extramural investigators for an Asthma Research Strategic Planning workshop on September 18-19, 2014, to accelerate discoveries and their translation to patients. The workshop focused on (1) in utero and early-life origins of asthma, (2) the use of phenotypes and endotypes to classify disease, (3) defining disease modification, (4) disease management, and (5) implementation research. This report summarizes the workshop and produces recommendations to guide future research in asthma. PMID:26305520

  19. Creating and sustaining a military women's Health Research Interest Group.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Candy; Trego, Lori; Rychnovsky, Jacqueline; Steele, Nancy; Foradori, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, four doctorate military nurse scientists representing the triservices (Army, Navy, and Air Force) identified a common interest in the health and care of all women in the armed forces. For 7 years, the team's shared vision to improve servicewomen's health inspired them to commit to a rigorous schedule of planning, developing, and implementing an innovative program that has the capability of advancing scientific knowledge and influencing health policy and practice through research. The ultimate goal of the Military Women's Health Research Interest Group (MWHRIG) is to support military clinicians and leaders in making evidence-based practice and policy decisions. They developed a 4-pronged approach to cultivate the science of military women's healthcare: evaluate the existing evidence, develop a research agenda that addresses gaps in knowledge, facilitate the collaboration of multidisciplinary research, and build the bench of future researchers. The MWHRIG has been a resource to key leaders; its value has been validated by multiservice and multidisciplinary consultations. However, the journey to goal attainment has only been achieved by the enduring commitment of these MWHRIG leaders and their passion to ensure the health and wellbeing of the many women who serve in the United States military. This article describes their journey of dedication. PMID:26101911

  20. Fostering Undergraduate Research Experiences in Management Information Systems through the "Research Group" Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartkus, Ken; Mills, Robert; Olsen, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an innovative approach to engaged learning. Founded on the principles of a scholarly think-tank and administered along the lines of a consulting organization, the proposed "Research Group" framework is designed to facilitate effective and efficient undergraduate research experiences in Management…

  1. Group-effort Applied Research: Expanding Opportunities for Undergraduate Research through Original, Class-Based Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sean D.; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student-one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-effort applied research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with…

  2. UCM Meteor and Fireball Research group: Results 2012--2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, F.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Izquierdo, J.; Pascual, S.; Palos, M. F.; Oré, S.; Rodríguez-Coira, G.; Zamora, S.; Lorenzo, C.; San Juan, R.; Muñoz-Ibáñez, B.; Vázquez, C.; Alonso-Moragón, A.; Gallego, J.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Madiedo, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    Most of the activity of the group is based on the Fireball Detection Station located at the Observatorio UCM, a system consisting of 6 high-sensitivity videocameras covering the whole sky with wide-angle lenses during nighttime. Another 15 cameras have been placed by the researchers between 10 and 200 km away from Madrid for multiple station observations. It works as a node in the SPanish Meteor and Fireball Network (SPMN), a network of similar stations covering the atmosphere over Spain. Besides the continuous monitoring, the group has worked on the recording and analysis of some meteor showers. Most of the attention was focused on the Draconids 2011 campaign at Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M., Madiedo, J. M., Williams, I. P., et al. 2013, MNRAS, 433, 560; Ocaña, F., Palos, M. F., Zamorano, J., et al. 2013, Proceedings of the International Meteor Conference, 31st IMC, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain, 2012, 70), and the 2012 Geminids balloon-borne mission over Spain (Sánchez de Miguel, A., Ocaña, F., Madiedo, J. M., et al. 2013, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 44, 2202). The products of the station have been used for undergraduate thesis projects at the Physics Faculty (Ocaña, F., 2011, UCM e-prints, 13292) and other undergraduate projects. In 2013 the station received new equipment thanks to the Certamen Arquímedes award, complementing the detection with spectroscopic and frame-integrating devices.

  3. International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.; Schmidt, R.; Scott, P.

    1997-06-01

    This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. The IPIRG Program was an international group program managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The program objective was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of circumferentially-cracked nuclear power plant piping. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping systems subjected to high-rate loadings typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a pipe system fabricated as an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter pipe and five long radius elbows was constructed. Five dynamic, cyclic, flawed piping experiments were conducted using this facility. This report: (1) provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures for piping, (2) summarizes technical results of the program, (3) gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses, and (4) summarizes advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG program.

  4. Cohort Profile: The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!)

    PubMed Central

    Carsley, Sarah; Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Maguire, Jonathon L; Birken, Catherine S; Khovratovich, Marina; McCrindle, Brian; Macarthur, Colin; Parkin, Patricia C

    2015-01-01

    The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) is an ongoing open longitudinal cohort study enrolling healthy children (from birth to 5 years of age) and following them into adolescence. The aim of the TARGet Kids! cohort is to link early life exposures to health problems including obesity, micronutrient deficiencies and developmental problems. The overarching goal is to improve the health of Canadians by optimizing growth and developmental trajectories through preventive interventions in early childhood. TARGet Kids!, the only child health research network embedded in primary care practices in Canada, leverages the unique relationship between children and families and their trusted primary care practitioners, with whom they have at least seven health supervision visits in the first 5 years of life. Children are enrolled during regularly scheduled well-child visits. To date, we have enrolled 5062 children. In addition to demographic information, we collect physical measurements (e.g. height, weight), lifestyle factors (nutrition, screen time and physical activity), child behaviour and developmental screening and a blood sample (providing measures of cardiometabolic, iron and vitamin D status, and trace metals). All data are collected at each well-child visit: twice a year until age 2 and every year until age 10. Information can be found at: http://www.targetkids.ca/contact-us/. PMID:24982016

  5. Citing Dynamic Data - Research Data Alliance working group recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, Ari; Rauber, Andreas; Pröll, Stefan; van Uytvanck, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Geosciences research data sets are typically dynamic: changing over time as new records are added, errors are corrected and obsolete records are deleted from the data sets. Researchers often use only parts of the data sets or data stream, creating specific subsets tailored to their experiments. In order to keep such experiments reproducible and to share and cite the particular data used in a study, researchers need means of identifying the exact version of a subset as it was used during a specific execution of a workflow, even if the data source is continuously evolving. Some geosciences data services have tried to approach this problem by creating static versions of their data sets, and some have simply ignored this issue. The RDA Working Group on Dynamic Data Citation (WGDC) has instead approached the issue with a set of recommendations based upon versioned data, timestamping and a query based subsetting mechanism. The 14 RDA WGDC recommendations on how to adapt a data source for providing identifiable subsets for the long term are: Preparing the Data and the Query Store R1 - Data Versioning R2 - Timestamping R3 - Query Store Facilities Persistently Identifying Specific Data Sets R4 - Query Uniqueness R5 - Stable Sorting R6 - Result Set Verification R7 - Query Timestamping R8 - Query PID R9 - Store the Query R10 - Automated Citation Texts Resolving PIDs and Retrieving the Data - R11 - Landing Page R12 - Machine Actionability Upon modifications to the Data Infrastructure R13 - Technology Migration R14 - Migration Verification We present a detailed discussion of the recommendations, the rationale behind them, and give examples of how to implement them.

  6. Becoming Researchers: The Participation of Undergraduate and Graduate Students in Scientific Research Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Allan; Divoll, Kent A.; Rogan-Klyve, Allyson

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to understand how graduate and undergraduate students learn to do science by participating in research groups. A phenomenological approach was used to illuminate the experiences of the students. The results provide evidence that the students were in the role of apprentices, although this was not made explicit. As apprentices they…

  7. Group-Effort Applied Research (GEAR): Expanding Opportunities for Undergraduate Research Through Original, Class-Based Research Projects

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sean D.; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student - one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-Effort Applied Research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with meaningful research experiences. The GEAR curriculum delivers concept-driven lecture material and provides hands-on training in the context of an active research project from the instructor's lab. Because GEAR is structured as a class, participating students benefit from intensive, supervised research training that involves a built-in network of peer support and abundant contact with faculty mentors. The class format also ensures a relatively standardized and consistent research experience. Furthermore, meaningful progress toward a research objective can be achieved more readily with GEAR than with the traditional one student - one mentor model of undergraduate research because sporadic mistakes by individuals in the class are overshadowed by the successes of the group as a whole. Three separate GEAR classes involving three distinct research projects have been offered to date. In this paper, we provide an overview of the GEAR format and review some of the recurring themes for GEAR instruction. We propose GEAR can serve as a template to expand student opportunities for life science research without sacrificing the quality of the mentored research experience. PMID:24898007

  8. Nuclear decay data files of the Dosimetry Research Group

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Westfall, R.J.; Ryman, J.C.; Cristy, M.

    1993-12-01

    This report documents the nuclear decay data files used by the Dosimetry Research Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the utility DEXRAX which provides access to the files. The files are accessed, by nuclide, to extract information on the intensities and energies of the radiations associated with spontaneous nuclear transformation of the radionuclides. In addition, beta spectral data are available for all beta-emitting nuclides. Two collections of nuclear decay data are discussed. The larger collection contains data for 838 radionuclides, which includes the 825 radionuclides assembled during the preparation of Publications 30 and 38 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and 13 additional nuclides evaluated in preparing a monograph for the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The second collection is composed of data from the MIRD monograph and contains information for 242 radionuclides. Abridged tabulations of these data have been published by the ICRP in Publication 38 and by the Society of Nuclear Medicine in a monograph entitled ``MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes.`` The beta spectral data reported here have not been published by either organization. Electronic copies of the files and the utility, along with this report, are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  9. Refractory Research Group - U.S. DOE, Albany Research Center [Institution Profile

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, James P.

    2004-09-01

    The refractory research group at the Albany Research Center (ARC) has a long history of conducting materials research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, and more recently, within the U.S. Dept. of Energy. When under the U.S. Bureau of Mines, research was driven by national needs to develop substitute materials and to conserve raw materials. This mission was accomplished by improving refractory material properties and/or by recycling refractories using critical and strategic materials. Currently, as a U.S. Dept of Energy Fossil Energy field site, research is driven primarily by the need to assist DOE in meeting its vision to develop economically and environmentally viable technologies for the production of electricity from fossil fuels. Research at ARC impacts this vision by: • Providing information on the performance characteristics of materials being specified for the current generation of power systems; • Developing cost-effective, high performance materials for inclusion in the next generation of fossil power systems; and • Solving environmental emission and waste problems related to fossil energy systems. A brief history of past refractory research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the current refractory research at ARC, and the equipment and capabilities used to conduct refractory research at ARC will be discussed.

  10. Growing Researchers from the Historically Disadvantaged Groups through Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mda, Thobeka

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the nature and quality of research supervision and mentorship practices employed by supervisors and mentors of interns in a South African research council in an attempt to increase the pool and change the face of researchers in the country. Through a series of studies conducted by the research council, the…

  11. Research Group Introduction : Motor Drive System Research Group, Dept. of Electrical and Information Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    井上, 征則; 真田, 雅之; 森本, 茂雄

    Our research focuses on electrical machine design, controls, drives and power generation systems with respect to permanent magnet synchronous machines and reluctance machines. Three faculty members, a support staff and 20 students are with the research group.

  12. Auto Pollution: Research Group Charged with Conflict of Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Deborah

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the possible conflict of interest resulting from the Environmental Protection Agency's participation with the automobile and oil industries in the Coordinating Research Council - Air Pollution Research Advisory Committee, an organization which has sponsored much of the research important to federal regulation of clean air. (JR)

  13. Focus Groups: An Important Research Technique for Internal Evaluation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Barbara Poitras

    1993-01-01

    The use of focus groups by the Federal Bureau of Investigation as a tool of internal evaluation is described. Focus groups are used in an environment where credibility is key to achieving meaningful cooperation. Issues for consideration by other evaluators interested in the approach are summarized. (SLD)

  14. Evolution and Social Dynamics of Acknowledged Research Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López-Yáñez, Julián; Altopiedi, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Changes in higher education institutions characteristic of a knowledge society are strongly affecting academic life, scientists' working conditions and the social dynamics of scientific groups. In such situations, it is important to understand the different ways in which these groups are tackling the structural dilemmas posed by the changes…

  15. Societal output and use of research performed by health research groups.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Sebastian P; Ellenbroek, Stéfan Ph; Meijer, Ingeborg; van Ark, Gerrit; Klasen, Eduard C

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has seen the evaluation of health research pay more and more attention to societal use and benefits of research in addition to scientific quality, both in qualitative and quantitative ways. This paper elaborates primarily on a quantitative approach to assess societal output and use of research performed by health research groups (societal quality of research). For this reason, one of the Dutch university medical centres (i.e. the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC)) was chosen as the subject of a pilot study, because of its mission to integrate top patient care with medical, biomedical and healthcare research and education. All research departments were used as units of evaluation within this university medical centre.The method consisted of a four-step process to reach a societal quality score per department, based on its (research) outreach to relevant societal stakeholders (the general public, healthcare professionals and the private sector). For each of these three types of stakeholders, indicators within four modes of communication were defined (knowledge production, knowledge exchange, knowledge use and earning capacity). These indicators were measured by a bottom-up approach in a qualitative way (i.e. all departments of the LUMC were asked to list all activities they would consider to be of societal relevance), after which they were converted into quantitative scores. These quantitative scores could then be compared to standardised scientific quality scores that are based on scientific publications and citations of peer-reviewed articles.Based on the LUMC pilot study, only a weak correlation was found between societal and scientific quality. This suggests that societal quality needs additional activities to be performed by health research groups and is not simply the consequence of high scientific quality. Therefore we conclude that scientific and societal evaluation should be considered to be synergistic in terms of learning for the

  16. Model for Developing Educational Research Productivity: The Medical Education Research Group

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Marcia; Hopson, Laura; House, Joseph B.; Fischer, Jonathan P.; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne; Hauff, Samantha; Wolff, Margaret S.; Sozener, Cemal; Nypaver, Michele; Moll, Joel; Losman, Eve D.; Carney, Michele; Santen, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Education research and scholarship are essential for promotion of faculty as well as dissemination of new educational practices. Educational faculty frequently spend the majority of their time on administrative and educational commitments and as a result educators often fall behind on scholarship and research. The objective of this educational advance is to promote scholarly productivity as a template for others to follow. Methods We formed the Medical Education Research Group (MERG) of education leaders from our emergency medicine residency, fellowship, and clerkship programs, as well as residents with a focus on education. First, we incorporated scholarship into the required activities of our education missions by evaluating the impact of programmatic changes and then submitting the curricula or process as peer-reviewed work. Second, we worked as a team, sharing projects that led to improved motivation, accountability, and work completion. Third, our monthly meetings served as brainstorming sessions for new projects, research skill building, and tracking work completion. Lastly, we incorporated a work-study graduate student to assist with basic but time-consuming tasks of completing manuscripts. Results The MERG group has been highly productive, achieving the following scholarship over a three-year period: 102 abstract presentations, 46 journal article publications, 13 MedEd Portal publications, 35 national didactic presentations and five faculty promotions to the next academic level. Conclusion An intentional focus on scholarship has led to a collaborative group of educators successfully improving their scholarship through team productivity, which ultimately leads to faculty promotions and dissemination of innovations in education. PMID:26594297

  17. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, year four

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    The needs of the remote sensing research and application community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and space station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms are examined. Research conducted was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing research activities in the areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. Projects are discussed in detail.

  18. AAAS Report IX: Research & Development, FY 1985. Intersociety Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    Part I of this report consists of the American Association for the Advancement of Science overview of research and development (R&D) in the fiscal year (FY) 1985 budget and its associated policy issues, together with special analyses of several important topics, such as funding for basic research. A set of overview tables is included. Part II…

  19. The alcohol hangover research group consensus statement on best practice in alcohol hangover research.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Stephens, Richard; Penning, Renske; Rohsenow, Damaris; McGeary, John; Levy, Dan; McKinney, Adele; Finnigan, Frances; Piasecki, Thomas M; Adan, Ana; Batty, G David; Fliervoet, Lies A L; Heffernan, Thomas; Howland, Jonathan; Kim, Dai-Jin; Kruisselbrink, L Darren; Ling, Jonathan; McGregor, Neil; Murphy, René J L; van Nuland, Merel; Oudelaar, Marieke; Parkes, Andrew; Prat, Gemma; Reed, Nick; Slutske, Wendy S; Smith, Gordon; Young, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Alcohol-induced hangover, defined by a series of symptoms, is the most commonly reported consequence of excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol hangovers contribute to workplace absenteeism, impaired job performance, reduced productivity, poor academic achievement, and may compromise potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. These socioeconomic consequences and health risks of alcohol hangover are much higher when compared to various common diseases and other health risk factors. Nevertheless, unlike alcohol intoxication the hangover has received very little scientific attention and studies have often yielded inconclusive results. Systematic research is important to increase our knowledge on alcohol hangover and its consequences. This consensus paper of the Alcohol Hangover Research Group discusses methodological issues that should be taken into account when performing future alcohol hangover research. Future research should aim to (1) further determine the pathology of alcohol hangover, (2) examine the role of genetics, (3) determine the economic costs of alcohol hangover, (4) examine sex and age differences, (5) develop common research tools and methodologies to study hangover effects, (6) focus on factor that aggravate hangover severity (e.g., congeners), and (7) develop effective hangover remedies. PMID:20712593

  20. The Alcohol Hangover Research Group Consensus Statement on Best Practice in Alcohol Hangover Research

    PubMed Central

    Verster, Joris C.; Stephens, Richard; Penning, Renske; Rohsenow, Damaris; McGeary, John; Levy, Dan; McKinney, Adele; Finnigan, Frances; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Adan, Ana; Batty, G. David; Fliervoet, Lies A.L.; Heffernan, Thomas; Howland, Jonathan; Kim, Dai-Jin; Kruisselbrink, L. Darren; Ling, Jonathan; McGregor, Neil; Murphy, René J.L.; van Nuland, Merel; Oudelaar, Marieke; Parkes, Andrew; Prat, Gemma; Reed, Nick; Slutske, Wendy S.; Smith, Gordon; Young, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-induced hangover, defined by a series of symptoms, is the most commonly reported consequence of excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol hangovers contribute to workplace absenteeism, impaired job performance, reduced productivity, poor academic achievement, and may compromise potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. These socioeconomic consequences and health risks of alcohol hangover are much higher when compared to various common diseases and other health risk factors. Nevertheless, unlike alcohol intoxication the hangover has received very little scientific attention and studies have often yielded inconclusive results. Systematic research is important to increase our knowledge on alcohol hangover and its consequences. This consensus paper of the Alcohol Hangover Research Group discusses methodological issues that should be taken into account when performing future alcohol hangover research. Future research should aim to (1) further determine the pathology of alcohol hangover, (2) examine the role of genetics, (3) determine the economic costs of alcohol hangover, (4) examine sex and age differences, (5) develop common research tools and methodologies to study hangover effects, (6) focus on factor that aggravate hangover severity (e.g., congeners), and (7) develop effective hangover remedies. PMID:20712593

  1. What Research Says about Ability Grouping and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, James A.

    Ability grouping and the tracking of students have become traditional in the U.S. education system. In 1893 the National Education Association (NEA) demanded that every subject taught in secondary school be taught in the same way; but by 1918, the NEA supported academic tracks for some students and vocational tracks for others. Since then, the…

  2. Reflections on Focus Group Sessions Regarding Inclusive Education: Reconsidering Focus Group Research Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nel, Norma M.; Romm, Norma R. A.; Tlale, L. D. N.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we deliberate upon our way of facilitating focus group sessions with teachers concerning their views on inclusive education, by referring also to feedback that we received from the participants when they commented upon their experiences of the sessions. (The teacher participants were from three separate primary schools in South…

  3. "Ganando Confianza": Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we…

  4. Cross-Cultural Approaches to Research on Minority Group Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, John

    Comparative studies of education, discrimination, and poverty in cross-cultural context are held as contributing towards a better understanding of the social nature of poverty and the complex processes of cultural transmission, continuity, and change. Seven strategies or models of research are suggested: (1) study of secondary and tertiary…

  5. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...? (a)(1) A group research or study project is designed to permit a group of faculty of an institution... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13 Section 664.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE...

  6. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  7. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  8. Cerulean Warbler Technical Group: Coordinating international research and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, D.K.; Wigley, T.B.; Keyser, P.D.

    2012-01-01

    Effective conservation for species of concern requires interchange and collaboration among conservationists and stakeholders. The Cerulean Warbler Technical Group (CWTG) is a consortium of biologists and managers from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, academia, and industry, who are dedicated to finding pro-active, science-based solutions for conservation of the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea). Formed in the United States in 2001, CWTG’s scope soon broadened to address the species’ ecology and conservation on both the breeding and non-breeding ranges, in partnership with biologists from South and Central America. In 2004, CWTG launched the Cerulean Warbler Conservation Initiative, a set of activities aimed at addressing information and conservation needs for the species. These include (1) studies in the core breeding range to assess Cerulean Warbler response to forest management practices and to identify mined lands that could be reforested to benefit the species, (2) ecological and demographic studies on the winter range, and (3) surveys of Cerulean Warbler distribution on the breeding and winter ranges and during migration. A rangewide conservation action plan has been completed, along with a more detailed conservation plan for the non-breeding range. CWTG and partners now move forward with on-the-ground conservation, while still addressing unmet information needs.

  9. Ndt in Civil Engineering: Experience and Results of the for 384 Research Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggenhauser, H.; Reinhardt, H. W.

    2010-02-01

    The FOR 384 research group in Germany was funded by the German Science Foundation (DFG) from 2001 to 2007 for research in Non-destructive Evaluation of Concrete Structures using Acoustic and Electro-Magnetic Echo-Methods. Seven institutes in Germany submitted a research proposal and a work plan in the areas Ultrasonics, Impact-Echo, Ground Penetrating Radar, Signal Processing and Validation. Laboratory studies, site tests and simulation and modelling were equally important research areas of this research group. A few selected results of this research group are summarized in this presentation.

  10. Thirty-One Years of Group Research in "Social Psychology Quarterly" (1975-2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrod, Wendy J.; Welch, Bridget K.; Kushkowski, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    We examined trends in group research published in Social Psychology Quarterly (SPQ) from 1975 to 2005. We identified a total of 332 papers about groups published during the time period. Following Moreland, Hogg, and Hains (1994), we created an index of interest in groups by dividing the number of pages in papers about groups by the total number of…

  11. Membership Composition of Open and Closed Therapeutic Groups: A Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruner, LeRoy

    1984-01-01

    Contrasts open and closed therapeutic groups in the context of group development research, and reanalyzes data applying the Hill Interaction Matrix. Results supported the existence of a discernable process of development in the closed groups, while open groups with residual members showed counterproductive activity. (LLL)

  12. About the Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers Research Group conducts and supports prevention and early detection research on colorectal, esophageal, liver, pancreatic, and hematolymphoid cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. |

  13. Statistics of Statisticians: Critical Mass of Statistics and Operational Research Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenna, Ralph; Berche, Bertrand

    Using a recently developed model, inspired by mean field theory in statistical physics, and data from the UK's Research Assessment Exercise, we analyse the relationship between the qualities of statistics and operational research groups and the quantities of researchers in them. Similar to other academic disciplines, we provide evidence for a linear dependency of quality on quantity up to an upper critical mass, which is interpreted as the average maximum number of colleagues with whom a researcher can communicate meaningfully within a research group. The model also predicts a lower critical mass, which research groups should strive to achieve to avoid extinction. For statistics and operational research, the lower critical mass is estimated to be 9 ± 3. The upper critical mass, beyond which research quality does not significantly depend on group size, is 17 ± 6.

  14. Precincts and Prospects in the Use of Focus Groups in Social and Behavioral Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagoe, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, the focus group method has assumed a very important role as a method for collecting qualitative data in social and behavioural science research. This article elucidates theoretical and practical problems and prospects associated with the use of focus groups as a qualitative research method in social and behavioural science…

  15. 75 FR 57768 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group and Its Identified...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group and Its Identified... contractor, Eastern Research Group (ERG) of Lexington, MA and subcontractor Avanti Corporation of Alexandria... Protection Manual. Access to TSCA data, including CBI, will continue until August 9, 2015. If the contract...

  16. Report on Focus Groups: Research and Practice--Reading Instruction. ERIC/OSEP Special Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaunstein, Phyllis; And Others

    This report summarizes results of three focus groups which examined teachers' ideas and attitudes about the utility of research on the practice of teaching reading to students with learning disabilities and about forms of communication that would make research information more useful. The focus groups were part of a larger project designed to…

  17. From Darkness into Light: A Group Process Approach to the Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegelhalder, Glenn

    A description is provided of the use of a group process approach to the Freshman English research paper at El Paso Community College. After highlighting problems associated with traditional approaches to freshman research papers, an overview of the group process approach is provided, along with warnings for instructors who might view the approach…

  18. A Proposed Model for the Analysis and Interpretation of Focus Groups in Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Oliver T.

    2011-01-01

    Focus groups have an established history in applied research and evaluation. The fundamental methods of the focus group technique have been well discussed, as have their potential advantages. Less guidance tends to be provided regarding the analysis of data resulting from focus groups or how to organize and defend conclusions drawn from the…

  19. "Who Did What?": A Participatory Action Research Project to Increase Group Capacity for Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Iriarte, E.; Kramer, J. C.; Kramer, J. M.; Hammel, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This participatory action research (PAR) project involved a collaboration with a self-advocacy group of people with intellectual disabilities that sought to build group capacity for advocacy. Materials and Methods: This study used a focus group, sustained participatory engagement and a reflexive process to gather qualitative and…

  20. Teachers' Commitment To, and Experiences of, the Teaching Profession in Tanzania: Findings of Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…

  1. Academic Procrastination and the Performance of Graduate-Level Cooperative Groups in Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Qun G.; DaRos-Voseles, Denise A.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which academic procrastination predicted the performance of cooperative groups in graduate-level research methods courses. A total of 28 groups was examined (n = 83 students), ranging in size from 2 to 5 (M = 2.96, SD = 1.10). Multiple regression analyses revealed that neither within-group mean nor within-group…

  2. An Approach for Group, Undergraduate Research Experiences in Courses Across the Geology Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, M.; Kinner, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    At Western Carolina University, a past NSF CCLI grant helped embed project-based learning throughout the geology curriculum, including a senior capstone seminar in which groups of students conduct authentic undergraduate research (UR). These curricular changes showed many high-level educational benefits to the group senior capstone research and the benefits of complex, technical projects at all levels of the curriculum if project goals and guidance for students is appropriate for their level, skills, and experiences. A current NSF TUES grant, now in its 3rd year, is formally assessing the impact of students participating in group UR experiences embedded in traditional courses at all curricular levels to determine if they have similar benefits to students conducting individually-mentored research. An ancillary goal is to develop a transferable, sustainable model for this approach, so UR experiences can formally broaden to more students at more levels. At this time, we have taught about 100 students in five research-based courses at all levels of the curriculum. Student's perceived strong benefits of their UR experience, and have been evaluated with quantitative (URSSA) and qualitative (focus groups) data. Benefits of their experiences are high related to personal growth and the scientific process and relatively low in research skills. Qualitative data shows students value 1) the open-ended nature of the authentic research questions, 2) group collaboration, and 3) hands-on learning. Similarity of student results across different courses reflect a now stable approach we have developed for courses with group UR experiences. Key elements to our approach are 1) an ongoing, broad research program (in our case, an on-campus hydrologic research station), 2) strategically assigned student groups (no. 3-6), group responsibilities that include a mix of individual and group assignments, and peer assessments, 3) student research fellows that help run the research station and

  3. An ethnographic study: Becoming a physics expert in a biophysics research group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis

    Expertise in physics has been traditionally studied in cognitive science, where physics expertise is understood through the difference between novice and expert problem solving skills. The cognitive perspective of physics experts only create a partial model of physics expertise and does not take into account the development of physics experts in the natural context of research. This dissertation takes a social and cultural perspective of learning through apprenticeship to model the development of physics expertise of physics graduate students in a research group. I use a qualitative methodological approach of an ethnographic case study to observe and video record the common practices of graduate students in their biophysics weekly research group meetings. I recorded notes on observations and conduct interviews with all participants of the biophysics research group for a period of eight months. I apply the theoretical framework of Communities of Practice to distinguish the cultural norms of the group that cultivate physics expert practices. Results indicate that physics expertise is specific to a topic or subfield and it is established through effectively publishing research in the larger biophysics research community. The participant biophysics research group follows a learning trajectory for its students to contribute to research and learn to communicate their research in the larger biophysics community. In this learning trajectory students develop expert member competencies to learn to communicate their research and to learn the standards and trends of research in the larger research community. Findings from this dissertation expand the model of physics expertise beyond the cognitive realm and add the social and cultural nature of physics expertise development. This research also addresses ways to increase physics graduate student success towards their PhD. and decrease the 48% attrition rate of physics graduate students. Cultivating effective research

  4. Research on/as Violence: Reflections on Injurious Moments in Research with Friendship Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of harm in the research process. While researchers seek to conduct research that minimises harm, this paper argues that approaches adopted often create new forms of harm. This proposition is examined through drawing on Bourdieu's ideas about symbolic violence and poststructural theories of identity, to critically…

  5. Group-Advantaged Training of Research (GATOR): A Metamorphosis of Mentorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thea M.; Smith, Barbara K.; Watts, Danielle L.; Germain-Aubrey, Charlotte C.; Roark, Alison M.; Bybee, Seth M.; Cox, Clayton E.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    We describe Group-Advantaged Training of Research (GATOR), a yearlong structured program at the University of Florida that guided graduate student mentors and their undergraduate mentees through the mentored research process. Using the national Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences for an academic year, we found that outcomes for our…

  6. Implications of Feedback Research for Group Facilitation and the Design of Experiential Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Kennard T.

    1990-01-01

    Claims, despite extensive research on the role of feedback in learning, there is little theoretical understanding of the concept of feedback, because of overly broad definitions which favor certain explanations and lines of research over others. Discusses implications of feedback research for group facilitation and design of experiential learning…

  7. Research Data Storage: A Framework for Success. ECAR Working Group Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Douglas; Dawson, Barbara E.; Fary, Michael; Hillegas, Curtis W.; Hopkins, Brian W.; Lyons, Yolanda; McCullough, Heather; McMullen, Donald F.; Owen, Kim; Ratliff, Mark; Williams, Harry

    2014-01-01

    The EDUCAUSE Center for Analysis and Research Data Management Working Group (ECAR-DM) has created a framework for research data storage as an aid for higher education institutions establishing and evaluating their institution's research data storage efforts. This paper describes areas for consideration and suggests graduated criteria to assist in…

  8. Group of Eight Response to DIISR Consultation Paper: "Meeting Australia's Research Workforce Needs"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Group of Eight (Go8) welcomes the Government's commitment to developing a comprehensive research workforce strategy. Australia's research capacity and the continuing translation of research into policy, products and services is directly linked to the future productivity of the economy, social wellbeing, environmental outcomes and the nation's…

  9. Control Group Design: Enhancing Rigor in Research of Mind-Body Therapies for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Robins, Jo Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Although a growing body of research suggests that mind-body therapies may be appropriate to integrate into the treatment of depression, studies consistently lack methodological sophistication particularly in the area of control groups. In order to better understand the relationship between control group selection and methodological rigor, we provide a brief review of the literature on control group design in yoga and tai chi studies for depression, and we discuss challenges we have faced in the design of control groups for our recent clinical trials of these mind-body complementary therapies for women with depression. To address the multiple challenges of research about mind-body therapies, we suggest that researchers should consider 4 key questions: whether the study design matches the research question; whether the control group addresses performance, expectation, and detection bias; whether the control group is ethical, feasible, and attractive; and whether the control group is designed to adequately control for nonspecific intervention effects. Based on these questions, we provide specific recommendations about control group design with the goal of minimizing bias and maximizing validity in future research. PMID:23662111

  10. Transforming Catholic Education through Research: The American Educational Research Association Catholic Education Special Interest Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Catholic schools in the United States and abroad face numerous financial, cultural, and structural challenges due to contemporary education policies and economic trends. Within this climate, research about Catholic education is often conducted and leveraged in efforts to serve schools' most immediate needs. To be certain, research aimed at…

  11. Critical Masses for Academic Research Groups and Consequences for Higher Education Research Policy and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenna, Ralph; Berche, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Smaller universities may produce research which is on a par with larger, elite establishments. This is confirmed by a recently developed mathematical model, supported by data from British and French higher education research-evaluation exercises. The detailed nature of the UK system, in particular, allows quantification of the notion of critical…

  12. Using Focus Groups in Community-Based Participatory Research: Challenges and Resolutions

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Christine Makosky; James, Aimee S.; Ulrey, Ezekiel; Joseph, Stephanie; Talawyma, Angelia; Choi, Won S.; Greiner, K. Allen; Coe, M. Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    A community-based participatory approach requires that community members be involved in all phases of the research process. We describe three focus group studies with American Indians in Kansas and Missouri, using a newly developed method of conducting and analyzing focus groups with community input (72 focus groups, 519 participants). We conducted two needs assessment studies focused on barriers to breast and colorectal cancer screening and one study focused on Internet use for gathering health information. Community members and researchers collaborated to develop guides for the focus group moderators. Community organizations and our community advisory board conducted recruitment, and we trained and employed community members as moderators, assistant moderators, and analysts. Our community partners also helped with dissemination of research findings to their constituents. The methodologic approach and data from these three studies will allow us to more appropriately address health disparities in the American Indian community, with full community support for our research. PMID:20154299

  13. Development of a Unified Reference System for a Multi-personnel Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, D.; Fitzpaynes, J. Y. L.

    1973-01-01

    The establishment of a reference filing system, based on optical coincidence retrieval, for an eight-man research group studying gas reactions is described. The complete system is simple to use and gives rapid, precise reference retrieval. (1 reference) (Author)

  14. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program evaluating new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and technologies to identify premalignant lesions, and related cancers.  |

  15. 34 CFR 664.13 - What is a group research or study project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a group research or study project? 664.13 Section 664.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FULBRIGHT-HAYS GROUP PROJECTS ABROAD PROGRAM What Kinds of Projects Does the Secretary Assist...

  16. Theorising Dyslexic Student Discussion/Action Groups in UK Higher Education: Research in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Jenny; Herrington, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This "research in practice" analyses the experience of operating discussion/action groups with dyslexic students in higher education in three British universities which reflects a shift from the practice of developing "support groups" to a more developmental, proactive stance. It does so in the current UK legislative context which requires higher…

  17. Instrumentations and projects of research groups in Switzerland related to the research on rocket and balloon carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogoli, Marianne; Kopp, Ernest

    2003-08-01

    In the past few years four very active Swiss groups involved in the research by means of rocket and balloon carriers have terminated their programmes. These groups were located at the University of Bern (Ernest Kopp), the World Radiation Center in Davos (Klaus Fröhlich), the ETH Zürich (Kurt Kneubühl) and the Observatoire de Genève (Daniel Huguenin). The remaining groups are the Space Biology Group in the field of Life Science in Space, the Applied Physics Institute in Bern with its observation of water vapor and ozone constituents using the microwave remote sensing technique, the meteorological soundings from the SMA balloon station in Payerne and the ozone soundings from the Institute of Atmosphere and Climate (IAC) at the ETH Zürich. In this report we will mainly present the activities of these groups in the past and in future. An addition three well known groups at the Laboratoire de Pollution Atmospherique (LPAS) at the EPFL in Lausanne, the IAC and the Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry (LAC) located at the Paul Scherrer Institute, which is associated to the ETH in Zürich, are contributing lab- and field research for the diagnostics and research of aerosols. The LPAS Group of Michael Rossi in Lausanne is determining heterogeneous chemical reaction rates in the laboratory. The research group of Thomas Peter at the IAC in Zürich is investigating fundamental physical and chemical processes of aerosols and the interaction to the gas phase of the atmosphere. In addition these results are combined with field measurements and model calculations. The LAC under Urs Baltensberger is investigating the key processes determining the gas phase and aerosol composition in the polluted atmospheric boundary layer, and the identification of their sources and sinks.

  18. The International Research Training Group (GRK532): Practicing Cross-Border Postgraduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehses, Markus; Veith, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In 1999, the International Research Training Group "GRK532" was founded as a pilot project for cross-border European postgraduate education along the German/French/Luxembourg borders. The project consists of an interdisciplinary research programme on synthesis, isolation and characterization of new materials accompanied by an ambitious continuous…

  19. Focus Groups with Young People: A Participatory Approach to Research Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnoli, Anna; Clark, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present our experiences of conducting focus groups with young people as part of a participatory approach to research design and participant recruitment. The research is a prospective, 10-year, qualitative, longitudinal project investigating young people's daily lives, relationships, and identities, and the ways these change over…

  20. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  1. Implementation and Outcomes of Online Self and Peer Assessment on Group Based Honours Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chengqing; Chanda, Emmanuel; Willison, John

    2014-01-01

    Honours research projects in the School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering at the University of Adelaide are run with small groups of students working with an academic supervisor in a chosen area for one year. The research project is mainly self-directed study, which makes it very difficult to fairly assess the contribution of…

  2. Collaborative Group Action Research: A Constructivist Approach to Developing an Integrated Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saurino, Penny L.; Saurino, Dan R.

    Elementary teachers collaborated on a research project that investigated how a constructivist approach to gifted and talented integrated curriculum strategies and techniques could be developed and implemented. The collaborative group action research cycle involved planning, collecting baseline data, intervening strategies/modifying interventions,…

  3. Use of a Wiki-Based Software to Manage Research Group Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting; Vezenov, Dmitri V.; Simboli, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses use of the wiki software Confluence to organize research group activities and lab resources. Confluence can serve as an electronic lab notebook (ELN), as well as an information management and collaboration tool. The article provides a case study in how researchers can use wiki software in "home-grown" fashion to…

  4. Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

  5. Small Group Communication Research of the 1970's: A Synthesis and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragan, John F.; Wright, David W.

    One hundred studies on small group communication that were published in speech communication journals from 1969 to 1978 are summarized and critiqued in this paper. The literature is classified into three new lines of research (critical variable, process, and tangential) and three continuing lines of research (leadership, discussion, and pedagogy).…

  6. IGORR-IV -- Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbalm, K.F.

    1995-12-31

    The International Group on Research Reactors was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. Twenty-nine papers were presented in five sessions and written versions of the papers or hard copies of the vugraphs used are published in these proceedings. The five sessions were: (1) Operating Research Reactors and Facility Upgrades; (2) Research Reactors in Design and Construction; (3) ANS Closeout Activities; (4) and (5) Research, Development, and Analysis Results.

  7. An online monogenic diabetes discussion group: supporting families and fueling new research.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Marie E; Carmody, David; Philipson, Louis H; Greeley, Siri Atma W

    2015-11-01

    Many online support groups are available for patients with rare disorders, but scant evidence is available on how effectively such groups provide useful information or valuable psychosocial support to their participants. It is also unclear to what extent physicians and researchers may learn more about these disorders by participating in such groups. To formally assess the utility of the Kovler Monogenic Diabetes Registry online discussion group for patients and families affected by KATP channel-related monogenic neonatal diabetes in providing psychosocial and informational support and in identifying concerns unique to patients with this rare form of diabetes. We qualitatively analyzed all 1,410 messages from the online group that consisted of 64 participants affected by KATP channel monogenic diabetes and 11 researchers. We utilized the Social Behavior Support Code to assign each message to a support category and deductive thematic analysis to identify discussion topics addressed by each message. 44% of messages provided/requested informational support, whereas 31.4% of the messages contained psychosocial/emotional support. The most popular topics of postings to the forums were diabetes treatment (503 messages) and neurodevelopmental concerns (472 messages). Participation in the discussion led researchers to modify survey instruments and design new studies focusing on specific topics of concern, such as sleep. We demonstrate that an online support group for a monogenic form of diabetes is an effective informational tool that also provides psychosocial support. Participation by researchers and care providers can inform future research directions and highlight issues of patient concern. PMID:26184072

  8. A compilation of research working groups on drug utilisation across Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of the benefit-risk of medicines needs careful consideration concerning their patterns of utilization. Systems for the monitoring of medicines consumption have been established in many European countries, and several international groups have identified and described them. No other compilation of European working groups has been published. As part of the PROTECT project, as a first step in searching for European data sources on the consumption of five selected groups of medicines, we aimed to identify and describe the main characteristics of the existing collaborative European working groups. Findings Google and bibliographic searches (PubMed) of articles containing information on databases and other sources of drug consumption data were conducted. For each working group the main characteristics were recorded. Nineteen selected groups were identified, focusing on: a) general drug utilisation (DU) research (EuroDURG, CNC, ISPE’S SIG-DUR, EURO-MED-STAT, PIPERSKA Group, NorPEN, ENCePP, DURQUIM), b) specific DU research: b.1) antimicrobial drugs (ARPAC, ESAC, ARPEC, ESGAP, HAPPY AUDIT), b.2) cardiovascular disease (ARITMO, EUROASPIRE), b.3) paediatrics (TEDDY), and b.4) mental health/central nervous system effects (ESEMeD, DRUID, TUPP/EUPoMMe). Information on their aims, methods and activities is presented. Conclusions We assembled and updated information on European working groups in DU research and in the utilisation of five selected groups of drugs for the PROTECT project. This information should be useful for academic researchers, regulatory and health authorities, and pharmaceutical companies conducting and interpreting post-authorisation and safety studies. European health authorities should encourage national research and collaborations in this important field for public health. PMID:24625054

  9. Capacity Building through Focus Group Training in Community-based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Amico, KL; Wieland, ML; Weis, JA; Sullivan, SM; Nigon, JA; Sia, IG

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) emphasizes collaborative efforts among communities and academics where all members are equitable contributors. Capacity building through training in research methodology is a potentially important outcome for CBPR partnerships. Objectives To describe the logistics and lessons learned from building community research capacity for focus group moderation in the context of a CBPR partnership. Methods After orientation to CBPR principles, members of a US suburban community underwent twelve hours of interactive learning in focus group moderation by a national focus group expert. An additional eight-hour workshop promoted advanced proficiency and built on identified strengths and weaknesses. Ten focus groups were conducted at an adult education center addressing a health concern previously identified by the center’s largely immigrant and refugee population. Program evaluation was achieved through multiple observations by community and academic-based observers. Results Twenty-seven community and academic members were recruited through established relationships for training in focus group moderation, note-taking, and report compilation. Focus group training led to increased trust among community and research partners while empowering individual community members and increasing research capacity for CBPR. Conclusions Community members were trained in focus group moderation and successfully applied these skills to a CBPR project addressing a health concern in the community. This approach of equipping community members with skills in a qualitative research method promoted capacity building within a socio-culturally diverse community, while strengthening community-academic partnership. In this setting, capacity building efforts may help to ensure the success and sustainability for continued health interventions through CBPR. PMID:22267359

  10. The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis and public perceptions of biomedical research: a focus group study.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Benjamin R.; Harris, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    African Americans are less likely than European Americans to participate in biomedical research. Researchers often attribute nonparticipation to the "Tuskegee effect." Using critical qualitative analysis of focus group data, we examined the public's use of the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis (TSUS) to discuss biomedical research. Our participants articulated three primary themes in relation to TSUS: 1) that TSUS made them suspicious about biomedical research; 2) that other values had to weigh against concerns about TSUS; and 3) that African Americans could take steps to resolve their concerns about TSUS. African Americans were more likely to discuss TSUS than were European Americans. African Americans did not use TSUS to express simple fear. African Americans suggested issues other than TSUS that influence the decision to participate in research. African Americans indicated specific reforms that would increase participation in research. We discuss how a better understanding of African Americans' use of TSUS can enhance research participation and allay concerns about "another Tuskegee." PMID:15303410

  11. CASPER's New Educational Research Group: The Physical Environment and Educational Interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Wang, Li; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    CASPER research has long included the area of STEM science education, which grew out of its history in educational intervention and curriculum development and its NSF funded REU summer program, which has been active since 1994. Recently CASPER's Educational Research group entered into a partnership with the Region 12 Educational Service Center and Huckabee, Inc. to examine the role the physical environment plays in educational intervention and the impact this combination has on student engagement and learning. This talk introduces the partnership, explains the framework guiding the research and presents the roles each partner plays in the research.

  12. The biochemistry and nutrition group: 30 years of research in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Levy Benshimol, A

    1996-12-01

    The most relevant results of 30 years of research from the Group of Biochemistry and Nutrition are presented. Research was focused mainly around the identification and detection of the heatlabile toxic factors present in legume seeds of human consumption, namely protease inhibitors and lectins with special emphasis on their isolation, molecular characterization, mechanistic and nutritional relevance of both protein groups. The antinutritional effect of the polyphenols, thermolabile compounds present in colored seeds, has also been studied as well as the impact of seed complex carbohydrates on the digestive process. PMID:9137631

  13. About the Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group promotes and supports research on early chemopreventive agent development, from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trials. The group’s projects aim to identify and develop prevention agents with the potential to block, reverse, or delay the early stages of cancer. The overarching goal is to determine positive and negative predictive values of preclinical models for clinical development. |

  14. Effective small group teaching strategies for research supervision - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathirana, Assela

    2010-05-01

    UNESCO-IHE's students are unique in several aspects: they are mid-career professionals separated from their last university experience by a number of years in the profession, they are from diverse social and cultural backgrounds, and they often have relatively clear understanding on the diverse problems in the practice of engineering in their respective countries and are focused on solving those. As a result of the diversity in many forms, managing effective groups during the research phase of the UNESCO-IHE master's course pose considerable challenge. In this paper, we present a unique combination of tools and approaches that are employed in managing a small group of students (between five and ten) in one study area, who were working on diverse research topics that had the common denominator of mathematical modelling. We blend a number of traditional (e.g. seminars, group discussions, focused training sessions) and non-traditional (e.g. Using collaboration platforms like WIKI, peer-learning) approaches so that the cohesion of the group in maintained and every member benefits from being a part of the group. Four years of experience with employing this blend of tools on a six-month long master's research programme showed us: The approach motivates the students to perform focusing not only on the end-goal of their research study, but on the process of day to day work that lead to that goal. The students' self-confidence is often enhanced by being a part of close-knit group. Initial workload of the teacher increases significantly by this approach, but later this is more than compensated by the fact that the teacher has to do little maintain the momentum. Both strong and not so-strong students equally benefit from the approach. A significant number of students develop a keen interest in being involved in research further. (e.g. engaging in doctoral studies.)

  15. Alcohol and inflammatory responses: summary of the 2013 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    PubMed

    Morris, Niya L; Ippolito, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda J; Chen, Michael M; Friedman, Scott L; Hines, Ian N; Haddad, Georges E; Chang, Sulie L; Brown, Lou Ann; Waldschmidt, Thomas J; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Choudhry, Mashkoor A

    2015-02-01

    Loyola University Chicago, Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, Illinois hosted the 18th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting on November 22, 2013. This year's meeting emphasized alcohol's effect on inflammatory responses in diverse disease states and injury conditions. The meeting consisted of three plenary sessions demonstrating the adverse effects of alcohol, specifically, liver inflammation, adverse systemic effects, and alcohol's role in infection and immunology. Researchers also presented insight on modulation of microRNAs and stress proteins following alcohol consumption. Additionally, researchers revealed sex- and concentration-dependent differences in alcohol-mediated pathologies. PMID:25468277

  16. Ability Grouping, Segregation and Civic Competences among Adolescents. Research Briefing No. 76

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the linkages between ability grouping, classroom social and ethnic segregation, and civic competences (understood here as referring to attitudes and behaviours as well as knowledge and skills). It does so by analysing data from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Civic Education…

  17. Promoting a Message on Vision Loss to Diverse Groups of Adults: Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Stuen, Cynthia; Sussman-Skalka, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    Visual impairment is the second most prevalent disability among older adults (National Center for Health Statistics, 1993), affecting about 2.9 million Americans aged 65 and older (Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group, 2004). As the population ages, the number of individuals who will experience age-related vision loss will also increase.…

  18. Evaluation of Using Course-Management Software: Supplementing a Course that Requires a Group Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korchmaros, Josephine D.; Gump, Nathaniel W.

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of course-management software (CMS) will not be realized if it is underused. The authors investigated one possible barrier to CMS use, students' perceptions of using CMS. After taking a course requiring a group research project, college students reported their perceptions of the use of CMS for the course. Overall, students did not…

  19. Group Psychotherapy for Women with a History of Incest: The Research Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marotta, Sylvia A.; Asner, Kimberly K.

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates the wide range of adequacy of current studies on group psychotherapy for women with incest histories. Because the studies differed in methodology and reporting, they were categorized and assessed by six criteria: design, sample, inclusion criteria, replicability, analysis, and outcome. Implications for both researchers and…

  20. Supervision of School and Youth Groups on Lift-Served Ski Slopes: A Research Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Andrew; Holmes, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Supervised practice is a common feature of many snow sports excursions to downhill ski resorts by school or youth groups, often in combination with lessons from a ski school. What is the role of supervision in preventing mishaps, injury, or fatalities? This article presents results of a search of published snow sports safety research for evidence…

  1. Training in Business and Industry. Selected Research Papers, 1995. AERA Special Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martin, Ed.

    This document contains 7 of the 10 papers presented at the 1995 program of the American Educational Research Association's special interest group, Training in Business and Industry. The following papers are included: "A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Integrating Evaluation and Training" (Jo D. Gallagher); "Comparing Managers and Employees in Team…

  2. Realising Graduate Attributes in the Research Degree: The Role of Peer Support Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stracke, Elke; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of peer support groups (PSGs) in realising graduate attributes in the research degree. The literature indicates that top-down embedding of graduate attributes has met with only limited success. By taking a bottom-up approach, this paper shows that PSGs offer an opportunity to improve the graduate attribute outcomes of…

  3. Grounded Theory and Focus Groups: Reconciling Methodologies in Indigenous Australian Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This paper captures an ideological moment in time in which I contemplated the methodological approach I was embarking upon. In my search for a more appropriate approach for conducting research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander tertiary students at the University of Queensland, I chose focus groups set within the qualitative process of…

  4. University and Science Groups Develop Guidelines for Handling Incidents of Research Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David L.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services has proposed new regulations on scientific misconduct and requested ideas on what the government should do about the problem. Guidelines proposed by eight university groups and two science organizations are intended to help institutions draw up their own research-fraud procedures. (MLW)

  5. Research & Consultation on: Access and Transition into Ontario Teacher Education for Under-Represented Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John R.; And Others

    This research project analyzed results of data collection from surveys of and interviews with a population of underrepresented groups at three Canadian university sites: Windsor, London, and Thunder Bay (Ontario). The project designed a program for transition from secondary and/or undergraduate university level education or concurrent or…

  6. The Importance of Bonding to School for Healthy Development: Findings from the Social Development Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Richard F.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Fleming, Charles B.; Hawkins, J. David

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes investigations of school connectedness completed by the Social Development Research Group in two longitudinal studies, the Seattle Social Development Project and Raising Healthy Children. The theoretical importance of school connectedness, empirical support for the theoretical propositions of the impact of school…

  7. 78 FR 75905 - Credit for Increasing Research Activities: Intra-Group Gross Receipts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... similar provisions of the Code. See, e.g., Prop. Reg. Sec. 1.199-1, 70 FR 67220, 67236 (November 4, 2005...; ] DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BE14 Credit for Increasing Research Activities: Intra-Group Gross Receipts AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice...

  8. College Students' Interpretation of Research Reports on Group Differences: The Tall-Tale Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Thomas P.; Zaboski, Brian A.; Perry, Tiffany R.

    2015-01-01

    How does the student untrained in advanced statistics interpret results of research that reports a group difference? In two studies, statistically untrained college students were presented with abstracts or professional associations' reports and asked for estimates of scores obtained by the original participants in the studies. These estimates…

  9. 77 FR 44224 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group, Incorporated

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... will authorize its contractor Eastern Research Group, Incorporated (ERG) to access Confidential... INFORMATION: 1. Access to Confidential Business Information Under EPA Contract No. EP-W-10-055, ERG... Security Manuals. ERG, Incorporated shall protect from unauthorized disclosure all information...

  10. Perspective on the Status of Research and Development Concerning Minority Groups in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edmund W.

    The most pressing problems of research on minority groups have not received adequate attention. One such problem is that of identification and understanding of the mechanisms of learning facility and learning dysfunction and the implications of both for the optimum development of heterogeneous populations. Secondly, in contrast to the body of…

  11. Considering Community Literacies in the Secondary Classroom: A Collaborative Teacher and Researcher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Paula M.; Reynolds, Rema E.

    2013-01-01

    A year long study group brought teachers and researchers working in urban contexts in US public schools together to examine literacy practices incorporating students' community literacies into schooled tasks. The goal was to provide teacher development in making connections across their students' community literacies and the academic…

  12. Patient Informed Governance of Distributed Research Networks: Results and Discussion from Six Patient Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Mamo, Laura A.; Browe, Dennis K.; Logan, Holly C.; Kim, Katherine K.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients’ views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes. PMID:24551383

  13. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    PubMed

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation. PMID:22382800

  14. Global oral health inequalities: dental caries task group--research agenda.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N; Amaechi, B; Niederman, R; Acevedo, A-M; Vianna, R; Ganss, C; Ismail, A; Honkala, E

    2011-05-01

    The IADR Global Oral Health Inequalities Task Group on Dental Caries has synthesized current evidence and opinion to identify a five-year implementation and research agenda which should lead to improvements in global oral health, with particular reference to the implementation of current best evidence as well as integrated action to reduce caries and health inequalities between and within countries. The Group determined that research should: integrate health and oral health wherever possible, using common risk factors; be able to respond to and influence international developments in health, healthcare, and health payment systems as well as dental prevention and materials; and exploit the potential for novel funding partnerships with industry and foundations. More effective communication between and among the basic science, clinical science, and health promotion/public health research communities is needed. Translation of research into policy and practice should be a priority for all. Both community and individual interventions need tailoring to achieve a more equal and person-centered preventive focus and reduce any social gradient in health. Recommendations are made for both clinical and public health implementation of existing research and for caries-related research agendas in clinical science, health promotion/public health, and basic science. PMID:21490233

  15. The role of multiple-group measurement invariance in family psychology research.

    PubMed

    Kern, Justin L; McBride, Brent A; Laxman, Daniel J; Dyer, W Justin; Santos, Rosa M; Jeans, Laurie M

    2016-04-01

    Measurement invariance (MI) is a property of measurement that is often implicitly assumed, but in many cases, not tested. When the assumption of MI is tested, it generally involves determining if the measurement holds longitudinally or cross-culturally. A growing literature shows that other groupings can, and should, be considered as well. Additionally, it is noted that the standard techniques for investigating MI have been focused almost exclusively on the case of 2 groups, with very little work on the case of more than 2 groups, even though the need for such techniques is apparent in many fields of research. This paper introduces and illustrates a model building technique to investigating MI for more than 2 groups. This technique is an extension of the already-existing hierarchy for testing MI introduced by Meredith (1993). An example using data on father involvement in 5 different groups of families of children with and without developmental disabilities from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort dataset will be given. We show that without considering the possible differential functioning of the measurements on multiple developmental groups, the differences present between the groups in terms of the measurements may be obscured. This could lead to incorrect conclusions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26796321

  16. Empirical research on attachment in group psychotherapy: moving the field forward.

    PubMed

    Marmarosh, Cheri L

    2014-03-01

    Despite a large literature applying attachment to individual, family, and couple psychotherapy, it has taken much longer for clinicians to apply attachment theory to group psychotherapy. The lack of research attention in this area makes these three studies in this special section even more important to the field. They contribute significant findings that have the potential to help group leaders facilitate more cohesive and effective treatments for patients as well as move the field forward. Not only do we see the long-term impact of group treatment for those with insecure attachments, but we also learn how attachment anxiety impacts the group process, and how the attachment to the therapy group itself relates to changes in group member's personal attachment styles. The greatest contribution is the drawing of our attention to the many future studies that are needed to fully understand how group therapy facilitates change and how attachment theory plays a critical role in this process. Clinical implications are presented. PMID:24059737

  17. Big Data: the challenge for small research groups in the era of cancer genomics

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Aisyah Mohd; Holmberg, Lars; Gillett, Cheryl; Grigoriadis, Anita

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, cancer research has seen an increasing trend towards high-throughput techniques and translational approaches. The increasing availability of assays that utilise smaller quantities of source material and produce higher volumes of data output have resulted in the necessity for data storage solutions beyond those previously used. Multifactorial data, both large in sample size and heterogeneous in context, needs to be integrated in a standardised, cost-effective and secure manner. This requires technical solutions and administrative support not normally financially accounted for in small- to moderate-sized research groups. In this review, we highlight the Big Data challenges faced by translational research groups in the precision medicine era; an era in which the genomes of over 75 000 patients will be sequenced by the National Health Service over the next 3 years to advance healthcare. In particular, we have looked at three main themes of data management in relation to cancer research, namely (1) cancer ontology management, (2) IT infrastructures that have been developed to support data management and (3) the unique ethical challenges introduced by utilising Big Data in research. PMID:26492224

  18. Big Data: the challenge for small research groups in the era of cancer genomics.

    PubMed

    Noor, Aisyah Mohd; Holmberg, Lars; Gillett, Cheryl; Grigoriadis, Anita

    2015-11-17

    In the past decade, cancer research has seen an increasing trend towards high-throughput techniques and translational approaches. The increasing availability of assays that utilise smaller quantities of source material and produce higher volumes of data output have resulted in the necessity for data storage solutions beyond those previously used. Multifactorial data, both large in sample size and heterogeneous in context, needs to be integrated in a standardised, cost-effective and secure manner. This requires technical solutions and administrative support not normally financially accounted for in small- to moderate-sized research groups. In this review, we highlight the Big Data challenges faced by translational research groups in the precision medicine era; an era in which the genomes of over 75,000 patients will be sequenced by the National Health Service over the next 3 years to advance healthcare. In particular, we have looked at three main themes of data management in relation to cancer research, namely (1) cancer ontology management, (2) IT infrastructures that have been developed to support data management and (3) the unique ethical challenges introduced by utilising Big Data in research. PMID:26492224

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Research on Formal Computer-Mediated Support Groups: Examining Group Characteristics and Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Stephen A.; Young, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a meta-analysis of 28 studies examining the health-related outcomes associated with participation in a formal computer-mediated support group (CMSG) intervention. In particular, health outcomes related to social support were assessed and four group-level characteristics of CMSGs were tested as potential moderators of…

  20. Historical note: How bringing women's health advocacy groups to WHO helped change the research agenda.

    PubMed

    Cottingham, Jane

    2015-05-01

    The politics of population control and its sometimes coercive methods in developing countries documented during the 1960s, 70s and 80s, gave rise to strong opposition by women's groups, and put into question the safety of contraceptive methods that were being developed and introduced into countries. In 1991, the Special Programme on Human Reproduction at the World Health Organization, a research programme focused on development of new methods and safety assessments of existing fertility regulation methods, started a process of "dialogue" meetings between scientists and women's health advocacy groups which lasted for nearly a decade. This paper describes the process of these meetings and what they achieved in terms of bringing new or different research topics into the agenda, and some of the actions taken as a result. PMID:26278829

  1. An Action Research Process on University Tutorial Sessions with Small Groups: Presentational Tutorial Sessions and Online Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcaraz-Salarirche, Noelia; Gallardo-Gil, Monsalud; Herrera-Pastor, David; Servan-Nunez, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    We describe and analyse the action research process carried out by us as teachers in a general didactics course in the University of Malaga (Spain). The course methodology combined lectures to the whole class and small-group work. We were in charge of guiding small-group work. In the small groups, students researched on an educational innovation…

  2. A call for research: the need to better understand the impact of support groups for suicide survivors.

    PubMed

    Cerel, Julie; Padgett, Jason H; Conwell, Yeates; Reed, Gerald A

    2009-06-01

    Support groups for suicide survivors (those individuals bereaved following a suicide) are widely used, but little research evidence is available to determine their efficacy. This paper outlines the pressing public health need to conduct research and determine effective ways to identify and meet the needs of suicide survivors, particularly through survivor support groups. After describing the various approaches to survivor support groups, we explain the need for further research, despite the inherent challenges. Finally, we pose several questions for researchers to consider as they work with survivors to develop a research agenda that sheds more light on the experiences of survivors and the help provided by survivor support groups. PMID:19606919

  3. National facilities study. Volume 5: Space research and development facilities task group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    With the beginnings of the U.S. space program, there was a pressing need to develop facilities that could support the technology research and development, testing, and operations of evolving space systems. Redundancy in facilities that was once and advantage in providing flexibility and schedule accommodation is instead fast becoming a burden on scarce resources. As a result, there is a clear perception in many sectors that the U.S. has many space R&D facilities that are under-utilized and which are no longer cost-effective to maintain. At the same time, it is clear that the U.S. continues to possess many space R&D facilities which are the best -- or among the best -- in the world. In order to remain world class in key areas, careful assessment of current capabilities and planning for new facilities is needed. The National Facility Study (NFS) was initiated in 1992 to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for future aerospace facilities that meets current and projected government and commercial needs. In order to assess the nation's capability to support space research and development (R&D), a Space R&D Task Group was formed. The Task Group was co-chaired by NASA and DOD. The Task Group formed four major, technologically- and functionally- oriented working groups: Human and Machine Operations; Information and Communications; Propulsion and Power; and Materials, Structures, and Flight Dynamics. In addition to these groups, three supporting working groups were formed: Systems Engineering and Requirements; Strategy and Policy; and Costing Analysis. The Space R&D Task Group examined several hundred facilities against the template of a baseline mission and requirements model (developed in common with the Space Operations Task Group) and a set of excursions from the baseline. The model and excursions are described in Volume 3 of the NFS final report. In addition, as a part of the effort, the group examined key strategic issues associated with space R

  4. Exploring group dynamics for integrating scientific and experiential knowledge in Community Advisory Boards for HIV research.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rogério M; Spector, Anya Y; Valera, Pamela A

    2011-08-01

    To demonstrate how Community Advisory Boards (CABs) can best integrate community perspectives with scientific knowledge and involve community in disseminating HIV knowledge, this paper provides a case study exploring the structure and dynamic process of a "Community Collaborative Board" (CCB). We use the term CCB to emphasize collaboration over advisement. The CCB membership, structure, and dynamics are informed by theory and research. The CCB is affiliated with Columbia University School of Social Work and its original membership included 30 members. CCB was built using six systematized steps meant to engage members in procedural and substantive research roles: (1) engaging membership; (2) developing relationships; (3) exchanging information; (4) negotiation and decision-making; (5) retaining membership; and (6) studying dynamic process. This model requires that all meetings be audio-taped to capture CCB dynamics. Using transcribed meeting data, we have identified group dynamics that help the CCB accomplish its objectives: (1) dialectic process helps exchange of information; (2) mutual support helps members work together despite social and professional differences; and (3) problem solving helps members achieve consensus. These dynamics also help members attain knowledge about HIV treatment and prevention and disseminate HIV-related knowledge. CABs can be purposeful in their use of group dynamics, narrow the knowledge gap between researchers and community partners, prepare members for procedural and substantive research roles, and retain community partners. PMID:21390878

  5. Exploring group dynamics for integrating scientific and experiential knowledge in Community Advisory Boards for HIV research

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rogério M.; Spector, Anya Y.; Valera, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    To demonstrate how Community Advisory Boards (CABs) can best integrate community perspectives with scientific knowledge and involve community in disseminating HIV knowledge, this paper provides a case study exploring the structure and dynamic process of a “Community Collaborative Board” (CCB). We use the term CCB to emphasize collaboration over advisement. The CCB membership, structure and dynamics are informed by theory and research. The CCB is affiliated with Columbia University School of Social Work and its original membership included 30 members. CCB was built using six systematized steps meant to engage members in procedural and substantive research roles. Steps: (1) Engaging membership, (2) Developing relationships, (3) Exchanging information, (4) Negotiation and decision-making, (5) Retaining membership, and (6) Studying dynamic process. This model requires that all meetings be audio-taped to capture CCB dynamics. Using transcribed meeting data, we have identified group dynamics that help the CCB accomplish its objectives: 1) dialectic process helps exchange of information; 2) mutual support helps members work together despite social and professional differences; and 3) problem solving helps members achieve consensus. These dynamics also help members attain knowledge about HIV treatment and prevention and disseminate HIV-related knowledge. CABs can be purposeful in their use of group dynamics, narrow the knowledge gap between researchers and community partners, prepare members for procedural and substantive research roles, and retain community partners. PMID:21390878

  6. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society was formally launched as a special interest group at the 7th Triennial WCTR in Sydney, Australia in 1995. Since then, our membership base has expanded rapidly, and now includes over 400 active transportation researchers, policy-makers, industry executives, major corporations and research institutes from 28 countries. It became a tradition that the ATRG would hold an international conference at least once a year. In 1998, the ATRG organized a consecutive stream of 14 aviation sessions at the 8th Triennial WCTR Conference (July 12-17: Antwerp). Again, on 19-21 July, 1998, the ATRG Symposium was organized and executed very successfully by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan of the University College of Dublin. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha has published the Proceedings of the 1998 ATRG Dublin Symposium (being co-edited by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan and Professor Brent Bowen), and the Proceedings of the 1998 WCTR-ATRG Conference (being co-edited by Professors Tae H. Oum and Brent Bowen).

  7. Technical note: Harmonising metocean model data via standard web services within small research groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signell, Richard P.; Camossi, Elena

    2016-05-01

    Work over the last decade has resulted in standardised web services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using free technologies that are easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing standardised, service-based tools that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modellers continue to use their existing files and tools, while serving virtual data sets that can be used with standardised tools. The goal of this paper is to convince modellers that a standardised framework is not only useful but can be implemented with modest effort using free software components. We use NetCDF Markup language for data aggregation and standardisation, the THREDDS Data Server for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (MATLAB®) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.

  8. Manufacturing individual opinions: market research focus groups and the discursive psychology of evaluation.

    PubMed

    Puchta, Claudia; Potter, Jonathan

    2002-09-01

    This article addresses a paradox. On the one hand, discourse and rhetorical studies have provided evidence that evaluative talk is both variable and rhetorically organized. On the other hand, a wide range of social psychological research is produced that both presupposes and finds evidence of enduring underlying attitudes. One explanation for this may be that, on some occasions at least, the results of attitude research are a consequence of procedures that restrict and refine from everyday evaluative practices in a way that ensures the 'discovery' of underlying attitudes. The article explores this explanation in one domain where there is a major practical concern with attitudes and opinions, namely market research focus groups. Detailed analysis of transcripts of eight market research focus groups identifies three procedures that moderators use to produce freestanding opinion packages: (a). they display rhetorically embedded evaluations as inconsequential; (b). they provide formal guidance for participants to produce freestanding opinions; and (c). they formulate participants' talk as freestanding opinions, stripping off rhetorical elements. The findings are supported by considering deviant cases. This illustrates one way in which evaluations are transformed into freestanding attitudes. More broadly, it contributes to a body of work that studies how social science methods work in practice. PMID:12419007

  9. Technical note: Harmonizing met-ocean model data via standard web services within small research groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signell, R. P.; Camossi, E.

    2015-11-01

    Work over the last decade has resulted in standardized web-services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by: (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using technology that is free, and that is easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing tools to communicate with web services that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modelers continue producing custom data, but virtually aggregates and standardizes the data using NetCDF Markup Language. The THREDDS Data Server is used for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (Matlab®1) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Ocean Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.1 Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use by the US Government.

  10. Academic research groups: evaluation of their quality and quality of their evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berche, Bertrand; Holovatch, Yuri; Kenna, Ralph; Mryglod, Olesya

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, evaluation of the quality of academic research has become an increasingly important and influential business. It determines, often to a large extent, the amount of research funding flowing into universities and similar institutes from governmental agencies and it impacts upon academic careers. Policy makers are becoming increasingly reliant upon, and influenced by, the outcomes of such evaluations. In response, university managers are increasingly attracted to simple metrics as guides to the dynamics of the positions of their various institutions in league tables. However, these league tables are invariably drawn up by inexpert bodies such as newspapers and magazines, using arbitrary measures and criteria. Terms such as “critical mass” and “h-index” are bandied about without understanding of what they actually mean. Rather than accepting the rise and fall of universities, departments and individuals on a turbulent sea of arbitrary measures, we suggest it is incumbent upon the scientific community itself to clarify their nature. Here we report on recent attempts to do that by properly defining critical mass and showing how group size influences research quality. We also examine currently predominant metrics and show that these fail as reliable indicators of group research quality.

  11. PREVALENCE OF SCIENTIFIC MISCONDUCT AMONG A GROUP OF RESEARCHERS IN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    OKONTA, PATRICK; ROSSOUW, THERESA

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a dearth of information on the prevalence of scientific misconduct from Nigeria. Objectives This study aimed at determining the prevalence of scientific misconduct in a group of researchers in Nigeria. Factors associated with the prevalence were ascertained. Method A descriptive study of researchers who attended a scientific conference in 2010 was conducted using the adapted Scientific Misconduct Questionnaire- Revised (SMQ-R). Results Ninety-one researchers (68.9%) admitted having committed at least one of the eight listed forms of scientific misconduct. Disagreement about authorship was the most common form of misconduct committed (36.4%) while plagiarism was the least (9.2%). About 42% of researchers had committed falsification of data or plagiarism. Analysis of specific acts of misconduct showed that committing plagiarism was inversely associated with years in research (Fisher exact p-value = 0.02); falsifying data was related to perceived low effectiveness of the institution’s rules and procedures for reducing scientific misconduct (X2 = 6.44, p-value = 0.01); and succumbing to pressure from study sponsor to engage in unethical practice was related to sex of researcher (Fisher exact p-value = 0.02). Conclusions The emergent data from this study is a cause for serious concern and calls for prompt intervention. The best response to reducing scientific misconduct will proceed from measures that contain both elements of prevention and enforcement. Training on research ethics has to be integrated into the curriculum of undergraduate and postgraduate students while provision should be made for in-service training of researchers. Penalties against acts of scientific misconduct should be enforced at institutional and national levels. PMID:22994914

  12. Inspired by Fieldwork: A Teacher Research Experience Energizes and Ignites a Group of Elementary Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    Through involvement in authentic research experiences teachers improve their content knowledge, deepen their understanding of the research process, and rejuvenate their interest in science. These positive results of fieldwork transfer into the classroom, directly benefiting students. The ARMADA project provided me with a three week research experience aboard the Amundsen (Canadian Coast Guard science vessel) which enriched and strengthened me professionally. Guided by master and early career scientists, I took part in specific research techniques and deep scientific discourse. My immersion in ocean science was so stimulating that I was inspired to share that excitement with my students. The fascination my students showed for basic experiments and ocean related activities fueled my interest further and I began to research more deeply which led to Climate Literacy and Polar Studies as essentials in my science curriculum. Over the following years I continued to expand and refine the workshops and activities students take part in. Three years after the research experience students still love the science explorations we embark upon together. This past year a group of students became so excited about Polar Science and Climate that they authored a 36 page non fiction book for upper elementary and middle school students entitled, "Changing Poles, Changing Planet: Climate Change vs. The Earth". Seven of the authors decided to continue their science outreach work by creating an educational video focusing on the basics of climate science and what children can do to lower carbon emissions. The book and video were distributed to educators as well as scientists at the International Polar Year Science Conference in June, 2010. In August some of these students presented their work at a Sustainability festival that was organized by M-CAN a local climate action group. Two of these students (who have left my class and started 6th grade at the middle school)recently decided to form a

  13. The Alsep Data Recovery Focus Group of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagihara, S.; Lewis, L. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Williams, D. R.; Taylor, P. T.; Hills, H. K.; Kiefer, W. S.; Neal, C. R.; Schmidt, G. K.

    2014-12-01

    Astronauts on Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 deployed instruments on the Moon for 14 geophysical experiments (passive & active seismic, heat flow, magnetics, etc.) from 1969 to 1972. These instruments were called Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEPs). ALSEPs kept transmitting data to the Earth until September 1977. When the observation program ended in 1977, a large portion of these data were not delivered to the National Space Science Data Center for permanent archive. In 2010, for the purpose of searching, recovering, preserving, and analyzing the data that were not previously archived, NASA's then Lunar Science Institute formed the ALSEP Data Recovery Focus Group. The group consists of current lunar researchers and those involved in the ALSEP design and data analysis in the 1960s and 1970s. Among the data not previously archived were the 5000+ 7-track open-reel tapes that recorded raw data from all the ALSEP instruments from April 1973 to February 1976 ('ARCSAV tapes'). These tapes went missing in the decades after Apollo. One of the major achievements of the group so far is that we have found 450 ARCSAV tapes from April to June 1975 and that we are extracting data from them. There are 3 other major achievements by the group. First, we have established a web portal at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, where ~700 ALSEP-related documents, totaling ~40,000 pages, have been digitally scanned and cataloged. Researchers can search and download these documents at www.lpi.usra.edu/ lunar/ALSEP/. Second, we have been retrieving notes and reports left behind by the now deceased/retired ALSEP investigators at their home institutions. Third, we have been re-analyzing the ALSEP data using the information from the recently recovered metadata (instrument calibration data, operation logs, etc.). Efforts are ongoing to get these data permanently archived in the Planetary Data System (PDS).

  14. Repackaging prostate cancer support group research findings: an e-KT case study.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina S; Lohan, Maria; Bottorff, Joan L

    2015-01-01

    In the context of psychosocial oncology research, disseminating study findings to a range of knowledge "end-users" can advance the well-being of diverse patient subgroups and their families. This article details how findings drawn from a study of prostate cancer support groups were repackaged in a knowledge translation website--www.prostatecancerhelpyourself.ubc.ca--using Web 2.0 features. Detailed are five lessons learned from developing the website: the importance of pitching a winning but feasible idea, keeping a focus on interactivity and minimizing text, negotiating with the supplier, building in formal pretests or a pilot test with end-users, and completing formative evaluations based on data collected through Google™ and YouTube™ Analytics. The details are shared to guide the e-knowledge translation efforts of other psychosocial oncology researchers and clinicians. PMID:24713522

  15. An update to returning genetic research results to individuals: perspectives of the industry pharmacogenomics working group.

    PubMed

    Prucka, Sandra K; Arnold, Lester J; Brandt, John E; Gilardi, Sandra; Harty, Lea C; Hong, Feng; Malia, Joanne; Pulford, David J

    2015-02-01

    The ease with which genotyping technologies generate tremendous amounts of data on research participants has been well chronicled, a feat that continues to become both faster and cheaper to perform. In parallel to these advances come additional ethical considerations and debates, one of which centers on providing individual research results and incidental findings back to research participants taking part in genetic research efforts. In 2006 the Industry Pharmacogenomics Working Group (I-PWG) offered some 'Points-to-Consider' on this topic within the context of the drug development process from those who are affiliated to pharmaceutical companies. Today many of these points remain applicable to the discussion but will be expanded upon in this updated viewpoint from the I-PWG. The exploratory nature of pharmacogenomic work in the pharmaceutical industry is discussed to provide context for why these results typically are not best suited for return. Operational challenges unique to this industry which cause barriers to returning this information are also explained. PMID:24471556

  16. Using focus groups to assess presentation methods in a research seminar.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K Jackson; Lancaster, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry was to examine preferences between presentation methods among graduate students enrolled in a research seminar course. Participants consisted of 34 second year students enrolled in the Master of Science degree program in physical therapy in the College of Health Professions at the Medical University of South Carolina. All were required to present a published research article on the general topic of exercise in elderly individuals. However, before the student presentations took place, the instructor presented two different published research papers, both of which were done in sequential time segments during a single class period. For Time Segment 1, the instructor/author used a formal, "lecture," or "platform" type presentation, embellished by power point slides with textual information and graphs. For Time Segment 2, the instructor conducted an informal discussion of the background, methods, and findings of the research paper. After the presentations were completed, students were assigned to focus groups for the purpose of providing verbal and written feedback. Examination of the findings using content analysis revealed a variety of opinions regarding presentation techniques, but showed a general preference for the method employed in Time Segment 1. Among the reasons cited were the structure, the visual aids, and past familiarity and comfort with formal, "lecture" type presentations. Also noted was the predominant view that presenter style was a major factor in judging effectiveness. These findings merit further exploration of presentation styles and teaching methodologies for augmenting teaching effectiveness and enhancing the scholarship of teaching. PMID:19759997

  17. Building Trust: The History and Ongoing Relationships Amongst DSD Clinicians, Researchers, and Patient Advocacy Groups.

    PubMed

    Lossie, A C; Green, J

    2015-05-01

    Individuals born with differences or disorders of sex development (DSD) have been marginalized by society and the health care system. Standards of care in the mid-20(th) century were based on fixing the child with a DSD, using hormonal and surgical interventions; these treatments and the diagnoses were almost never disclosed to the child, and sometimes they were not disclosed to the parents. This led to secrecy, shame, and stigma. When these children became adults and demanded access to their medical records, the realization of the depth of secrecy led to the formation of activism groups that shook the medical community. Despite precarious beginnings, advocates, health care professionals, and researchers were able to elicit changes in the standard of care. The 2006 Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders called for a multidisciplinary approach to care and questioned the evidence for many of the standard procedures. Standard of care moved from a concealment model to a patient-centered paradigm, and funding agencies put resources into determining the future paths of research on DSD. Recognition of the need to address patient priorities led to changing international standards for including patients in research design. Some challenges that remain include: the findings from the Institute of Medicine that sexual and gender minorities experience poor health outcomes; establishing trust across all parties; developing a common language and creating venues where individuals can participate in dialogue that addresses personal experiences, research design, clinical practices and intervention strategies. PMID:25868122

  18. Classroom management of situated group learning: A research study of two teaching strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeh, Kathy; Fawns, Rod

    2000-06-01

    Although peer-based work is encouraged by theories in developmental psychology and although classroom interventions suggest it is effective, there are grounds for recognising that young pupils find collaborative learning hard to sustain. Discontinuities in collaborative skill during development have been suggested as one interpretation. Theory and research have neglected situational continuities that the teacher may provide in management of formal and informal collaborations. This experimental study, with the collaboration of the science faculty in one urban secondary college, investigated the effect of two role attribution strategies on communication in peer groups of different gender composition in three parallel Year 8 science classes. The group were set a problem that required them to design an experiment to compare the thermal insulating properties of two different materials. This presents the data collected and key findings, and reviews the findings from previous parallel studies that have employed the same research design in different school settings. The results confirm the effectiveness of social role attribution strategies in teacher management of communication in peer-based work.

  19. IGORR-1: Proceedings of the first meeting of the international group on research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1990-05-01

    Many organizations, in several countries, are planning or implementing new or upgraded research reactor projects, but there has been no organized forum devoted entirely to discussion and exchange of information in this field. Over the past year or so, informal discussions resulted in widespread agreement that such a forum would serve a useful purpose. Accordingly, a proposal to form a group was submitted to the leading organizations known to be involved in projects to build or upgrade reactor facilities. Essentially all agreed to join in the formation of the International Group on Research Reactors (IGORR) and nominated a senior staff member to serve on its international organizing committee. The first IGORR meeting took place on February 28--March 2, 1990. It was very successful and well attended; some 52 scientists and engineers from 25 organizations in 10 countries participated in 2-1/2 days of open and informative presentations and discussions. Two workshop sessions offered opportunities for more detailed interaction among participants and resulted in identification of common R D needs, sources of data, and planned new facilities. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  20. The Start-Up, Evolution and Impact of a Research Group in a University Developing Its Knowledge Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horta, Hugo; Martins, Rui

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the understudied role of research groups contributing to develop the knowledge base of developing universities in regions lagging behind in human, financial and scientific resources. We analyse the evolution of a research group that, in less than 10 years, achieved worldwide recognition in the field of microelectronics,…

  1. Literacy, Text, Practice, and Culture: Major Trends in the Umea History of Education Research Group, 1972-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindmark, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This article presents some major research themes and findings of the leading Swedish research group in the field of literacy in history. The informal and encouraging leadership of Professor Egil Johansson was of vital importance to the creativity and productivity of the group. Prior to 1985, a few large projects on Swedish alphabetization were…

  2. Toward Solutions: The Work of the Chemistry Action-Research Group. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Roger; And Others

    In the action-research phase of the Learning in Science Project, four groups of people worked on problems identified in the project's second (in-depth) phase. The Chemistry Action-Research Group considered problems related to the teaching and learning of ideas associated with particles and physical/chemical changes. Based on findings during the…

  3. Toward Solutions: The Work of the Physics Action-Research Group. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Roger; Schollum, Brendan

    In the action-research phase of the Learning in Science Project, four groups of people worked on problems identified in the project's second (in-depth) phase. The Physics action-research group considered problems related to the teaching and learning of ideas associated with force and motion, suggesting that children's ideas of these concepts might…

  4. A Synthesis and Application Teaching Approach for Group Projects in an Undergraduate Business Course: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Laurena E.

    2009-01-01

    Scholars proposed it would be possible to enhance group effectiveness and functioning if people could develop a better appreciation of the processes surrounding group development (M. K. Smith, 2005). The action research study explored the facilitation of a synthesis and application teaching approach for group projects in the practice of two…

  5. Science Research Group Leader's Power and Members' Compliance and Satisfaction with Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Yi; He, Jia; Luo, Changkun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the correlations between science research group members' perceptions of power bases used by their group (lab, team) leader (coercive, reward, legitimate, expert and referent) and the effect of those perceptions on group members' attitudinal compliance, behavioral compliance, and satisfaction with supervision.…

  6. Water Providers and Trade Groups Wake Up to Climate Change: Implications for the Research Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udall, B.

    2008-12-01

    In just the last two years, U.S. water providers and water trade groups have begun to take notice of the impacts of climate change on their water systems and many now realize that they can no longer rely on climate stationarity for operations or for planning. In addition, many of these providers are facing additional stress from rapid population growth, aging infrastructure, emerging pollutants, required environmental flow releases, already allocated water supplies, and the need to mitigate their own, frequently significant, greenhouse gases. They are asking difficult questions of the scientific community about the quality and suitability of current climate theory, data and projections, especially in their region, for the purpose of decision making. Given the potentially very expensive adaptations such as constructing sea walls, building new reservoirs, or acquiring new water, they need answers sooner rather than later and are not about to wait while the normal pace of scientific discourse occurs. Some have already taken matters into their own hands: the American Water Works Research Foundation (soon to become the Water Research Foundation) has established a multi-year strategic initiative at $1m year to identify and fund research projects and is seeking at Congressional authorization for more funding. These entities have significant political resources and clout - the Water Utility Climate Alliance represents over 30m consumers in 5 key states and the Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies serves more than 130m customers. These entities are very likely to demand more and higher quality results from the research and consulting communities in the very near future. How can and how should the scientific community engage with this critical set of stakeholders? How will research be impacted by these new players and demands? And what might the nation do to meet this critical need?

  7. Recent Advances in Sarcopenia Research in Asia: 2016 Update From the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Kung; Lee, Wei-Ju; Peng, Li-Ning; Liu, Li-Kuo; Arai, Hidenori; Akishita, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    Sarcopenia was recently classified a geriatric syndrome and is a major challenge to healthy aging. Affected patients tend to have worse clinical outcomes and higher mortality than those without sarcopenia. Although there is general agreement on the principal diagnostic characteristics, initial thresholds for muscle mass, strength, and physical performance were based on data from populations of predominantly Europid ancestry and may not apply worldwide. The Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) issued regional consensus guidelines in 2014, and many more research studies from Asia have since been published; this review summarizes recent progress. The prevalence of sarcopenia estimated by the AWGS criteria ranges between 4.1% and 11.5% of the general older population; however, prevalence rates were higher in Asian studies that used European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People cut-offs. Risk factors include age, sex, heart disease, hyperlipidemia, daily alcohol consumption, and low protein or vitamin intake; physical activity is protective. Adjusting skeletal muscle mass by weight rather than height is better in showing the effect of older age in sarcopenia and identifying sarcopenic obesity; however, some Asian studies found no significant skeletal muscle loss, and muscle strength might be a better indicator. Although AWGS 2014 diagnostic cut-offs were generally well accepted, some may require further revision in light of conflicting evidence from some studies. The importance of sarcopenia in diverse therapeutic areas is increasingly evident, with strong research interest in sarcopenic obesity and the setting of malignancy. Pharmacologic interventions have been unsatisfactory, and the core management strategies remain physical exercise and nutritional supplementation; however, further research is required to determine the most beneficial approaches. PMID:27372539

  8. Monte Carlo reference data sets for imaging research: Executive summary of the report of AAPM Research Committee Task Group 195.

    PubMed

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Ali, Elsayed S M; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo; Boone, John M; Kyprianou, Iacovos S; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McMillan, Kyle L; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Rogers, D W O; Samei, Ehsan; Turner, Adam C

    2015-10-01

    The use of Monte Carlo simulations in diagnostic medical imaging research is widespread due to its flexibility and ability to estimate quantities that are challenging to measure empirically. However, any new Monte Carlo simulation code needs to be validated before it can be used reliably. The type and degree of validation required depends on the goals of the research project, but, typically, such validation involves either comparison of simulation results to physical measurements or to previously published results obtained with established Monte Carlo codes. The former is complicated due to nuances of experimental conditions and uncertainty, while the latter is challenging due to typical graphical presentation and lack of simulation details in previous publications. In addition, entering the field of Monte Carlo simulations in general involves a steep learning curve. It is not a simple task to learn how to program and interpret a Monte Carlo simulation, even when using one of the publicly available code packages. This Task Group report provides a common reference for benchmarking Monte Carlo simulations across a range of Monte Carlo codes and simulation scenarios. In the report, all simulation conditions are provided for six different Monte Carlo simulation cases that involve common x-ray based imaging research areas. The results obtained for the six cases using four publicly available Monte Carlo software packages are included in tabular form. In addition to a full description of all simulation conditions and results, a discussion and comparison of results among the Monte Carlo packages and the lessons learned during the compilation of these results are included. This abridged version of the report includes only an introductory description of the six cases and a brief example of the results of one of the cases. This work provides an investigator the necessary information to benchmark his/her Monte Carlo simulation software against the reference cases included here

  9. Strategies for Sharing Scientific Research on Sea Level Rise: Suggestions from Stakeholder Focus Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation reports results of focus groups with coastal resource managers on suggestions for effectively sharing sea level rise (SLR) scientific research with the public and other target audiences. The focus groups were conducted during three annual stakeholder workshops as an important and innovative component of an ongoing five-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing SLR risks to the natural and built environment along the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts. The purpose was to engage stakeholders (e.g., coastal resource managers) in helping target, translate, and tailor the EESLR-NGOM project's scientific findings and emerging products so they are readily accessible, understandable, and useful. The focus groups provided insight into stakeholders' SLR informational and operational needs, solicited input on the project's products, and gathered suggestions for public communication and outreach. A total of three ninety-minute focus groups of between eight and thirteen participants each were conducted at annual workshops in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. The moderator asked a series of open-ended questions about SLR-related topics using an interview guide and encouraged participant interaction. All focus group audio-recordings were transcribed, and analyzed by carefully reading the 102 total pages of transcript data and identifying patterns and themes. Participants thought outreach about SLR impact and the EESLR-NGOM project scientific research/products was vital and acknowledged various communication challenges and opportunities. They identified three target audiences (local officials, general public, coastal resource managers themselves) that likely require different educational efforts and tools. Participants felt confident the EESLR-NGOM project products will benefit their resource planning and decision making and

  10. Expanding the scope of medical mission volunteer groups to include a research component

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Serving on volunteer groups undertaking medical mission trips is a common activity for health care professionals and students. Although volunteers hope such work will assist underserved populations, medical mission groups have been criticized for not providing sustainable health services that focus on underlying health problems. As members of a volunteer medical mission group, we performed a bed net indicator study in rural Mali. We undertook this project to demonstrate that volunteers are capable of undertaking small-scale research, the results of which offer locally relevant results useful for disease prevention programs. The results of such projects are potentially sustainable beyond the duration of a mission trip. Methods Volunteers with Medicine for Mali interviewed 108 households in Nana Kenieba, Mali during a routine two-week medical mission trip. Interviewees were asked structured questions about family demographics, use of insecticide treated bed nets the previous evening, as well as about benefits of net use and knowledge of malaria. Survey results were analyzed using logistic regression. Results We found that 43.7% of households had any family member sleep under a bed net the previous evening. Eighty seven percent of households owned at least one ITN and the average household owned 1.95 nets. The regression model showed that paying for a net was significantly correlated with its use, while low perceived mosquito density, obtaining the net from the public sector and more than four years of education in the male head of the household were negatively correlated with net use. These results differ from national Malian data and peer-reviewed studies of bed net use. Conclusions We completed a bed net study that provided results that were specific to our service area. Since these results were dissimilar to peer-reviewed literature and Malian national level data on bed net use, the results will be useful to develop locally specific teaching materials

  11. Fuel cells and university research: the report of the energy committee's working group on fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Callagher-Daggitt, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    A SERC reassessment of fuel cells was prompted by a letter in early August 1981 to Sir Geoffrey Allen, then Chairman of SERC, from the Chief Engineer and Scientist of DoI, Dr Duncan Davies. A copy of the Davies letter was passed on to ERSU with a request for information about university research activity within the UK in this field. The consensus of opinion at these meetings was that the UK should not attempt to repeat the work on first-generation fuel cells being carried out in the USA, Japan, Belgium, and Germany. However, it was felt that universities should be encouraged to strengthen their research efforts in a few fundamental areas that were identified as essential for the materials breakthroughs needed to develop a viable second-generation fuel-cell technology, and it was decided to recommend that the Energy Committee of SERC give ERSU a watching brief with a mandate to review the situation in 18 months. Having considered the recommendations arising out of the Fuel-Cell Appraisal Meeting and the follow-on meeting between SERC and government departments, the Energy Committee set up a Working Group on Fuel Cells and asked it: to identify problems and those areas where work could usefully be carried out in the universities, to consider how university research into identified areas can be initiated and supported, and to prepare a report for the Energy Committee of SERC containing recommendations relating to university research in this field. This report has been prepared in response to that request.

  12. Integration of Research and Practice in Substance Use Disorder Treatment: Findings from Focus Groups of Clinicians, Researchers, Educators, Administrators, and Policy Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Todd C.; Daood, Christopher; Catlin, Lynn; Abelson, Alissa

    2005-01-01

    Clinicians, researchers, educators, administrators, and policy makers, who represented stakeholders in the substance abuse treatment field, participated in 5 focus groups. Four general areas regarding integration of research and practice were investigated: definition of research, training/education, current integration, and future integration.…

  13. Mathematics: Essential Research, Essential Practice. Volumes 1 and 2. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane, Ed.; Beswick, Kim, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This is a record of the proceedings of the 30th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (MERGA). The theme of the conference is "Mathematics: Essential research, essential practice." The theme draws attention to the importance of developing and maintaining links between research and practice and ties in with…

  14. Results of the Survey of RP Group Members: An Element in Strategic Planning for the Research & Planning Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Willard

    This document focuses on a stakeholder survey for a research unit. Although it covers just one part of the overall planning process that the Research & Planning (RP) Unit at the California Community Colleges Chancellor's Office, the researchers did survey other groups in the strategic planning effort. The stakeholder survey focused on four general…

  15. Quantifying greenhouse gas mitigation potential of cropland management practices: A review of the GRA croplands research group greenhouse gas network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-national greenhouse gas (GHG) flux networks play a central role facilitating model development and verification while concurrently identifying critical research needs. In 2012, a network was established within Component 1 of the Global Research Alliance (GRA) Croplands Research Group. The ne...

  16. Didactic Patterns for Electronic Materials in the Teaching of Interculturalism through Literature: The Experience of the Research Group LEETHi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azcarate, Asuncion Lopez-Varela

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a descriptive summary of a research project on blended learning in the Faculty of Arts at the University Complutense Madrid. The project was conducted as action research in 2002-06 by the research group LEETHi. LEETHi's projects focus on the teaching of literature from an intercultural perspective while helping to develop new media…

  17. Validation of the General Practitioner Clinical Research Group 11-item depression scale.

    PubMed

    Gringras, M

    1980-01-01

    In trials performed by the General Practitioner Clinical Research Group two rating scales have been employed extensively to measure depression. One includes some 17 target symptoms whilst the second is a shorter scale of 11 items. Although extensively used, neither scale has been validated against other measures of depression. An attempt was made to validate the 11-item scale, completed by the physician, against the Zung self-rating depression scale and the Wakefield Inventory, both patient-completed scales. Using thirty depressed patients the correlation between the 11-item scale and the Zung was 0.59 and between the 11-item scale and the Wakefield it was 0.5. Surprisingly, although the two scales are patient-completed and purport to measure the same thing, the correlation between the Zung and the Wakefield scales was only 0.69. All the correlations were statistically significant at the 1% level. PMID:7202817

  18. Summary of the 2014 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Adam M; Morris, Niya L; Cannon, Abigail R; Shults, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda; Casey, Carol A; Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Persidsky, Yuri; Nixon, Kimberly; Brown, Lou Ann; Waldschmidt, Thomas; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Choudhry, Mashkoor A

    2015-12-01

    On November 21, 2014 the 19th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at Loyola University Chicago Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, Illinois. The meeting focused broadly on inflammatory cell signaling responses in the context of alcohol and alcohol-use disorders, and was divided into four plenary sessions focusing on the gut and liver, lung infections, general systemic effects of alcohol, and neuro-inflammation. One common theme among many talks was the differential roles of macrophages following both chronic and acute alcohol intoxication. Macrophages were shown to play significant roles in regulating inflammation, oxidative stress, and viral infection following alcohol exposure in the liver, lungs, adipose tissue, and brain. Other work examined the role of alcohol on disease progression in a variety of pathologies including psoriasis, advanced stage lung disease, and cancer. PMID:26520175

  19. The use of control groups in music therapy research: a content analysis of articles in the Journal of Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer D

    2006-01-01

    The use of a control group is fundamental to experimental research design, though the use with clinical populations must be carefully considered. The purpose of this research was to examine the use of control groups in research with clinical and nonclinical populations published in Journal of Musical Therapy from 1964 through 2004. Criteria for inclusion were music or music therapy as an independent variable applied to one or more groups and at least one control group that did not receive a music treatment. Control groups were qualified as alternative treatment, placebo, no contact, and treatment as usual. Of the 692 articles, 94 met these criteria, 62 clinical and 32 nonclinical, representing 13.5% of the publications. Results indicated that research with clinical populations involved a mean of 38.1 subjects typically divided into two groups, an experimental and a control group. The pretest-posttest design was the most common (55%) as was a treatment as usual control group (45%). These design methods maximized the impact of the experimental music treatment on outcome. Experimental music groups significantly improved over control groups in the vast majority of studies identified. Undoubtedly, the foundation for evidence-based clinical practice is firm. PMID:17348759

  20. Can Research Assessments Themselves Cause Bias in Behaviour Change Trials? A Systematic Review of Evidence from Solomon 4-Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    McCambridge, Jim; Butor-Bhavsar, Kaanan; Witton, John; Elbourne, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Background The possible effects of research assessments on participant behaviour have attracted research interest, especially in studies with behavioural interventions and/or outcomes. Assessments may introduce bias in randomised controlled trials by altering receptivity to intervention in experimental groups and differentially impacting on the behaviour of control groups. In a Solomon 4-group design, participants are randomly allocated to one of four arms: (1) assessed experimental group; (2) unassessed experimental group (3) assessed control group; or (4) unassessed control group. This design provides a test of the internal validity of effect sizes obtained in conventional two-group trials by controlling for the effects of baseline assessment, and assessing interactions between the intervention and baseline assessment. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate evidence from Solomon 4-group studies with behavioural outcomes that baseline research assessments themselves can introduce bias into trials. Methodology/Principal Findings Electronic databases were searched, supplemented by citation searching. Studies were eligible if they reported appropriately analysed results in peer-reviewed journals and used Solomon 4-group designs in non-laboratory settings with behavioural outcome measures and sample sizes of 20 per group or greater. Ten studies from a range of applied areas were included. There was inconsistent evidence of main effects of assessment, sparse evidence of interactions with behavioural interventions, and a lack of convincing data in relation to the research question for this review. Conclusions/Significance There were too few high quality completed studies to infer conclusively that biases stemming from baseline research assessments do or do not exist. There is, therefore a need for new rigorous Solomon 4-group studies that are purposively designed to evaluate the potential for research assessments to cause bias in behaviour change trials. PMID

  1. Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretonnière, Pierre-Antoine; Benincasa, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality" More than ever in the history of Earth sciences, scientists are confronted with the problem of dealing with huge amounts of data that grow continuously at a rate that becomes a challenge to process and analyse them using conventional methods. Data come from many different and widely distributed sources, ranging from satellite platforms and in-situ sensors to model simulations, and with different degrees of openness. How can Earth scientists deal with this diversity and big volume and extract useful information to understand and predict the relevant processes? The Research Data Alliance (RDA, https://rd-alliance.org/), an organization that promotes and develops new data policies, data standards and focuses on the development of new technical solutions applicable in many distinct areas of sciences, recently entered in its third phase. In this framework, an Interest Group (IG) comprised of community experts that are committed to directly or indirectly enable and facilitate data sharing, exchange, or interoperability in the fields of weather, climate and air quality has been created recently. Its aim is to explore and discuss the challenges for the use and efficient analysis of large and diverse datasets of relevance for these fields taking advantage of the knowledge generated and exchanged in RDA. At the same time, this IG intends to be a meeting point between members of the aforementioned communities to share experiences and propose new solutions to overcome the forthcoming challenges. Based on the collaboration between several research meteorological and European climate institutes, but also taking into account the input from the private (from the renewable energies, satellites and agriculture sectors for example) and public sectors, this IG will suggest practical and applicable solutions for Big Data issues, both at technological and policy level, encountered by these communities. We

  2. ‘Putting Life in Years’ (PLINY) telephone friendship groups research study: pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Loneliness in older people is associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We undertook a parallel-group randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone befriending for the maintenance of HRQoL in older people. An internal pilot tested the feasibility of the trial and intervention. Methods Participants aged >74 years, with good cognitive function, living independently in one UK city were recruited through general practices and other sources, then randomised to: (1) 6 weeks of short one-to-one telephone calls, followed by 12 weeks of group telephone calls with up to six participants, led by a trained volunteer facilitator; or (2) a control group. The main trial required the recruitment of 248 participants in a 1-year accrual window, of whom 124 were to receive telephone befriending. The pilot specified three success criteria which had to be met in order to progress the main trial to completion: recruitment of 68 participants in 95 days; retention of 80% participants at 6 months; successful delivery of telephone befriending by local franchise of national charity. The primary clinical outcome was the Short Form (36) Health Instrument (SF-36) Mental Health (MH) dimension score collected by telephone 6 months following randomisation. Results We informed 9,579 older people about the study. Seventy consenting participants were randomised to the pilot in 95 days, with 56 (80%) providing valid primary outcome data (26 intervention, 30 control). Twenty-four participants randomly allocated to the research arm actually received telephone befriending due to poor recruitment and retention of volunteer facilitators. The trial was closed early as a result. The mean 6-month SF-36 MH scores were 78 (SD 18) and 71 (SD 21) for the intervention and control groups, respectively (mean difference, 7; 95% CI, -3 to 16). Conclusions Recruitment and retention of participants to a definitive trial with a

  3. Focus Group Interview: An Underutilized Research Technique for Improving Theory and Practice in Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses using focus group interviews to advance the state of the art of education and learning about health. Also examines small group process in health education, features of focus group interviews, and a theoretical framework for planning a focus group study. A literature review is included. (CT)

  4. Researching the mental health needs of hard-to-reach groups: managing multiple sources of evidence

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Common mental health problems impose substantial challenges to patients, carers, and health care systems. A range of interventions have demonstrable efficacy in improving the lives of people experiencing such problems. However many people are disadvantaged, either because they are unable to access primary care, or because access does not lead to adequate help. New methods are needed to understand the problems of access and generate solutions. In this paper we describe our methodological approach to managing multiple and diverse sources of evidence, within a research programme to increase equity of access to high quality mental health services in primary care. Methods We began with a scoping review to identify the range and extent of relevant published material, and establish key concepts related to access. We then devised a strategy to collect - in parallel - evidence from six separate sources: a systematic review of published quantitative data on access-related studies; a meta-synthesis of published qualitative data on patient perspectives; dialogues with local stakeholders; a review of grey literature from statutory and voluntary service providers; secondary analysis of patient transcripts from previous qualitative studies; and primary data from interviews with service users and carers. We synthesised the findings from these diverse sources, made judgements on key emerging issues in relation to needs and services, and proposed a range of potential interventions. These proposals were debated and refined using iterative electronic and focus group consultation procedures involving international experts, local stakeholders and service users. Conclusions Our methods break new ground by generating and synthesising multiple sources of evidence, connecting scientific understanding with the perspectives of users, in order to develop innovative ways to meet the mental health needs of under-served groups. PMID:20003275

  5. An Australasian perspective on sarcoma research, translational biology and clinical trials: the Australasian Sarcoma Study Group (ASSG).

    PubMed

    Bae, Susie; Caruso, Denise; Desai, Jayesh

    2014-02-01

    Each year approximately 800 Australians are diagnosed with sarcoma, accounting for less than 1% of cancer diagnoses overall. A significant proportion of these sarcoma cases are in children and adolescents. The rarity and heterogeneity of this group of tumours, coupled with Australasia's relative geographical isolation, pose significant challenges in developing locoregional basic, translational and clinical research. The Australasian Sarcoma Study Group (ASSG) was established in 2008 as a Cooperative Cancer Clinical Research Group and is now the peak body for sarcoma research in Australasia, providing a mechanism to drive and coordinate collaborative research, promote education and assist with advocating for sarcoma within the region. This paper describes the development of ASSG and examines the current state of play with regard to sarcoma research in Australasia. PMID:24378392

  6. Implementation intention and planning interventions in Health Psychology: Recommendations from the Synergy Expert Group for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; de Wit, John; Benyamini, Yael; Burkert, Silke; Chamberland, Pier-Eric; Chater, Angel; Dombrowski, Stephan U; van Dongen, Anne; French, David P; Gauchet, Aurelie; Hankonen, Nelli; Karekla, Maria; Kinney, Anita Y; Kwasnicka, Dominika; Hing Lo, Siu; López-Roig, Sofía; Meslot, Carine; Marques, Marta Moreira; Neter, Efrat; Plass, Anne Marie; Potthoff, Sebastian; Rennie, Laura; Scholz, Urte; Stadler, Gertraud; Stolte, Elske; Ten Hoor, Gill; Verhoeven, Aukje; Wagner, Monika; Oettingen, Gabriele; Sheeran, Paschal; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural medicine who convened to discuss priority issues in planning interventions in health contexts and develop a set of recommendations for future research and practice. The expert group adopted a nominal groups approach and voting system to elicit and structure priority issues in planning interventions and implementation intentions research. Forty-two priority issues identified in initial discussions were further condensed to 18 key issues, including definitions of planning and implementation intentions and 17 priority research areas. Each issue was subjected to voting for consensus among group members and formed the basis of the position statement and recommendations. Specifically, the expert group endorsed statements and recommendations in the following areas: generic definition of planning and specific definition of implementation intentions, recommendations for better testing of mechanisms, guidance on testing the effects of moderators of planning interventions, recommendations on the social aspects of planning interventions, identification of the preconditions that moderate effectiveness of planning interventions and recommendations for research on how people use plans. PMID:26892502

  7. Translating patient self-management research into primary care: challenges and successes with group medical visits.

    PubMed

    Sieber, William J; Newsome, Alita; Fiorella, Melanie; Mantila, Helen

    2012-12-01

    Essential to the implementation of a patient-centered medical home is use of evidence-based interventions by a well-coordinated team of providers in a cost-effective manner. Group Medical Visits (GMVs), designed to increase self-management behaviors in patients with chronic illness, have shown inconsistently to be efficacious. Despite the modest results reported thus far in the literature, GMVs have been promoted by the American Academy of Family Physicians as an important component in the patient-centered medical home. This paper describes the challenges of translating GMVs into clinical practice when research support is not available. A review of 5+ years experience in conducting GMVs in clinical practice, including the numerous barriers, is presented through a "three-world view" model utilized by collaborative care leaders. This review is followed by a comparison of variables extracted from patients' electronic health records of those who participated in GMVs to similar patients who did not participate in GMVs. Results suggest that outcomes often reported in efficacy trials are not easily obtained in real clinical practice. Overcoming the operational and financial obstacles to offering GMVs is necessary before they can be promoted as essential elements in a patient-centered medical home. PMID:24073154

  8. Arts and Learning Research, 1994. The Journal of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association (New Orleans, Louisiana, April 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Lorrie, Ed.; Morbey, Mary Leigh, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The research papers gathered in this volume were presented at the 1994 meeting of the American Educational Research Association as part of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group program. Papers collected in the volume represent an eclectic view of arts education and include music education. Following an editorial, papers are: "Arts and…

  9. Digitization as a Method of Preservation? Final Report of a Working Group of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Association).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Hartmut; Dorr, Marianne

    The German Research Association (DFG) is actively involved in preservation of research materials; it takes the view that in preservation, the enormous potential of digitization for access should be combined with the stability of microfilm for long-term storage. A working group was convened to investigate the technical state of digitization of…

  10. Having Friends--They Help You when You Are Stuck from Money, Friends and Making Ends Meet Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article is about the lived experiences and friendships of a small group of people with a learning disability who live without support in one of the most deprived areas in the UK. The findings are from an inclusive research project, that was named "Money, Friends and Making Ends Meet" and the participants who researched their own lives become…

  11. The Wisconsin Network for Health Research (WiNHR): A Statewide, Collaborative, Multi-disciplinary, Research Group

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Howard; Agger, William; Baumgardner, Dennis; Burmester, James K.; Cisler, Ron A.; Evertsen, Jennifer; Glurich, Ingrid; Hartman, David; Yale, Steven H.; DeMets, David

    2010-01-01

    In response to the goals of the Wisconsin Partnership Program and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Initiatives to Improve Healthcare, the Wisconsin Network for Health Research (WiNHR) was formed. As a collaborative, multi-disciplinary statewide research network, WiNHR encourages and fosters the discovery and application of scientific knowledge for researchers and practitioners throughout Wisconsin. The 4 founding institutions—Aurora Health Care/Center for Urban Population Health (CUPH), Gundersen Lutheran Medical Foundation, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, and the University of Wisconsin-Madison—representing geographically diverse areas of the state, are optimistic and committed to WiNHR’s success. This optimism is based on the relevance of its goals to public health, the quality of statewide health care research, and, most importantly, the residents of Wisconsin who recognize the value of health research. PMID:20131687

  12. Diversity in Collaborative Research Communities: A Multicultural, Multidisciplinary Thesis Writing Group in Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Cally; Xafis, Vicki; Doda, Diana V.; Gillam, Marianne H.; Larg, Allison J.; Luckner, Helene; Jahan, Nasreen; Widayati, Aris; Xu, Chuangzhou

    2013-01-01

    Writing groups for doctoral students are generally agreed to provide valuable learning spaces for Ph.D. candidates. Here an academic developer and the eight members of a writing group formed in a Discipline of Public Health provide an account of their experiences of collaborating in a multicultural, multidisciplinary thesis writing group. We…

  13. Collective Form: An Exploration of Large-Group Writing. 1998 Outstanding Researcher Lecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Geoffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on whether a collective mind forms in large-group writing in the workplace. Discusses "collective form" in two senses. Describes how group leaders prominently displayed a task completion check-off chart that, in a downsizing environment, helped both to coordinate group activity and to encourage completion. Discusses pedagogical…

  14. An Innovative Lab-Based Training Program to Help Patient Groups Understand Their Disease and the Research Process

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Marion; Hammond, Constance; Karlin, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Genuine partnership between patient groups and medical experts is important but challenging. Our training program meets this challenge by organizing hands-on, lab-based training sessions for members of patient groups. These sessions allow “trainees” to better understand their disease and the biomedical research process, and strengthen links between patients and local researchers. Over the past decade, we and our partner institutes have received more than 900 French patients, with the participation of over 60 researchers and clinicians. PMID:25668201

  15. Patient Engagement Practices in Clinical Research among Patient Groups, Industry, and Academia in the United States: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sophia K.; Selig, Wendy; Harker, Matthew; Roberts, Jamie N.; Hesterlee, Sharon; Leventhal, David; Klein, Richard; Patrick-Lake, Bray; Abernethy, Amy P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patient-centered clinical trial design and execution is becoming increasingly important. No best practice guidelines exist despite a key stakeholder declaration to create more effective engagement models. This study aims to gain a better understanding of attitudes and practices for engaging patient groups so that actionable recommendations may be developed. Methods Individuals from industry, academic institutions, and patient groups were identified through Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative and Drug Information Association rosters and mailing lists. Objectives, practices, and perceived barriers related to engaging patient groups in the planning, conduct, and interpretation of clinical trials were reported in an online survey. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of survey data followed a literature review to inform survey questions. Results Survey respondents (n = 179) valued the importance of involving patient groups in research; however, patient group respondents valued their contributions to research protocol development, funding acquisition, and interpretation of study results more highly than those contributions were valued by industry and academic respondents (all p < .001). Patient group respondents placed higher value in open communications, clear expectations, and detailed contract execution than did non–patient group respondents (all p < .05). Industry and academic respondents more often cited internal bureaucratic processes and reluctance to share information as engagement barriers than did patient group respondents (all p < .01). Patient groups reported that a lack of transparency and understanding of the benefits of collaboration on the part of industry and academia were greater barriers than did non–patient group respondents (all p< .01). Conclusions Despite reported similarities among approaches to engagement by the three stakeholder groups, key differences exist in perceived barriers and benefits to partnering with

  16. The NASA/NSERC Student Airborne Research Program Land Focus Group - a Paid Training Program in Multi-Disciplinary STEM Research for Terrestrial Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefauver, S. C.; Ustin, S.; Davey, S. W.; Furey, B. J.; Gartner, A.; Kurzweil, D.; Siebach, K. L.; Slawsky, L.; Snyder, E.; Trammell, J.; Young, J.; Schaller, E.; Shetter, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Suborbital Education and Research Center (NSERC) is a unique six week multidisciplinary paid training program which directly integrates students into the forefront of airborne remote sensing science. Students were briefly trained with one week of lectures and laboratory exercises and then immediately incorporated into ongoing research projects which benefit from access to the DC-8 airborne platform and the MODIS-ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) sensor. Students were split into three major topical categories of Land, Ocean, and Air for the data collection and project portions of the program. This poster details the techniques and structure used for the student integration into ongoing research, professional development, hypothesis building and results as developed by the professor and mentor of the Land focus group. Upon assignment to the Land group, students were issued official research field protocols and split into four field specialty groups with additional specialty reading assignments. In the field each group spent more time in their respective specialty, but also participated in all field techniques through pairings with UC Davis research team members using midday rotations. After the field campaign, each specialty group then gave summary presentations on the techniques, preliminary results, and significance to overall group objectives of their specialty. Then students were required to submit project proposals within the bounds of Land airborne remote sensing science and encouraging, but not requiring the use of the field campaign data. These proposals are then reviewed by the professor and mentor and students are met with one by one to discuss the skills of each student and objectives of the proposed research project. The students then work under the supervision of the mentor and benefit again from professor feedback in a formal

  17. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation

    PubMed Central

    De Gregori, Manuela; Scotti, Valeria; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Curti, Moreno; Fanelli, Guido; Allegri, Massimo; Schatman, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research) group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as “individual publications”). For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists), we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%), discussed (61.1% vs 1.1%, P<0.0001), and publicly viewed (11.1% vs 1.3%, P=0.05) than individual publications. These results support the importance of multidisciplinary research groups in the impact of scientific literature; the interaction and synergy among the research participants allowed the obtainment of high impact-literature in the field of personalized pain medicine. Finally, our findings demonstrate the potential of altmetrics in estimating the value of the research products of a group. PMID:27358575

  18. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation.

    PubMed

    De Gregori, Manuela; Scotti, Valeria; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Curti, Moreno; Fanelli, Guido; Allegri, Massimo; Schatman, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research) group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as "individual publications"). For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists), we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%), discussed (61.1% vs 1.1%, P<0.0001), and publicly viewed (11.1% vs 1.3%, P=0.05) than individual publications. These results support the importance of multidisciplinary research groups in the impact of scientific literature; the interaction and synergy among the research participants allowed the obtainment of high impact-literature in the field of personalized pain medicine. Finally, our findings demonstrate the potential of altmetrics in estimating the value of the research products of a group. PMID:27358575

  19. The research priorities of patients attending UK cancer treatment centres: findings from a modified nominal group study

    PubMed Central

    Corner, J; Wright, D; Hopkinson, J; Gunaratnam, Y; McDonald, J W; Foster, C

    2007-01-01

    Members of the public are increasingly consulted over health care and research priorities. Patient involvement in determining cancer research priorities, however, has remained underdeveloped. This paper presents the findings of the first consultation to be conducted with UK cancer patients concerning research priorities. The study adopted a participatory approach using a collaborative model that sought joint ownership of the study with people affected by cancer. An exploratory, qualitative approach was used. Consultation groups were the main method, combining focus group and nominal group techniques. Seventeen groups were held with a total of 105 patients broadly representative of the UK cancer population. Fifteen areas for research were identified. Top priority areas included the impact cancer has on life, how to live with cancer and related support issues; risk factors and causes of cancer; early detection and prevention. Although biological and treatment related aspects of science were identified as important, patients rated the management of practical, social and emotional issues as a higher priority. There is a mismatch between the research priorities identified by participants and the current UK research portfolio. Current research activity should be broadened to reflect the priorities of people affected by the disease. PMID:17342090

  20. Talking Science: The research evidence on the use of small group discussions in science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Judith; Hogarth, Sylvia; Lubben, Fred; Campbell, Bob; Robinson, Alison

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of two systematic reviews of the use and effects of small group discussions in high school science teaching. Ninety-four studies were included in an overview (systematic map) of work in the area, and 24 studies formed the basis of the in-depth reviews. The reviews indicate that there is considerable diversity in the topics used to promote small group discussions. They also demonstrate that students often struggle to formulate and express coherent arguments, and demonstrate a low level of engagement with tasks. The reviews suggest that groups function more purposefully, and understanding improves most, when specifically constituted such that differing views are represented, when some form of training is provided for students on effective group work, and when help in structuring discussions is provided in the form of "cues". Single-sex groups function more purposefully than mixed-sex groups, though improvements in understanding are independent of gender composition of groups. Finally, the reviews demonstrate very clearly that, for small group discussions to be effective, teachers and students need to be given explicit teaching in the skills associated with the development of arguments and the characteristics associated with effective group discussions. In addition to the substantive findings, the paper also reports on key features of the methods employed to gather and analyse data. Of particular note are the two contrasting approaches to data analysis, one adopting a grounded theory approach and the other drawing on established methods of discourse analysis.

  1. Development of Innovative Group Work Practice Using the Intervention Research Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Edna; Meier, Andrea; Galinsky, Maeda J.

    2004-01-01

    Rothman and Thomas' intervention research (IR) paradigm provides an alternative, developmental research method that is appropriate for practice research, especially at the early stages. It is more flexible than conventional experimental designs, capitalizes on the availability of small samples, accommodates the dynamism and variation in practice…

  2. Reference, or Advisory, Groups Involving Disabled People: Reflections from Three Contrasting Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ann; Parsons, Sarah; Robertson, Christopher; Feiler, Anthony; Tarleton, Beth; Watson, Debby; Byers, Richard; Davies, Jill; Fergusson, Ann; Marvin, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly in recent years, the involvement of disabled people as co-researchers has been regarded as "good practice." This has been informed by growing participatory and emancipatory research paradigms as well as user-focused policy imperatives. The benefits of these shifts apply to the research itself (improved definition, direction,…

  3. Summary of presentation for research on social structure, agreement, and conflict in groups in extreme and isolated environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Despite a vast amount of research, little is known concerning the effect of group structure, and individuals' understanding of that structure, on conflict in Antarctic groups. The overall objective of the research discussed is to determine the interrelationships of group structure, social cognition, and group function and conflict in isolated and extreme environments. In the two decades following WWII, a large body of research focused on the physiological, psychological, and social psychological factors affecting the functioning of individuals and groups in a variety of extreme and isolated environments in both the Arctic and Antarctic. There are two primary reasons for further research of this type. First, Antarctic polar stations are considered to be natural laboratories for the social and behavioral sciences and provide an opportunity to address certain theoretical and empirical questions concerned with agreement and conflict in social groups in general and group behavior in extreme, isolated environments in particular. Recent advances in the analysis of social networks and intracultural variation have improved the methods and have shifted the theoretical questions. The research is motivated by three classes of questions: (1) What are the characteristics of the social relations among individuals working and living together in extreme and isolated environments?; (2) What do individuals understand about their group, how does that understanding develop, and how is it socially distributed?; and (3) What is the relationship between that understanding and the functioning of the social group? Answers to these questions are important if we are to advance our knowledge of how individuals and groups adapt to extreme environments. Second, although Antarctic winter-over candidates may be evaluated as qualified on the basis of individual characteristics, they may fail to adapt because of certain characteristics of the social group. Consequently, the ability of winter-over-groups

  4. Sex and gender traps and springboards: a focus group study among gender researchers in medicine and health sciences.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Monica; Alex, Lena; Wiklund, Anncristine Fjellman; Hammarström, Anne; Lundman, Berit

    2012-01-01

    We explored the difficulties that gender researchers encounter in their research and the strategies they use for solving these problems. Sixteen Swedish researchers, all women, took part in focus group discussions; the data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The problems reported fell into four main categories: the ambiguity of the concepts of sex and gender; traps associated with dichotomization; difficulties with communication; and issues around publication. Categories of suggested problem-solving strategies were adaptation, pragmatism, addressing the complexities, and definition of terms. Here the specific views of gender researchers in medicine and health sciences-"medical insiders"-bring new challenges into focus. PMID:22827730

  5. Qualitative Research and Consumer Policy: Focus Group Discussions as a Form of Consumer Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiskanen, Eva; Jarvela, Katja; Pulliainen, Annukka; Saastamoinen, Mika; Timonen, Paivi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes our ongoing attempts to involve consumers in innovation and technology policy by means of a national Consumer Panel, using focus group discussions as the primary method of consumer participation. We evaluate our experiences of the usefulness of focus group discussions in this context by considering two examples of studies…

  6. Patterns of Ability Factors among Four Ethnic Groups. Project Access Research Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaugher, Ronald L.; Rock, Donald A.

    Differing patterns of abilities among high school males of four ethnic groups were investigated, as reflected in the interrelationships of scores on a multi-test aptitude battery. If such differences in patterns of ability exist among these groups, their existence and nature should be revealed in the interrelationships of the various test scores…

  7. A Mentor, Peer Group, Incentive Model for Helping Underclass Youth. Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincy, Ronald B.; Wiener, Susan J.

    This document describes the Mentors, Peer Groups, and Incentives (MPI) demonstration project, a model for helping early adolescent underclass males to improve academic performance and reduce the probability of premature fatherhood. A first section discusses the working definition of the underclass as a group where dysfunctional behaviors are…

  8. Community Voice: Focus Group Research with Adult Learners in Worcestershire and Herefordshire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsdale, Julia

    Focus groups of adult learners and some nonlearners in the English counties of Worcestershire and Herefordshire were convened to gather information about local adults' attitudes toward and experiences of further education courses. The focus groups examined how people hear about courses, why they join courses, what factors prevent people from…

  9. Delinquency and Crime Prevention: Overview of Research Comparing Treatment Foster Care and Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, Gershon K.; Gorey, Kevin M.; Jozefowicz, Debra M. Hernandez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence of treatment foster care (TFC) and group care's (GC) potential to prevent delinquency and crime has been developing. Objectives: We clarified the state of comparative knowledge with a historical overview. Then we explored the hypothesis that smaller, probably better resourced group homes with smaller staff/resident ratios have…

  10. Item Response Theory at Subject- and Group-Level. Research Report 90-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobi, Hilde

    This paper reviews the literature about item response models for the subject level and aggregated level (group level). Group-level item response models (IRMs) are used in the United States in large-scale assessment programs such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the California Assessment Program. In the Netherlands, these…