Science.gov

Sample records for research review indoor

  1. Research review: Indoor air quality control techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.

    1986-10-01

    Techniques for controlling the concentration of radon, formaldehyde, and combustion products in the indoor air are reviewed. The most effective techniques, which are generally based on limiting or reducing indoor pollutant source strengths, can decrease indoor pollutant concentrations by a factor of 3 to 10. Unless the initial ventilation rate is unusually low, it is difficult to reduce indoor pollutant concentrations more than approximately 50% by increasing the ventilation rate of an entire building. However, the efficiency of indoor pollutant control by ventilation can be enhanced through the use of local exhaust ventilation near concentrated sources of pollutants, by minimizing short circuiting of air from supply to exhaust when pollutant sources are dispersed and, in some situations, by promoting a displacement flow of air and pollutants toward the exhaust. Active air cleaning is also examined briefly. Filtration and electrostatic air cleaning for removal of particles from the indoor air are the most practical and effective currently available techniques of air cleaning. 49 refs., 7 figs.

  2. a Review of Recent Research in Indoor Modelling & Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunduz, M.; Isikdag, U.; Basaraner, M.

    2016-06-01

    Indoor modeling and mapping has been an active area of research in last 20 years in order to tackle the problems related to positioning and tracking of people and objects indoors, and provides many opportunities for several domains ranging from emergency response to logistics in micro urban spaces. The outputs of recent research in the field have been presented in several scientific publications and events primarily related to spatial information science and technology. This paper summarizes the outputs of last 10 years of research on indoor modeling and mapping within a proper classification which covers 7 areas, i.e. Information Acquisition by Sensors, Model Definition, Model Integration, Indoor Positioning and LBS, Routing & Navigation Methods, Augmented and Virtual Reality Applications, and Ethical Issues. Finally, the paper outlines the current and future research directions and concluding remarks.

  3. VENTILATION RESEARCH: A REVIEW OF RECENT INDOOR AIR QUALITY LITERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature review, conducted to survey and summarize recent and ongoing engineering research into building ventilation, air exchange rate, pollutant distribution and dispersion, and other effects of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) s...

  4. Ventilation research: A review of recent indoor air quality literature. Final report, October 1993-March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Van Osdell, D.W.

    1994-09-01

    Building ventilation and air conditioning systems have traditionally been designed and controlled to maintain occupant thermal comfort at acceptable capital and operating costs, an indoor air quality (IAQ) has not been a primary concern. A literature review was conducted to survey and summarize recent and on-going engineering research into building ventilation, air exchange rate, pollutant distribution and dispersion, and other effects of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems on IAQ. The ventilation-related engineering literature was divided into seven major categories: (1) pollutant transport to and into the building envelope; (2) air cleaning systems; (3) flow and pollutant dispersion, (4) room and building flow/dispersion research; (5) HVAC/building design, operation, and control strategies; (6) applied microbial research; and (7) building performance. The significance and status of ventilation-related IAQ research was summarized by research category, and research opportunities were identified within each category.

  5. Healthier Schools: A Review of State Policies for Improving Indoor Air Quality. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Tobie

    Existing indoor air quality (IAQ) policies for schools reflect the variety of institutional, political, social, and economic contexts that exist within individual states. The purpose of this report is to provide a better understanding of the types of policy strategies used by states in addressing general indoor air quality problems. The policies…

  6. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  7. SUMMARY OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH THROUGH 1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews indoor air quality research from 1980 through December 1984. It is also a compilation of two documents that review relevant literature on the subject and summarize the efforts of leading research scientists. The first effort involved: (1) a review of journal ar...

  8. RESEARCH OVERVIEW: SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper briefly traces the history of air quality problems in residential, office, and public access buildings to show the evolution of indoor air quality (IAQ) concerns. It then briefly discusses sources of IAQ problems--both known and suspected--then reviews the current state...

  9. ASSESSING PROGRAM NEEDS FOR INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS RESEARCH (PNIER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    "Program Needs for Indoor Environments Research" (PNIER), EPA 402-B-05-001 www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/pnier.pdf, is intended to be a "living" document that captures the indoor environments research needs for all EPA offices with program responsibilities related to indoor environmental...

  10. REVIEW OF CONCENTRATION STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES FOR FUNGI IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews and compares existing guidelines for indoor airborne fungi, discusses limitations of existing guidelines, and identifies research needs that should contribute to the development of realistic and useful guidelines for these important air pollutants. (NOTE: Exposu...

  11. Indoor-Outdoor Air Pollution Relationship: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Ferris B.; And Others

    While extensive measurements have been and are being made of outdoor pollution, relatively few data have been gathered on indoor pollution. The data that are available are compiled and analyzed in the report. Based on a review of the literature, it was possible to infer relationships between indoor and outdoor pollution and to identify factors…

  12. Indoor water and dampness and the health effects on children: a review.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Kevin; Grimes, Carl

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to dampness and mold in indoor environments has received significant attention in recent research. This review focuses on studies looking at the impact of dampness, moisture and microbial agents on children's health. We then look more broadly at how research studies have tried to describe dampness and exposure to moisture. Papers published from 2010 onwards were reviewed and are briefly summarized. Most of the papers using dampness as a proxy for microbial exposure focused on respiratory tract infections, especially asthma. This review highlights new findings and also discusses the variety of approaches used to assess dampness in indoor environments. PMID:24249387

  13. THE STATUS OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION RESEARCH 1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous research projects have examined the occurrences of air pollution in outdoor and workplace environments. A smaller, newer body of research has examined air pollution in nonworkplace, indoor environments. A new emphasis on measures to conserve energy in buildings, curbing ...

  14. INVENTORY OF CURRENT INDOOR AIR QUALITY-RELATED RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inventory lists a total of 171 current or recently completed projects relating to indoor air quality. It covers six specific areas of research: monitoring, instrumentation, health effects, control technology, risk assessment and pollutant characterization. It is cross-referen...

  15. Indoor Environmental Exposures and Exacerbation of Asthma: An Update to the 2000 Review by the Institute of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Wang, Grace; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research has found relationships between specific indoor environmental exposures and exacerbation of asthma. Objectives: In this review we provide an updated summary of knowledge from the scientific literature on indoor exposures and exacerbation of asthma. Methods: Peer-reviewed articles published from 2000 to 2013 on indoor exposures and exacerbation of asthma were identified through PubMed, from reference lists, and from authors’ files. Articles that focused on modifiable indoor exposures in relation to frequency or severity of exacerbation of asthma were selected for review. Research findings were reviewed and summarized with consideration of the strength of the evidence. Results: Sixty-nine eligible articles were included. Major changed conclusions include a causal relationship with exacerbation for indoor dampness or dampness-related agents (in children); associations with exacerbation for dampness or dampness-related agents (in adults), endotoxin, and environmental tobacco smoke (in preschool children); and limited or suggestive evidence for association with exacerbation for indoor culturable Penicillium or total fungi, nitrogen dioxide, rodents (nonoccupational), feather/down pillows (protective relative to synthetic bedding), and (regardless of specific sensitization) dust mite, cockroach, dog, and dampness-related agents. Discussion: This review, incorporating evidence reported since 2000, increases the strength of evidence linking many indoor factors to the exacerbation of asthma. Conclusions should be considered provisional until all available evidence is examined more thoroughly. Conclusion: Multiple indoor exposures, especially dampness-related agents, merit increased attention to prevent exacerbation of asthma, possibly even in nonsensitized individuals. Additional research to establish causality and evaluate interventions is needed for these and other indoor exposures. Citation: Kanchongkittiphon W, Mendell MJ, Gaffin JM, Wang

  16. Do indoor environments in schools influence student performance? A review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, Mark J.; Heath, Garvin A.

    2004-11-24

    Limited research is available on potential adverse effects of school environments on academic performance, despite strong public concern. We examine the scientific evidence relevant to this relationship by reviewing available research relating schools and other indoor environments to human performance or attendance. As a primary focus, we critically review evidence for direct relationships between indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in buildings and performance or attendance. As a secondary focus, we summarize, without critique, evidence on potential connections indirectly linking IEQ to performance or attendance: relationships between IEQ and health, between health and performance or attendance, and between attendance and performance. The most persuasive direct evidence showed increases in indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and outdoor concentrations of several specific pollutants to be related to reduced school attendance. The most persuasive indirect evidence showed indoor dampness and microbiologic pollutants to be related to asthma and respiratory infections, which have in turn been related to reduced performance and attendance. Furthermore, a substantial scientific literature links poor IEQ (e.g., low ventilation rate, excess moisture or formaldehyde) with respiratory and other health effects in children and adults. Overall, evidence suggests that poor IEQ in schools can influence the performance and attendance of students, primarily through health effects from indoor pollutants. Also, inadequate IEQ in schools seems sufficiently common to merit strong public concern. Evidence is available to justify (1) immediate actions to protect IEQ in schools and (2) focused research on exposures, prevention, and causation, to better guide policies and actions on IEQ in schools.

  17. "INSIDE IAQ" -- EPA'S INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH UPDATE (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL).

    EPA Science Inventory

    "Inside IAQ" is published twice a year and highlights indoor air quality (IAQ) research conducted by EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Indoor Environment Management Branch and other parts of EPA's Office of Research and Development.To view previous issues of ...

  18. Passive dosimeters for nitrogen dioxide in personal/indoor air sampling: A review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Morandi, Maria T.; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurement of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in both outdoor and indoor environments, including personal exposures, is a fundamental step for linking atmospheric nitrogen dioxide levels to potential health and ecological effects. The measurement has been conducted generally in two ways: active (pumped) sampling and passive (diffusive) sampling. Diffusion samplers, initially developed and used for workplace air monitoring, have been found to be useful and cost-effective alternatives to conventional pumped samplers for monitoring ambient, indoor and personal exposures at the lower concentrations found in environmental settings. Since the 1970s, passive samplers have been deployed for ambient air monitoring in urban and rural sites, and to determine personal and indoor exposure to NO2. This article reviews the development of NO2 passive samplers, the sampling characteristics of passive samplers currently available, and their application in ambient and indoor air monitoring and personal exposure studies. The limitations and advantages of the various passive sampler geometries (i.e., tube, badge, and radial type) are also discussed. This review provides researchers and risk assessors with practical information about NO2 passive samplers, especially useful when designing field sampling strategies for exposure and indoor/outdoor air sampling. PMID:18446185

  19. Indoor radon exposure and lung cancer: a review of ecological studies.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji Young; Lee, Jung-Dong; Joo, So Won; Kang, Dae Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has high mortality and incidence rates. The leading causes of lung cancer are smoking and radon exposure. Indeed, the World Health Organization (WHO) has categorized radon as a carcinogenic substance causing lung cancer. Radon is a natural, radioactive substance; it is an inert gas that mainly exists in soil or rock. The gas decays into radioactive particles called radon progeny that can enter the human body through breathing. Upon entering the body, these radioactive elements release α-rays that affect lung tissue, causing lung cancer upon long-term exposure thereto. Epidemiological studies first outlined a high correlation between the incidence rate of lung cancer and exposure to radon progeny among miners in Europe. Thereafter, data and research on radon exposure and lung cancer incidence in homes have continued to accumulate. Many international studies have reported increases in the risk ratio of lung cancer when indoor radon concentrations inside the home are high. Although research into indoor radon concentrations and lung cancer incidence is actively conducted throughout North America and Europe, similar research is lacking in Korea. Recently, however, studies have begun to accumulate and report important data on indoor radon concentrations across the nation. In this study, we aimed to review domestic and foreign research into indoor radon concentrations and to outline correlations between indoor radon concentrations in homes and lung cancer incidence, as reported in ecological studies thereof. Herein, we noted large differences in radon concentrations between and within individual countries. For Korea, we observed tremendous differences in indoor radon concentrations according to region and year of study, even within the same region. In correlation analysis, lung cancer incidence was not found to be higher in areas with high indoor radon concentrations in Korea. Through our review, we identified a need to implement a greater variety of

  20. Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serig, Dan

    2011-01-01

    In this review, the author explores an often-used process in research--the mind map. He uses this method in his own research and artwork. He also uses this extensively with students, particularly master students when they are trying to surround issues in their thesis projects. Mind maps are closely associated with brainstorming, as brainstorming…

  1. Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serig, Dan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This research review is dedicated to the memory of William Safire (1929-2009). A visionary leader, Safire brought other visionaries, researchers, educators, artists, and policymakers together to explore the confluence of arts education and neuroscience. He fostered the new field of neuroeducation in his work as chair of The Dana Foundation in…

  2. Indoor Residential Chemical Exposures as Risk Factors for Asthmaand Allergy in Infants and Children: a Review

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, M.J.

    2006-03-01

    Most research into effects of residential indoor air exposures on asthma and allergies has focused on exposures to biologic allergens, moisture and mold, endotoxin, or combustion byproducts. This paper briefly reviews reported findings on associations of asthma or allergy in infants or children with risk factors related to indoor chemical emissions from residential materials or surface coatings. Associations, some strong (e.g., odds ratios up to 13), were reported. The most frequently identified risk factors were formaldehyde, aromatic organic compounds such as toluene and benzene, plastic materials and plasticizers, and recent painting. Exposures and consequent effects from indoor sources may be exacerbated by decreased ventilation. Identified risk factors may be proxies for correlated exposures. Findings suggest the frequent occurrence of important but preventable effects on asthma and allergy in infants and children worldwide from modern residential building materials and coatings.

  3. Ultraviolet exposure from indoor tanning devices: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, L T N; Hannevik, M; Veierød, M B

    2016-04-01

    Use of indoor tanning devices increases the risk of cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. Indoor tanning devices have become important sources of ultraviolet (UV) exposure, both UVB and UVA. This systematic review assessed UV measurements performed in indoor tanning devices related to irradiance level, wavelength distribution and similarities to natural sun. The study was performed in accordance with the MOOSE and PRISMA guidelines. We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science from inception to May 2015, and also examined the reference lists of the retrieved studies. Eighteen studies were included. Twelve studies examined the erythema-weighted UV irradiances of indoor tanning devices, 11 studies examined UVB and 13 studies studied UVA. Compliance with irradiance limits was reported in nine studies. Erythema-weighted irradiances were highest in the most recent studies. Most studies had mean values higher than from natural sun and with large variations between devices. All studies except two had mean unweighted UVB irradiances lower than from natural summer sun (at latitudes from 37°S to 35°N), while mean unweighted UVA irradiances were, with one exception, substantially higher than from natural sun. The high values of UVA exposure from modern tanning devices are alarming in light of the increased focus on UVA irradiance as a carcinogen, and as UVA exposure confers little protection against subsequent UV exposure. PMID:26749382

  4. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) RESEARCH ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses EPA's research program on indoor air quality. Now in its third year, it is a broad-based program that includes: field surveys of pollutant concentrations in homes, characterization of emissions from sources, health studies of genotoxic and irritant/neurobehavi...

  5. COMPREHENSIVE INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH STRATEGY, JANUARY 1, 1985

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Department of Housing and Urban Development-Independent Agencies 1984 House Appropriation Report, EPA was directed to expand indoor air research planning into a long-term comprehensive strategy. This strategy was developed and coordinated through the Interagency Committee ...

  6. 66 FR 24370 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Indoor Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-05-14

    ... Budget (OMB) for review and approval: Title: Indoor Air Quality Practices in Schools Survey, The ICR... Guevin at EPA by phone at (202) 564-9055. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Indoor Air Quality Practices... preventing, identifying, and solving indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in schools and has developed...

  7. 65 FR 37971 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Indoor Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-06-19

    ... and Budget (OMB) for review and approval: Indoor Air Quality Practices in Large Buildings Survey. The... Salmon at EPA by phone at (202) 564-9451. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Indoor Air Quality Practices... identifying and solving indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and has developed guidance for that purpose....

  8. Indoor pollutants emitted by office equipment: A review of reported data and information needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Maddalena, Randy L.; Singer, Brett C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; McKone, Thomas E.

    Computers, printers, copier machines and other electronic equipment are a common part of the home and office environments. However, human exposure to potentially harmful pollutants emitted from office equipment has not been systematically evaluated, and is currently not well understood. In this review, we summarize available information on emission rates and/or indoor concentrations of various pollutants that are related to office equipment use, briefly describe experimental methods used to characterize emissions and identify critical research needs in this field. The office equipment evaluated in this review includes computers (desktops and notebooks), printers (laser, ink-jet and all-in-one machines) and photocopy machines. We summarize reported emission rates for the following pollutant groups: volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), ozone, particulate matter and several semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs). The latter includes phthalate esters, brominated flame retardants, organophosphate flame retardants, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We also review studies reporting airborne concentrations in indoor environments (offices, residences, schools, electronics recycling plants) where office equipment was present and deemed to be a significant contributor to the total pollutant burden. We find that for some pollutants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, the link between office-equipment emissions and indoor air concentrations is relatively well established. However, indoor VOCs, ozone, PAHs and phthalate esters can originate from a variety of sources, and their source apportionment is less straightforward. We then observe that personal exposures may be significantly larger than those estimated through average pollutant indoor concentrations, due to proximity of users to the sources over extended periods of time. Finally, we observe that the magnitude of emissions, the link from emissions to personal exposure, the toxicological significance of the

  9. Indoor bioaerosol dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nazaroff, William W

    2016-02-01

    Inhaling indoor air is the primary means by which humans are exposed to bioaerosols. Considering bacteria, fungi, and viruses, this study reviews the dynamic processes that govern indoor concentrations and fates of biological particulate material. Bioaerosol behavior is strongly coupled to particle size; this study emphasizes the range 0.1-10 μm in aerodynamic diameter. The principle of material balance allows concentrations to be determined from knowledge of important source and removal processes. Sources reviewed here include outdoor air introduced by air exchange plus indoor emission from occupants, occupant activities, and moldy materials. Important mechanisms that remove bioaerosols from indoor air include air exchange, deposition onto indoor surfaces, and active filtration. The review summarizes knowledge about size-dependent particle deposition in different regions of the respiratory tract, techniques for measuring indoor bioaerosols, and evidence for diseases caused by airborne exposure to bioaerosols. Future research challenges and opportunities are highlighted. PMID:25483392

  10. REVIEW OF INDOOR EMISSION SOURCE MODELS--PART 1. OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor emission source models are mainly used as a component in indoor air quality (IAQ) and exposure modeling. They are also widely used to interpret the experimental data obtained from environmental chambers and buildings. This paper compiles 46 indoor emission source models fo...

  11. Review of bioaerosols in indoor environment with special reference to sampling, analysis and control mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Bipasha; Lal, Himanshu; Srivastava, Arun

    2015-12-01

    Several tiny organisms of various size ranges present in air are called airborne particles or bioaerosol which mainly includes live or dead fungi and bacteria, their secondary metabolites, viruses, pollens, etc. which have been related to health issues of human beings and other life stocks. Bio-terror attacks in 2001 as well as pandemic outbreak of flue due to influenza A H1N1 virus in 2009 have alarmed us about the importance of bioaerosol research. Hence characterization i.e. identification and quantification of different airborne microorganisms in various indoor environments is necessary to identify the associated risks and to establish exposure threshold. Along with the bioaerosol sampling and their analytical techniques, various literatures revealing the concentration levels of bioaerosol have been mentioned in this review thereby contributing to the knowledge of identification and quantification of bioaerosols and their different constituents in various indoor environments (both occupational and non-occupational sections). Apart from recognition of bioaerosol, developments of their control mechanisms also play an important role. Hence several control methods have also been briefly reviewed. However, several individual levels of efforts such as periodic cleaning operations, maintenance activities and proper ventilation system also serve in their best way to improve indoor air quality. PMID:26436919

  12. HVAC SYSTEMS AS A TOOL IN CONTROLLING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a review of literature on the use of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to control indoor air quality (IAQ). Although significant progress has been made in reducing the energy consumption of HVAC systems, their effect on indoor a...

  13. ESTIMATING THE RISK OF LUNG CANCER FROM INHALATION OF RADON DAUGHTERS INDOORS: REVIEW AND EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review of the dosimetric models and epidemiological studies with regard to the relation between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer indicates that the Working Level is an appropriate unit for indoor radon exposure; that the uncertainty in applying risk estimates derived from ...

  14. ESTABLISHING PRIORITIES IN THE U.S. EPA'S INDOOR AIR ENGINEERING RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of consultations by participants in the U.S. EPA's Indoor Air Engineering Research Program with a panel of key researchers and planners within government, industry, and academia to help identify priority program areas for indoor air research. rogram elemen...

  15. 40 CFR 61.205 - Distribution and use of phosphogypsum for indoor research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... facility. Uses of phosphogypsum for outdoor agricultural research and development and agricultural field... for indoor research and development. 61.205 Section 61.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and use of phosphogypsum for indoor research and development. (a) Phosphogypsum may be...

  16. 40 CFR 61.205 - Distribution and use of phosphogypsum for indoor research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... facility. Uses of phosphogypsum for outdoor agricultural research and development and agricultural field... for indoor research and development. 61.205 Section 61.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... and use of phosphogypsum for indoor research and development. (a) Phosphogypsum may be...

  17. REVIEW OF RECENT RESEARCH ON VAPOR INTRUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report reviews current and recent research in the area of vapor intrusion of organic compounds into residential buildings. We begin with a description of the challenges in evaluating the subsurface-to-indoor air pathway. A discussion of the fate and transport mechanisms affe...

  18. INDOOR AIR ASSESSMENT - AN INVENTORY OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH IN THE U.S.: 1989-1990

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey of indoor air quality research projects in the United States was undertaken using a standard form and keyword list. n response to the request for participation, 110 completed forms were received from 69 principal investigators at 34 institutions. Universities had the lar...

  19. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluates heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). Various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are reviewed. Available methods include in situ test...

  20. REVIEW OF QUANTITATIVE STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES FOR FUNGI IN INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to fungal aerosols clearly causes human disease. However, methods for assessing exposure remain poorly understood, and guidelines for interpreting data are often contradictory. The purposes of this paper are to review and compare existing guidelines for indoor airborne...

  1. 40 CFR 61.205 - Distribution and use of phosphogypsum for indoor research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distribution and use of phosphogypsum... and use of phosphogypsum for indoor research and development. (a) Phosphogypsum may be lawfully removed from a stack and distributed in commerce for use in indoor research and development...

  2. 40 CFR 61.205 - Distribution and use of phosphogypsum for indoor research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Distribution and use of phosphogypsum... and use of phosphogypsum for indoor research and development. (a) Phosphogypsum may be lawfully removed from a stack and distributed in commerce for use in indoor research and development...

  3. 40 CFR 61.205 - Distribution and use of phosphogypsum for indoor research and development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distribution and use of phosphogypsum... and use of phosphogypsum for indoor research and development. (a) Phosphogypsum may be lawfully removed from a stack and distributed in commerce for use in indoor research and development...

  4. RESEARCH AREA -- RADON MITIGATION (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In prior years, NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Indoor Environment Management Branch (IEMB) conducted a significant amount of research on the subject of reducing indoor radon levels in homes, schools, and other large buildings. This research is no longer a...

  5. Evaluation of an Indoor Sonic Boom Subjective Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loubeau, Alexandra; Rathsam, Jonathan; Klos, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    A sonic boom simulator at NASA Langley Research Center has been constructed for research on human response to low-amplitude sonic booms heard indoors. Research in this facility will ultimately lead to development of a psychoacoustic model for single indoor booms. The first subjective test was designed to explore indoor human response to variations in sonic boom rise time and amplitude. Another goal was to identify loudness level variability across listener locations within the facility. Finally, the test also served to evaluate the facility as a laboratory research tool for studying indoor human response to sonic booms. Subjects listened to test sounds and were asked to rate their annoyance relative to a reference boom. Measurements of test signals were conducted for objective analysis and correlation with subjective responses. Results confirm the functionality of the facility and effectiveness of the test methods and indicate that loudness level does not fully describe indoor annoyance to the selected sonic boom signals.

  6. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND FURNITURE PROCUREMENT IN EPA'S NEW RESEARCH TRIANGLE CAMPUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses various aspects of the EPA's new 1.2 million square foot building in Research Triangle Park that pertain to indoor air, with a particular focus on the process EPA used to select furniture to meet its indoor air guidelines. In keeping with its mission of protec...

  7. VENTILATION RESEARCH (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ventilation research program conducts research on heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems to determine the impact of these systems on human exposure to indoor air pollutants. The emphasis of the program is on determining emissions from ventilation systems. Inform...

  8. Indoor exposure and adverse birth outcomes related to fetal growth, miscarriage and prematurity-a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Patelarou, Evridiki; Kelly, Frank J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarize existing epidemiological evidence of the association between quantitative estimates of indoor air pollution and all-day personal exposure with adverse birth outcomes including fetal growth, prematurity and miscarriage. We carried out a systematic literature search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases with the aim of summarizing and evaluating the results of peer-reviewed epidemiological studies undertaken in "westernized" countries that have assessed indoor air pollution and all-day personal exposure with specific quantitative methods. This comprehensive literature search identified 16 independent studies which were deemed relevant for further review and two additional studies were added through searching the reference lists of all included studies. Two reviewers independently and critically appraised all eligible articles using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool. Of the 18 selected studies, 14 adopted a prospective cohort design, three were case-controls and one was a retrospective cohort study. In terms of pollutants of interest, seven studies assessed exposure to electro-magnetic fields, four studies assessed exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, four studies assessed PM2.5 exposure and three studies assessed benzene, phthalates and noise exposure respectively. Furthermore, 12 studies examined infant growth as the main birth outcome of interest, six examined spontaneous abortion and three studies assessed gestational age at birth and preterm delivery. This survey demonstrates that there is insufficient research on the possible association of indoor exposure and early life effects and that further research is needed. PMID:24896737

  9. Indoor Exposure and Adverse Birth Outcomes Related to Fetal Growth, Miscarriage and Prematurity—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Patelarou, Evridiki; Kelly, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarize existing epidemiological evidence of the association between quantitative estimates of indoor air pollution and all-day personal exposure with adverse birth outcomes including fetal growth, prematurity and miscarriage. We carried out a systematic literature search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases with the aim of summarizing and evaluating the results of peer-reviewed epidemiological studies undertaken in “westernized” countries that have assessed indoor air pollution and all-day personal exposure with specific quantitative methods. This comprehensive literature search identified 16 independent studies which were deemed relevant for further review and two additional studies were added through searching the reference lists of all included studies. Two reviewers independently and critically appraised all eligible articles using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool. Of the 18 selected studies, 14 adopted a prospective cohort design, three were case-controls and one was a retrospective cohort study. In terms of pollutants of interest, seven studies assessed exposure to electro-magnetic fields, four studies assessed exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, four studies assessed PM2.5 exposure and three studies assessed benzene, phthalates and noise exposure respectively. Furthermore, 12 studies examined infant growth as the main birth outcome of interest, six examined spontaneous abortion and three studies assessed gestational age at birth and preterm delivery. This survey demonstrates that there is insufficient research on the possible association of indoor exposure and early life effects and that further research is needed. PMID:24896737

  10. Research Review: Doing Artistic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serig, Dan

    2012-01-01

    In this review, the author focuses on the pragmatic consideration: How do artists do artistic research? Artistic research in the context of this review is about the connections and relationships among three primary domains: (1) the arts; (2) higher education; and (3) arts education. Broadly stated, all artists do research when they do art--whether…

  11. Removal of Indoor Volatile Organic Compounds via Photocatalytic Oxidation: A Short Review and Prospect.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Lu, Yanfeng; Niu, Ruiyuan; Xu, Lifeng; Cao, Junji; Lee, Shuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous in indoor environments. Inhalation of VOCs can cause irritation, difficulty breathing, and nausea, and damage the central nervous system as well as other organs. Formaldehyde is a particularly important VOC as it is even a carcinogen. Removal of VOCs is thus critical to control indoor air quality (IAQ). Photocatalytic oxidation has demonstrated feasibility to remove toxic VOCs and formaldehyde from indoor environments. The technique is highly-chemical stable, inexpensive, non-toxic, and capable of removing a wide variety of organics under light irradiation. In this paper, we review and summarize the traditional air cleaning methods and current photocatalytic oxidation approaches in both of VOCs and formaldehyde degradation in indoor environments. Influencing factors such as temperature, relative humidity, deactivation and reactivations of the photocatalyst are discussed. Aspects of the application of the photocatalytic technique to improve the IAQ are suggested. PMID:26742024

  12. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Indoor-Air Quality Implementation Plan. A report to Congress under Title IV of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986: radon gas and indoor air-quality research. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The EPA Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan provides information on the direction of EPA's indoor air program, including the Agency's policy on indoor air and priorities for research and information dissemination over the next two years. EPA submitted the report to Congress on July 2, 1987 as required by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. There are five appendices to the report: Appendix A--Preliminary Indoor Air Pollution Information Assessment; Appendix B--FY 87 Indoor Air Research Program; Appendix C--EPA Radon Program; Appendix D--Indoor Air Resource History (Published with Appendix C); Appendix E--Indoor Air Reference Data Base.

  13. CFD simulation research on residential indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Ye, Miao; He, Bao-Jie

    2014-02-15

    Nowadays people are excessively depending on air conditioning to create a comfortable indoor environment, but it could cause some health problems in a long run. In this paper, wind velocity field, temperature field and air age field in a bedroom with wall-hanging air conditioning running in summer are analyzed by CFD numerical simulation technology. The results show that wall-hanging air conditioning system can undertake indoor heat load and conduct good indoor thermal comfort. In terms of wind velocity, air speed in activity area where people sit and stand is moderate, most of which cannot feel wind flow and meet the summer indoor wind comfort requirement. However, for air quality, there are local areas without ventilation and toxic gases not discharged in time. Therefore it is necessary to take effective measures to improve air quality. Compared with the traditional measurement method, CFD software has many advantages in simulating indoor environment, so it is hopeful for humans to create a more comfortable, healthy living environment by CFD in the future. PMID:24365517

  14. A brief review of control measures for indoor formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    Indoor environments contain a variety of consumer and construction products that emit formaldehyde (CH/sub 2/O) vapor. The strongest CH/sub 2/O emitters are typically particleboard underlayment and industrial particleboard, hardwood plywood paneling, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation, and medium density fiberboard, all of which contain urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins. The contribution of individual products to indoor CH/sub 2/O levels depends on several parameters, including the quantity and age of the product, building ventilation rate, presence of permeation barriers, temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and CH/sub 2/O vapor concentration resulting from all of the CH/sub 2/O emitters (1,3-8). Combustion sources (e.g., kerosene heaters, gas stoves and cigarettes), carpet and carpet padding, resilient flooring (e.g., linoleum), gypsum board, non-apparel and apparel textiles, ceiling tiles, fibrous glass insulation and softwood plywood subflooring are generally weak emitters that do not contribute significantly to steady-state, indoor CH/sub 2/O levels. Control measures exist to reduce CH/sub 2/O emissions from consumer and construction products during their manufacturer and in post-installation applications. This note summarized the effectiveness of the following subset of post-installation control measures: product aging, installations of permeation barriers (i.e., flooring) and increased building ventilation. 14 refs.

  15. Volatile organic compounds in indoor air: A review ofconcentrations measured in North America since 1990

    SciTech Connect

    ATHodgson@lbl.gov

    2003-04-01

    Central tendency and upper limit concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured in indoor air are summarized and reviewed. Data were obtained from published cross-sectional studies of residential and office buildings conducted in North America from 1990through the present. VOC concentrations in existing residences reported in 12 studies comprise the majority of the data set. Central tendency and maximum concentrations are compared between new and existing residences and between existing residences and office buildings. Historical changes in indoor VOC concentrations since the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 are explored by comparing the current data set with two published reviews of previous data obtained primarily in the 1980s. These historical comparisons suggest average indoor concentrations of some toxic air contaminants, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane have decreased.

  16. Indoor humidity and human health. Part 1: Literature review of health effects of humidity-influenced indoor pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Baughman, A.V.; Arens, E.A.

    1996-11-01

    Standards for indoor thermal conditions and ventilation include upper limits for relative humidity (RH) that typically are in the range of 60% to 80% RH. Although the reasons for the limits are often not explicitly stated, it is generally known that they were set out of concern for the health effects that might occur should the humidity become too high. The primary health effects of high humidity are caused by the growth and spread of biotic agents, although humidity interactions with nonbiotic pollutants, such as formaldehyde, may also cause adverse effects. This literature review identifies the most important health issues associated with high humidities and presents humidity requirements, typical contamination sites within buildings, and remediation measures for each pollutant. Part two of the paper addresses the physical causes of moisture-related problems in buildings.

  17. Strategies to reduce indoor tanning: current research gaps and future opportunities for prevention.

    PubMed

    Holman, Dawn M; Fox, Kathleen A; Glenn, Jeffrey D; Guy, Gery P; Watson, Meg; Baker, Katie; Cokkinides, Vilma; Gottlieb, Mark; Lazovich, DeAnn; Perna, Frank M; Sampson, Blake P; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Sinclair, Craig; Geller, Alan C

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning device use is associated with an increased risk of skin cancer, including risk of malignant melanoma, and is an urgent public health problem. By reducing indoor tanning, future cases of skin cancer could be prevented, along with the associated morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. On August 20, 2012, the CDC hosted a meeting to discuss the current body of evidence on strategies to reduce indoor tanning as well as research gaps. Using the Action Model to Achieve Healthy People 2020 Overarching Goals as a framework, the current paper provides highlights on the topics that were discussed, including (1) the state of the evidence on strategies to reduce indoor tanning; (2) the tools necessary to effectively assess, monitor, and evaluate the short- and long-term impact of interventions designed to reduce indoor tanning; and (3) strategies to align efforts at the national, state, and local levels through transdisciplinary collaboration and coordination across multiple sectors. Although many challenges and barriers exist, a coordinated, multilevel, transdisciplinary approach has the potential to reduce indoor tanning and prevent future cases of skin cancer. PMID:23683986

  18. Can commonly-used fan-driven air cleaning technologies improve indoor air quality? A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinping; Mo, Jinhan; Li, Yuguo; Sundell, Jan; Wargocki, Pawel; Zhang, Jensen; Little, John C.; Corsi, Richard; Deng, Qihong; Leung, Michael H. K.; Fang, Lei; Chen, Wenhao; Li, Jinguang; Sun, Yuexia

    2011-08-01

    Air cleaning techniques have been applied worldwide with the goal of improving indoor air quality. The effectiveness of applying these techniques varies widely, and pollutant removal efficiency is usually determined in controlled laboratory environments which may not be realized in practice. Some air cleaners are largely ineffective, and some produce harmful by-products. To summarize what is known regarding the effectiveness of fan-driven air cleaning technologies, a state-of-the-art review of the scientific literature was undertaken by a multidisciplinary panel of experts from Europe, North America, and Asia with expertise in air cleaning, aerosol science, medicine, chemistry and ventilation. The effects on health were not examined. Over 26,000 articles were identified in major literature databases; 400 were selected as being relevant based on their titles and abstracts by the first two authors, who further reduced the number of articles to 160 based on the full texts. These articles were reviewed by the panel using predefined inclusion criteria during their first meeting. Additions were also made by the panel. Of these, 133 articles were finally selected for detailed review. Each article was assessed independently by two members of the panel and then judged by the entire panel during a consensus meeting. During this process 59 articles were deemed conclusive and their results were used for final reporting at their second meeting. The conclusions are that: (1) None of the reviewed technologies was able to effectively remove all indoor pollutants and many were found to generate undesirable by-products during operation. (2) Particle filtration and sorption of gaseous pollutants were among the most effective air cleaning technologies, but there is insufficient information regarding long-term performance and proper maintenance. (3) The existing data make it difficult to extract information such as Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR), which represents a common benchmark for

  19. Indoor pollutants emitted by office equipment: A review ofreported data and information needs

    SciTech Connect

    Destaillats, Hugo; Maddalena, Randy L.; Singer, Brett C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2007-02-01

    There is concern that potentially harmful pollutants may be emitted from office equipment. Although office equipment has been a focal point for governmental efforts to promote energy efficiency through programs such as the US EPA's Energy Star, little is known about the relationship between office equipment use and indoor air quality, and information on pollutant emissions is sparse. In this review, we summarize available information on emission rates and/or ambient concentrations of various pollutants that are related to office equipment use. Experimental methods used in the characterization of emissions are briefly described. The office equipment evaluated in this review includes computers (desktops and notebooks), printers (laser, ink-jet and all-in-one machines) and photocopy machines. Reported emission rates of the following pollutant groups are summarized: volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), ozone, particulate matter and several semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs). The latter include phthalate esters, brominated flame retardants, organophosphate flame retardants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We also review studies reporting airborne concentrations in indoor environments where office equipment was present and thought to be a significant contributor to the total pollutant burden (offices, residences, schools, electronics recycling plants). For certain pollutants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, the link between emission by office equipment and indoor air concentrations is relatively well established. However, indoor VOCs, ozone, PAHs and phthalate esters can originate from a variety of sources, and their source apportionment is less straightforward. This literature review identifies substances of toxicological significance, with the purpose of serving as a guide to evaluate their potential importance with respect to human exposures.

  20. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

    Research show that one in five U.S. schools has indoor air quality (IAQ) problems; 36 percent have inadequate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; and there appears to be a correlation between IAQs and the proportion of a school's students coming from low-income households. This report examines the IAQ issue in U.S. public…

  1. Review of Research. Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    Intended for individuals involved in research policy and funding in England's higher education system, this HEFCE report is a fundamental review of research policy and funding in the context of several issues addressed by the 1996 Research Assessment Exercise (RAE). The report summarizes conclusions reached by the committee enjoined to oversee…

  2. A Critical Review of Naphthalene Sources and Exposures Relevant to Indoor and Outdoor Air

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Chunrong; Batterman, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Both the recent classification of naphthalene as a possible human carcinogen and its ubiquitous presence motivate this critical review of naphthalene’s sources and exposures. We evaluate the environmental literature on naphthalene published since 1990, drawing on nearly 150 studies that report emissions and concentrations in indoor, outdoor and personal air. While naphthalene is both a volatile organic compound and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, concentrations and exposures are poorly characterized relative to many other pollutants. Most airborne emissions result from combustion, and key sources include industry, open burning, tailpipe emissions, and cigarettes. The second largest source is off-gassing, specifically from naphthalene’s use as a deodorizer, repellent and fumigant. In the U.S., naphthalene’s use as a moth repellant has been reduced in favor of para-dichlorobenzene, but extensive use continues in mothballs, which appears responsible for some of the highest indoor exposures, along with off-label uses. Among the studies judged to be representative, average concentrations ranged from 0.18 to 1.7 μg m−3 in non-smoker’s homes, and from 0.02 to 0.31 μg m−3 outdoors in urban areas. Personal exposures have been reported in only three European studies. Indoor sources are the major contributor to (non-occupational) exposure. While its central tendencies fall well below guideline levels relevant to acute health impacts, several studies have reported maximum concentrations exceeding 100 μg m−3, far above guideline levels. Using current but draft estimates of cancer risks, naphthalene is a major environmental risk driver, with typical individual risk levels in the 10−4 range, which is high and notable given that millions of individuals are exposed. Several factors influence indoor and outdoor concentrations, but the literature is inconsistent on their effects. Further investigation is needed to better characterize naphthalene’s sources and

  3. Vapor Transport to Indoor Environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The indoor environment is an important microenvironment for human exposure to chemicals, both because people spend most of their time indoors and because chemicals are often at higher concentrations indoors versus outdoors. This chapter reviews the major components in estimating ...

  4. Exceptional Children Research Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, G. Orville, Ed.; Blank, Harriett D., Ed.

    Research reviews are presented for eight areas of exceptionality and for administration. Included are the following reports: 16 on the gifted compiled by Edward C. Frierson; 46 on the mentally retarded reviewed by Howard H. Spicker and Nettie R. Bartel; 20 on the visually impaired presented by William J. Tisdall; 44 on the hearing impaired…

  5. Moving GIS Research Indoors: Spatiotemporal Analysis of Agricultural Animals

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Courtney L.; Banerjee, Debasmit; Montgomery, Robert A.; Biswas, Subir; Siegford, Janice M.

    2014-01-01

    A proof of concept applying wildlife ecology techniques to animal welfare science in intensive agricultural environments was conducted using non-cage laying hens. Studies of wildlife ecology regularly use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess wild animal movement and behavior within environments with relatively unlimited space and finite resources. However, rather than depicting landscapes, a GIS could be developed in animal production environments to provide insight into animal behavior as an indicator of animal welfare. We developed a GIS-based approach for studying agricultural animal behavior in an environment with finite space and unlimited resources. Concurrent data from wireless body-worn location tracking sensor and video-recording systems, which depicted spatially-explicit behavior of hens (135 hens/room) in two identical indoor enclosures, were collected. The spatial configuration of specific hen behaviors, variation in home range patterns, and variation in home range overlap show that individual hens respond to the same environment differently. Such information could catalyze management practice adjustments (e.g., modifying feeder design and/or location). Genetically-similar hens exhibited diverse behavioral and spatial patterns via a proof of concept approach enabling detailed examinations of individual non-cage laying hen behavior and welfare. PMID:25098421

  6. Moving GIS research indoors: spatiotemporal analysis of agricultural animals.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Courtney L; Banerjee, Debasmit; Montgomery, Robert A; Biswas, Subir; Siegford, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    A proof of concept applying wildlife ecology techniques to animal welfare science in intensive agricultural environments was conducted using non-cage laying hens. Studies of wildlife ecology regularly use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to assess wild animal movement and behavior within environments with relatively unlimited space and finite resources. However, rather than depicting landscapes, a GIS could be developed in animal production environments to provide insight into animal behavior as an indicator of animal welfare. We developed a GIS-based approach for studying agricultural animal behavior in an environment with finite space and unlimited resources. Concurrent data from wireless body-worn location tracking sensor and video-recording systems, which depicted spatially-explicit behavior of hens (135 hens/room) in two identical indoor enclosures, were collected. The spatial configuration of specific hen behaviors, variation in home range patterns, and variation in home range overlap show that individual hens respond to the same environment differently. Such information could catalyze management practice adjustments (e.g., modifying feeder design and/or location). Genetically-similar hens exhibited diverse behavioral and spatial patterns via a proof of concept approach enabling detailed examinations of individual non-cage laying hen behavior and welfare. PMID:25098421

  7. Characterization of the indoor particles and their sources in an Antarctic research station.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Érica Coelho; Costa Reis, Neyval; de Alvarez, Cristina Engel; Santos, Jane Méri; Conti, Melina Moreira; Boldrini, Ricardo Salvador; Kerr, Américo Sansigolo

    2016-03-01

    Many studies have been carried out on the environmental impact of the research stations on the Antarctic continent. However, the assessment of indoor air quality in these confined environments has been neglected. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the granulometric distribution of the indoor particles in the different compartments of the Brazilian Antarctic Station, to examine the number and mass concentration of the indoor particles, to conduct chemical and morphological analyses of the indoor PM2.5, and to identify the possible sources of the PM. The results showed that Na, K, Cl, Fe, Zn, S and Si were the main elements detected. High levels of black carbon were recorded in the workshop, which may be associated with the use of diesel vehicles. To identify the human activities related to the indoor particle emission in the station, the size distribution of the particles in the living room was monitored for seven consecutive days, during normal station operation. It was possible to identify the influence of individual processes, such as incineration, cooking and the movement of people, upon the particle size number concentration. The indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio for the total suspended particles (TSP), PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 measured was significantly larger than those reported for urban buildings. In general, the I/O ratio distribution for all the compartments shows peak values between 2.5 and 10 μm, which is often related to human activity, such as cleaning, personnel circulation or clothing surfaces. The maximum I/O ratio at this range varied from 12 to 60. In addition, the compartments affected by combustion processes tend to present a significant number of submicron particles. PMID:26884354

  8. Invited review: Environmental enrichment of dairy cows and calves in indoor housing.

    PubMed

    Mandel, R; Whay, H R; Klement, E; Nicol, C J

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of farmers are choosing to keep their cows indoors throughout the year. Indoor housing of cows allows farmers to provide high-yielding individuals with a nutritionally balanced diet fit for their needs, and it has important welfare benefits for both cows and their calves, such as protection from predators, parasites, and exposure to extreme weather conditions. However, it also confronts cows and calves with a wide range of environmental challenges. These include abiotic environmental sources of stress (e.g., exposure to loud and aversive sound) and confinement-specific stressors (e.g., restricted movement and maintenance in abnormal social groups). Cows and calves that live indoors are also faced with the challenge of occupying long periods with a limited range of possible behavioral patterns. Environmental enrichment can improve biological functioning (measured as increased lifetime reproductive success, increased inclusive fitness, or a correlate of these such as improved health), help animals to cope with stressors in their surroundings, reduce frustration, increase the fulfillment of behavioral needs, and promote more positive affective states. Here, we review recent findings on the effect of social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional enrichment on dairy cows and calves, and we assess the appropriateness and practicality of implementing different enrichment practices on commercial dairy farms. Some of the enrichment methods reviewed here may also be applied to those more extensive cattle-raising systems, where similar challenges occur. PMID:26774729

  9. Design of an Indoor Sonic Boom Simulator at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klos, Jacob; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2008-01-01

    Construction of a simulator to recreate the soundscape inside residential buildings exposed to sonic booms is scheduled to start during the summer of 2008 at NASA Langley Research Center. The new facility should be complete by the end of the year. The design of the simulator allows independent control of several factors that create the indoor soundscape. Variables that will be isolated include such factors as boom duration, overpressure, rise time, spectral shape, level of rattle, level of squeak, source of rattle and squeak, level of vibration and source of vibration. Test subjects inside the simulator will be asked to judge the simulated soundscape, which will represent realistic indoor boom exposure. Ultimately, this simulator will be used to develop a functional relationship between human response and the sound characteristics creating the indoor soundscape. A conceptual design has been developed by NASA personnel, and is currently being vetted through small-scale risk reduction tests that are being performed in-house. The purpose of this document is to introduce the conceptual design, identify how the indoor response will be simulated, briefly outline some of the risk reduction tests that have been completed to vet the design, and discuss the impact of these tests on the simulator design.

  10. Spatiotemporal analysis and human exposure assessment on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air, settled house dust, and diet: A review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuning; Harrad, Stuart

    2015-11-01

    This review summarizes the published literature on the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in indoor air, settled house dust, and food, and highlights geographical and temporal trends in indoor PAH contamination. In both indoor air and dust, ΣPAH concentrations in North America have decreased over the past 30 years with a halving time of 6.7±1.9years in indoor air and 5.0±2.3 years in indoor dust. In contrast, indoor PAH concentrations in Asia have remained steady. Concentrations of ΣPAH in indoor air are significantly (p<0.01) higher in Asia than North America. In studies recording both vapor and particulate phases, the global average concentration in indoor air of ΣPAH excluding naphthalene is between 7 and 14,300 ng/m(3). Over a similar period, the average ΣPAH concentration in house dust ranges between 127 to 115,817ng/g. Indoor/outdoor ratios of atmospheric concentrations of ΣPAH have declined globally with a half-life of 6.3±2.3 years. While indoor/outdoor ratios for benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalents (BaPeq) declined in North America with a half-life of 12.2±3.2 years, no significant decline was observed when data from all regions were considered. Comparison of the global database, revealed that I/O ratios for ΣPAH (average=4.3±1.3), exceeded significantly those of BaPeq (average=1.7±0.4) in the same samples. The significant decline in global I/O ratios suggests that indoor sources of PAH have been controlled more effectively than outdoor sources. Moreover, the significantly higher I/O ratios for ΣPAH compared to BaPeq, imply that indoor sources of PAH emit proportionally more of the less carcinogenic PAH than outdoor sources. Dietary exposure to PAH ranges from 137 to 55,000 ng/day. Definitive spatiotemporal trends in dietary exposure were precluded due to relatively small number of relevant studies. However, although reported in only one study, PAH concentrations in Chinese diets exceeded those in diet from other parts of the

  11. Energy-related indoor environmental quality research: A priority agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Brager, G.; Burge, H.; Cummings, J.; Levin, H.; Loftness, V.; Mendell, M.J.; Persily, A.; Taylor, S.; Zhang, J.S.

    2002-08-01

    A multidisciplinary team of IEQ and energy researchers has defined a program of priority energy-related IEQ research. This paper describes the methods employed to develop the agenda, and 35 high priority research and development (R&D) project areas related to four broad goals: (1) identifying IEQ problems and opportunities; (2) developing and evaluating energy-efficient technologies for improving IEQ; (3) developing and evaluating energy-efficient practices for improving IEQ; and (4) encouraging or assisting the implementation of technologies or practices for improving IEQ. The identified R&D priorities reflect a strong need to benchmark IEQ conditions in small commercial buildings, schools, and residences. The R&D priorities also reflect the need to better understand how people are affected by IEQ conditions and by the related building characteristics and operation and maintenance practices. The associated research findings will provide a clearer definition of acceptable IEQ that is required to guide the development of technologies, practices, standards, and guidelines. Quantifying the effects of building characteristics and practices on IEQ conditions, in order to provide the basis for development of energy efficient and effective IEQ control measures, was also considered a priority. The development or advancement in a broad range of IEQ tools, technologies, and practices are also a major component of the priority research agenda. Consistent with the focus on ''energy-related'' research priorities, building ventilation and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and processes are very prominent in the agenda. Research related to moisture and microbiological problems, particularly within hot and humid climates, is also prominent within the agenda. The agenda tends to emphasize research on residences, small commercial buildings, and schools because these types of buildings have been underrepresented in prior research. Most of the research areas

  12. Research on Extension of Sparql Ontology Query Language Considering the Computation of Indoor Spatial Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Zhu, X.; Guo, W.; Liu, Y.; Huang, H.

    2015-05-01

    A method suitable for indoor complex semantic query considering the computation of indoor spatial relations is provided According to the characteristics of indoor space. This paper designs ontology model describing the space related information of humans, events and Indoor space objects (e.g. Storey and Room) as well as their relations to meet the indoor semantic query. The ontology concepts are used in IndoorSPARQL query language which extends SPARQL syntax for representing and querying indoor space. And four types specific primitives for indoor query, "Adjacent", "Opposite", "Vertical" and "Contain", are defined as query functions in IndoorSPARQL used to support quantitative spatial computations. Also a method is proposed to analysis the query language. Finally this paper adopts this method to realize indoor semantic query on the study area through constructing the ontology model for the study building. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper can effectively support complex indoor space semantic query.

  13. Impact of reaction products from building materials and furnishings on indoor air quality—A review of recent advances in indoor chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhde, E.; Salthammer, T.

    The variety of chemical substances present in modern building products, household products and furnishings provides potential for chemical reactions in the material (case 1), on the material surface (case 2) and in the gas phase (case 3). Such "indoor chemistry" is known as one of the main reasons for primary and secondary emissions. The conditions of production often cause unwanted side reactions and a number of new compounds can be found in finished products. Elevated temperatures are responsible for the degradation of cellulose, decomposition of non-heat-resistant additives and other thermally induced reactions like Diels-Alder synthesis. Heterogeneous chemistry takes place on the surface of materials. Well-known examples are the formation of aliphatic aldehydes from the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids or the cleavage of photoinitiators under the influence of light. In case of composite flooring structures hydrolysis is one of the major pathways for the appearance of alcohols from esters. If different kinds of material are fixed together, emissions of new VOCs formed by inter-species reactions are possible. Other indoor air pollutants are formed by rearrangement of cleavage products or by metabolism. Compounds with -C dbnd C- bonds like terpenes, styrene, 4-phenylcyclohexene, etc. undergo gas phase reactions with O 3, NO x, OH and other reactive gases. It has been shown that such products derived from indoor-related reactions may have a negative impact on indoor air quality due to their low odor threshold or health-related properties. Therefore, the understanding of primary and secondary emissions and the chemical processes behind is essential for the evaluation of indoor air quality. This publication gives an overview on the current state of research and new findings regarding primary and secondary emissions from building products and furnishings.

  14. Providing better indoor environmental quality brings economicbenefits

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William; Seppanen, Olli

    2007-06-01

    This paper summarizes the current scientific evidence that improved indoor environmental quality can improve work performance and health. The review indicates that work and school work performance is affected by indoor temperature and ventilation rate. Pollutant source removal can sometimes improve work performance. Based on formal statistical analyses of existing research results, quantitative relationships are provided for the linkages of work performance with indoor temperature and outdoor air ventilation rate. The review also indicates that improved health and related financial savings are obtainable from reduced indoor tobacco smoking, prevention and remediation of building dampness, and increased ventilation. Example cost-benefit analyses indicate that many measures to improve indoor temperature control and increase ventilation rates will be highly cost effective, with benefit-cost ratios as high as 80 and annual economic benefits as high as $700 per person.

  15. Yoga research review.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2016-08-01

    This paper is a review of empirical studies, review and meta-analysis publications on yoga from the last few years. The review includes demographics/prevalence of yoga as a practice, bibliometric analyses of the yoga publications and the use of yoga for physical fitness and cognitive function. Most of the studies reviewed here involve yoga effects on psychiatric and medical conditions. These include pregnancy, prenatal and postpartum depression; stress, PTSD, anxiety, and obesity; cardiovascular conditions including hypertension; pain syndromes including arthritis, headaches and low back pain; autoimmune conditions including asthma, type II diabetes and multiple sclerosis; immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer; and aging problems including balance, osteoporosis and Parkinson's. The methods and results of those studies are briefly summarized along with their limitations and suggestions for future research. Basically yoga has been more effective than control and waitlist control conditions, although not always more effective than treatment comparison groups such as other forms of exercise. More randomized controlled studies are needed in which yoga is compared to active exercise groups. Having established the physical and mental health benefits of yoga makes it ethically questionable to assign participants to inactive control groups. Shorter sessions should be investigated for cost-effectiveness and for daily practice. Multiple physical and physiological measures need to be added to the self-report research protocols and potential underlying mechanisms need to be further explored. In the interim, the studies reviewed here highlight the therapeutic effects of yoga, a practice that could come to be called yoga therapy. PMID:27502816

  16. Massage therapy research review.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2014-11-01

    Moderate pressure massage has contributed to many positive effects including increased weight gain in preterm infants, reduced pain in different syndromes including fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis, enhanced attentiveness, reduced depression and enhanced immune function (increased natural killer cells and natural killer cell activity).Surprisingly, these recent studies have not been reviewed, highlighting the need for the current review. When moderate and light pressure massage have been compared in laboratory studies, moderate pressure massage reduced depression, anxiety and heart rate, and it altered EEG patterns, as in a relaxation response. Moderate pressure massage has also led to increased vagal activity and decreased cortisol levels. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data have suggested that moderate pressure massage was represented in several brain regions including the amygdala, the hypothalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex, all areas involved in stress and emotion regulation. Further research is needed to identify underlying neurophysiological and biochemical mechanisms associated with moderate pressure massage. PMID:25172313

  17. RESEARCH AREA -- POLLUTION PREVENTION (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The strategy of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division's Indoor Environment Management Branch (IEMB) is to apply IEMB's expertise in indoor air quality (i.e., source characterization, ventilation, filtration, modeling, biocontaminants, and sustainable buildings) to...

  18. Massage therapy research review.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2016-08-01

    In this review, massage therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects on varying conditions including prenatal depression, preterm infants, full-term infants, autism, skin conditions, pain syndromes including arthritis and fibromyalgia, hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including Parkinson's and dementia. Although many of the studies have involved comparisons between massage therapy and standard treatment control groups, several have compared different forms of massage (e.g. Swedish versus Thai massage), and different active therapies such as massage versus exercise. Typically, the massage therapy groups have experienced more positive effects than the control or comparison groups. This may relate to the massage therapy providing more stimulation of pressure receptors, in turn enhancing vagal activity and reducing cortisol levels. Some of the researchers have assessed physical, physiological and biochemical effects, although most have relied exclusively on self-report measures. Despite these methodological problems and the dearth of research from the U.S., the massage therapy profession has grown significantly and massage therapy is increasingly practiced in traditional medical settings, highlighting the need for more rigorous research. PMID:27502797

  19. Indoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries: Research and Implementation Needs for Improvements in Global Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gall, Elliott T.; Carter, Ellison M.; Matt Earnest, C.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from the burning of solid fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting accounts for a significant portion of the global burden of death and disease, and disproportionately affects women and children in developing regions. Clean cookstove campaigns recently received more attention and investment, but their successes might hinge on greater integration of the public health community with a variety of other disciplines. To help guide public health research in alleviating this important global environmental health burden, we synthesized previous research on IAP in developing countries, summarized successes and challenges of previous cookstove implementation programs, and provided key research and implementation needs from structured discussions at a recent symposium. PMID:23409891

  20. Indoor air pollution in developing countries: research and implementation needs for improvements in global public health.

    PubMed

    Gall, Elliott T; Carter, Ellison M; Earnest, C Matt; Stephens, Brent

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollution (IAP) from the burning of solid fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting accounts for a significant portion of the global burden of death and disease, and disproportionately affects women and children in developing regions. Clean cookstove campaigns recently received more attention and investment, but their successes might hinge on greater integration of the public health community with a variety of other disciplines. To help guide public health research in alleviating this important global environmental health burden, we synthesized previous research on IAP in developing countries, summarized successes and challenges of previous cookstove implementation programs, and provided key research and implementation needs from structured discussions at a recent symposium. PMID:23409891

  1. Research Opportunities for Cancer Associated with Indoor Air Pollution from Solid-Fuel Combustion

    PubMed Central

    Ghazarian, Armen A.; DeMarini, David M.; Sapkota, Amir; Jack, Darby; Lan, Qing; Winn, Deborah M.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Indoor air pollution (IAP) derived largely from the use of solid fuels for cooking and heating affects about 3 billion people worldwide, resulting in substantial adverse health outcomes, including cancer. Women and children from developing countries are the most exposed populations. A workshop was held in Arlington, Virginia, 9–11 May 2011, to better understand women’s and children’s potential health effects from IAP in developing countries. Workshop participants included international scientists, manufacturers, policy and regulatory officials, community leaders, and advocates who held extensive discussions to help identify future research needs. Objectives: Our objective was to identify research opportunities regarding IAP and cancer, including research questions that could be incorporated into studies of interventions to reduce IAP exposure. In this commentary, we describe the state of the science in understanding IAP and its associations with cancer and suggest research opportunities for improving our understanding of the issues. Discussion: Opportunities for research on IAP and cancer include studies of the effect of IAP on cancers other than lung cancer; studies of genetic factors that modify susceptibility; studies to determine whether the effects of IAP are mediated via germline, somatic, and/or epigenetic changes; and studies of the effects of IAP exposure via dermal and/or oral routes. Conclusions: IAP from indoor coal use increases the risk of lung cancer. Installing chimneys can reduce risk, and some genotypes, including GSTM1-null, can increase risk. Additional research is needed regarding the effects of IAP on other cancers and the effects of different types of solid fuels, oral and dermal routes of IAP exposure, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, and genetic susceptibility. PMID:22846419

  2. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bayer, C.W.

    2001-02-22

    In the modern urban setting, most individuals spend about 80% of their time indoors and are therefore exposed to the indoor environment to a much greater extent than to the outdoors (Lebowitz 1992). Concomitant with this increased habitation in urban buildings, there have been numerous reports of adverse health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) (sick buildings). Most of these buildings were built in the last two decades and were constructed to be energy-efficient. The quality of air in the indoor environment can be altered by a number of factors: release of volatile compounds from furnishings, floor and wall coverings, and other finishing materials or machinery; inadequate ventilation; poor temperature and humidity control; re-entrainment of outdoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and the contamination of the indoor environment by microbes (particularly fungi). Armstrong Laboratory (1992) found that the three most frequent causes of IAQ are (1) inadequate design and/or maintenance of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, (2) a shortage of fresh air, and (3) lack of humidity control. A similar study by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH 1989) recognized inadequate ventilation as the most frequent source of IAQ problems in the work environment (52% of the time). Poor IAQ due to microbial contamination can be the result of the complex interactions of physical, chemical, and biological factors. Harmful fungal populations, once established in the HVAC system or occupied space of a modern building, may episodically produce or intensify what is known as sick building syndrome (SBS) (Cummings and Withers 1998). Indeed, SBS caused by fungi may be more enduring and recalcitrant to treatment than SBS from multiple chemical exposures (Andrae 1988). An understanding of the microbial ecology of the indoor environment is crucial to ultimately resolving many IAQ problems. The incidence of SBS related to multiple

  3. RESEARCH REVIEW 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of aquatic research conducted by the Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, Florida, Office of Research and Development. The research program examines the impact of pesticides and other organic compounds on marine species and communities, an...

  4. Overview of an Indoor Sonic Boom Simulator at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klos, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    A facility has been constructed at NASA Langley Research Center to simulate the soundscape inside residential houses that are exposed to environmental noise from aircraft. This controllable indoor listening environment, the Interior Effects Room, enables systematic study of parameters that affect psychoacoustic response. The single-room facility, built using typical residential construction methods and materials, is surrounded on adjacent sides by two arrays of loudspeakers in close proximity to the exterior walls. The arrays, containing 52 subwoofers and 52 mid-range speakers, have a usable bandwidth of 3 Hz to 5 kHz and sufficient output to allow study of sonic boom noise. In addition to these exterior arrays, satellite speakers placed inside the room are used to augment the transmitted sound with rattle and other audible contact ]induced noise that can result from low frequency excitation of a residential house. The layout of the facility, operational characteristics, acoustic characteristics and equalization approaches are summarized.

  5. Fathers Matter: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featherstone, Brid

    2004-01-01

    This review outlines key areas of research in relation to the following: the nature of father involvement; factors influencing involvement; the influence of fathers on children; and social policy developments. It reviews the practice oriented research which has emerged in the UK as engaging fathers has become part of the agenda for many child…

  6. AIR CLEANER RESEARCH (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using air cleaners to remove pollutants from indoor air is part an integrated indoor air quality strategy. Air cleaners can be used either alone or in combination with other control options when source control and improvements in ventilation are insufficient, impractical, or oth...

  7. Ocean research plan reviewed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    A draft plan setting out priorities for U.S. ocean research generally was lauded for its clear and well-articulated view in a recent report from a committee of the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) of the US. National Academies. However, the committee advised that the plan would benefit from a bold vision for the future of ocean science research, additional details, and a reorganization to include cross-cutting research.The draft "Charting the Course for Ocean Science in the United States: Research Priorities for the Next Decade" was made available for public comment in September 2006 by the U.S. National Science and Technology Council's Joint Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology.

  8. International Prevalence of Indoor Tanning A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wehner, Mackenzie R.; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Nameth, Danielle; Choudhry, Aditi; Gaskins, Matthew; Nead, Kevin T.; Boscardin, W. John; Linos, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Indoor tanning is a known carcinogen, but the scope of exposure to this hazard is not known. OBJECTIVE To summarize the international prevalence of exposure to indoor tanning. DATA SOURCES Studies were identified through systematic searches of PubMed (1966 to present), Scopus (1823 to present), and Web of Science (1898 to present) databases, last performed on March 16, 2013. We also hand searched reference lists to identify records missed by database searches and publicly available data not yet published in the scientific literature. STUDY SELECTION Records reporting a prevalence of indoor tanning were eligible for inclusion. We excluded case-control studies, reports with insufficient study information, and reports of groups recruited using factors related to indoor tanning. Two independent investigators performed searches and study selection. Our search yielded 1976 unique records. After exclusions, 161 records were assessed for eligibility in full text, and 88 were included. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Two independent investigators extracted data on characteristics of study participants, inclusion/exclusion criteria, data collection format, outcomes, and statistical methods. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to summarize the prevalence of indoor tanning in different age categories. We calculated the population proportional attributable risk of indoor tanning in the United States, Europe, and Australia for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Ever and past-year exposure to indoor tanning. RESULTS The summary prevalence of ever exposure was 35.7% (95% CI, 27.5%-44.0%) for adults, 55.0% (33.0%-77.1%) for university students, and 19.3% (14.7%-24.0%) for adolescents. The summary prevalence of past-year exposure was 14.0% (95% CI, 11.5%-16.5%) for adults, 43.1% (21.7%-64.5%) for university students, and 18.3% (12.6%-24.0%) for adolescents. These results included data from 406 696 participants. The population

  9. ETV Programmes: Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Sohanvir; Panda, Santosh

    1997-01-01

    Reviews research on educational television (ETV), focusing on teacher and student attitudes; impact on children and teachers and in-service education in media; and utilization. Also reviews a few studies on the impact and utilization of educational radio broadcasts. Draws broad conclusions about the use, design, and learning process of ETV. (PEN)

  10. Research Review, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Simulation Branch (GMSB) of the Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) is engaged in general circulation modeling studies related to global atmospheric and oceanographic research. The research activities discussed are organized into two disciplines: Global Weather/Observing Systems and Climate/Ocean-Air Interactions. The Global Weather activities are grouped in four areas: (1) Analysis and Forecast Studies, (2) Satellite Observing Systems, (3) Analysis and Model Development, (4) Atmospheric Dynamics and Diagnostic Studies. The GLAS Analysis/Forecast/Retrieval System was applied to both FGGE and post FGGE periods. The resulting analyses have already been used in a large number of theoretical studies of atmospheric dynamics, forecast impact studies and development of new or improved algorithms for the utilization of satellite data. Ocean studies have focused on the analysis of long-term global sea surface temperature data, for use in the study of the response of the atmosphere to sea surface temperature anomalies. Climate research has concentrated on the simulation of global cloudiness, and on the sensitivities of the climate to sea surface temperature and ground wetness anomalies.

  11. A survey and critical review of the literature on indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.; Angell, W.J.

    1998-03-01

    A survey and critical review were undertaken of existing published literature and reports on indoor air quality (IAQ), ventilation, and IAQ- and building-related health problems in schools, including California schools. Over 450 relevant publications were obtained and reviewed, including papers published in the archival peer-reviewed scientific literature, proceedings of scientific meetings, government reports, 77 NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Reports (HHER) and 70 reports on investigations of problem schools in California. Most of the reviewed literature was for complaint or problem schools. The types of health symptoms reported in schools were very similar to those defined as sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, although this may be due, at least in part, to the type of health symptom questionnaires used. Some of the symptoms, e.g., wheezing, are indicative of asthma. In the studies in which complaint and noncomplaint buildings or areas were compared, complaint buildings generally had higher rates of health symptoms.

  12. Does participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental wellbeing than physical activity indoors? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Thompson Coon, J; Boddy, K; Stein, K; Whear, R; Barton, J; Depledge, M H

    2011-03-01

    natural environments was associated with greater feelings of revitalization and positive engagement, decreases in tension, confusion, anger, and depression, and increased energy. However, the results suggested that feelings of calmness may be decreased following outdoor exercise. Participants reported greater enjoyment and satisfaction with outdoor activity and declared a greater intent to repeat the activity at a later date. None of the identified studies measured the effects of physical activity on physical wellbeing or the effect of natural environments on exercise adherence. The hypothesis that there are added beneficial effects to be gained from performing physical activity outdoors in natural environments is very appealing and has generated considerable interest. This review has shown some promising effects on self-reported mental wellbeing immediately following exercise in nature which are not seen following the same exercise indoors. However, the interpretation and extrapolation of these findings is hampered by the poor methodological quality of the available evidence and the heterogeneity of outcome measures employed. The review demonstrates the paucity of high quality evidence on which to base recommendations and reveals an undoubted need for further research in this area. Large, well designed, longer term trials in populations who might benefit most from the potential advantages of outdoor exercise are needed to fully elucidate the effects on mental and physical wellbeing. The influence of these effects on the sustainability of physical activity initiatives also awaits investigation. PMID:21291246

  13. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  14. Determinants of Indoor Tanning Behavior among Adolescent Females: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, J. Don

    2006-01-01

    Indoor tanning continues to grow in popularity even though empirical investigations denounce the behavior. Various reports have illustrated the detrimental health effects of ultraviolet (UV) exposure including increased risk for skin cancer. According to some physicians, the risk may be especially high for adolescents whose skin cells are dividing…

  15. Indoor Measurements of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Final Report to the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Dod, Raymond L.; Russell, Marion L.; Singer, Brett C.; Sohn, Michael D.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Chang, Gee-Minn; Sextro, Richard G.

    2004-03-02

    The objective of this research project was to improve the basis for estimating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research utilized experiments conducted in both laboratory and ''real-world'' buildings to (1) study the transport of ETS species from room to room, (2) examine the viability of using various chemical markers as tracers for ETS, and (3) to evaluate to what extent re-emission of ETS components from indoor surfaces might add to the ETS exposure estimates. A three-room environmental chamber was used to examine multi-zone transport and behavior of ETS and its tracers. One room (simulating a smoker's living room) was extensively conditioned with ETS, while a corridor and a second room (simulating a child's bedroom) remained smoking-free. A series of 5 sets of replicate experiments were conducted under different door opening and flow configurations: sealed, leaky, slightly ajar, wide open, and under forced air-flow conditions. When the doors between the rooms were slightly ajar the particles dispersed into the other rooms, eventually reaching the same concentration. The particle size distribution took the same form in each room, although the total numbers of particles in each room depended on the door configurations. The particle number size distribution moved towards somewhat larger particles as the ETS aged. We also successfully modeled the inter-room transport of ETS particles from first principles--using size fractionated particle emission factors, predicted deposition rates, and thermal temperature gradient driven inter-room flows, This validation improved our understanding of bulk inter-room ETS particle transport. Four chemical tracers were examined: ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and solanesol. Both (UVPM) and (FPM) traced the transport of ETS particles into the non-smoking areas. Nicotine, on the other hand, quickly adsorbed on

  16. Review of the indoor environmental quality and energy consumption studies for low income households in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kolokotsa, D; Santamouris, M

    2015-12-01

    The term energy poverty is used to describe a situation of a household not able to satisfy socially and materially the required levels of its energy services. Energy and fuel poverty is an increasing problem in the European Union. Although the specific conditions vary from country to country the drivers defining fuel and energy poverty are similar in all Europe. This paper aims to present the state of the art regarding the energy demand and indoor environmental quality of low income households in Europe. The characteristics of this specific population group are presented including details on the specific energy consumption, the indoor comfort and finally the impact of the specific living conditions on the occupants' health. PMID:26225739

  17. AAC Modeling Intervention Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennott, Samuel C.; Light, Janice C.; McNaughton, David

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of research on the effects of interventions that include communication partner modeling of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the language acquisition of individuals with complex communication needs was conducted. Included studies incorporated AAC modeling as a primary component of the intervention,…

  18. Research Opportunities for Cancer Associated with Indoor Air Pollution from Solid-Fuel Combustion

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Indoor air pollution (IAP) derived largely from the use of solid fuels for cooking and heating affects about 3 billion people worldwide, resulting in substantial adverse health outcomes, including cancer. Women and children from developing countries are the most expos...

  19. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Charlene W.; Crow, Sidney A.; Fischer, John

    Understanding the primary causes of indoor air quality (IAQ) problems and how controllable factors--proper heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system design, allocation of adequate outdoor air, proper filtration, effective humidity control, and routine maintenance--can avert problems may help all building owners, operators, and…

  20. Evolution of the indoor biome.

    PubMed

    Martin, Laura J; Adams, Rachel I; Bateman, Ashley; Bik, Holly M; Hawks, John; Hird, Sarah M; Hughes, David; Kembel, Steven W; Kinney, Kerry; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Levy, Gabriel; McClain, Craig; Meadow, James F; Medina, Raul F; Mhuireach, Gwynne; Moreau, Corrie S; Munshi-South, Jason; Nichols, Lauren M; Palmer, Clare; Popova, Laura; Schal, Coby; Täubel, Martin; Trautwein, Michelle; Ugalde, Juan A; Dunn, Robert R

    2015-04-01

    Few biologists have studied the evolutionary processes at work in indoor environments. Yet indoor environments comprise approximately 0.5% of ice-free land area--an area as large as the subtropical coniferous forest biome. Here we review the emerging subfield of 'indoor biome' studies. After defining the indoor biome and tracing its deep history, we discuss some of its evolutionary dimensions. We restrict our examples to the species found in human houses--a subset of the environments constituting the indoor biome--and offer preliminary hypotheses to advance the study of indoor evolution. Studies of the indoor biome are situated at the intersection of evolutionary ecology, anthropology, architecture, and human ecology and are well suited for citizen science projects, public outreach, and large-scale international collaborations. PMID:25770744

  1. Research impact: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Raftery, James; Hanney, Steve; Glover, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Impact occurs when research generates benefits (health, economic, cultural) in addition to building the academic knowledge base. Its mechanisms are complex and reflect the multiple ways in which knowledge is generated and utilised. Much progress has been made in measuring both the outcomes of research and the processes and activities through which these are achieved, though the measurement of impact is not without its critics. We review the strengths and limitations of six established approaches (Payback, Research Impact Framework, Canadian Academy of Health Sciences, monetisation, societal impact assessment, UK Research Excellence Framework) plus recently developed and largely untested ones (including metrics and electronic databases). We conclude that (1) different approaches to impact assessment are appropriate in different circumstances; (2) the most robust and sophisticated approaches are labour-intensive and not always feasible or affordable; (3) whilst most metrics tend to capture direct and proximate impacts, more indirect and diffuse elements of the research-impact link can and should be measured; and (4) research on research impact is a rapidly developing field with new methodologies on the horizon. PMID:27211576

  2. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE REVIEW (EPA/600/R-01/001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S...

  3. A Survey and Critical Review of the Literature on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Health Symptoms in Schools. IEQ Strategies[TM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisey, Joan M.; Angell, William J.

    This report presents detailed results from a survey and critical review of existing published literature and reports on indoor air quality (IAQ), ventilation, and IAQ- and building-related health problems in schools, particularly California schools. The findings: (1) identify the most commonly reported building-related health symtoms involving…

  4. Life Review: Implementation, Theory, Research, and Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2006-01-01

    A selective literature review of publications on life review generated ideas on implementation, theory, research, and therapy. The review begins by differentiating life review from reminiscence, and summarizing ways to conduct a life review. A dozen theories that have been influenced by the life review technique are presented, with a focus placed…

  5. RESEARCH ON IMPACT OF OZONE GENERATORS ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone-generating air cleaners are marketed to homeowners as well as business establishments ostensibly to remove odors and other contaminants from indoor air. A typical air cleaner consists of an ozone generator, fan, housing, and controls. Units may also employ filters to remov...

  6. Estimating the risk of lung cancer from inhalation of radon daughters indoors: review and evaluation. Final report, October 1986-April 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Borak, T.B.; Johnson, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    A review of the dosimetric models and epidemiological studies with regard to the relation between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer indicates that the Working Level is an appropriate unit for indoor radon exposure; that the uncertainty in applying risk estimates derived from uranium miner data may be reduced by determining nose vs. mouth breathing ratios, residential aerosol characteristics, and lung cancer risk vs. age at exposure; that there is persuasive evidence of an association between radon exposure indoors and lung cancer; and that epidemiological studies in progress may provide a basis for revision or validation of current models but only is experimental designs are employed that will permit pooling of data to obtain greater statistical power.

  7. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This environmental information handbook was prepared to assist both the non-technical reader (i.e., homeowner) and technical persons (such as researchers, policy analysts, and builders/designers) in understanding the current state of knowledge regarding combustion sources of indoor air pollution. Quantitative and descriptive data addressing the emissions, indoor concentrations, factors influencing indoor concentrations, and health effects of combustion-generated pollutants are provided. In addition, a review of the models, controls, and standards applicable to indoor air pollution from combustion sources is presented. The emphasis is on the residential environment. The data presented here have been compiled from government and privately-funded research results, conference proceedings, technical journals, and recent publications. It is intended to provide the technical reader with a comprehensive overview and reference source on the major indoor air quality aspects relating to indoor combustion activities, including tobacco smoking. In addition, techniques for determining potential concentrations of pollutants in residential settings are presented. This is an update of a 1985 study documenting the state of knowledge of combustion-generated pollutants in the indoor environment. 191 refs., 51 figs., 71 tabs.

  8. Reviewing Reviews of Research in Educational Leadership: An Empirical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Reviews of research play a critical but underappreciated role in knowledge production and accumulation. Yet, until relatively recently, limited attention has been given to the "methodology" of conducting reviews of research. This observation also applies in educational leadership and management where reviews of research have…

  9. Framing Indoor Tanning Warning Messages to Reduce Skin Cancer Risks Among Young Women: Implications for Research and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the impact of indoor tanning device warnings that communicate the risks associated with indoor tanning (i.e., loss framed) or the benefits of avoiding indoor tanning (i.e., gain framed). Methods. A convenience sample of non-Hispanic White women aged 18 to 30 years who tanned indoors at least once in the past year (n = 682) participated in a within-subjects experiment. Participants completed baseline measures and reported indoor tanning intentions and intentions to quit indoor tanning in response to 5 warning messages in random order. A text-only control warning was based on Food and Drug Administration–required warnings for indoor tanning devices. Experimental warnings included graphic content and were either gain or loss framed. Results. In multivariable analyses, gain-framed warnings did not differ from the control warning on women’s intentions to tan indoors, but they prompted stronger intentions to quit than the control message. Loss-framed warnings significantly reduced intentions to tan indoors and increased intentions to quit indoor tanning compared with control and gain-framed warnings. Conclusions. The public health impact of indoor tanning device warnings can be enhanced by incorporating graphic content and leveraging gain- and loss-framed messaging. PMID:26066932

  10. Injuries At Indoor Trampoline Parks Jump

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160460.html Injuries at Indoor Trampoline Parks Jump Researchers say finding shows need for safety ... News) -- A wave of injuries at indoor trampoline parks has prompted a call for design and safety ...

  11. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  12. Exposure assessment of air pollutants: a review on spatial heterogeneity and indoor/outdoor/personal exposure to suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monn, Christian

    This review describes databases of small-scale spatial variations and indoor, outdoor and personal measurements of air pollutants with the main focus on suspended particulate matter, and to a lesser extent, nitrogen dioxide and photochemical pollutants. The basic definitions and concepts of an exposure measurement are introduced as well as some study design considerations and implications of imprecise exposure measurements. Suspended particulate matter is complex with respect to particle size distributions, the chemical composition and its sources. With respect to small-scale spatial variations in urban areas, largest variations occur in the ultrafine (<0.1 μm) and the coarse mode (PM 10-2.5, resuspended dust). Secondary aerosols which contribute to the accumulation mode (0.1-2 μm) show quite homogenous spatial distribution. In general, small-scale spatial variations of PM 2.5 were described to be smaller than the spatial variations of PM 10. Recent studies in outdoor air show that ultrafine particle number counts have large spatial variations and that they are not well correlated to mass data. Sources of indoor particles are from outdoors and some specific indoor sources such as smoking and cooking for fine particles or moving of people (resuspension of dust) for coarse particles. The relationships between indoor, outdoor and personal levels are complex. The finer the particle size, the better becomes the correlation between indoor, outdoor and personal levels. Furthermore, correlations between these parameters are better in longitudinal analyses than in cross-sectional analyses. For NO 2 and O 3, the air chemistry is important. Both have considerable small-scale spatial variations within urban areas. In the absence of indoor sources such as gas appliances, NO 2 indoor/outdoor relationships are strong. For ozone, indoor levels are quite small. The study hypothesis largely determines the choice of a specific concept in exposure assessment, i.e. whether personal

  13. Research Review: Issues in Magazine Journalism Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Elliot

    1994-01-01

    Argues that, hobbled by an impoverished underlying model and a lack of resources, very little empirical research has explored magazine journalism education. Investigates the underlying model, reviews existing research, and offers an optimistic assessment about future research possibilities. (SR)

  14. THE DISTRIBUTION OF CHLORPYRIFOS FOLLOWING A CRACK AND CREVICE TYPE APPLICATION IN THE U.S. EPA INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH HOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of chlorpyrifos following a professional crack-and-crevice application in the kitchen of the U.S. EPA's indoor air quality research house in North Carolina. Following the application, measuremen...

  15. THE DISTRIBUTION OF CHLORPYRIFOS FOLLOWING A CRACK AND CREVICE TYPE APPLICATION IN THE U.S. EPA INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH HOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted in the U.S. EPA Indoor Air Quality Research House to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of chlorpyrifos following a professional crack and crevice application in the kitchen. Following the application, measurements were made in the kitchen, de...

  16. Indoor climate and air quality . Review of current and future topics in the field of ISB study group 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höppe, P.; Martinac, Ivo

    In industrialized countries about 90% of the time is spent indoors. The ambient parameters affecting indoor thermal comfort are air temperature and humidity, air velocity, and radiant heat exchange within an enclosure. In assessing the thermal environment, one needs to consider all ambient parameters, the insulating properties of the occupants' clothing, and the activity level of the occupants by means of heat balance models of the human body. Apart from thermal parameters, air quality (measured and perceived) is also of importance for well-being and health in indoor environments. Pollutant levels are influenced by both outdoor concentrations and by indoor emissions. Indoor levels can thus be lower (e.g. in the case of ozone and SO2) or higher (e.g. for CO2 and formaldehyde) than outdoor levels. Emissions from cooking play an important role, especially in developing countries. The humidity of the ambient air has a wide range of effects on the energy and water balance of the body as well as on elasticity, air quality perception, build-up of electrostatic charge and the formation or mould. However, its effect on the indoor climate is often overestimated. While air-handling systems are commonly used for achieving comfortable indoor climates, their use has also been linked to a variety of problems, some of which have received attention within the context of ''sick building syndrome''.

  17. Indoor climate and air quality. Review of current and future topics in the field of ISB study group 10.

    PubMed

    Höppe, P; Martinac, I

    1998-08-01

    In industrialized countries about 90% of the time is spent indoors. The ambient parameters affecting indoor thermal comfort are air temperature and humidity, air velocity, and radiant heat exchange within an enclosure. In assessing the thermal environment, one needs to consider all ambient parameters, the insulating properties of the occupants' clothing, and the activity level of the occupants by means of heat balance models of the human body. Apart from thermal parameters, air quality (measured and perceived) is also of importance for well-being and health in indoor environments. Pollutant levels are influenced by both outdoor concentrations and by indoor emissions. Indoor levels can thus be lower (e.g. in the case of ozone and SO2) or higher (e.g. for CO2 and formaldehyde) than outdoor levels. Emissions from cooking play an important role, especially in developing countries. The humidity of the ambient air has a wide range of effects on the energy and water balance of the body as well as on elasticity, air quality perception, build-up of electrostatic charge and the formation or mould. However, its effect on the indoor climate is often overestimated. While air-handling systems are commonly used for achieving comfortable indoor climates, their use has also been linked to a variety of problems, some of which have received attention within the context of "sick building syndrome". PMID:9780844

  18. A smart indoor air quality sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jin

    2006-03-01

    The indoor air quality (IAQ) has an important impact on public health. Currently, the indoor air pollution, caused by gas, particle, and bio-aerosol pollutants, is considered as the top five environmental risks to public health and has an estimated cost of $2 billion/year due to medical cost and lost productivity. Furthermore, current buildings are especially vulnerable for chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agent contamination because the central air conditioning and ventilation system serve as a nature carrier to spread the released agent from one location to the whole indoor environment within a short time period. To assure the IAQ and safety for either new or existing buildings, real time comprehensive IAQ and CBW measurements are needed. With the development of new sensing technologies, economic and reliable comprehensive IAQ and CBW sensors become promising. However, few studies exist that examine the design and evaluation issues related to IAQ and CBW sensor network. In this paper, relevant research areas including IAQ and CBW sensor development, demand control ventilation, indoor CBW sensor system design, and sensor system design for other areas such as water system protection, fault detection and diagnosis, are reviewed and summarized. Potential research opportunities for IAQ and CBW sensor system design and evaluation are discussed.

  19. Research on field of view of optical receiving antenna based on indoor visible light communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Mingguang; Lan, Tian; Zhao, Tao; Zhang, Yilun; Cui, Zhenghua; Ni, Guoqiang

    2015-08-01

    Optical receiving antenna is usually positioned before the detector of an indoor visible light communication (VLC) system in order to collect more optical energy into the detector. Besides optical gain of the antenna, the field of view (FOV) plays also an important role to the performance of a VLC system. In this paper, the signal noise ratio (SNR) and inter-symbol interference (ISI) versus FOV of the antenna are simulated via Line-of-Sight (LOS) and non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) links within a room with a size of 5m × 5m × 3m. Results show that, the blind area appears while the FOV is less than 40 deg. and the SNR reduces as FOV increases and keeps small when FOV is more than 70 deg.. Furthermore, the average power of ISI rises with the increase of FOV, and the rising trend is relatively moderate when FOV is below 50 deg., while there is a rapid increase between 50 deg. and 70 deg. and finally tends to be stable after 70 deg. Therefore, it is practical to determine the FOV of the optical receiving antenna in the scope of 40 to 50 deg. based on the installment of LED lights on the ceiling here so as to avoid the blind area, attain high SNR, and reduce the influence of ISI. It is also worthwhile in practice to provide an identifiable evidence for the determination of FOV of the optical antenna.

  20. Writing Quality Peer Reviews of Research Manuscripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Phillip; Graber, Kim C.; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is an important mechanism for advancing knowledge in a manner deemed as acceptable by the research community. It can also serve the function of providing guidance to an author(s) to improve the likelihood that manuscripts will be accepted in peer reviewed journals. There is, however, little assistance for new or existing reviewers of…

  1. Flexible Delivery of Training. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    Research on flexible delivery of training in Australia since 1990 was reviewed to identify main trends in the delivery of training, the adequacy of research on the topic, and topics that should be addressed in future studies. Selected conclusions of the review are as follows: (1) flexible delivery strategies are valuable in facilitating access to…

  2. Second Language Research Using Magnetoencephalography: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Gwen L.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2009-01-01

    In this review we show how magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a constructive tool for language research and review MEG findings in second language (L2) research. MEG is the magnetic analog of electroencephalography (EEG), and its primary advantage over other cross-sectional (e.g. magnetic resonance imaging, or positron emission tomography) functional…

  3. Research Ethics: Institutional Review Board Oversight of Art Therapy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaver, Sarah P.

    2011-01-01

    By having their research proposals reviewed and approved by Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), art therapists meet important ethical principles regarding responsibility to research participants. This article provides an overview of the history of human subjects protections in the United States; underlying ethical principles and their application…

  4. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  5. Strategically Reviewing the Research Literature in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenail, Ronald J.; Cooper, Robin; Desir, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Reviewing literature in qualitative research can be challenging in terms of why, when, where, and how we should access third-party sources in our work, especially for novice qualitative researchers. As a pragmatic solution, we suggest qualitative researchers utilize research literature in four functional ways: (a) define the phenomenon in…

  6. Equatorial oceanography. [review of research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, M. A.; Sarachik, E. S.

    1983-01-01

    United States progress in equatorial oceanography is reviewed, focusing on the low frequency response of upper equatorial oceans to forcing by the wind. Variations of thermocline depth, midocean currents, and boundary currents are discussed. The factors which determine sea surface temperature (SST) variability in equatorial oceans are reviewed, and the status of understanding of the most spectacular manifestation of SST variability, the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomenon, is discussed. The problem of observing surface winds, regarded as a fundamental factor limiting understanding of the equatorial oceans, is addressed. Finally, an attempt is made to identify those current trends which are expected to bear fruit in the near and distant future.

  7. A priority agenda for energy-related indoor environmental quality research

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Brager, G.; Brook, M.; Burge, H.; Cole, J.; Cummings, J.; Levin, H.; Loftness, V.; Logee, T.; Mendell, M.J.; Persily, A.; Taylor, S.; Zhang, J.

    2002-05-01

    A multidisciplinary team of IEQ and energy researchers is working together to define a program of priority energy-related IEQ research. This paper describes the methods employed, ten high priority broad research and development (R&D) goals, and 34 high priority R&D project areas linked to these goals.

  8. Employability: Review and Research Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilbert, Laure; Bernaud, Jean-Luc; Gouvernet, Brice; Rossier, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Professional transition, employment, and reemployment are major concerns for nations facing adverse economic situations. The employability construct represents a scientific challenge in order to better understand the relationship between the job seekers' issues and the expectations of the world of work. This paper presents a review of the concept…

  9. Review and Synthesize Completed Research Through Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Lisa; Rittenmeyer, Leslie

    2015-10-01

    The evidence-based health care movement has generated new opportunity for scholars to generate synthesized sources of evidence. Systematic reviews are rigorous forms of synthesized evidence that scholars can conduct if they have requisite skills, time, and access to excellent library resources. Systematic reviews play an important role in synthesizing what is known and unknown about a particular health issue. Thus, they have a synergistic relationship with primary research. They can both inform clinical decisions when the evidence is adequate and identify gaps in knowledge to inform research priorities. Systematic reviews can be conducted of quantitative and qualitative evidence to answer many types of questions. They all share characteristics of rigor that arise from a priori protocol development, transparency, exhaustive searching, dual independent reviewers who critically appraise studies using standardized tools, rigor in synthesis, and peer review at multiple stages in the conduct and reporting of the systematic review. PMID:25845805

  10. Indoor exposure to airborne endotoxin: a review of the literature on sampling and analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Paba, Emilia; Tranfo, Giovanna; Corsetti, Federica; Marcelloni, Anna Maria; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of exposure to airborne endotoxins has been studied for several years, especially in occupational environments, but a large number of procedures are used for sampling and analysis. This lack of standardization makes it very difficult to compare results and set internationally accepted threshold limit values (TLVs) or occupational exposure limits (OELs) for endotoxin exposure. This paper reviews the methods reported, using advanced bibliographical search techniques: 82 papers published from 2004 to the present were selected to analyze methods for the assessment of human exposure to airborne endotoxins, with particular reference to occupational settings, and to examine their performance and critical points. Only few studies have focused on the standardization of sampling and analysis methods. The European Committee for Standardization Guidelines coincide with the procedures most frequently applied, but this does not guarantee the best results in terms of recovery and reproducibility. The factor that mainly affects endotoxin measurements is the extraction method, the main concern being the presence in the samples of a fraction insoluble in aqueous media. If substantial differences in the proportions of this fraction in different environments are confirmed in the future, the contribution of insoluble endotoxins cannot be neglected. PMID:23385433

  11. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  12. Research review for information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of RICIS research in information management is to apply currently available technology to existing problems in information management. Research projects include the following: the Space Business Research Center (SBRC), the Management Information and Decision Support Environment (MIDSE), and the investigation of visual interface technology. Several additional projects issued reports. New projects include the following: (1) the AdaNET project to develop a technology transfer network for software engineering and the Ada programming language; and (2) work on designing a communication system for the Space Station Project Office at JSC. The central aim of all projects is to use information technology to help people work more productively.

  13. Indoor Activities

    MedlinePlus

    ... so you can do some lifting while you watch TV. Walk around the house when you talk on the phone. Make an extra trip up and down the stairs when you do the laundry. Download the Tip Sheet Indoor Activities (PDF, 739.53 KB) You Might Also Like Sun Safety Have Fun. Be Active with Your Dog! ...

  14. Walking-induced particle resuspension in indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jing; Peccia, Jordan; Ferro, Andrea R.

    2014-06-01

    Resuspension of particles indoors increases the risk of consequent exposure through inhalation and non-dietary ingestion. Studies have been conducted to characterize indoor particle resuspension but results do not always agree, and there are still many open questions in this field. This paper reviews the recent research of indoor resuspension and summarizes findings to answer six critical questions: 1) How does the resuspension sources compared to other indoor sources; 2) How is resuspension determined and how does the resuspension measure change as a function of particle size; 3) What are the primary resuspension mechanisms; 4) What are the factors affecting resuspension; 5) What are the knowledge gaps and future research directions in this area; and 6) How can what we know about resuspension guide better exposure mitigation strategies? From synthesized results, we conclude that resuspension is an important source for indoor particulate matter, compared with other indoor sources. Among all existing quantification terms of resuspension, resuspension fraction has the least variation in its estimates by explicitly defining surface loading and walking frequency, and thus is recommended to be adopted in future research over other terms. Resuspension increases with particle size in the range of 0.7-10 μm, although differences exist in resuspension estimates by orders of magnitude. The primary mechanism of particle resuspension involves rolling detachment, and the adhesive forces can be greatly reduced by microscopic surface roughness. Particle resuspension is by nature complicated, affected by various factors and their interactions. There are still many open questions to be answered to achieve an understanding of resuspension fundamentals. Given the complex and multidisciplinary nature of resuspension, understanding indoor particle resuspension behavior requires cross-disciplinary participation from experts in aerosol science, textile science, surface chemistry

  15. Research Review: Magazine Management and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research on magazine management and economics. Finds that most citations are from business and trade publications; research is being presented at conferences but not published; most management research covers industry trends rather than specific industry topics; and no solid base of conceptual and theoretical magazine management research…

  16. INDOOR AIR QUALITY MODELING (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Indoor Environment Management Branch of NRMRL's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division in Research Triangle Park, NC, has developed an indoor air quality (IAQ) model for analyzing the impact of sources, sinks, ventilation, and air cleaners on indoor air quality. Early ...

  17. Planetary atmospheres. [reviewing recent research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leovy, Conway

    1987-01-01

    Observations and theoretical models of planetary atmospheres published during the period 1983-1986 are reviewed, including Vega and Voyager data and results from ground-based remote sensing. Consideration is given to water-vapor and sulfur-compound distributions, electrical phenomena, and dynamics in the Venus atmosphere; dust storms, water cycles, and water and ice erosion on Mars; the compositions, temperature profiles, and dynamics of the Jovian and Saturnian atmospheres; chemical processes and zonal winds on Titan; and the radiation budgets and chemical compositions of the outer planets.

  18. A Review of Leadership Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Eugene S.

    This paper surveys the history and development of some of the major theories and concepts of leadership: (1) the trait approach--research focusing on personality characteristics presumed to set leaders apart from others; (2) leader behavior--what leaders actually do; and (3) situational variables--characteristics of the particular situation.…

  19. Research Review: Magazine Editors and Editing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Lee

    1994-01-01

    Reviews and critiques literature in the subfield of magazine editing research, chiefly biographical studies of individual editors and various types of studies of editorial practices, including surveys, magazine content analyses, and close qualitative examinations of editors' relationships with others. (SR)

  20. Review of Research in Social Studies: 1968

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William D.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Annual review of 121 research studies in the social sciences. Categorized on the basis of four major headings: (1) subject area studies, (2) preparing for instruction, (3) conduct of instruction, and (4) the preparation of social studies teachers. (MF)

  1. Research in Review: Prosocial Development in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    1982-01-01

    Reviews theory and research on various aspects of prosocial development, discusses curricula designed to increase the ability of young children to behave in prosocial ways, and lists six factors that can be used to facilitate children's prosocial development. (RH)

  2. Review of Research: Neuroscience and Reading--A Review for Reading Education Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruby, George G.; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we lay the groundwork for an interdisciplinary conversation between literacy education research and relevant neuroscience research. We review recent neuroscience research on correlates of proposed cognitive subprocesses in text decoding and reading comprehension and analyze some of the methodological and conceptual challenges of…

  3. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.E.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1988-01-01

    Scientists and engineers in the Indoor Air Brand of EPS'a Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory are conducting research to increase the state of knowledge concerning indoor air pollution factors. A three phase program is being implemented. The purpose of this paper is to show how their approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Pollutants from two sources are examined: para-dichlorobenzene emissions from moth crystal cakes; and particulate emissions from unvented kerosene heaters.

  4. Waiting Online: A Review and Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Gerard; Valverde, Mireia

    2003-01-01

    Reviews 21 papers based on 13 separate empirical studies on waiting on the Internet, drawn from the areas of marketing, system response time, and quality of service studies. The article proposes an agenda for future research, including extending the range of research methodologies, broadening the definition of waiting on the Internet, and…

  5. Research Review: The Specialized Business Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endres, Kathleen L.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews scholarly research (from journalism, communication, business, and the humanities) on the specialized business press. Notes the lack of theory building and ties across disciplines, and anticipates that new advances in CD-ROM technology may increase research into the field as well as strengthen ties across disciplines. (SR)

  6. Research Review: City and Regional Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynds, Ernest C.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that city magazines have vast unexplored potential as agenda setters, investigative reporters, and advocates of improved cities. Traces the historical development of city magazines, reviews the limited research in the field, and suggests research approaches that the magazines could use to expand their services to readers, advertisers,…

  7. A Research Review of E-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodberg, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The use of e-assessment in higher education is a relatively new educational practice that has been more frequently studied in recent years. This review aims to summarise some research on e-assessment, providing an overview based on articles from three well-established scientific journals. Focusing on research topics, settings for e-assessment and…

  8. Understanding Peer Review of Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    An important factor in the success of America's national research system is that federal funds for university-based research are awarded primarily through peer review, which uses panels of scientific experts, or "peers," to evaluate the quality of grant proposals. In this competitive process, proposals compete for resources based on their…

  9. Reference Effectiveness: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Ronald R.

    1984-01-01

    This research review analyzes output measures that assess the effectiveness of a library's reference services: reference questions, reference staff performance, reference users, combined output measures, and combined input/output measures. The need for research, a definition of reference effectiveness, and input measures are noted. Seventy-three…

  10. Interdisciplinary Doctoral Research Supervision: A Scoping Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanstone, Meredith; Hibbert, Kathy; Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne; McKenzie, Pam; Pitman, Allan; Lingard, Lorelei

    2013-01-01

    This scoping literature review examines the topic of interdisciplinary doctoral research supervision. Interdisciplinary doctoral research programs are expanding in response to encouragement from funding agencies and enthusiasm from faculty and students. In an acknowledgement that the search for creative and innovative solutions to complex problems…

  11. BERA Review 2006: Education Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Delma; Ozga, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    The review examines the relationship between educational research and policy, from the post-war period to the present, throughout the United Kingdom. Its purpose is to (a) illuminate the changing relationship between education research and policy, and (b) to clarify the different ways in which that relationship is understood. Its overarching…

  12. Asynchronous Learning in Manufacturing: Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Gail E.

    This research paper examines the potential for asynchronous learning networks as a viable training alternative for small and medium manufacturing businesses. This first phase of the project, conducted by the Colorado Community College and Occupational System and the National Association of Manufacturers reviews existing research with a specific…

  13. Gene mutation discovery research of non-smoking lung cancer patients due to indoor radon exposure.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Ran; Park, Seong Yong; Noh, O Kyu; Koh, Young Wha; Kang, Dae Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Although the incidence and mortality for most cancers such as lung and colon are decreasing in several countries, they are increasing in several developed countries because of an unhealthy western lifestyles including smoking, physical inactivity and consumption of calorie-dense food. The incidences for lung and colon cancers in a few of these countries have already exceeded those in the United States and other western countries. Among them, lung cancer is the main cause of cancer death in worldwide. The cumulative survival rate at five years differs between 13 and 21 % in several countries. Although the most important risk factors are smoking for lung cancer, however, the increased incidence of lung cancer in never smokers(LCINS) is necessary to improve knowledge concerning other risk factors. Environmental factors and genetic susceptibility are also thought to contribute to lung cancer risk. Patients with lung adenocarcinoma who have never smoking frequently contain mutation within tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) gene. Also, K-ras mutations are more common in individuals with a history of smoking use and are related with resistance to EFGR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Recently, radon(Rn), natural and noble gas, has been recognized as second common reason of lung cancer. In this review, we aim to know whether residential radon is associated with an increased risk for developing lung cancer and regulated by several genetic polymorphisms. PMID:26985396

  14. Naval Research Laboratory 1986 review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Highlights of NRL Research in 1986 include: Structures were identified for a novel class of antimalarial drugs having a new type of silver coordination; glass fibers having an optical loss of 0.9dB/km at 2.5 microns, with a potential for 0.01 dB/km, were produced from zirconium, barium, lanthanum, aluminum, and sodium fluorides as a replacement for silica glass in long-length glass communication links; a new monotonic Lagrangian gird tracking algorithm was developed to provide rapid access of computerized data on the near neighbors of any object in many-body systems ranging from battlefield scenarios to molecular dynamics simulations of biological arrays; effects of the sea-air temperature differential and wind stress on radar backscatter were determined through both airborne and sea-surface measurements; NRL's airborne geophysical sensor suite was used in the remote detection of anomalies in magnetic and gravity fields caused by the earth's crustal variations beneath the ice-covered Weddell Sea; a system was designed and tested to measure radiation effects on integrated circuits; power transistors and solid-state transmitter architectures for wideband high-power shipboard radars were developed; surface acoustic wave chemical microsensors were shown to discriminate between CW agents and begnign species; a diode-pumped nonneodymium rare-earth laser based on the 2.1-micron holmium transition was demonstrated. A high-energy density pulser was developed.

  15. Advances in agricultural research. [Review

    SciTech Connect

    Leepson, M.

    1981-05-22

    Several factors could have disastrous consequences for the world's food supply, namely: shrinking agricultural acreage; increasing population; decreasing productivity gains in most crops; heavy dependence on petroleum-based pesticides and fertilizers; and genetic vulnerability. Many feel that solutions to these potentially grave problems lie in expanding agricultural research, with particular focus on age-old plant-breeding techniques. The newest plant-breeding technology, genetic engineering (also called recombinant DNA technology), could some day allow biologists to design actually new genetic material rather than just manipulate genetic material already present in crops. Most scientists foresee imminent breakthroughs with recombinant DNA technology and plant breeding, but warn the practial applications may be decades away - perhaps 20 to 50 years. Many of the larger chemical companies are working in the following areas of agriculture R and D: nitrogen fixation; plant growth regulants; photosynthesis; recombinant DNA; plant genetics; and soybean hybrids. New progress in hydroponic technology is reported briefly. Germ plasm collection and storage is being pursued in the US, Soviet Union, and Mexico; US activities are summarized. In addition to the chemical-company efforts in R and D, there have been many acquisitions of seed companies by some of the nation's largest corporations in the last decade; a significant difference of opinion exists as to what this growing corporate involvement portends for agriculture. 49 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  16. IACUC Review of Nonhuman Primate Research

    PubMed Central

    Tardif, Suzette D.; Coleman, Kristine; Hobbs, Theodore R.; Lutz, Corrine

    2013-01-01

    This article will detail some of the issues that must be considered as institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) review the use of nonhuman primates (NHPs) in research. As large, intelligent, social, long-lived, and non-domesticated animals, monkeys are amongst the most challenging species used in biomedical research and the duties of the IACUC in relation to reviewing research use of these species can also be challenging. Issues of specific concern for review of NHP research protocols that are discussed in this article include scientific justification, reuse, social housing requirements, amelioration of distress, surgical procedures, and humane endpoints. Clear institutional policies and procedures as regards NHP in these areas are critical, and the discussion of these issues presented here can serve as a basis for the informed establishment of such policies and procedures. PMID:24174445

  17. Investigating Indoor Air Quality Using a Community-based Participatory Research Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, A. M.; Ware, G. E.; Iwasaki, P. G.; Main, D.; Billingsley, L. R.; Pandya, R.; Hannigan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Our project seeks to expand scientific knowledge of air pollutant screening methods while also gathering data a community group can use to improve local health outcomes. Working with Taking Neighborhood Health to Heart (TNH2H), a Denver-based neighborhood group with significant experience doing community-based participatory research (CBPR) related to improving individual and community health, we designed a project to help residents test their homes for two contaminants of interest: radon and perchloroethylene. Radon is naturally occurring and commonly found across Colorado. Perchloroethylene contamination has been discovered in other parts of Denver and residents of Northeast Denver would like to learn more about its possible presence in their neighborhood. Additionally while radon is simple to test for, the same cannot be said for perchloroethylene. This project provides an opportunity to pilot a low-cost sampling method for perchloroethylene, apply TNH2H's CBPR model to an environmental health issue, adapt it for the geosciences, and engage the community in education around air quality issues. Data collected during the project will be shared with participating homes and the larger community. Community members will also participate in understanding and interpreting the data, and together community members and scientists will plan possible next steps, which may involve conducting further research, taking community action, or recommending changes in policy and practice. Beyond the local impacts, we are testing an air quality sampling method that could make sampling more accessible to a broader range of communities. We are also learning more about how communities and scientists can best work together and what additional resources can help facilitate and ensure successful implementation of these types of projects. Our partner, the Thriving Earth Exchange, will use what we learn to facilitate scientist-community partnerships like this in other communities around the

  18. Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J

    2002-01-01

    Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated with asthma may yield clues to causal components in ambient air pollution because such exposures are often identifiable as single-chemical agents (e.g., metal compounds). However, translating occupational to community exposure-response relationships is limited. Of the air toxics found to cause occupational asthma, only formaldehyde has been frequently investigated in epidemiologic studies of allergic respiratory responses to indoor air, where general consistency can be shown despite lower ambient exposures. The specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified in association with occupational asthma are generally not the same as those in studies showing respiratory effects of VOC mixtures on nonoccupational adult and pediatric asthma. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures linked to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have proinflammatory effects on airways, but there is insufficient supporting evidence from the occupational literature of effects of DEPs on asthma or lung function. In contrast, nonoccupational epidemiologic studies have frequently shown associations between allergic responses or asthma with exposures to ambient air pollutant mixtures with PAH components, including black smoke, high home or school traffic density (particularly truck traffic), and environmental tobacco smoke. Other particle-phase and gaseous co-pollutants are likely causal in these associations as well. Epidemiologic research on the relationship of both asthma onset and exacerbation to air pollution is needed to disentangle effects of air toxics from monitored criteria air pollutants such as particle mass

  19. Indoor Environment Program 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 38% of the energy consumed in the United States is used in buildings. Because humans spend an average of 85% to 90% of their time indoors, energy usage by the buildings sector can have a significant impact on human comfort, health and productivity. To advance energy conservation technologies while maintaining indoor air quality, research in the Indoor Environment Program (IEP) is directed toward understanding relations between building energy (usage and technologies), indoor air quality, and human health, comfort and productivity. The IEP addresses the issue of optimizing the health, comfort and productivity of a building`s occupants while maintaining the building`s energy efficiency. However, because ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants with indoor sources, reduced ventilation may produce undesirable effects on indoor air quality and on the health, comfort, and productivity of a building`s occupants. This issue is an important theme for the research of other research groups and projects within IEP.

  20. Indoor Environment Program 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 38% of the energy consumed in the United States is used in buildings. Because humans spend an average of 85% to 90% of their time indoors, energy usage by the buildings sector can have a significant impact on human comfort, health and productivity. To advance energy conservation technologies while maintaining indoor air quality, research in the Indoor Environment Program (IEP) is directed toward understanding relations between building energy (usage and technologies), indoor air quality, and human health, comfort and productivity. The IEP addresses the issue of optimizing the health, comfort and productivity of a building's occupants while maintaining the building's energy efficiency. However, because ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants with indoor sources, reduced ventilation may produce undesirable effects on indoor air quality and on the health, comfort, and productivity of a building's occupants. This issue is an important theme for the research of other research groups and projects within IEP.

  1. Review of physical sciences research, 1979 - 1990 (Gas Research Institute)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-07-01

    To meet the expectations and needs of the gas industry and its customers, basic research management techniques were developed that are appropriate for GRI's unique mission oriented research program. These techniques differ from those used in private industry and government. These techniques are described focussing on how GRI selects appropriate research topics, builds consensus for the Physical Sciences research program, and maintains an emphasis on providing useful results. Each of GRI's 37 active research topics are reviewed, describing their goals, results, and future plans. The reviews are presented in three groups: Physics, Chemistry, and Combustion, and each group begins with a summary of recent important results. Useful results of Physical Sciences Research are described throughout, but a comprehensive record of results is not presented.

  2. A review of schizophrenia research in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chee, K Y; Salina, A A

    2014-08-01

    Research in schizophrenia has advanced tremendously. One hundred and seventy five articles related to Schizophrenia were found from a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. This project aims to examine published research articles, in local and international journals in order to provide a glimpse of the research interest in Malaysia with regards to schizophrenia. Single case study, case series report, reviews and registry reports were not included in this review. Medication trial, unless it concerned a wider scope of psychopharmacology was also excluded from this review. A total of 105 articles were included in this review. Despite numerous genetics studies conducted and published, a definitive conclusion on the aetiology or mechanism underlying schizophrenia remains elusive. The National Mental Health - Schizophrenia Registry (NMHR) proved to be an important platform for many studies and publications. Studies stemmed from NMHR have provided significant insight into the baseline characteristic of patients with schizophrenia, pathway to care, and outcomes of the illness. International and regional collaborations have also encouraged important work involving stigma and discrimination in schizophrenia. Ministry of Health's hospitals (MOH) are the main research sites in the country with regards to schizophrenia research. Numbers of schizophrenia research are still low in relation to the number of universities and hospitals in the country. Some of the weaknesses include duplication of studies, over-emphasising clinical trials and ignoring basic clinical research, and the lack of publications in international and regional journals. PMID:25417951

  3. IMPACT OF AN OZONE GENERATOR AIR CLEANER ON STYRENE CONCENTRATIONS IN AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH CHAMBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the impact of an ozone generator air cleaner on vapor-phase styrene concentrations in a full-scale indoor air quality test chamber. The time history of the concentrations of styrene and ozone is well predicted by a simulation model u...

  4. Reporting guidelines in health research: A review.

    PubMed

    Simon, Arun K; Rao, Ashwini; Rajesh, Gururaghavendran; Shenoy, Ramya; Pai, Mithun B

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary health research has come under close scrutiny, exposing alarming flaws in the reporting of research. The reporting guidelines can aid in identification of poorly reported studies and can bring transparency to health research. The guidelines also help journal editors, peer reviewers, funding agencies, and readers to better discern health research. Reporting guidelines encourage accurate and thorough reporting of fundamental aspects of health research so that the results of studies can be replicated by others. Reporting guidelines are potent tools to improve the practice of research and in reducing reporting bias. For the present review, both electronic and manual literature search was carried out. Electronic databases like PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO host, and Science Direct were searched for extracting relevant articles. Various key words and their combinations were used for literature search like reporting guidelines, checklist, research, publishing standards, study design, medicine, and dentistry. The search results were scrutinized for relevance to the topic and only full text articles in English were incorporated. Various reporting guidelines were identified and grouped under headings based on study design. This review article attempts to highlight the various reporting guidelines in literature relating to health research, its potential applications, and its limitations. PMID:26021649

  5. Ultra Wideband Indoor Positioning Technologies: Analysis and Recent Advances †

    PubMed Central

    Alarifi, Abdulrahman; Al-Salman, AbdulMalik; Alsaleh, Mansour; Alnafessah, Ahmad; Al-Hadhrami, Suheer; Al-Ammar, Mai A.; Al-Khalifa, Hend S.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, indoor positioning has emerged as a critical function in many end-user applications; including military, civilian, disaster relief and peacekeeping missions. In comparison with outdoor environments, sensing location information in indoor environments requires a higher precision and is a more challenging task in part because various objects reflect and disperse signals. Ultra WideBand (UWB) is an emerging technology in the field of indoor positioning that has shown better performance compared to others. In order to set the stage for this work, we provide a survey of the state-of-the-art technologies in indoor positioning, followed by a detailed comparative analysis of UWB positioning technologies. We also provide an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) to analyze the present state of UWB positioning technologies. While SWOT is not a quantitative approach, it helps in assessing the real status and in revealing the potential of UWB positioning to effectively address the indoor positioning problem. Unlike previous studies, this paper presents new taxonomies, reviews some major recent advances, and argues for further exploration by the research community of this challenging problem space. PMID:27196906

  6. Ultra Wideband Indoor Positioning Technologies: Analysis and Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Alarifi, Abdulrahman; Al-Salman, AbdulMalik; Alsaleh, Mansour; Alnafessah, Ahmad; Al-Hadhrami, Suheer; Al-Ammar, Mai A; Al-Khalifa, Hend S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, indoor positioning has emerged as a critical function in many end-user applications; including military, civilian, disaster relief and peacekeeping missions. In comparison with outdoor environments, sensing location information in indoor environments requires a higher precision and is a more challenging task in part because various objects reflect and disperse signals. Ultra WideBand (UWB) is an emerging technology in the field of indoor positioning that has shown better performance compared to others. In order to set the stage for this work, we provide a survey of the state-of-the-art technologies in indoor positioning, followed by a detailed comparative analysis of UWB positioning technologies. We also provide an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) to analyze the present state of UWB positioning technologies. While SWOT is not a quantitative approach, it helps in assessing the real status and in revealing the potential of UWB positioning to effectively address the indoor positioning problem. Unlike previous studies, this paper presents new taxonomies, reviews some major recent advances, and argues for further exploration by the research community of this challenging problem space. PMID:27196906

  7. Exposure to airborne engineered nanoparticles in the indoor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Marina E.; Marr, Linsey C.

    2015-04-01

    This literature review assesses the current state of knowledge about inhalation exposure to airborne, engineered nanoparticles in the indoor environment. We present principal exposure scenarios in indoor environments, complemented by analysis of the published literature and of an inventory of nanotechnology-enhanced consumer products. Of all products listed in the inventory, 10.8% (194 products) present the potential for aerosolization of nanomaterials and subsequent inhalation exposure during use or misuse. Among those, silver-containing products are the most prevalent (68 products). Roughly 50% of products would release wet aerosols and 50% would potentially release dry aerosols. Approximately 14% are cleaning products that can be broadly used in public indoor environments, where building occupants may be exposed. While a variety of nanomaterial compositions have been investigated in the limited number of published release and exposure studies, we identified a need for studies investigating nanofibers (beyond carbon nanotubes), nanofilms, nanoplatelets, and other emerging nanomaterials such as ceria and their nanocomposites. Finally, we provide recommendations for future research to advance the understanding of exposure to airborne nanomaterials indoors, such as studies into indoor chemistry of nanomaterials, better nanomaterial reporting and labeling in consumer products, and safer design of nanomaterial-containing consumer products.

  8. Indoor radon.

    PubMed

    Polpong, P; Bovornkitti, S

    1998-01-01

    The naturally radioactive but chemically inert gas, radon, is formed from the radioactive decay of radium which is part of the uranium series. Radon gas, which has a half life of 3.8 days, must escape from soil particles through air-filled pores in order to enter the atmosphere following the decay of radium. The concentration of radon in the atmosphere varies, depending on the place, time, height above the ground and meteorological conditions. It is thus an inescapable source of radiation exposure, both at home and at work. The potential hazards posed by exposure to radiation from indoor radon gas and its daughter products are of great concern worldwide. Noting of an excessive lung cancer risk among several groups of underground miners exposed to radon and its daughter products, studies on radon concentrations in the workplace and in dwellings have been conducted in many countries. The results have shown that the distribution of radon concentrations are approximately lognormal from which population weighted; the arithmetic mean of radon concentration of 40 Bq.m-3 has been adopted worldwide for dwellings and workplaces. The principal methods for reducing a high indoor radon concentration are: reducing the radon supply by reversing the pressure difference between the building and the soil; raising the resistance of the foundations to soil gas entry; removing the radon sources such as water or underlying soil; diluting the concentration by increasing the ventilation rate; and reducing the concentration of radon progeny by filtering and increasing the circulation of indoor air. Buildings which have a radon concentration higher than 200 Bq.m-3 should be investigated by the national authorities concerned; meanwhile, householders should be advised to take simple temporary precautions, such as increasing ventilation, until a permanent remedy can be effected. PMID:9470322

  9. A review of tilt rotor download research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felker, Fort F.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical research on the forces on a wing immersed in the wake of a hovering rotor is reviewed, with emphasis on the tilt rotor download problem. The basic features of the rotor/wing flow field on a tilt rotor aircraft are described. The effect of important geometric and operational parameters on the wing download is assessed. The magnitude of the download for typical tilt rotor configurations is reviewed, and advanced concepts for download reduction are described. Recommendations are presented for the direction of future research efforts.

  10. Learning in the Workplace. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul

    Research on changes and issues in workplace learning in Australia over the past 6 years was reviewed. Special attention was paid to four topics: importance of learning in the workplace; nature of workplace learning; factors affecting the quality of workplace learning; and recognition of workplace learning. Selected findings were as follows: (1)…

  11. A review of research in rotor loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.; Mantay, Wayne R.

    1988-01-01

    The research accomplished in the area of rotor loads over the last 13 to 14 years is reviewed. The start of the period examined is defined by the 1973 AGARD Milan conference and the 1974 hypothetical rotor comparison. The major emphasis of the review is research performed by the U.S. Army and NASA at their laboratories and/or by the industry under government contract. For the purpose of this review, two main topics are addressed: rotor loads prediction and means of rotor loads reduction. A limited discussion of research in gust loads and maneuver loads is included. In the area of rotor loads predictions, the major problem areas are reviewed including dynamic stall, wake induced flows, blade tip effects, fuselage induced effects, blade structural modeling, hub impedance, and solution methods. It is concluded that the capability to predict rotor loads has not significantly improved in this time frame. Future progress will require more extensive correlation of measurements and predictions to better understand the causes of the problems, and a recognition that differences between theory and measurement have multiple sources, yet must be treated as a whole. There is a need for high-quality data to support future research in rotor loads, but the resulting data base must not be seen as an end in itself. It will be useful only if it is integrated into firm long-range plans for the use of the data.

  12. Review of Air Force Job Satisfaction Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, R. Bruce

    A comprehensive plan for job satisfaction research has been developed as an outgrowth of the USAF Occupational Survey Program. The long-range goal of the plan is retention of qualified military personnel. This document reviews the basic steps of the plan and discusses projects and findings to date. Discussion centers on the following: (1) an…

  13. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Research Review and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesbach, Linda Sue; Polloway, Edward A.

    Research on fetal alcohol syndrome is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the implications of the syndrome for the development of mental retardation and other handicapping conditions. Attention is given to historical aspects; epidemiology; physiological and behavioral characteristics; and concerns related to diagnosis, prevention, and…

  14. Indoor air quality and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.

    During the last two decades there has been increasing concern within the scientific community over the effects of indoor air quality on health. Changes in building design devised to improve energy efficiency have meant that modern homes and offices are frequently more airtight than older structures. Furthermore, advances in construction technology have caused a much greater use of synthetic building materials. Whilst these improvements have led to more comfortable buildings with lower running costs, they also provide indoor environments in which contaminants are readily produced and may build up to much higher concentrations than are found outside. This article reviews our current understanding of the relationship between indoor air pollution and health. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a range of sources. The health impacts from indoor exposure to combustion products from heating, cooking, and the smoking of tobacco are examined. Also discussed are the symptoms associated with pollutants emitted from building materials. Of particular importance might be substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which arise from sources including paints, varnishes, solvents, and preservatives. Furthermore, if the structure of a building begins to deteriorate, exposure to asbestos may be an important risk factor for the chronic respiratory disease mesothelioma. The health effects of inhaled biological particles can be significant, as a large variety of biological materials are present in indoor environments. Their role in inducing illness through immune mechanisms, infectious processes, and direct toxicity is considered. Outdoor sources can be the main contributors to indoor concentrations of some contaminants. Of particular significance is Radon, the radioactive gas that arises from outside, yet only presents a serious health risk when found inside buildings. Radon and its decay products are now recognised as important indoor pollutants, and their effects are

  15. "Improved Geometric Network Model" (IGNM): a novel approach for deriving Connectivity Graphs for Indoor Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortari, F.; Zlatanova, S.; Liu, L.; Clementini, E.

    2014-04-01

    Over the past few years Personal Navigation Systems have become an established tool for route planning, but they are mainly designed for outdoor environments. Indoor navigation is still a challenging research area for several reasons: positioning is not very accurate, users can freely move between the interior boundaries of buildings, path network construction process may not be easy and straightforward due to complexity of indoor space configurations. Therefore the creation of a good network is essential for deriving overall connectivity of a building and for representing position of objects within the environment. This paper reviews current approaches to automatic derivation of route graphs for indoor navigation and discusses some of their limitations. Then, it introduces a novel algorithmic strategy for extracting a 3D connectivity graph for indoor navigation based on 2D floor plans.

  16. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Schuppli, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. Abstract The exploration of public attitudes toward animal research is important given recent developments in animal research (e.g., increasing creation and use of genetically modified animals, and plans for progress in areas such as personalized medicine), and the shifting relationship between science and society (i.e., a move toward the democratization of science). As such, public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. A critique is given of survey style methods used to collect data on public attitudes, and recommendations are given on how best to address current gaps in public attitudes literature. PMID:26480314

  17. Priorities for tuberculosis research: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rylance, Jamie; Pai, Madhukar; Lienhardt, Christian; Garner, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Summary Reliable and relevant research can help to improve tuberculosis control worldwide. In recent years, various organisations have assessed research needs and proposed priorities for tuberculosis. We summarise existing priority statements and assess the rigour of the methods used to generate them. We found 33 documents that specifically outline priorities in tuberculosis research. The top priority areas were drug development (28 articles), diagnosis and diagnostic tests (27), epidemiology (20), health services research (16), basic research (13), and vaccine development and use (13). The most focused questions were on the treatment and prevention of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in people co-infected with HIV. Methods used to identify these priorities were varied. Improvements can be made to ensure the process is more rigorous and transparent, and to use existing research or systematic reviews more often. WHO, Stop TB Partnership, and other organisations could adopt an incremental process of priority development, building on the existing knowledge base. PMID:21050822

  18. An assessment of indoor geolocation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Progri, Ilir Fiqiri

    2003-10-01

    Currently there is a need to design, develop, and deploy autonomous and portable indoor geolocation systems to fulfil the needs of military, civilian, governmental and commercial customers where GPS and GLONASS signals are not available due to the limitations of both GPS and GLONASS signal structure designs. The goal of this dissertation is (1) to introduce geolocation systems; (2) to classify the state of the art geolocation systems; (3) to identify the issues with the state of the art indoor geolocation systems; and (4) to propose and assess four WPI indoor geolocation systems. It is assessed that the current GPS and GLONASS signal structures are inadequate to overcome two main design concerns; namely, (1) the near-far effect and (2)the multipath effect. We propose four WPI indoor geolocation systems as an alternative solution to near-far and multipath effects. The WPI indoor geolocation systems are (1) a DSSS/CDMA indoor geolocation system, (2) a DSSS/CDMA/FDMA indoor geolocation system, (3) a DSSS/OFDM/CDMA/FDMA indoor geolocation system, and (4) an OFDM/FDMA indoor geolocation system. Each system is researched, discussed, and analyzed based on its principle of operation, its transmitter, the indoor channel, and its receiver design and issues associated with obtaining an observable to achieve indoor navigation. Our assessment of these systems concludes the following. First, a DSSS/CDMA indoor geolocation system is inadequate to neither overcome the near-far effect not mitigate cross-channel interference due to the multipath. Second, a DSSS/CDMA/FDMA indoor geolocation system is a potential candidate for indoor positioning, with data rate up to 3.2 KBPS, pseudorange error, less than to 2 m and phase error less than 5 mm. Third, a DSSS/OFDM/CDMA/FDMA indoor geolocation system is a potential candidate to achieve similar or better navigation accuracy than a DSSS/CDMA indoor geolocation system and data rate up to 5 MBPS. Fourth, an OFDM/FDMA indoor geolocation

  19. University Research Consortium annual review meeting program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This brochure presents the program for the first annual review meeting of the University Research Consortium (URC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). INEL is a multiprogram laboratory with a distinctive role in applied engineering. It also conducts basic science research and development, and complex facility operations. The URC program consists of a portfolio of research projects funded by INEL and conducted at universities in the United States. In this program, summaries and participant lists for each project are presented as received from the principal investigators.

  20. [A review of research on Schmallenberg virus].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-dong; Ge, Sheng-qiang; Zhang, Yong-qiang; Wang, Jing-jing; Shi, Ji-hong; Mei, Yue; Liu, Hua-lei; Wang, Zhi-liang

    2014-11-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel orthobunyavirus, was first isolated in 2011. SBV preferentially infects the central nervous system of cattle and sheep and causes fever, diarrhea, a drop in milk yields, congenital malformations and stillbirths. Until June 2014, more than 200 scientific publications regarding SBV have been published. Although more than 20 articles on SVB were published in China, most of these articles provided only a brief introduction of the disease without fully discussing the associated disease characteristics. As a new disease, it has been made a focus of the National Research Center for Exotic Animal Diseases at the China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center. In this review, in order to provide a reference for research into SBV in China, we have reviewed the state of current research progress on the etiology, diagnosis and epidemiology of SBV, and vaccine development. PMID:25868286

  1. Strategies to Reduce Indoor Tanning

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Dawn M.; Fox, Kathleen A.; Glenn, Jeffrey D.; Guy, Gery P.; Watson, Meg; Baker, Katie; Cokkinides, Vilma; Gottlieb, Mark; Lazovich, DeAnn; Perna, Frank M.; Sampson, Blake P.; Seidenberg, Andrew B.; Sinclair, Craig; Geller, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning device use is associated with an increased risk of skin cancer, including risk of malignant melanoma, and is an urgent public health problem. By reducing indoor tanning, future cases of skin cancer could be prevented, along with the associated morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. On August 20, 2012, the CDC hosted a meeting to discuss the current body of evidence on strategies to reduce indoor tanning as well as research gaps. Using the Action Model to Achieve Healthy People 2020 Overarching Goals as a framework, the current paper provides highlights on the topics that were discussed, including (1) the state of the evidence on strategies to reduce indoor tanning; (2) the tools necessary to effectively assess, monitor, and evaluate the short- and long-term impact of interventions designed to reduce indoor tanning; and (3) strategies to align efforts at the national, state, and local levels through transdisciplinary collaboration and coordination across multiple sectors. Although many challenges and barriers exist, a coordinated, multilevel, transdisciplinary approach has the potential to reduce indoor tanning and prevent future cases of skin cancer. PMID:23683986

  2. A Scoping Review of Empirical Research Relating to Quality and Effectiveness of Research Ethics Review

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Stuart G.; Hayes, Tavis P.; Brehaut, Jamie C.; McDonald, Michael; Weijer, Charles; Saginur, Raphael; Fergusson, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Background To date there is no established consensus of assessment criteria for evaluating research ethics review. Methods We conducted a scoping review of empirical research assessing ethics review processes in order to identify common elements assessed, research foci, and research gaps to aid in the development of assessment criteria. Electronic searches of Ovid Medline, PsychInfo, and the Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CCTR, CMR, HTA, and NHSEED, were conducted. After de-duplication, 4234 titles and abstracts were reviewed. Altogether 4036 articles were excluded following screening of titles, abstracts and full text. A total of 198 articles included for final data extraction. Results Few studies originated from outside North America and Europe. No study reported using an underlying theory or framework of quality/effectiveness to guide study design or analyses. We did not identify any studies that had involved a controlled trial - randomised or otherwise – of ethics review procedures or processes. Studies varied substantially with respect to outcomes assessed, although tended to focus on structure and timeliness of ethics review. Discussion Our findings indicate a lack of consensus on appropriate assessment criteria, exemplified by the varied study outcomes identified, but also a fragmented body of research. To date research has been largely quantitative, with little attention given to stakeholder experiences, and is largely cross sectional. A lack of longitudinal research to date precludes analyses of change or assessment of quality improvement in ethics review. PMID:26225553

  3. Public Attitudes toward Animal Research: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Schuppli, Catherine A

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of public attitudes toward animal research is important given recent developments in animal research (e.g., increasing creation and use of genetically modified animals, and plans for progress in areas such as personalized medicine), and the shifting relationship between science and society (i.e., a move toward the democratization of science). As such, public engagement on issues related to animal research, including exploration of public attitudes, provides a means of achieving socially acceptable scientific practice and oversight through an understanding of societal values and concerns. Numerous studies have been conducted to explore public attitudes toward animal use, and more specifically the use of animals in research. This paper reviews relevant literature using three categories of influential factors: personal and cultural characteristics, animal characteristics, and research characteristics. A critique is given of survey style methods used to collect data on public attitudes, and recommendations are given on how best to address current gaps in public attitudes literature. PMID:26480314

  4. Yoga in school settings: a research review.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Butzer, Bethany

    2016-06-01

    Research on the efficacy of yoga for improving mental, emotional, physical, and behavioral health characteristics in school settings is a recent but growing field of inquiry. This systematic review of research on school-based yoga interventions published in peer-reviewed journals offers a bibliometric analysis that identified 47 publications. The studies from these publications have been conducted primarily in the United States (n = 30) and India (n = 15) since 2005, with the majority of studies (n = 41) conducted from 2010 onward. About half of the publications were of studies at elementary schools; most (85%) were conducted within the school curriculum, and most (62%) also implemented a formal school-based yoga program. There was a high degree of variability in yoga intervention characteristics, including overall duration, and the number and duration of sessions. Most of these published research trials are preliminary in nature, with numerous study design limitations, including limited sample sizes (median = 74; range = 20-660) and relatively weak research designs (57% randomized controlled trials, 19% uncontrolled trials), as would be expected in an infant research field. Nevertheless, these publications suggest that yoga in the school setting is a viable and potentially efficacious strategy for improving child and adolescent health and therefore worthy of continued research. PMID:26919395

  5. Indoor mold and Children's health

    PubMed

    Etzel; Rylander

    1999-06-01

    some countries may not be aware of the serious reactions mold exposure can provoke in some children. Individual physicians may have difficulty handling the patients because of the lack of recognition of the relationship between the often complex symptoms and the indoor environment (paragraph) The workshop was organized to develop a basis for risk assessment and formulation of recommendations, particularly for diagnostic purposes and prevention, and to formulate priorities for future research. The participants were all active researchers with current experience in child health, molds, and respiratory disease. They were engaged in free and intensive discussions on a scientific basis throughout the duration of the 3-day workshop (paragraph) This monograph contains peer-reviewed papers based on individual presentations at the workshop as well as the workshop conclusions. They are offered to the public health community, administrators, research agencies, physicians, particularly pediatricians, nurses and health workers as information and encouragement to engage themselves in this health problem of importance for the next generation in our population. (paragraph) Acknowledgments: The workshop received financial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the National Center for Environmental Assessment at the U.S. EPA, the Vardal Foundation (Sweden), Astra Corp (Sweden), the Committee on Organic Dusts, International Commission on Occupational Health. The printing of this document was made possible by a grant from the Center for Indoor Air Research (U.S.). Yvonne Peterson, research secretary, provided excellent and invaluable assistance in the organization and publication efforts. PMID:10346994

  6. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2005 Research Review

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.; Gwinner, D.; Miller, M.; Pitchford, P.

    2006-06-01

    Science and technology are at the heart of everything we do at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, as we pursue innovative, robust, and sustainable ways to produce energy--and as we seek to understand and illuminate the physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering behind alternative energy technologies. This year's Research Review highlights the Lab's work in the areas of alternatives fuels and vehicles, high-performing commercial buildings, and high-efficiency inverted, semi-mismatched solar cells.

  7. Participation in research bronchoscopy: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Martinsen, Einar Marius Hjellestad; Leiten, Elise Orvedal; Bakke, Per Sigvald; Eagan, Tomas Mikal Lind; Grønseth, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoscopy is the preferred method for collecting biological samples from the lower airways of subjects in clinical research. However, ensuring participation in clinical research can be challenging when the research includes an invasive procedure. For this report we reviewed the literature to look for information on participation in research bronchoscopy studies to better design our own study, the Bergen COPD Microbiome study (MicroCOPD). We performed a systematic literature search on participation in research bronchoscopy studies in February 2014 using the search engines of PubMed and EMBASE. The literature search resulted in seven relevant papers. Motivation was an end point in six of the seven papers, but reasons for declining participation and recruitment strategies also seemed important. Human subjects participate in research bronchoscopy studies for personal benefit and altruistic reasons. Inconvenience associated with research, in addition to fear of procedures, is considered a barrier. Radio, especially news stations, generated the most inquiries for a clinical study involving bronchoscopy. There is a lack of information on participation in research bronchoscopy studies in the literature. A bronchoscopy study has been initiated at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, to examine the role of the microbiome in COPD, and participation will be explored as a substudy. PMID:26847517

  8. Participation in research bronchoscopy: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, Einar Marius Hjellestad; Leiten, Elise Orvedal; Bakke, Per Sigvald; Eagan, Tomas Mikal Lind; Grønseth, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoscopy is the preferred method for collecting biological samples from the lower airways of subjects in clinical research. However, ensuring participation in clinical research can be challenging when the research includes an invasive procedure. For this report we reviewed the literature to look for information on participation in research bronchoscopy studies to better design our own study, the Bergen COPD Microbiome study (MicroCOPD). We performed a systematic literature search on participation in research bronchoscopy studies in February 2014 using the search engines of PubMed and EMBASE. The literature search resulted in seven relevant papers. Motivation was an end point in six of the seven papers, but reasons for declining participation and recruitment strategies also seemed important. Human subjects participate in research bronchoscopy studies for personal benefit and altruistic reasons. Inconvenience associated with research, in addition to fear of procedures, is considered a barrier. Radio, especially news stations, generated the most inquiries for a clinical study involving bronchoscopy. There is a lack of information on participation in research bronchoscopy studies in the literature. A bronchoscopy study has been initiated at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, to examine the role of the microbiome in COPD, and participation will be explored as a substudy. PMID:26847517

  9. Review of low-energy construction, air tightness, ventilation strategies and indoor radon: results from Finnish houses and apartments.

    PubMed

    Arvela, H; Holmgren, O; Reisbacka, H; Vinha, J

    2014-12-01

    Low-energy and passive house construction practices are characterised by increased insulation, high air tightness of the building shell and controlled mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. As a result of the interaction of mechanical ventilation and high air tightness, the pressure difference in a building can be markedly enhanced. This may lead to elevated indoor radon levels. Minor leakages in the foundation can affect the radon concentration, even in the case where such leaks do not markedly reduce the total air tightness. The potential for high pressures to affect indoor radon concentrations markedly increases when the air tightness ACH50, i.e. the air change per hour induced by a pressure difference of 50 Pa, is <1.0 h(-1). Pressure differences in Finnish low-rise residential houses having mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation with heat recovery (MSEV) are typically 2-3 Pa, clearly lower than the values of 5-9 Pa in houses with only mechanical exhaust ventilation (MEV). In MSEV houses, radon concentrations are typically 30% lower than in MEV houses. In new MSEV houses with an ACH50 of 0.6 h(-1), the limit for passive construction, the analytical estimates predict an increase of 100% in the radon concentration compared with older houses with an ACH50 of 4.0 h(-1). This poses a challenge for efficient radon prevention in new construction. Radon concentrations are typically 30% lower in houses with two storeys compared with only one storey. The introduction of an MSEV ventilation strategy in typically very airtight apartments has markedly reduced pressure differences and radon concentrations. PMID:24243314

  10. Review of Computer Mediated Communication Research for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppicini, Rocci

    2007-01-01

    This research review examines recent developments in computer-mediated communication (CMC) research for educational applications. The review draws on 170 recent research articles selected from 78 journals representing a wide range of disciplines. The review focuses on peer-reviewed empirical studies, but is open to a variety of methodologies. The…

  11. A review of dengue research in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Cheah, W K; Ng, K S; Marzilawati, A R; Lum, L C S

    2014-08-01

    Dengue infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Malaysia. To date, much research on dengue infection conducted in Malaysia have been published. One hundred and sixty six articles related to dengue in Malaysia were found from a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published between the years 2000-2013. Ninety articles with clinical relevance and future research implications were selected and reviewed. These papers showed evidence of an exponential increase in the disease epidemic and a varying pattern of prevalent dengue serotypes at different times. The early febrile phase of dengue infection consist of an undifferentiated fever. Clinical suspicion and ability to identify patients at risk of severe dengue infection is important. Treatment of dengue infection involves judicious use of volume expander and supportive care. Potential future research areas are discussed to narrow our current knowledge gaps on dengue infection. PMID:25417953

  12. Review of research methodologies for tigers: telemetry.

    PubMed

    Miller, Clayton S; Hebblewhite, Mark; Goodrich, John M; Miquelle, Dale G

    2010-12-01

    Over the past half century, wildlife research has relied on technological advances to gain additional insight into the secretive lives of animals. This revolution started in the 1960s with the development of radio telemetry and continues today with the use of Global Positioning System (GPS)-based research techniques. In the present paper we review the history of radio telemetry from its origins with grizzly bears in Yellowstone to its early applications in tiger research and conservation in Asia. We address the different types of data that are available using radio telemetry as opposed to using other research techniques, such as behavioral observations, camera trapping, DNA analysis and scat analysis. In the late 1990s, the rapid development of GPS collar technology revolutionized wildlife research. This new technology has enabled researchers to dramatically improve their ability to gather data on animal movements and ecology. Despite the ecological and conservation benefits of radio telemetry, there have been few telemetry studies of tigers in the wild, and most have been on the Bengal or Amur subspecies. We close with an assessment of the current tiger conservation efforts using GPS technology and discuss how this new information can help to preserve tigers for future generations. PMID:21392355

  13. Patient engagement in research: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A compelling ethical rationale supports patient engagement in healthcare research. It is also assumed that patient engagement will lead to research findings that are more pertinent to patients’ concerns and dilemmas. However; it is unclear how to best conduct this process. In this systematic review we aimed to answer 4 key questions: what are the best ways to identify patient representatives? How to engage them in designing and conducting research? What are the observed benefits of patient engagement? What are the harms and barriers of patient engagement? Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, Cochrane, EBSCO, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Business Search Premier, Academic Search Premier and Google Scholar. Included studies were published in English, of any size or design that described engaging patients or their surrogates in research design. We conducted an environmental scan of the grey literature and consulted with experts and patients. Data were analyzed using a non-quantitative, meta-narrative approach. Results We included 142 studies that described a spectrum of engagement. In general, engagement was feasible in most settings and most commonly done in the beginning of research (agenda setting and protocol development) and less commonly during the execution and translation of research. We found no comparative analytic studies to recommend a particular method. Patient engagement increased study enrollment rates and aided researchers in securing funding, designing study protocols and choosing relevant outcomes. The most commonly cited challenges were related to logistics (extra time and funding needed for engagement) and to an overarching worry of a tokenistic engagement. Conclusions Patient engagement in healthcare research is likely feasible in many settings. However, this engagement comes at a cost and can become tokenistic. Research dedicated to identifying the best methods to achieve engagement is lacking and clearly needed. PMID

  14. Fungal pollution of indoor environments and its management.

    PubMed

    Haleem Khan, A A; Mohan Karuppayil, S

    2012-10-01

    Indoor environments play important roles in human health. The health hazards posed by polluted indoor environments include allergy, infections and toxicity. Life style changes have resulted in a shift from open air environments to air tight, energy efficient, environments, in which people spend a substantial portion of their time. Most indoor air pollution comes from the hazardous non biological agents and biological agents. Fungi are ubiquitous in distribution and are a serious threat to public health in indoor environments. In this communication, we have reviewed the current status on biotic indoor air pollution, role of fungi as biological contaminants and their impact on human health. PMID:23961203

  15. Fungal pollution of indoor environments and its management

    PubMed Central

    Haleem Khan, A.A.; Mohan Karuppayil, S.

    2012-01-01

    Indoor environments play important roles in human health. The health hazards posed by polluted indoor environments include allergy, infections and toxicity. Life style changes have resulted in a shift from open air environments to air tight, energy efficient, environments, in which people spend a substantial portion of their time. Most indoor air pollution comes from the hazardous non biological agents and biological agents. Fungi are ubiquitous in distribution and are a serious threat to public health in indoor environments. In this communication, we have reviewed the current status on biotic indoor air pollution, role of fungi as biological contaminants and their impact on human health. PMID:23961203

  16. Biomechanical research in dance: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Krasnow, Donna; Wilmerding, M Virginia; Stecyk, Shane; Wyon, Matthew; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2011-03-01

    The authors reviewed the literature, published from 1970 through December 2009, on biomechanical research in dance. To identify articles, the authors used search engines, including PubMed and Web of Science, five previous review articles, the Dance Medicine and Science Bibliography, and reference lists of theses, dissertations, and articles being reviewed. Any dance research articles (English language) involving the use of electromyography, forceplates, motion analysis using photography, cinematography or videography, and/or physics analysis were included. A total of 89 papers, theses/dissertations, and abstracts were identified and reviewed, grouped by the movement concept or specialized movements being studied: alignment (n = 8), plié (8), relevé (8), passé (3), degagé (3), développé (7), rond de jambe (3), grand battement (4), arm movements (1), forward stepping (3), turns (6), elevation work (28), falls (1), and dance-specific motor strategies (6). Several recurring themes emerged from these studies: that elite dancers demonstrate different and superior motor strategies than novices or nondancers; that dancers perform differently when using a barre as opposed to without a barre, both in terms of muscle activation patterns and weight shift strategies; that while skilled dancers tend to be more consistent across multiple trials of a task, considerable variability is seen among participants, even when matched for background, years of training, body type, and other variables; and that dance teachers recommend methods of achieving movement skills that are inconsistent with optimal biomechanical function, as well as inconsistent with strategies employed by elite dancers. Measurement tools and the efficacy of study methodologies are also discussed. PMID:21442132

  17. NASA's Hypersonic Research Engine Project: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Earl H.; Mackley, Ernest A.

    1994-01-01

    The goals of the NASA Hypersonic Research Engine (HRE) Project, which began in 1964, were to design, develop, and construct a high-performance hypersonic research ramjet/scramjet engine for flight tests of the developed concept over the speed range of Mach 4 to 8. The project was planned to be accomplished in three phases: project definition, research engine development, and flight test using the X-15A-2 research airplane, which was modified to carry hydrogen fuel for the research engine. The project goal of an engine flight test was eliminated when the X-15 program was canceled in 1968. Ground tests of full-scale engine models then became the focus of the project. Two axisymmetric full-scale engine models, having 18-inch-diameter cowls, were fabricated and tested: a structural model and combustion/propulsion model. A brief historical review of the project, with salient features, typical data results, and lessons learned, is presented. An extensive number of documents were generated during the HRE Project and are listed.

  18. ISSN Exercise & Sport Nutrition Review: Research & Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Richard B; Almada, Anthony L; Antonio, Jose; Broeder, Craig; Earnest, Conrad; Greenwood, Mike; Incledon, Thomas; Kalman, Douglas S; Kleiner, Susan M; Leutholtz, Brian; Lowery, Lonnie M; Mendel, Ron; Stout, Jeffrey R; Willoughby, Darryn S; Ziegenfuss, Tim N

    2004-01-01

    Sport nutrition is a constantly evolving field with literally thousands of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training through nutrition. More specifically, this article discusses: 1.) how to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 2.) general nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 3.) our current understanding of the available science behind weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement supplements. Our hope is that ISSN members find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.

  19. Caries: Review of Human Genetics Research

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Modesto, Adriana; Marazita, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    The NIH Consensus Development Program released a statement in 2001 (NIH Consensus Statement, 2001) and listed six major clinical caries research directions. One of these directions was the need for genetic studies to identify genes and genetic markers of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic value. This last decade has seen a steep increase in studies investigating the presence of genetic factors influencing individual susceptibility to caries. This review revisits recent caries human genetic studies and provides a perspective for future studies in order to fulfill their promise of revolutionizing our understanding of and the standard of care for the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease in the world. PMID:24853115

  20. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  1. Rotorcraft aviation icing research requirements: Research review and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, A. A.; Dadone, L.; Bevan, A.

    1981-01-01

    The status of rotorcraft icing evaluation techniques and ice protection technology was assessed. Recommendations are made for near and long term icing programs that describe the needs of industry. These recommended programs are based on a consensus of the major U.S. helicopter companies. Specific activities currently planned or underway by NASA, FAA and DOD are reviewed to determine relevance to the overall research requirements. New programs, taking advantage of current activities, are recommended to meet the long term needs for rotorcraft icing certification.

  2. Indoor air pollution from unprocessed solid fuels in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Approximately half of the world's population relies on biomass (primarily wood and agricultural residues) or coal fuels (collectively termed solid fuels) for heating, lighting, and cooking. The incomplete combustion of such materials releases byproducts with well-known adverse health effects, hence increasing the risk of many diseases and death. Among these conditions are acute respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, cataracts and blindness, tuberculosis, asthma, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified the indoor combustion of coal emissions as Group 1, a known carcinogen to humans. Indoor air pollution exposure is greatest in individuals who live in rural developing countries. Interventions have been limited and show only mixed results. To reduce the morbidity and mortality from indoor air pollution, countermeasures have to be developed that are practical, efficient, sustainable, and economical with involvement from the government, the commercial sector, and individuals. This review focuses on the contribution of solid fuels to indoor air pollution. PMID:21038757

  3. Review of recent thermophotovoltaic (TPV) research at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Good, Brian S.; Wilt, David M.; Lowe, Roland A.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Hoffman, Richard H.; Scheiman, David

    1996-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) research at NASA Lewis Research Center that began in the late 1980's is reviewed. This work has been concentrated on low bandgap indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) PV cells and rare earth yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) thin film selective emitters, as well as, TPV system studies. An emittance theory has been developed for the thin film emitters. Experimental spectral emittance results for erbium Er-YAG and holmium Ho-YAG show excellent emittance (greater than or equal to .7) within the emission bands. The .75 eV InGaAs PV cells fabricated at Lewis have excellent quantum efficiency. An efficiency of 13% has been measured for this cell coupled to an Er-YAG selective emitter and a short pass IR filter.

  4. Review of Recent Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) Research at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Good, Brian S.; Wilt, David M.; Lowe, Roland A.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Hoffman, Richard H.; Scheiman, David

    1995-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) research at NASA Lewis Research Center that began in the late 1980's is reviewed. This work has been concentrated on low bandgap indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) PV calls and rare earth - yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) thin film selective emitters, as well as, TPV system studies. An emittance theory has been developed for the thin film emitters. Experimental spectral emittance results for erbium Er-YAG and holmium Ho-YAG show excellent emittance (greater than or equal to 0.7) within the emission bands. The 0.75 eV InGaAs PV cells fabricated at Lewis have excellent quantum efficiency. An efficiency of 130% has been measured for this cell coupled to an Er-YAG selective emitter and a short pass IR filter.

  5. Zooplankton research off Peru: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayón, Patricia; Criales-Hernandez, Maria I.; Schwamborn, Ralf; Hirche, Hans-Jürgen

    2008-10-01

    A review of zooplankton studies conducted in Peruvian marine waters is given. After a short history of the development of zooplankton research off Peru, we review zooplankton methodology, taxonomy, biodiversity, spatial distribution, seasonal and interannual variability, trophodynamics, secondary production, and modelling. We review studies on several micro-, meso-, macro-, and meroplankton groups, and give a species list from both published and unpublished reports. Three regional zooplankton groups have been identified: (1) a continental shelf group dominated by Acartia tonsa and Centropages brachiatus; (2) a continental slope group characterized by siphonophores, bivalves, foraminifera and radiolaria; (3) and a species-rich oceanic group. The highest zooplankton abundances and biomasses were often found between 4-6°S and 14-16°S, where continental shelves are narrow. Species composition changes with distance from the shore. Species composition and biomass also vary strongly on short time scales due to advection, peaks of larval production, trophic interactions, and community succession. The relation of zooplankton to climatic variability (ENSO and multi-decadal) and fish stocks is discussed in the context of ecological regime shifts. An intermediate upwelling hypothesis is proposed, based on the negative effects of low upwelling intensity in summer or extremely strong and enduring winter upwelling on zooplankton abundance off Peru. According to this hypothesis, intermediate upwelling creates an optimal environmental window for zooplankton communities. Finally, we highlight important knowledge gaps that warrant attention in future.

  6. Review Processes: Assessing the Quality of Research Proposals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Research, Washington, DC.

    Issues concerning review processes used to select research to be performed in universities and sunported by the federal government are discussed. Recommendations regarding review processes, with special emphasis on the peer review system, are offered. It is proposed that review processes serve government and researchers' purposes of assuring that…

  7. 21 CFR 56.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false IRB review of research. 56.109 Section 56.109 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve,...

  8. 21 CFR 56.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false IRB review of research. 56.109 Section 56.109 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IRB Functions and Operations § 56.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve,...

  9. Indoor fungal exposure.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Christine A

    2003-08-01

    Fungi affect humans in complex ways and are capable of eliciting a number of disease responses, such as infectious, allergic, and irritant and toxic effects. Fungal exposure is unequivocally associated with exacerbations of asthma, although the role of fungi in causing the disease is yet to be determined. The association between home dampness and respiratory health effects is strong, and fungal exposure is suspected to be associated with this linkage. Fear of toxin exposures has generated debate over the possible toxic health effects of airborne fungi; however, several recent reviews discount the health impacts of mycotoxin through indoor exposures. Nevertheless, fungal contamination of indoor environments is undesirable. Knowledge of sources and characteristics of fungal spore release and dispersal are important for understanding the processes of exposure. Environmental monitoring for fungi and their disease agents are important aspects of exposure assessment, but few guidelines exist for interpreting their health impacts. Much work is needed in isolating, characterizing and standardizing fungal disease agents to properly assess the prevalence of fungal health effects. PMID:14524388

  10. 45 CFR 46.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false IRB review of research. 46.109 Section 46.109 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to...

  11. 28 CFR 46.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false IRB review of research. 46.109 Section 46... IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or disapprove all research activities covered by this policy. (b) An...

  12. 10 CFR 745.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false IRB review of research. 745.109 Section 745.109 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review... research activities covered by this policy. (b) An IRB shall require that information given to subjects...

  13. 40 CFR 26.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false IRB review of research. 26.109 Section... Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in...

  14. 14 CFR 1230.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false IRB review of research. 1230.109 Section... SUBJECTS § 1230.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or disapprove all research activities covered by this policy. (b) An...

  15. 38 CFR 16.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false IRB review of research... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or disapprove all research activities covered...

  16. 28 CFR 46.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false IRB review of research. 46.109 Section 46... IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or disapprove all research activities covered by this policy. (b) An...

  17. 16 CFR 1028.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false IRB review of research. 1028.109 Section... § 1028.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or disapprove all research activities covered by this policy. (b) An...

  18. 32 CFR 219.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false IRB review of research. 219.109 Section 219.109...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or disapprove all research...

  19. 34 CFR 97.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false IRB review of research. 97.109 Section 97.109 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in...

  20. 10 CFR 745.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false IRB review of research. 745.109 Section 745.109 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review... research activities covered by this policy. (b) An IRB shall require that information given to subjects...

  1. 15 CFR 27.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false IRB review of research. 27.109 Section... § 27.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or disapprove all research activities covered by this policy. (b) An...

  2. 45 CFR 690.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false IRB review of research. 690.109 Section 690.109... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or disapprove all research activities covered...

  3. 16 CFR 1028.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false IRB review of research. 1028.109 Section... § 1028.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or disapprove all research activities covered by this policy. (b) An...

  4. 38 CFR 16.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false IRB review of research... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or disapprove all research activities covered...

  5. 10 CFR 745.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false IRB review of research. 745.109 Section 745.109 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or disapprove all research activities covered by this policy....

  6. 45 CFR 46.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false IRB review of research. 46.109 Section 46.109 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to...

  7. Review of research into shock control bumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, P. J. K.; Colliss, S. P.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a review of research on shock control bumps (SCBs), a class of flow control device with potential for application to transonic wings. Beginning with a brief review of the origins of the SCB concept, the primary focus is on the more recent studies from the last decade. Results from both experimental and numerical work are considered and the synergy between these two approaches to SCB research is critically explored. It is shown that the aerodynamic performance enhancement potential of SCBs, namely their capacity for drag reduction and delaying the onset of buffet for transonic wings, has been widely demonstrated in the literature, as has the high sensitivity of SCB performance to flow conditions including shock strength and position, and post-shock adverse pressure gradient. These characteristic features of SCBs are relatively well explained in terms of the flow physics that have been observed for different bump geometries. This stems from a number of studies that have focused on the balance of viscous and inviscid flow features and also the mechanism by which finite span SCBs generate streamwise vorticity. It is concluded that our understanding of SCBs is reaching an advanced level of maturity for SCBs in simple configurations and steady flow fields. However, SCB performance in unsteady flow and on swept wings requires further investigation before the concept can be considered a viable candidate for transonic wings. These investigations should adopt a multi-disciplinary approach combining carefully designed experiments and targeted computations. Finally, two concepts for future SCB research are suggested: the adaptive SCB and SCBs in engine intakes.

  8. HOUSEHOLD PESTICIDE CONTAMINATION FROM INDOOR PEST CONTROL APPLICATIONS IN URBAN LOW-INCOME PUBLIC HOUSING DWELLINGS: A COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    Adamkiewicz, Gary; Attfield, Kathleen; Kapp, Michaela; Spengler, John D; Tao, Lin; Xie, Shao Hua

    2013-01-01

    We designed this community-based participatory research (CBPR) project aiming to generate evidence-based research results in order to encourage residents living in urban low-income public housing dwellings engaging in a community-wide integrated pest management (IPM) program with the intention to improve their health and quality of life, as well as household conditions. We enrolled 20 families and their children in this study in which we utilized environmental exposure assessment (surface wipe and indoor air) tools to quantitatively assessing residential pesticide exposure in young children before the implementation of an IPM program. We analyzed those samples for 19 organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides. The most commonly detected pesticides were pyrethroids, particularly permethrin and cypermethrin with average concentrations of 2.47 and 3.87 µg/m2, respectively. In many dwellings, we detected OPs, which are no longer available on the market, however, their levels are significantly lower than those of pyrethroids. None of the 20 families was free from pesticide contamination in their households, and pesticides were commonly detected in living room and children’s bedroom. The correlation among household hygienic conditions, the sighting of live pests/pest debris, and the degree of indoor pesticide contamination highlights the failure of conventional chemical-based applications for pest controls. The results from the current study, as well as other recent studies, conducted in low-income public housing, child care centers, and randomly selected homes in the U.S. should accentuate the need for alternative pest management programs that incorporate safer and more sustainable protocols for pest controls. PMID:23363037

  9. Household pesticide contamination from indoor pest control applications in urban low-income public housing dwellings: a community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chensheng; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Attfield, Kathleen R; Kapp, Michaela; Spengler, John D; Tao, Lin; Xie, Shao Hua

    2013-02-19

    We designed this community-based participatory research (CBPR) project aiming to generate evidence-based research results to encourage residents living in urban low-income public housing dwellings engaging in a community-wide integrated pest management (IPM) program with the intention to improve their health and quality of life, as well as household conditions. We enrolled 20 families and their children in this study in which we utilized environmental exposure assessment (surface wipe and indoor air) tools to quantitatively assessing residential pesticide exposure in young children before the implementation of an IPM program. We analyzed those samples for 19 organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides. The most commonly detected pesticides were pyrethroids, particularly permethrin and cypermethrin with average concentrations of 2.47 and 3.87 μg/m(2), respectively. In many dwellings, we detected OPs, which are no longer available on the market; however, their levels are significantly lower than those of pyrethroids. None of the 20 families was free from pesticide contamination in their households, and pesticides were commonly detected in living room and children's bedroom. The correlation among household hygienic conditions, the sighting of live pests/pest debris, and the degree of indoor pesticide contamination highlights the failure of conventional chemical-based applications for pest controls. The results from the current study, as well as other recent studies, conducted in low-income public housing, child care centers, and randomly selected homes in the U.S. should accentuate the need for alternative pest management programs that incorporate safer and more sustainable protocols for pest controls. PMID:23363037

  10. Review of Global Change Research Program plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    The draft 10-year strategic plan for the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which proposes broadening the scope of the program from climate change only to climate change and climaterelated global changes, “is an important step in the right direction,” according to a 5 January review of the plan by a committee of the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies. However, the committee also said that the program's legislative mandate is even broader in allowing USGCRP to address many aspects of global change including climate change, the global hydrological cycle, and widespread land use changes. “The Program's legislative mandate is to address all of global change, whether or not related to climate. The Committee concurs that this broader scope is appropriate, but realizes that such an expansion may be constrained by budget realities and by the practical challenge of maintaining clear boundaries for an expanded program,” the report states. “We encourage sustained efforts to expand the Program over time, along with efforts to better define and prioritize what specific topics are included within the bounds of global change research.”

  11. View and review on viral oncology research

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    To date, almost one and a half million cases of cancer are diagnosed every year in the US and nearly 560,000 Americans are expected to die of cancer in the current year, more than 1,500 people a day (data from the American Cancer Society at http://www.cancer.org/). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), roughly 20% of all cancers worldwide results from chronic infections; in particular, up to 15% of human cancers is characterized by a viral aetiology with higher incidence in Developing Countries. The link between viruses and cancer was one of the pivotal discoveries in cancer research during the past Century. Indeed, the infectious nature of specific tumors has important implications in terms of their prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. In the 21st Century, the research on viral oncology field continues to be vigorous, with new significant and original studies on viral oncogenesis and translational research from basic virology to treatment of cancer. This review will cover different viral oncology aspects, starting from the history of viral oncology and moving to the peculiar features of oncogenic RNA and DNA viruses, with a special focus on human pathogens. PMID:20497566

  12. Recent Research on Febrile Seizures: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Syndi Seinfeld, DO; Pellock, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Febrile seizures are common and mostly benign. They are the most common cause of seizures in children less than five years of age. There are two categories of febrile seizures, simple and complex. Both the International League against Epilepsy and the National Institute of Health has published definitions on the classification of febrile seizures. Simple febrile seizures are mostly benign, but a prolonged (complex) febrile seizure can have long term consequences. Most children who have a febrile seizure have normal health and development after the event, but there is recent evidence that suggests a small subset of children that present with seizures and fever may have recurrent seizure or develop epilepsy. This review will give an overview of the definition of febrile seizures, epidemiology, evaluation, treatment, outcomes and recent research. PMID:25383238

  13. Pediatric Acupuncture: A Review of Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, Colette D.; Belmont, Katharine A.; Katz, Aaron R.; Benaron, Daniel M.; Yu, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Practiced in China for more than 2000 years, acupuncture has recently gained increased attention in the United States as an alternative treatment approach for a variety of medical conditions. Despite its growing prevalence and anecdotal reports of success among pediatric populations, few empirically based studies have assessed the efficacy of acupuncture for children and adolescents. This article presents a review of the current literature, including a systematic appraisal of the methodological value of each study and a discussion of potential benefits and adverse effects of acupuncture. While acupuncture holds great promise as a treatment modality for diverse pediatric conditions, a significant amount of additional research is necessary to establish an empirical basis for the incorporation of acupuncture into standard care. PMID:18955306

  14. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients. PMID:20181066

  15. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations.

    PubMed

    Kreider, Richard B; Wilborn, Colin D; Taylor, Lem; Campbell, Bill; Almada, Anthony L; Collins, Rick; Cooke, Mathew; Earnest, Conrad P; Greenwood, Mike; Kalman, Douglas S; Kerksick, Chad M; Kleiner, Susan M; Leutholtz, Brian; Lopez, Hector; Lowery, Lonnie M; Mendel, Ron; Smith, Abbie; Spano, Marie; Wildman, Robert; Willoughby, Darryn S; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Antonio, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients. PMID:20181066

  16. The State of Mentoring Research: A Qualitative Review of Current Research Methods and Future Research Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Tammy D.; Eby, Lillian T.; O'Brien, Kimberly E.; Lentz, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Research regarding mentoring relationships has flourished during the past 20 years. This article reviews the methodology and content of 200 published mentoring articles. Some of the major concerns raised in this review include over reliance on cross-sectional designs and self-report data, a failure to differentiate between different forms of…

  17. Update on indoor tanning legislation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pan, Michael; Geller, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma has been increasing over the past several decades, with notable increases in the pediatric and adolescent population. Indoor tanning has been proven carcinogenic and is associated with an increased risk of melanoma, especially when used at a young age. The incidence and frequency of usage of indoor tanning in the United States is high, particularly among adolescents, with roughly 20% reporting using a tanning bed at least once. The Food and Drug Administration recently made changes to its regulation of indoor tanning devices, reclassifying them as class II devices necessitating stricter premarket review, and strengthened its warnings for these devices; however, federal regulation of indoor tanning is still limited and most regulation of indoor tanning in minors is done on a state-by-state basis. Three types of legislation exist: (1) absolute ban on minor use of indoor tanning devices, (2) age restriction of minor usage of indoor tanning devices other than age 18 years, and (3) requirement of parental consent. These regulations are inconsistent, and enforcement efforts are often limited. In this contribution, we provide an update on the prevalence of indoor tanning, the risks associated with indoor tanning, and the current federal and state legislation and enforcement efforts in the United States with regard to indoor tanning. Although efforts are being made to ban all use of indoor tanning devices by minors, there is still more work to be done before this becomes a reality in the United States. PMID:25889141

  18. Moving Environmental Justice Indoors: Understanding Structural Influences on Residential Exposure Patterns in Low-Income Communities.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The indoor environment has not been fully incorporated into the environmental justice dialogue. To inform strategies to reduce disparities, we developed a framework to identify the individual and place-based drivers of indoor environment quality. We reviewed empirical evidence...

  19. Reviewing for clinical orthopaedics and related research.

    PubMed

    Brand, Richard A

    2012-09-01

    Peer review in science was established in the 17th Century and while not without detractors and some controversy, has been a mainstay of high-quality scientific publications ever since. Most believe peer review adds substantially to the value of papers that achieve publication. However, in practice, peer review can be practiced with varying degrees of rigor and the value of the review depends on rigor. The two primary tasks of a reviewer are to determine whether the manuscript makes a substantial contribution (in an age of information overload) and to determine whether there are any "fatal" flaws. If the reviewer recommends rejection, then he or she need only note the major flaws. If, however, the material is sufficiently novel and would substantially add to the literature, the reviewer's secondary task is to ensure completeness and clarity by noting information that should be added and identifying unclear points; in these cases more detailed reviews are merited. To achieve this task, the reviewer must ask numerous questions related to the background and rationale, questions or purposes, study design and methods, findings, and synthesis with the literature. In this brief review I outline such key questions. An invitation to review is an honor and reflects the confidence of the editor in the reviewer's expertise and accomplishments. Given proper reviews and recommendations, the majority of authors believe peer review adds great value to their papers and the reviewer makes contributions to the community and their own knowledge. PMID:22752799

  20. Environmental tobacco smoke, indoor allergens, and childhood asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, D R

    2000-01-01

    Both environmental tobacco smoke and indoor allergens can exacerbate already established childhood albeit primarily through quite disparate mechanisms. In infancy and childhood, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is associated with measures of decreased flow in the airways, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and increased respiratory infections, but the relationship between ETS and allergy is poorly understood. Indoor allergens from dust mite, cockroach, and cat can be associated with asthma exacerbation in children sensitized to the specific allergens. The precise role of either ETS or indoor allergens in the development of asthma is less well understood. The strong and consistent association between ETS and asthma development in young children may relate to both prenatal and postnatal influences on airway caliber or bronchial responsiveness. Dust mite allergen levels predict asthma in children sensitized to dust mite. The tendency to develop specific IgE antibodies to allergens (sensitization) is associated with and may be preceded by the development of a T-helper (Th)2 profile of cytokine release. The importance of either ETS or indoor allergens in the differentiation of T cells into a Th2-type profile of cytokine release or in the localization of immediate-type allergic responses to the lung is unknown. This article evaluates the strength of the evidence that ETS or indoor allergens influence asthma exacerbation and asthma development in children. We also selectively review data for the effectiveness of allergen reduction in reducing asthma symptoms and present a potential research agenda regarding these two broad areas of environmental exposure and their relationship to childhood asthma. PMID:10931782

  1. Construction/renovation influence on indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, T.H.

    1996-10-01

    Much of the current construction activity in the US is renovation of existing buildings. So IAQ issues related to renovation are becoming more important. Indoor air contaminants that originate from nearby construction projects are also receiving increased attention. In some critical applications such as hospitals, IAQ control protocols have been developed and are being implemented. Extensive abatement methods for a few activities such as asbestos removal and fire damage cleanup have been developed that provide guidance for more general contamination control efforts. ASHRAE sponsored a research project to review the published literature and document current practice on indoor air quality issues related to construction and renovation activities (804-RP). This article outlines the major results from the study.

  2. INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH (AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research conducted by NRMRL's Air pollution Prevention and Control Division's Indoor Environment Management Branch in Research Triangle Park, NC, has been the basis for developing a better understanding of the relationship between indoor air quality (IAQ) and emissions sources, h...

  3. NASA/MSFC FY-82 atmospheric processes research review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    The NASA/MSFC FY-82 Atmospheric Processes Research Program was reviewed. The review covered research tasks in the areas of upper atmosphere, global weather, and severe storms and local weather. Also included was research on aviation safety environmental hazards. The research project summaries, in narrative outline form, supplied by the individual investigators together with the agenda and other information about the review are presented.

  4. Motivation for Healthy Behavior: A Review of Health Promotion Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmore, Sarah; Goodson, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Authors reviewed the theoretical history of the "motivation" construct, and its utilization within past/current health behavior research. Textbooks and review articles functioned as sources for the theoretical history review. Research published within a 10-year period (1993-2002) in four health promotion journals (all with impact factors greater…

  5. 45 CFR 690.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false IRB review of research. 690.109 Section 690.109 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority...

  6. 16 CFR 1028.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false IRB review of research. 1028.109 Section 1028.109 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or...

  7. 14 CFR 1230.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false IRB review of research. 1230.109 Section 1230.109 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve,...

  8. 14 CFR 1230.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true IRB review of research. 1230.109 Section 1230.109 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve,...

  9. 14 CFR 1230.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false IRB review of research. 1230.109 Section 1230.109 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve,...

  10. Associations between human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants via diet and indoor dust, and internal dose: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bramwell, Lindsay; Glinianaia, Svetlana V; Rankin, Judith; Rose, Martin; Fernandes, Alwyn; Harrad, Stuart; Pless-Mulolli, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify and appraise the current international evidence of associations between concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in humans and their indoor dusts and food. We systematically searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus (up to Jan 2015), using a comprehensive list of keywords, for English-language studies published in peer-reviewed journals. We extracted information on study design, quality, participants, sample collection methods, adjustments for potential confounders and correlations between PBDE concentrations in internal and external matrices. Of 131 potential articles, 17 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the narrative synthesis. We concluded that three key factors influenced correlations between external and internal PBDE exposure; half-life of individual congeners in the human body; proximity and interaction between PBDE source and study subject; and time of study relative to phase out of PBDE technical products. Internal dose of Penta-BDE technical mix congeners generally correlated strongly with dust. The exception was BDE-153 which is known to have higher persistence in human tissues. Despite the low bioaccessibility and short half-life of BDE-209, its high loading in dusts gave strong correlations with body burden where measured. Correlations between PBDE concentrations in duplicate diet and body burden were not apparent from the included studies. Whether dust or diet is the primary exposure source for an individual is tied to the loading of PBDE in dust or food items and the amounts ingested. Simple recommendations such as more frequent hand washing may reduce PBDE body burden. PMID:27066981

  11. Indoor exposure to formaldehyde and relation to asthma-related illness – a systematic review and meta-analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formaldehyde exposure is associated with asthma-like symptoms in occupational settings, but does exposure at lower concentrations in residential settings contribute to the current high burden of this respiratory disease? We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of asth...

  12. Research Review: The Dana Foundation and ArtsConnection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susannah

    2007-01-01

    In this Research Review, various models of research found in a recent publication from ArtsConnection, New York, are discussed. The researchers for the first study look at research from each person's unique perspective and value the descriptive and analytical process of inquiry. The researchers in the second study focus on research as a heuristic…

  13. CONSULTATION ON IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESULTS OF THE INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE'S REPORT ON DAMP INDOOR SPACES AND HEALTH FOR THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS DIVISION'S INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Institute of Medicine (IOM) expects to publish a report on Damp Indoor Spaces and Health. The IOM has conducted a comprehensive review of the scientific literature regarding the relationship between damp or moldy indoor environments and the...

  14. Preterm infant massage therapy research: a review.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, preterm infant massage therapy studies are reviewed. Massage therapy has led to weight gain in preterm infants when moderate pressure massage was provided. In studies on passive movement of the limbs, preterm infants also gained significantly more weight, and their bone density also increased. Research on ways of delivering the massage is also explored including using mothers versus therapists and the added effects of using oils. The use of mothers as therapists was effective in at least one study. The use of oils including coconut oil and safflower oil enhanced the average weight gain, and the transcutaneous absorption of oil also increased triglycerides. In addition, the use of synthetic oil increased vagal activity, which may indirectly contribute to weight gain. The weight gain was associated with shorter hospital stays and, thereby, significant hospital cost savings. Despite these benefits, preterm infant massage is only practiced in 38% of neonatal intensive care units. This may relate to the underlying mechanisms not being well understood. The increases noted in vagal activity, gastric motility, insulin and IGF-1 levels following moderate pressure massage are potential underlying mechanisms. However, those variables combined do not explain all of the variance in weight gain, highlighting the need for additional mechanism studies. PMID:20137814

  15. 40 CFR 26.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false IRB review of research. 26.109 Section 26.109 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall...

  16. 49 CFR 11.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false IRB review of research. 11.109 Section 11.109... research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or disapprove all research activities covered by this policy. (b) An IRB shall require...

  17. 49 CFR 11.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false IRB review of research. 11.109 Section 11.109... research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or disapprove all research activities covered by this policy. (b) An IRB shall require...

  18. A Methodological Review of Computer Science Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Justus; Julnes, George; Sutinen, Erkki; Lehman, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Methodological reviews have been used successfully to identify research trends and improve research practice in a variety of academic fields. Although there have been three methodological reviews of the emerging field of computer science education research, they lacked reliability or generalizability. Therefore, because of the capacity for a…

  19. 78 FR 58575 - Review of Experiments for Research Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... COMMISSION Review of Experiments for Research Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Guide (RG) 2.4, ``Review of Experiments for Research Reactors.'' The guide is being withdrawn because... Experiments for Research Reactors,'' (ADAMS Accession No. ML003740131) because its guidance no longer...

  20. 7 CFR 3406.19 - Proposal review-research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proposal review-research. 3406.19 Section 3406.19... AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Review and Evaluation of a Research Proposal § 3406.19 Proposal review—research. The proposal evaluation process includes both internal staff...

  1. 7 CFR 1c.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false IRB review of research. 1c.109 Section 1c.109... research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or disapprove all research activities covered by this policy. (b) An IRB shall require...

  2. 7 CFR 3406.19 - Proposal review-research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proposal review-research. 3406.19 Section 3406.19... AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Review and Evaluation of a Research Proposal § 3406.19 Proposal review—research. The proposal evaluation process includes both internal staff...

  3. 7 CFR 3406.19 - Proposal review-research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proposal review-research. 3406.19 Section 3406.19... AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Review and Evaluation of a Research Proposal § 3406.19 Proposal review—research. The proposal evaluation process includes both internal staff...

  4. 7 CFR 3406.19 - Proposal review-research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proposal review-research. 3406.19 Section 3406.19... AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Review and Evaluation of a Research Proposal § 3406.19 Proposal review—research. The proposal evaluation process includes both internal staff...

  5. Systematic Reviews of Research in Science Education: Rigour or Rigidity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Judith; Lubben, Fred; Hogarth, Sylvia; Campbell, Bob

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the role of systematic reviews of research literature and considers what they have to offer research in science education. The origins of systematic reviews are described, together with the reasons why they are currently attracting considerable attention in the research literature. An overview is presented of the key features…

  6. Fungi as contaminants in indoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. David

    This article reviews the subject of contamination of indoor air with fungal spores. In the last few years there have been advances in several areas of research on this subject. A number of epidemiological studies have been conducted in the U.K., U.S.A. and Canada. These suggest that exposure to dampness and mold in homes is a significant risk factor for a number of respiratory symptoms. Well-known illnesses caused by fungi include allergy and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. There is now evidence that other consequences of exposure to spores of some fungi may be important. In particular, exposure to low molecular weight compounds retained in spores of some molds such as mycotoxins and β 1,3 glucans appears to contribute to some symptoms reported. Fungal contamination of building air is almost always caused by poor design and/or maintenance. Home owners and building operators need to take evidence of fungal contamination seriously.

  7. Health Professions Education Research and the Institutional Review Board

    PubMed Central

    Heflin, Mitchell T.; DeMeo, Stephen; Nagler, Alisa; Hockenberry, Marilyn J.

    2016-01-01

    The growth in health professions education (HPE) and a desire on the part of nurse and medical educators to disseminate their work have raised important questions about the ethical conduct of education research. At the center of the debate is the institutional review board (IRB) and its proper role in the oversight of HPE research. This article examines the IRB process and types of reviews for education research and presents an Education Project Summary Template to use for IRB reviews. PMID:26501395

  8. Health Professions Education Research and the Institutional Review Board.

    PubMed

    Heflin, Mitchell T; DeMeo, Stephen; Nagler, Alisa; Hockenberry, Marilyn J

    2016-01-01

    The growth in health professions education (HPE) and a desire on the part of nurse and medical educators to disseminate their work have raised important questions about the ethical conduct of education research. At the center of the debate is the institutional review board (IRB) and its proper role in the oversight of HPE research. This article examines the IRB process and types of reviews for education research and presents an Education Project Summary Template to use for IRB reviews. PMID:26501395

  9. Distance Education Research: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael; Schlosser, Charles; Orellana, Anymir

    2011-01-01

    Distance education is defined, the various approaches for effective research are summarized, and the results of major research reviews of the field are explained in this article. Additionally, two major areas of research are included--research on barriers to the adoption of distance education and research summaries that explain and support best…

  10. Workgroup Report: Indoor Chemistry and Health

    PubMed Central

    Weschler, Charles J.; Wells, J.R.; Poppendieck, Dustin; Hubbard, Heidi; Pearce, Terri A.

    2006-01-01

    Chemicals present in indoor air can react with one another, either in the gas phase or on surfaces, altering the concentrations of both reactants and products. Such chemistry is often the major source of free radicals and other short-lived reactive species in indoor environments. To what extent do the products of indoor chemistry affect human health? To address this question, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health sponsored a workshop titled “Indoor Chemistry and Health” on 12–15 July 2004 at the University of California–Santa Cruz. Approximately 70 experts from eight countries participated. Objectives included enhancing communications between researchers in indoor chemistry and health professionals, as well as defining a list of priority research needs related to the topic of the workshop. The ultimate challenges in this emerging field are defining exposures to the products of indoor chemistry and developing an understanding of the links between these exposures and various health outcomes. The workshop was a step toward meeting these challenges. This summary presents the issues discussed at the workshop and the priority research needs identified by the attendees. PMID:16507469

  11. Alternatives to Peer Review: Novel Approaches for Research Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Birukou, Aliaksandr; Wakeling, Joseph Rushton; Bartolini, Claudio; Casati, Fabio; Marchese, Maurizio; Mirylenka, Katsiaryna; Osman, Nardine; Ragone, Azzurra; Sierra, Carles; Wassef, Aalam

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review several novel approaches for research evaluation. We start with a brief overview of the peer review, its controversies, and metrics for assessing efficiency and overall quality of the peer review. We then discuss five approaches, including reputation-based ones, that come out of the research carried out by the LiquidPub project and research groups collaborated with LiquidPub. Those approaches are alternative or complementary to traditional peer review. We discuss pros and cons of the proposed approaches and conclude with a vision for the future of the research evaluation, arguing that no single system can suit all stakeholders in various communities. PMID:22174702

  12. Global Scale Atmospheric Processes Research Program Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worley, B. A. (Editor); Peslen, C. A. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Global modeling; satellite data assimilation and initialization; simulation of future observing systems; model and observed energetics; dynamics of planetary waves; First Global Atmospheric Research Program Global Experiment (FGGE) diagnosis studies; and National Research Council Research Associateship Program are discussed.

  13. Hydroxyl radicals in indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwar, Golam; Corsi, Richard; Kimura, Yosuke; Allen, David; Weschler, Charles J.

    Indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations were estimated using a new indoor air quality model which employs the SAPRC-99 atmospheric chemistry model to simulate indoor homogenous reactions. Model results indicate that typical indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations are lower than typical outdoor summertime urban hydroxyl radical levels of 5-10×10 6 molecules cm -3; however, indoor levels can be similar to or greater than typical nighttime outdoor hydroxyl radical levels of approximately 5×10 4 molecules cm -3. Effects of selected parameters on indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations are presented herein. Indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations are predicted to increase non-linearly with increasing outdoor ozone concentrations, indoor alkene emission rates, and air exchange rates. Indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations decrease with increasing outdoor nitric oxide concentrations. Indoor temperature and indoor light intensity have moderate impacts on indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations. Outdoor hydroxyl radical concentrations, outdoor nitrate (NO 3rad ) radical concentrations, outdoor hydroperoxy radical concentrations, and hydroxyl radical removal by indoor surfaces are predicted to have no appreciable impact on indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations. Production of hydroxyl radicals in indoor environments appears to be controlled primarily by reactions of alkenes with ozone, and nitric oxide with hydroperoxy radical. Estimated indoor hydroxyl radical levels may potentially affect indoor air quality. Two examples are presented in which reactions of d-limonene and α-pinene with indoor hydroxyl radicals produce aldehydes, which may be of greater concern than the original compounds.

  14. 40 CFR 26.1606 - Human Studies Review Board review of proposed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Human Studies Review Board review of proposed human research. 26.1606 Section 26.1606 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1606...

  15. 40 CFR 26.1607 - Human Studies Review Board review of completed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Human Studies Review Board review of completed human research. 26.1607 Section 26.1607 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1607...

  16. 40 CFR 26.1607 - Human Studies Review Board review of completed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Human Studies Review Board review of completed human research. 26.1607 Section 26.1607 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1607...

  17. 40 CFR 26.1606 - Human Studies Review Board review of proposed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Human Studies Review Board review of proposed human research. 26.1606 Section 26.1606 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1606...

  18. Your Indoor Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In the July 24, 2007 edition of "ExchangeEveryday", readers were asked to submit great indoor space elements from their early childhood programs. Readers sent photographs and brief descriptions of creative elements of their indoor environments. A sampling of ideas are shown on this article.

  19. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  20. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  1. Indoor environment program - 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    Buildings use approximately one-third of the energy consumed in the United States. The potential energy savings derived from reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings are substantial, since energy use associated with conditioning and distributing ventilation air is about 5.5 EJ per year. However, since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants from indoor sources, reduction of ventilation can have adverse effects on indoor air quality, and on the health, comfort, and productivity of building occupants. The Indoor Environment Program in LBL`s Energy and Environment Division was established in 1977 to conduct integrated research on ventilation, indoor air quality, and energy use and efficiency in buildings for the purpose of reducing energy liabilities associated with airflows into, within, and out of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The Program is part of LBL`s Center for Building Science. Research is conducted on building energy use and efficiency, ventilation and infiltration, and thermal distribution systems; on the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and on exposure and health risks associated with indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semivolatile, and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}.

  2. Evaluating sources of indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, B.A.; Sparks, L.A.; White, J.B.; Jackson, M.D. )

    1990-04-01

    Evaluation of indoor air pollution problems requires an understanding of the relationship between sources, air movement, and outdoor air exchange. Research is underway to investigate these relationships. A three-phase program is being implemented: (1) Environmental chambers are used to provide source emission factors for specific indoor pollutants; (2) An IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) model has been developed to calculate indoor pollutant concentrations based on chamber emissions data and the air exchange and air movement within the indoor environment; and (3) An IAQ test house is used to conduct experiments to evaluate the model results. Examples are provided to show how this coordinated approach can be used to evaluate specific sources of indoor air pollution. Two sources are examined: (1) para-dichlorobenzene emissions from solid moth repellant; and (2) emissions from unvented kerosene heaters. The evaluation process for both sources followed the three-phase approach discussed above. Para-dichlorobenzene emission factors were determined by small chamber testing at EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory. Particle emission factors for the kerosene heaters were developed in large chambers at the J.B. Pierce Foundation Laboratory. Both sources were subsequently evaluated in EPA's IAQ test house. The IAQ model predictions showed good agreement with the test house measurements when appropriate values were provided for source emissions, outside air exchange, in-house air movement, and deposition on sink surfaces.

  3. Indoor environment program. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    Buildings use approximately one-third of the energy consumed in the United States. The potential energy savings derived from reduced infiltration and ventilation in buildings are substantial, since energy use associated with conditioning and distributing ventilation air is about 5.5 EJ per year. However, since ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants from indoor sources, reduction of ventilation can have adverse effects on indoor air quality, and on the health, comfort, and productivity of building occupants. The Indoor Environment Program in LBL`s Energy and Environment Division was established in 1977 to conduct integrated research on ventilation, indoor air quality, and energy use and efficiency in buildings for the purpose of reducing energy liabilities associated with airflows into, within, and out of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The Program is part of LBL`s Center for Building Science. Research is conducted on building energy use and efficiency, ventilation and infiltration, and thermal distribution systems; on the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and on exposure and health risks associated with indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semivolatile, and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}.

  4. Readability: A Review and Analysis of the Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Katy

    This paper reviews seven research studies on the subject of readability. The first study reviewed is itself an extensive review of 30 readability formulas described by George A. Klare. Of these, five formulas considered to be interesting, unusual, or classic on the basis of high validity, simplicity or complexity, common or uncommon variables, and…

  5. REVIEW AND SYNTHESIS OF RESEARCH IN HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHADDERDON, HESTER; FANSLOW, ALYCE M.

    PROFESSIONAL MAGAZINES, RESEARCH REVIEWS, AND 500 THESES AND DISSERTATIONS WERE CONSIDERED IN SELECTING 159 RESEARCH STUDIES FOR REVIEW. STUDIES CONCERNED WITH TEACHER EDUCATION WERE INCLUDED BUT ADULT EDUCATION WAS EXCLUDED. THE PERIOD FROM 1959 TO 1966 IS COVERED. TOPICS ARE (1) PHILOSOPHY AND OBJECTIVES, (2) MANPOWER NEEDS AND EMPLOYMENT…

  6. Research on Teaching Practicum--A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Tony; Çakmak, Melek; Gündüz, Müge; Busher, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to conduct a systematic review research which focuses on research studies into the school practicum. In order to identify the main issues and also to provide a contemporary picture of practicum, 114 studies published on the topic are reviewed and analysed in terms of: (i) aims, (ii) main participants, (iii)…

  7. Recent Research on Troublesome Classroom Behaviour: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaman, Robyn; Wheldall, Kevin; Kemp, Coral

    2007-01-01

    A review is provided of recent research literature on the topic of troublesome classroom behaviour, published over the past decade or so with particular reference to research carried out in Australian schools. Nine Australian studies are reviewed, as well as a further seven from the USA, Hong Kong, Jordan, Greece and Malta. Seven of the studies…

  8. A Review and Synthesis of Recent Research in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Yu-Shen; Lee, Lung-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Applications of online Second Life (SL) prevail over the world. The purpose of this paper is to make a review and synthesis of recent research studies on SL. Design/methodology/approach: Documental analysis is employed. Totally, 135 research publications, published in 2006-2008, are reviewed and synthesized. Findings: Findings are as…

  9. FORMALDEHYDE GAS INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACE MATERIALS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

  10. SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Source Characterization Team (SCT) develops, directs, and conducts research on sources of indoor air pollution and their interactions with indoor surfaces (i.e., sinks). Source and sink characterization studies provide quantitative information on the temporal impact of source...

  11. Second Language Reading Research: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelrigg, Amy C.

    2008-01-01

    Second language research and classroom practice have tended to sideline reading in favor of an emphasis on the oral language development of the English Language Learner (ELL). First-language (L1) reading research is well developed but has limited usefulness to the teacher or researcher interested in second-language (L2) reading. Developing L2…

  12. Travelers and Trolls: Practitioner Research and Institutional Review Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Ivor A.

    2002-01-01

    Examines various factors creating conflicts and misunderstandings among practitioner researchers and Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), describing the meaning of research, ethical difficulties arising from practitioner research, what makes IRBs obstructive, improvements in relations between IRBs and practitioner researchers, and the need to deal…

  13. Involving study populations in the review of genetic research.

    PubMed

    Sharp, R R; Foster, M W

    2000-01-01

    Genetic research can present risks to all members of a study population, not just those who choose to participate in research. The authors suggest that community-based reviews of research protocols can help identify and minimize such research-related risks. PMID:11067631

  14. 14 CFR § 1230.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false IRB review of research. § 1230.109 Section § 1230.109 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Eff. until 2-14-14) § 1230.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in...

  15. An Automated 3d Indoor Topological Navigation Network Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Boguslawski, P.; Gold, C. M.

    2015-10-01

    Indoor navigation is important for various applications such as disaster management and safety analysis. In the last decade, indoor environment has been a focus of wide research; that includes developing techniques for acquiring indoor data (e.g. Terrestrial laser scanning), 3D indoor modelling and 3D indoor navigation models. In this paper, an automated 3D topological indoor network generated from inaccurate 3D building models is proposed. In a normal scenario, 3D indoor navigation network derivation needs accurate 3D models with no errors (e.g. gap, intersect) and two cells (e.g. rooms, corridors) should touch each other to build their connections. The presented 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. For reducing time and cost of indoor building data acquisition process, Trimble LaserAce 1000 as surveying instrument is used. The modelling results were validated against an accurate geometry of indoor building environment which was acquired using Trimble M3 total station.

  16. Review of photovoltaic research in the US

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.D.

    1985-08-01

    This paper describes US research efforts to develop new generations of photovoltaic technologies having the potential for lower cost and better performance than the older generations of crystalline silicon technologies. The newer generations consist primarily of single and multijunction thin film devices destined for either flat plate or concentrator photovoltaic systems. The principal sponsors for the research are the US Department of Energy, US photovoltaic companies, the Electric Power Research Institute, and those US government agencies interested in the use of photovoltaics in space. The paper concludes with a description of future research activities in the areas of amorphous silicon, polycrystalline thin films, high efficiency concepts, and fundamental research.

  17. Calculating Least Risk Paths in 3d Indoor Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanclooster, A.; De Maeyer, Ph.; Fack, V.; Van de Weghe, N.

    2013-08-01

    Over the last couple of years, research on indoor environments has gained a fresh impetus; more specifically applications that support navigation and wayfinding have become one of the booming industries. Indoor navigation research currently covers the technological aspect of indoor positioning and the modelling of indoor space. The algorithmic development to support navigation has so far been left mostly untouched, as most applications mainly rely on adapting Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm to an indoor network. However, alternative algorithms for outdoor navigation have been proposed adding a more cognitive notion to the calculated paths and as such adhering to the natural wayfinding behaviour (e.g. simplest paths, least risk paths). These algorithms are currently restricted to outdoor applications. The need for indoor cognitive algorithms is highlighted by a more challenged navigation and orientation due to the specific indoor structure (e.g. fragmentation, less visibility, confined areas…). As such, the clarity and easiness of route instructions is of paramount importance when distributing indoor routes. A shortest or fastest path indoors not necessarily aligns with the cognitive mapping of the building. Therefore, the aim of this research is to extend those richer cognitive algorithms to three-dimensional indoor environments. More specifically for this paper, we will focus on the application of the least risk path algorithm of Grum (2005) to an indoor space. The algorithm as proposed by Grum (2005) is duplicated and tested in a complex multi-storey building. The results of several least risk path calculations are compared to the shortest paths in indoor environments in terms of total length, improvement in route description complexity and number of turns. Several scenarios are tested in this comparison: paths covering a single floor, paths crossing several building wings and/or floors. Adjustments to the algorithm are proposed to be more aligned to the

  18. Phenomenology and psychopathology of excessive indoor tanning.

    PubMed

    Petit, Aymeric; Karila, Laurent; Chalmin, Florence; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Excessive indoor tanning, defined by the presence of an impulse towards and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, has only recently been recognized as a psychiatric disorder. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report the presence of addictive relationships with tanning salons among their patients despite being given diagnoses of malignant melanoma. This article synthesizes the existing literature on excessive indoor tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, etiology, and treatment of this disorder. A literature review was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and PsycINFO, to identify articles published in English from 1974 to 2013. Excessive indoor tanning may be related to addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, seasonal affective disorder, anorexia, body dysmorphic disorder, or depression. Excessive indoor tanning can be included in the spectrum of addictive behavior because it has clinical characteristics in common with those of classic addictive disorders. It is frequently associated with anxiety, eating disorders, and tobacco dependence. Further controlled studies are required, especially in clinical psychopathology and neurobiology, to improve our understanding of excessive indoor tanning. PMID:24601904

  19. NFC internal: an indoor navigation system.

    PubMed

    Ozdenizci, Busra; Coskun, Vedat; Ok, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    Indoor navigation systems have recently become a popular research field due to the lack of GPS signals indoors. Several indoors navigation systems have already been proposed in order to eliminate deficiencies; however each of them has several technical and usability limitations. In this study, we propose NFC Internal, a Near Field Communication (NFC)-based indoor navigation system, which enables users to navigate through a building or a complex by enabling a simple location update, simply by touching NFC tags those are spread around and orient users to the destination. In this paper, we initially present the system requirements, give the design details and study the viability of NFC Internal with a prototype application and a case study. Moreover, we evaluate the performance of the system and compare it with existing indoor navigation systems. It is seen that NFC Internal has considerable advantages and significant contributions to existing indoor navigation systems in terms of security and privacy, cost, performance, robustness, complexity, user preference and commercial availability. PMID:25825976

  20. NFC Internal: An Indoor Navigation System

    PubMed Central

    Ozdenizci, Busra; Coskun, Vedat; Ok, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    Indoor navigation systems have recently become a popular research field due to the lack of GPS signals indoors. Several indoors navigation systems have already been proposed in order to eliminate deficiencies; however each of them has several technical and usability limitations. In this study, we propose NFC Internal, a Near Field Communication (NFC)-based indoor navigation system, which enables users to navigate through a building or a complex by enabling a simple location update, simply by touching NFC tags those are spread around and orient users to the destination. In this paper, we initially present the system requirements, give the design details and study the viability of NFC Internal with a prototype application and a case study. Moreover, we evaluate the performance of the system and compare it with existing indoor navigation systems. It is seen that NFC Internal has considerable advantages and significant contributions to existing indoor navigation systems in terms of security and privacy, cost, performance, robustness, complexity, user preference and commercial availability. PMID:25825976

  1. Research Methods for Comprehensive Science Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barry N.

    2009-01-01

    Finding some information on most topics is easy. There are abundant sources of information readily available. However, completing a comprehensive literature review on a particular topic is often difficult, laborious, and time intensive; the project requires organization, persistence, and an understanding of the scholarly communication and…

  2. Technology and Work. Research Review No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taviss, Irene; Gerber, William

    Recent literature reflecting the impact of technological change on the occupational distribution of the labor force and on work patterns and skills is reviewed. Social and policy implications of technological change which are considered include mechanisms for improving the coordination between labor supply and demand and the problems and prospects…

  3. Review of Recent Treatment Acceptability Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.

    2007-01-01

    With recent increases in the use of positive approaches to treatment for individuals with developmental disabilities, it seems appropriate to review the variables that have been found to influence the acceptability of various treatments. Programmatic treatments for problematic behaviors that incorporate primarily positive (reinforcement)…

  4. The status of indoor air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Esmen, N A

    1985-01-01

    Indoor air pollution, specifically restricted in its meaning to chemicals in home indoor air environment, presents a new and probably an important challenge to the researchers of the air pollution field. The general overview of this topic suggests that the voluminous data generated in the past ten or so years have only defined the rudiments of the problem, and significant areas of research still exist. Among the important areas where information is lacking, the exposures to contaminants generated by the use of consumer products and through hobbies and crafts represent perhaps the most urgent need for substantial research. PMID:4085429

  5. Are Ventilation Filters Degrading Indoor Air Quality in California Classrooms?

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Destaillats, H.; Apte, M.G.; Destaillats,, Hugo; Fisk, Michael G. Apte and William J.

    2008-10-01

    Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects studenthealth and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air?conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent towhich filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

  6. Research Review: Issues in Magazine Typology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior-Miller, Marcia R.

    1994-01-01

    Explores how magazine type has been defined and on what criteria categories of magazines have been based in communication research. Observes 4 definition strategies in 223 research reports published between 1977 and 1991. Critiques them on their apparent ability to meet five generally accepted standards for the usefulness of scientifically…

  7. Year in Review, 1998. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Inst. of Justice.

    This report focuses on the activities of the National Institute of Justice in 1998. It begins by discussing the organization and its financial data. Funding growth and collaborative activities since 1994 are also described. Overviews of basic and applied research, technology development, testing the research and technology, initiatives with other…

  8. Culturally grounded review of research assumptions.

    PubMed

    Hufford, D J

    1996-07-01

    In this article 11 assumptions underlying many discussions of alternative medicine are discussed and critiqued: that (1) cultural factors merely constitute noise in research data that can be removed by proper design; (2) the only proper goal of alternative medicine research is the incorporation of effective practices into medicine; (3) physicians are the primary consumers of good alternative medicine research; (4) control of pathology is the sole measure of the effectiveness of alternative medicine; (5) effects on pathology can be fully separated from effects on perception or quality of life; (6) effects on individual health should be the sole focus of alternative medical research; (7) medicine is aware of all sicknesses appropriate for alternative medicine research; (8) subjective data are less valuable than objective data; (9) the best leads for research come from recognizable systems with advocates; (10) more "modern-looking," highly articulated forms are necessarily better research "bets"; and (11) all good candidates for alternative medicine research are recognized as health practices by those who use them. PMID:8795922

  9. Review of Burn Research for Year 2014.

    PubMed

    Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David

    2015-01-01

    Management of burn injuries requires treatments and interventions from many disciplines. Worldwide, burn patients suffer from physical and psychological challenges that impact their lives socially and economically. In this review, we will highlight a handful of the numerous articles published in multiple areas of burn care. The areas of burn care addressed in the article are: epidemiology; burn resuscitation, critical care, and infection; nutrition and metabolism; pain and rehabilitation; prevention and firefighter safety; psychology; and reconstruction and wounds. PMID:26204384

  10. The Institutional Review Board in Social Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Jeffrey, B.

    This paper summarizes the rules and regulations under which educational researchers are expected to operate. The role of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) in ensuring protection of research participants from unethical procedures or investigators is discussed, as is the general exemption of specific types of educational research from the IRB…

  11. Capturing Research Impacts: A Review of International Practice. Documented Briefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Jonathan; Brutscher, Philipp-Bastian; Kirk, Susan Ella; Butler, Linda; Wooding, Steven

    2010-01-01

    In February 2009, the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) commissioned RAND Europe to review approaches to evaluating the impact of research as part of their wider work programme to develop new arrangements for the assessment and funding of research--referred to as the Research Excellence Framework (REF). The objectives were 1) to…

  12. Research Review: Implications of Metaphorical Thinking for Teaching Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This review presents a rare blend of a scholar's insight into research and a teaching artist's insight into what the implications of that research can and should be for all teaching artists, regardless of their field. The author thoroughly examines Daniel Serig's 2006 research "A Conceptual Structure of Visual Metaphor" (Studies in Art Education,…

  13. Vocational Education Assessor Training Programs. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docking, Russell

    Anecdotal and conceptual research on assessor training programs in Australia since 1990 was reviewed to determine research priorities for the next 3 years and to identify the research's implications for policymakers and practitioners concerned with training assessors for three settings: formal training, workplace training, and human resource…

  14. NASA/MSFC FY-83 Atmospheric Processes Research Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    The atmospheric processes research program was reviewed. Research tasks sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications, Earth Sciences and Applications Division in the areas of upper atmosphere, global weather, and mesoscale processes are discussed. The are: the research project summaries, together with the agenda and other information about the meeting.

  15. Research in Counseling: A 10-Year Review to Inform Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Dee C.; Hull, Darrell M.; Thacker, Andi J.; Pace, Laura S.; Swan, Karrie L.; Carlson, Sarah E.; Sullivan, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed 4,457 articles from 1998 to 2007 in American Counseling Association division-affiliated journals to identify research articles published in counseling; 1,139 articles (25.6%) were quantitatively research based. The authors provide details related to quantitative research publications, including individual journal contribution…

  16. Family Violence and Violence against Children. Research Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghate, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the research literature on physical violence against children, including disciplinary tactics and abusive violence. Considers the incidence and prevalence of violence against children, key themes in research on causes, correlates and consequences of this violence, and future research needs. (JPB)

  17. Scientific Research for Undergraduate Students: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Troy D.; McKinney, Lyle

    2010-01-01

    Engaging students in authentic scientific research has become an important component of undergraduate science education at many institutions. The purpose of this paper is to explore authentic research experiences as contexts for learning. The authors review empirical studies of undergraduate research experiences in order to critically evaluate the…

  18. Winter Weather: Indoor Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor ... Heat Prevention Guide (Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme ...

  19. Winter Weather: Indoor Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... cover windows with blankets at night. Monitor Body Temperature Infants less than one year old should never ... infants and try to maintain a warm indoor temperature. If the temperature cannot be maintained, make temporary ...

  20. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  1. QUANTIFYING INDOOR MOLDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing awareness that indoor molds/fungi may be connected to such conditions as asthma, allergies, hemorrhaging, chronic rhinosinusitis, memory loss, and a symptom complex called sick-building-syndrome. In addition, molds cause frequently fatal nosocomical infections. ...

  2. Gas Hydrates Research Programs: An International Review

    SciTech Connect

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2009-12-09

    Gas hydrates sediments have the potential of providing a huge amount of natural gas for human use. Hydrate sediments have been found in many different regions where the required temperature and pressure conditions have been satisfied. Resource exploitation is related to the safe dissociation of the gas hydrate sediments. Basic depressurization techniques and thermal stimulation processes have been tried in pilot efforts to exploit the resource. There is a growing interest in gas hydrates all over the world due to the inevitable decline of oil and gas reserves. Many different countries are interested in this valuable resource. Unsurprisingly, developed countries with limited energy resources have taken the lead in worldwide gas hydrates research and exploration. The goal of this research project is to collect information in order to record and evaluate the relative strengths and goals of the different gas hydrates programs throughout the world. A thorough literature search about gas hydrates research activities has been conducted. The main participants in the research effort have been identified and summaries of their past and present activities reported. An evaluation section discussing present and future research activities has also been included.

  3. Indoor air radon

    SciTech Connect

    Cothern, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This review concerns primarily the health effects that result from indoor air exposure to radon gas and its progeny. Radon enters homes mainly from the soil through cracks in the foundation and other holes to the geologic deposits beneath these structures. Once inside the home the gas decays (half-life 3.8 d) and the ionized atoms adsorb to dust particles and are inhaled. These particles lodge in the lung and can cause lung cancer. The introduction to this review gives some background properties of radon and its progeny that are important to understanding this public health problem as well as a discussion of the units used to describe its concentrations. The data describing the health effects of inhaled radon and its progeny come both from epidemiological and animal studies. The estimates of risk from these two data bases are consistent within a factor of two. The epidemiological studies are primarily for hard rock miners, although some data exist for environmental exposures. The most complete studies are those of the US, Canadian, and Czechoslovakian uranium miners. Although all studies have some deficiencies, those of major importance include uranium miners in Saskatchewan, Canada, Swedish iron miners, and Newfoundland fluorspar miners. These six studies provide varying degrees of detail in the form of dose-response curves. Other epidemiological studies that do not provide quantitative dose-response information, but are useful in describing the health effects, include coal, iron ore and tin miners in the UK, iron ore miners in the Grangesburg and Kiruna, Sweden, metal miners in the US, Navajo uranium miners in the US, Norwegian niobian and magnitite miners, South African gold and uranium miners, French uranium miners, zinc-lead miners in Sweden and a variety of small studies of environmental exposure. An analysis of the epidemiological studies reveals a variety of interpretation problem areas.172 references.

  4. Atmospheric and oceanographic research review, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Papers generated by atmospheric, oceanographic, and climatological research performed during 1979 at the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences are presented. The GARP/global weather research is aimed at developing techniques for the utilization and analysis of the FGGE data sets. Observing system studies were aimed at developing a GLAS TIROS N sounding retrieval system and preparing for the joint NOAA/NASA AMTS simulation study. The climate research objective is to support the development and effective utilization of space acquired data systems by developing the GLAS GCM for short range climate predictions, studies of the sensitivity of climate to boundary conditions, and predictability studies. Ocean/air interaction studies concentrated on the development of models for the prediction of upper ocean currents, temperatures, sea state, mixed layer depths, and upwelling zones, and on studies of the interactions of the atmospheric and oceanic circulation systems on time scales of a month or more.

  5. Rain research with disdrometers: a bibliometric review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Raga, M.; Palencia, C.; Tomas, C.; Calvo, A. I.; Castro, A.; Fraile, R.

    2011-09-01

    This study analyses the research on disdrometers based on published studies. To do so, a wide data base of bibliographic references has been used: the Web of Science (published by Thomson Reuters). The search was carried out for all of the articles whose "TOPIC" was disdrometer. The more than 300 articles found were analysed according to various criteria: countries with research using disdrometers; publication dates; evolution of the number of articles; concepts studied and research lines followed in each article; and finally, a bibliometric analysis of the more than 60 journals where these articles have been published. Since 1963, there has been an increase in the number of articles published on disdrometers, which in the last 20 yr has been more than ten times higher than the increase in the number of articles on meteorology.

  6. RISK ASSESSMENT/RISK MANAGEMENT FOR INDOOR MOLD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1998, a team of eight EPA researchers from NERL, NHEERL, NRMRL and NCEA organized to examine the role of indoor molds/fungi in children's health. The make-up of the indoor environment is critical to the health of children in general and has a particularly important influence ...

  7. Targets in anticancer research--A review.

    PubMed

    Jayashree, B S; Nigam, Sukriti; Pai, Aravinda; Patel, Harsh K; Reddy, N D; Kumar, Nitesh; Rao, C M

    2015-08-01

    Cancer is a complex disease characterized by a loss in the normal cell regulatory mechanisms that govern cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Current chemotherapeutics, as anticancer agents, are developing resistance to single drug and also to treatment therapies involving multiple drugs. Cross resistance associated with the specificity and selectivity of existing drugs has restricted the application of chemotherapy. Alternatively, these limitations have given better insight in understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of various stages in cancer. In the light of this, continuous efforts are being made in order to identify and validate newer anticancer targets. This review presents some of the important targets that have been already reported, such as aromatase, farnesyl transferase, histone deacetylase, tyrosine kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase. A few molecules designed against these targets have successfully reached clinical trials. However, only limited marketed drugs are available from these classes. Besides, the review also highlights some of the other important targets and strategies that have also drawn considerable attention in the area of anticancer drug development such as, cancer stem cells and monoclonal antibodies. Further, the integration of the tools in molecular biology with the results from preclinical and clinical trials would strengthen the effectiveness of treatment regimens in cancer patients. There lies a much scope for designing promising lead compounds and treatment therapies against these established targets. PMID:26349312

  8. Research Review: Laboratory Student Magazine Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Explores research on student-produced magazines at journalism schools, including the nature of various programs and curricular structures, ethical considerations, and the role of faculty advisors. Addresses collateral sources that provide practical and philosophical foundations for the establishment and conduct of magazine production programs.…

  9. The Research Review--June 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polenske, Karen

    The report is published to help inform employees of the Economic Development Administration and Regional Commissions of the nature, results, and applications of regional development research. Articles in this issue discuss: (1) a multiregional input-output model for the United States, (2) implications of rural-urban migration for regional…

  10. Ethnographic Research: A Reader [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation & Research in Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This reader was designed to support the Open University Masters in Social Sciences program and as such includes an appendix of useful questions based on the texts used to stimulate seminar discussion. It offers insights into ethnographic research techniques and serves as a tool through which some limitations of conventional quantitative research…

  11. Reye's Syndrome: A Review of Research Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Thomas P.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Clinical and pathological studies of Reye's syndrome indicate that symptoms range from influenza-related encephalitis-type disease to cranial pressure, cerebral edema, hemorrhage, and coma. Biochemical research on the blood, ammonia, and the liver is increasing in sophistication, and hopes for future insight into the etiology of Reye's syndrome…

  12. Building Capacity through Action Research Curricula Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Vanessa; Coombe, Leanne; Robinson, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, graduates of Master of Public Health (MPH) programmes are expected to achieve a set of core competencies, including a subset that is specifically related to Indigenous health. This paper reports on the methods utilised in a project which was designed using action research to strengthen Indigenous public health curricula within MPH…

  13. Annotation Technologies: A Software and Research Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    Describes a range of currently available and developing technologies for creating and presenting annotations, glosses, and other comments on digital documents. Discusses the potential applications of these tools for providing feedback to student writers, supporting extended group discussions around digital texts, and facilitating research and…

  14. Research Review: An International Perspective on Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Leara

    1994-01-01

    Finds, in studies on magazines published outside the United States, little linking of data to theory; little research on how to disseminate ideas; and a void in many areas of magazine publishing, for example, looking at magazines as vehicles for sociological study, examining content categories, and investigating types of specialized magazines. (SR)

  15. A Brief Review of Child Effects Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, John E.

    This paper outlines the research on the reciprocal effects of children and parents on one another and briefly discusses the methods and concepts currently employed in the area. Three types of observational studies are identified: (1) parent-infant studies in which slow-motion and stop-frame video pictures are used to analyze minute details of…

  16. Early Brain Development Research Review and Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Pam

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to imaging technology used in neurobiology, people have access to useful and critical information regarding the development of the human brain. This information allows them to become much more effective in helping children in their early development. In fact, when people base their practices on the findings from medical science research,…

  17. Chlorpyrifos and neurodevelopmental effects: a literature review and expert elicitation on research and policy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Organophosphate pesticides are widely used on food crops grown in the EU. While they have been banned from indoor use in the US for a decade due to adverse health effects, they are still the most prevalent pesticides in the EU, with Chlorpyrifos (CPF) being the most commonly applied. It has been suggested CPF affects neurodevelopment even at levels below toxicity guidelines. Younger individuals may be more susceptible than adults due to biological factors and exposure settings. Methods A literature review was undertaken to assess the evidence for CPF contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders in infants and children. Other literature was consulted in order to formulate a causal chain diagram showing the origins, uptake, and neurological effects of animal and human exposure to CPF. The causal chain diagram and a questionnaire were distributed online to scientific experts who had published in relevant areas of research. They were asked to assess their confidence levels on whether CPF does in fact contribute to adverse neurodevelopment outcomes and rate their confidence in the scientific evidence. A second questionnaire queried experts as to which kind of policy action they consider justifiable based on current knowledge. In a special workshop session at the EuroTox congress in Dresden in 2009 the results of both questionnaires were further discussed with invited experts, as a basis for a policy brief with main messages for policy makers and stakeholders. Results Most experts who responded to the first questionnaire felt that there was already enough evidence to support a ban on indoor uses of CPF in the EU. However, most felt additional research is still required in several areas. The responses from the first questionnaire were used to formulate the second questionnaire addressing the feasibility of government action. In turn, these expert participants were invited to attend a special session at the EuroTox congress in Dresden in 2009. Conclusions Some

  18. Basic Skills in the Workplace: A Research Review. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, John

    This report analyzes recent English-language research on basic skills in the workplace. Part A, a thematic guide to the field, includes detailed references to publications listed in Part B. Section A1 indicates the scope. It defines basic skills and underlines the importance of other terms, especially key skills, information and communications…

  19. JPL basic research review. [research and advanced development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Current status, projected goals, and results of 49 research and advanced development programs at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are reported in abstract form. Areas of investigation include: aerodynamics and fluid mechanics, applied mathematics and computer sciences, environment protection, materials science, propulsion, electric and solar power, guidance and navigation, communication and information sciences, general physics, and chemistry.

  20. Student Persistence in College: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltier, Gary L.; Laden, Rita; Matranga, Myrna

    1999-01-01

    Review of the research on college student persistence summarizes findings in selected areas, including student involvement in campus life, ethnicity, gender, age, on- campus versus off-campus residence, and membership in fraternities and sororities. (Author/DB)

  1. Parent Child Relationships: A Decade Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, James; Stinnett, Nick

    1971-01-01

    This very extensive review covers such areas as parental attitudes and behavior, sex differences in regard to parental influence, parental identification, father absence and effects of divorce or separation, emotional problems, delinquency, health, generational differences and international research. (CJ)

  2. Reviewing HIV-Related Research in Emerging Economies: The Role of Government Reviewing Agencies.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Patrina; Hui, Katrina; Hanrahan, Donna; Barnes, Mark; Sugarman, Jeremy; London, Alex John; Klitzman, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Little research has explored the possible effects of government institutions in emerging economies on ethical reviews of multinational research. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth telephone interviews with 15 researchers, Research Ethics Committees (RECs) personnel, and a government agency member involved in multinational HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) research in emerging economies. Ministries of Health (MOH) or other government agencies often play pivotal roles as facilitators or barriers in the research ethics approval process. Government agency RECs reviewing protocols may face particular challenges, as they can lack resources, be poorly organized, have inconsistent review processes and limited expertise, and use differing definitions of national interests, including upholding national reputation and avoiding potential exploitation and stigma of the country's population. The MOH/governmental review body may be affected by power dynamics and politics in study reviews; may consider issues both related and unrelated to research ethics as understood elsewhere; and may prioritize particular diseases, treatments, or interventions over other topics/types of research. Poor communication and deeply-rooted tensions may exist between sponsor and host countries, impeding optimal interactions and reviews. Investigators must understand and plan for the potential effects of governmental agencies on multinational collaborative research, including preserving adequate time for agency review, and contacting these agencies beforehand to address issues that may arise. Better understanding of these issues can aid and advance appropriate global scientific collaboration. PMID:25388003

  3. Family Literacy Research: A Review of Five Journal Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rights, Mollie

    This paper reviews 5 articles published in 1995 on family literacy research. The articles reviewed are: (1) a study on literacy in Iceland by Ronald Taylor which examined how Icelandic families share language and reading related activities; (2) an article by Barbara Moss and Gay Fawcett which describes and comments on different home literacy…

  4. Research Review: Ann Markusen's Concept of Artistic Dividend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbacher, Judy, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This issue of the "Research Review" features the work of Ann Markusen, Director of the Humphrey Institute's Project on Regional and Industrial Economics at the University of Minnesota. Through the six articles reviewed here, Markusen develops the concept of "The Artistic Dividend," examines the impact of Artists' Centers, explores how artists earn…

  5. Higher Education Change and Social Networks: A Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews literature on the potential for understanding higher education change processes through social network analysis (SNA). In this article, the main tenets of SNA are reviewed and, in conjunction with organizational theory, are applied to higher education change to develop a set of hypotheses that can be tested in future research.

  6. Using Calibrated Peer Review to Teach Basic Research Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracke, Marianne S.; Graveel, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) is an online tool being used in the class Introduction to Agriculture and Purdue University (AGR 10100) to integrate a writing and research component (http://cpr.molsci.ucla.edu/Home.aspx). Calibrated Peer Review combines the ability to create writing intensive assignments with an introduction to the peer-review…

  7. Questions of Culture in Distance Learning: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzuner, Sedef

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews past research that focused on questions of culture in distance learning. Of specific interest are the studies that examined the influence of culture on students' learning and engagement in asynchronous learning networks (ALNs). The purpose of this review is three-fold: to present the state of knowledge concerning the questions…

  8. Quality of indoor residential air and health

    PubMed Central

    Dales, Robert; Liu, Ling; Wheeler, Amanda J.; Gilbert, Nicolas L.

    2008-01-01

    About 90% of our time is spent indoors where we are exposed to chemical and biological contaminants and possibly to carcinogens. These agents may influence the risk of developing nonspecific respiratory and neurologic symptoms, allergies, asthma and lung cancer. We review the sources, health effects and control strategies for several of these agents. There are conflicting data about indoor allergens. Early exposure may increase or may decrease the risk of future sensitization. Reports of indoor moulds or dampness or both are consistently associated with increased respiratory symptoms but causality has not been established. After cigarette smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon are the most common causes of lung cancer. Homeowners can improve the air quality in their homes, often with relatively simple measures, which should provide health benefits. PMID:18625986

  9. A review of ultraviolet astronomical research with the Copernicus satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, T. P., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Results of ultraviolet spectrophotometric observations with the satellite Copernicus (OAO-3) are summarized, and are intended to be completely covered through January 1, 1976. Interstellar research recently reviewed elsewhere is not included, although some newer interstellar results are described. A large fraction of the research covered in this review has been carried out by Guest Investigators with Copernicus. A brief description of the spacecraft and its operation is included.

  10. BIOCONTAMINANT CONTROL (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The strategy of NRMRL's Indoor Environment Management Branch in Research Triangle Park, NC, is to work cooperatively with experts to enhance the scientific understanding of indoor air biocontaminants and to develop prevention and control techniques for mitigation of indoor air po...

  11. VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) Research Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greaves, J. R. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The VAS, an experimental instrument flown onboard Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), is capable of achieving mutlispectral imagery of atmospheric temperature, water vapor, and cloudiness patterns over short time intervals. In addition, this instrument provides an atmospheric sounding capability from geosynchronous orbit. The VAS demonstration is an effort for evaluating the VAS instrument's performance, and for demonstrating the capabilities of a VAS prototype system to provide useful geosynchronous satellite data for supporting weather forecasts and atmospheric research. The demonstration evaluates the performance of the VAS Instruments on GOES-4-5, and -6, develops research oriented and prototype/operational VAS data processing systems, determines the accuracy of certain basic and derived meteorological parameters that can be obtained from the VAS instrument, and assesses the utility of VAS derived information in analyzing severe weather situations.

  12. Indoor location-aware medical systems for smart homecare and telehealth monitoring: state-of-the-art.

    PubMed

    Santoso, Fendy; Redmond, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of current progress in the application of state-of-the-art indoor positioning systems for telecare and telehealth monitoring. This review is the first in the literature that provides a comprehensive discussion on how existing wireless indoor positioning systems can benefit the development of home-based care systems. More specifically, this review provides an in-depth comparative study of how both system users and medical practitioners can get benefit from indoor positioning technologies; e.g. for real-time monitoring of patients suffering chronic cardiovascular conditions, general monitoring of activities of daily living (ADLs), fall detection systems for the elderly as well as indoor navigation systems for those suffering from visual impairments. Furthermore, it also details various aspects worth considering when choosing a certain technology for a specific healthcare application; e.g. the spatial precision demanded by the application, trade-offs between unobtrusiveness and complexity, and issues surrounding compliance and adherence with the use of wearable tags. Beyond the current state-of-the-art, this review also rigorously discusses several research opportunities and the challenges associated with each. PMID:26306639

  13. Hailpad-based research: A bibliometric review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palencia, Covadonga; Castro, Amaya; Giaiotti, Dario; Stel, Fulvio; Vinet, Freddy; Fraile, Roberto

    This paper is an overview of hailpad research from its origin until today using as a search criterion the bibliographic references on the subject in the Web of Science database (ISI). The search was carried out on 1st September 2008. Among the more than 3·10 7 scientific documents included in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) from 1945 to the present, the search engine identified 41 containing the word "hailpad*" (the asterisk is a wildcard for any letter or group of letters). The results have been analyzed according to various criteria: countries with hailpad networks or studies on hailpads; date of the first article; evolution of the number of articles per decade; concepts studied and research lines followed in each article; and finally, a bibliometric analysis of the journals where these articles have been published. It was found that 70% of the articles on hailpads were published in 2 journals: Journal of Applied Meteorology and Atmospheric Research. These two journals also concentrate most of the citations. The number of articles on hailpads and the documents that cite them have grown steadily, and it is expected to grow still further in the present decade if we take into account the trends found.

  14. Optimum Installation of Sorptive Building Materials Using Contribution Ratio of Pollution Source for Improvement of Indoor Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seonghyun; Seo, Janghoo

    2016-01-01

    Reinforcing the insulation and airtightness of buildings and the use of building materials containing new chemical substances have caused indoor air quality problems. Use of sorptive building materials along with removal of pollutants, constant ventilation, bake-out, etc. are gaining attention in Korea and Japan as methods for improving such indoor air quality problems. On the other hand, sorptive building materials are considered a passive method of reducing the concentration of pollutants, and their application should be reviewed in the early stages. Thus, in this research, activated carbon was prepared as a sorptive building material. Then, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was conducted, and a method for optimal installation of sorptive building materials was derived according to the indoor environment using the contribution ratio of pollution source (CRP) index. The results show that a method for optimal installation of sorptive building materials can be derived by predicting the contribution ratio of pollutant sources according to the CRP index. PMID:27043605

  15. Optimum Installation of Sorptive Building Materials Using Contribution Ratio of Pollution Source for Improvement of Indoor Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Park, Seonghyun; Seo, Janghoo

    2016-04-01

    Reinforcing the insulation and airtightness of buildings and the use of building materials containing new chemical substances have caused indoor air quality problems. Use of sorptive building materials along with removal of pollutants, constant ventilation, bake-out, etc. are gaining attention in Korea and Japan as methods for improving such indoor air quality problems. On the other hand, sorptive building materials are considered a passive method of reducing the concentration of pollutants, and their application should be reviewed in the early stages. Thus, in this research, activated carbon was prepared as a sorptive building material. Then, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was conducted, and a method for optimal installation of sorptive building materials was derived according to the indoor environment using the contribution ratio of pollution source (CRP) index. The results show that a method for optimal installation of sorptive building materials can be derived by predicting the contribution ratio of pollutant sources according to the CRP index. PMID:27043605

  16. Institutional review board (IRB) and ethical issues in clinical research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research has expanded tremendously in the past few decades and consequently there has been growing interest in the ethical guidelines that are being followed for the protection of human subjects. This review summarizes historical scandals and social responses chronologically from World War II to the Death of Ellen Roche (2001) to emphasize the lessons we must learn from history. International ethical guidelines for studies with human subjects are also briefly described in order to understand the circumstances of clinical research. The tasks and responsibilities of the institutions and investigators in human subject research to preserve the safety and welfare of research subjects are summarized. Next, several debated ethical issues and insights are arranged as controversial topics. This brief review and summary seeks to highlight important arguments and make suggestions to institutional review boards (IRBs) to contribute to the future evolution of ethics in clinical research as we advance forward. PMID:22323947

  17. Institutional review board (IRB) and ethical issues in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Oak

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research has expanded tremendously in the past few decades and consequently there has been growing interest in the ethical guidelines that are being followed for the protection of human subjects. This review summarizes historical scandals and social responses chronologically from World War II to the Death of Ellen Roche (2001) to emphasize the lessons we must learn from history. International ethical guidelines for studies with human subjects are also briefly described in order to understand the circumstances of clinical research. The tasks and responsibilities of the institutions and investigators in human subject research to preserve the safety and welfare of research subjects are summarized. Next, several debated ethical issues and insights are arranged as controversial topics. This brief review and summary seeks to highlight important arguments and make suggestions to institutional review boards (IRBs) to contribute to the future evolution of ethics in clinical research as we advance forward. PMID:22323947

  18. Research results have expiration dates: ensuring timely systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Julie; Sandelowski, Margarete; Voils, Corrine I

    2006-08-01

    Time and timeliness are key issues in appraising and ensuring the clinical relevance of systematic reviews. Time considerations entering the systematic review process include the history of the clinical problem, disease, or treatment that is the target of the review, and the history of the research conducted to address it. These considerations guide: (i) formulation of the research problems and questions; (ii) setting of parameters for the search and retrieval of studies; (iii) determination of inclusion and exclusion criteria; (iv) appraisal of the clinical relevance of findings; (v) selection of the findings that will be synthesized; and (vi) interpretation of the results of that synthesis. PMID:16907690

  19. Reviewing Literature in Bioethics Research: Increasing Rigour in Non-Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-09-01

    The recent interest in systematic review methods in bioethics has highlighted the need for greater transparency in all literature review processes undertaken in bioethics projects. In this article, I articulate features of a good bioethics literature review that does not aim to be systematic, but rather to capture and analyse the key ideas relevant to a research question. I call this a critical interpretive literature review. I begin by sketching and comparing three different types of literature review conducted in bioethics scholarship. Then, drawing on Dixon-Wood's concept of critical interpretive synthesis, I put forward six features of a good critical interpretive literature review in bioethics: answering a research question, capturing the key ideas relevant to the research question, analysing the literature as a whole, generating theory, not excluding papers based on rigid quality assessment criteria, and reporting the search strategy. PMID:25655982

  20. Review of Distance Education Research (2000 to 2008): Analysis of Research Areas, Methods, and Authorship Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Backer, Eva Maria; Vogt, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of distance education literature to describe the status thereof and to identify gaps and priority areas in distance education research based on a validated classification of research areas. The articles (N = 695) published in five prominent distance education journals between 2000 and 2008 were reviewed for this study.…

  1. Participatory Action Research (PAR) cum Action Research (AR) in Teacher Professional Development: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews Participatory Action Research as an approach to teacher professional development. It maps the origins of Participatory Action Research (PAR) and discusses the benefits and challenges that have been identified by other researchers in utilizing PAR approaches in conducting research. It draws ideas of combining the features of…

  2. What Makes Great Teaching? Review of the Underpinning Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Robert; Aloisi, Cesare; Higgins, Steve; Major, Lee Elliot

    2014-01-01

    This report reviews over 200 pieces of research to identify the elements of teaching with the strongest evidence of improving attainment. It finds some common practices can be harmful to learning and have no grounding in research. Specific practices which are supported by good evidence of their effectiveness are also examined and six key factors…

  3. Postgraduate Research Supervision: A Critical Review of Current Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallin, Antoinette; Nayar, Shoba

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the funding and delivery of research programmes at the university level have, in recent years, resulted in significant changes to research supervision. This paper critically reviews key influences effecting postgraduate supervision. Analysis draws on literature spanning 2000-2010 to determine the appropriateness of traditional models of…

  4. Research on Learners and Learning in Distance Education: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter S.

    1989-01-01

    Presents findings of a preliminary review of research literature on learners and learning in distance education. Comparative analyses of distance education methods and research on student outcomes are highlighted, including students' reasons for dropout or persistence, student profiles, and the impact of institutional interventions on student…

  5. Alternative VET Pathways to Indigenous Development. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughton, Bob

    Recent research and policy documents on indigenous Australians' development needs and aspirations were reviewed to determine their impact on current developments in vocational education and training (VET) research and policy. Special attention was paid to the work of indigenous community-controlled organizations in areas such the following: land;…

  6. 40 CFR 26.1109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false IRB review of research. 26.1109 Section 26.1109 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Basic Ethical Requirements for Third-Party Human Research for Pesticides Involving Intentional Exposure of Non-pregnant, Non-nursing Adults...

  7. Arts Integration Frameworks, Research & Practice. A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaford, Gail

    2007-01-01

    This literature review is an essential resource for anyone involved in the research, theories, or methods and practices of arts integration. It covers what has been written between 1995 and 2007 in the U.S. and abroad and includes an historical overview, definitions and theoretical frameworks for arts integration, research and evaluation studies…

  8. Pupils' Attitudes to Science. A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormerod, M. B.; Duckworth, D.

    This review of research into pupils' attitudes toward science cites significant British and American studies. Research studies appear under one of nine headings: (1) Attitude measurement in science education, (2) Differences between biology and the physical sciences, (3) The difficulty of the physical sciences and its causes, (4) The early age of…

  9. The Internationalisation of Vocational Education and Training. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter J.; Smith, Swee Noi

    This report presents a review and analysis of research on the internationalization of vocational education and training (VET) and provides an assessment of other research that needs to be conducted in this area. Globalization is the integration of economies worldwide through trade, trade agreements, finance, information networks, and movement of…

  10. Publishing Qualitative Adult Education Research: A Peer Review Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Edward W.; Beck, Julie; Ainsworth, Elaine

    2001-01-01

    Grounded theory was used to design a content analysis of peer reviewer comments on qualitative research. Six themes emerged: What is the purpose of the study? How does it build on previous research? How thorough is the methodology? How are the findings presented? What are the contributions, implications, significance? and Is the paper well…

  11. Gender, Simulation, and Gaming: Research Review and Redirections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Jennifer; de Castell, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    This review of gender and gameplay research over the past three decades documents a set of persistent methodological repetitions that have systematically impeded its progress since the inception of this trajectory of research. The first is, in fact, a refusal to consider gender at all: Conflating gender with sex impedes possibilities to identify…

  12. Measurement in Instructional Communication Research: A Decade in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Joseph P.; Graham, Elizabeth E.

    2015-01-01

    Periodic assessment and scrutiny of the discipline's measurement practices, instruments, and research findings are necessary to provide clarity and direction by revealing what we know, how we know it, and where the knowledge gaps exist. Reflective reviews have produced ample appraisals of the theory, research, and methods employed in the conduct…

  13. Review of Rifle Marksmanship Training Research. CRESST Report 783

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Delacruz, Girlie C.; Lee, John J.; Wainess, Richard; Baker, Eva L.

    2011-01-01

    The UCLA National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) is under contract from the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) to conduct research on assessment models and tools designed to support Marine Corps rifle marksmanship. In this deliverable, we first review the literature on known-distance rifle marksmanship…

  14. Examining Circle of Security™: A Review of Research and Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The Circle of Security™ interventions are psychosocial treatments intended to increase maternal sensitivity and thus child attachment security in infants and young children. A small number of publications have reported empirical research on outcomes of these treatments. This article reviews the research evidence, plausibility, theoretical…

  15. A Review of the Research on Internet Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chien; Condron, Linda; Belland, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Research indicates that maladaptive patterns of Internet use constitute behavioral addiction. This article explores the research on the social effects of Internet addiction. There are four major sections. The Introduction section overviews the field and introduces definitions, terminology, and assessments. The second section reviews research…

  16. Blueberries and Human Health: A Review of Current Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewed interest in the health functionality of blueberry (i.e., Vaccinium species with blue surface color) has led to research in several areas including neuroscience, cardiovascular health, cancer chemoprevention and aging. This article reviews these new directions in blueberry research, with emph...

  17. A Review and Synthesis of Technical Education Research in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David Allen

    In order to aid teachers and administrators in improving programs in technical education, this report provides a brief review and synthesis of some of the recent research concerning post-high school technical education in the State of Oklahoma. The research is divided into the following topics: history, statewide surveys, placement and employment,…

  18. Review of studies of research opportunities in energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Williams, T.A.; Hauser, S.G.

    1984-04-01

    This study attempted to systematically identify, screen and review many of the 27 remaining major studies across the end-use areas. The method used to identify and review the studies, the scope of this effort, the types of studies reviewed, and the R and D opportunities identified are discussed. The actual report reviews are included. The review format and the kinds of information sought from each report are discussed. The general categories of the material are described; the types of information presented are summarized; and gaps in the literature are discussed. A discussion of R and D needs and comments of the specific needs presented and their temporal and evolutionary characteristics are included. The findings of the review are summarized and the researchers contacted for information are listed.

  19. Preventing Skin Cancer Through Reduction of Indoor Tanning

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M.; Fox, Kathleen A.; Guy, Gery P.; Seidenberg, Andrew B.; Sampson, Blake P.; Sinclair, Craig; Lazovich, DeAnn

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning devices (tanning beds, booths, and sun lamps) or from the sun contributes to the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, which is the type of skin cancer responsible for most deaths. Indoor tanning is common among certain groups, especially among older adolescents and young adults, adolescent girls and young women, and non-Hispanic whites. Increased understanding of the health risks associated with indoor tanning has led to many efforts to reduce use. Most environmental and systems efforts in the U.S. (e.g., age limits or requiring parental consent/accompaniment) have occurred at the state level. At the national level, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission regulate indoor tanning devices and advertising, respectively. The current paper provides a brief review of (1) the evidence on indoor tanning as a risk factor for skin cancer; (2) factors that may influence use of indoor tanning devices at the population level; and (3) various environmental and systems options available for consideration when developing strategies to reduce indoor tanning. This information provides the context and background for the companion paper in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, which summarizes highlights from an informal expert meeting convened by the CDC in August 2012 to identify opportunities to prevent skin cancer by reducing use of indoor tanning devices. PMID:23683987

  20. A Methodological Review of Meditation Research

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, John W.; Cohen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Despite over 50 years of research into the states of consciousness induced by various meditation practices, no clear neurophysiological signatures of these states have been found. Much of this failure can be attributed to the narrow range of variables examined in most meditation studies, with the focus being restricted to a search for correlations between neurophysiological measures and particular practices, without documenting the content and context of these practices. We contend that more meaningful results can be obtained by expanding the methodological paradigm to include multiple domains including: the cultural setting (“the place”), the life situation of the meditator (“the person”), details of the particular meditation practice (‘the practice’), and the state of consciousness of the meditator (“the phenomenology”). Inclusion of variables from all these domains will improve the ability to predict the psychophysiological variables (“the psychophysiology”) associated with specific meditation states and thus explore the mysteries of human consciousness. PMID:25071607

  1. Communications, Signal Processing, and Telemetering Research Program Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A Communications, Signal Processing, and Telemetering Research Program Review was held on February 23, 1999. Research conducted under the grant was presented and reviewed, for progress, and for possible technology transfers. The research reviewed was in the following areas: (1) Bandwidth-efficient Modulation and nonlinear equalization; (2) Investigation of an architecture for parallel signal processing applicable to communications problems; (3)Coded partial response over satellites; (4) synchronization at Low SNR; (5) Serial concatenated convolutional codes and some implementation issues on high rate turbo codes; (6) Flight experiments; (7) Real time doppler tracking; (8) Space protocol testing; (9) Lightweight optical communications without carrying a laser in space. The presentations are given by the graduate students who performed the research.

  2. Action research in public schools: is it research? Should it be reviewed?

    PubMed

    Sigler, Ellen

    2009-06-01

    TEACHERS CONDUCT IN-CLASS ACTION research to solve classroom problems. Cases of K-12 classroom action research were examined to determine which of them require ethics review. A variety of action research projects were collected and transformed into fictitious examples that could be systematically examined to answer these questions pertinent to whether ethics review is required. The resulting analysis suggested that much classroom action research is a local curriculum development activity, which solves important problems but does not require ethics review for various reasons. If it is human research, as defined in the U.S. Common Rule, and is funded by an agency covered by the Common Rule, or if it is not funded but is human research conducted within an institution that has agreed to review all human research, ethics review is legally required unless the intervention is normal educational practice. However, since some action research may trigger other legal requirements, such as the U.S. Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1979 (FERPA), it may be desirable to have some form of school-based review, but typically not human subjects ethics review. PMID:19480588

  3. Pediatric Asthma and the Indoor Microbial Environment.

    PubMed

    Casas, Lidia; Tischer, Christina; Täubel, Martin

    2016-09-01

    The global increase in the prevalence of asthma has been related to several risk factors; many of them linked to the "westernization" process and the characteristics of the indoor microbial environment during early life may play an important role. Living in moisture damaged homes contributes to the exacerbation and development of asthma. However, living in homes with a rich variety and high levels of microbes (e.g., traditional farming environments) may confer protection. While the results of previous research are rather consistent when it comes to observation/report of indoor moisture damage or when comparing farming versus non-farming homes, when actual measures targeting indoor microbial exposure are included, the picture becomes less clear and the associations appear inconsistent. This may partly be due to limitations of sampling and measurement techniques that make comparisons difficult and provide an incomplete picture of the indoor microbial environment and in particular also human exposure. In this regard, new generation sequencing techniques represent a potential revolution in better understanding the impact of the indoor microbiome on human health. PMID:27230430

  4. Real-time sensors for indoor air monitoring and challenges ahead in deploying them to urban buildings.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Skouloudis, Andreas N; Bell, Margaret; Viana, Mar; Carotta, M Cristina; Biskos, George; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-08-01

    Household air pollution is ranked the 9(th) largest Global Burden of Disease risk (Forouzanfar et al., The Lancet 2015). People, particularly urban dwellers, typically spend over 90% of their daily time indoors, where levels of air pollution often surpass those of outdoor environments. Indoor air quality (IAQ) standards and approaches for assessment and control of indoor air require measurements of pollutant concentrations and thermal comfort using conventional instruments. However, the outcomes of such measurements are usually averages over long integrated time periods, which become available after the exposure has already occurred. Moreover, conventional monitoring is generally incapable of addressing temporal and spatial heterogeneity of indoor air pollution, or providing information on peak exposures that occur when specific indoor sources are in operation. This article provides a review of new air pollution sensing methods to determine IAQ and discusses how real-time sensing could bring a paradigm shift in controlling the concentration of key air pollutants in billions of urban houses worldwide. We also show that besides the opportunities, challenges still remain in terms of maturing technologies, or data mining and their interpretation. Moreover, we discuss further research and essential development needed to close gaps between what is available today and needed tomorrow. In particular, we demonstrate that awareness of IAQ risks and availability of appropriate regulation are lagging behind the technologies. PMID:27101450

  5. Foliage Plants for Improving Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's research with foliage houseplants during the past 10 years has produced a new concept in indoor air quality improvement. This new and exciting technology is quite simple. Both plant leaves and roots are utilized in removing trace levels of toxic vapors from inside tightly sealed buildings. Low levels of chemicals such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde can be removed from indoor environments by plant leaves alone, while higher concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals can be removed by filtering indoor air through the plant roots surrounded by activated carbon. The activated carbon absorbs large quantities of the toxic chemicals and retains them until the plant roots and associated microorganisms degrade and assimilate these chemicals.

  6. Ethical review of health research: a perspective from developing country researchers

    PubMed Central

    Hyder, A; Wali, S; Khan, A; Teoh, N; Kass, N; Dawson, L

    2004-01-01

    Background: Increasing collaboration between industrialised and developing countries in human research studies has led to concerns regarding the potential exploitation of resource deprived countries. This study, commissioned by the former National Bioethics Advisory Commission of the United States, surveyed developing country researchers about their concerns and opinions regarding ethical review processes and the performance of developing country and US international review boards (IRBs). Methods: Contact lists from four international organisations were used to identify and survey 670 health researchers in developing countries. A questionnaire with 169 questions explored issues of IRB review, informed consent, and recommendations. Results: The majority of the developing country researchers were middle aged males who were physicians and were employed by educational institutions, carrying out research on part time basis. Forty four percent of the respondents reported that their studies were not reviewed by a developing country IRB or Ministry of Health and one third of these studies were funded by the US. During the review process issues such as the need for local language consent forms and letters for approval, and confidentiality protection of participants were raised by US IRBs in significantly higher proportions than by host country IRBs. Conclusion: This survey indicates the need for the ethical review of collaborative research in both US and host countries. It also reflects a desire for focused capacity development in supporting ethical review of research. PMID:14872079

  7. HARVARD'S INDOOR AIR POLLUTION/HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An indoor air pollution/acute respiratory health study is being conducted by researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health. Upper and lower respiratory symptoms of 300 children living in Watertown, Massachusetts, have been recorded on a daily diary by a parent. Ev...

  8. The Benefits of Improving Indoor Environmental Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamping, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    As school funding levels nationwide continue to plummet amid public demands for increased student performance, an expanding body of research in the field of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is providing greater statistical validity about the relationship between environmental conditions in school facilities and student achievement. Since the…

  9. Indoor air radon.

    PubMed

    Cothern, C R

    1990-01-01

    This review concerns primarily the health effects that result from indoor air exposure to radon gas and its progeny. Radon enters homes mainly from the soil through cracks in the foundation and other holes to the geologic deposits beneath these structures. Once inside the home the gas decays (half-life 3.8 d) and the ionized atoms adsorb to dust particles and are inhaled. These particles lodge in the lung and can cause lung cancer. The introduction to this review gives some background properties of radon and its progeny that are important to understanding this public health problem as well as a discussion of the units used to describe its concentrations. The data describing the health effects of inhaled radon and its progeny come both from epidemiological and animal studies. The estimates of risk from these two data bases are consistent within a factor of two. The epidemiological studies are primarily for hard rock miners, although some data exist for environmental exposures. The most complete studies are those of the US, Canadian, and Czechoslovakian uranium miners. Although all studies have some deficiencies, those of major importance include uranium miners in Saskatchewan, Canada, Swedish iron miners, and Newfoundland fluorspar miners. These six studies provide varying degrees of detail in the form of dose-response curves. Other epidemiological studies that do not provide quantitative dose-response information, but are useful in describing the health effects, include coal, iron ore and tin miners in the UK, iron ore miners in the Grangesburg and Kiruna, Sweden, metal miners in the US, Navajo uranium miners in the US, Norwegian niobian and magnitite miners, South African gold and uranium miners, French uranium miners, zinc-lead miners in Sweden and a variety of small studies of environmental exposure. An analysis of the epidemiological studies reveals a variety of interpretation problem areas. The major and almost universal problem is in estimating exposure

  10. 59 FR- Indoor Air Quality

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-09-16

    ... 5, 1994, OSHA issued a notice of proposed rulemaking addressing indoor air quality issues, including... to clarify that it is not proposing to regulate smoking or indoor air quality in private homes, and... which a final standard would preempt state and local regulation of smoking and other indoor air...

  11. One Year of Glaucoma Research in Review: 2013 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Van Tassel, Sarah H.; Radcliffe, Nathan M.; Demetriades, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to provide the practicing clinical ophthalmologist with an update of relevant glaucoma literature published from 2013 to 2014. Design Literature review. Methods The authors conducted a 1-year (October 1, 2013, to September 30, 2014) English-language glaucoma literature search on PubMed of articles containing “glaucoma” or “glaucomatous” with title/abstract as a filter. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) filtered searching was not performed because of the newness of the reviewed material. Results Literature review yielded 2,314 articles, after which we excluded reviews and letters to the editor. We highlighted articles featuring new or updated approaches to the pathophysiology, diagnosis, or treatment of glaucoma and gave preference to human research. Conclusions This review features literature that is of interest to ophthalmologists in practice and also highlights studies that may provide insight to future developments applicable to clinical ophthalmology. PMID:26197218

  12. A review of developmental research on resilience in maltreated children.

    PubMed

    Klika, J Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I

    2013-07-01

    Research demonstrates that child maltreatment can negatively impact the psychosocial functioning of individuals well beyond the point at which the trauma occurs. Fortunately, there is evidence that many children who are maltreated succeed in overcoming some of the possible consequences that can follow exposure to this particular form of adversity. Those who do are thought to be resilient. What it means to be resilient is an issue that researchers sometimes disagree on, as is reflected by the different definitions they apply to the term and the methods they use to study the phenomenon. In this literature review, we synthesize current findings on resilience and identify areas of congruence, as well as inconsistency in research methods across the reviewed studies. We focus the review exclusively on longitudinal studies to understand the dynamic qualities of resilience. Findings of the review suggest that, while studies appear to conceptualize and measure common domains of resilience (e.g., social, emotional, behavioral functioning), the measures themselves are in some cases notably different, limiting the extent to which results can be systemically compared across studies. The review also shows that few studies, although longitudinal by design, examine resilience over extended periods of development. Consequently, little has actually been learned about how patterns of resilience unfold and are sustained. Of those studies that do examine resilience as a developmental process, the rate of stability in resilience across time is notably low. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23666947

  13. EPA's indoor air/pollution prevention workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Leovic, K.W.; White, J.B.; Sarsony, C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses a workshop held as a step toward EPA's prioritizing potential areas of research for applying pollution prevention to indoor air quality (IAQ). The workshop involved technical experts in the fields of IAQ, pollution prevention, and selected industries. Workshop goals were to identify major IAQ issues and their pollution prevention opportunities, and to suggest research strategies for IAQ/pollution prevention. The paper summarizes the suggestions made by workshop participants and highlights opportunities for IAQ/pollution prevention research.

  14. Indoor mildew odour in old housing was associated with adult allergic symptoms, asthma, chronic bronchitis, vision, sleep and self-rated health: USA NHANES, 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-09-01

    A recent systematic review and meta-analysis has shown the effect of indoor mildew odour on allergic rhinitis risk, but its relation to other common chronic health outcomes in adults has not been investigated. Therefore, it was aimed to examine the relationship of indoor mildew odour and common health outcomes in adults in a national and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2005-2006, including the available information on demographics, housing characteristics, self-reported health conditions and urinary concentrations of environmental chemicals. T test, chi-squared test and survey-weighted logistic regression modelling were performed. Of all American adults (n = 4979), 744 (15.1%) reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell in their households. People who reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell also reported poorer self-rated health, sleep complaints, chronic bronchitis, asthma attack, itchy rash, sneezing and poor vision. In addition, people who reported indoor mildew odour or musty smell also tended to reside in older housing that were built 20 years earlier. However, there were no significant statistical associations found between indoor mildew odour or musty smell and urinary concentrations of environmental chemicals, which was also found to be associated with old housing. People who lived in older housing with indoor mildew odour or musty smell tended to have chronic health problems. To protect occupants in old housing from chronic illnesses associated with indoor mildew odour, elimination of the odour sources should be explored in future research and therefore public health and housing programs. Graphical abstract Pathway from old housing to musty smell, environmental chemicals and then health outcomes. PMID:25971810

  15. Asynchronous indoor positioning system based on visible light communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weizhi; Chowdhury, M. I. Sakib; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    Indoor positioning has become an attractive research topic within the past two decades. However, no satisfying solution has been found with consideration of both accuracy and system complexity. Recently, research on visible light communications (VLC) offer new opportunities in realizing accurate indoor positioning with relatively simple system configuration. An indoor positioning system based on VLC technology is introduced, with no synchronization requirement on the transmitters. Simulation results show that, with over 95% confidence, the target receiver can be located with an accuracy of 5.9 cm, assuming indirect sunlight exposure and proper installation of light-emitting diode bulbs.

  16. Internalized Homonegativity: A Systematic Mapping Review of Empirical Research

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Rigmor C.; Munthe-Kaas, Heather M.; Ross, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Internalized homonegativity (IH) is an important variable affecting the wellbeing of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons. We included 201 studies in a systematic mapping review of IH. Most studies were conducted in North America and examined IH as a predictor of poor health. The primary focus of 14 studies was IH scale measurement, and, in total, these studies detailed nine distinct scales. Eighteen studies compared levels of IH in LGB populations, four described prevention programs, and one investigated IH using qualitative methods. Our review indicates that further research is needed, particularly qualitative research and ways to ameliorate IH. PMID:26436322

  17. Internalized Homonegativity: A Systematic Mapping Review of Empirical Research.

    PubMed

    Berg, Rigmor C; Munthe-Kaas, Heather M; Ross, Michael W

    2016-04-01

    Internalized homonegativity (IH) is an important variable affecting the wellbeing of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons. We included 201 studies in a systematic mapping review of IH. Most studies were conducted in North America and examined IH as a predictor of poor health. The primary focus of 14 studies was IH scale measurement, and, in total, these studies detailed nine distinct scales. Eighteen studies compared levels of IH in LGB populations, four described prevention programs, and one investigated IH using qualitative methods. Our review indicates that further research is needed, particularly qualitative research and ways to ameliorate IH. PMID:26436322

  18. Research Ethics Review: Identifying Public Policy and Program Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Strosberg, Martin A.; Gefenas, Eugenijus; Famenka, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We present an analytical frame-work for use by fellows of the Fogarty International Center–sponsored Advanced Certificate Program in Research Ethics for Central and Eastern Europe to identify gaps in the public policies establishing research ethics review systems that impede them from doing their job of protecting human research subjects. The framework, illustrated by examples from post-Communist countries, employs a logic model based on the public policy and public management literature. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center’s International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum program. PMID:24782068

  19. Dual-Use Review Policies of Biomedical Research Journals

    PubMed Central

    Barner, Dionne D.; Dinse, Gregg E.

    2011-01-01

    To address biosecurity issues, government agencies, academic institutions, and professional societies have developed policies concerning the publication of “dual-use” biomedical research—that is, research that could be readily applied to cause significant harm to the public, the environment, or national security. We conducted an e-mail survey of life science journals to determine the percentage that have a dual-use policy. Of the 155 journals that responded to our survey (response rate 39%), only 7.7% stated that they had a written dual-use policy and only 5.8% said they had experience reviewing dual-use research in the past 5 years. Among the potential predictors we investigated, the one most highly associated with a journal having a written dual-use policy was membership in the Nature Publishing Group (positive association). When considered individually, both previous experience with reviewing dual-use research and the journal's impact factor appeared to be positively associated with having a written dual-use policy, but only the former remained significant after adjusting for publishing group. Although preventing the misuse of scientific research for terrorist or criminal purposes is an important concern, few biomedical journals have dual-use review policies. Journals that are likely to review research that raises potential dual-use concerns should consider developing dual-use policies. PMID:21395429

  20. Exposure to Indoor Pollutants and Wheeze and Asthma Development during Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Patelarou, Evridiki; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Kelly, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This review aimed to summarize existing epidemiological evidence of the association between quantitative estimates of indoor air pollution with early childhood respiratory disease. Methods: We carried out a systematic literature search of peer-reviewed epidemiological studies undertaken in “westernized” countries that have assessed exposure to indoor pollutants and asthma and wheeze from infancy up to the age of 5. Results: The search, between January 2004 and February 2014 yielded 1840 studies for consideration. Following application of eligibility criteria to titles and abstracts 22 independent studies were deemed relevant for further review. Two additional studies were next identified through examination of the references’ lists of these studies. Of these 24 selected studies, 16 adopted a prospective cohort design and 8 were case-control studies. Fourteen studies assessed exposure to bio-aerosols, 8 studies assessed exposure to specific air chemicals and two studies assessed exposure to bio-aerosols and air chemicals. Furthermore, 11 studies examined the association of exposure with asthma and 16 with wheeze. Findings indicate that existing studies have reported contradictory effects of indoor pollutants levels and occurrence of asthma/wheeze. Conclusion: Additional research to establish causality and evaluate interventions to prevent disease onset is needed. PMID:25872014

  1. RANKING INDOOR AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The basis of the ranking is 10 monitoring studies chosen to represent "typical" concentrations of the pollutants found indoors. The studies were conducted in the United States during the last 15 years, and mainly focused on concentrations of pollutants in homes, schools, and off...

  2. Herbs Indoors. Container Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Duane

    This package consists of two bilingual instructional booklets for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic gardening skills. Included in the package are Cambodian, Vietnamese, and English translations of instructions for raising herbs indoors and Cambodian and English translations of guidelines for container gardening. The herb booklet…

  3. Indoor Confined Feedlots.

    PubMed

    Grooms, Daniel L; Kroll, Lee Anne K

    2015-07-01

    Indoor confined feedlots offer advantages that make them desirable in northern climates where high rainfall and snowfall occur. These facilities increase the risk of certain health risks, including lameness and tail injuries. Closed confinement can also facilitate the rapid spread of infectious disease. Veterinarians can help to manage these health risks by implementing management practices to reduce their occurrence. PMID:26139194

  4. INDOOR AIR REFERENCE BIBLIOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In October 1986, Congress passed the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA, PL 99-499). he ultimate goal of SARA Title IV is the dissemination of information to the public. his activity includes the publication of scientific and technical information on indoor air qu...

  5. Researcher perspectives on publication and peer review of data.

    PubMed

    Kratz, John Ernest; Strasser, Carly

    2015-01-01

    Data "publication" seeks to appropriate the prestige of authorship in the peer-reviewed literature to reward researchers who create useful and well-documented datasets. The scholarly communication community has embraced data publication as an incentive to document and share data. But, numerous new and ongoing experiments in implementation have not yet resolved what a data publication should be, when data should be peer-reviewed, or how data peer review should work. While researchers have been surveyed extensively regarding data management and sharing, their perceptions and expectations of data publication are largely unknown. To bring this important yet neglected perspective into the conversation, we surveyed ∼ 250 researchers across the sciences and social sciences- asking what expectations"data publication" raises and what features would be useful to evaluate the trustworthiness, evaluate the impact, and enhance the prestige of a data publication. We found that researcher expectations of data publication center on availability, generally through an open database or repository. Few respondents expected published data to be peer-reviewed, but peer-reviewed data enjoyed much greater trust and prestige. The importance of adequate metadata was acknowledged, in that almost all respondents expected data peer review to include evaluation of the data's documentation. Formal citation in the reference list was affirmed by most respondents as the proper way to credit dataset creators. Citation count was viewed as the most useful measure of impact, but download count was seen as nearly as valuable. These results offer practical guidance for data publishers seeking to meet researcher expectations and enhance the value of published data. PMID:25706992

  6. Researcher Perspectives on Publication and Peer Review of Data

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, John Ernest; Strasser, Carly

    2015-01-01

    Data “publication” seeks to appropriate the prestige of authorship in the peer-reviewed literature to reward researchers who create useful and well-documented datasets. The scholarly communication community has embraced data publication as an incentive to document and share data. But, numerous new and ongoing experiments in implementation have not yet resolved what a data publication should be, when data should be peer-reviewed, or how data peer review should work. While researchers have been surveyed extensively regarding data management and sharing, their perceptions and expectations of data publication are largely unknown. To bring this important yet neglected perspective into the conversation, we surveyed ∼ 250 researchers across the sciences and social sciences– asking what expectations“data publication” raises and what features would be useful to evaluate the trustworthiness, evaluate the impact, and enhance the prestige of a data publication. We found that researcher expectations of data publication center on availability, generally through an open database or repository. Few respondents expected published data to be peer-reviewed, but peer-reviewed data enjoyed much greater trust and prestige. The importance of adequate metadata was acknowledged, in that almost all respondents expected data peer review to include evaluation of the data’s documentation. Formal citation in the reference list was affirmed by most respondents as the proper way to credit dataset creators. Citation count was viewed as the most useful measure of impact, but download count was seen as nearly as valuable. These results offer practical guidance for data publishers seeking to meet researcher expectations and enhance the value of published data. PMID:25706992

  7. The CELSS research program - A brief review of recent activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Tremor, J.; Bubenheim, D. L.; Gale, J.

    1989-01-01

    The history of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System program, initiated by NASA in the late 1970s to explore the use of bioregenerative methods of life support, is reviewed. The project focused on examining the process involved in converting inorganic minerals and gases into life support materials using sunlight as the primary energy source. The research, planning, and technological development required by the CELSS program and conducted at NASA field centers, at various universities, and by commercial organizations are reviewed. Research activities at universities have focused upon exploring methods of reducing the size of the system, reducing system power requirements, understanding issues that are associated with its long-term stability, and identifying new technologies that might be useful in improving its efficiency. Research activities at Ames research center have focused on the use of common duckweed as a high biomass-producing plant, which is high in protein and on waste processing.

  8. A Review of Alcohol and Other Drug Control Policy Research

    PubMed Central

    Treno, Andrew J.; Marzell, Miesha; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Holder, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a historical review of alcohol and other drug policy research and its impact on public health over the past 75 years. We begin our summary with the state of the field circa 1940 and trace the development across the subsequent decades. We summarize current thinking and suggest possible future directions the field of alcohol and other drug policy may take. Specific topics discussed include the minimum legal drinking age, pricing and taxation, hours and days of sale, outlet density, and privatization effects. The future of drug policy research is also considered. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature identified empirical studies, reviews, and commentaries of alcohol and other drug policy research published from 1940 to 2013 that contributed to the current state of the field. Results: Our review demonstrates the historical emergence of alcohol problems as a public health issue over the early part of the 20th century, the public health policy response to this issue, subsequent research, and current and future research trends. Conclusions: Alcohol and other drug policy research over the last several decades has made great strides in its empirical and theoretical sophistication of evaluating alcohol policy effects. This history is not only remarkable for its analytic complexity, but also for its conceptual sophistication. PMID:24565316

  9. Adolescents and Pornography: A Review of 20 Years of Research.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this review was to systematize empirical research that was published in peer-reviewed English-language journals between 1995 and 2015 on the prevalence, predictors, and implications of adolescents' use of pornography. This research showed that adolescents use pornography, but prevalence rates varied greatly. Adolescents who used pornography more frequently were male, at a more advanced pubertal stage, sensation seekers, and had weak or troubled family relations. Pornography use was associated with more permissive sexual attitudes and tended to be linked with stronger gender-stereotypical sexual beliefs. It also seemed to be related to the occurrence of sexual intercourse, greater experience with casual sex behavior, and more sexual aggression, both in terms of perpetration and victimization. The findings of this review need to be seen against the background of various methodological and theoretical shortcomings, as well as several biases in the literature, which currently precludes internally valid causal conclusions about effects of pornography on adolescents. PMID:27105446

  10. Fuels for research and test reactors, status review: July 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, D.

    1982-12-01

    A thorough review is provided on nuclear fuels for steady-state thermal research and test reactors. The review was conducted to provide a documented data base in support of recent advances in research and test reactor fuel development, manufacture, and demonstration in response to current US policy on availability of enriched uranium. The review covers current fabrication practice, fabrication development efforts, irradiation performance, and properties affecting fuel utilization, including thermal conductivity, specific heat, density, thermal expansion, corrosion, phase stability, mechanical properties, and fission-product release. The emphasis is on US activities, but major work in Europe and elsewhere is included. The standard fuel types discussed are the U-Al alloy, UZrH/sub x/, and UO/sub 2/ rod fuels. Among new fuels, those given major emphasis include H/sub 3/Si-Al dispersion and UO/sub 2/ caramel plate fuels.

  11. Suggested strategies to attract reviewers for soil & tillage research submissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent letter to the editor in Soil and Tillage Research (STILL) entitled "Opportunity and Obligation" prompted a request for follow-up suggestions on how to solve a critical problem associated with securing reviewers for journal submissions. Ten broad suggestions for helping solve the problem of ...

  12. Australian Education: Review of Research. 1965-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeves, John, Ed.; Majoribanks, Kevin, Ed.

    The collection of articles in this volume provides a review of research and scholarly work in the field of education that has been undertaken in Australia during the past 30 years. Part 1, "Background Perspectives," includes (1) "Social Context of Education" (Kevin Majoribanks); (2) "Politics of Education" (Grant Harman); (3) "Cognition and…

  13. Methodological Review of Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Christine E.; Graybeal, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a methodological review of empirical program evaluation research in the area of intimate partner violence prevention. The authors adapted and utilized criterion-based rating forms to standardize the evaluation of the methodological strengths and weaknesses of each study. The findings indicate that the limited amount of…

  14. A Composite Review of Social Work Research Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, George T.

    2010-01-01

    Social work educators require textbooks and other teaching materials that can be used in research courses to enhance student learning. Likewise, social work practitioners require resource books that can be used to enhance practice. This article provides an essay review of four recently published books representing diverse viewpoints on social work…

  15. Categories in Young Children's Thinking. Research in Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews selected research on children's early formation of categories. Finds sophistication in how children group objects and think about those groupings. Notes findings related to type of grouping (thematic or taxonomic), multiple classifications, overgeneralization, the role of background knowledge on classification abilities, the…

  16. Challenges Confronting Beginning Researchers in Conducting Literature Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Der-Thanq; Wang, Yu-Mei; Lee, Wei Ching

    2016-01-01

    Conducting literature review is a complicated, sometimes confusing and laborious process that beginning educational researchers, especially graduate students, often find challenging. However, in the past these challenges were hardly considered, but in more recent times they have been increasingly considered by various faculties and graduate…

  17. Research in Review. Children Living with the Nuclear Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifel, Stuart

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the literature on children and the threat of nuclear war, focusing on four areas: awareness of nuclear weapons, fear of the bomb, influences on personality, and denial of the threat. The research is briefly critiqued, and implications for early childhood are drawn. (RH)

  18. REVIEW OF RESEARCH--SOCIAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REAGAN, GERALD M.

    SELECTED STUDIES IN PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION RELEVANT FOR EMPIRICAL RESEARCHERS AND FOCUSING ON CONCEPTS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING ARE REVIEWED. THESE INCLUDE (1) BEST ON DESCRIPTIVE AND PRESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNTS OF BEHAVIORS, (2) SCHEFFLER ON THE "RESTRICTIONS OF MANNER" WHICH ARE PART OF THE CONCEPT OF TEACHING, (3) ADAMS ON SCHEFFLER'S VIEWS, (4)…

  19. Marijuana: A Review of Medical Research with Implications for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Robert; Popkin, Nancy

    1980-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that marijuana is more harmful than had previously been suspected. A review of research in the following areas is presented: tolerance and persistence, reproductive system, respiratory system, immune system, central nervous system, genetic and chromosomal effects, and behavioral effects. (Author)

  20. Effects of Text Illustrations: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levie, W. Howard; Lentz, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Reviews results of 55 experiments comparing learning from illustrated text and learning from text alone. Research in closely related fields--nonrepresentational pictures (maps, diagrams, graphic organizers), learner-produced drawings, mental imagery, and oral prose--is also examined, and guidelines for practice are offered. A 160-item reference…

  1. Adolescent Sex, Contraception, and Childbearing: A Review of Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A.; And Others

    For the past several decades, the teenage birth rate in the United States has exceeded that of other industrialized nations. To explore the factors behind this high birth rate, this volume summarizes recent research conducted in the United States on the perceived causes of teenage childbearing. This review is organized around the events leading to…

  2. Using Systematic Reviews to Investigate Research in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Helen; Lloyd, Eva

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how the evidence base for aspects of early childhood has been explored using systematic research synthesis methods developed at the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Co-ordinating Centre (EPPI-Centre). Three early childhood systematic reviews have been carried out using EPPI-Centre procedures and tools. The…

  3. Doing Phenomenology in Science Education: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OStergaard, Edvin; Dahlin, Bo; Hugo, Aksel

    2008-01-01

    This article is a review of applications of phenomenology, as a philosophy of knowledge and qualitative research approach, to the field of science education (SE). The purpose is to give an overview of work that has been done as well as to assess it and discuss its possibilities of future development. We ask: what attempts for connecting…

  4. A Review of Research on Facebook as an Educational Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Selami

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present a review of Facebook as an educational environment, as research on its use within education is relatively new. The study is categorized into six sections: Facebook users; reasons people use Facebook; harmful effects of Facebook; Facebook as an educational environment; Facebook's effects on culture, language,…

  5. Mentoring: A Review of Early Career Researcher Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ellen; Lokhtina-Antoniou, Irina; Sakurai, Yusuke; Herman, Chaya; McAlpine, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews 23 journal articles on "mentoring" in the context of Early Career Researchers, defined as those in academia with less than 10 years of experience from the start of their PhD. Achieving a better understanding of mentoring is important since within the higher education context new dynamics have created expectations…

  6. Classroom Dialogue: A Systematic Review across Four Decades of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Christine; Abedin, Manzoorul

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing that empirical research into classroom dialogue has been conducted for about 40?years, a review is reported of 225 studies published between 1972 and 2011. The studies were identified through systematic search of electronic databases and scrutiny of publication reference lists. They focus on classroom dialogue in primary and secondary…

  7. A Review of Research on Project STAR and Path Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Kitae

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the effects of class size reduction (CSR) has been an enduring issue in education. For the past 3 decades, Project STAR has stimulated research and policy discussions regarding the effects of CSR on a variety of outcomes. Schanzenbach (2007) reviewed STAR studies and concluded that small classes improved student academic outcomes.…

  8. Review of Selected Intervention Research with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James O.

    Reviewing of long term and short term intervention research undertaken by Skeels and Dye (1939), Dawe (1942), Brazziel and Terrell (1962), Carter (1966), Sigel, Roeper, and Hooper (1966), Weikart (1967), Klaus and Gray (1967), Karnes and others (1966), Bereiter and Engelmann (1966), Blatt and Garfunkel (1965), Nimnicht (1966), and Smilansky (1964…

  9. Online Education and Its Effective Practice: A Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Anna; Chen, Xiufang

    2016-01-01

    Using a qualitative content analysis approach, this study reviewed 47 published studies and research on online teaching and learning since 2008, primarily focusing on how theories, practices and assessments apply to the online learning environment. The purpose of this paper is to provide practical suggestions for those who are planning to develop…

  10. High School Community Service: A Review of Research and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Dan; Hedin, Diane

    This paper is a status report on efforts to make community service a part of the educational experience of high school students. It reviews the current educational debate, describes policies and practices including specific programs, summarizes research findings on the impact of service, and suggests some critical issues that confront educational…

  11. Doing More with Less: Effective Research and Peer Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    This short discourse is an excerpt from the Founders Award address presented by Dr. Ankley last fall at the Annual SETAC meeting in Tampa, FL. In it he discusses the importance of knowing when to quit pursuing a line of research, and the importance of peer review.

  12. 1978 Annual Review of Child Abuse and Neglect Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Mary Porter; Klaus, Susan L.

    The review of research on child abuse and neglect presents brief abstracts of studies collected by the Clearinghouse of the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. Material is organized into five subject areas (sample subtopics in parentheses): definition of abuse and neglect; incidence (national and selected geographic estimates);…

  13. Credentials versus Performance: Review of the Teacher Performance Pay Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgursky, Michael; Springer, Matthew G.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we examine the economic case for merit or performance-based pay for K-12 teachers. We review several areas of germane research. The direct evaluation literature on these incentive plans is slender; highly diverse in terms of methodology, targeted populations, and programs evaluated; and primarily focused on short-run motivational…

  14. Research Perspectives on Core French: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on core French in three main areas: student diversity, delivery models for the core French program, and instructional approaches. These topics are put into context through a discussion of studies on community attitudes to French as a second language (FSL), dissatisfaction with core French outcomes and…

  15. Television's Impact on Fantasy Play: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Voort, Tom H.; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research literature on television's influence on children's fantasy play. Notes evidence that television viewing absorbs time that children would otherwise spend in play and that television's influence on play depends on the types of programs watched. Examines whether television viewing influences fantasy play positively or negatively and…

  16. Review of Peer Evaluation Research. Technical Paper 342.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Ronald G.; Duffy, Paul J.

    Peer evaluation research was reviewed from three major perspectives--validity, methodology, and situational factors. Most of the studies focused on either concurrent or predicitve validity in a military training situation. Evaluation criteria included leadership potential, promotion potential, personality traits, and supervisory skills.…

  17. A Preparadigmatic Field: A Review of Research on School Vandalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, April; Ducey, Michael H.

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter reviews the various approaches used in the study of school vandalism and attempts to define what is needed now. The main contribution of early research on vandalism is to point out an intellectual dead end. Conventional demographic approaches to the problem, by…

  18. Informal Reasoning Regarding Socioscientific Issues: A Critical Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Troy D.

    2004-01-01

    Socioscientific issues encompass social dilemmas with conceptual or technological links to science. The process of resolving these issues is best characterized by informal reasoning which describes the generation and evaluation of positions in response to complex situations. This article presents a critical review of research related to informal…

  19. Longitudinal Research with Sexual Assault Survivors: A Methodological Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Sprague, Heather Brown; Cottrill, Sara; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal research designs are relatively rare in the academic literature on rape and sexual assault despite their tremendous methodological rigor and scientific utility. In the interest of promoting wider use of such methods, we conducted a methodological review of projects that have used prospective longitudinal designs to study the…

  20. Generic Skills for the New Economy. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    The generic skills needed for the new economy were identified through a review of research studies. First, the development of sets of key competencies/key skills in Great Britain, the United States, and Australia were examined. The U.S. model, which involves a broader, more flexible, and more holistic set of generic skills, was contrasted with the…

  1. One Year of Glaucoma Research in Review: 2012 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Charles; Demetriades, Anna M.; Radcliffe, Nathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to provide the practicing clinical ophthalmologist with an update of pertinent glaucoma literature published from 2012 to 2013. Design Literature review. Methods The authors conducted a 1-year (July 1, 2012, to September 30, 2013) English-language glaucoma literature search on PubMed using the following terms: glaucoma, automated perimetry, optic nerve imaging, optical coherence tomography, glaucoma structure and function, intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, glaucoma medical therapy, neuroprotection, glaucoma laser treatment, secondary glaucoma, glaucoma surgery, and miscellaneous topics in glaucoma. Results Of 2659 articles on glaucoma published during our time frame, this review selected original and review articles that reflect novel aspects and updates in the field of glaucoma, while excluding letters to the editor, unpublished works, and abstracts. Preference was given to human research. Conclusions This review focuses on literature that is applicable to ophthalmologists in practice and also highlights studies that may enhance the diagnosis and management of glaucoma. PMID:25177529

  2. Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

  3. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 2006 Research Review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-07-01

    This 2006 issue of the NREL Research Review again reveals just how vital and diverse our research portfolio has become. Our feature story looks at how our move to embrace the tenants of "translational research" is strengthening our ability to meet the nation's energy goals. By closing the gap between basic science and applied research and development (R&D)--and focusing a bright light on the valuable end uses of our work--translational research promises to shorten the time it takes to push new technology off the lab bench and into the marketplace. This issue also examines our research into fuels of the future and our computer modeling of wind power deployment, both of which point out the real-world benefits of our work.

  4. Review of Research: Teaching and Learning Argumentative Reading and Writing--A Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, George E.; Beach, Richard; Smith, Jamie; VanDerHeide, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring argumentative reading and writing practices reflects a key component of recent curricular reforms in schools and universities throughout the United States and the world as well as a major challenge to teachers of reading and writing in K-12 and college writing classrooms. In this review, we consider the contributions of two research…

  5. Indoor Environment Program 1991 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Approximately 38% of the energy consumed in the United States is used in buildings. Much of this energy can be saved by reducing buildings' air infiltration and ventilation, since the heat load associated with these processes is about 13 quads per year. However, because ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants that originate indoors, reducing ventilation can cause undesirable side effects such as lowering indoor air quality and adversely affecting the health, comfort and productivity of building occupants. The purpose of this research is to increase the energy efficiency of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The research explores energy use and efficiency of buildings; building ventilation and infiltration; the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and exposure and risk assessment for indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO[sub x]. The Program also conducts multidisciplinary studies on relationships between occupant health and comfort symptoms and factors within a building's environment. Air infiltration and ventilation rates are measured and modeled for residential and commercial buildings in order to understand energy transport and thermal losses from various components of building shells and ventilation systems. Methods for reducing energy losses are based on these studies. The effectiveness of various ventilation systems for pollutant removal is also investigated. Methods for characterizing ventilation and building energy use are developed for experimental and applied uses.

  6. Indoor Environment Program 1991 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Approximately 38% of the energy consumed in the United States is used in buildings. Much of this energy can be saved by reducing buildings` air infiltration and ventilation, since the heat load associated with these processes is about 13 quads per year. However, because ventilation is the dominant mechanism for removing pollutants that originate indoors, reducing ventilation can cause undesirable side effects such as lowering indoor air quality and adversely affecting the health, comfort and productivity of building occupants. The purpose of this research is to increase the energy efficiency of buildings while maintaining or improving occupant health and comfort. The research explores energy use and efficiency of buildings; building ventilation and infiltration; the nature, sources, transport, transformation, and deposition of indoor air pollutants; and exposure and risk assessment for indoor air pollutants. Pollutants of particular interest include radon; volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions, including environmental tobacco smoke, CO, and NO{sub x}. The Program also conducts multidisciplinary studies on relationships between occupant health and comfort symptoms and factors within a building`s environment. Air infiltration and ventilation rates are measured and modeled for residential and commercial buildings in order to understand energy transport and thermal losses from various components of building shells and ventilation systems. Methods for reducing energy losses are based on these studies. The effectiveness of various ventilation systems for pollutant removal is also investigated. Methods for characterizing ventilation and building energy use are developed for experimental and applied uses.

  7. Engaging patients and stakeholders in research proposal review: the patient-centered outcomes research institute.

    PubMed

    Fleurence, Rachael L; Forsythe, Laura P; Lauer, Michael; Rotter, Jason; Ioannidis, John P A; Beal, Anne; Frank, Lori; Selby, Joseph V

    2014-07-15

    The inaugural round of merit review for the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) in November 2012 included patients and other stakeholders, as well as scientists. This article examines relationships among scores of the 3 reviewer types, changes in scoring after in-person discussion, and the effect of inclusion of patient and stakeholder reviewers on the review process. In the first phase, 363 scientists scored 480 applications. In the second phase, 59 scientists, 21 patients, and 31 stakeholders provided a "prediscussion" score and a final "postdiscussion" score after an in-person meeting for applications. Bland-Altman plots were used to characterize levels of agreement among and within reviewer types before and after discussion. Before discussion, there was little agreement among average scores given by the 4 lead scientific reviewers and patient and stakeholder reviewers. After discussion, the 4 primary reviewers showed mild convergence in their scores, and the 21-member panel came to a much stronger agreement. Of the 25 awards with the best (and lowest) scores after phase 2, only 13 had ranked in the top 25 after the phase 1 review by scientists. Five percent of the 480 proposals submitted were funded. The authors conclude that patient and stakeholder reviewers brought different perspectives to the review process but that in-person discussion led to closer agreement among reviewer types. It is not yet known whether these conclusions are generalizable to future rounds of peer review. Future work would benefit from additional data collection for evaluation purposes and from long-term evaluation of the effect on the funded research. PMID:25023251

  8. Social conditions for human happiness: A review of research.

    PubMed

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2015-10-01

    Empirical research on happiness took off in the 1970s and accelerated after the emergence of positive psychology by 2000. Today this has resulted in some 23,000 research findings. In this article, I take stock of the findings on social conditions for happiness and distinguish between conditions at the macro level of society, the meso level of organisations and the micro level of individual conditions. A new review technique is applied, an online findings archive is used, in which research findings on happiness are described in a uniform way and sorted by subject. PMID:25899153

  9. Somatoform Pain: A developmental theory and translational research review

    PubMed Central

    Landa, Alla; Peterson, Bradley S.; Fallon, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Somatoform pain is a highly prevalent, debilitating condition and a tremendous public health problem. Effective treatments for somatoform pain are urgently needed. The etiology of this condition is, however, still unknown. On the basis of a review of recent basic and clinical research, we propose one potential mechanisms of symptom formation in somatoform pain and a developmental theory of its pathogenesis. The emerging evidence from animal and human studies in developmental neurobiology, cognitive-affective neuroscience, psychoneuroimmunology, genetics, epigenetics, and clinical and treatment studies of somatoform pain all point to the existence of a shared physical and social pain neural system. Research findings also show that non-optimal early experiences interact with genetic predispositions to influence the development of this shared system and ability to regulate it in an effective way. Interpersonal affect regulation between infant and caregiver is crucial for the optimal development of these brain circuits. The aberrant development of this shared neural system during infancy, childhood and adolescence, therefore, may ultimately lead to an increased sensitivity to physical and social pain and to problems with their regulation in adulthood. The authors critically review translational research findings that support this theory and discuss its clinical and research implications. Specifically, the proposed theory and reviewed research suggest that psychotherapeutic and/or pharmacologic interventions that foster the development of affect regulation capacities in an interpersonal context will also serve to more effectively modulate aberrantly activated neural pain circuits and thus be of particular benefit in the treatment of somatoform pain. PMID:22929064

  10. Astronomy Education Research: A Review of the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    Despite astronomy's widespread inclusion in curricula prior to the 20th century, educational research in astronomy is a relatively new endeavor. To date there are no dedicated paper journals for astronomy education research, although the new electronic Astronomy Education Review (http://aer.noao.edu) has recently released its first issue. As the field of astronomy education research grows - and it is doing so with leaps and bounds - many may find it useful to know what has been done so far. The new SABER database (http://www.cdes-astro.com/saber) represents an ongoing and collaborative attempt for the astronomy education community to collect and summarize the highly dispersed literature on astronomy education research, although it is not yet complete. Starting with and expanding beyond this database, a systematic review and classification of the literature was performed. Some of the recurring research themes that emerged from this review include: student beliefs and misconceptions; collaborative learning; the large lecture classroom; and education in planetaria. Key studies in these areas are described and a detailed bibliography is presented.

  11. A Review of HIV/AIDS Research in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Koh, K C

    2014-08-01

    Two hundred fifty seven articles related to HIV/AIDS were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. One hundred seventy one articles were selected and reviewed on the basis of clinical relevance and future research implications. This review of literature has been divided into six sections, namely, epidemiology, risk behaviour, clinical features and opportunistic infections, management, diagnosis and discussion. Wherever possible, the reviewed articles have been presented in a chronological order to provide a historical perspective to the reader as many of the results of earlier publications, which are common knowledge now, were relatively unknown then. Since the early days of the HIV epidemic in Malaysia, there have been rapid advances in the understanding and the management of the epidemic in Malaysia based on the insights derived from the results of these research. These insights are invaluable tools for policy makers, advocators, healthcare providers, researchers and everyone and anyone who are involved in the care of individuals with HIV/AIDS. Attempts have been made to identify gaps in certain research areas with the hope of providing directions for future research in HIV/AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:25417954

  12. An integrative review of Reiki touch therapy research.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Reiki touch therapy is a complementary biofield energy therapy that involves the use of hands to help strengthen the body's ability to heal. There is growing interest among nurses to use Reiki in patient care and as a self-care treatment, however, with little supportive empirical research and evidence to substantiate these practices. The purpose of this integrative review is to begin the systematic process of evaluating the findings of published Reiki research. Selected investigations using Reiki for effects on stress, relaxation, depression, pain, and wound healing management, among others is reviewed and summarized. A summary of Reiki studies table illustrates the study descriptions and Reiki treatment protocols specified in the investigations. Synthesis of findings for clinical practice and implications for future research are explored. PMID:17627194

  13. Teaching Undergraduate Nursing Research: A Narrative Review of Evaluation Studies and a Typology for Further Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Eileen J.

    2001-01-01

    Review of eight studies evaluating strategies for teaching nursing research found they emphasized contextual rather than internal or external validity. A typology for research on teaching strategies was proposed using the categories of purpose, methodological assumptions, types of validity, and sample size. (Contains 45 references.) (SK)

  14. Indoor Subspacing to Implement Indoorgml for Indoor Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H.; Lee, J.

    2015-10-01

    According to an increasing demand for indoor navigation, there are great attempts to develop applicable indoor network. Representation for a room as a node is not sufficient to apply complex and large buildings. As OGC established IndoorGML, subspacing to partition the space for constructing logical network is introduced. Concerning subspacing for indoor network, transition space like halls or corridors also have to be considered. This study presents the subspacing process for creating an indoor network in shopping mall. Furthermore, categorization of transition space is performed and subspacing of this space is considered. Hall and squares in mall is especially defined for subspacing. Finally, implementation of subspacing process for indoor network is presented.

  15. 40 CFR 26.1603 - EPA review of proposed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA review of proposed human research... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1603 EPA review of proposed human research. (a) EPA must review all proposals for new human research submitted under § 26.1125 in...

  16. Pain and Emotion: A Biopsychosocial Review of Recent Research

    PubMed Central

    Lumley, Mark A.; Cohen, Jay L.; Borszcz, George S.; Cano, Annmarie; Radcliffe, Alison M.; Porter, Laura S.; Schubiner, Howard; Keefe, Francis J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective and Method Research on emotion and pain has burgeoned. We review the last decade’s literature, focusing on links between emotional processes and persistent pain. Results Neurobiological research documents the neural processes that distinguish affective from sensory pain dimensions, link emotion and pain, and generate central nervous system pain sensitization. Psychological research demonstrates that greater pain is related to emotional stress and limited emotional awareness, expression, and processing. Social research shows the potential importance of emotional communication, empathy, attachment, and rejection. Conclusions Emotions are integral to the conceptualization, assessment, and treatment of persistent pain. Research should clarify when to eliminate or attenuate negative emotions, and when to access, experience, and express them. Theory and practice should integrate emotion into cognitive-behavioral models of persistent pain. PMID:21647882

  17. Indoor radon and decay products: Concentrations, causes, and control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Nero, A.V.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report is another in the on going technical report series that addresses various aspects of the DOE Radon Research Program. It provides an overview of what is known about the behavior of radon and its decay products in the indoor environment and examines the manner in which several important classes of factors -- structural, geological, and meteorological -- affect indoor radon concentrations. Information on US indoor radon concentrations, currently available monitoring methods and novel radon control strategies are also explored. 238 refs., 22 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Characteristics of a productive research environment: literature review.

    PubMed

    Bland, C J; Ruffin, M T

    1992-06-01

    What environmental factors stimulate and maintain research productivity? To answer this question, the authors conducted an extensive review of articles and books on research productivity published from the mid-1960s through 1990. This review revealed that a consistent set of 12 characteristics was found in research-conducive environments: (1) clear goals that serve a coordinating function, (2) research emphasis, (3) distinctive culture, (4) positive group climate, (5) assertive participative governance, (6) decentralized organization, (7) frequent communication, (8) accessible resources, particularly human, (9) sufficient size, age, and diversity of the research group, (10) appropriate rewards, (11) concentration on recruitment and selection, and (12) leadership with research expertise and skill in both initiating appropriate organizational structure and using participatory management practices. Some of these characteristics are not surprising, although some findings were unexpected, such as that participative governance correlated consistently with research productivity. The differential impact of each of these 12 characteristics is unclear. It is clear, however, that the leader has a disproportionate impact through his or her influence on all of the other characteristics. Yet, an overarching feature of these characteristics is their interdependency. These factors do not operate in research groups as isolated characteristics. Rather, they are like fine threads of a whole fabric: individual, yet when interwoven, providing a strong, supportive, and stimulating backdrop for the researcher. The authors conclude that while at a distance the productive research enterprise looks like a highly robust entity, upon closer inspection it is revealed to be a delicate structure highly dependent on the existence and effective working of numerous individual, organizational, and leadership characteristics. PMID:1596337

  19. Continuous glucose monitoring: A review for behavioral researchers

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Julie; Tennen, Howard; Wolpert, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Objective Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems collect and store glucose data in an ongoing fashion for several days at a time. The main advantage of continuous glucose monitoring is that it can help identify fluctuations and trends that would otherwise go unnoticed with other glucose measures. Here we provide a review of CGM for behavioral researchers. Methods We begin with a brief review of diabetes and glucose measurement and then describe what CGM is and reference the commercial CGM systems currently available. We discuss the challenges involved in using CGM in behavioral research. We then present a broad overview of CGM in behavioral research, including data from ours and others' research programs. Finally, we cover some practical issues to be considered when using CGM, suggest reporting guidelines for the behavioral researcher, and offer suggestions for future research. Results Only a handful of behavioral researchers are using CGM, although its use is increasing. The main ways that CGM is being used in behavioral research is to investigate basic biobehavioral processes, to assess the effects of behavioral interventions on diabetes control, and to use CGM itself as a behavior modification and teaching tool in diabetes self-management interventions. Conclusions CGM holds promise to help behavioral researchers unravel the complex relationships among glucose and intrapersonal, interpersonal, and contextual factors. However, the uptake of CGM for this purpose is limited, and the possibilities for its use are largely unmet. We encourage behavioral researchers to implement CGM in their protocols, and to do so in a way that maximizes its explanatory power. PMID:22582333

  20. Peer review, basic research, and engineering: Defining a role for QA professionals in basic research environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1989-02-01

    Within the context of doing basic research, this paper seeks to answer four major questions: (1) What is the authority structure of science. (2) What is peer review. (3) Where is the interface between basic physics research and standard engineering. and (4) Given the conclusions to the first three questions, what is the role of the QA professional in a basic research environment like Fermilab. 23 refs.

  1. State Indoor Tanning Laws and Adolescent Indoor Tanning

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Gery P.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Jones, Sherry Everett; O’Malley Olsen, Emily; Miyamoto, Justin N.; Michael, Shannon L.; Saraiya, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Recently, several state indoor tanning laws, including age restrictions, were promulgated to reduce indoor tanning among minors. We examined the effects of these laws on adolescent indoor tanning. Methods. We used nationally representative data from the 2009 and 2011 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 31 835). Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the association between state indoor tanning laws and indoor tanning among US high school students. Results. Female students in states with indoor tanning laws were less likely to engage in indoor tanning than those in states without any laws. We observed a stronger association among female students in states with systems access, parental permission, and age restriction laws than among those in states without any laws. We found no significant association among female students in states with only systems access and parental permission laws or among male students. Conclusions. Indoor tanning laws, particularly those including age restrictions, may be effective in reducing indoor tanning among female high school students, for whom rates are the highest. Such reductions have the potential to reduce the health and economic burden of skin cancer. PMID:24524515

  2. Problems In Indoor Mapping and Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatanova, S.; Sithole, G.; Nakagawa, M.; Zhu, Q.

    2013-11-01

    Research in support of indoor mapping and modelling (IMM) has been active for over thirty years. This research has come in the form of As-Built surveys, Data structuring, Visualisation techniques, Navigation models and so forth. Much of this research is founded on advancements in photogrammetry, computer vision and image analysis, computer graphics, robotics, laser scanning and many others. While IMM used to be the privy of engineers, planners, consultants, contractors, and designers, this is no longer the case as commercial enterprises and individuals are also beginning to apply indoor models in their business process and applications. There are three main reasons for this. Firstly, the last two decades have seen greater use of spatial information by enterprises and the public. Secondly, IMM has been complimented by advancements in mobile computing and internet communications, making it easier than ever to access and interact with spatial information. Thirdly, indoor modelling has been advanced geometrically and semantically, opening doors for developing user-oriented, context-aware applications. This reshaping of the public's attitude and expectations with regards to spatial information has realised new applications and spurred demand for indoor models and the tools to use them. This paper examines the present state of IMM and considers the research areas that deserve attention in the future. In particular the paper considers problems in IMM that are relevant to commercial enterprises and the general public, groups this paper expects will emerge as the greatest users IMM. The subject of indoor modelling and mapping is discussed here in terms of Acquisitions and Sensors, Data Structures and Modelling, Visualisation, Applications, Legal Issues and Standards. Problems are discussed in terms of those that exist and those that are emerging. Existing problems are those that are currently being researched. Emerging problems are those problems or demands that are

  3. Review of Research On Angle-of-Attack Indicator Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vie, Lisa R.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a literature review to determine the potential benefits of a display of angle-of-attack (AoA) on the flight deck of commercial transport that may aid a pilot in energy state awareness, upset recovery, and/or diagnosis of air data system failure. This literature review encompassed an exhaustive list of references available and includes studies on the benefits of displaying AoA information during all phases of flight. It also contains information and descriptions about various AoA indicators such as dial, vertical and horizontal types as well as AoA displays on the primary flight display and the head up display. Any training given on the use of an AoA indicator during the research studies or experiments is also included for review

  4. Review of recent trends in cholera research and control

    PubMed Central

    Felsenfeld, O.

    1966-01-01

    Since 1961 cholera El Tor has been sweeping through the Far East, and this dissemination of the disease has stimulated research not only in the countries afflicted but also in Europe and the Americas. New laboratories and workers have entered the field and many fresh ideas and concepts have emerged. The time seemed ripe, therefore, to survey the most important papers published since 1959, when the literature on cholera was thoroughly reviewed by Pollitzer, for the benefit both of those engaged in research and of those concerned with public health practice. This review covers history and incidence, causative agents (including the ”classical”, ”El Tor” and ”incomplete” forms), pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, mode of spreading and control measures (with particular reference to public health education and the International Sanitary Regulations). An annex, intended for laboratory use, contains selected procedures for the isolation and identification of cholera vibrios. PMID:5328492

  5. Ostracism in pediatric populations: review of theory and research.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Conway F; Williams, Kipling D; Nida, Steve A; McKenna, Margaret E; Twomey, Kaitlin E; Macias, Michelle M

    2013-05-01

    Ostracism, ignoring and excluding a target individual, has recently emerged as one of the more common and damaging forms of social exchange. This article reviews the theoretical and empirical foundations of ostracism and its impact on the targeted individual, especially threats to the fundamental psychological needs of belonging, self-esteem, meaningful existence, and sense of control. Ostracism in children and adolescents is under-researched compared to bullying in general, in both the general youth population and in populations of children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN). Basic and applied studies on ostracism and its impact are reviewed with special emphasis on recent findings about ostracism in CYSHCN. Evidence is presented that ostracism may pose an even greater threat to children's adjustment and need-threat levels than bullying. Resources for clinician and researcher engagement in this emerging area are provided. PMID:23535341

  6. Indoor Modelling Benchmark for 3D Geometry Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, C.; Boehm, J.

    2014-06-01

    A combination of faster, cheaper and more accurate hardware, more sophisticated software, and greater industry acceptance have all laid the foundations for an increased desire for accurate 3D parametric models of buildings. Pointclouds are the data source of choice currently with static terrestrial laser scanning the predominant tool for large, dense volume measurement. The current importance of pointclouds as the primary source of real world representation is endorsed by CAD software vendor acquisitions of pointcloud engines in 2011. Both the capture and modelling of indoor environments require great effort in time by the operator (and therefore cost). Automation is seen as a way to aid this by reducing the workload of the user and some commercial packages have appeared that provide automation to some degree. In the data capture phase, advances in indoor mobile mapping systems are speeding up the process, albeit currently with a reduction in accuracy. As a result this paper presents freely accessible pointcloud datasets of two typical areas of a building each captured with two different capture methods and each with an accurate wholly manually created model. These datasets are provided as a benchmark for the research community to gauge the performance and improvements of various techniques for indoor geometry extraction. With this in mind, non-proprietary, interoperable formats are provided such as E57 for the scans and IFC for the reference model. The datasets can be found at: indoor-bench.github.io/indoor-bench"target="_blank">http://indoor-bench.github.io/indoor-bench.

  7. From inclusion to independence – Training consumers to review research

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Carla; Girgis, Afaf; Butow, Phyllis; Crossing, Sally; Penman, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Health and medical research invariably impacts on the lives of everyday people. Organisations in the developed world are increasingly involving the public in health research projects, and research governance structures and processes. The form the involvement takes varies, as does the level of involvement, from individuals, to groups, to the wider community. Lay community members can be trained to independently review health and medical research, and wider societal involvement in funding decisions, can be effectively fostered. The theoretical foundation, design and development of a task based consumer-training program, including a number of enabling factors to support the success of such training are presented. This work is likely to be of value to those planning to train consumers in technical or complex areas. PMID:18328108

  8. Research approaches in illicit drug use: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Sadava, S W

    1975-02-01

    Research approached and substantive findings pertaining to determinants of the nonmedical use of illicit psychoactive drugs are reviewed. Discussion focuses upon the dimensions of drug use as a behaviorial phenomenon, the findings and limitations of four basic approaches to research in the ares--sociocultural, psychopathological, functionalist, and social learning-- and upon methodological problems. Drug use must be treated as a multidimensional phenomenon, with analyses extending well beyond simple user vs. nonuser comparisons or arbitrary categories of users. Research must be conducted within a coherent field-theoretical conceptual framework, directed toward the formulation of nomothetic laws concerning patterns of drug use. Inadequacies in sampling and measurement and the absence of longitudinal design have compromised the utility of a vast research literature. PMID:1091527

  9. A review of research on nanoparticulate flow undergoing coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jianzhong; Huo, Linlin

    2015-06-01

    Nanoparticulate flows occur in a wide range of natural phenomena and engineering applications and, hence, have attracted much attention. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a review of the research conducted over the last decade. The research covered relates to the Brownian coagulation of monodisperse and polydisperse particles, the Taylor-series expansion method of moment, and nanoparticle distributions due to coagulation in pipe and channel flow, jet flow, and the mixing layer and in the process of flame synthesis and deposition.

  10. A comprehensive review of market research on solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ghent, P.; Keller, C.

    1999-11-01

    This is the second report of a four-task project to develop a marketing plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry. The objective of this task is to identify key elements in previous studies on the marketing of solar water heaters in the new home industry. This review includes studies performed by FOCUS Marketing Services, the National Association of Home Builders Research Center, Symmetrics Marketing Corporation, and the California Energy Commission.

  11. 75 FR 3542 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting... Act) that the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet... rehabilitation research and development applications for scientific and technical merit and to...

  12. 75 FR 40036 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting... Act) that the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet... rehabilitation research and development applications for scientific and technical merit and to...

  13. Research in Parkinson's disease in India: A review

    PubMed Central

    Surathi, Pratibha; Jhunjhunwala, Ketan; Yadav, Ravi; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder affecting patients in large numbers throughout the world. In this article, we review all the published data on PD based on studies in Indian population. We have tried to consolidate the contribution of Indian studies in PD research. We found 95 articles, of which 92 were original research papers. This is a relatively less number, but in the last decade, there has been an increase in research on PD from this country. But most of them seem to be restricted to only a few research institutes. The nonmotor symptoms and genetics are the most commonly studied aspects. The systematic review of the articles reveals that the epidemiology in India may be different with relatively lesser incidence here. Most of the genetic mutations found to cause PD in other population are not found in India, revealing that other genetic factors may be involved. Further research needs to be encouraged to understand the disease in Indian patients better, as all the results cannot be extrapolated from the Western literature to this heterogeneous Indian population. There need to be more studies on therapeutic aspects of the disease. PMID:27011622

  14. A Contemporary Review of K-16 Astronomy Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Janelle M.; Slater, Timothy F.

    Despite astronomy's widespread inclusion in curricula prior to the 20th century educational research in astronomy is a relatively new endeavor. To date there are no dedicated paper journals for astronomy education research although the electronic Astronomy Education Review (http://aer.noao.edu) has recently released its first issue. As the field of astronomy education research grows many may find it useful to know what has been done so far. The new SABER database (http://www.cdes-astro.com/saber) represents an ongoing collaborative attempt for the astronomy education community to collect and summarize the highly dispersed literature on astronomy education research although it is not yet complete. Starting with and expanding beyond this database a systematic review and classification of the K-12 and higher education literature was performed. Some of the research themes that emerged include: student beliefs and misconceptions; collaborative learning; the large lecture classroom; and education in planetaria. Key studies in these areas are described and a bibliography is presented

  15. Research in Parkinson's disease in India: A review.

    PubMed

    Surathi, Pratibha; Jhunjhunwala, Ketan; Yadav, Ravi; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder affecting patients in large numbers throughout the world. In this article, we review all the published data on PD based on studies in Indian population. We have tried to consolidate the contribution of Indian studies in PD research. We found 95 articles, of which 92 were original research papers. This is a relatively less number, but in the last decade, there has been an increase in research on PD from this country. But most of them seem to be restricted to only a few research institutes. The nonmotor symptoms and genetics are the most commonly studied aspects. The systematic review of the articles reveals that the epidemiology in India may be different with relatively lesser incidence here. Most of the genetic mutations found to cause PD in other population are not found in India, revealing that other genetic factors may be involved. Further research needs to be encouraged to understand the disease in Indian patients better, as all the results cannot be extrapolated from the Western literature to this heterogeneous Indian population. There need to be more studies on therapeutic aspects of the disease. PMID:27011622

  16. Participatory methods in pediatric participatory research: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Haijes, Hanneke A; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W

    2016-05-01

    Meaningful child participation in medical research is seen as important. In order to facilitate further development of participatory research, we performed a systematic literature study to describe and assess the available knowledge on participatory methods in pediatric research. A search was executed in five databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Cochrane. After careful screening of relevant papers, finally 24 documents were included in our analysis. Literature on participatory methods in pediatric research appears generally to be descriptive, whereby high-quality evidence is lacking. Overall, five groups of participatory methods for children could be distinguished: observational, verbal, written, visual, and active methods. The choice for one of these methods should be based on the child's age, on social and demographic characteristics, and on the research objectives. To date, these methods are still solely used for obtaining data, yet they are suitable for conducting meaningful participation. This may result in a successful partnership between children and researchers. Researchers conducting participatory research with children can use this systematic review in order to weigh the current knowledge about the participatory methods presented. PMID:26720607

  17. Indoor Radon Measurement in Van

    SciTech Connect

    Kam, E.; Osmanlioglu, A. E.; Celebi, N.; Dogan, I.

    2007-04-23

    In this study, indoor radon concentrations obtained from the radon surveys conducted in the Van. Radon monitoring was performed by applying a passive, time-integrating measuring technique. For this purpose, CR-39 nuclear track detectors were installed in dwellings for 2 months. After the monitoring period, detectors were collected. In order to make the alpha tracks visible, chemical etching was applied to the exposed detectors. Nuclear track numbers and the corresponding indoor radon concentrations were determined. Annual effective dose equivalents and the risk probabilities caused by indoor radon inhalation were calculated, and the found results compared with the indoor radon concentrations' data measured in different provinces of Turkey.

  18. CORRECTION FOR NONUNIFORM MIXING IN INDOOR MICROENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The modelling of the indoor concentration distribution produced by sources and sinks of pollutants is complicated by nonuniform mixing within the indoor settings. wo common approaches to predicting the concentration distribution are to either treat the indoor volume as containing...

  19. Caffeine Use Disorder: A Comprehensive Review and Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Steven E.; Juliano, Laura M.; Hughes, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used drug in the world. Although consumption of low to moderate doses of caffeine is generally safe, an increasing number of clinical studies are showing that some caffeine users become dependent on the drug and are unable to reduce consumption despite knowledge of recurrent health problems associated with continued use. Thus, the World Health Organization and some health care professionals recognize caffeine dependence as a clinical disorder. In this comprehensive literature review, we summarize published research on the biological evidence for caffeine dependence; we provide a systematic review of the prevalence of caffeine dependence and rates of endorsement of clinically meaningful indicators of distress and functional impairment among habitual caffeine users; we discuss the diagnostic criteria for Caffeine Use Disorder—a condition for further study included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.); and we outline a research agenda to help guide future clinical, epidemiological, and genetic investigations of caffeine dependence. Numerous controlled laboratory investigations reviewed in this article show that caffeine produces behavioral and physiological effects similar to other drugs of dependence. Moreover, several recent clinical studies indicate that caffeine dependence is a clinically meaningful disorder that affects a nontrivial proportion of caffeine users. Nevertheless, more research is needed to determine the reliability, validity, and prevalence of this clinically important health problem. PMID:24761279

  20. Caffeine Use Disorder: A Comprehensive Review and Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Steven E; Juliano, Laura M; Hughes, John R; Griffiths, Roland R

    2013-09-01

    Caffeine is the most commonly used drug in the world. Although consumption of low to moderate doses of caffeine is generally safe, an increasing number of clinical studies are showing that some caffeine users become dependent on the drug and are unable to reduce consumption despite knowledge of recurrent health problems associated with continued use. Thus, the World Health Organization and some health care professionals recognize caffeine dependence as a clinical disorder. In this comprehensive literature review, we summarize published research on the biological evidence for caffeine dependence; we provide a systematic review of the prevalence of caffeine dependence and rates of endorsement of clinically meaningful indicators of distress and functional impairment among habitual caffeine users; we discuss the diagnostic criteria for Caffeine Use Disorder-a condition for further study included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5(th) ed.); and we outline a research agenda to help guide future clinical, epidemiological, and genetic investigations of caffeine dependence. Numerous controlled laboratory investigations reviewed in this article show that caffeine produces behavioral and physiological effects similar to other drugs of dependence. Moreover, several recent clinical studies indicate that caffeine dependence is a clinically meaningful disorder that affects a nontrivial proportion of caffeine users. Nevertheless, more research is needed to determine the reliability, validity, and prevalence of this clinically important health problem. PMID:24761279

  1. An epidemiologic review on occupational sleep research among Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yuriko

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiologic sleep research on Japanese workers has been increasing in recent years. It is timely to give an overview of the sleep issues facing the Japanese working population by reviewing the accumulated epidemiological evidence, which will contribute to the promotion of a sound occupational health policy and the development of occupational sleep research in epidemiology. This paper reviews 24 studies, 13 for non-shift and 11 for shift Japanese workers, identified by using MEDLINE and Japan Cetra Revuo Medicina. The results reviewed are as follows: 1) the prevalence of insomnia and other sleep problems is substantially varied, 5 to 45% for non-shift and 29 to 38% for shift workers, 2) poor sleep quality is related to health, occupational activities and personal relations, 3) the risk or associated factors are identified in pathophysiology (e.g., hypertension), lifestyle behaviors (e.g., diet, alcohol, tobacco), job-related conditions (e.g., job stress, social support, job dissatisfaction, workload, shift schedules) and psychopathology (e.g., depressed mood). The methodological limitations found in the studies and the strategies of future epidemiologic sleep research in workers are discussed. PMID:15732297

  2. Comparing Results of Systematic Reviews: Parallel Reviews of Research on Repeated Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Slocum, Timothy A.; Burlingame, Cheryl; Snyder, Katie; Bundock, Kaitlin

    2012-01-01

    Education and related services are relying increasingly on empirically supported treatments (ESTs), which have been shown to improve student outcomes through rigorous research. Many organizations have developed review systems with guidelines for judging the quality of studies and identifying ESTs. However, little explicit attention has been paid…

  3. Research Review: A Critical Review of Studies on the Developmental Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior in Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontaine, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knowledge on the onset and the development of antisocial behavior in females is limited, because most of the research in this domain is based on males. Methods: We critically reviewed 46 empirical studies that examined developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in females, notably to help determine whether or not an…

  4. Indoor Environment Program - 1996 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Indoor Environment Program

    1996-11-01

    The forty-five chemists, physicists, biologists, architects, engineers, staff, and students of the Indoor Environment Program are all working to solve the problems of indoor air quality, health, comfort, and energy use associated with the indoor environment. A common thread throughout this work is the importance of ventilation--both for its role in supporting human health and comfort as well as for its liability in requiring large amounts of energy to heat and cool it. The importance of understanding these interactions can be illustrated by two examples: the health and productivity of workers (Fisk and Rosenfeld, 1996) and the performance of sensitive equipment in clean room environments (Faulkner, et d., 1996). During the past year, we estimated the magnitudes of health and productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments. The ratio of the potential financial benefits of improving indoor environments to the costs of the improvements ranges between 20 and 50. A second example is from our Clean Room Energy Efficiency Study: Clean rooms utilize large amounts of electricity to operate fans that recirculate air at very high flow rates through particle filters. Usually, the fans operate continuously at full speed, even when the clean room is unused. To reduce the energy use in a research clean room, the rate of air recirculation was controlled in response to real-time measurements of particle concentration. With this new control system, fan energy use decreased by 65% to 85% while maintaining particle concentrations below the allowable limits except during occasional one-minute periods. The estimated payback period for this technology is one to four years.

  5. 7 CFR 3400.21 - Scientific peer review for research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Scientific peer review for research activities. 3400... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Peer and Merit Review Arranged by Grantees § 3400.21 Scientific peer review for research activities. Scientific peer review is an evaluation of...

  6. 7 CFR 3400.21 - Scientific peer review for research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scientific peer review for research activities. 3400... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Peer and Merit Review Arranged by Grantees § 3400.21 Scientific peer review for research activities. Scientific peer review is an evaluation of...

  7. 7 CFR 3400.21 - Scientific peer review for research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scientific peer review for research activities. 3400... INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SPECIAL RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Peer and Merit Review Arranged by Grantees § 3400.21 Scientific peer review for research activities. Scientific peer review is an evaluation of...

  8. 40 CFR 26.1601 - EPA review of proposed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA review of proposed human research... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1601 EPA review of proposed human research. (a) EPA shall review all protocols submitted under § 26.1125 in a timely manner....

  9. 40 CFR 26.1601 - EPA review of proposed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA review of proposed human research... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1601 EPA review of proposed human research. (a) EPA shall review all protocols submitted under § 26.1125 in a timely manner....

  10. 40 CFR 26.1603 - EPA review of proposed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA review of proposed human research. 26.1603 Section 26.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1603 EPA review of proposed human research. (a) EPA must review all...

  11. 40 CFR 26.1601 - EPA review of proposed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA review of proposed human research. 26.1601 Section 26.1601 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1601 EPA review of proposed human research. (a) EPA shall review all...

  12. Research-Based Implementation of Peer Instruction: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Vickrey, Trisha; Rosploch, Kaitlyn; Rahmanian, Reihaneh; Pilarz, Matthew; Stains, Marilyne

    2015-01-01

    Current instructional reforms in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses have focused on enhancing adoption of evidence-based instructional practices among STEM faculty members. These practices have been empirically demonstrated to enhance student learning and attitudes. However, research indicates that instructors often adapt rather than adopt practices, unknowingly compromising their effectiveness. Thus, there is a need to raise awareness of the research-based implementation of these practices, develop fidelity of implementation protocols to understand adaptations being made, and ultimately characterize the true impact of reform efforts based on these practices. Peer instruction (PI) is an example of an evidence-based instructional practice that consists of asking students conceptual questions during class time and collecting their answers via clickers or response cards. Extensive research has been conducted by physics and biology education researchers to evaluate the effectiveness of this practice and to better understand the intricacies of its implementation. PI has also been investigated in other disciplines, such as chemistry and computer science. This article reviews and summarizes these various bodies of research and provides instructors and researchers with a research-based model for the effective implementation of PI. Limitations of current studies and recommendations for future empirical inquiries are also provided. PMID:25713095

  13. Indoor Air vs. Indoor Construction: A New Beginning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manicone, Santo

    2000-01-01

    Identifies the steps that can be taken to lessen the impact of indoor air pollution created from indoor renovation projects, including project management tips to help contractors avoid creating unnecessary air pollution. Final comments address air pollution control when installing new furniture, smoking restrictions, occupant relations, and the…

  14. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fifth meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    On June 14--17, 1988 the participants and invited guests of the Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery gathered in Charleston, South Carolina, to review progress on four major black liquor research programs being executed at the Institute of Paper Chemistry, the University of Maine, the National Bureau of Standards, and the University of Florida. These programs include: (1) Black Liquor Properties; (2) Black Liquor Droplet Formation; (3) Black Liquor Nozzle Evaluation; and (4) Black Liquor Combustion. In addition to the objectives of previous meetings, this meeting made a direct attempt to gather ideas on how to improve our ability to move from new technology concepts to commercial implementation. Also attached is the agenda for the Charleston meeting. The first two days were involved with updates and reviews of the four major black liquor programs. A half day was spent discussing pathways to implementation and developing thoughts on what industry, DOE and academia could do to facilitate commercial implementation of the research results. This publication is a summary of the presentations made in Charleston and the industry responses to the research work. Readers are cautioned that the contents are in-progress updates on the status of the research and do not represent referred technical papers. Any questions regarding the content should be referred to the principal investigators of the project.

  15. A review of research in low earth orbit propellant collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Lake A.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.

    2015-05-01

    This comprehensive review examines the efforts of previous researchers to develop concepts for propellant-collecting spacecraft, estimate the performance of these systems, and understand the physics involved. Rocket propulsion requires the spacecraft to expend two fundamental quantities: energy and propellant mass. A growing number of spacecraft collect the energy they need to execute propulsive maneuvers in-situ with solar panels. In contrast, every spacecraft using rocket propulsion has carried all of the propellant mass needed for the mission from the ground, which limits the range and mission capabilities. Numerous researchers have explored the concept of collecting propellant mass while in space. These concepts have varied in scale and complexity from chemical ramjets to fusion-driven interstellar vessels. Research into propellant-collecting concepts occurred in distinct eras. During the Cold War, concepts tended to be large, complex, and nuclear powered. After the Cold War, concepts transitioned to solar power sources and more effort has been devoted to detailed analysis of specific components of the propellant-collecting architecture. By detailing the major contributions and limitations of previous work, this review concisely presents the state-of-the-art and outlines five areas for continued research. These areas include air-compatible cathode technology, techniques to improve propellant utilization on atmospheric species, in-space compressor and liquefaction technology, improved hypersonic and hyperthermal free molecular flow inlet designs, and improved understanding of how design parameters affect system performance.

  16. Language Disorders: A 10-Year Research Update Review

    PubMed Central

    TOPPELBERG, CLAUDIO O.; SHAPIRO, THEODORE

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the past 10 years of research in child language or communication disorders, which are highly prevalent in the general population and comorbid with childhood psychiatric disorders. Method A literature search of 3 major databases was conducted. The child language literature, describing the domains of language development—phonology, grammar, semantics, and pragmatics—is reviewed. Results Disorders of grammar, semantics, and pragmatics, but not phonology, overlap significantly with childhood psychiatric disorders. Receptive language disorders have emerged as high-risk indicators, often undiagnosed. Language disorders and delays are psychiatric risk factors and have implications for evaluation, therapy, and research. However, they are often undiagnosed in child mental health and community settings. The research has focused mostly on monolingual English-speaking children. Conclusion Awareness of basic child language development, delay, and deviance is crucial for the practicing child and adolescent psychiatrist, who must diagnose and refer relevant cases for treatment and remediation. Future research needs to address the growing language diversity of our clinical populations. PMID:10673823

  17. Human Research Program Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woloschak, Gayle; Steinberg-Wright, S.; Coleman, Norman; Grdina, David; Hill, Colin; Iliakis, George; Metting, Noelle; Meyers, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP) met at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on December 9-11, 2009 to discuss the areas of current and future research targeted by the Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE) of the Human Research Program (HRP). Using evidence-based knowledge as a background for identified risks to astronaut health and performance, NASA had identified gaps in knowledge to address those risks. Ongoing and proposed tasks were presented to address the gaps. The charge to the Space Radiation SRP was to review the gaps, evaluate whether the tasks addressed these gaps and to make recommendations to NASA s HRP Science Management Office regarding the SRP's review. The SRP was requested to evaluate the practicality of the proposed efforts in light of the demands placed on the HRP. Several presentations were made to the SRP during the site visit and the SRP spent sufficient time to address the SRP charge. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist, Dr. John B. Charles, on December 11, 2009. The SRP noted that current SRPE strategy is properly science-based and views this as the best assurance of the likelihood that answers to the questions posed as gaps in knowledge can be found, that the uncertainty in risk estimates can be reduced, and that a solid, cost-effective approach to risk reduction solutions is being developed. The current approach of the SRPE, based on the use of carefully focused research solicitations, requiring thorough peer-review and approaches demonstrated to be on the path to answering the NASA strategic questions, addressed to a broad extramural community of qualified scientists, optimally positioned to take advantage of serendipitous discoveries and to leverage scientific advances made elsewhere, is sound and appropriate. The SRP viewed with concern statements by HRP implying that the only science legitimately deserving support should be "applied" or, in some instances that the very term "research" might be

  18. Review of research on child maltreatment and violence in youth.

    PubMed

    Maas, Carl; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Sousa, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses research regarding associations between child maltreatment and youth violence perpetration. The authors explore current findings on the direct effects of child maltreatment on later youth violence and possible gender and ethnic differences. They examine differences in the prediction of adolescent violence as a function of duration and timing of maltreatment. Results provide compelling evidence linking child maltreatment and later youth violence, although some research is inconclusive once demographics and other competing predictors are considered. Overall, physical abuse is perhaps the most consistent predictor of youth violence, patterned by an increased risk for children exposed to severe, compounded maltreatment. However, findings indicate that lesser severe forms of abuse can increase the risk of later violence for some youth. Limitations of current research include relatively few prospective, studies on the abuse-violence link; a general lack of specificity in definitions of key variables; and inconsistency in data analysis methods. PMID:18182631

  19. Ethical Community-Engaged Research: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Bromley, Elizabeth; Khodyakov, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    Health research has relied on ethical principles, such as those of the Belmont Report, to protect the rights and well-being of research participants. Community-based participatory research (CBPR), however, must also consider the rights and well-being of communities. This requires additional ethical considerations that have been extensively discussed but not synthesized in the CBPR literature. We conducted a comprehensive thematic literature review and summarized empirically grounded discussions of ethics in CBPR, with a focus on the value of the Belmont principles in CBPR, additional essential components of ethical CBPR, the ethical challenges CBPR practitioners face, and strategies to ensure that CBPR meets ethical standards. Our study provides a foundation for developing a working definition and a conceptual model of ethical CBPR. PMID:24134352

  20. Evidence-based practice, research, peer review, and publication.

    PubMed

    Gunn, I P

    1998-11-01

    For about a quarter of a century, concerns have been expressed about published biomedical research. It became more acute after some published research and broad dissemination was found fraudulent. With the emphasis now being placed on scientifically validated or evidence-based practice, it has become more imperative that clinical guidelines be based on credible information in our textbooks and research literature. Since the early 1990s, it has been found that much of the research in our electronic databases does not meet quality standards and often is irrelevant, calling into questions problems with peer review, including the selection and publication process of our journals. This column is devoted to calling attention to these problems not only to CRNAs and other researchers, but also to the consumers of research who often use it to make changes in their practice. It also calls attention to the CRNA community about the movement toward calls for greater accountability in practice, both as to quality and cost, from which the movement toward evidence-based practice, the identification and benchmarking of best practices, and the development and implementation of clinical practice guideline has evolved. To feel ownership in anesthesia-related clinical practice guidelines, CRNAs must become involved in their development and implementation. PMID:9866493