Science.gov

Sample records for research subsidy programme

  1. Nutritional impacts of a fruit and vegetable subsidy programme for disadvantaged Australian Aboriginal children.

    PubMed

    Black, Andrew P; Vally, Hassan; Morris, Peter; Daniel, Mark; Esterman, Adrian; Karschimkus, Connie S; O'Dea, Kerin

    2013-12-01

    Healthy food subsidy programmes have not been widely implemented in high-income countries apart from the USA and the UK. There is, however, interest being expressed in the potential of healthy food subsidies to complement nutrition promotion initiatives and reduce the social disparities in healthy eating. Herein, we describe the impact of a fruit and vegetable (F&V) subsidy programme on the nutritional status of a cohort of disadvantaged Aboriginal children living in rural Australia. A before-and-after study was used to assess the nutritional impact in 174 children whose families received weekly boxes of subsidised F&V organised through three Aboriginal medical services. The nutritional impact was assessed by comparing 24 h dietary recalls and plasma carotenoid and vitamin C levels at baseline and after 12 months. A general linear model was used to assess the changes in biomarker levels and dietary intake, controlled for age, sex, community and baseline levels. Baseline assessment in 149 children showed low F&V consumption. Significant increases (P< 0.05) in β-cryptoxanthin (28.9 nmol/l, 18%), vitamin C (10.1 μmol/l, 21%) and lutein-zeaxanthin (39.3 nmol/l, 11%) levels were observed at the 12-month follow-up in 115 children, although the self-reported F&V intake was unchanged. The improvements in the levels of biomarkers of F&V intake demonstrated in the present study are consistent with increased F&V intake. Such dietary improvements, if sustained, could reduce non-communicable disease rates. A controlled study of healthy food subsidies, together with an economic analysis, would facilitate a thorough assessment of the costs and benefits of subsidising healthy foods for disadvantaged Aboriginal Australians. PMID:23742751

  2. Space research programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, Per; Englund, Jan; Norberg, Olle

    2001-08-01

    A major highlight of the Swedish national programme was the launch of the Odin Orbital Observatory in February 2001. The atmospheric profiles measured by Odin will be calibrated with rocket and balloon validation flights during the second half of 2001. A continuation of the satellite programme after Odin depends on the outcome of an ongoing assessment and an additional budget. The future ESA microgravity programme will be of high importance for European and Swedish science and applications using weightless conditions, and for the utilisation of the International Space Station (ISS). It should also make sure that the European independent capability for launching efficient sounding rockets is preserved and developed.

  3. Social representations of drinking water: subsidies for water quality surveillance programmes.

    PubMed

    Carmo, Rose Ferraz; Bevilacqua, Paula Dias; Barletto, Marisa

    2015-09-01

    A qualitative study was developed aimed at understanding the social representations of water consumption by a segment of the population of a small town in Brazil. A total of 19 semi-structured interviews were carried out and subjected to a content analysis addressing opinion on drinking water, characteristics of drinking water and its correlation to health and diseases, criteria for water usage and knowledge on the source and accountability for drinking-water quality. Social representations of drinking water predominantly incorporate the municipal water supply and sanitation provider and its quality. The identification of the municipal water supply provider as alone responsible for maintaining water quality indicated the lack of awareness of any health surveillance programme. For respondents, chlorine was accountable for conferring colour, odour and taste to the water. These physical parameters were reported as the cause for rejecting the water supplied and suggest the need to review the focus of health-educational strategies based on notions of hygiene and water-borne diseases. The study allowed the identification of elements that could contribute to positioning the consumers vs. services relationship on a level playing field, enabling dialogue and exchange of knowledge for the benefit of public health. PMID:26322753

  4. ETV Programmes: Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Sohanvir; Panda, Santosh

    1997-01-01

    Reviews research on educational television (ETV), focusing on teacher and student attitudes; impact on children and teachers and in-service education in media; and utilization. Also reviews a few studies on the impact and utilization of educational radio broadcasts. Draws broad conclusions about the use, design, and learning process of ETV. (PEN)

  5. The research programme of SCAAT.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Odile; Basketter, David

    2004-06-01

    The European Federation of the Cosmetics Industry (COLIPA's) Steering Committee on Alternatives to Animal Testing (SCAAT) is currently focusing its research activity on two areas: skin tolerance and eye irritation. SCAAT has set up two three-year projects on skin sensitisation, one three-year project on skin irritation and one three-year project on eye irritation. The sensitisation projects aim at the standardisation and optimisation of a method involving human dendritic cells and the identification of upregulated genes following exposure of these cells to chemicals. The skin irritation project aims to identify new markers of irritation with the help of genomic and proteomic technologies. These three projects will be carried out by industry. The scope of the eye project is to identify new in vitro endpoints, predictive of the in vivo response to chemical injury. It involves collaboration with ophthalmologists from the Universities of Aachen and Bristol. The team in Aachen will try to identify whether the kinetics and patterns of changes in physiological function and signals of injury released from the cornea in vitro can predict a chemical's potential to damage the eye, with a focus on recovery. All these projects aim at developing and optimising alternative methods for further prevalidation. PMID:23581158

  6. The Swedish Space Research Programme - technical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, Kaj

    2005-08-01

    The Swedish Space Research Programme compries sounding rockets, balloons and satellites. The investigations relate to geophysical disciplines, astrophysics and microgravity research. Current and future scientific projects using sounding rockets, balloons and satellites are planned for investigation of the Earth's atmosphere, the aurora and its origin, submillimeter observations of interstellar medium and fluid physics. These investigations require increased technical capabilities with respect to payload and spacecraft design and ground based equipment.

  7. State Labor Market Research Study: An Econometric Analysis of the Effects of Labor Subsidies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRae, C. Duncan; And Others

    The report describes the construction, application, and theoretical implications of an econometric model depicting the effects of labor subsidies on the supply of workers in the U.S. Three papers deal with the following aspects of constructing the econometric model: (1) examination of equilibrium wages, employment, and earnings of primary and…

  8. Developing Researching Managers and Relevant Research--The "Executive Research Programme"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werr, Andreas; Strannegård, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The current paper argues for bridging the "relevance gap" in management research and education by creating educational programmes that bring together experienced managers and management researchers. In the "Executive Research Programme" discussed in this paper, managers were paired up with researchers to conduct a collaborative…

  9. Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Susan C.; Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.

    2008-01-01

    Background The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. Purpose This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. Brief description The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. Results/outcomes NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. Evaluation method High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training, and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favorable response to the programme. PMID:18494648

  10. Do Employment Subsidies Reduce Early Apprenticeship Dropout?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fries, Jan; Göbel, Christian; Maier, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of the Apprenticeship Bonus, an employment subsidy programme, on early apprenticeship dropout. Eligibility for the programme is restricted to school leavers who have actively looked for an apprenticeship to start immediately after leaving school, but were unsuccessful in finding one. Our analysis is based on rich survey data…

  11. Cold Fronts Research Programme: Progress, Future Plans, and Research Directions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, B. F.; Wilson, K. J.; Garratt, J. R.; Smith, R. K.

    1985-09-01

    Following the analysis of data collected during Phases land II of the Cold Fronts Research Programme (CFRP) a conceptual model for the Australian summertime "cool change" has been proposed. The model provides a focus and a framework for the design of Phase III.The model is based on data gathered from a mesoscale network centered on Mount Gambier, South Australia, and includes the coastal waters to the west and relatively flat terrain to the east. The first objective of Phase III is to generalize the model so that it is applicable to the ocean waters to the far west of Mount Gambier and to the more rugged terrain farther to the east in the vicinity of Melbourne, Victoria. The remaining objectives concentrate on resolving unsatisfactory aspects of the model such as the evolution of convective lines and the relationship between the surface cold front and the upper-tropospheric cold pool and its associated jet stream.The integrated nature of the Cold Fronts Research Programme has meant that it has stimulated a wide range of research activities that extend beyond the field observations. The associated investigations include climatological, theoretical, and numerical modeling studies.

  12. Evaluating commercial weight loss programmes: an evolution in outcomes research.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, M; Greenway, F

    2004-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity has been mirrored by a parallel increase in the number of commercial weight loss programmes. Research evaluating these programmes is meagre, however, compared to the numbers treated. Reluctance of commercial weight loss programmes to meaningfully evaluate their weight loss efficacy may arise from fear that competitors will use the results against them. Evaluation of commercial weight loss programmes usually progresses from testimonials, often by famous people who were successful, to uncontrolled studies of past participants evaluated either by the programme itself or by an outside entity. The gold standard, however, is a scientifically rigorous, controlled study of the programme conducted by an independent entity. Such a study, published in a peer-reviewed journal, can gain credibility for a programme, as it did with Slim Fast, if the results are positive, or herald the end of the programme, as it was with Simeons human chorionic gonadotropin injection clinics. This review of the evolution of the evaluation process of commercial weight loss programmes leads us to conclude that consumers are likely to demand greater scientific rigour in the future, a change that will favour informed choice and discourage the practice of unrealistic advertising that raises false hopes. PMID:15458396

  13. Beyond Constructivism: The Progressive Research Programme into Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, it is suggested that while there are a variety of frames or perspectives that guide research into learning science, a pre-paradigmatic field need not be a "free-for-all". Lakatos suggested that academic research fields were characterised by research programmes (RP), which offered heuristic guidance to researchers, and which…

  14. A Rationale for Mixed Methods (Integrative) Research Programmes in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    Recent research shows that research programmes (quantitative, qualitative and mixed) in education are not displaced (as suggested by Kuhn) but rather lead to integration. The objective of this study is to present a rationale for mixed methods (integrative) research programs based on contemporary philosophy of science (Lakatos, Giere, Cartwright,…

  15. Towards an Ethics of "Research Programmes" in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausstatter, Rune Sarromaa; Connolley, Steven

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the different perspectives and ideologies within the evolving field of special education research. This examination has claimed that Imre Lakatos' notion of "research programmes", which allows for a plurality of directions of research, provides a valuable guide for understanding the development and current…

  16. African Primary Care Research: Performing a programme evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of a series on Primary Care Research in the African context and focuses on programme evaluation. Different types of programme evaluation are outlined: developmental, process, outcome and impact. Eight steps to follow in designing your programme evaluation are then described in some detail: engage stakeholders; establish what is known; describe the programme; define the evaluation and select a study design; define the indicators; plan and manage data collection and analysis; make judgements and recommendations; and disseminate the findings. Other articles in the series cover related topics such as writing your research proposal, performing a literature review, conducting surveys with questionnaires, qualitative interviewing and approaches to quantitative and qualitative data analysis. PMID:26245440

  17. Mentoring health researchers globally: Diverse experiences, programmes, challenges and responses.

    PubMed

    Cole, Donald C; Johnson, Nancy; Mejia, Raul; McCullough, Hazel; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Barnoya, Joaquin; Falabella Luco, María Soledad

    2016-10-01

    Mentoring experiences and programmes are becoming increasingly recognised as important by those engaged in capacity strengthening in global health research. Using a primarily qualitative study design, we studied three experiences of mentorship and eight mentorship programmes for early career global health researchers based in high-income and low- and middle-income countries. For the latter, we drew upon programme materials, existing unpublished data and more formal mixed-method evaluations, supplemented by individual email questionnaire responses. Research team members wrote stories, and the team assembled and analysed them for key themes. Across the diverse experiences and programmes, key emergent themes included: great mentors inspire others in an inter-generational cascade, mentorship is transformative in personal and professional development and involves reciprocity, and finding the right balance in mentoring relationships and programmes includes responding creatively to failure. Among the challenges encountered were: struggling for more level playing fields for new health researchers globally, changing mindsets in institutions that do not have a culture of mentorship and building collaboration not competition. Mentoring networks spanning institutions and countries using multiple virtual and face-to-face methods are a potential avenue for fostering organisational cultures supporting quality mentorship in global health research. PMID:26234691

  18. Next Steps in Implementing Kaput's Research Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyles, Celia; Noss, Richard

    2008-01-01

    We explore some key constructs and research themes initiated by Jim Kaput, and attempt to illuminate them further with reference to our own research. These "design principles" focus on the evolution of digital representations since the early 1990s, and we attempt to take forward our collective understanding of the cognitive and cultural…

  19. Research needs in HLW disposal programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Hadermann, J.; McCombie, C.

    1993-12-31

    A repository for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) will not be in operation in Switzerland (or elsewhere) before the turn of the century. However, extensive investigations for disposal in specific regions or sites are ongoing and formal safety analyses have been performed in many countries. Broadly speaking, these analyses show the feasibility of the chosen options for deep geological disposal. At the present stage, before a licensing application, performance assessments have another important application: to identify further needs to improve system understanding, and to guide the necessary research activities. Performance assessments are thus indispensable tools for focussing in on research requirements and discriminating between necessary, and merely desirable or interesting, research projects. Based on experience from assessments of HLW disposal in the crystalline of Northern Switzerland (Project Gewaehr, KRISTALLIN-I) we consider in detail the chain of models resulting from a scenario analysis. For each model block (e.g., engineered barrier performance, hydrology, radionuclide transport), the adequacy of understanding is addressed and the necessary research needs pointed out. These needs cover a wide span, from a requirement for more reliable input numbers (example: long-term corrosion rate of glass) to a better understanding of important features (example: excavation-damaged-zone) and key mechanisms (example: sorption).

  20. Teaching, Researching and Innovation: An Appetising Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notten, Ton

    2016-01-01

    This article is a follow-up to, or even a sharpening of, a presentation I offered, three years ago, in this journal "TPA," about the closely related research-and-innovation-enrichment of the profession of mid-career students within their two-year part-time master's course. I wrote then about my 12 years of experience at the Urban…

  1. Towards a Lakatosian Programme of Research into Concept Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, John; Swift, David

    Although the ideas of Jean Piaget still dominate the field of science education, the range and severity of criticisms has increased progressively. In recent years, the emergence of a different theory of cognitive development has begun. This paper tentatively outlines a Lakatosian Research Programme for the alternative conceptions field. The…

  2. Interdisciplinary field training research and rural development programme.

    PubMed

    Hamad, B

    1982-03-01

    The programme outlined is an interdisciplinary activity involving students working as groups in villages. It runs through the educational programme in summer blocks of 6 weeks each. It blends medical education with rural development and it is hoped to develop in students team-work and community orientation as well as research skills. The purpose of the communication is to exchange ideas in this field and hopefully receive some comments and views from readers and at the same time pave the way for support, financial or otherwise. PMID:7070311

  3. Sports Subsidies Soar. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toma, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Doug Lederman's article, "Sports Subsidies Soar," discusses the issue on institutional subsidies for sports program. His article invites an obvious question: why are so many universities willing to subsidize athletics through either a direct transfer of institutional funds, assessing a dedicated student fee, or a combination of these? This…

  4. Economic Evaluation of Immunisation Programme of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine and the Inclusion of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in the List for Single-Dose Subsidy to the Elderly in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, Shu-ling; Kondo, Masahide; Okubo, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently in Japan, both 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV–23) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV–13) are available for the elderly for the prevention of S. pneumoniae-related diseases. PPSV–23 was approved in 1988, while the extended use of PCV–13 was approved for adults aged 65 and older in June 2014. Despite these two vaccines being available, the recently launched national immunisation programme for the elderly only subsidised PPSV–23. The framework of the current immunisation programme lasts for five years. The elderly population eligible for the subsidised PPSV–23 shot for the 1st year are those aged 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and ≥100. While from the 2nd year to the 5th year, those who will age 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100 will receive the same subsidised shot. Methods We performed economic evaluations to (1) evaluate the efficiency of alternative strategies of PPSV–23 single-dose immunisation programme, and (2) investigate the efficiency of PCV–13 inclusion in the list for single-dose pneumococcal vaccine immunisation programme. Three alternative strategies were created in this study, namely: (1) current PPSV–23 strategy, (2) 65 to 80 (as “65–80 PPSV–23 strategy”), and (3) 65 and older (as “≥65 PPSV–23 strategy”). We constructed a Markov model depicting the S. pneumoniae-related disease course pathways. The transition probabilities, utility weights to estimate quality adjusted life year (QALY) and disease treatment costs were either calculated or cited from literature. Cost of per shot of vaccine was ¥8,116 (US$74; US$1 = ¥110) for PPSV–23 and ¥10,776 (US$98) for PCV–13. The model runs for 15 years with one year cycle after immunisation. Discounting was at 3%. Results Compared to current PPSV–23 strategy, 65–80 PPSV–23 strategy cost less but gained less, while the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of ≥65 PPSV–23 strategy was ¥5,025,000 (US$45

  5. Researching the Impact of Teacher Professional Development Programmes Based on Action Research, Constructivism, and Systems Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehetmeier, Stefan; Andreitz, Irina; Erlacher, Willibald; Rauch, Franz

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the topic of professional development programmes' impact. Concepts and ideas of action research, constructivism, and systems theory are used as a theoretical framework and are combined to describe and analyse an exemplary professional development programme in Austria. Empirical findings from both quantitative and qualitative…

  6. Building capacity for sustainable research programmes for cancer in Africa.

    PubMed

    Adewole, Isaac; Martin, Damali N; Williams, Makeda J; Adebamowo, Clement; Bhatia, Kishor; Berling, Christine; Casper, Corey; Elshamy, Karima; Elzawawy, Ahmed; Lawlor, Rita T; Legood, Rosa; Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Odedina, Folakemi T; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Olopade, Christopher O; Parkin, Donald M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Ross, Hana; Santini, Luiz A; Torode, Julie; Trimble, Edward L; Wild, Christopher P; Young, Annie M; Kerr, David J

    2014-05-01

    Cancer research in Africa will have a pivotal role in cancer control planning in this continent. However, environments (such as those in academic or clinical settings) with limited research infrastructure (laboratories, biorespositories, databases) coupled with inadequate funding and other resources have hampered African scientists from carrying out rigorous research. In September 2012, over 100 scientists with expertise in cancer research in Africa met in London to discuss the challenges in performing high-quality research, and to formulate the next steps for building sustainable, comprehensive and multi-disciplinary programmes relevant to Africa. This was the first meeting among five major organizations: the African Organisation for Research and Training in Africa (AORTIC), the Africa Oxford Cancer Foundation (AfrOx), and the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) of Brazil, France and the USA. This article summarizes the discussions and recommendations of this meeting, including the next steps required to create sustainable and impactful research programmes that will enable evidenced-based cancer control approaches and planning at the local, regional and national levels. PMID:24614139

  7. Building capacity for sustainable research programmes for cancer in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Adewole, Isaac; Martin, Damali N.; Williams, Makeda J.; Adebamowo, Clement; Bhatia, Kishor; Berling, Christine; Casper, Corey; Elshamy, Karima; Elzawawy, Ahmed; Lawlor, Rita T.; Legood, Rosa; Mbulaiteye, Sam M.; Odedina, Folakemi T.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Olopade, Christopher O.; Parkin, Donald M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Ross, Hana; Santini, Luiz A.; Torode, Julie; Trimble, Edward L.; Wild, Christopher P.; Young, Annie M.; Kerr, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer research in Africa will have a pivotal role in cancer control planning in this continent. However, environments (such as those in academic or clinical settings) with limited research infrastructure (laboratories, biorespositories, databases) coupled with inadequate funding and other resources have hampered African scientists from carrying out rigorous research. In September 2012, over 100 scientists with expertise in cancer research in Africa met in London to discuss the challenges in performing high-quality research, and to formulate the next steps for building sustainable, comprehensive and multi-disciplinary programmes relevant to Africa. This was the first meeting among five major organizations: the African Organisation for Research and Training in Africa (AORTIC), the Africa Oxford Cancer Foundation (AfrOx), and the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) of Brazil, France and the USA. This article summarizes the discussions and recommendations of this meeting, including the next steps required to create sustainable and impactful research programmes that will enable evidenced-based cancer control approaches and planning at the local, regional and national levels. PMID:24614139

  8. Can We Trust Parental Reports of Child Care Subsidy Receipt?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Anna D.; Herbst, Chris M.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, research examining determinants and consequences of the means-tested child care subsidy program (the Child Care and Development Fund [CCDF]) has grown dramatically. To measure subsidy utilization, existing studies typically rely on parent-reported measures of subsidy receipt drawn from large surveys. As the research literature on child care subsidies has grown, however, so have concerns about the trustworthiness of parent-reported subsidy use. One way to assess the quality of parent-reported subsidy use is to examine its overlap with another subsidy receipt measure, drawn from a different source. The current paper uses the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS), the only existing survey data source that contains an alternate measure of subsidy receipt – based on child care provider report – which permits a comparison to parent-reported measures. We find evidence that increases our confidence in the trustworthiness of parents as accurate reporters of subsidy receipt. In recognition that neither data source reflects “true” subsidy receipt, however, we conclude with a discussion of limitations and steps for future research. PMID:23750065

  9. Building Digital Economy - The Research Councils Programme and the Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, John

    We at the Research Councils believe that there are many aspects of society and business that could be transformed by the innovative design and use of digital technologies. This has led to the Digital Economy Programme. The Digital Economy is an RCUK Cross-Research Council Programme, led by the EPSRC, but working closely with ESRC, MRC, AHRC and TSB. What is Digital Economy? Digital Economy is the novel design or use of information and communication technology to help transform the lives of individuals, society or business. All Digital Economy research involves the user community. This can include industry, government, society, charities or other groups as applicable. The research will understand the technologies and also why change is needed, what the impacts will be and who will benefit. Research in this cross-research council area can be driven by economic, social or technical need. The early involvement of the user community is vital if new technologies are to be integrated successfully into business opportunities, technical solutions or commercial products and processes. Challenges in the Digital Economy will require multi-disciplinary academic input, including, but not limited to, the arts and humanities, economic and social sciences and medical sciences, in addition to engineering and physical sciences.

  10. Towards a European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network: the ECRIN programme.

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the interconnection of national networks of clinical research centres (CRCs) and clinical trials units (CTUs), the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) programme aims to develop an infrastructure allowing for bottom-up harmonisation of the support and training for, and practice of, clinical research, and to provide public sponsors for biotechnology small and medium-sized companies (SMEs) with support for translational research and multicentre clinical studies in Europe. This will be achieved through an application to the next FP6 'Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives' call. However, prior work is required to improve the reciprocal knowledge of partners in the ECRIN consortium and, as a first step, country-specific workshops will be organised by national networks in order to address the organisation of CRC/CTUs and national networks, and their interaction with the national environment of clinical research; this will enable in-depth discussion addressing the bottlenecks hampering transnational studies. PMID:15199684

  11. Researcher Development: The Impact of Undergraduate Research Opportunity Programmes on Students in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Joanna; Creighton, John

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate research opportunity programmes (UROP) are common in North America where research has confirmed their benefits. These schemes are gaining ground in the UK, and this article provides evidence for how UK students are benefiting from the experience. Results suggest UROP makes a significant contribution to the research capabilities and…

  12. Improving Physics Teaching through Action Research: The Impact of a Nationwide Professional Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Marcus; Rietdijk, Willeke; Garrett, Caro; Griffiths, Janice

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an independent evaluation of the Action Research for Physics (ARP) programme, a nationwide professional development programme which trains teachers to use action research to increase student interest in physics and encourage them to take post-compulsory physics. The impact of the programme was explored from the perspective of…

  13. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  14. Programmable multi-zone furnace for microgravity research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Krolikowski, Cathryn R.

    1991-01-01

    In order to provide new furnace technology to accommodate microgravity research studies and commercial applications in material processes, research has been initiated on the development of the Programmable-Multi-zone Furnace (PMZF). The PMZF is described as a multi-user materials processing furnace facility that is composed of thirty or more heater elements in series on a muffle tube or in a stacked ring-type configuration and independently controlled by a computer. One of the aims of the PMZF project is to allow furnace thermal gradient profiles to be reconfigured without physical modification of the hardware by creating the capability of reconfiguring thermal profiles in response to investigators' requests. The future location of the PMZF facility is discussed; the preliminary science survey results and preliminary conceptual designs for the PMZF are presented; and a review of multi-zone furnace technology is given.

  15. Establishing the European Research Area in Ageing: a network of national research programmes.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Gerda

    2005-10-01

    The following paper gives a summary of the European Commission's research policy with regard to the ERA-NET scheme and especially with regard to the ERA-AGE project that was launched in March 2004. All the partner institutions in the ERA-AGE project are main national funding agencies, research councils or ministries. Some selected examples of programme funding by the partner institutions may demonstrate their different ways of funding research and show the great variety of programmes. The long-term objective of the ERA-AGE project is to create a sustainable basis for the planning, implementation and exploitation of transnational research. In future, the European Research Area in Ageing could gain an added value from research investments by integrating existing funding mechanisms and research infrastructures, by commonly deciding on research priorities for funding activities in order to reduce fragmentation and duplication, and by the recruitment of young researchers. PMID:16154308

  16. Environmental harm of hidden subsidies: global warming and acidification.

    PubMed

    van Beers, Cees; van den Bergh, Jeroen C J M

    2009-09-01

    We investigate environmental impacts of off-budget or indirect subsidies, which, unlike on-budget subsidies, are not visible in government budgets. Such subsidies have received little attention in economic and environmental research, even though they may be at least as important from an environmental perspective as on-budget subsidies. We offer a typology of indirect subsidies. Next, we estimate the magnitude of these subsidies and their impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) and acidifying emissions for the agriculture, energy, and transport sectors in The Netherlands. The calculations are based on a model approach that translates a particular subsidy into price and quantity changes using empirical elasticities, followed by environmental effect estimates using pollution-intensity parameters. The various environmental pollution effects are aggregated into environmental indicators. The results show, among others, that GHG emissions caused by off-budget subsidies contribute to more than 30% of the policy targets specified by the Kyoto Protocol for CO2 emissions reduction by The Netherlands. Reforming or removing off-budget subsidies may thus be an important strategy of effective climate policy. PMID:19860158

  17. Using Action Research to Improve Student Engagement in a Peer-Assisted Learning Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Yvonne; Benson, Robyn; Brack, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of students learning together in peer-assisted learning (PAL) programmes have been widely reported. Implementing and evaluating PAL programmes provide specific challenges for academic staff. This paper explains how action research was used to design, trial and refine a same-year PAL programme to enhance student engagement. The PAL…

  18. [PRIER II. The Emilia-Romagna Research and Innovation Programme].

    PubMed

    Addis, Antonio; Papini, Donato; Bassi, Maria Chiara; Grilli, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The Emilia-Romagna Programme for Research and Innovation "PRIER" was born in 2005 with the aim of increasing cultural and operational conditions for the development of clinical research, useful both to the Regional Health Service (SSR) and to the private sectors of pharmaceutical and biomedical areas. In this context, the PRIER had from the beginning a double connotation: a space where the SSR can explore issues related to the development of its own research capacity; and a context where new possible ways of relating and comparison with the pharmaceutical and biomedical industry are tested. Over the years the activities of PRIER were defined by: initiatives to strengthen the system of research in SSR; development of tools to monitor activities of the research; production of clinical-organizational recommendations for the governance of innovation. In 2013 a new area of discussion and a common interest have been identified on the subject of clinical registries. In particular, it wanted to build a path of work able to identify all the possible critical and relevant points (points to consider), indispensable, necessary or useful to the construction and use of clinical registries, taking into account the points of view of all actors involved. The course began with defining the rules of the game and continued with workshops that allowed to analyse together the matter. At the end of the second workshop it was decided to make the work carried out visible: first, not to miss the opportunity offered by the past but recent discussion; secondly, to facilitate the discussion both on the issue of registers and to the adopted methodology, which sees the different actors (public and private ones) to reason together in a context for once not influenced by necessities of negotiation and government resources. PMID:26418502

  19. Insider Research as Part of a Master's Programme: Opportunities Lost and Found within Action Learning Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milano, Chloe; Lawless, Aileen; Eades, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    This account explores the role of action learning during and after an educational programme. We focus on the final stage of a master's programme and the insider research that is a key feature in many UK universities. Researching within one's own organization should lead to individual and organizational learning. However, there is relatively little…

  20. 19 CFR 351.514 - Export subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export subsidies. 351.514 Section 351.514 Customs... Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.514 Export subsidies. (a) In general. The Secretary will consider a subsidy to be an export subsidy if the Secretary determines that eligibility...

  1. The NIHR Public Health Research Programme: responding to local authority research needs in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Dorling, Hannah; Cook, Andrew; Ollerhead, Liz; Westmore, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The remit of the National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research (PHR) Programme is to evaluate public health interventions, providing new knowledge on the benefits, costs, acceptability and wider impacts of interventions, set outside of the National Health Service, intended to improve the health of the public and reduce inequalities. This paper illustrates how the PHR Programme is providing new knowledge for public health decision makers, based on the nine key areas for local authority public health action, described by the King's Fund. Many funded PHR projects are evaluating interventions, applied in a range of settings, across the identified key areas for local authority influence. For example, research has been funded on children and young people, and for some of the wider determinants of health, such as housing and travel. Other factors, such as spatial planning, or open and green spaces and leisure, are less represented in the PHR Programme. Further opportunities in research include interventions to improve the health of adolescents, adults in workplaces, and communities. Building evidence for public health interventions at local authority level is important to prioritise and implement effective changes to improve population health. PMID:26652743

  2. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Riono, Pandu; Mustikawati, Dyah; Tiemersma, Edine W; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition that operational research (OR) should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB) control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme. PMID:25361728

  3. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Riono, Pandu; Mustikawati, Dyah; Tiemersma, Edine W.; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition that operational research (OR) should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB) control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme. PMID:25361728

  4. The Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative for public health programmes.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, A; Harries, A D; Zachariah, R; Bissell, K; Hinderaker, S G; Edginton, M; Enarson, D A; Satyanarayana, S; Kumar, A M V; Hoa, N B; Tweya, H; Reid, A J; Van den Bergh, R; Tayler-Smith, K; Manzi, M; Khogali, M; Kizito, W; Ali, E; Delaunois, P; Reeder, J C

    2014-06-21

    In 2009, the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) and Médecins sans Frontières Brussels-Luxembourg (MSF) began developing an outcome-oriented model for operational research training. In January 2013, The Union and MSF joined with the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) at the World Health Organization (WHO) to form an initiative called the Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT). This integrates the training of public health programme staff with the conduct of operational research prioritised by their programme. SORT IT programmes consist of three one-week workshops over 9 months, with clearly-defined milestones and expected output. This paper describes the vision, objectives and structure of SORT IT programmes, including selection criteria for applicants, the research projects that can be undertaken within the time frame, the programme structure and milestones, mentorship, the monitoring and evaluation of the programmes and what happens beyond the programme in terms of further research, publications and the setting up of additional training programmes. There is a growing national and international need for operational research and related capacity building in public health. SORT IT aims to meet this need by advocating for the output-based model of operational research training for public health programme staff described here. It also aims to secure sustainable funding to expand training at a global and national level. Finally, it could act as an observatory to monitor and evaluate operational research in public health. Criteria for prospective partners wishing to join SORT IT have been drawn up. PMID:26399203

  5. A Quiet Revolution; Probation Subsidy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.

    This report provides a detailed account of California's probation subsidy program. Designed to reduce the county probation department's rate of commitment to state correctional agencies, the subsidy program offers the county a financial reward commensurate with the degree of reduction, an application of behavior modification and learning theory to…

  6. Review of Massachusetts Child Care Subsidy Eligibility Policies and Practices: A Report for the Assessment of the Massachusetts Subsidized Child Care System. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gina; Katz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from a review of Massachusetts' child care subsidy eligibility policies and implementation practices. The review included interviews and focus groups with approximately 60 experts and stakeholders with a broad range of perspectives on the system. It identifies several important issues that, if addressed, could…

  7. Stability of Subsidy Participation and Continuity of Care in the Child Care Assistance Program in Minnesota. Minnesota Child Care Choices Research Brief Series. Publication #2014-55

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth E.; Krafft, Caroline; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    The Minnesota Child Care Assistance Program (CCAP) provides subsidies to help low-income families pay for child care while parents are working, looking for work, or attending school. The program can help make quality child care affordable and is intended both to support employment for low-income families and to support the development and…

  8. The Incredible Years Parent Training Programme in Tauranga: A Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Michelle; Litterick-Biggs, Angela

    2008-01-01

    The Incredible Years parent training programme is a research-based therapy which aims to help families improve the behaviour of children with conduct difficulties in the early years, while the behaviour is malleable (Webster-Stratton & Reid, 2003). The short-term goals of the programme are to reduce conduct problems in children by increasing…

  9. Taking the Next Step: Connecting Teacher Education, Research on Teaching, and Programme Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Michael W.; Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma

    2008-01-01

    We cite four disconnections among teacher education programmes, research on teaching, and programme assessment that contribute to a paucity of systematically collected evidence and the inability of teacher educators to fully address the "outcomes question" [Cochran-Smith, M. (2003). Assessing assessment in teacher education. "Journal of Teacher…

  10. A Framework for Designing a Research-Based "Maths Counsellor" Teacher Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas; Niss, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses one way in which decades of mathematics education research results can inform practice, by offering a framework for designing and implementing an in-service teacher education programme for upper secondary mathematics teachers in Denmark. The programme aims to educate a "task force" of so-called "maths…

  11. Adapted Action Research as an Instructional Strategy in a Music Teacher Education Programme in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Marina W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how adapted action research could act as a catalyst for change in curriculum development and be used as an instructional strategy in a music teacher education programme to enhance the reflective practice of student-teachers. Two cases of in-service, part-time student-teachers of a music teacher programme who conducted an…

  12. The research and applications of programmable analog device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Qiudi; Yang, Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the inner structure principle and signal adjusting applications of programmable analogy device ispPAC which was manufactured by Lattice semiconductor company.It expounds the chip functions of agility,diverse amplification,smoothing and deamplification at length and discusses the design method of every function.

  13. St George's University's Medical Student Research Institute: A Novel, Virtual Programme for Medical Research Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, RS; Klaassen, Z; Meadows, MC; Weitzman, S; Loukas, M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Medical student research involvement has evolved to be a core component of medical education and is becoming increasingly vital to success in the United States residency match. We sought to develop a research website allowing students and research faculty to collaborate and complete projects online. Methods: The Medical Student Research Institute (MSRI) was developed by the St George's University School of Medicine in 2009 to encourage, support, facilitate and centralize medical student research. Results: There are 63 active students in the MSRI (22 students in basic science and 41 students in clinical rotations). The mean GPA for basic science student members was 3.81 ± 0.27 and was 3.80 ± 0.20 for clinical student members. The mean United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 score was 241.6 ± 17.5. Since 2009, MSRI students have published 87 manuscripts in 33 different journals and have presented at 14 different national and international conferences. Conclusion: A web-based MSRI provides a virtual, entirely online resource for coordinating remote research collaboration between medical students and faculty whose opportunities would be otherwise limited. Initial experiences with the programme have been positive and the framework and concept of the MSRI provides a platform for university and medical schools to provide research opportunities to students who may not have face-to-face access to research faculty. PMID:25303200

  14. The ING Studentship, INT Support, and Research Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaduvescu, O.; Dominguez Palmero, L.; Benn, C.

    2014-07-01

    For more than a decade, the ING studentship programme has offered European astronomy students an opportunity to train as observers on a medium-sized ground-based optical telescope, namely the renowned 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) run by the Isaac Newton Group (ING, a UK-SP-NL institution) on the beautiful Spanish island of La Palma in the Canary Islands! Practical training of the European students and hopefully future astronomers is essential in the era of very large telescopes and their queue-scheduled observing, which limits direct access to the observatories by young astronomers. Each year, the ING therefore offers 4--5 talented astronomy students the opportunity to spend one year working as support astronomers at the INT (setting up the instruments, helping visiting observers, and observing few INT discretionary nights) and working with ING staff on technical and science projects. High above the clouds at 2400 m, on the edge of the gorgeous Caldera de Taburiente of La Palma, stands the ''Roque de Los Muchachos'' Observatory (ORM) of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), part of the European Northern Observatory (ENO). Year after year, our studentship programme contributes to a better prepared future generation of astronomers. In this poster, we present some recent technical and science achievements of our past ING students, encouraging talented students to apply in the future (announced in February--March via the ING website http://www.ing.iac.es/astronomy/science/studentship.html).

  15. Measuring interdisciplinary research and education outcomes in the Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Gemma; Loucks, Daniel Pete; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Bucher, Christian; Farnleitner, Andreas; Fürnkranz-Prskawetz, Alexia; Parajka, Juraj; Pfeifer, Norbert; Rechberger, Helmut; Wagner, Wolfgang; Zessner, Matthias; Blöschl, Günter

    2015-04-01

    The interdisciplinary postgraduate research and education programme - the Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems - was initiated in 2009. To date, 35 research students, three post-docs and ten faculty members have been engaged in the Programme, from ten research fields (aquatic microbiology, hydrology, hydro-climatology, hydro-geology, mathematical economics, photogrammetry, remote sensing, resource management, structural mechanics, and water quality). The Programme aims to develop research students with the capacity to work across the disciplines, to conduct cutting edge research and foster an international perspective. To do this, a variety of mechanisms are adopted that include research cluster groups, joint study sites, joint supervision, a basic study programme and a research semester abroad. The Programme offers a unique case study to explore if and how these mechanisms lead to research and education outcomes. Outcomes are grouped according to whether they are tangible (publications with co-authors from more than one research field, analysis of graduate profiles and career destinations) or non-tangible (interaction between researchers, networks and trust). A mixed methods approach that includes bibliometric analysis combined with interviews with students is applied. Bibliometric analysis shows that as the Programme has evolved the amount of multi-disciplinary work has increased (32% of the 203 full papers produced by the programme's researchers have authors from more than one research field). Network analysis to explore which research fields collaborate most frequently show that hydrology plays a significant role and has collaborated with seven of the ten research fields. Hydrology researchers seem to interact the most strongly with other research fields as they contribute understanding on water system processes. Network analysis to explore which individuals collaborate shows that much joint work takes place through the five research cluster

  16. Resource subsidies between stream and terrestrial ecosystems under global change.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Stefano; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D; Marti, Eugenia

    2016-07-01

    Streams and adjacent terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by permeable boundaries that are crossed by resource subsidies. Although the importance of these subsidies for riverine ecosystems is increasingly recognized, little is known about how they may be influenced by global environmental change. Drawing from available evidence, in this review we propose a conceptual framework to evaluate the effects of global change on the quality and spatiotemporal dynamics of stream-terrestrial subsidies. We illustrate how changes to hydrological and temperature regimes, atmospheric CO2 concentration, land use and the distribution of nonindigenous species can influence subsidy fluxes by affecting the biology and ecology of donor and recipient systems and the physical characteristics of stream-riparian boundaries. Climate-driven changes in the physiology and phenology of organisms with complex life cycles will influence their development time, body size and emergence patterns, with consequences for adjacent terrestrial consumers. Also, novel species interactions can modify subsidy dynamics via complex bottom-up and top-down effects. Given the seasonality and pulsed nature of subsidies, alterations of the temporal and spatial synchrony of resource availability to consumers across ecosystems are likely to result in ecological mismatches that can scale up from individual responses, to communities, to ecosystems. Similarly, altered hydrology, temperature, CO2 concentration and land use will modify the recruitment and quality of riparian vegetation, the timing of leaf abscission and the establishment of invasive riparian species. Along with morphological changes to stream-terrestrial boundaries, these will alter the use and fluxes of allochthonous subsidies associated with stream ecosystems. Future research should aim to understand how subsidy dynamics will be affected by key drivers of global change, including agricultural intensification, increasing water use and biotic

  17. Representing Children: Reflections on the Children 5-16 Programme. Research Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prout, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Reflects on idea of representing children politically and socially or culturally, drawing on themes emerging from the United Kingdom's ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council) Children 5-16 Programme, a research initiative focusing on children as social actors. Explores children as research subjects, documentation of "children's standpoint,"…

  18. How Europe Shapes Academic Research: Insights from Participation in European Union Framework Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primeri, Emilia; Reale, Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the effects of participating in European Union Framework Programmes (EUFPs) at the level of research units and researchers. We consider EUFPs as policy instruments that contribute to the Europeanisation of academic research and study the changes they produce with respect to: 1) the organisation and activities of Departments,…

  19. Studying large-scale programmes to improve patient safety in whole care systems: challenges for research.

    PubMed

    Benn, Jonathan; Burnett, Susan; Parand, Anam; Pinto, Anna; Iskander, Sandra; Vincent, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Large-scale national and multi-institutional patient safety improvement programmes are being developed in the health care systems of several countries to address problems in the reliability of care delivered to patients. Drawing upon popular collaborative improvement models, these campaigns are ambitious in their aims to improve patient safety in macro-level systems such as whole health care organisations. This article considers the methodological issues involved in conducting research and evaluation of these programmes. Several specific research challenges are outlined, which result from the complexity of longitudinal, multi-level intervention programmes and the variable, highly sociotechnical care systems, with which they interact. Organisational-level improvement programmes are often underspecified due to local variations in context and organisational readiness for improvement work. The result is variable implementation patterns and local adaptations. Programme effects span levels and other boundaries within a system, vary dynamically or are cumulative over time and are problematic to understand in terms of cause and effect, where concurrent external influences exist and the impact upon study endpoints may be mediated by a range of organisational and social factors. We outline the methodological approach to research in the United Kingdom Safer Patients Initiative, to exemplify how some of the challenges for research in this area can be met through a multi-method, longitudinal research design. Specifically, effective research designs must be sensitive to complex variation, through employing multiple qualitative and quantitative measures, collect data over time to understand change and utilise descriptive techniques to capture specific interactions between programme and context for implementation. When considering the long-term, sustained impact of an improvement programme, researchers must consider how to define and measure the capability for continuous safe and

  20. Open Virtual Worlds as Pedagogical Research Tools: Learning from the Schome Park Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twining, Peter; Peachey, Anna

    This paper introduces the term Open Virtual Worlds and argues that they are ‘unclaimed educational spaces’, which provide a valuable tool for researching pedagogy. Having explored these claims the way in which Teen Second Life® virtual world was used for pedagogical experimentation in the initial phases of the Schome Park Programme is described. Four sets of pedagogical dimensions that emerged are presented and illustrated with examples from the Schome Park Programme.

  1. Integrating research into policy and programmes. Examples from the Jamaican experience.

    PubMed

    Ashley, D E; McCaw-Binns, A

    2008-12-01

    Research into selected health problems across the life cycle are discussed with respect to the application and impact of the findings on policy, programme development and health outcomes. Special emphasis is placed on health research that focussed on the perinatal period, the young child and adolescent, the epidemics of chronic diseases and violence and the linkage between health and tourism. The lessons learnt over more than two decades of practice in the field of public health from conducting research aimed at developing an indigenous evidence base for policies and programmes in Jamaica are summarized. PMID:19580237

  2. World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Open Science Conference Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Amy Honchar

    2012-11-07

    Travel support was provided for a range of invited speakers, students, early-career, and developing-country, and key scientists who required financial assistance to participate, and would otherwise be unable to attend, to contribute to, and benefit from, this important event. This support also allowed participants to present their research findings, provide input to WCRP planning and plans, and encourage collaboration with other research scientists. In particular, the participation and engagement of regional scientists in the OSC helped to ensure communication and advocacy in identifying the climate research needs of the region and their inclusion in the WCRP long-range research priorities.

  3. Increasing Capacity in STEM Education Research: A Study Exploring the Potential for a Fellowship Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsey, Karen; Harland, Jennie; Springate, Iain

    2007-01-01

    The National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) was commissioned by the Royal Society to complete a study exploring the potential of a Fellowship programme for early- to mid-career education researchers in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics). The study was set within the broader context of increasing capacity in STEM …

  4. Leveraging the Relationship: Knowledge Processes in School-University Research Networks of Master's Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelissen, Frank; Daly, Alan J.; Liou, Yi-Hwa; Van Swet, Jacqueline; Beijaard, Douwe; Bergen, Theo C. M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the way developing, sharing and using of research-based knowledge occurred in the school-university research network of a master's programme for in-service teachers in the Netherlands. Over a 10-month period, a combination of quantitative and qualitative network data was collected. Data were analysed at three network…

  5. What Can the Work of Habermas Offer Educational Researcher Development Programmes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although certain aspects of the work of Habermas have had much influence on emancipatory and action research, this article draws on a wider range of his thinking in order to explore how his ideas can inform the content and process of educational researcher development programmes. Habermas's theory of communicative action, his discourse ethics…

  6. Studying Child Care Subsidies with Secondary Data Sources. Methodological Brief OPRE 2012-54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Yoonsook; Johnson, Anna D.

    2012-01-01

    This brief describes four national surveys with data relevant to subsidy-related research and provides a useful set of considerations for subsidy researchers considering use of secondary data. Specifically, this brief describes each of the four datasets reviewed, highlighting unique features of each dataset and providing information on the survey…

  7. Socioeconomic inequalities in health in The Netherlands: impact of a five year research programme.

    PubMed Central

    Mackenbach, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The attention paid to the socioeconomic inequalities in health in the Netherlands has increased greatly in recent years. A national research programme was started in 1989, and among other things, this has increased the yearly number of publications on socioeconomic inequalities in health by about 25%. The programme has increased awareness of inequalities among researchers and policy makers as well as improved the information available on health inequalities and the reasons for them. Cross party agreement on the need to reduce these inequalities has led to a consensus based approach which contrasts with the heavily politicised debate in countries such as the United Kingdom. PMID:7804057

  8. Increasing Capacity in STEM Education Research: A Study Exploring the Potential for a Fellowship Programme. Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsey, Karen; Harland, Jennie; Springate, Iain

    2007-01-01

    The National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) was commissioned by the Royal Society to complete a study exploring the potential of a Fellowship programme for early- to mid-career education researchers in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics). The study was set within the broader context of increasing capacity in STEM…

  9. Perspectives for food research and European collaboration in the European Research Area and the new Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Breslin, L

    2001-08-01

    Since 1987, successive framework programmes have contributed to strengthen European food research through the establishment of networks between research institutions, universities and companies from various European countries. In the FAIR programme (1994-1998), 118 research projects comprising nearly 1,000 participants from the European Union and Associated States have been supported in the food area with a European funding of about [symbol: see text] 108 million. Within the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources programme (1998-2002), food research is mostly supported within the key action 'food, nutrition and health' with a budget of [symbol: see text] 290 million. After the first four deadlines, 735 eligible research proposals have already been received. Further to their evaluation by a panel of independent experts, 108 proposals have been funded or selected for funding representing a total contribution of about [symbol: see text] 168 million. Among those, several clusters of projects are now running on important topics such as probiotics, coeliac diseases, mycotoxins, GMO, safety and food for the elderly. In addition, technology stimulation measures are largely benefiting SMEs to foster their innovation potential. In January 2000, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Towards the European Research Area (ERA)" with the objective to contribute to developing better framework conditions for research in Europe. On 21 February 2001, the Commission adopted proposals to be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for the next framework programme for research and innovation (2002-2006). The new framework programme that is becoming one of the financial instruments of the ERA aims at catalysing the integration of European research by: strengthening of links between the Community research effort and national and regional research policies; concentrating on a limited number of priority fields or research to which activities at the

  10. New Research Programmes in Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, David; Haerens, Leen

    2014-01-01

    During the past decades, significant progress has been made in the development of physical education and sport pedagogy (PESP) research with the field reaching a level of maturity and critical mass. In light of this development, it seems worthwhile to take an overarching view on existing evidence in order to identify a number of emerging…

  11. EMpower: Environmental Masters Programme of Work Experience through Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, Susan J.; Jarvis, Kym E.

    2009-08-01

    The EMpower scheme aims to give environmental and earth science masters students who would not necessarily consider employment in the industry exposure to the nuclear sector through research project placements and other activities such as lecture days, visits and networking opportunities. It brings together students, academics, the nuclear industry and environmental agencies through its activities. The initiative is supported by the nuclear regulator, the environment agency and key players in the UK nuclear industry.

  12. Book Review: Interdisciplinary Archaeological Research Programme Maasvlakte 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innes, J. B.

    2015-10-01

    Archaeological investigation in wetland environments has long been recognised as a specialised aspect of the discipline, where the levels of preservation of organic materials and sediments can be so high that cultural horizons and excavated artefacts can be placed into detailed palaeo-environmental, biological and landscape contexts, in contrast to the more limited information of this kind that is available from dryland archaeological sites. Inevitably, the recovery, integration and understanding of these vital additional data require an interdisciplinary approach and an investment in specialist equipment and scientific analyses if their full potential for reconstructing human occupation and site use within their landscape setting is to be fully realised. The mobilisation and integration of such a team of environmental specialists can require major financial resources, meticulous planning and close co-operation between the various disciplines involved. The most extreme example of wetland archaeology is probably integrated excavation and environmental archaeological research in subtidal locations, but modern development of major coastal infrastructure is increasingly making sites available for study from the early to mid-Holocene or even earlier that have been overwhelmed by sea-level rise and which would otherwise be beyond the reach of archaeological investigation. Such very large scale subtidal interdisciplinary research projects are major, expensive and long-term undertakings and are still rare enough to be publication highlights in the discipline of environmental archaeology. Important recent examples of subtidal work in north-west Europe include Pedersen et al. (1997) and elements of Fischer (1995) in south Scandinavia, and investigations off southern England (Allen and Gardiner, 2000; Momber et al., 2011; Sturt et al., 2014). Research on submerged palaeoenvironments and palaeolandscapes has also seen significant advances (Griffiths et al., 2015), with the

  13. An overview of the Defence Research Agency photovoltaic programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodbody, C.; Davies, M. A. H.

    1993-01-01

    The Defense Research Agency (DRA) has been active in the photovoltaic field since the early 1960's, then as the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE). The early work was aimed at developing silicon cells, solar panels, and light-weight flexible arrays in support of the 'UK' and 'X' series of British scientific and technology satellites, for which the RAE was either the design authority or technical advisor. The X3 satellite - Prospero, launched in 1971 test flew 50 micron wrap-round silicon cells. The X4 satellite - Miranda, launched in 1974 test flew a deployable flexible silicon array which was developed at the DRA. During this period an extensive range of test equipment was developed which was maintained, modernized, and extended to date. Following a period of reduced activity in the late 1970's and early 1980's the current program evolved. The programs that have been undertaken since 1983 are briefly summarized. These range from various cell developments, new types of coverglasses, flight experiments, radiation testing, primary cell calibration, and environmental testing. The current photovoltaic program is mainly funded by the UK Ministry of Defence and by the Department of Trade and Industry through the British National Space Center (BNSC). The program is aimed at research and development, both internally and with industry, to meet the customer's technical objectives and requirements and to provide them with technical advice. The facilities are also being used on contract work for various national and international organizations.

  14. An overview of the Defence Research Agency photovoltaic programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodbody, C.; Davies, M. A. H.

    1993-05-01

    The Defense Research Agency (DRA) has been active in the photovoltaic field since the early 1960's, then as the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE). The early work was aimed at developing silicon cells, solar panels, and light-weight flexible arrays in support of the 'UK' and 'X' series of British scientific and technology satellites, for which the RAE was either the design authority or technical advisor. The X3 satellite - Prospero, launched in 1971 test flew 50 micron wrap-round silicon cells. The X4 satellite - Miranda, launched in 1974 test flew a deployable flexible silicon array which was developed at the DRA. During this period an extensive range of test equipment was developed which was maintained, modernized, and extended to date. Following a period of reduced activity in the late 1970's and early 1980's the current program evolved. The programs that have been undertaken since 1983 are briefly summarized. These range from various cell developments, new types of coverglasses, flight experiments, radiation testing, primary cell calibration, and environmental testing. The current photovoltaic program is mainly funded by the UK Ministry of Defence and by the Department of Trade and Industry through the British National Space Center (BNSC). The program is aimed at research and development, both internally and with industry, to meet the customer's technical objectives and requirements and to provide them with technical advice. The facilities are also being used on contract work for various national and international organizations.

  15. Are Public Subsidies to Higher Education Regressive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William R.

    2006-01-01

    This article estimates the dollar amount of public higher education subsidies received by U.S. youth and examines the distribution of subsidies and the taxes that finance them across parental and student income levels. Although youths from high-income families obtain more benefit from higher education subsidies, high-income households pay…

  16. Child Care Subsidy and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Branch, Julie A.; Torquati, Julia C.; Raikes, Helen; Edwards, Carolyn Pope

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the quality of child care programs serving children receiving government subsidies to those not serving such children. Thirty-four classrooms in full day programs serving preschool aged children (19 subsidized, 15 unsubsidized) were observed using the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scales-Revised (ECERS-R). (1) Research…

  17. Analyzing Subsidies in Microsoft Excel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mixon, J. Wilson, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Applying the budget line/indifference curve apparatus to policy issues reveals important and sometimes counterintuitive policy implications. Also, it provides practice in using the apparatus. The author applies these tools to subsidies. The analysis follows textbook treatments but is extended at some points. In particular, the present analysis…

  18. Health fee exemptions: controversies and misunderstandings around a research programme. Researchers and the public debate

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Our research programme on fee exemption policies in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger involved sensitive topics with strong ideological and political connotations for the decision-makers, for health-workers, and for users. Thus we were confronted with reluctance, criticism, pressures and accusations. Our frank description of the shortcomings of these policies, based on rigorous research, and never polemical or accusatory, surprises political leaders and health managers, who are accustomed to official data, censored evaluations and discourse of justification. This reflexive paper aims to react to some misunderstandings that arose regularly: "By focusing on the problems, you will discourage the aid donors". "By focusing on the problems, you are playing into the hands of the opponents of fee exemption". "You should focus on what works and not on what doesn't work". "The comments and behaviour you report are not representative". "What you say is not new, we already knew about it". Double discourse prevails in aid-dependent countries. The official discourse is mostly sterilized and far removed from reality. It protects the routine of the local bureaucracies. But the private 'speak' is quite different, and everyone knows the everyday ruses, tricks and arrangements within the health system. Anthropologists collect the private speak and transmit it to the public sphere through their analyses in order to provide a serious account of a reality, and creating the conditions for an expert debate and a public debate. The national conference on fee exemption held in Niamey in 2012 was a success in this perspective: healthcare personnel spoke for the first time in a public setting about the numerous problems associated with the fee exemption policy, and they largely confirmed and even supplemented the results of our research. It is difficult to see how the healthcare system can be improved and better quality of service provided without starting from a rigorous diagnosis of these

  19. Peer Feedback in an Undergraduate Programme: Using Action Research to Overcome Students' Reluctance to Criticise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Within an undergraduate programme, a four-year, action research project implemented, evaluated and refined a regime of peer assessment focused on generating high-quality peer feedback. Changes in structure and process transformed a system that had initially been characterised by a reluctance to criticise fellow students into one that produced…

  20. Action Research: Measuring Literacy Programme Participants' Learning Outcomes. Results of the Final Phase (2011-2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolly, Madina; Jonas, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Action Research on Measuring Literacy Programme Participants' Learning Outcomes (RAMAA) aims to develop, implement and collaborate on the creation of a methodological approach to measure acquired learning and study the various factors that influence its development. This report examines how RAMAA I has been implemented over the past four years in…

  1. Enabling Students to Participate in School Improvement through a Students as Researchers Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Amanda; Nash, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This article explores students' potential to make a difference to their school through a Students as Researchers programme. It begins by discussing the impetus for the current increase in student voice initiatives in schools. It continues the debate around issues of student empowerment and students' identity as change agents through an analysis of…

  2. Programme Implementation in Social and Emotional Learning: Basic Issues and Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durlak, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental importance of achieving quality implementation when assessing the impact of social and emotional learning interventions. Recent findings in implementation science are reviewed that include a definition of implementation, its relation to programme outcomes, current research on the factors that affect…

  3. Impact of Teaching Development Programmes in Higher Education. HEA Research Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, David; Hill, Inge; Holland, Jane; Willis, Dick

    2012-01-01

    In May 2012, the Higher Education Academy (HEA) asked HOST Policy Research (HOST) to conduct an intensive review of the impact of teaching development programmes in higher education (HE). This is a timely assessment, which coincides with the adoption of a revised framework for professional standards by the HEA and growing policy interest in…

  4. An Action-Research Programme with Secondary Education Teachers on Teaching and Learning Photosynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingos-Grilo, Paula; Reis-Grilo, Carlos; Ruiz, Constantino; Mellado, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    We describe part of an action-research programme in Spain which was based on metacognitive reflection. The participants were four science teachers in a secondary school during the 2004-05 and 2005-06 academic years. During the study, they each analysed their own pupils' alternative ideas on photosynthesis and their teaching methods as recorded in…

  5. Lakatos' Scientific Research Programmes as a Framework for Analysing Informal Argumentation about Socio-Scientific Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shu-Nu; Chiu, Mei-Hung

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how Lakatos' scientific research programmes might serve as a theoretical framework for representing and evaluating informal argumentation about socio-scientific issues. Seventy undergraduate science and non-science majors were asked to make written arguments about four socio-scientific issues. Our analysis…

  6. Global ocean monitoring for the World Climate Research Programme.

    PubMed

    Revelle, R; Bretherton, F

    1986-07-01

    Oceanic research and modelling for the World Climate Research Program will utilize several recently-developed instruments and measuring techniques as well as well-tested, long-used instruments. Ocean-scanning satellites will map the component of the ocean-surface topography related to ocean currents and mesoscale eddies and to fluctuating water volumes caused by ocean warming and cooling. Other satellite instruments will measure the direction and magnitude of wind stress on the sea surface, surface water temperatures, the distribution of chlorophyll and other photosynthetic pigments, the characteristics of internal waves, and possible precipitation over the ocean. Networks of acoustic transponders will obtain a three-dimensional picture of the distribution of temperature from the surface down to mid-depth and of long-term changes in temperature at depth. Ocean research vessels will determine the distribution and fate of geochemical tracers and will also make high-precision, deep hydrographic casts. Ships of opportunity, using expendable instruments, will measure temperature, salinity and currents in the upper water layers. Drifting and anchored buoys will also measure these properties as well as those of the air above the sea surface. Tide gauges installed on islands and exposed coastal locations will measure variations in monthly and shorter-period mean sea level. These tide gauges will provide 'ground truth' for the satellite maps of sea-surface topography, and will also determine variations in ocean currents and temperature.All these instruments will be used in several major programs, the most ambitious of which is the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) designed to obtain global measurements of major currents throughout the world ocean, greater understanding of the transformation of water masses, and the role of advective, convective, and turbulent processes in exchange of properties between surface and deep-ocean layers.A five- to ten-year experiment

  7. BAO Plate Archive Project: Digitization, Electronic Database and Research Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Andreasyan, H. R.; Azatyan, N. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Khachatryan, K. G.; Knyazyan, A. V.; Kostandyan, G. R.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Nikoghosyan, E. H.; Paronyan, G. M.; Vardanyan, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    The most important part of the astronomical observational heritage are astronomical plate archives created on the basis of numerous observations at many observatories. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) plate archive consists of 37,000 photographic plates and films, obtained at 2.6m telescope, 1m and 0.5m Schmidt type and other smaller telescopes during 1947-1991. In 2002-2005, the famous Markarian Survey (also called First Byurakan Survey, FBS) 1874 plates were digitized and the Digitized FBS (DFBS) was created. New science projects have been conducted based on these low-dispersion spectroscopic material. A large project on the whole BAO Plate Archive digitization, creation of electronic database and its scientific usage was started in 2015. A Science Program Board is created to evaluate the observing material, to investigate new possibilities and to propose new projects based on the combined usage of these observations together with other world databases. The Executing Team consists of 11 astronomers and 2 computer scientists and will use 2 EPSON Perfection V750 Pro scanners for the digitization, as well as Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) database will be used to accommodate all new data. The project will run during 3 years in 2015-2017 and the final result will be an electronic database and online interactive sky map to be used for further research projects, mainly including high proper motion stars, variable objects and Solar System bodies.

  8. A programmable sound processor for advanced hearing aid research.

    PubMed

    McDermott, H

    1998-03-01

    A portable sound processor has been developed to facilitate research on advanced hearing aids. Because it is based on a digital signal processing integrated circuit (Motorola DSP56001), it can readily be programmed to execute novel algorithms. Furthermore, the parameters of these algorithms can be adjusted quickly and easily to suit the specific hearing characteristics of users. In the processor, microphone signals are digitized to a precision of 12 bits at a sampling rate of approximately 12 kHz for input to the DSP device. Subsequently, processed samples are delivered to the earphone by a novel, fully-digital class-D driver. This driver provides the advantages of a conventional class-D amplifier (high maximum output, low power consumption, low distortion) without some of the disadvantages (such as the need for precise analog circuitry). In addition, a cochlear implant driver is provided so that the processor is suitable for hearing-impaired people who use an implant and an acoustic hearing aid together. To reduce the computational demands on the DSP device, and therefore the power consumption, a running spectral analysis of incoming signals is provided by a custom-designed switched-capacitor integrated circuit incorporating 20 bandpass filters. The complete processor is pocket-sized and powered by batteries. An example is described of its use in providing frequency-shaped amplification for aid users with severe hearing impairment. Speech perception tests confirmed that the processor performed significantly better than the subjects' own hearing aids, probably because the digital filter provided a frequency response generally closer to the optimum for each user than the simpler analog aids. PMID:9535523

  9. Protection of human research participants: accreditation of programmes in the Indian context.

    PubMed

    Bhosale, Neelambari; Nigar, Shagoofa; Das, Soma; Divate, Uma; Divate, Pathik

    2014-01-01

    The recent negative media reports on the status of participants in clinical trials in India, together with the concerns expressed by the regulatory bodies, have raised questions regarding India's credibility in the conduct of clinical research. Even though the regulations require the registration of trials with the Clinical Trial Registry-India and despite the recently mandated registration of ethics committees (ECs) with the Drugs Controller General of India, the lack of governmental audit and accreditation procedures and bodies has resulted in inadequate protection of human participants in clinical research. Institutions and research sites would benefit by implementing a human research protection programme, which would safeguard the rights, safety and wellbeing of participants in clinical trials, in addition to improving the processes and procedures for the conduct of the trial. The Jehangir Clinical Development Centre, Pune has received accreditation from the Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programme (AAHRPP). A unique feature of the AAHRPP is the integrative nature of the programme, wherein the sponsors of the trial, investigators, EC members and institution work towards the common goal of protecting research participants. Here, we discuss the improvement needed in the quality standards of institutions for them to be able to meet the requirements of the AAHRPP. We also suggest the need for a governmental accreditation body, which will be required for the future promotion of and improvement in the standards for clinical practice in India. PMID:24509113

  10. Out-of-pocket payments and community-wide health outcomes: an examination of influenza vaccination subsidies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ibuka, Yoko; Bessho, Shun-Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    While studies have shown that reductions in out-of-pocket payments for vaccination generally encourages vaccination uptake, research on the impact on health outcomes has rarely been examined. Thus, the present study, using municipal-level survey data on a subsidy programme for influenza vaccination in Japan that covers the entire country, examines how reductions in out-of-pocket payments for vaccination among non-elderly individuals through a subsidy programme affected regional-level influenza activity. We find that payment reductions are negatively correlated with the number of weeks with a high influenza alert in that region, although the correlation varied across years. At the same time, we find no significant correlation between payment reductions and the total duration of influenza outbreaks (i.e. periods with a moderate or high alert). Given that a greater number of weeks with a high alert indicates a severer epidemic, our findings suggest that reductions in out-of-pocket payments for influenza vaccination among the non-elderly had a positive impact on community-wide health outcomes, indicating that reduced out-of-pocket payments contributes to the effective control of severe influenza epidemics. This suggests that payment reductions could benefit not only individuals by providing them with better access to preventive care, as has been shown previously, but also communities as a whole by shortening the duration of epidemics. PMID:26894514

  11. The role of research for sustainable paediatric cardiac programmes in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mavroudis, Constantine D; Mavroudis, Constantine; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Siegel, Allison

    2012-12-01

    Significant challenges face developing countries as a result of the maldistribution of access to healthcare throughout the world, specifically access to paediatric cardiac care. Sustainable paediatric cardiac programmes must be established in developing countries to provide care to all children with congenital heart disease. Education and research are essential components to sustainable paediatric cardiac programmes in developing countries to define local problems and the incidence of disease, and to generate solutions thereto related. Research can contribute to developing local expertise, improving technology, providing opportunities for local talent, generating financial resources, enhancing the dignity of people, and the facilitating resolution of health problems throughout the world. Clinical trials conducted in developing countries should meet the same ethical standards as trials based in developed countries. PMID:23331603

  12. [Horizon 2020, new EU Framework programme for research and innovation, 2014-2020].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita

    2014-01-01

    Horizon 2020 is a financial instrument implementing the Innovation Union, a Europe 2020 flagship initiative aimed at securing Europes global competitiveness. Running from 2014 to 2020 with a budget of just over € 80 billion, the EUs new programme for research and innovation is part of the drive to create new growth and jobs in Europe. Societal challenge Health, demographic change and wellbeing is an important part of Horizon 2020. PMID:25370773

  13. Research support for effective state and community tobacco control programme response to electronic nicotine delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Carol L; Lee, Youn Ok; Curry, Laurel E; Farrelly, Matthew C; Rogers, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify unmet research needs of state and community tobacco control practitioners pertaining to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes) that would inform policy and practice efforts at the state and community levels, and to describe ENDS-related research and dissemination activities of the National Cancer Institute-funded State and Community Tobacco Control Research Initiative. Methods To determine specific research gaps relevant to state and community tobacco control practice, we analysed survey data collected from tobacco control programmes (TCPs) in all 50 US states and the District of Columbia (N=51). Survey items covered a range of ENDS issues: direct harm to users, harm of secondhand vapour, cessation, flavours, constituents and youth access. Results There is no ENDS topic on which a majority of state TCP managers feel very informed. They feel least informed about harms of secondhand vapour while also reporting that this information is among the most important for their programme. A majority (N=31) of respondents indicated needs for research on the implications of ENDS products for existing policies. Conclusions TCP managers report that ENDS research is highly important for practice and need research-based information to inform decision making around the inclusion of ENDS in existing tobacco control policies. For optimal relevance to state and community TCPs, research on ENDS should prioritise study of the health effects of ENDS use and secondhand exposure to ENDS vapour in the context of existing tobacco control policies. PMID:24935899

  14. Research Capacity Strengthening in Low and Middle Income Countries - An Evaluation of the WHO/TDR Career Development Fellowship Programme.

    PubMed

    Käser, Michael; Maure, Christine; Halpaap, Beatrice M M; Vahedi, Mahnaz; Yamaka, Sara; Launois, Pascal; Casamitjana, Núria

    2016-05-01

    Between August 2012 and April 2013 the Career Development Fellowship programme of the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (World Health Organization) underwent an external evaluation to assess its past performance and determine recommendations for future programme development and continuous performance improvement. The programme provides a year-long training experience for qualified researchers from low and middle income countries at pharmaceutical companies or product development partnerships. Independent evaluators from the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and the Barcelona Institute for Global Health used a results-based methodology to review the programme. Data were gathered through document review, surveys, and interviews with a range of programme participants. The final evaluation report found the Career Development Fellowship to be relevant to organizers' and programme objectives, efficient in its operations, and effective in its training scheme, which was found to address needs and gaps for both fellows and their home institutions. Evaluators found that the programme has the potential for impact and sustainability beyond the programme period, especially with the successful reintegration of fellows into their home institutions, through which newly-developed skills can be shared at the institutional level. Recommendations included the development of a scheme to support the re-integration of fellows into their home institutions post-fellowship and to seek partnerships to facilitate the scaling-up of the programme. The impact of the Professional Membership Scheme, an online professional development tool launched through the programme, beyond the scope of the Career Development Fellowship programme itself to other applications, has been identified as a positive unintended outcome. The results of this evaluation may be of interest for other efforts in the field of research capacity strengthening in LMICs or, generally, to

  15. 46 CFR 272.25 - Requirements for subsidy repayment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...&R subsidy due to allocation of costs. If the allocation of total M&R costs required by § 272.41(e... MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR SUBSIDY Eligibility Criteria for M&R Subsidy; Substantiation of M&R Expenses § 272.25 Requirements for subsidy repayment. (a) Repayment of M&R subsidy for compensated marine or other loss. If...

  16. 25 CFR 103.20 - What is interest subsidy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is interest subsidy? 103.20 Section 103.20 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LOAN GUARANTY, INSURANCE, AND INTEREST SUBSIDY Interest Subsidy § 103.20 What is interest subsidy? Interest subsidy is a payment...

  17. Emerging technologies and perspectives for nutrition research in European Union 7th Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    de Froidmont-Görtz, Isabelle B M

    2009-12-01

    Nutrition trends in Europe are driven by taste, health and convenience. The possibilities of research using new technologies and tools such as nutrigenomics, imaging techniques, nanotechnology, bioinformatics, cognitive sciences, innovative processes are very promising to support these nutrition trends and in particular their health aspects. This is supported by European Union research. The opportunities offered in the 7th Framework Programme (FP7), among other innovations, will contribute to the general aim of improving nutrition policy as well as improving products from the food industry in accordance with the Lisbon strategy to create employment and improve the quality of life of the European citizens. PMID:19937440

  18. [Fundamental ethical principles in the European framework programmes for research and development].

    PubMed

    Hirsch, François; Karatzas, Isidoros; Zilgalvis, Pēteris

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission is one of the most important international funding bodies for research conducted in Europe and beyond, including developing countries and countries in transition. Through its framework programmes for research and development, the European Union finances a vast array of projects concerning fields affecting the citizens' health, as well as the researchers' mobility, the development of new technologies or the safeguard of the environment. With the agreement of the European Parliament and of the Council of Ministers, the two decisional authorities of the European Union, the 7th framework programmes was started on December 2006. This program has a budget of 54 billion Euros to be distributed over a 7-year period. Therefore, the European Union aims to fully address the challenge as stated by the European Council of Lisbon (of March 2000) which declared the idea of providing 3% of the GDP of all the Member States for the purpose of research and development. One of the important conditions stated by the Members of the European Parliament to allocate this financing is to ensuring that "the funding research activities respect the fundamental ethical principles". In this article, we will approach this aspect of the evaluation. PMID:19765393

  19. A Scientometric Evaluation of the Chagas Disease Implementation Research Programme of the PAHO and TDR

    PubMed Central

    Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Yadón, Zaida E.

    2013-01-01

    The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) is an independent global programme of scientific collaboration cosponsored by the United Nations Children's Fund, the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank, and the World Health Organization. TDR's strategy is based on stewardship for research on infectious diseases of poverty, empowerment of endemic countries, research on neglected priority needs, and the promotion of scientific collaboration influencing global efforts to combat major tropical diseases. In 2001, in view of the achievements obtained in the reduction of transmission of Chagas disease through the Southern Cone Initiative and the improvement in Chagas disease control activities in some countries of the Andean and the Central American Initiatives, TDR transferred the Chagas Disease Implementation Research Programme (CIRP) to the Communicable Diseases Unit of the Pan American Health Organization (CD/PAHO). This paper presents a scientometric evaluation of the 73 projects from 18 Latin American and European countries that were granted by CIRP/PAHO/TDR between 1997 and 2007. We analyzed all final reports of the funded projects and scientific publications, technical reports, and human resource training activities derived from them. Results about the number of projects funded, countries and institutions involved, gender analysis, number of published papers in indexed scientific journals, main topics funded, patents inscribed, and triatomine species studied are presented and discussed. The results indicate that CIRP/PAHO/TDR initiative has contributed significantly, over the 1997–2007 period, to Chagas disease knowledge as well as to the individual and institutional-building capacity. PMID:24244761

  20. Effective subsidies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kelman, J

    2004-01-01

    During the last decades, significant subsidies have been allocated to government-owned water and sewerage enterprises in developing countries. However, water and sewerage coverage is still far from desirable and the poor are particularly affected by the shortage of these services. The truth is that a considerable part of these subsidies have been used up to build huge infrastructure works that would make some construction firms happy, while often decreasing the service costs for the richer. The costs associated of delivering water and sanitation services to the poor are significantly higher, as they often live in slums or irregular urban developments without urban infrastructure. It is possible, and desirable, to improve government's effectiveness through the use of appropriate economic incentives. The Brazilian River Basin Pollution Abatement Program, based on the "output-based aid" concept, is a good example of how this can be achieved. The Program is a success story that shows that the quality of expenditures on sanitation can be considerably improved if governments of developing countries refrain from contracting sanitation infrastructure works and start paying for results, not for promises. PMID:15195416

  1. Development of theory-based health messages: three-phase programme of formative research.

    PubMed

    Epton, Tracy; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter; Webb, Thomas; Snowsill, F Alexandra; Sheeran, Paschal

    2015-09-01

    Online health behaviour interventions have great potential but their effectiveness may be hindered by a lack of formative and theoretical work. This paper describes the process of formative research to develop theoretically and empirically based health messages that are culturally relevant and can be used in an online intervention to promote healthy lifestyle behaviours among new university students. Drawing on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, a three-phase programme of formative research was conducted with prospective and current undergraduate students to identify (i) modal salient beliefs (the most commonly held beliefs) about fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, binge drinking and smoking, (ii) which beliefs predicted intentions/behaviour and (iii) reasons underlying each of the beliefs that could be targeted in health messages. Phase 1, conducted with 96 pre-university college students, elicited 56 beliefs about the behaviours. Phase 2, conducted with 3026 incoming university students, identified 32 of these beliefs that predicted intentions/behaviour. Phase 3, conducted with 627 current university students, elicited 102 reasons underlying the 32 beliefs to be used to construct health messages to bolster or challenge these beliefs. The three-phase programme of formative research provides researchers with an example of how to develop health messages with a strong theoretical- and empirical base for use in health behaviour change interventions. PMID:24504361

  2. Development of theory-based health messages: three-phase programme of formative research

    PubMed Central

    Epton, Tracy; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter; Webb, Thomas; Snowsill, F. Alexandra; Sheeran, Paschal

    2015-01-01

    Online health behaviour interventions have great potential but their effectiveness may be hindered by a lack of formative and theoretical work. This paper describes the process of formative research to develop theoretically and empirically based health messages that are culturally relevant and can be used in an online intervention to promote healthy lifestyle behaviours among new university students. Drawing on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, a three-phase programme of formative research was conducted with prospective and current undergraduate students to identify (i) modal salient beliefs (the most commonly held beliefs) about fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, binge drinking and smoking, (ii) which beliefs predicted intentions/behaviour and (iii) reasons underlying each of the beliefs that could be targeted in health messages. Phase 1, conducted with 96 pre-university college students, elicited 56 beliefs about the behaviours. Phase 2, conducted with 3026 incoming university students, identified 32 of these beliefs that predicted intentions/behaviour. Phase 3, conducted with 627 current university students, elicited 102 reasons underlying the 32 beliefs to be used to construct health messages to bolster or challenge these beliefs. The three-phase programme of formative research provides researchers with an example of how to develop health messages with a strong theoretical- and empirical base for use in health behaviour change interventions. PMID:24504361

  3. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  4. 42 CFR 423.780 - Premium subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... amount. (b) Premium subsidy amount. (1) The premium subsidy amount is equal to the lesser of— (i) Under... beneficiary premium attributable to basic prescription drug coverage (for enrollees in MA-PD plans); or (ii..., with the weight for each PDP and MA-PD plan equal to a percentage, the numerator being equal to...

  5. 42 CFR 423.780 - Premium subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Premium subsidy. 423.780 Section 423.780 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Premiums and Cost-Sharing Subsidies for Low-Income Individuals §...

  6. 42 CFR 423.780 - Premium subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (b) Premium subsidy amount. (1) The premium subsidy amount is equal to the lesser of— (i) Under the... premium attributable to basic prescription drug coverage (for enrollees in MA-PD plans); or (ii) The... for each PDP and MA-PD plan equal to a percentage, the numerator being equal to the number of Part...

  7. 42 CFR 423.780 - Premium subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (b) Premium subsidy amount. (1) The premium subsidy amount is equal to the lesser of— (i) Under the... premium attributable to basic prescription drug coverage (for enrollees in MA-PD plans); or (ii) The... for each PDP and MA-PD plan equal to a percentage, the numerator being equal to the number of Part...

  8. 42 CFR 423.780 - Premium subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... amount. (b) Premium subsidy amount. (1) The premium subsidy amount is equal to the lesser of— (i) Under... beneficiary premium attributable to basic prescription drug coverage (for enrollees in MA-PD plans); or (ii..., with the weight for each PDP and MA-PD plan equal to a percentage, the numerator being equal to...

  9. Paradigms and research programmes: is it time to move from health care economics to health economics?

    PubMed

    Edwards, R T

    2001-10-01

    As an applied subdiscipline of economics, health economics has flourished, defining itself as the study of how scarce health care resources may be used to meet our needs. This evolutionary pathway has led to health economists adopting a very 'medical' model of health, in which the predominant production function for health is health care. This paper sets out policy challenges to health economics which have arisen in light of growing recognition by governments of the socioeconomic determinants of health and their stated commitment to tackle inequalities in health. It reviews Thomas Kuhn's theory of paradigm shift and Imre Lakatos' theory of scientific research programmes in the natural sciences, favouring the latter as an explanation of the evolution of the subdiscipline of health economics. The paper brings together four recently published visions of the future of health economics-visions that are almost exclusively focused on the production, organization and distribution of health care. In contrast to these visions, in Lakatosian terms, this paper challenges the subdiscipline's core 'positive heuristic', i.e. the set of imperatives which determines how the research programme should unfold, how it may be defended, its scope and boundaries. This paper argues that health economics will need to evolve to embrace a more socioeconomic model of health and, to this end, offers for debate an expansion of Williams' diagrammatic representation of the subdiscipline. It concludes by asking whether the magnitude and the magnetism of health care policy issues will continue to prove too strong to allow health economists, should they wish, to steer their research and educational programmes more directly towards 'health' rather than 'health care' as the relevant social want. PMID:11747046

  10. Setting research priorities to reduce malaria burden in a post graduate training programme: lessons learnt from the Nigeria field epidemiology and laboratory training programme scientific workshop

    PubMed Central

    Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nguku, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Although several research groups within institutions in Nigeria have been involved in extensive malaria research, the link between the research community and policy formulation has not been optimal. The workshop aimed to assist post graduate students to identify knowledge gaps and to develop relevant Malaria-related research proposals in line with identified research priorities. A training needs assessment questionnaire was completed by 22 students two week prior to the workshop. Also, a one page concept letter was received from 40 residents. Thirty students were selected based the following six criteria: - answerability and ethics; efficacy and impact; deliverability, affordability; scalability, sustainability; health systems, partnership and community involvement; and equity in achieved disease burden reduction. The workshop was over a three day period. The participants at the workshop were 30 Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (NFELTP) residents from cohorts 4 and 5. Ten technical papers were presented by the experts from the academia, National Malaria Elimination (NMEP) Programme, NFELTP Faculty and Implementing partners including CDC/PMI. Draft proposals were developed and presented by the residents. The “strongest need” for training was on malaria prevention, followed by malaria diagnosis. Forty seven new research questions were generated, while the 19 developed by the NMEP were shared. Evaluation revealed that all (100%) students either “agreed” that the workshop objectives were met. Full proposals were developed by some of the residents. A debriefing meeting was held with the NMEP coordinator to discuss funding of the projects. Future collaborative partnership has developed as the residents have supported NMEP to develop a research protocol for a national evaluation. Research prioritization workshops are required in most training programmes to ensure that students embark on studies that address the research needs of their

  11. Introductory paper: The orientation of immunological research in relation to the global antimalaria programme

    PubMed Central

    Wernsdorfer, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    Immunological research on malaria has produced a wealth of information on the relationship between Plasmodium and the vertebrate host, introducing new serological tools into epidemiological methodology and experimentally proving the possibility of protecting vertebrates against malaria, thus moving vaccination from the realm of pure hypothesis to the level of feasibility. The alarming malaria situation in the world is reason enough to expand immunological research further to improve diagnostic and epidemiological tools and to develop methods for the protection of man against malaria. The programme of the Scientific Working Group on the Immunology of Malaria, UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, complies with these objectives. A projection of potential effects of malaria vaccines on the malaria situation shows considerable promise in areas with relatively low basic reproduction rates; in areas with high basic reproduction rates they would need to complement other malaria control measures and may ultimately add the critical momentum required to render adequate malaria control feasible in tropical Africa. PMID:317437

  12. The effect of an anti-malarial subsidy programme on the quality of service provision of artemisinin-based combination therapy in Kenya: a cluster-randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many patients with suspected malaria in sub-Saharan Africa seek treatment from private providers, but this sector suffers from sub-standard medicine dispensing practices. To improve the quality of care received for presumptive malaria from the highly accessed private retail sector in western Kenya, subsidized pre-packaged artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was provided to private retailers, together with a one day training for retail staff on malaria diagnosis and treatment, job aids and community engagement activities. Methods The intervention was assessed using a cluster-randomized, controlled design. Provider and mystery-shopper cross-sectional surveys were conducted at baseline and eight months post-intervention to assess provider practices. Data were analysed based on cluster-level summaries, comparing control and intervention arms. Results On average, 564 retail outlets were interviewed per year. At follow-up, 43% of respondents reported that at least one staff member had attended the training in the intervention arm. The intervention significantly increased the percentage of providers knowing the first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria by 24.2% points (confidence interval (CI): 14.8%, 33.6%; adjusted p=0.0001); the percentage of outlets stocking AL by 31.7% points (CI: 22.0%, 41.3%; adjusted p=0.0001); and the percentage of providers prescribing AL for presumptive malaria by 23.6% points (CI: 18.7%, 28.6%; adjusted p=0.0001). Generally outlets that received training and job aids performed better than those receiving one or none of these intervention components. Conclusion Overall, subsidizing ACT and retailer training can significantly increase the percentage of outlets stocking and selling AL for the presumptive treatment of malaria, but further research is needed on strategies to improve the provision of counselling advice to retail customers. PMID:23452547

  13. Research in progress: Medical Research Council United Kingdom Refractory Asthma Stratification Programme (RASP-UK).

    PubMed

    Heaney, Liam G; Djukanovic, Ratko; Woodcock, Ashley; Walker, Samantha; Matthews, John G; Pavord, Ian D; Bradding, Peter; Niven, Robert; Brightling, Chris E; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Arron, Joseph R; Choy, David F; Cowan, Douglas; Mansur, Adel; Menzies-Gow, Andrew; Adcock, Ian; Chung, Kian F; Corrigan, Chris; Coyle, Peter; Harrison, Timothy; Johnston, Sebastian; Howarth, Peter; Lordan, James; Sabroe, Ian; Bigler, Jeannette; Smith, Dirk; Catley, Matthew; May, Richard; Pierre, Lisa; Stevenson, Chris; Crater, Glenn; Keane, Frank; Costello, Richard W; Hudson, Val; Supple, David; Hardman, Tim

    2016-02-01

    The UK Refractory Asthma Stratification Programme (RASP-UK) will explore novel biomarker stratification strategies in severe asthma to improve clinical management and accelerate development of new therapies. Prior asthma mechanistic studies have not stratified on inflammatory phenotype and the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in asthma without Type 2 cytokine inflammation is limited. RASP-UK will objectively assess adherence to corticosteroids (CS) and examine a novel composite biomarker strategy to optimise CS dose; this will also address what proportion of patients with severe asthma have persistent symptoms without eosinophilic airways inflammation after progressive CS withdrawal. There will be interactive partnership with the pharmaceutical industry to facilitate access to stratified populations for novel therapeutic studies. PMID:26205878

  14. Research in progress: Medical Research Council United Kingdom Refractory Asthma Stratification Programme (RASP-UK)

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Liam G; Djukanovic, Ratko; Woodcock, Ashley; Walker, Samantha; Matthews, John G; Pavord, Ian D; Bradding, Peter; Niven, Robert; Brightling, Chris E; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Arron, Joseph R; Choy, David F; Cowan, Douglas; Mansur, Adel; Menzies-Gow, Andrew; Adcock, Ian; Chung, Kian F; Corrigan, Chris; Coyle, Peter; Harrison, Timothy; Johnston, Sebastian; Howarth, Peter; Lordan, James; Sabroe, Ian; Bigler, Jeannette; Smith, Dirk; Catley, Matthew; May, Richard; Pierre, Lisa; Stevenson, Chris; Crater, Glenn; Keane, Frank; Costello, Richard W; Hudson, Val; Supple, David; Hardman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The UK Refractory Asthma Stratification Programme (RASP-UK) will explore novel biomarker stratification strategies in severe asthma to improve clinical management and accelerate development of new therapies. Prior asthma mechanistic studies have not stratified on inflammatory phenotype and the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in asthma without Type 2 cytokine inflammation is limited. RASP-UK will objectively assess adherence to corticosteroids (CS) and examine a novel composite biomarker strategy to optimise CS dose; this will also address what proportion of patients with severe asthma have persistent symptoms without eosinophilic airways inflammation after progressive CS withdrawal. There will be interactive partnership with the pharmaceutical industry to facilitate access to stratified populations for novel therapeutic studies. PMID:26205878

  15. EU-funded malaria research under the 6th and 7th Framework Programmes for research and technological development.

    PubMed

    Holtel, Andreas; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Penas-Jimenez, Inmaculada

    2011-01-01

    While malaria research has traditionally been strong in Europe, targeted and sustained support for cooperative malaria research at EU level, namely through the EU's 6th and 7th Framework Programmes for research and technological development, FP6 (2002-2006) and FP7 (2007-2013), has boosted both impact and visibility of European malaria research. Most of the European malaria research community is now organized under a number of comprehensive and complementary research networks and projects, assembled around four key areas: (1) fundamental research on the malaria parasite and the disease, (2) development of new malaria drugs, (3) research and development of a malaria vaccine, and (4) research to control the malaria-transmitting mosquito vector. Considerable efforts were undertaken to ensure adequate participation of research groups from disease-endemic countries, in particular from Africa, with the long-term aim to strengthen cooperative links and research capacities in these countries. The concept of organizing European research through major strategic projects to form a "European Research Area" (ERA) was originally developed in the preparation of FP6, and ERA formation has now turned into a major EU policy objective explicitly inscribed into the Lisbon Treaty. EU-funded malaria research may serve as a showcase to demonstrate how ERA formation can successfully be implemented in a given area of science when several surrounding parameters converge to support implementation of this strategic concept: timely coincidence of political stimuli, responsive programming, a clearly defined--and well confined--area of research, and the readiness of the targeted research community who is well familiar with transnational cooperation at EU level. Major EU-funded malaria projects have evolved into thematic and organizational platforms that can collaborate with other global players. Europe may thus contribute more, and better, to addressing the global research agenda for malaria

  16. Green roof adoption in atlanta, georgia: the effects of building characteristics and subsidies on net private, public, and social benefits.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Jeffrey D; Lamsal, Madhur; Colson, Greg

    2013-10-01

    This research draws on and expands previous studies that have quantified the costs and benefits associated with conventional roofs versus green roofs. Using parameters from those studies to define alternative scenarios, we estimate from a private, public, and social perspective the costs and benefits of installing and maintaining an extensive green roof in Atlanta, GA. Results indicate net private benefits are a decreasing function of roof size and vary considerably across scenarios. In contrast, net public benefits are highly stable across scenarios, ranging from $32.49 to $32.90 m(-2). In addition, we evaluate two alternative subsidy regimes: (i) a general subsidy provided to every building that adopts a green roof and (ii) a targeted subsidy provided only to buildings for which net private benefits are negative but net public benefits are positive. In 6 of the 12 general subsidy scenarios the optimal public policy is not to offer a subsidy; in 5 scenarios the optimal subsidy rate is between $20 and $27 m(-2); and in 1 scenario the optimal rate is $5 m(-2). The optimal rate with a targeted subsidy is between $20 and $27 m(-2) in 11 scenarios and no subsidy is optimal in the twelfth. In most scenarios, a significant portion of net public benefits are generated by buildings for which net private benefits are positive. This suggests a policy focused on information dissemination and technical assistance may be more cost-effective than direct subsidy payments. PMID:23991671

  17. Equipping students to contribute to development through a geohazards education and research programme (Ladakh, India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Joel; Tostevin, Rosalie

    2014-05-01

    Here we present a geohazards education and engagement project in the Indian region of Ladakh, used as an opportunity to train geoscience students in a number of important ethical, cultural and professional considerations. Located in the Indian Himalaya, Ladakh is home to historically-disadvantaged and endangered indigenous groups. It is also an area of extreme topography, climate and vulnerability, with a growing tourist industry. This combination of factors makes it an important region to improve geohazards understanding and observe the complex interactions between nature, society, and culture. Specific aims of this project are to (i) support community education through an interactive natural hazards programme (delivered in conjunction with a range of partners), training school-aged students from multiple socio-economic backgrounds; and (ii) increase the effectiveness of disaster risk reduction programmes, through research into the perception of natural hazards and environmental change. At all stages of this work, we are seeking to engage young geoscientists, helping them to better understand the skills and knowledge-base required to make a long-term, effective contribution to interdisciplinary research and professional practice. Through presenting an overview of this project and associated opportunities, we seek to emphasise the importance of developing practical opportunities for students to consider aspects of geoethics, social responsibility and cross-cultural understanding.

  18. Advancing the strategic use of HIV operations research to strengthen local policies and programmes: the Research to Prevention Project

    PubMed Central

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Cheng, Alison Surdo; Sandison, Sarah J; Fonner, Virginia A; Holtgrave, David R; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-01-01

    In the field of HIV prevention, there is renewed interest in operations research (OR) within an implementation science framework. The ultimate goal of such studies is to generate new knowledge that can inform local programmes and policies, thus improving access, quality, efficiency and effectiveness. Using four case studies from the USAID-funded Research to Prevention (R2P) project, we highlight the strategic use of OR and the impact it can have on shaping the focus and content of HIV prevention programming across geographic and epidemic settings and populations. These case studies, which include experiences from several sub-Saharan African countries and the Caribbean, emphasize four unique ways that R2P projects utilized OR to stimulate change in a given context, including: (1) translating findings from clinical trials to real-world settings; (2) adapting promising structural interventions to a new context; (3) tailoring effective interventions to underserved populations; and (4) prioritizing key populations within a national response to HIV. Carefully crafted OR can bridge the common gap that exists between research-generated knowledge and field-based practice, lead to substantial, real-world changes in national policies and programmes, and strengthen local organizations and the use of data to be more responsive to a given topic or population, ultimately supporting a locally tailored HIV response. PMID:26290331

  19. ‘Including health in systems responsible for urban planning’: a realist policy analysis research programme

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Patrick; Friel, Sharon; Wilson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Realist methods are increasingly being used to investigate complex public health problems. Despite the extensive evidence base clarifying the built environment as a determinant of health, there is limited knowledge about how and why land-use planning systems take on health concerns. Further, the body of research related to the wider determinants of health suffers from not using political science knowledge to understand how to influence health policy development and systems. This 4-year funded programme of research investigates how the land-use planning system in New South Wales, Australia, incorporates health and health equity at multiple levels. Methods and analysis The programme uses multiple qualitative methods to develop up to 15 case studies of different activities of the New South Wales land-use planning system. Comparison cases from other jurisdictions will be included where possible and useful. Data collection includes publicly available documentation and purposively sampled stakeholder interviews and focus groups of up to 100 participants across the cases. The units of analysis in each case are institutional structures (rules and mandates constraining and enabling actors), actors (the stakeholders, organisations and networks involved, including health-focused agencies), and ideas (policy content, information, and framing). Data analysis will focus on and develop propositions concerning the mechanisms and conditions within and across each case leading to inclusion or non-inclusion of health. Data will be refined using additional political science and sociological theory. Qualitative comparative analysis will compare cases to develop policy-relevant propositions about the necessary and sufficient conditions needed to include health issues. Ethics and dissemination Ethics has been approved by Sydney University Human Research Ethics Committee (2014/802 and 2015/178). Given the nature of this research we will incorporate stakeholders, often as

  20. Coursework Master's Programmes: The Student's Experience of Research and Research Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drennan, Jonathan; Clarke, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Although the coursework master's degree is becoming the principal conduit for the delivery of continuing education to the professions, it is one of the least understood or researched academic levels in higher education. Furthermore, little is known of coursework master's graduates' experience of research or research supervision following the…

  1. Operational Copernicus services - state of programme and the role of EO research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breger, Peter; Rohn, Michael; Pinty, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Year 2014 is a major milestone for the EU Copernicus programme (formerly GMES), for funding Europe's operational system of satellites and geo-information services. Copernicus services shall provide accurate, up-to-date and globally-available information related to the state of land, sea/ocean, atmosphere and climate change, as well as emergency response and security in support of European policies. 2014 sees the transition of services to fully operational state, looking back on some 10 years of development, evolving through research and making "laboratory" prototypes operational for the marine and atmosphere services. First integration of capabilities in dedicated GMES service projects started in early 2004 leading to operational maturity around 2011-2013. Several scientific and research challenges have been identified along the way, addressing very different stages of evolution, which need to be tackled collaborating with different partners and in different environments. The geoscience community and their funding programmes are faced with a range of opportunities arising from the presence of an operational space data and information programme such as Copernicus, a demand which also the EU research and innovation programme is striving to meet in Horizon 2020. The last ten years have shown how the step from research prototypes to operational service chains requires specific and dedicated attention to this innovation step, shaping validated and proven products to users' demands. Special efforts are required in order for users to accept the innovative potential which new laboratory products promise. Specific attention needs to be given to processes in the users' workflows which incorporate the EO information - a step which often is underestimated in the formulation of R&D plans. Service activities in a real-life environment, and the ever advancing new sensors set new research problems for researchers. The arrival of the Sentinel satellites will challenge running

  2. 7 CFR 3560.252 - Authorized rental subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authorized rental subsidies. 3560.252 Section 3560..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rental Subsidies § 3560.252 Authorized rental subsidies. (a) General. The purpose of rental subsidies is to reduce amounts paid by tenants...

  3. 7 CFR 3560.252 - Authorized rental subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized rental subsidies. 3560.252 Section 3560..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rental Subsidies § 3560.252 Authorized rental subsidies. (a) General. The purpose of rental subsidies is to reduce amounts paid by tenants...

  4. 7 CFR 3560.252 - Authorized rental subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authorized rental subsidies. 3560.252 Section 3560..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rental Subsidies § 3560.252 Authorized rental subsidies. (a) General. The purpose of rental subsidies is to reduce amounts paid by tenants...

  5. 7 CFR 3560.252 - Authorized rental subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authorized rental subsidies. 3560.252 Section 3560..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rental Subsidies § 3560.252 Authorized rental subsidies. (a) General. The purpose of rental subsidies is to reduce amounts paid by tenants...

  6. 7 CFR 3560.252 - Authorized rental subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authorized rental subsidies. 3560.252 Section 3560..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rental Subsidies § 3560.252 Authorized rental subsidies. (a) General. The purpose of rental subsidies is to reduce amounts paid by tenants...

  7. A Low-Subsidy Problem in Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fethke, Gary

    2011-01-01

    With an exogenous public subsidy and a break-even restriction on university net revenue, tuition discrimination supports a quasi-efficient departure from marginal-cost pricing. In contrast, when the legislature and university interact in their subsidy and tuition decisions, the public subsidy becomes endogenous. With an endogenous public subsidy,…

  8. Commissioning the University of Excellence: Swedish Research Policy and New Public Research Funding Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallonsten, Olof; Silander, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    In many countries, current research policy is dominated by managerialism and excellence, manifesting the aim of making universities into national strategic assets in the globally competitive knowledge economy. This article discusses these policy trends and their mirror in recent developments in public funding for academic research, with special…

  9. Development incentives for fossil fuel subsidy reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Michael; Chen, Claudine; Fuss, Sabine; Marxen, Annika; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2015-08-01

    Reforming fossil fuel subsidies could free up enough funds to finance universal access to water, sanitation, and electricity in many countries, as well as helping to cut global greenhouse-gas emissions.

  10. 24 CFR 982.402 - Subsidy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... subsidy standards must be applied consistently for all families of like size and composition. (4) A child... that the exception is justified by the age, sex, health, handicap, or relationship of family members...

  11. 24 CFR 982.402 - Subsidy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... subsidy standards must be applied consistently for all families of like size and composition. (4) A child... that the exception is justified by the age, sex, health, handicap, or relationship of family members...

  12. International Collaboration as a Patchwork Quilt: Experiences of Developing Collaborative Practice and Research in an International Masters Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Swet, Jacqueline; Armstrong, Ann Cheryl; Lloyd, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The scope of policies within universities and professional practices is becoming increasingly global and more and more networks of professionals and researchers are conducting collaborative programmes and research projects. Translating these collaborations into flourishing practices is often more challenging than initially anticipated, especially…

  13. Challenging Teachers' Practice through Learning: Reflections on the Enhancing Effective Practice in Special Education Programme of Research and Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Roseanna

    2006-01-01

    When teachers participate in professional development and learning opportunities it enables them to reconceptualise their assessment and teaching practices with the support of facilitators and researchers. National programmes of professional development and research, such as the three year Enhancing Effective Practice in Special Education (EEPiSE)…

  14. Researching the Effectiveness of a Science Professional Learning Programme Using a Proposed Curriculum Framework for Schools: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Kathryn; Zeegers, Yvonne; Lloyd, David; Roetman, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on an action research-based professional learning programme (PLP) in which early career teachers volunteered to identify and then research an aspect of their science teaching practice. The PLP was facilitated by academics from the School of Education and the Barbara Hardy Institute at the University of South Australia. The…

  15. Child Care Subsidy Policies and Practices: Implications for Child Care Providers. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States, Series A. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gina; Snyder, Kathleen; Tout, Kathryn

    This brief summarizes the report "Essential but Often Ignored: Child Care Providers in the Subsidy System," examining child care subsidy policies and practices shaping experiences of providers serving subsidized children, particularly those affecting providers' payments and their overall experience with the subsidy system. Research on the voucher…

  16. Note: Programmable data acquisition system for research measurements from meteorological radiosondes.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R G; Nicoll, K A; Lomas, A G

    2012-03-01

    A programmable data acquisition system to allow novel use of meteorological radiosondes for atmospheric science measurements is described. In its basic form it supports four analogue inputs at 16 bit resolution, and up to two further inputs at lower resolution, configurable instead for digital instruments. It also provides multiple instrument power supplies (+8 V, +16 V, +5 V, and -8 V) from the 9 V radiosonde battery. During a balloon flight encountering air temperatures from +17 °C to -66 °C, the worst case voltage drift in the 5 V unipolar digitisation circuitry was 20 mV. The system liberates a new range of low cost atmospheric research measurements, by utilising radiosondes routinely launched internationally for weather forecasting purposes. No additional receiving equipment is required. Comparisons between the specially instrumented and standard meteorological radiosondes show negligible effect of the additional instrumentation on the standard meteorological data. PMID:22462972

  17. Note: Programmable data acquisition system for research measurements from meteorological radiosondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K. A.; Lomas, A. G.

    2012-03-01

    A programmable data acquisition system to allow novel use of meteorological radiosondes for atmospheric science measurements is described. In its basic form it supports four analogue inputs at 16 bit resolution, and up to two further inputs at lower resolution, configurable instead for digital instruments. It also provides multiple instrument power supplies (+8 V, +16 V, +5 V, and -8 V) from the 9 V radiosonde battery. During a balloon flight encountering air temperatures from +17 °C to -66 °C, the worst case voltage drift in the 5 V unipolar digitisation circuitry was 20 mV. The system liberates a new range of low cost atmospheric research measurements, by utilising radiosondes routinely launched internationally for weather forecasting purposes. No additional receiving equipment is required. Comparisons between the specially instrumented and standard meteorological radiosondes show negligible effect of the additional instrumentation on the standard meteorological data.

  18. Future Requirements for Satellite Altimetry: Recommendations from the GAMBLE Project for Future Missions and Research Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, P. D.; Menard, Y.

    2006-07-01

    The GAMBLE th ematic network brought together European exper ts in ocean altimetry to consider future developmen ts in satellite altimetry. The aim was to provide r ecommendations for research activ ities, and future altimeter missions, th at w ere necessary to support and build on present developments in operational o ceanography and to main tain o cean monitoring programmes. This paper reviews user r equiremen ts for operational products th at rely on altimeter d ata, and assess how well presen t and planned activities satisfy those requ irements. It provides recommendations for future missions required to form a cost-eff ectiv e, robust, operational satellite altimeter measuremen t system. [1] provides a full discussion.

  19. Characterising groundwater-dominated lowland catchments: the UK Lowland Catchment Research Programme (LOCAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.; Peach, D.; Binley, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a major UK initiative to address deficiencies in understanding the hydro-ecological response of groundwater-dominated lowland catchments. The scope and objectives of this national programme are introduced and focus on one of three sets of research basins - the Pang/Lambourn Chalk catchments, tributaries of the river Thames in southern England. The motivation for the research is the need to support integrated management of river systems that have high ecological value and are subject to pressures that include groundwater abstraction for water supply, diffuse pollution, and land use and climate change. An overview of the research programme is provided together with highlights of some current research findings concerning the hydrological functioning of these catchments. Despite the importance of the Chalk as a major UK aquifer, knowledge of the subsurface movement of water and solutes is poor. Solute transport in the dual porosity unsaturated zone depends on fracture/matrix interactions that are difficult to observe; current experimental and modelling research supports the predominance of matrix flow and suggests that slow migration of a time-history of decades of nutrient loading is occurring. Groundwater flows are complex; catchments vary seasonally and are ill-defined and karst features are locally important. Groundwater flow pathways are being investigated using natural and artificial geochemical tracers based on experimental borehole arrays; stream-aquifer interaction research is using a combination of geophysics, borehole array geochemistry and longitudinal profiles of stream flow and solutes. A complex picture of localised subsurface inflows, linked to geological controls and karst features, and significant longitudinal groundwater flow below the river channel is emerging. Management implications are discussed. Strategies to control surface application of nutrients are expected to have little effect on groundwater quality for several

  20. Research Programmes that Promote Novel, Ambitious, Unconventional and High-Risk Research: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendergast, Patrick J.; Brown, Sheena H.; Britton, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Many governmental agencies and private foundations provide funding programs that aim to stimulate high-risk research which is often unconventional and from which a high social and/or economic gain is expected. In this paper the authors survey the availability of such grants in Europe. In particular, they are interested in what funding agencies…

  1. Class@Baikal: the Endurance of the UNESCO Training-Through-Research Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, A.; Akhmanov, G.; Khlystov, O.; Tokarev, M.; Korost, D. V.; Poort, J.; Fokina, A.; Giliazetdinova, D. R.; Yurchenko, A.; Vodopyanov, S.

    2014-12-01

    In July 2014, by the initiative of the Moscow State University and Limnological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, the first Training-through-Research Class@Baikal was launched in Lake Baikal, Russia. The cruise program focused on seafloor sampling and acoustic investigations of gas seeps, flares, mud volcanoes, slumps and debris flows, canyons and channels in the coastal proximity. A comprehensive multidisciplinary program to train students has been developed to cover sedimentology, fluid geochemistry, biology, geophysics and marine geology in general. Daily lectures were conducted on board by academics presenting pertinent research projects, and cruise planning and preliminary results were discussed with all the scientific crew. A daily blog with updates on the expedition activities, images, and ongoing cruise results, was also completed (i.e. visit the cruise blog: http://baikal.festivalnauki.ru/) and gave the opportunity to interact with experts as well as attract the interest also of a broader audience. This project is a follow up to the well-established UNESCO Training-through-Research (TTR) Floating University Programme (http://floatinguniversity.ru/) that covered large areas on the European and arctic margins since 1991 with 18 research cruises attended by about 1000 BSc, MSc and PhD students from Europe, Asia, Africa and America. The crucial goal of both programmes is the training of new generations of scientists through active research directly on the field. Students can access the collected data and samples for their Master and PhD projects. Typically an extensive set of analyses and data processing is completed in-house and the results and interpretations are presented at post cruise meetings and international conferences. The Baikal lake is 25 million years old rift zone and provides a large variety of active geological features that can be easily reached at daily sailing distance. This represents an extraordinary opportunity to switch and focus

  2. [Nursing research and the Hospital Programme for Nursing and Allied Health Research].

    PubMed

    Chardin, Marc; Benazzouz, Marie; Brocker, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Nursing research is perceived as a way of improving quality of care. As is the case in Britain and Switzerland, this ambitious activity is developing in France, favoured by the raising of nursing studies to university level and boosted by funding from the French ministry of health. A nursing team at Pitié-Salpêtrière hospital, in Paris, share their enthusiasm for this new approach. PMID:26145427

  3. Yearbook 1993: Bioenergy Research Programme. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alakangas, Eija

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of the energy technology programs of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry. The aim of the program is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. R&D projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling, and utilization of biofuels. The total funding for 1993 was 45 million FIM and the number of projects 50. The research area of biomass conversion consists of 7 projects in 1993, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 10 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1993 and the plans for 1994 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion research is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well as wood processing industry and power plants than it is possible at present day appliances. The conversion research in 1993 was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extraction of them into fuel oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and combustion tests. The target of the bioenergy utilization research is to demonstrate three to four new utilization technologies or methods. Each of these plants should have a potential of 0.2 - 0.3 million toe. The 1993 projects consisted of three main categories: reduction of emissions from small-scale combustion equipment, development of different equipment and methods for new power plant technologies, and the studies concerning additional usage of wood fuels in forest industry.

  4. Site Selection and Geological Research Connected with High Level Waste Disposal Programme in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Tomas, J.

    2003-02-25

    Attempts to solve the problem of high-level waste disposal including the spent fuel from nuclear power plants have been made in the Czech Republic for over the 10 years. Already in 1991 the Ministry of Environment entitled The Czech Geological Survey to deal with the siting of the locality for HLW disposal and the project No. 3308 ''The geological research of the safe disposal of high level waste'' had started. Within this project a sub-project ''A selection of perspective HLW disposal sites in the Bohemian Massif'' has been elaborated and 27 prospective areas were identified in the Czech Republic. This selection has been later narrowed to 8 areas which are recently studied in more detail. As a parallel research activity with siting a granitic body Melechov Massif in Central Moldanubian Pluton has been chosen as a test site and the 1st stage of research i.e. evaluation and study of its geological, hydrogeological, geophysical, tectonic and structural properties has been already completed. The Melechov Massif was selected as a test site after the recommendation of WATRP (Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme) mission of IAEA (1993) because it represents an area analogous with the host geological environment for the future HLW and spent fuel disposal in the Czech Republic, i.e. variscan granitoids. It is necessary to say that this site would not be in a locality where the deep repository will be built, although it is a site suitable for oriented research for the sampling and collection of descriptive data using up to date and advanced scientific methods. The Czech Republic HLW and spent fuel disposal programme is now based on The Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (''Concept'' hereinafter) which has been prepared in compliance with energy policy approved by Government Decree No. 50 of 12th January 2000 and approved by the Government in May 2002. Preparation of the Concept was required, amongst other reasons in

  5. Activities and current research from the EC, standards, measurements and testing programme (SMT) in the area of food contact materials.

    PubMed

    Boenke, A

    1997-01-01

    The EC, Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme (SMT) is the successor of the Measurements and Testing Programme (M&T) and the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). Its objectives include the provision of research and technical support to standardization and health of the society when it is required to improve the competitive position of European industry, and for the development or implementation of Community policy. The SMT-Programme is currently supporting a number of different types of collaborative projects in the food packaging sphere. Their objectives range from method development via preparation and certification of reference materials, preparation of a handbook and the update of a spectral atlas to pre-normative research providing information on a number of sources and wide range of packed products being transported throughout Europe. PMID:9373520

  6. The POPPY Research Programme protocol: investigating opioid utilisation, costs and patterns of extramedical use in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Blanch, Bianca; Gisev, Natasa; Larance, Briony; Pearson, Sallie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Opioid prescribing is increasing in many countries. In Australia, there is limited research on patterns of prescribing and access, or the outcomes associated with this use. The aim of this research programme is to use national dispensing data to estimate opioid use and costs, including problematic or extramedical use in the Australian population. Methods and analysis In a cohort of persons dispensed at least one opioid in 2013, we will estimate monthly utilisation and costs of prescribed opioids, overall and according to individual opioid formulations and strengths. In a cohort of new opioid users, commencing therapy between 1 July 2009 and 31 December 2013, we will examine patterns of opioid use including initiation of therapy, duration of treatment and concomitant use of opioids and other prescribed medicines. We will also examine patterns of extramedical opioid use based on indicators including excess dosing, use of more than one opioid concomitantly, doctor/pharmacy shopping and accelerated time to prescription refill. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the NSW Population and Health Services Ethics Committee (March 2014) and data access approved by the Department of Human Services External Review Evaluation Committee (June 2014). This will be one of the first comprehensive Australian studies with the capability to investigate individual patterns of use and track extramedical use. In the first instance our analysis will be based on 5 years of dispensing data but will be expanded with ongoing annual data updates. This research has the capability to contribute significantly to pharmaceutical policy within Australia and globally. In particular, the trajectory of extramedical prescription-opioid use has been the subject of limited research to date. The results of this research will be published widely in general medical, pharmacoepidemiology, addiction and psychiatry journals. PMID:25631315

  7. Contracts, Vouchers, and Child Care Subsidy Stability: A Preliminary Look at Associations between Subsidy Payment Mechanism and Stability of Subsidy Receipt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holod, Aleksandra; Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Background: The federal child care subsidy program, funded through the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF), is the nation's largest public investment in early child care. However, little is known about whether and how subsidy payment mechanisms relate to the stability of subsidy receipt or the stability of children's care arrangements.…

  8. Researching Doctoral Pedagogy Close up: Design and Action in Two Doctoral Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danby, Susan; Lee, Alison

    2012-01-01

    With growing international interest in diversifying sites for pedagogical work within the doctorate, doctoral programmes of different kinds are being developed in different disciplinary, institutional and national settings. However, little is known about how the pedagogical work of these programmes is designed and enacted, and with what effects.…

  9. DO CONSUMER PRICE SUBSIDIES REALLY IMPROVE NUTRITION?*

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Robert T.; Miller, Nolan H.

    2010-01-01

    Many developing countries use food-price subsidies or controls to improve nutrition. However, subsidizing goods on which households spend a high proportion of their budget can create large wealth effects. Consumers may then substitute towards foods with higher non-nutritional attributes (e.g., taste), but lower nutritional content per unit of currency, weakening or perhaps even reversing the subsidy’s intended impact. We analyze data from a randomized program of large price subsidies for poor households in two provinces of China and find no evidence that the subsidies improved nutrition. In fact, it may have had a negative impact for some households. (JEL I38; O12; Q18) PMID:22505779

  10. Student Discount Rates, Consumption Loans, and Subsidies to Professional Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leffler, Keith B.; Lindsay, Cotton M.

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes alternative, efficiency-based explanation of subsidies to medical training and medical care. The authors conclude that either excessive resources are being devoted to training physicians or factors other than capital market imperfections justify subsidies to this market. (CT)

  11. 46 CFR 282.31 - Subsidy billing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... subsidy for liner vessels, PART 282, Title 46, CFR; and (c) the operation of the vessels covered by said... OPERATORS OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY FOR LINER VESSELS ENGAGED IN ESSENTIAL SERVICES IN THE...

  12. 75 FR 32495 - Operating Fund Subsidies Allocation Formula

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... automated in the Subsidy and Grant Information System (SAGIS). DATES: Comments Due Date: July 8, 2010... collection are automated in the Subsidy and Grant Information System (SAGIS). Frequency of...

  13. National Report Germany: Sounding Rocket and Balloon Research Activities Supported by the German Space Programme in 2013-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, R.; Gritzner, C.; Friedrichs, D.

    2015-09-01

    Mainly sounding rockets but also stratospheric balloons have played a crucial role in implementing the German Space Programme since many years. Research activities were conducted in the fields of Microgravity Research, Space Science, Earth Observation, Space Technology Development, and Education. Currently, the mesosphere and ionosphere of the Earth and the photosphere and chromosphere of the Sun are in the focus of German research activities in the field of Space Science. Microgravity related topics are studied in the disciplines of Life and Physical Sciences during ballistic TEXUS and MAPHEUS rocket flights. A lot of student activities are currently supported by the agencies SNSB and DLR under the auspices of the Swedish-German programme REXUS/BEXUS.

  14. Federal Financial Interventions and Subsidies in Energy Markets 2007

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Lamar Alexander of Tennessee that the Energy Information Administration update its 1999 to 2000 work on federal energy subsidies, including any additions or deletions of federal subsidies based on Administration or Congressional action since 2000, and providing an estimate of the size of each current subsidy. Subsidies directed to electricity production are estimated on the basis of generation by fuel.

  15. 42 CFR 423.800 - Administration of subsidy program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of subsidy program. 423.800 Section...-Sharing Subsidies for Low-Income Individuals § 423.800 Administration of subsidy program. (a) Notification... organization. Based on information provided by CMS under paragraph (a) of this section, or obtained...

  16. 5 CFR 792.203 - Child care subsidy programs; eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Child care subsidy programs; eligibility... of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income Employees § 792.203 Child care subsidy programs; eligibility. (a)(1) An Executive agency may establish a child care subsidy program in which...

  17. 5 CFR 792.203 - Child care subsidy programs; eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Child care subsidy programs; eligibility... of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income Employees § 792.203 Child care subsidy programs; eligibility. (a)(1) An Executive agency may establish a child care subsidy program in which...

  18. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  19. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  20. Child-Care Subsidies and School Readiness in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    The federal child-care subsidy program represents one of the government's largest investments in early care and education. Using data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, this study examines associations, among subsidy-eligible families, between child-care subsidy receipt when children are 4…

  1. Impacts of subsidy policies on vaccination decisions in contact networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Xu, Xiao-Ke; Small, Michael; Wang, Lin; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2013-07-01

    To motivate more people to participate in vaccination campaigns, various subsidy policies are often supplied by government and the health sectors. However, these external incentives may also alter the vaccination decisions of the broader public, and hence the choice of incentive needs to be carefully considered. Since human behavior and the networking-constrained interactions among individuals significantly impact the evolution of an epidemic, here we consider the voluntary vaccination on human contact networks. To this end, two categories of typical subsidy policies are considered: (1) under the free subsidy policy, the total amount of subsidy is distributed to a certain fraction of individual and who are vaccinated without personal cost, and (2) under the partial-offset subsidy policy, each vaccinated person is offset by a certain amount of subsidy. A vaccination decision model based on evolutionary game theory is established to study the effects of these different subsidy policies on disease control. Simulations suggest that, because the partial-offset subsidy policy encourages more people to take vaccination, its performance is significantly better than that of the free subsidy policy. However, an interesting phenomenon emerges in the partial-offset scenario: with limited amount of total subsidy, a moderate subsidy rate for each vaccinated individual can guarantee the group-optimal vaccination, leading to the maximal social benefits, while such an optimal phenomenon is not evident for the free subsidy scenario.

  2. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  3. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  4. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  5. 46 CFR 282.20 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATORS OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY FOR LINER VESSELS ENGAGED IN ESSENTIAL SERVICES IN THE FOREIGN COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.20 Amount of subsidy payable. (a) Daily... represents the cost differential between the subsidized vessel and its foreign-flag competition. A daily...

  6. 46 CFR 282.31 - Subsidy billing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subsidy for liner vessels, PART 282, Title 46, CFR; and (c) the operation of the vessels covered by said... OPERATORS OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY FOR LINER VESSELS ENGAGED IN ESSENTIAL SERVICES IN THE FOREIGN... of the Operating-Differential Subsidy Agreement, Contract No. ____, dated as of ____, as amended,...

  7. 7 CFR 3550.157 - Payment subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Regular Servicing § 3550.157 Payment subsidy. (a... household becomes employed or changes employment, there is a change in household composition, or if income increases by at least 10 percent. The household may also report decreases in income. If the change in...

  8. 7 CFR 3550.68 - Payment subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.68 Payment subsidies.... The borrower must notify RHS whenever an adult member of the household changes or obtains employment, there is a change in household composition, or if income increases by at least 10 percent so that...

  9. 24 CFR 578.29 - Subsidy layering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES CONTINUUM OF CARE PROGRAM Application and Grant Award Process § 578.29.... 3545) and 24 CFR part 4, subpart A. An applicant must submit information in its application on other... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Subsidy layering. 578.29...

  10. 24 CFR 578.29 - Subsidy layering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES CONTINUUM OF CARE PROGRAM Application and Grant Award Process § 578.29.... 3545) and 24 CFR part 4, subpart A. An applicant must submit information in its application on other... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Subsidy layering. 578.29 Section...

  11. Tax subsidies for private health insurance.

    PubMed

    Williams, Claudia; Burman, Len; Uccello, Cori; Wheaton, Laura; Kobes, Deborah; Khitatrakun, Surachai; Goodell, Sarah

    2003-05-01

    The exclusion from income and payroll taxes for employer-paid health insurance premiums amounted to more than $240 billion in 2010. As policy-makers search for ways to pay for health care reform and contain health care costs, this exclusion is coming under scrutiny, despite the fact that employee-sponsored insurance (ESI) is an integral part of the health insurance system. This update of a 2003 synthesis looks at the tax subsidy for private health insurance. Key findings include: The current tax subsidy benefits higher-income workers the most. The tax exclusion is worth more to those in higher tax brackets, higher-income workers are three times more likely to work for firms who offer ESI than lower-income workers, and they are more likely to purchase ESI when offered because they can afford it. Families earning $10,000 to $20,000 annually spend more than 25 percent of their income on health insurance but the value of their tax subsidy is only $1,500. By contrast, earners over $200,000 spend less than 5 percent on health insurance but their benefit is worth $4,500. Workers who cannot afford ESI or are ineligible, including the self-employed and many part-time workers, do not receive this subsidy when they purchase private, non-group coverage. PMID:22052181

  12. On-Going Nuclear Physics and Technology Research Programmes in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2007-10-01

    Innovative nuclear technology applications have emerged in recent years and triggered an unprecedented interest of different communities of scientists worldwide, concerned by the multidisciplinary scientific, technical and engineering aspects of such applications. ADS (Accelerator Driven Systems, for the transmutation of highly radiotoxic nuclear waste), EA (Energy Amplifiers, for the production of energy), Spallation Neutron Sources (for multiple applications such as in Bio-Sciences, Medicine, Material Science), Radioactive Ion Beams (of relevance for fundamental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, for applications in Medicine, amongst many others) are examples of applications that address a set of common multidisciplinary, leading edge and cross-cutting issues and research topics. Other applications being considered for High-Energy Physics purposes consist on facilities aiming at producing intense neutrino beams. The sustainability of nuclear energy as an economically competitive, environmentally friend and proliferation resistant technology to meet mankind's growing energy demand has imposed in recent years the consideration of new (Generation IV) or non-conventional types of nuclear reactors, operating with non-standard coolants, higher-energy neutron spectra, higher temperatures, amongst other issues. The safety and operational aspects of these nuclear energy systems share with the nuclear technology applications previously referred (ADS, EA, SNS, etc.) a set of common scientific and technical issues. In this paper, the scientific, technical and engineering topics and issues of relevance for the implementation and deployment of some of the systems previously described are briefly presented. A set of selected major on-going R&D programmes and experiments involving international collaborations of scientists and consortia of institutions are succinctly described.

  13. On-Going Nuclear Physics and Technology Research Programmes in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Vaz, Pedro

    2007-10-26

    Innovative nuclear technology applications have emerged in recent years and triggered an unprecedented interest of different communities of scientists worldwide, concerned by the multidisciplinary scientific, technical and engineering aspects of such applications. ADS (Accelerator Driven Systems, for the transmutation of highly radiotoxic nuclear waste), EA (Energy Amplifiers, for the production of energy), Spallation Neutron Sources (for multiple applications such as in Bio-Sciences, Medicine, Material Science), Radioactive Ion Beams (of relevance for fundamental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, for applications in Medicine, amongst many others) are examples of applications that address a set of common multidisciplinary, leading edge and cross-cutting issues and research topics. Other applications being considered for High-Energy Physics purposes consist on facilities aiming at producing intense neutrino beams.The sustainability of nuclear energy as an economically competitive, environmentally friend and proliferation resistant technology to meet mankind's growing energy demand has imposed in recent years the consideration of new (Generation IV) or non-conventional types of nuclear reactors, operating with non-standard coolants, higher-energy neutron spectra, higher temperatures, amongst other issues. The safety and operational aspects of these nuclear energy systems share with the nuclear technology applications previously referred (ADS, EA, SNS, etc.) a set of common scientific and technical issues.In this paper, the scientific, technical and engineering topics and issues of relevance for the implementation and deployment of some of the systems previously described are briefly presented. A set of selected major on-going R and D programmes and experiments involving international collaborations of scientists and consortia of institutions are succinctly described.

  14. Promoting interdisciplinary collaboration in health research in developing countries: lessons from the Triangle Programme in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Silva, K T; Peeters, R; Lewis, J

    1994-08-01

    The Triangle Programme (1989-1992) aimed at strengthening the institutional capacity for health social science research and intervention in Sri Lanka through the promotion of appropriate international and national partnerships. First, it involved an international partnership (Triangle 1) among two universities in the developed world, i.c. University of Antwerp in Belgium and the University of Connecticut in the USA, and one university in the developing world, i.c. the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. This partnership facilitated the transfer of knowledge, experience, skills across national boundaries and the North/South divide. Second, it developed a national/local partnership (Triangle 2) among the Faculties of Arts, Agriculture and Medicine at the University of Peradeniya by involving them in a joint programme of health social science research and training covering the entire range of activities from proposal development to dissemination of research results. Focusing on the latter aspect (Triangle 2) this paper reviews the results of the programme from the angle of cross-fertilization of disciplines through their collaboration in applied health research in a developing country setting. PMID:7985551

  15. A training programme to build cancer research capacity in low- and middle-income countries: findings from Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Gharzouzi, Eduardo N; Benson, Peter; Colditz, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Problem Guatemala is experiencing an increasing burden of cancer but lacks capacity for cancer prevention, control and research. Approach In partnership with a medical school in the United States of America, a multidisciplinary Cancer Control Research Training Institute was developed at the Instituto de Cancerología (INCAN) in Guatemala City. This institute provided a year-long training programme for clinicians that focused on research methods in population health and sociocultural anthropology. The programme included didactic experiences in Guatemala and the United States as well as applied training in which participants developed research protocols responsive to Guatemala’s cancer needs. Local setting Although INCAN is the point of referral and service for Guatemala’s cancer patients, the institute’s administration is also interested in increasing cancer research – with a focus on population health. INCAN is thus a resource for capacity building within the context of cancer prevention and control. Relevant changes Trainees increased their self-efficacy for the design and conduct of research. Value-added benefits included establishment of an annual cancer seminar and workshops in cancer pathology and qualitative analysis. INCAN has recently incorporated some of the programme’s components into its residency training and established a research department. Lessons learnt A training programme for clinicians can build cancer research capacity in low- and middle-income countries. Training in population-based research methods will enable countries such as Guatemala to gather country-specific data. Once collected, such data can be used to assess the burden of cancer-related disease, guide policy for reducing it and identify priority areas for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:24700998

  16. 19 CFR 351.525 - Calculation of ad valorem subsidy rate and attribution of subsidy to a product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calculation of ad valorem subsidy rate and attribution of subsidy to a product. 351.525 Section 351.525 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.525 Calculation...

  17. Impact of Health Research Capacity Strengthening in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: The Case of WHO/TDR Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Minja, Happiness; Nsanzabana, Christian; Maure, Christine; Hoffmann, Axel; Rumisha, Susan; Ogundahunsi, Olumide; Zicker, Fabio; Tanner, Marcel; Launois, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Background Measuring the impact of capacity strengthening support is a priority for the international development community. Several frameworks exist for monitoring and evaluating funding results and modalities. Based on its long history of support, we report on the impact of individual and institutional capacity strengthening programmes conducted by the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and on the factors that influenced the outcome of its Research Capacity Strengthening (RCS) activities. Methodology and Principal Findings A mix of qualitative and quantitative methods (questionnaires and in-depth interviews) was applied to a selected group of 128 individual and 20 institutional capacity development grant recipients that completed their training/projects between 2000 and 2008. A semi-structured interview was also conducted on site with scientists from four institutions. Most of the grantees, both individual and institutional, reported beneficial results from the grant. However, glaring inequities stemming from gender imbalances and a language bias towards English were identified. The study showed that skills improvement through training contributed to better formulation of research proposals, but not necessarily to improved project implementation or communication of results. Appreciation of the institutional grants' impact varied among recipient countries. The least developed countries saw the programmes as essential for supporting basic infrastructure and activities. Advanced developing countries perceived the research grants as complementary to available resources, and particularly suitable for junior researchers who were not yet able to compete for major international grants. Conclusion The study highlights the need for a more equitable process to improve the effectiveness of health research capacity strengthening activities. Support should be tailored to the existing research capacity in disease

  18. Research Capacity Strengthening in Low and Middle Income Countries – An Evaluation of the WHO/TDR Career Development Fellowship Programme

    PubMed Central

    Käser, Michael; Maure, Christine; Halpaap, Beatrice M. M.; Vahedi, Mahnaz; Yamaka, Sara; Launois, Pascal; Casamitjana, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Between August 2012 and April 2013 the Career Development Fellowship programme of the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (World Health Organization) underwent an external evaluation to assess its past performance and determine recommendations for future programme development and continuous performance improvement. The programme provides a year-long training experience for qualified researchers from low and middle income countries at pharmaceutical companies or product development partnerships. Independent evaluators from the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and the Barcelona Institute for Global Health used a results-based methodology to review the programme. Data were gathered through document review, surveys, and interviews with a range of programme participants. The final evaluation report found the Career Development Fellowship to be relevant to organizers’ and programme objectives, efficient in its operations, and effective in its training scheme, which was found to address needs and gaps for both fellows and their home institutions. Evaluators found that the programme has the potential for impact and sustainability beyond the programme period, especially with the successful reintegration of fellows into their home institutions, through which newly-developed skills can be shared at the institutional level. Recommendations included the development of a scheme to support the re-integration of fellows into their home institutions post-fellowship and to seek partnerships to facilitate the scaling-up of the programme. The impact of the Professional Membership Scheme, an online professional development tool launched through the programme, beyond the scope of the Career Development Fellowship programme itself to other applications, has been identified as a positive unintended outcome. The results of this evaluation may be of interest for other efforts in the field of research capacity strengthening in LMICs or, generally, to

  19. Global Learning in England: Baseline Analysis of the Global Learning Programme Whole School Audit 2013-14. Research Paper No. 15 for the Global Learning Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Frances; Cara, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The Global Learning Programme in England is an initiative aimed at supporting the teaching and learning of global learning in schools in England at Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 3. It is a five-year national programme of support to schools to enhance their provision of global learning. Specifically, the GLP-E works with teachers to enhance their…

  20. Experience of targeting subsidies on insecticide-treated nets: what do we know and what are the knowledge gaps?

    PubMed

    Worrall, Eve; Hill, Jenny; Webster, Jayne; Mortimer, Julia

    2005-01-01

    Widespread coverage of vulnerable populations with insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) constitutes an important component of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) strategy to control malaria. The Abuja Targets call for 60% coverage of children under 5 years of age and pregnant women by 2005; but current coverage in Africa is unacceptably low. The RBM 'Strategic Framework for Coordinated National Action in Scaling-up Insecticide-Treated Netting Programmes in Africa' promotes coordinated national action and advocates sustained public provision of targeted subsidies to maximise public health benefits, alongside support and stimulation of the private sector. Several countries have already planned or initiated targeted subsidy schemes either on a pilot scale or on a national scale, and have valuable experience which can inform future interventions. The WHO RBM 'Workshop on mapping models for delivering ITNs through targeted subsidies' held in Zambia in 2003 provided an opportunity to share and document these country experiences. This paper brings together experiences presented at the workshop with other information on experiences of targeting subsidies on ITNs, net treatment kits and retreatment services (ITN products) in order to describe alternative approaches, highlight their similarities and differences, outline lessons learnt, and identify gaps in knowledge. We find that while there is a growing body of knowledge on different approaches to targeting ITN subsidies, there are significant gaps in knowledge in crucial areas. Key questions regarding how best to target, how much it will cost and what outcomes (levels of coverage) to expect remain unanswered. High quality, well-funded monitoring and evaluation of alternative approaches to targeting ITN subsidies is vital to develop a knowledge base so that countries can design and implement effective strategies to target ITN subsidies. PMID:15655010

  1. The economic cost of fuel price subsidies in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori, Roland Oduro

    I adapt the Harberger formula for deadweight loss to develop approximations for the deadweight loss created by multiple fuel price subsidies. I also estimate the own-price, cross-price, and income elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel in Africa. I use data on fuel prices and sales in combination with my formulas and elasticity estimates to calculate the deadweight loss of fuel price subsidies in Ghana from 2009 to 2014. I show that the average efficiency cost of the gasoline and diesel price subsidies in Ghana is 0.8% of fuel price subsidy transfers. This result stresses the futility of basing subsidy reforms on economic efficiency losses, which are relatively small due to very inelastic energy demand, and the need for such reforms to be motivated by the poor-targeting of subsidies to low-income households and the impact of subsidies on government debt-financing.

  2. A Summary of Research on the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme: Perspectives of Students, Teachers, and University Admissions Offices in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culross, Rita; Tarver, Emily

    2011-01-01

    This is the summary of a series of research studies into the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme (DP) in the USA, beginning with the investigation of how the first class of IB DP graduates in an individual school perceived the impacts and benefits of the programme, through further investigations of teacher perceptions of the…

  3. Researching, Teaching and Professional Development: How to Build Quality and Reflection into Our MPA-Programmes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notten, Ton

    2013-01-01

    Continuing adult education requires continuous education of the educators themselves--a highly self-referential issue. This article focuses on educating a group of "urban educators" in the western part of the Netherlands who have been involved in broad urban educational programmes: school, parental education and participation, living…

  4. Entrepreneurship for Bioscience Researchers: A Case Study of an Entrepreneurship Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinonen, Jarna; Poikkijoki, Sari-Anne; Vento-Vierikko, Irma

    2007-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is reaching new areas in which the concept of business is more or less unfamiliar and remote. This study focuses on a specific entrepreneurship education programme in the fields of chemistry, physics, information technology and bioinformatics, life sciences and medicine development. The aim is to gain a deeper understanding of the…

  5. Groundwater subsidies and penalties to corn yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipper, S. C.; Booth, E.; Loheide, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Proper water management is critical to closing yield gaps (observed yield below potential yield) as global populations continue to expand. However, the impacts of shallow groundwater on crop production and surface processes are poorly understood. The presence of groundwater within or just below the root zone has the potential to cause (via oxygen stress in poorly drained soils) or eliminate (via water supply in dry regions) yield gaps. The additional water use by a plant in the presence of shallow groundwater, compared to free drainage conditions, is called the groundwater subsidy; the depth at which the groundwater subsidy is greatest is the optimal depth to groundwater (DTGW). In wet years or under very shallow water table conditions, the groundwater subsidy is likely to be negative due to increased oxygen stress, and can be thought of as a groundwater penalty. Understanding the spatial dynamics of groundwater subsidies/penalties and how they interact with weather is critical to making sustainable agricultural and land-use decisions under a range of potential climates. Here, we examine patterns of groundwater subsidies and penalties in two commercial cornfields in the Yahara River Watershed, an urbanizing agricultural watershed in south-central Wisconsin. Water table levels are generally rising in the region due to a long-term trend of increasing precipitation over the last several decades. Biophysical indicators tracked throughout both the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons show a strong response to variable groundwater levels on a field scale. Sections of the field with optimal DTGW exhibit consistently higher stomatal conductance rates, taller canopies and higher leaf area index, higher ET rates, and higher pollination success rates. Patterns in these biophysical lines of evidence allow us to pinpoint specific periods within the growing season that plants were experiencing either oxygen or water stress. Most importantly, groundwater subsidies and penalties are

  6. Anthrax control and research, with special reference to national programme development in Africa: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence of anthrax in both animal and human populations has been increasing in Africa. It was therefore appropriate for this WHO meeting to be convened in an endemic area of the Western Province of Zambia in 1992. The participants reviewed anthrax epidemiology and control in some African countries, elaborated national anthrax control and research programmes in Africa, discussed international cooperation and work plans, and elaborated recommendations for anthrax control in Africa. The discussions centred on anthrax surveillance and reporting systems, diagnosis, vaccine production and immunization, disinfection and decontamination, carcass disposal, treatment of human cases, health systems, as well as intersectorial cooperation between public health services, veterinary services and other services such as wildlife conservation, so that national control programmes could take full account of the conditions prevailing in epidemic situations in Africa. The recommendations are applicable in other regions where anthrax poses similar problems in public, animal and environmental health. PMID:8131249

  7. Agricultural subsidies and the American obesity epidemic.

    PubMed

    Franck, Caroline; Grandi, Sonia M; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2013-09-01

    Government-issued agricultural subsidies are worsening obesity trends in America. Current agricultural policy remains largely uninformed by public health discourse. Although findings suggest that eliminating all subsidies would have a mild impact on the prevalence of obesity, a revision of commodity programs could have a measurable public health impact on a population scale, over time. Policy reforms will be important determinants of the future of obesity in America, primarily through indemnity program revisions, and the allocation of increasing amounts of resources to sustainable agriculture. Public health intervention will be required at the policy level to promote healthy behavioral changes in consumers. The 2013 Farm Bill will be the key mechanism to induce such policy change in the near future. PMID:23953360

  8. The Environment Programme for the Whole of the United Nations 1990-95: 13 Broad Programmes, Emphasizing Research, Assessment, Technical Assistance and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNEP News, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Lists titles of 31 environmental programs over 13 broad categories including terrestrial ecosystems, oceans, health and welfare, and energy, industry and transportation. Describes the general objectives, implementing agencies, and the role of UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). (YP)

  9. The severe accident research programme PHEBUS F.P.: First results and future tests

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, M.; Hardt, P. von der

    1996-03-01

    PHEBUS FP is an international programme, managed by the French Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Electricite de France and the European Commission in close collaboration with the USNRC (US), COG (Canada), NUPEC and JAERI (Japan) and KAERI (South Korea). Its objective is to investigate through a series of in-pile integral experiments, key phenomena involved in LWR severe accident such as the degradation of core materials up to molten pool, the subsequent release of fission products and of structural materials, their transport in the cooling system and their deposition in the containment with a special emphasis on the volatility of iodine. After a general programme description, the paper focuses on the status of analysis of the first test FPT-0, which involved trace irradiated fuel and which has shown some quite unexpected results regarding fuel degradation and iodine behaviour, and on the upcoming test FPT-1 which will use irradiated fuel. The status of the preparation of the remaining tests of the programme is also presented.

  10. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    PubMed

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. PMID:21498864

  11. Child Care Subsidies and Child Care Choices over Time

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Ryan, Rebecca M.

    2014-01-01

    The evidence to date on the federal child care subsidy program’s effect on preschool child care quality is mixed. However, an as-yet untested outcome of subsidy receipt is subsequent child care choice. Specifically, it is possible that subsidy receipt in toddlerhood increases the likelihood of attending other publicly-funded preschool programs – Head Start and public pre-k – that provide the highest quality care available to low-income families. Using data from the ECLS-B, (n ≈ 2,100; beginning age=9 months), this study finds that subsidy receipt during toddlerhood predicts greater use of the other forms of publicly-funded care in the preschool year, although only if the earlier subsidy is used in a center. These results highlight a previously unconsidered potential benefit of the subsidy program. PMID:24919652

  12. Child-care subsidies and school readiness in kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Anna D; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    The federal child-care subsidy program represents one of the government's largest investments in early care and education. Using data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, this study examines associations, among subsidy-eligible families, between child-care subsidy receipt when children are 4 years old and a range of school readiness outcomes in kindergarten (sample n ≈ 1,400). Findings suggest that subsidy receipt in preschool is not directly linked to subsequent reading or social-emotional skills. However, subsidy receipt predicted lower math scores among children attending community-based centers. Supplementary analyses revealed that subsidies predicted greater use of center care, but this association did not appear to affect school readiness. PMID:23461769

  13. Child Care Subsidies and School Readiness in Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Anna D; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    The federal child care subsidy program represents one of the government’s largest investments in early care and education. Using data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), this paper examines associations, among subsidy-eligible families, between child care subsidy receipt when children are 4 years old and a range of school readiness outcomes in kindergarten (sample n ≈ 1,400). Findings suggest that subsidy receipt in preschool is not directly linked to subsequent reading or social-emotional skills. However, subsidy receipt predicted lower math scores among children attending community-based centers. Supplementary analyses revealed that subsidies predicted greater use of center care, but this association did not appear to affect school readiness. PMID:23461769

  14. The IAEA coordinated research programme on the performance of high-level, waste forms and packages under repository conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyplenkov, V.S.

    1993-12-31

    The IAEA initiated, in 1991, a Coordinated Research Programme (CRP), with the aim of promoting the exchange of information on the results obtained by different countries in the performance of high-level waste forms and waste packages under conditions relevant to final repository. These studies are being undertaken to obtain reliable data as input to safety assessments and environmental impact analyses, for final disposal purposes. The CRP includes studies on waste forms that are presently of interest worldwide: borosilicate glass, Synroc and spent fuel. Ten laboratories leading in investigation of high-level waste form performance have already joined the programme. The results of their studies and plans for future research were presented at the first Research Coordination Meeting, held in Karlsruhe, Germany, in November 1991. The technical contributions concentrated on effecting an understanding of dissolution mechanisms of waste forms under simulated repository conditions. A quantitative interpretation of the chemical processes in the near field is considered a prerequisite for long-term predictions and for the formulation of a {open_quotes}source term{close_quotes} for performance assessment studies.

  15. Money to burn. The high costs of energy subsidies

    SciTech Connect

    Kosmo, M.

    1987-01-01

    Although many countries have reduced petroleum subsidies substantially since 1981 or so, such subsidies still persist, especially in the oil-exporting countries. Moreover, subsidies to electricity, natural gas, and coal are even more pervasive. As for both microeconomic and macroeconomic effects, Kosmo shows that the putative benefits of subsidies - economic stimulation, enhanced trade performance, and inflation control - aren't the true effects. Indeed, subsidies tend to increase unemployment (as energy is substituted for labor) and encourage over-investment in energy-intensive industries at the expense of other sectors. At the same time, they have little impact on overall trade balances, inflation, or the lot of the poor. Energy subsidies also translate into foregone revenues and the inefficient use of energy. Of course, the ill effects of energy subsidies cannot be rooted out overnight without traumatizing a nation's economy, even if politics permitted. But Money to Burn. does point the way to a politically and economically acceptable transition to the next energy era, one based on sharp increases in energy efficiency in rich and poor countries alike. Chapters are devoted to the following: Energy Pricing Policy: Hwat is at Stake; Current Fuel-Pricing Trends; Macroeconomic Effects of Energy Subsidies; and Microeconomic Effects of Energy Subsidies. 83 references, 11 figure, 14 tables.

  16. The National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for Leicestershire, Northamptonshire and Rutland (LNR): a programme protocol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In October 2008, the National Institute for Health Research launched nine new research projects to develop and investigate methods of translating research evidence into practice. Given the title Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC), all involve collaboration between one or more universities and the local health service, but they are adopting different approaches to achieve translation. Methods The translation and implementation programme of this CLAHRC has been built around a pragmatic framework for undertaking research to address live concerns in the delivery of care, in partnership with the managers, practitioners, and patients of the provider organisations of the CLAHRC. Focused on long-term conditions, the constituent research themes are prevention, early detection, self-management, rehabilitation, and implementation. Individual studies have various designs, and include both randomised trials of new ways to deliver care and qualitative studies of, for example, means of identifying barriers to research translation. A mix of methods will be used to evaluate the CLAHRC as a whole, including use of public health indicators, social research methods, and health economics. Discussion This paper describes one of the nine collaborations, that of Leicestershire, Northamptonshire, and Rutland. Drawing a distinction between translation as an organising principle for healthcare providers and implementation as a discrete activity, this collaboration is built on a substantial programme of applied research intended to create both research generation and research use capacity in provider organisations. The collaboration in Leicestershire, Northamptonshire, and Rutland has potential to provide evidence on how partnerships between practitioners, patients, and researchers can improve the transfer of evidence into practice. PMID:19906317

  17. A draft of guidance from the scientific Research Programme GEOTECHNOLOGIEN to underpin the implementation of the CCS Directive in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streibel, Martin; Schoebel, Birgit

    2015-04-01

    In 2004 the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany launched the programme GEOTECHNOLOGIEN with one key aspect being the development of technologies for sustainable storage of carbon dioxide in geological formations. Within this research field more than 30 projects in three consecutive programme phases have been funded up to the end of 2014. In order to benefit from the gathered knowledge and use the experiences for the policy/law making process the umbrella project AUGE has been launched in October 2012 with a life time of three years. The aim of the project is to review and compile all results of projects funded during the three phases to underpin the appendices of the German transposition of the EC Directive 2009/31/EC the "Carbon Dioxide Storage Law" (KSpG). The results of the projects have been structured along the lines of the two appendices of the KSpG which are similar to the ones of the EC Directive. The detailed structure follows the CSA Z741, Canada's first CCS standard for the geological storage of carbon emissions deep underground. This document also serves as the draft version for the ISO Technical Committee 265 "Carbon dioxide capture, transportation, and geological storage". From the risk management perspective, according to ISO 31000, most of the research performed in the above mentioned scientific programme dealt with contextual background of geological CO2 storage asking the question which physical, chemical and biological interactions of CO2 are most important to understand to evaluate if CO2 storage in general is feasible. This lead to risk identification, risk analysis and risk evaluation. Major topics of the scientific programme were • site characterisation with development and optimisation of laboratory procedures and implementation amongst other activities at the pilot site at Ketzin; • optimization of seismic procedures for site characterisation and the detection of injected CO2; • physical, chemical and microbiological

  18. The special programme of research in human reproduction: forty years of activities to achieve reproductive health for all.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; d'Arcangues, Catherine; Harris Requejo, Jennifer; Schafer, Alessandra; Say, Lale; Merialdi, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction (HRP), co-sponsored by the UNDP, UNFPA, WHO, and the World Bank, is celebrating 40 years of activities with an expansion of its mandate and new co-sponsors. When it began, in 1972, the main focus was on evaluating the acceptability, effectiveness, and safety of existing fertility-regulating methods, as well as developing new, improved modalities for family planning. In 1994, HRP not only made major contributions to the Plan of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD); it also broadened its scope of work to include other aspects of health dealing with sexuality and reproduction, adding a specific perspective on gender issues and human rights. In 2002, HRP's mandate was once again broadened to include sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS and in 2003 it was further expanded to research activities on preventing violence against women and its many dire health consequences. Today, the work of the Programme includes research on: the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents, women, and men; maternal and perinatal health; reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections (including HIV/AIDS); family planning; infertility; unsafe abortion; sexual health; screening for cancer of the cervix in developing countries, and gender and reproductive rights. Additional activities by the Programme have included: fostering international cooperation in the field of human reproduction; the elaboration of WHO's first Global Reproductive Health Strategy; work leading to the inclusion of ICPD's goal 'reproductive health for all by 2015' into the Millennium Development Goal framework; the promotion of critical interagency statements on the public health, legal, and human rights implications of female genital mutilation and gender-biased sex selection. Finally, HRP has been involved in the creation of guidelines and tools, such as the 'Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use

  19. Healthy universities--time for action: a qualitative research study exploring the potential for a national programme.

    PubMed

    Dooris, Mark; Doherty, Sharon

    2010-03-01

    Despite the absence of national or international steers, there is within England growing interest in the Healthy University approach. This article introduces Healthy Universities; reports on a qualitative study exploring the potential for a national programme contributing to health, well-being and sustainable development; and concludes with reflections and recommendations. The study used questionnaires and interviews with key informants from English higher education institutions and national stakeholder organizations. The findings confirmed that higher education offers significant potential to impact positively on the health and well-being of students, staff and wider communities through education, research, knowledge exchange and institutional practice. There was strong support for extending the healthy settings approach beyond schools and further education, through a National Healthy Higher Education Programme that provides a whole system Healthy University Framework. Informants argued that although there are important public health drivers, it will also be necessary to show how a Healthy Universities can help achieve core business objectives and contribute to related agendas such as sustainability. Two models were discussed: an accreditation scheme with externally assessed standardized achievement criteria; and a flexible and light-touch framework focusing on change-related processes and utilizing self-assessment. While highlighting the appeal of league tables, many informants feared that a top-down approach could backfire, generating resistance and resulting in minimal compliance. In contrast, the majority felt that a process-focused aspirational model would be more likely to win hearts and minds and facilitate system-level change. Key recommendations relate to national programme development, research and evaluation and international collaboration and networking. PMID:20167825

  20. Shallow groundwater subsidies to terrestrial ecosystems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. B.; Jayawickreme, D.; Nosetto, M.; Jobbagy, E. G.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout the world, shallow groundwater systems subsidize much higher net primary productivity (NPP) than would be expected based solely on local rainfall. Such subsidies are far more prevalent and less recognized in upland systems than in more commonly studied riparian ones. We present a quantitative framework for examining and quantifying groundwater subsidies globally, illustrating subsidies to NPP across rainfall gradients in Argentina and the southern United States, including Texas and California. In the Argentine Pampas, we determined that the presence of relatively shallow ground water increased the transpiration of forest plantations by 300 to 400 mm. Farther west, the presence of well developed Prosopis flexuosa woodlands in the Monte desert region east of the Andes has puzzled scientists for decades. We explored the vulnerability and importance of phreatic ground water for the productivity of the region, comparing the contributions of local rainfall to that of remote mountain recharge that is increasingly being diverted for irrigated agriculture before it reaches the desert. The isotopic composition of phreatic ground waters (δ2H; -137±5 ‰) closely matched the signature of water brought to the region by the Mendoza River (-137±6 ‰), suggesting that mountain river infiltration rather than in-situ rainfall deep drainage (-39±19 ‰) was the dominant mechanism of recharge. Vegetation in woodland ecosystems there relied on regionally derived ground water from Andean snowmelt located from 6.5 to 9.5 m underground. Understanding the ecohydrological coupling of surface and ground waters is vital for estimating net primary productivity and for balancing the demands of managed ecosystems with the conservation of unique natural systems.

  1. 24 CFR 92.250 - Maximum per-unit subsidy amount and subsidy layering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... subsidy layering. 92.250 Section 92.250 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Project Requirements § 92.250... the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 17151(d)(3)(ii)) for elevator-type projects that apply to the...

  2. The Chernobyl accident as a source of new radiological knowledge: implications for Fukushima rehabilitation and research programmes.

    PubMed

    Balonov, Mikhail

    2013-03-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine in 1986 caused a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Europe. During large scale activities focused on overcoming of its negative consequences for public health, various research programmes in radioecology, dosimetry and radiation medicine were conducted. New knowledge was applied internationally in substantial updating of radiation protection systems for emergency and existing situations of human exposure, for improvement of emergency preparedness and response. Radioecological and dosimetry models were significantly improved and validated with numerous measurement data, guidance on environmental countermeasures and monitoring elaborated and tested.New radiological knowledge can be of use in the planning and implementation of rehabilitation programmes in Japan following the Fukushima nuclear accident. In particular, the following activity areas would benefit from application of the Chernobyl experience: strategy of rehabilitation, and technology of settlement decontamination and of countermeasures applied in agriculture and forestry. The Chernobyl experience could be very helpful in planning research activities initiated by the Fukushima radionuclide fallout, i.e. environmental transfer of radionuclides, effectiveness of site-specific countermeasures, nationwide dose assessment, health effect studies, etc. PMID:23295495

  3. Programme science research on medical male circumcision scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Gray, Ronald H; Wawer, Maria J; Kigozi, Godfrey

    2013-08-01

    Three randomised trials demonstrate that voluntary medical male circumcision (MMC) reduces male HIV acquisition by 50-60%, and post-trial surveillance has shown that the effects are long lasting. Scale-up of services has been initiated in 14 high-priority sub-Saharan African countries with high rates of HIV and low prevalence of MMC. However, circumcision coverage in the region remains low. Challenges to MMC rollout include suboptimal demand among higher-risk men, the need to expand access and reduce costs of MMC through personnel task shifting and task sharing, assuring and maintaining a high quality of service provision, and the testing and introduction of non-surgical devices. In addition, early infant male circumcision has not been adequately evaluated in Africa. Here, we describe challenges to implementation and discuss the ongoing and future role of implementation and programme science in addressing such challenges. PMID:23698513

  4. A Coupled Programme of Aerosol Research Within the OP3 and ACES Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFiggans, G.; Aces Aerosol Teams, P A

    2008-12-01

    The oxidation of organic compounds in the troposphere plays a central role in the generation of ozone, and leads to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and other secondary pollutants. Approximately 90% of organic material emitted globally is estimated to originate from biogenic sources, with almost half of all reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) being emitted from tropical and sub-tropical forests. It is becoming increasingly clear from observational studies that biogenic SOA (BSOA) is the dominant source of aerosol organic carbon concentrations in remote environments. This provides part of the motivation for the OP3 project. Ground-based aerosol measurements at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) site in Danum Valley Conservation Area in OP3 were provided by a suite of instrumentation for full composition and physical property characterisation (size distribution, hygroscopicity and CCN activation). To further enhance our understanding of aerosol processes in the Borneo rainforest, additional capability was assembled within the UK NERC funded "Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System" (ACES) programme. Field component enhancements to the OP3 aerosol payload by ACES included a deployment of aerosol and precursor flux measurements within the forest canopy to characterise primary bioaerosol sources and in-canopy chemistry leading to formation of secondary aerosol components. In addition, measurements of VOCs and aerosol composition were made above an oil palm plantation to assess the impact of land-use change on aerosol processes. ACES is a coupled programme of field, chamber, mechanism development and modelling investigations aiming to reduce uncertainties in our fundamental understanding of BSOA formation and the subsequent impact on atmospheric composition. In addition to summarising aerosol field measurements within ACES / OP3, we will present an overview of the status of the ACES chamber and modelling results with the overall aim to: i

  5. Do Lower Lender Subsidies Reduce Guaranteed Student Loan Supply?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, D. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes effects of borrower interest rates and student lender subsidies on federally guaranteed student loan volumes from 1988 to 1994 and from 1996 to 2006. Some have argued that lender subsidy cuts would reduce loan supply or cause lenders to exit the student loan market. If lenders get economic rents due to overly generous…

  6. Financing Techniques and Stadium Subsidies in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Ross D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper recognizes the numerous studies that have demonstrated that building stadiums for professional sports team is not a viable strategy for urban development. Despite these studies, however, subsidies continue to be offered to builders of stadiums. Why do these subsidies continue? This paper explores the four main drivers of stadium…

  7. Once perks' poster child, Spain slashes subsidies for solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-15

    Spanish solar subsidies peaked at $1.6 billion in 2008 from $310 million in 2007. Towards the end of 2008, the government slashed the subsidies and put a 500 MW annual limit on how much new solar installations it would take.

  8. 46 CFR 252.40 - Payment of subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of subsidy. 252.40 Section 252.40 Shipping... Payment and Billing Procedures § 252.40 Payment of subsidy. (a) Submission of voucher. At the close of each calendar month, the subsidized operator may submit a voucher, and include for payment in...

  9. 42 CFR 423.782 - Cost-sharing subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost-sharing subsidy. 423.782 Section 423.782 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Premiums and Cost-Sharing Subsidies for Low-Income Individuals §...

  10. 46 CFR 282.20 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of subsidy payable. 282.20 Section 282.20 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY FOR LINER VESSELS ENGAGED IN ESSENTIAL SERVICES IN THE...

  11. 46 CFR 282.30 - Payment of subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment of subsidy. 282.30 Section 282.30 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY FOR LINER VESSELS ENGAGED IN ESSENTIAL SERVICES IN THE...

  12. 46 CFR 282.30 - Payment of subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of subsidy. 282.30 Section 282.30 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND OPERATORS OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY FOR LINER VESSELS ENGAGED IN ESSENTIAL SERVICES IN THE...

  13. 14 CFR 271.7 - Subsidy payout formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsidy payout formula. 271.7 Section 271.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... payout formula. (a) Subsidy will be paid by the Department to the air carrier monthly, based on...

  14. State Funding for Public Higher Education: The Instructional Subsidy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Legislative Office of Education Oversight, Columbus.

    This memorandum describes the calculations used to figure the instructional subsidy for postsecondary education in Ohio, focusing on why the model operates as it does and the implications of the current funding model. The two principle factors in the instructional subsidy model are institutional enrollments and actual costs. The model begins with…

  15. 19 CFR 351.521 - Import substitution subsidies. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Import substitution subsidies. 351.521 Section 351.521 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.521 Import...

  16. 19 CFR 351.521 - Import substitution subsidies. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Import substitution subsidies. 351.521 Section 351.521 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.521 Import...

  17. 24 CFR 990.295 - Resident Management Corporation operating subsidy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amount of operating subsidy that a PHA or HUD provides a project managed by an RMC shall not be reduced... the project. (c) Change factors. The operating subsidy for an RMC-managed project shall reflect changes in inflation, utility rates, and consumption, as well as changes in the number of units in...

  18. 46 CFR 252.41 - Subsidy billing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 252, Title 46, CFR: and (c) the operation of the vessels covered by said Agreement and regulations... OPERATORS OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY FOR BULK CARGO VESSELS ENGAGED IN WORLDWIDE SERVICES Subsidy... referred to as the “Operator”), and as such am familiar with (a) provisions of the...

  19. The Relationship between Child Care Subsidies and Children's Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Laura E.; Griffen, Andrew S.; Dong, Nianbo; Maynard, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Child care subsidies help low-income families pay for child care while parents work or study. Few studies have examined the effects of child care subsidy use on child development, and no studies have done so controlling for prior cognitive skills. We use rich, longitudinal data from the ECLS-B data set to estimate the relationship between child…

  20. Ethical review of projects involving non-human primates funded under the European Union's 7th Research Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula; Phillips, Barry; Reid, Kirsty; Schmit, Véronique; Jennings, Maggy

    2013-09-01

    Internet searches were performed on projects involving non-human primates ('primates') funded under the European Union (EU) 7th Research Framework Programme (FP7), to determine how project proposals are assessed from an ethical point of view. Due to the incompleteness of the information publicly available, the types and severity of the experiments could not be determined with certainty, although in some projects the level of harm was considered to be 'severe'. Information was scarce regarding the numbers of primates, their sourcing, housing, care and fate, or the application of the Three Rs within projects. Project grant holders and the relevant Commission officer were consulted about their experiences with the FP7 ethics review process. Overall, it was seen as meaningful and beneficial, but some concerns were also noted. Ethical follow-up during project performance and upon completion was recognised as a valuable tool in ensuring that animal welfare requirements were adequately addressed. Based upon the outcome of the survey, recommendations are presented on how to strengthen the ethical review process under the upcoming Framework Programme 'Horizon 2020', while adequately taking into account the specific requirements of Directive 2010/63/EU, with the aim of limiting the harms inflicted on the animals and the numbers used, and ultimately, replacing the use of primates altogether. PMID:24168134

  1. 75 FR 70279 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Allocation of Operating Subsidies...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Operating Subsidies under the Operating Fund Formula: Data Collection AGENCY: Office of the Chief...: Allocation of Operating Subsidies under the Operating Fund. Formula: Data Collection. OMB Approval...

  2. Tax subsidies for private health insurance - july 2009 update.

    PubMed

    Burman, Len; Khitatrakun, Surachai; Goodell, Sarah

    2009-07-01

    Tax subsides for employer-sponsored health insurance are the largest subsidy for private health insurance and support key mechanisms of the U.S. insurance system, but they overwhelmingly benefit high-wage employees. When employers purchase or provide insurance for their employees, their contributions to the premium are excluded from income and payroll taxes. This tax exclusion provided more than $100 billion in income and payroll tax subsidies in 2002. High-income workers benefit more from these subsidies than those with lower incomes because of their higher marginal tax rate. Applying the tax exclusion in their respective tax brackets means high-income families (those earning more than $200,000) receive a subsidy worth one-third of the premium, while the lowest income families receive a subsidy worth just 10 percent. Despite these issues, ESI is a successful mechanism in many ways, covering a significant majority of Americans and providing a good pooling mechanism. PMID:22052151

  3. Introducing Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to a physiotherapy-led pain rehabilitation programme: an Action Research study

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Karen L; Heelas, Leila; Toye, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent developments in pain rehabilitation emphasise the importance of promoting psychological flexibility. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is one approach that has been shown to be effective for the treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain. However, studies have shown that introducing innovative approaches such as ACT into established health care can cause some anxiety for professional groups. We used Action Research to evaluate the implementation of ACT to a physiotherapy-led pain rehabilitation programme. Methods: All staff in the pain service were invited to participate. Participants took part in focus groups, engaged in reflective sessions/meetings and completed reflective diaries. The analysis was undertaken by an experienced qualitative researcher using constant comparison. Participants reviewed emerging themes and validated the findings. Results: Four key themes emerged from the study: (a) the need to see pain as an embodied, rather than dualistic, experience; (b) the need for a more therapeutic construction of ‘acceptance’; (c) value-based goals as profound motivation for positive change; and (d) it’s quite a long way from physiotherapy. Integral to a therapeutic definition of acceptance was the challenge of moving away from ‘fixing’ towards ‘sitting with’. Participants described this as uncomfortable because it did not fit their biomedical training. Conclusion: This article describes how Action Research methodology was used in the introduction of ACT to a physiotherapy-led pain rehabilitation programme. The innovation of this study is that it helps us to understand the potential barriers and facilitators to embedding an ACT philosophy within a physiotherapy setting. PMID:27551408

  4. 19 CFR 351.525 - Calculation of ad valorem subsidy rate and attribution of subsidy to a product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calculation of ad valorem subsidy rate and attribution of subsidy to a product. 351.525 Section 351.525 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement...

  5. 19 CFR 351.525 - Calculation of ad valorem subsidy rate and attribution of subsidy to a product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calculation of ad valorem subsidy rate and attribution of subsidy to a product. 351.525 Section 351.525 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement...

  6. 19 CFR 351.525 - Calculation of ad valorem subsidy rate and attribution of subsidy to a product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calculation of ad valorem subsidy rate and attribution of subsidy to a product. 351.525 Section 351.525 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement...

  7. EDITORIAL: Invited papers on numerical relativity, related to the Banff International Research Station programme 16 21 April 2005 and the Newton Institute programme 8 August 23 December 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, C.; Lehner, L.

    2006-07-01

    Two meeetings gave rise to this special issue on numerical relativity: the workshop 'Numerical relativity' at the Banff International Research Station on 16 21 April 2005 and the conference 'New directions in numerical relativity' which was held at Southampton University on the 18 and 19 August 2005 as a satellite meeting of the Newton Institute Programme 'Global problems in mathematical relativity'. This edition contains contributions drawn from these two meetings. Looking back, 2005 will be remembered as the year in which key advances were made on a number of fronts which allowed significant progress in the binary black hole merger problem: at the Banff meeting, Frans Pretorius announced the first multi-orbit simulations, using a generalization of harmonic coordinates in which Friedrich's gauge source functions have been promoted to dynamical variables. Then, at the 'Numerical Relativity 2005' meeting held on 2 4 November 2005 at NASA Goddard, the NASA Goddard and Texas/Brownsville groups independently (in back-to-back talks!) announced multi-orbit simulations with waveforms using the Baumgarte Shapiro Shibata Nakamura 3+1 formulation with improved hyperbolic lapse and shift drivers, and representing the black holes as wormholes ('punctures') moving through the grid. These highlights were made possible by previous progress. Particularly important is the implementation of adaptive mesh refinement in general relativity in two and three dimensions, which not only allows for improved accuracy, but reduces the amount of time taken by 3D simulations, thus allowing systematic testing and improvement of 3D codes. In addition, the community is now much more aware of the importance of well-posedness of the continuum problem and the stability of the numerical methods, and some formal investigations of these matters have caused practical improvements. The same applies for the role of gauge choices and boundary conditions. Beyond the binary black hole problem, more

  8. Emergent Frameworks of Research Teaching and Learning in a Cohort-Based Doctoral Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Michael; Vithal, Renuka

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that alternate models of doctoral research teaching and learning pedagogy could address the challenge of under-productivity of doctoral graduands in the South African higher education system. Present literature tends not to focus on the models of research teaching and learning as a form of pedagogy. The article presents a case…

  9. Research and the Secondary School Curriculum = La Recherche et le Programme d'Enseignement Secondaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruddock, Jean

    This paper outlines the diversity of support for educational research and the relatively little influence that educational research has had on recent United Kingdom policy for the secondary school curriculum. The document goes on to describe the major change facing U.K. secondary schools: the introduction of the national curriculum and a related…

  10. Assessment of Professional Training Programmes in International Agricultural Research Institutions: The Case of ICRAF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanjiku, Julliet; Mairura, Franklin; Place, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The following survey was undertaken in 2005 to assess the effectiveness of professional training activities in international agricultural research organizations that were undertaken between 1999 and 2002 at ICRAF (International Centre for Research in Agroforestry), now World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi. Trainees were randomly selected from…

  11. Building Knowledge, Building Community: Reflecting on the Value of a National Research Programme in Adult Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St Clair, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 the National Literacy Secretariat (NLS) of Canada, at that time a branch of the Department of Human Resources and Development Canada, decided to review its research function. This article discusses some of the questions the review raised for the field. Many of these issues are to do with the management of knowledge--what research gets…

  12. Integration of the Belarusian Space Research Potential Into International University Nanosatellite Programm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saetchnikov, Vladimir; Ablameyko, Sergey; Ponariadov, Vladimir

    Belarus has inherited a significant space research potential created back in the Soviet era. It is one of the countries in the world capable of research, engineering and production across a wide range of space technologies, such as remote sensing systems, satellite telecommunication systems and positioning systems etc. Despite these strengths, the participation of Belarusian space organizations in the UN space activity and International research programs is very low. Belarusian State University (BSU) is the leading research and high school education organization of Belarus in several fields of research and development. It was deeply involved into various space research projects, including Soviet Lunar Program, Space Station “Mir”, Space Shuttle “Buran”. From 2004, when the national space programs were restarted, branches of BSU like Institute of Physics and Aerospace Technologies (IPAT), Center for aerospace education, Research laboratory of applied space technologies are leading the research and development works in the field of space communication systems, Earth observation tools and technologies, electronic and optic sensors, etc. The mail fields of activity are: • Hard and software development for small satellites and university satellites in particular. • Development of sensor satellite systems. • Small satellite research experiments (biological and medical in particular). • Earth, airplane and satellite remote monitoring systems including hard and software. • Early warning ecological and industrial Systems. • Geographic information systems of several natural and industrial areas. • Climate change investigation. We have partners from several universities and research institutes from Russian Federation, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Germany etc. We have a ground station to receive satellite data in RF L and X bands and are very interested to be incorporated into international remote monitoring network. This activity can be combined with

  13. Healthy food subsidies and unhealthy food taxation: A systematic review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Niebylski, Mark L; Redburn, Kimbree A; Duhaney, Tara; Campbell, Norm R

    2015-06-01

    The Global Burden of Disease Study and related studies report unhealthy diet is the leading risk for death and disability globally. Given the evidence associating diet and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), international and national health bodies including the World Health Organization and United Nations have called for population health interventions to improve diet as a means to target NCDs. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods/beverages are more accessible to purchasers and unhealthy ones less accessible via fiscal policy, namely taxation and subsidies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base to assess the effect of healthy food/beverage subsidies and unhealthy food/beverage taxation. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar for peer-reviewed publications and seventy-eight studies were identified for inclusion in this review. This review was performed in keeping with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance. Although moderate in quality, there was consistent evidence that taxation and subsidy intervention influenced dietary behaviors. The quality, level and strength of evidence along with identified gaps in research support the need for further policies and ongoing evaluation of population-wide food/beverage subsidies and taxation. To maximize success and effect, this review suggests that food taxes and subsidies should be a minimum of 10 to 15% and preferably used in tandem. Implementation of population-wide polices for taxation and subsides with ongoing evaluation of intended and unintended effects are supported by this review. PMID:25933484

  14. Effects of subsidy quality on reciprocal subsidies: how leaf litter species changes frog biomass export.

    PubMed

    Earl, Julia E; Castello, Paula O; Cohagen, Kara E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2014-05-01

    Spatial subsidies are resources transferred from one ecosystem to another and which can greatly affect recipient systems. Increased subsidy quantity is known to increase these effects, but subsidy quality is likely also important. We examined the effects of leaf litter quality (varying in nutrient and tannin content) in pond mesocosms on gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) biomass export, as well as water quality and ecosystem processes. We used litter from three different tree species native to Missouri [white oak (Quercus alba), northern red oak (Quercus rubra), and sugar maple (Acer saccharum)], one non-native tree [white pine (Pinus strobus)], and a common aquatic grass [prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata)]. We found that leaf litter species affected almost every variable we measured. Gray treefrog biomass export was greatest in mesocosms with grass litter and lowest with white oak litter. Differences in biomass export were affected by high tannin concentrations (or possibly the correlated variable, dissolved oxygen) via their effects on survival, and by primary production, which altered mean body mass. Effects of litter species could often be traced back to the characteristics of the litter itself: leaf nitrogen, phosphorus, and tannin content, which highlights the importance of plant functional traits in affecting aquatic ecosystems. This work and others stress that changes in forest species composition could greatly influence aquatic systems and aquatic-terrestrial linkages. PMID:24399483

  15. Part D employer retiree drug subsidy: inception, implementation and issues.

    PubMed

    Costello, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 provided a subsidy to employers that offered a retiree health prescription coverage benefit actuarially equivalent to Medicare Part D. This article reviews the development of the subsidy, the support by the federal government and the issues that have arisen. It also presents analysis of data from a set of companies that offered retiree health in 2006 and 2007. The data show widespread acceptance of the subsidy and continuance of prescription coverage; however, companies that did not take the subsidy were more likely to be smaller and in less robust financial health. Analysis of a subset of the companies shows the magnitude of the benefits paid yearly and the accounting liability caused by retiree health relative to the size of the subsidy. The author concludes that the potential success or failure of the federal subsidy in preserving retiree health benefits will not be known for years. Nevertheless, with the elimination of the deductibility of the subsidy in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), employers surely will reexamine their offer of prescription coverage to retirees. PMID:21247053

  16. Reaching beyond Disciplines through Collaboration: Academics' Learning in a National Multidisciplinary Research Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Jan; Anderberg, Elsie; Booth, Shirley; Odenrick, Per; Christmansson, Marita

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse and describe the learning that takes place in the interaction between academics from different disciplines and perspectives in collaboration with practitioners. Design/methodology/approach: The research draws on theories of learning that view it in relation to context, where the most significant…

  17. EC Research Programmes--Information and Influence (or, How to Lobby in Brussels).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Christian

    1991-01-01

    Research projects within the European Community (EC) have used different strategies and instruments for information dissemination and lobbying on national and international levels. The scientific community must have stronger autonomous representation in Brussels as an equal partner of the EC bureaucracy, similar to that in some member states.…

  18. Directing the Teaching and Learning Research Programme: Or "Trying to Fly a Glider Made of Jelly"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    TLRP's generic phase (1999-2009) is believed to have been the largest ever UK investment in educational research. This paper describes the critique from which TLRP emerged, its strategic positioning and the roles of successive directors and their teams in its development. The paper offers an early stock take of TLRP's achievements from the…

  19. Implementing Mobile Learning Curricula in Schools: A Programme of Research from Innovation to Scaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looi, Chee-Kit; Wong, Lung-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    Many countries, regions and education districts in the world have experimented with models of one-device-per-student as an enabler of new or effective pedagogies supported by mobile technologies. Researchers have also designed innovations or interventions for possible adoption by schools or for informal learning. Of critical interest to the…

  20. An Overview of a Programme of Research to Support the Assessment of Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Cambridge Assessment has more than 20 years experience in assessing Critical Thinking (CT) in a number of diverse tests and qualifications, unrivalled by any other body within the UK. In recent years, a number of research activities have been carried out in order to support these assessments, with a focus on the validity of measurement. This paper…

  1. Reading a Critical Review of Evidence: Notes and Queries on Research Programmes in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Alan D.; Nikel, Jutta

    2003-01-01

    Explores the notion that a review communicates a research program and how it might extend and disrupt readings of Rickinson's (2001) review of the evidence base for environmental education learning. Investigates, through a series of notes and queries using Lakatos's ideas, the production and possibilities of the review rather than the findings.…

  2. Report of the 4th World Climate Research Programme International Conference on Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Rixen, Michel; van Oevelen, Peter; Asrar, Ghassem; Compo, Gilbert; Onogi, Kazutoshi; Simmons, Adrian; Trenberth, Kevin; Behringer, Dave; Bhuiyan, Tanvir Hossain; Capps, Shannon; Chaudhuri, Ayan; Chen, Junye; Chen, Linling; Colasacco-Thumm, Nicole; Escobar, Maria Gabriela; Ferguson, Craig R.; Ishibashi, Toshiyuki; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Meng, Jesse; Molod, Andrea; Poli, Paul; Roundy, Joshua; Willett, Kate; Wollen, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The 4th WCRP International Conference on Reanalyses provided an opportunity for the international community to review and discuss the observational and modelling research, as well as process studies and uncertainties associated with reanalysis of the Earth System and its components. Characterizing the uncertainty and quality of reanalyses is a task that reaches far beyond the international community of producers, and into the interdisciplinary research community, especially those using reanalysis products in their research and applications. Reanalyses have progressed greatly even in the last 5 years, and newer ideas, projects and data are coming forward. While reanalysis has typically been carried out for the individual domains of atmosphere, ocean and land, it is now moving towards coupling using Earth system models. Observations are being reprocessed and they are providing improved quality for use in reanalysis. New applications are being investigated, and the need for climate reanalyses is as strong as ever. At the heart of it all, new investigators are exploring the possibilities for reanalysis, and developing new ideas in research and applications. Given the many centres creating reanalyses products (e.g. ocean, land and cryosphere research centres as well as NWP and atmospheric centers), and the development of new ideas (e.g. families of reanalyses), the total number of reanalyses is increasing greatly, with new and innovative diagnostics and output data. The need for reanalysis data is growing steadily, and likewise, the need for open discussion and comment on the data. The 4th Conference was convened to provide a forum for constructive discussion on the objectives, strengths and weaknesses of reanalyses, indicating potential development paths for the future.

  3. Global comparative healthcare effectiveness research: evaluating sustainable programmes in low & middle resource settings.

    PubMed

    Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Chang, Jongwha; Patel, Isha; Yang, Fang; Merajver, Sofia D

    2013-03-01

    The need to focus healthcare expenditures on innovative and sustainable health systems that efficiently use existing effective therapies are the major drivers stimulating Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) across the globe. Lack of adequate access and high cost of essential medicines and technologies in many countries increases morbidity and mortality and cost of care that forces people and families into poverty due to disability and out-of-pocket expenses. This review illustrates the potential of value-added global health care comparative effectiveness research in shaping health systems and health care delivery paradigms in the "global south". Enabling the development of effective CER systems globally paves the way for tangible local and regional definitions of equity in health care because CER fosters the sharing of critical assets, resources, skills, and capabilities and the development of collaborative of multi-sectorial frameworks to improve health outcomes and metrics globally. PMID:23640555

  4. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) - The first project of the World Climate Research Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiffer, R. A.; Rossow, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    The first project of the World Climate Research Program is the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, (ISCCP) whose objective is the collection and analysis of satellite radiance data in order to infer the global distribution of cloud radiative properties and improve the modeling of cloud effects on climate. The operational component of ISCCP takes advantage of the global coverage provided by the current and planned international array of geostationary and polar-orbiting meteorological satellites in the 1980s. It will produce a five-year global radiance and cloud data set. The research component of ISCCP will coordinate studies to validate climatology, improve cloud analysis algorithms, improve cloud effects modelling, and investigate the role of clouds in the atmospheric radiation budget and hydrologic cycle.

  5. Scope of health systems research in Child Survival and Safe Motherhood programme.

    PubMed

    Dutta, P K

    1993-01-01

    Editorial commentary focused on several Health System Research (HSR) approaches which exemplified some of the key issues for application of HSR for further improvement in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services in India. The goals of HSR are to delineate health policy which improves the operations of the health care delivery system for sustainability at the district level. HSR is part of a global effort of Health For All by 2000 AD and India's Child Survival and Safe Motherhood (CSSM) program, sponsored by IDA/UNICEF. CSSM aims also to end polio by 2000 AD, eliminate neonatal tetanus by 1995, and prevent deaths and morbidity from measles, diarrheal diseases, and acute respiratory infection. MCH services will be expanded at the village, subcenter, primary health center, and community health center levels in order to reduce maternal mortality to below 2/1000 from the 1990 5/1000 and to reduce mortality of children aged 1-4 years to less than 10/1000 live births from 80/1000 by 2000 AD. States with particularly high levels of child and maternal mortality are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh, which have about 40% of India's population. These states have low marriage ages, low female literacy, and few women in nonagricultural employment. There are about 90 districts in these states with particularly low demographic indicators. India policy directs all CSSM work to be carried out by existing staff; the program emphasis will be training, supervision, and logistics. IEC will need to be directed to attitudinal change in rural areas and urban slums. Research has found that coverage is uneven and quality of MCH services, poor. One study will evaluate the performance over 5 years in Gwalior district in a nutrition and school health program. Another research effort will perform quality assessment of MCH care at the primary health care level and promote community awareness and increased utilization. An ongoing study is evaluating nationally the family welfare

  6. 20 CFR 418.3115 - What events will make you ineligible for a subsidy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What events will make you ineligible for a subsidy? 418.3115 Section 418.3115 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Eligibility for A Medicare Prescription Drug Subsidy § 418.3115 What events...

  7. 20 CFR 418.3115 - What events will make you ineligible for a subsidy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What events will make you ineligible for a subsidy? 418.3115 Section 418.3115 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Eligibility for A Medicare Prescription Drug Subsidy § 418.3115 What events...

  8. 20 CFR 418.3115 - What events will make you ineligible for a subsidy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What events will make you ineligible for a subsidy? 418.3115 Section 418.3115 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Eligibility for A Medicare Prescription Drug Subsidy § 418.3115 What events...

  9. 20 CFR 418.3123 - When is a change in your subsidy effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is a change in your subsidy effective? 418.3123 Section 418.3123 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Eligibility for A Medicare Prescription Drug Subsidy § 418.3123 When is a...

  10. The importance of recognising parasite cryptic diversity for research programmes on foodborne trematodiases.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Nadler, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    The development of molecular tools in the last two decades enhanced our capacity to accurately describe biodiversity on Earth. Analysis of molecular data may lead to the discovery of cryptic species (morphologically indistinguishable, genetically distinct species lineages). As cryptic species are discovered with increasing frequency among parasites, we must consider their potential implications, especially for the epidemiology, diagnostics and control of parasitic diseases that affect humans. Investigators that conduct research on different aspects of infectious diseases, for example, on foodborne trematodiases, must remain aware of the possibility for undiscovered cryptic species and how this could impact their conclusions. PMID:26740356