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Sample records for research trends intervention

  1. "Intervention" in Physical Education and Sport: Trends and Developments in a Decade of Francophone Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musard, Mathilde; Poggi, Marie-Paule

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this literature review were to characterize the communications presented during six Association for Research on "Intervention" in Sport (ARIS) French-speaking congresses from 2000 to 2010 and to compare the research trends between French and English research traditions. The definition of pedagogy is close to the…

  2. A Trend Analysis of Participant and Setting Characteristics in Autism Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosland, Kimberly A.; Clarke, Shelley; Dunlap, Glen

    2013-01-01

    The current trend analysis was conducted to empirically document the characteristics of individuals with autism who participated in intervention research published between 1995 and 2009 in three journals ("Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis," "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," and "Focus on Autism and Other…

  3. Trends in Methodological Rigor in Intervention Research Published in School Psychology Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.; Klingbeil, David A.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    Methodological rigor in intervention research is important for documenting evidence-based practices and has been a recent focus in legislation, including the No Child Left Behind Act. The current study examined the methodological rigor of intervention research in four school psychology journals since the 1960s. Intervention research has increased…

  4. Intervention research: GAO experiences.

    PubMed

    Grasso, P G

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes tools of program evaluation that may prove useful in conducting research on occupational health and safety interventions. It presents examples of three studies conducted by the U.S. General Accounting Office that illustrate a variety of techniques for collecting and analyzing data on program interventions, including analysis of extant data, synthesis of results of existing studies, and combining data from administrative files with survey results. At the same time, it stresses the importance and difficulty of constructing an adequate "theory" of how the intervention is expected to affect outcomes, both for guiding data collection and for allowing adequate interpretation of results. PMID:8728140

  5. TRENDS IN HUMAN RELATIONS RESEARCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WINICK, CHARLES

    A REVIEW OF MAIN TRENDS IN RECENT HUMAN RELATIONS RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES, PARTICULARLY AS ILLUSTRATED IN THE WORK OF SIGMUND LIVINGSTON FELLOWS, IS PRESENTED. THE FOCUS IS ON STUDIES DEALING WITH ETHNIC, RACIAL, OR RELIGIOUS CATEGORIES, AND ON RESEARCH DEALING WITH INTERGROUP PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION. THE THREE MAJOR TRENDS IN RESEARCH…

  6. Research trends in biostratigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Upshaw, C.F.

    1983-03-01

    Paleontology, as applied in biostratigraphy, has long been an indispensable part of petroleum exploration. However, rapidly improving technology in many disciplines and the limitations of traditional biostratigraphy based on tops and zones dictate the need for an improved technology. In response to this need new approaches have been suggested, including probabilistic stratigraphy, geohistory diagrams, no-space graphs, isotopic and fission track dating, radiometric geochronology, tephrochronology, magnetostratigraphy, paleo-oceanographic geochemistry, and graphic correlation utilizing composite standards. One example of a research program for the 1990s and beyond includes the development of a paleontologic composite standards and the interactive capability for their use by graphic correlation; the development of computer data bases for morphologic, taxonomic, paleoecologic and paleogeographic research and the interactive capability for synthesis, analysis and display; and, the development of time-based primary sedimentary models for prediction of geologic conditions ahead of the drill. Refined and stable taxonomic data supplied by highly capable paleontologists are a prerequisite for success. Such a program clearly requires management commitment of manpower and resources necessary to develop the technology, and it requires the development of effective technology transfer mechanisms to implement the results in exploration programs. The reward for success will be multifold improvement in our understanding of geologic conditions and history.

  7. Adoption Research: Trends, Topics, Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Jesus; Brodzinsky, David

    2010-01-01

    The current article provides a review of adoption research since its inception as a field of study. Three historical trends in adoption research are identified: the first focusing on risk in adoption and identifying adoptee-nonadoptee differences in adjustment; the second examining the capacity of adopted children to recover from early adversity;…

  8. A Family-Based Intervention for Preschoolers: Evaluating Sibling Outcomes. Data Trends #130

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" discusses family-based interventions and how they may have both direct and indirect effects. While the measurement of direct outcomes for a targeted group is important, a…

  9. AAC Modeling Intervention Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennott, Samuel C.; Light, Janice C.; McNaughton, David

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of research on the effects of interventions that include communication partner modeling of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the language acquisition of individuals with complex communication needs was conducted. Included studies incorporated AAC modeling as a primary component of the intervention,…

  10. Action Research: Trends and Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    Action research continues to grow as a research tradition, yet misconceptions about what it is and is not remains, even among scholars. For example, some mistakenly believe action research is only about professional development and is not a scholarly research approach. Some assume action research must be accomplished through a collaborative…

  11. Trends in Research on Japan's Educational Broadcasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Takashiro

    This overview of Japanese research on educational television and media education from the mid-1970s through 1985 begins by presenting a brief history of educational broadcasting and recent trends in broadcasting and related research in Japan. The following areas are reviewed: (1) research using program analysis; (2) research using test production…

  12. Contemporary Trends in ADHD Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvilitis, Jill M., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    With many children and adults affected by Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, researchers strive to understand the underpinnings of ADHD and associated factors on both a basic and applied level. The goal of this volume is to explore some of the broad array of research in the field of ADHD. The 12 chapters cover a variety of topics as varied…

  13. An Intervention Model for the Implementation of Evidence-Based Children's Mental Health Treatments. Data Trends #128

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" describes how an organizational and community intervention model (ARC: Availability, Responsiveness, Continuity) can be used in conjunction with the implementation of one…

  14. New trends in psychosomatic research.

    PubMed

    Murray, J B

    1977-08-01

    Advances in physiological psychology and neuroendocrinology, together with epidemiological studies, have added new dimensions to psychosomatic research. Psychological influences still are accepted as exacerbators or trigger mechanisms, if less often as causes. Theories of psychosomatics which connected specific personality profiles with specific psychosomatic illnesses have lost favor, and multifactorial explanations, which include heredity, environment, social class, life stress, endocrines, brain areas, neurohormones, and immunological mechanisms, are new areas of research. Research methods have become more sophisticated scientifically, particularly in the selection and size of samples tested, and the variety of situations investigated. Psychological reactions to illness in general, terminal disease, and death, and psychological experiences of pain, in addition to variable effects of psychotherapeutic methods and psychotherapists' personality, are identifiable but unquantified influences which seem acceptable as contributors to, if not causes of, psychophysiological disorders. PMID:562303

  15. Current trends in oxysterol research.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, William J; Abdel-Khalik, Jonas; Hearn, Thomas; Yutuc, Eylan; Morgan, Alwena H; Wang, Yuqin

    2016-04-15

    In this short review we provide a synopsis of recent developments in oxysterol research highlighting topics of current interest to the community. These include the involvement of oxysterols in neuronal development and survival, their participation in the immune system, particularly with respect to bacterial and viral infection and to Th17-cell development, and the role of oxysterols in breast cancer. We also discuss the value of oxysterol analysis in the diagnosis of disease. PMID:27068984

  16. Current trends in oxysterol research

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, William J.; Abdel-Khalik, Jonas; Hearn, Thomas; Yutuc, Eylan; Morgan, Alwena H.; Wang, Yuqin

    2016-01-01

    In this short review we provide a synopsis of recent developments in oxysterol research highlighting topics of current interest to the community. These include the involvement of oxysterols in neuronal development and survival, their participation in the immune system, particularly with respect to bacterial and viral infection and to Th17-cell development, and the role of oxysterols in breast cancer. We also discuss the value of oxysterol analysis in the diagnosis of disease. PMID:27068984

  17. Current trends in feminist nursing research.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok

    2010-01-01

    Despite an increasing number of feminist studies in nursing, few reviews on current trends in feminist nursing research have been published. This article aims to explore the current trends in feminist nursing research and provide recommendations for future feminist studies in nursing. In multiple database searches, 207 articles were retrieved. These were reviewed based on 5 criteria: (1) epistemological background, (2) research questions, (3) research participants, (4) research methods, and (5) implications for changes. The review indicated that feminist nurse researchers with diverse epistemological backgrounds adopted new research methods to ask new questions; expanded their focus to include differences in ethnicity, class, sexual preference, and disability; and incorporated these diversities among women in a global context in their research. Based on these findings, recommendations for future feminist research in nursing are outlined. PMID:20362777

  18. School Dropout Indicators, Trends, and Interventions for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, Donna J.

    2012-01-01

    School counselors are expected to develop programs that promote academic success for all students, including those at risk for dropping out of school. Knowledge of key indicators of potential dropouts and current trends in dropout prevention research may assist school counselors in better understanding this complex issue. Implementing recommended…

  19. Current Educational Technology Research Trends in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Minoru; Ueno, Maomi

    2009-01-01

    To examine trends in educational practice research, this article conducted a survey and analysis of factors affecting the review of research papers in the field of the educational technology in Japan. Two factors, namely, practical orientation and theoretical orientation, were extracted from 63 survey responses, and scores from members of a…

  20. Current Trends in Heparin Use During Arterial Vascular Interventional Radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Durran, Alexandra C.; Watts, Christopher

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the current use of heparinized saline and bolus doses of heparin in non-neurological interventional radiology and to determine whether consensus could be reached to produce guidance for heparin use during arterial vascular intervention. Methods: An interactive electronic questionnaire was distributed to members of the British Society of Interventional Radiology regarding their current practice in the use, dosage, and timing of heparin boluses and heparinized flushing solutions.ResultsA total of 108 completed questionnaires were received. More than 80% of respondents used heparinized saline with varying concentrations; the most prevalent was 1,000 IU/l (international units of heparin per liter) and 5,000 IU/l. Fifty-one percent of interventionalists use 3,000 IU as their standard bolus dose; however, the respondents were split regarding the timing of bolus dose with {approx}60% administering it after arterial access is obtained and 40% after crossing the lesion. There was no consensus on altering dose according to body weight, and only 4% monitored clotting parameters. Conclusions: There seems to be some coherence among practicing interventionalists regarding heparin administration. We hypothesize that heparinized saline should be used at a recognized standard concentration of 1,000 IU/l as a flushing concentration in all arterial vascular interventions and that 3,000 IU bolus is considered the standard dose for straightforward therapeutic procedures and 5000 IU for complex, crural, and endovascular aneurysm repair work. The bolus should be given after arterial access is obtained to allow time for optimal anticoagulation to be achieved by the time of active intervention and stenting. Further research into clotting abnormalities following such interventional procedures would be an interesting quantifiable follow-up to this initial survey of opinions and practice.

  1. Secular trends and evaluation of complex interventions: the rising tide phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Fu; Hemming, Karla; Stevens, Andrew J; Lilford, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    Evaluations of service delivery interventions with contemporaneous controls often yield null results, even when the intervention appeared promising in advance. There can be many reasons for null results. In this paper we introduce the concept of a 'rising tide' phenomenon being a possible explanation of null results. We note that evaluations of service delivery interventions often occur when awareness of the problems they intend to address is already heightened, and pressure to tackle them is mounting throughout a health system. An evaluation may therefore take place in a setting where the system as a whole is improving - where there is a pronounced temporal trend or a 'rising tide causing all vessels to rise'. As a consequence, control sites in an intervention study will improve. This reduces the difference between intervention and control sites and predisposes the study to a null result, leading to the conclusion that the intervention has no effect. We discuss how a rising tide may be distinguished from other causes of improvement in both control and intervention groups, and give examples where the rising tide provides a convincing explanation of such a finding. We offer recommendations for interpretation of research findings where improvements in the intervention group are matched by improvements in the control group. Understanding the rising tide phenomenon is important for a more nuanced interpretation of null results arising in the context of system-wide improvement. Recognition that a rising tide may have predisposed to a null result in one health system cautions against generalising the result to another health system where strong secular trends are absent. PMID:26442789

  2. Secular trends and evaluation of complex interventions: the rising tide phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Fu; Hemming, Karla; Stevens, Andrew J; Lilford, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Evaluations of service delivery interventions with contemporaneous controls often yield null results, even when the intervention appeared promising in advance. There can be many reasons for null results. In this paper we introduce the concept of a ‘rising tide’ phenomenon being a possible explanation of null results. We note that evaluations of service delivery interventions often occur when awareness of the problems they intend to address is already heightened, and pressure to tackle them is mounting throughout a health system. An evaluation may therefore take place in a setting where the system as a whole is improving – where there is a pronounced temporal trend or a ‘rising tide causing all vessels to rise’. As a consequence, control sites in an intervention study will improve. This reduces the difference between intervention and control sites and predisposes the study to a null result, leading to the conclusion that the intervention has no effect. We discuss how a rising tide may be distinguished from other causes of improvement in both control and intervention groups, and give examples where the rising tide provides a convincing explanation of such a finding. We offer recommendations for interpretation of research findings where improvements in the intervention group are matched by improvements in the control group. Understanding the rising tide phenomenon is important for a more nuanced interpretation of null results arising in the context of system-wide improvement. Recognition that a rising tide may have predisposed to a null result in one health system cautions against generalising the result to another health system where strong secular trends are absent. PMID:26442789

  3. Study on global cloud computing research trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Feicheng; Zhan, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Since "cloud computing" was put forward by Google , it quickly became the most popular concept in IT industry and widely permeated into various areas promoted by IBM, Microsoft and other IT industry giants. In this paper the methods of bibliometric analysis were used to investigate the global cloud computing research trend based on Web of Science (WoS) database and the Engineering Index (EI) Compendex database. In this study, the publication, countries, institutes, keywords of the papers was deeply studied in methods of quantitative analysis, figures and tables are used to describe the production and the development trends of cloud computing.

  4. What is population health intervention research?

    PubMed

    Hawe, Penelope; Potvin, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Population-level health interventions are policies or programs that shift the distribution of health risk by addressing the underlying social, economic and environmental conditions. These interventions might be programs or policies designed and developed in the health sector, but they are more likely to be in sectors elsewhere, such as education, housing or employment. Population health intervention research attempts to capture the value and differential effect of these interventions, the processes by which they bring about change and the contexts within which they work best. In health research, unhelpful distinctions maintained in the past between research and evaluation have retarded the development of knowledge and led to patchy evidence about policies and programs. Myths about what can and cannot be achieved within community-level intervention research have similarly held the field back. The pathway forward integrates systematic inquiry approaches from a variety of disciplines. PMID:19263977

  5. LDA Educational Intervention Research Symposium Intervention Perspectives and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrill, Melinda; Satterfield, Jule

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes the journal's special issue on educational intervention research for students with learning disabilities and identifies the following common themes in the preceding papers: (1) effective teaching, (2) the match between teacher and learner characteristics, (3) flexibility in delivery and use, and (4) teacher and student…

  6. Research and Practical Trends in Geospatial Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpik, A. P.; Musikhin, I. A.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years professional societies have been undergoing fundamental restructuring brought on by extensive technological change and rapid evolution of geospatial science. Almost all professional communities have been affected. Communities are embracing digital techniques, modern equipment, software and new technological solutions at a staggering pace. In this situation, when planning financial investments and intellectual resource management, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of those trends that will be in great demand in 3-7 years. This paper reviews current scientific and practical activities of such non-governmental international organizations as International Federation of Surveyors, International Cartographic Association, and International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, analyzes and groups most relevant topics brought up at their scientific events, forecasts most probable research and practical trends in geospatial sciences, outlines topmost leading countries and emerging markets for further detailed analysis of their activities, types of scientific cooperation and joint implementation projects.

  7. Quasi experimental designs in pharmacist intervention research.

    PubMed

    Krass, Ines

    2016-06-01

    Background In the field of pharmacist intervention research it is often difficult to conform to the rigorous requirements of the "true experimental" models, especially the requirement of randomization. When randomization is not feasible, a practice based researcher can choose from a range of "quasi-experimental designs" i.e., non-randomised and at time non controlled. Objective The aim of this article was to provide an overview of quasi-experimental designs, discuss their strengths and weaknesses and to investigate their application in pharmacist intervention research over the previous decade. Results In the literature quasi experimental studies may be classified into five broad categories: quasi-experimental design without control groups; quasi-experimental design that use control groups with no pre-test; quasi-experimental design that use control groups and pre-tests; interrupted time series and stepped wedge designs. Quasi-experimental study design has consistently featured in the evolution of pharmacist intervention research. The most commonly applied of all quasi experimental designs in the practice based research literature are the one group pre-post-test design and the non-equivalent control group design i.e., (untreated control group with dependent pre-tests and post-tests) and have been used to test the impact of pharmacist interventions in general medications management as well as in specific disease states. Conclusion Quasi experimental studies have a role to play as proof of concept, in the pilot phases of interventions when testing different intervention components, especially in complex interventions. They serve to develop an understanding of possible intervention effects: while in isolation they yield weak evidence of clinical efficacy, taken collectively, they help build a body of evidence in support of the value of pharmacist interventions across different practice settings and countries. However, when a traditional RCT is not feasible for

  8. Hypersensitivity and nanoparticles: update and research trends

    PubMed Central

    MOCAN, TEODORA; MATEA, CRISTIAN T.; IANCU, CORNEL; AGOSTON-COLDEA, LUCIA; MOCAN, LUCIAN; ORASAN, REMUS

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology holds a great promise for a wide range of medical-intent applications (diagnostic, treatment and prophylaxis of various diseases). Their advantages are due to their size, versatility and potential for multiple simultaneous applications. However, concerns have been formulated by scientific world due to insufficient data on toxicity of nanomaterials. One area of interest is represented by the interactions between nanoparticles and the components of the immune system. We review herein reported data on hypersensitivity reactions. The role exerted by nanoparticles in both immunostimulation and immunosuppression in allergen-driven mechanisms was studied, as well as future trends in worldwide research. PMID:27152071

  9. Research and Development Trends of Car Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Li, Zhixiong; Xie, Guotao

    With the rapid development of the world economy, road transport has become increasingly busy. An unexpected incident would cause serious traffic disaster due to traffic accidents. To solve this problem, the intelligent transportation system (ITS), which is important for the health developments of the city transportation, has become a hot topic. The car networking provides a new way for intelligent transportation system. It can ensure intelligent control and monitoring of urban road with high performance. This paper described the concept of car networking and related technology both in oversea and domestic. The importance of car networking to achieve vehicle and details of the car networking related technologies were illustrated firstly. Then, attentions focus on the research nodus of the car networking. Lastly, the development trend of car networking research was discussed.

  10. Innovation in Crop Protection: Trends in Research.

    PubMed

    Stetter; Lieb

    2000-05-15

    In the absence of the remarkable levels of growth in the yields of important crops, neither the rapid increase in living standards in industrialized countries nor the adequate standard of nutrition for the greater part of the world's population would have been possible. Alongside high-yielding varieties, improved agricultural techniques, and rapid mechanization, the chemical industry has also contributed substantially to progress in agriculture since roughly the middle of the nineteenth century. From the chemists "kitchens" came two "magic weapons": artificial fertilisers and chemical agents for crop protection. Today both have become indispensable to modern yield- and quality-orientated agriculture. This review spans the development of the crop-protection industry from its earliest beginnings to the present day and attempts to portray how the research-based crop-protection industry is prepared for current and future challenges. Considerable space is thus dedicated to the discussion of trends in research. PMID:10934351

  11. Aversive Intervention: Research and Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Deanna K.; Kohler, Patty

    2012-01-01

    From the beginning of time, there has been a pervasive interest in getting some members of the human race to conform to the wishes of other members of the human race. The use of positive as well as not so positive methods have been utilized, researched and espoused upon. The current paper presents a review of the vast literature on the history of…

  12. Knowledge and Policy: Research--Information--Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Keiner, Edwin; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita; Ozga, Jenny; Yates, Lyn

    2007-01-01

    At the European Conference on Educational Research (ECER) 2006 in Geneva, Switzerland, the EERJ Roundtable focused upon the relationships between information, research and intervention. These relationships could be understood as a circular flow of decontextualising and recontextualising terms, concepts or "knowledge" according to the respective…

  13. Fetal cardiac interventions: clinical and experimental research

    PubMed Central

    Humuruola, Gulimila

    2016-01-01

    Fetal cardiac interventions for congenital heart diseases may alleviate heart dysfunction, prevent them evolving into hypoplastic left heart syndrome, achieve biventricular outcome and improve fetal survival. Candidates for clinical fetal cardiac interventions are now restricted to cases of critical aortic valve stenosis with evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome, pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and evolving hypoplastic right heart syndrome, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome with an intact or highly restrictive atrial septum as well as fetal heart block. The therapeutic options are advocated as prenatal aortic valvuloplasty, pulmonary valvuloplasty, creation of interatrial communication and fetal cardiac pacing. Experimental research on fetal cardiac intervention involves technical modifications of catheter-based cardiac clinical interventions and open fetal cardiac bypass that cannot be applied in human fetuses for the time being. Clinical fetal cardiac interventions are plausible for midgestation fetuses with the above-mentioned congenital heart defects. The technical success, biventricular outcome and fetal survival are continuously being improved in the conditions of the sophisticated multidisciplinary team, equipment, techniques and postnatal care. Experimental research is laying the foundations and may open new fields for catheter-based clinical techniques. In the present article, the clinical therapeutic options and experimental fetal cardiac interventions are described. PMID:27279868

  14. Fetal cardiac interventions: clinical and experimental research.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shi-Min; Humuruola, Gulimila

    2016-01-01

    Fetal cardiac interventions for congenital heart diseases may alleviate heart dysfunction, prevent them evolving into hypoplastic left heart syndrome, achieve biventricular outcome and improve fetal survival. Candidates for clinical fetal cardiac interventions are now restricted to cases of critical aortic valve stenosis with evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome, pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and evolving hypoplastic right heart syndrome, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome with an intact or highly restrictive atrial septum as well as fetal heart block. The therapeutic options are advocated as prenatal aortic valvuloplasty, pulmonary valvuloplasty, creation of interatrial communication and fetal cardiac pacing. Experimental research on fetal cardiac intervention involves technical modifications of catheter-based cardiac clinical interventions and open fetal cardiac bypass that cannot be applied in human fetuses for the time being. Clinical fetal cardiac interventions are plausible for midgestation fetuses with the above-mentioned congenital heart defects. The technical success, biventricular outcome and fetal survival are continuously being improved in the conditions of the sophisticated multidisciplinary team, equipment, techniques and postnatal care. Experimental research is laying the foundations and may open new fields for catheter-based clinical techniques. In the present article, the clinical therapeutic options and experimental fetal cardiac interventions are described. PMID:27279868

  15. Foundations of Intervention Research in Instrumental Practice.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Johannes L; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The goals of the present study are to evaluate, implement, and adapt psychological skills used in the realm of sports into music performance. This research project also aims to build foundations on how to implement future interventions to guide music students on how to optimize practice toward performance. A 2-month psychological skills intervention was provided to two students from the national music academy's bachelor program in music performance to better understand how to adapt and construct psychological skills training programs for performing music students. The program evaluated multiple intervention tools including the use of questionnaires, performance profiling, iPads, electronic practice logs, recording the perceived value of individual and combined work, as well as the effectiveness of different communication forms. Perceived effects of the intervention were collected through semi-structured interviews, observations, and logs. PMID:26834660

  16. Foundations of Intervention Research in Instrumental Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, Johannes L.; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the present study are to evaluate, implement, and adapt psychological skills used in the realm of sports into music performance. This research project also aims to build foundations on how to implement future interventions to guide music students on how to optimize practice toward performance. A 2-month psychological skills intervention was provided to two students from the national music academy's bachelor program in music performance to better understand how to adapt and construct psychological skills training programs for performing music students. The program evaluated multiple intervention tools including the use of questionnaires, performance profiling, iPads, electronic practice logs, recording the perceived value of individual and combined work, as well as the effectiveness of different communication forms. Perceived effects of the intervention were collected through semi-structured interviews, observations, and logs. PMID:26834660

  17. [Literature and schizophrenia. Research trends and research tasks].

    PubMed

    Kudszus, W G

    1979-01-01

    Research on schizophrenia and on the psychopathology of creativity is increasingly absorbing and transforming insights from literature (Büchner, Celan, Kafka, Proust) and literary aesthetics. This development is discussed against the background of the history of psychiatric research. Regarding contemporary research trends, special emphasis is placed on communication theory as presented by the Palo Alto group (double bind theory), anti-psychiatry (Cooper, Laing), French structuralism (Foucault, Lacan), and on schizoanalysis (Deleuze and Guattari). Traditional concepts of mental health and illness are called into question. PMID:387336

  18. Intervention Research in Highly Unstable Environments

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, Kathleen C.; Grey, Margaret; Bowers, Barbara; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Gross, Deborah; Funk, Marjorie; Beck, Cornelia

    2010-01-01

    This article highlights issues and presents strategies for conducting intervention research in highly unstable environments such as schools, critical care units, and long-term care facilities. The authors draw on their own experiences to discuss the challenges that may be encountered in highly unstable settings. The concept of validity provides a framework for understanding the value of addressing the many methodological issues that can emerge in settings characterized by instability. We explain unstable environments by elaborating on knowable elements that contribute to instability. Strategies are provided for improving success of intervention research in unstable settings by carrying out an environmental assessment prior to beginning a study. PMID:19035619

  19. Response to Intervention: Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Carol; Mahoney, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) is a service model designed to meet the learning needs of students prior to diagnosis and placement in special education settings. Results of a quantitative quasi-experimental research study to investigate the relationship between the RTI plan and self-reported implementation practices among general education…

  20. Is Educational Intervention Research on the Decline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Peggy (Pei-Hsuan); Acee, Taylor; Chung, Wen-Hung; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Kim, Hyunjin; Thomas, Greg D.; You, Ji-in; Levin, Joel R.; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors examined intervention studies that appeared in four educational psychology journals (Cognition & Instruction, Contemporary Educational Psychology, Journal of Educational Psychology, Journal of Experimental Education) and the American Educational Research Journal (AERJ) in 1983 and from 1995 to 2004. The majority of…

  1. Multi-Sensory Intervention Observational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2011-01-01

    An observational research study based on sensory integration theory was conducted to examine the observed impact of student selected multi-sensory experiences within a multi-sensory intervention center relative to the sustained focus levels of students with special needs. A stratified random sample of 50 students with severe developmental…

  2. Research Trends in Deafness - State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Edna P., Ed.

    The state of the art monograph on research trends in deafness reviews 60 research studies concerning the deaf sponsored by the Social and Rehabilitation Service. The first of four major sections focuses upon research trends in occupational conditions of deaf people and reviews both research and program experimentation studies. The second section,…

  3. Recent global trends in structural materials research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Hideyuki; Ohmura, Takahito; Nishimura, Toshiyuki

    2013-02-01

    Structural materials support the basis of global society, such as infrastructure and transportation facilities, and are therefore essential for everyday life. The optimization of such materials allows people to overcome environmental, energy and resource depletion issues on a global scale. The creation and manufacture of structural materials make a large contribution to economies around the world every year. The use of strong, resistant materials can also have profound social effects, providing a better quality of life at both local and national levels. The Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011 caused significant structural damage in the Tohoku and Kanto regions of Japan. On a global scale, accidents caused by the ageing and failure of structural materials occur on a daily basis. Therefore, the provision and inspection of structural reliability, safety of nuclear power facilities and construction of a secure and safe society hold primary importance for researchers and engineers across the world. Clearly, structural materials need to evolve further to address both existing problems and prepare for new challenges that may be faced in the future. With this in mind, the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) organized the 'NIMS Conference 2012' to host an extensive discussion on a variety of global issues related to the future development of structural materials. Ranging from reconstruction following natural disasters, verification of structural reliability, energy-saving materials to fundamental problems accompanying the development of materials for high safety standards, the conference covered many key issues in the materials industry today. All the above topics are reflected in this focus issue of STAM, which introduces recent global trends in structural materials research with contributions from world-leading researchers in this field. This issue covers the development of novel alloys, current methodologies in the characterization of structural

  4. Anticipating Challenges: School-Based Social Work Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishna, Faye; Muskat, Barbara; Cook, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Intervention research is vital for social work, as it aims to develop practice/program approaches and provide evidence to understand which interventions are effective and for whom. Despite growing attention, little social work research exists that evaluates interventions. Among the reasons for the dearth of intervention research within social work…

  5. Trends in Computing for Climate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, B.

    2014-12-01

    The grand challenges of climate science will stress our informatics infrastructure severely in the next decade. Our drive for ever greater simulation resolution/complexity/length/repetition, coupled with new remote and in-situ sensing platforms present us with problems in computation, data handling, and information management, to name but three. These problems are compounded by the background trends: Moore's Law is no longer doing us any favours: computing is getting harder to exploit as we have to bite the parallelism bullet, and Kryder's Law (if it ever existed) isn't going to help us store the data volumes we can see ahead. The variety of data, the rate it arrives, and the complexity of the tools we need and use, all strain our ability to cope. The solutions, as ever, will revolve around more and better software, but "more" and "better" will require some attention. In this talk we discuss how these issues have played out in the context of CMIP5, and might be expected to play out in CMIP6 and successors. Although the CMIPs will provide the thread, we will digress into modelling per se, regional climate modelling (CORDEX), observations from space (Obs4MIPs and friends), climate services (as they might play out in Europe), and the dependency of progress on how we manage people in our institutions. It will be seen that most of the issues we discuss apply to the wider environmental sciences, if not science in general. They all have implications for the need for both sustained infrastructure and ongoing research into environmental informatics.

  6. The State of Educational Intervention Research as Viewed through the Lens of Literacy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael; Graham, Steve; Harris, Karen

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of educational intervention research are reviewed: Educational intervention research is inspired by diverse theories, targeted at a variety of simple to very complex interventions, and includes a variety of methods and measurements. Some interventions have been studied much more than others, with the more studied ones often…

  7. Recent trends and advances in berry health benefits research.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2010-04-14

    Recent advances have been made in our scientific understanding of how berries promote human health and prevent chronic illnesses such as some cancers, heart disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Cancer is rapidly overtaking heart disease as the number one killer disease in developed countries, and this phenomenon is coupled with a growing aging population and concomitant age-related diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that consumers are turning toward foods with medicinal properties as promising dietary interventions for disease prevention and health maintenance. Among fruits, berries of all colors have emerged as champions with substantial research data supporting their abilities to positively affect multiple disease states. Apart from several essential dietary components found in berries, such as vitamins, minerals, and fiber, berries also contain numerous bioactives that provide health benefits that extend beyond basic nutrition. Berry bioactives encompass a wide diversity of phytochemicals (phytonutrients) ranging from fat-soluble/lipophilic to water-soluble/hydrophilic compounds. Recent research from laboratories across the globe has provided useful insights into the biological effects and underlying mechanisms of actions resulting from eating berries. The cluster of papers included here represents a cross section of topics discussed at the 2009 International Berry Health Benefits Symposium. Together, these papers provide valuable insight into recent research trends and advances made into evaluating the various health benefits that may result from the consumption of berries and their derived products. PMID:20020687

  8. Trends in eutrophication research and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, Walter; Thornton, Jeffrey A.

    1996-02-01

    Eutrophication is the natural ageing process of lakes. It is characterized by a geologically slow shift from in-lake biological production driven by allochthonous (external to the water body) loading of nutrients, to production driven by autochthonous (in-lake) processes. This shift typically is accompanied by changes in species and biotic community composition, as an aquatic ecosystem is ultimately transformed into a terrestrial biome. However, this typically slow process can be greatly accelerated by human intervention in the natural biogeochemical cycling of nutrients within a watershed; the resulting cultural eutrophication can create conditions inimical to the continued use of the water body for human-driven economic purposes. Excessive algal and rooted plant growth, degraded water quality, extensive deoxygenation of the bottom water layers and increased fish biomass accompanied by decreased harvest quality, are some features of this process.Following the Second World War, concern with cultural eutrophication achieved an intensity that spurred a significant research effort, culminating in the identification of phosphorus as the single most significant, and controllable, element involved in driving the eutrophication process. During the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s, much effort was devoted to reducing phosphorus in wastewater effluents, primarily in the developed countries of the temperate zone. These efforts generally resulted in the control of eutrophication in these countries, albeit with varying degrees of success. The present effort in the temperature zone, comprising mostly developed nations, has now shifted to the control of diffuse sources of a broader spectrum of contaminants that impact human water use.In the developing countries of the inter-tropical zone, however, rapidly expanding populations, a growing industrial economy and extensive urbanization have only recently reached an intensity at which cultural eutrophication can no longer be

  9. Mobile eHealth interventions for obesity: a timely opportunity to leverage convergence trends.

    PubMed

    Tufano, James T; Karras, Bryant T

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is often cited as the most prevalent chronic health condition and highest priority public health problem in the United States. There is a limited but growing body of evidence suggesting that mobile eHealth behavioral interventions, if properly designed, may be effective in promoting and sustaining successful weight loss and weight maintenance behavior changes. This paper reviews the current literature on the successes and failures of public health, provider-administered, and self-managed behavioral health interventions for weight loss. The prevailing theories of health behavior change are discussed from the perspective of how this knowledge can serve as an evidence base to inform the design of mobile eHealth weight loss interventions. Tailored informational interventions, which, in recent years, have proven to be the most effective form of conventional health behavior intervention for weight loss, are discussed. Lessons learned from the success of conventional tailored informational interventions and the early successes of desktop computer-assisted self-help weight management interventions are presented, as are design principles suggested by Social Cognitive Theory and the Social Marketing Model. Relevant computing and communications technology convergence trends are also discussed. The recent trends in rapid advancement, convergence, and public adoption of Web-enabled cellular telephone and wireless personal digital assistant (PDA) devices provide timely opportunities to deliver the mass customization capabilities, reach, and interactivity required for the development, administration, and adoption of effective population-level eHealth tailored informational interventions for obesity. PMID:16403722

  10. Current Trends in Preservation Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, George Martin

    1990-01-01

    Overview of current trends in the preservation of library materials discusses collections conservation and management; climate control; insect and mold control; fire control; the effects of compact shelving; freezing and freeze-drying; space drying; alkaline paper; recycled paper; mass deacidification; and paper strengthening. (27 notes and…

  11. Governance strategies for conducting text messaging interventions in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nicholas; Morrison, Caitlin; Griffin, Jonathan; Reiter, William; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Edwards, Kelly

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing interest in medical text messaging interventions being used to achieve positive patient outcomes across a range of clinical research and health practice environments. Short messaging service (SMS) is a low-cost tool that provides an easy communication route to engage potentially broad populations through text messaging, and is part of the growing social trend toward increased adoption of personal communication technologies by patient populations. Testing the effectiveness and impact of various communication strategies requires navigation of a complex web of clinical and research regulations and oversight mechanisms. We describe a case study of the implementation of SMS to provide bidirectional communications between physicians and patients involved in routine care reminders to illustrate the review processes and governance structures needed. By mapping the regulatory and approval processes required to manage and steward a research study across clinical and community boundaries, we provide a guide for other translational health researchers who may utilize similar kinds of personally owned technology interventions as research tools. PMID:24774328

  12. Science, Social Work, and Intervention Research: The Case of "Critical Time Intervention"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Intervention research is an important, yet often neglected, focus of social work scholars and investigators. The purpose of this article is to review significant milestones and recent advances in intervention research. Methodological and analytical developments in intervention research are discussed in the context of science and social work.…

  13. How Effective Are School Bullying Intervention Programs? A Meta-Analysis of Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Gueldner, Barbara A.; Ross, Scott W.; Isava, Duane M.

    2008-01-01

    Research on effectiveness of school bullying interventions has lagged behind descriptive studies on this topic. The literature on bullying intervention research has only recently expanded to a point that allows for synthesis of findings across studies. The authors conducted a meta-analytic study of school bullying intervention research across the…

  14. Research Trends with Cross Tabulation Search Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Chengjiu; Hirokawa, Sachio; Yau, Jane Yin-Kim; Hashimoto, Kiyota; Tabata, Yoshiyuki; Nakatoh, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    To help researchers in building a knowledge foundation of their research fields which could be a time-consuming process, the authors have developed a Cross Tabulation Search Engine (CTSE). Its purpose is to assist researchers in 1) conducting research surveys, 2) efficiently and effectively retrieving information (such as important researchers,…

  15. Gauging the System: Trends in School Climate Measurement and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Meagan; Katz, Kristin; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers and educators are giving increasing scrutiny to systems-level constructs that contribute to safe, supportive, and effective schools, including school climate. School climate is a multifaceted construct that is commonly conceptualized as school community members' subjective experiences of the structural and contextual elements of a…

  16. The Effectiveness and Precision of Intervention Fidelity Measures in Preschool Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Catherine L.

    2013-01-01

    A quantifiable measure of teachers' intervention fidelity when delivering curriculum-based interventions allows researchers to interpret the effectiveness of the curricula under scrutiny. Fidelity measures, however, must accurately represent the critical components of an intervention to confirm that the intervention was delivered as intended…

  17. Publication Trends in Model Organism Research

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Michael R.; Ankeny, Rachel A.; Chen, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1990, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) gave some organisms special status as designated model organisms. This article documents publication trends for these NIH-designated model organisms over the past 40 years. We find that being designated a model organism by the NIH does not guarantee an increasing publication trend. An analysis of model and nonmodel organisms included in GENETICS since 1960 does reveal a sharp decline in the number of publications using nonmodel organisms yet no decline in the overall species diversity. We suggest that organisms with successful publication records tend to share critical characteristics, such as being well developed as standardized, experimental systems and being used by well-organized communities with good networks of exchange and methods of communication. PMID:25381363

  18. Community-Based Family-Focused Practice and Social Network Intervention. Data Trends #129

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" examines research on the "contribution of informal support linkages in the achievement of treatment outcomes" in three models of family-based practice: Intensive Family…

  19. Designing Research Studies on Psychosocial Interventions in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tristram; Scahill, Lawrence; Dawson, Geraldine; Guthrie, Donald; Lord, Catherine; Odom, Samuel; Rogers, Sally; Wagner, Ann

    2007-01-01

    To address methodological challenges in research on psychosocial interventions for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a model was developed for systematically validating and disseminating interventions in a sequence of steps. First, initial efficacy studies are conducted to establish interventions as promising. Next, promising interventions are…

  20. Trends in US Autism Research Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jennifer; Illes, Judy; Lazzeroni, Laura; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This study shows that the number of autism research grants funded in the US from 1997 to 2006 significantly increased 15% per year. Although the majority of projects were concentrated in basic science (65%) compared to clinical (15%) and translational research (20%), there is a significant decrease in the proportion of basic research grants per…

  1. An Assessment of Intervention Fidelity in Published Social Work Intervention Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Nicole A.; Kim, Irang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Intervention fidelity is a critical strategy to help advance the usefulness and integrity of social work research. This study assessed the extent to which a selected sample of published social work intervention researchers reported its intervention protocols. Methods: Six core social work journals were reviewed in this analysis. The…

  2. Recent trends in geographic information system research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews recent contributions to the body of published research on Geographic Information Systems (GISs). Increased usages of GISs have placed a new demand upon the academic and research community and despite some lack of formalized definitions, categorizations, terminologies, and standard data structures, the community has risen to the challenge. Examinations of published GIS research, in particular on GIS data structures, reveal a healthy, active research community which is using a truly interdisciplinary approach. Future work will undoubtably lead to a clearer understanding of the problems of handling spatial data, while producing a new generation of highly sophisticated GISs.

  3. Biology Education Research Trends in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Seyda; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a content analysis of 633 biology education research [BER] papers published by Turkish science educators in national and international journals. The findings indicate that more research has been undertaken in environment and ecology, the cell and animal form and functions. In addition learning, teaching and attitudes were in…

  4. New Trends in Swedish Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Tomas

    2006-01-01

    What new tendencies can be made out in Swedish educational research in the last three decades? Briefly, the following developments are described: In the 1970s, a long-prevailing emphasis on quantitative research was challenged by a number of different qualitative methods. Traditional sociology of education, meanwhile, was challenged by the new…

  5. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: Current trends

    PubMed Central

    WEINGARTEN, CAROL P.; STRAUMAN, TIMOTHY J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. Method We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. Results We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. Conclusions The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research. PMID:24527694

  6. Digital Library Research: Major Issues and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Suddatta; Chowdhury, G. G.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses digital libraries and provides brief accounts of digital library projects in different parts of the world. Reviews the literature on digital library research under 16 subject headings and suggests future directions. (Contains 114 references.) (LRW)

  7. Advancing Intervention Science through Effectiveness Research: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Adamson, Lena; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Eichas, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Effectiveness research is maturing as a field within intervention and prevention science. Effectiveness research involves the implementation and evaluation of the effectiveness of the dissemination of evidence-based interventions in everyday circumstances (i.e., type 2 translational research). Effectiveness research is characterized by…

  8. Large-Scale Science Education Intervention Research We Can Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penuel, William R.; Fishman, Barry J.

    2012-01-01

    This article develops an argument that the type of intervention research most useful for improving science teaching and learning and leading to scalable interventions includes both research to develop and gather evidence of the efficacy of innovations and a different kind of research, "design-based implementation research" (DBIR). DBIR in…

  9. Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of "International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education" from 1990 to 2007. The…

  10. Trends in Turkish Mathematics Education Research: From 1998 to 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baki, Adnan; Guven, Bulent; Karatas, Ilhan; Akkan, Yasar; Cakiroglu, Unal

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine trends in Turkish Mathematics Education on the basis of both master and doctoral theses involved. The researchers reviewed the online databases of the Higher Education Council and Proquest as well as the library of each university and examined 284 graduate theses in regard to research topic, research methods,…

  11. Research Trends in the United States: EE to ESD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.

    2007-01-01

    Research on education for sustainable development (ESD) is not a unified body of work and, much like the literature for environmental education (EE), research is published in many arenas. The trends, however, capture some of the major foci of the research that is emerging on ESD, especially in the early years of the Decade of Education for…

  12. Research Trends in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly From 2004 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Haegele, Justin A; Lee, Jihyun; Porretta, David L

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this documentary analysis was to examine trends in research published in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly (APAQ) over a 10-yr span. A total of 181 research articles published from 2004 to 2013 were coded and analyzed using the following categories: first-author country affiliation, theoretical framework, intervention, research methods, disability categories, and topical focus. Results indicate high frequencies of nonintervention and group-design studies, as well as a low frequency of studies that describe a theoretical or conceptual framework. Trends in disability of participants and topical focus reflect current interests of researchers publishing in APAQ. While some scholars have suggested that changes in research on adapted physical activity would occur, the results of this analysis suggest that many of these categories remain largely unchanged for research published in APAQ. This study calls attention to similarities between the results of the current analysis and previous ones. PMID:26113549

  13. Current Research Trends in Residential Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Thomas E., Jr.; Miller, Michael T.

    This paper reviews the literature on the role that campus residential life plays in the life of college students. While some researchers have concluded that living on-campus or off-campus has little affect on student academic achievement (Bliming, 1989; Bowman and Partin, 1993), others have expressed that on-campus living produces students with…

  14. Trends in vehicle design research - 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Velinsky, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 11 papers. Some of the titles are: Test rig design for hydrostatic accumulator energy-storage automobile research; Actively coordinated vehicle systems; Steady turning stability of partially filled tank vehicles with arbitrary tank geometry; Modeling and simulation of a supercharger; and Contributions of rider induced loads to bicycle frame stress.

  15. Preset trends in vitamin E research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After near one century of research and thousands of publications, the physiological function(s) of vitamin E remain unclear. Available evidence suggests a role in cell homeostasis that occurs through the modulation of specific signaling pathways and genes involved in proliferative, metabolic, inflam...

  16. Anesthesia Practice and Clinical Trends in Interventional Radiology: A European Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Haslam, Philip J.; Yap, Bernard; Mueller, Peter R.; Lee, Michael J.

    2000-07-15

    Purpose: To determine current European practice in interventional radiology regarding nursing care, anesthesia, and clinical care trends.Methods: A survey was sent to 977 European interventional radiologists to assess the use of sedoanalgesia, nursing care, monitoring equipment, pre- and postprocedural care, and clinical trends in interventional radiology. Patterns of sedoanalgesia were recorded for both vascular and visceral interventional procedures. Responders rated their preferred level of sedoanalgesia for each procedure as follows: (a) awake/alert, (b) drowsy/arousable, (c) asleep/arousable, (d) deep sedation, and (e) general anesthesia. Sedoanalgesic drugs and patient care trends were also recorded. A comparison was performed with data derived from a similar survey of interventional practice in the United States.Results: Two hundred and forty-three of 977 radiologists responded (25%). The total number of procedures analyzed was 210,194. The majority (56%) of diagnostic and therapeutic vascular procedures were performed at the awake/alert level of sedation, 32% were performed at the drowsy/arousable level, and 12% at deeper levels of sedation. The majority of visceral interventional procedures were performed at the drowsy/arousable level of sedation (41%), 29% were performed at deeper levels of sedation, and 30% at the awake/alert level. In general, more sedoanalgesia is used in the United States. Eighty-three percent of respondents reported the use of a full-time radiology nurse, 67% used routine blood pressure/pulse oximetry monitoring, and 46% reported the presence of a dedicated recovery area. Forty-nine percent reported daily patient rounds, 30% had inpatient hospital beds, and 51% had day case beds.Conclusion: This survey shows clear differences in the use of sedation for vascular and visceral interventional procedures. Many, often complex, procedures are performed at the awake/alert level of sedation in Europe, whereas deeper levels of sedation are

  17. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. PMID:26873285

  18. Trends in Ginseng Research in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Si-Kwan; Park, Jeong Hill

    2011-01-01

    A total of 470 papers directly related to research on the Panax species were retrieved by performing internet searches with the keywords Panax and ginseng as the search terms. The publications were categorized as follows: 399 research articles, 30 reviews, 30 meeting abstracts, 7 proceedings, and 4 letters. The majority of these publications were published by scientists from Korea (35.7%), China (32.3%), and the USA (11.3%). Scientists from a total of 29 nations were actively involved in conducting ginseng research. A total of 43.6% of the publications were categorized as pharmacodynamic studies. The effects of ginseng on cerebrovascular function and cancer were the two most common topics considered in the pharmacodynamic studies. More than half of the ginseng studies assessed the use of P. ginseng. A total of 23 countries participated in studies specifically related to P. ginseng, and more than 80% of these studies originated from Korea and China. A total of 50 topics within the pharmacodynamics category were examined in association with the use of P. ginseng. PMID:23717084

  19. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in women with breast cancer: Trends, predictors, and areas for future research

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Michaela S.; Rosenberg, Shoshana M.; Dominici, Laura; Partridge, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed increasing rates of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) among women with unilateral early stage breast cancer. This trend has raised concerns, given the lack of evidence for a survival benefit from CPM and the relatively low risk of contralateral breast cancer for most women in this setting. In this article, we review available data regarding the value of CPM, predictors and outcomes related to CPM, and areas for future research and potential intervention. PMID:23893127

  20. Medical Education: A Particularly Complex Intervention to Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattick, Karen; Barnes, Rebecca; Dieppe, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous debate has explored whether medical education research should become more like health services research in terms of frameworks, collaborations and methodologies. Notable recent changes in health services research include an increasing emphasis on complex interventions, defined as interventions that involve more than one component. The…

  1. Cultural and Linguistic Diversity Representation in School Psychology Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Victor

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the current intervention research is critical to the adoption of evidence-based practices in the delivery of psychological services; however, the generalizability and utility of intervention research for culturally and linguistically diverse youth may be limited by the types of research samples utilized. This study addresses…

  2. Establishing guidelines for executing and reporting Internet intervention research.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Judith; Klein, Britt; Barak, Azy; Carlbring, Per; Cuijpers, Pim; Lange, Alfred; Ritterband, Lee; Andersson, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    The field of Internet interventions is growing rapidly. New programs are continually being developed to facilitate health and mental health promotion, disease and emotional distress prevention, risk factor management, treatment, and relapse prevention. However, a clear definition of Internet interventions, guidelines for research, and evidence of effectiveness have been slower to follow. This article focuses on the quality standardization of research on Internet-delivered psychological and behavioural interventions. Although the science underpinning Internet interventions is just starting to be established, across research studies there are often conceptual and methodological difficulties. The authors argue that this situation is due to the lack of universally accepted operational guidelines and evaluation methods. Following a critical appraisal of existing codes of conduct and guidelines for Internet-assisted psychological and health interventions, the authors developed a framework of guidelines for Internet intervention research utilizing aspects of facet theory (Guttman & Greenbaum, 1998). The framework of facets, elements, and guidelines of best practice in reporting Internet intervention research was then sent to several leading researchers in the field for their comment and input, so that a consensus framework could be agreed on. The authors outline 12 key facets to be considered when evaluating and reporting Internet intervention studies. Each facet consists of a range of recommended elements, designed as the minimum features for reporting Internet intervention studies. The authors propose that this framework be utilized when designing and reporting Internet intervention research, so results across studies can be replicated, extended, compared, and contrasted with greater ease and clarity. PMID:25155812

  3. Trends in fusion reactor safety research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, J. S.; Holland, D. F.; Piet, S. J.

    Fusion has the potential to be an attractive energy source. From the safety and environmental perspective, fusion must avoid concerns about catastrophic accidents and unsolvable waste disposal. In addition, fusion must achieve an acceptable level of risk from operational accidents that result in public exposure and economic loss. Finally, fusion reactors must control routine radioactive effluent, particularly tritium. Major progress in achieving this potential rests on development of low-activation materials or alternative fuels. The safety and performance of various material choices and fuels for commercial fusion reactors can be investigated relatively inexpensively through reactor design studies. These studies bring together experts in a wide range of backgrounds and force the group to either agree on a reactor design or identify areas for further study. Fusion reactors will be complex, with distributed radioactive inventories. The next generation of experiments will be critical in demonstrating that acceptable levels of safe operation can be achieved. These machines will use materials which are available today and for which a large database exists (e.g., for 316 stainless steel). Researchers have developed a good understanding of the risks associated with operation of these devices. Specifically, consequences from coolant system failures, loss of vacuum events, tritium releases, and liquid metal reactions have been studied. Recent studies go beyond next step designs and investigate commercial reactor concerns including tritium release and liquid metal reactions.

  4. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  5. An Exploration of Future Trends in Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Nicole M.; Clark, Charlotte; Kelsey, Elin

    2013-01-01

    This article describes future trends in environmental education (EE) research based on a mixed-methods study where data were collected through a content analysis of peer-reviewed articles published in EE journals between 2005 and 2010; interviews with experts engaged in EE research and sustainability-related fields; surveys with current EE…

  6. The Use of Citation Counting to Identify Research Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Harry; Woodhead, Michael

    1971-01-01

    The analysis and application of manpower statistics to identify some long-term international research trends in economic entomology and pest conrol are described. Movements in research interests, particularly towards biological methods of control, correlations between these sectors, and the difficulties encountered in the construction of a…

  7. Trends Influencing Adult Literacy Instruction and Research in 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Larry

    A review of current literature identifies three growing trends. First, there has been an increase in legislatively mandated accountability that requires taxpayer-funded education and research programs be demonstrated effective by "scientifically based research." To receive federal monies programs must emphasize quantitative, evidence-based…

  8. Trends in Autism Research: A Systematic Journal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Heidi J.; Berkeley, Sheri; Evmenova, Anya S.; Park, Kristy L.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disability for which prevalence rates continue to increase. Persons with ASD vary widely in both severity of disability and services required. Therefore it is important to identify trends in research and evaluate progress in the field. The current study uses a journal analysis to evaluate research over…

  9. Intervention Fidelity in Special and General Education Research Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne; Haring, Christa; Ciullo, Stephen; McCulley, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Treatment fidelity reporting practices are described for journals that published general and special education intervention research with high impact factors from 2005 through 2009. The authors reviewed research articles, reported the proportion of intervention studies that described fidelity measurement, detailed the components of fidelity…

  10. Intervention Research on School Bullying in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ju, Yucui; Wang, Shuqiong; Zhang, Wenxin

    2009-01-01

    Intervention research on school bullying was conducted in a primary school with an action research method. After conducting a five-week intervention program, the occurrence ratio of being bullied on the way to school and back home and the degree to which children were bullied dropped significantly, but the rate of reduction in grade three was…

  11. Intervention Adherence for Research and Practice: Necessity or Triage Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, David; Hawkins, Renee; Lentz, F. Edward, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Intervention integrity or adherence describes qualities of carrying out an intervention plan and in research is fundamentally linked to experimental validity questions addressed by measurement of independent and dependent variables. Integrity has been well described in conceptual writing but has been a continuing thorny subject in research and…

  12. Trends Shaping Education 2013. Centre for Educational Research and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2013

    2013-01-01

    What does it mean for education that our societies are increasingly diverse? How is global economic power shifting towards new countries? In what ways are the skills required in the world of work changing? "Trends Shaping Education 2013" brings together international evidence to give policy makers, researchers, educational leaders, administrators…

  13. Explaining Recent Army and Navy Minority Recruiting Trends. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2007, the representation of blacks among high-quality Army recruits declined, while in the Navy, black representation remained stable; the representation of Hispanics among high-quality recruits in both the Army and Navy grew during this period. RAND researchers identified factors that explain these recruiting trends and found…

  14. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  15. Materials for hydrogen storage: current research trends and perspectives.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Annemieke W C; Areán, Carlos Otero

    2008-02-14

    Storage and transport of hydrogen constitutes a key enabling technology for the advent of a hydrogen-based energy transition. Main research trends on hydrogen storage materials, including metal hydrides, porous adsorbents and hydrogen clathrates, are reviewed with a focus on recent developments and an appraisal of the challenges ahead. . PMID:18478688

  16. Flipped Classroom Research and Trends from Different Fields of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin, Zamzami; Halili, Siti Hajar

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to analyse the trends and contents of flipped classroom research based on 20 articles that report on flipped learning classroom initiatives from 2013-2015. The content analysis was used as a methodology to investigate methodologies, area of studies, technology tools or online platforms, the most frequently used keywords and works…

  17. Recent Trends in Developmental Research: A Quantitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Nina; Cheyne, Allan

    An assessment of recent trends in developmental research examined all articles published in the periodical "Child Development" from 1967-1983. Of the articles that were included in the "Child Development Abstracts and Bibliography" in the same period, 200 articles from each year of the period were randomly selected for assessment. Sixteen keywords…

  18. Who's Playing College Sports? Trends in Participation. Research Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheslock, John

    2007-01-01

    This study provides the most accurate and comprehensive examination of participation trends to date. We analyze data from almost every higher education institution in the country and utilize data and methods that are free of the shortcomings present in previous research on this subject. A 10-year NCAA sample containing 738 NCAA colleges and…

  19. Trends and Topics in Autism Spectrum Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; LoVullo, Santino V.

    2009-01-01

    The field of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is expanding at an exponential rate. New topics for study are forming and journals are emerging rapidly to handle the ever-increasing volume of publications. This study was undertaken to provide an overview of past and current research trends. Representative studies were evaluated for type of content…

  20. "JPBI" 10 Years Later: Trends in Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Sean M.; Vilardo, Brigid A.; Kern, Lee; Kokina, Anastasia; Ash, Allison N.; Seymour, Kimberly J.; Castrantas, Lauren M.; Kollar, Rachel B.; Wagner, Andrea M.; Bartholomew, Audrey; Thomas, Lisa B.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the "Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions" ("JPBI") celebrated 10 years in publication. As the flagship journal of positive behavior support (PBS), it is important to periodically examine the research published in "JPBI" to determine whether it reflects the basic principles of PBS, to explore the ways in which PBS is being…

  1. Research on Divorce: Continuing Trends and New Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Research on divorce during the past decade has focused on a range of topics, including the predictors of divorce, associations between divorce and the well-being of children and former spouses, and interventions for divorcing couples. Methodological advances during the past decade include a greater reliance on nationally representative…

  2. Intervention Development and Cultural Adaptation Research With Diverse Families

    PubMed Central

    BERNAL, GUILLERMO

    2006-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the special issue on intervention development and cultural adaptation research with diverse families. The need for research on intervention development and on cultural adaptation of interventions is presented, followed by a discussion of frameworks on treatment development. Seven articles included in this special issue serve as examples of the stages of treatment and intervention development, and of the procedures employed in the cultural adaptation with diverse families. An overview of the seven articles is provided to illustrate the treatment development process and the use of pluralistic research methods. We conclude with a call to the field for creative and innovative intervention development research with diverse families to contribute to the body of evidence-based practice with these populations. PMID:16768015

  3. Trends and Research Questions in Research on Learning and Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Robert

    This paper concentrates on cognitive psychological research on school subjects using as illustration work in reading, mathematics, and aptitude for learning. In general, the work in reading research can be characterized in terms of three themes: (1) comprehension as the construction of knowledge; (2) the structure of text; and (3) reading as the…

  4. Cultural relevance of physical activity intervention research with underrepresented populations

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Chan, Keith; Banks, JoAnne; Ruppar, Todd M.; Scharff, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes cultural relevance in physical activity intervention research with underrepresented populations. Seventy-one extant studies which tested interventions to increase physical activity among underrepresented adults were included. Verbatim descriptions of efforts to enhance cultural relevance of study designs and interventions were extracted and then content analyzed. We found strategies to enhance cultural relevance of interventions as soliciting input from population members, linking intervention content with values, addressing language and literacy challenges, incorporating population media figures, using culturally relevant forms of physical activity, and addressing specific population linked barriers to activity. Methodological approaches included specialized recruitment and study locations, culturally relevant measures, underrepresented personnel, and cost-awareness study procedures to prevent fiscal barriers to participation. Most reported activities were surface matching. Existing research neither compared the effectiveness of cultural relevance approaches to standardized interventions nor addressed economic, education, geographic, or cultural heterogeneity among groups. PMID:25228486

  5. Intervention Research: The Importance of Fidelity Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolery, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary, the issue of fidelity assessment is addressed as it relates to Strain and Bovey's article (2011). Four reasons are provided for measuring fidelity in intervention studies. Measuring fidelity (a) potentially allows investigators to document the findings were not due to the lack of fidelity in a study; (b) presents information…

  6. A Summary of Selective Experimental Research on Psychosocial Interventions for Sexually Abused Children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunah; Noh, Dabok; Kim, Hyunlye

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to explore current trends in psychosocial interventions for sexually abused children through a review of recent research. Our comprehensive review is limited to published (quasi) experimental studies in the English language over a period of 2000-2013. It provides a detailed analysis of the final 18 articles that met our inclusion criteria, from the 670 potentially relevant articles that were identified. Reviewers analyzed candidate articles to determine whether they met inclusion or exclusion criteria. The retrieved studies reported positive results with respect to improvements in the negative psychosocial sequelae of child sexual abuse following the use of a diverse set of treatment strategies. Of the various interventions, cognitive behavioral therapy was shown to be the most promising type of intervention for sexually abused children. In this review, we discuss some of the implications of psychosocial interventions for victims of child sexual abuse, citing both the methodological and ethical issues that should be considered. PMID:27472511

  7. Trends in aeropropulsion research and their impact on engineering education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Reichert, Bruce A.; Glassman, Arthur J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation is concerned with the trends in aeropropulsion both in the U.S. and abroad and the impact of these trends on the educational process in our universities. In this paper, we shall outline the new directions for research which may be of interest to educators in the aeropropulsion field. Awareness of new emphases, such as emission reductions, noise control, maneuverability, speed, etc., will have a great impact on engineering educators responsible for restructuring courses in propulsion. The information presented herein will also provide some background material for possible consideration in the future development of propulsion courses. In describing aeropropulsion, we are concerned primarily with air-breathing propulsion; however many observations apply equally as well to rocket engine systems. Aeropropulsion research needs are primarily motivated by technologies required for advanced vehicle systems and frequently driven by external requirements such as economic competitiveness, environmental concern and national security. In this presentation, vehicle based research is first described, followed by a discussion of discipline and multidiscipline research necessary to implement the vehicle-focused programs. The importance of collaboration in research and the training of future researchers concludes this presentation.

  8. Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2010-08-01

    This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education from 1990 to 2007. The multi-stage clustering technique was employed to investigate with what topics, to what development trends, and from whose contribution that the journal publications constructed as a science education research field. This study found that the research topic of Conceptual Change & Concept Mapping was the most studied topic, although the number of publications has slightly declined in the 2000's. The studies in the themes of Professional Development, Nature of Science and Socio-Scientific Issues, and Conceptual Chang and Analogy were found to be gaining attention over the years. This study also found that, embedded in the most cited references, the supporting disciplines and theories of science education research are constructivist learning, cognitive psychology, pedagogy, and philosophy of science.

  9. Multilevel Intervention Research: Lessons Learned and Pathways Forward

    PubMed Central

    Taplin, Stephen H.; Foster, Mary K.; Fagan, Pebbles; Kaluzny, Arnold D.

    2012-01-01

    This summary reflects on this monograph regarding multilevel intervention (MLI) research to 1) assess its added value; 2) discuss what has been learned to date about its challenges in cancer care delivery; and 3) identify specific ways to improve its scientific soundness, feasibility, policy relevance, and research agenda. The 12 submitted chapters, and discussion of them at the March 2011 multilevel meeting, were reviewed and discussed among the authors to elicit key findings and results addressing the questions raised at the outset of this effort. MLI research is underrepresented as an explicit focus in the cancer literature but may improve implementation of studies of cancer care delivery if they assess contextual, organizational, and environmental factors important to understanding behavioral and/or system-level interventions. The field lacks a single unifying theory, although several psychological or biological theories are useful, and an ecological model helps conceptualize and communicate interventions. MLI research designs are often complex, involving nonlinear and nonhierarchical relationships that may not be optimally studied in randomized designs. Simulation modeling and pilot studies may be necessary to evaluate MLI interventions. Measurement and evaluation of team and organizational interventions are especially needed in cancer care, as are attention to the context of health-care reform, eHealth technology, and genomics-based medicine. Future progress in MLI research requires greater attention to developing and supporting relevant metrics of level effects and interactions and evaluating MLI interventions. MLI research holds an unrealized promise for understanding how to improve cancer care delivery. PMID:22623606

  10. Multilevel intervention research: lessons learned and pathways forward.

    PubMed

    Clauser, Steven B; Taplin, Stephen H; Foster, Mary K; Fagan, Pebbles; Kaluzny, Arnold D

    2012-05-01

    This summary reflects on this monograph regarding multilevel intervention (MLI) research to 1) assess its added value; 2) discuss what has been learned to date about its challenges in cancer care delivery; and 3) identify specific ways to improve its scientific soundness, feasibility, policy relevance, and research agenda. The 12 submitted chapters, and discussion of them at the March 2011 multilevel meeting, were reviewed and discussed among the authors to elicit key findings and results addressing the questions raised at the outset of this effort. MLI research is underrepresented as an explicit focus in the cancer literature but may improve implementation of studies of cancer care delivery if they assess contextual, organizational, and environmental factors important to understanding behavioral and/or system-level interventions. The field lacks a single unifying theory, although several psychological or biological theories are useful, and an ecological model helps conceptualize and communicate interventions. MLI research designs are often complex, involving nonlinear and nonhierarchical relationships that may not be optimally studied in randomized designs. Simulation modeling and pilot studies may be necessary to evaluate MLI interventions. Measurement and evaluation of team and organizational interventions are especially needed in cancer care, as are attention to the context of health-care reform, eHealth technology, and genomics-based medicine. Future progress in MLI research requires greater attention to developing and supporting relevant metrics of level effects and interactions and evaluating MLI interventions. MLI research holds an unrealized promise for understanding how to improve cancer care delivery. PMID:22623606

  11. Underage drinking in the UK: changing trends, impact and interventions. A rapid evidence synthesis.

    PubMed

    Healey, Christine; Rahman, Atif; Faizal, Mohammad; Kinderman, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The UK is a high prevalence country for underage alcohol use. We conducted an evidence synthesis to examine (1) the changing trends in underage drinking in the UK compared to Europe and the USA, (2) the impact of underage drinking in terms of hospital admissions, (3) the association between underage drinking and violent youth offending, and (4) the evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol harm reduction interventions aimed at children and adolescents under the age of 18 years. The following databases were searched from November 2002 until November 2012: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, The Evidence for Policy and Practice Information, DARE, Medline, The Campbell Collaboration, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, Psych INFO and Social Care Online. Our findings revealed changes in the way children drink in the UK and how much they drink. Alcohol related harms are increasing in the UK despite overall population levels of consumption reducing in this age group. Girls aged 15-16 years report binge drinking and drunkenness more than boys. Girls are also more likely than boys to be admitted to hospital for alcohol related harm. The evidence suggests a strong association between heavy episodic binge drinking and violent youth offending. Only 7 out of 45 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) identified for this review included children and adolescents under the age of 18 years. Most were delivered in the emergency department (ED) and involved a brief intervention. All were characterised by a wide age range of participants, heterogeneous samples and high rates of refusal and attrition. The authors conclude that whilst the ED might be the best place to identify children and adolescents at risk of harm related to alcohol use it might not be the best place to deliver an intervention. Issues related to a lack of engagement with alcohol harm reduction interventions have been previously overlooked and warrant

  12. Intervention strategies for children: a research agenda.

    PubMed Central

    Roghmann, K J

    1985-01-01

    This background review has attempted to pinpoint problems and issues of intervention strategies to promote health among children. Some traditional interventions as they are now provided in preventive service packages, for example, are critically assessed; new interventions like neonatal intensive care, prenatal diagnosis, periconceptional vitamin supplementation, and nutritional supplementation during later pregnancy are welcome; supportive outreach services through nurse home visitors to bring proved technologies to those in greatest need, while they may not be new have shown renewed effectiveness. Recently recognized problems like the "new morbidity," and newly recognized prevention potentials like the great prospects for accident prevention, adequate school health programs, and special adolescent care programs are promising areas for preventive services effectiveness. We do not claim that a comprehensive list has been presented. Rather, an attempt has been made to challenge some traditional preventive techniques, e.g., preoperative x-rays, to stimulate thinking about new organizational forms of care delivery, and to keep an open agenda. As a result, the reader will feel a "lack of closure"--challenges without definitive answers. The general assertion is that personal preventive care is only weakly related to health and that preventive care delivery is not a simple technical problem. Let me summarize the main points. First, the lack of evidence and comprehensiveness. Other reviews of preventive care packages could have been discussed. The presentation by Fielding [164] in the Institute of Medicine's background papers to Healthy People also includes service listings for pregnant women, normal infants, preschool children, schoolchildren, and adolescents. The Lifetime Health-Monitoring program by Breslow and Somers [165] set goals and services that have already become practice patterns for large parts of the country. Many more cost-effectiveness studies of

  13. Some historical trends in the research and development of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of some trends in aircraft design was made in an effort to determine the relation between research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT and E) and aircraft mission capability, requirements, and objectives. Driving forces in the history of aircraft include the quest for speed which involved design concepts incorporating jet propulsion systems and low drag features. The study of high speed design concepts promoted new experimental and analytical research techniques. These research techniques, in turn, have lead to concepts offering new performance potential. Design trends were directed toward increased speed, efficiency, productivity, and safety. Generally speaking, the research and development effort has been evolutionary in nature and, with the exception of the transition to supersonic flight, little has occurred since the origin of flight that has drastically changed the basic design fundamentals of aircraft. However, this does not preclude the possibility of dramatic changes in the future since the products of research are frequently unpredictable. Advances should be expected and sought in improved aerodynamics (reduced drag, enhanced lift, flow field exploitation); propulsion (improved engine cycles, multimode engines, alternate fuels, alternate power sources); structures (new materials, manufacturing techniques); all with a view toward increased efficiency and utility.

  14. Bullying Behavior: Current Issues, Research, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffner, Robert A., Ed.; Loring, Marti, Ed.; Young, Corinna, Ed.

    Although there has been great concern about the incidence of bullying in American schools, there has only recently been research conducted in American schools on this problem. This volume considers the difficulties involved in various definitions of bullying, theoretical perspectives on bullying, current clinical research findings on the dynamics…

  15. NCI Funding Trends and Priorities in Physical Activity and Energy Balance Research Among Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Alfano, Catherine M; Bluethmann, Shirley M; Tesauro, Gina; Perna, Frank; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Elena, Joanne W; Ross, Sharon A; O'Connell, Mary; Bowles, Heather R; Greenberg, Deborah; Nebeling, Linda

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that a healthy lifestyle consisting of physical activity, healthy diet, and weight control is associated with reduced risk of morbidity and mortality after cancer. However, these behavioral interventions are not widely adopted in practice or community settings. Integrating heath behavior change interventions into standard survivorship care for the growing number of cancer survivors requires an understanding of the current state of the science and a coordinated scientific agenda for the future with focused attention in several priority areas. To facilitate this goal, this paper presents trends over the past decade of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) research portfolio, fiscal year 2004 to 2014, by funding mechanism, research focus, research design and methodology, primary study exposures and outcomes, and study team expertise and composition. These data inform a prioritized research agenda for the next decade focused on demonstrating value and feasibility and creating desire for health behavior change interventions at multiple levels including the survivor, clinician, and healthcare payer to facilitate the development and implementation of appropriately targeted, adaptive, effective, and sustainable programs for all survivors. PMID:26547926

  16. Research Trends of Ecotoxicity of Nanoparticles in Soil Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo-Mi; Kim, Shin Woong; Kwak, Jin Il; Nam, Sun-Hwa; Shin, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    We are consistently being exposed to nanomaterials in direct and/or indirect route as they are used in almost all the sectors in our life. Nations across the worlds are now trying to put global regulation policy on nanomaterials. Sometimes, they are reported to be more toxic than the corresponding ion and micromaterials. Therefore, safety research of nanoparticles has huge implications on a national economics. In this study, we evaluated and analyzed the research trend of ecotoxicity of nanoparticles in soil environment. Test species include terrestrial plants, earthworms, and soil nematode. Soil enzyme activities were also discussed. We found that the results of nanotoxicity studies were affected by many factors such as physicochemical properties, size, dispersion method and test medium of nanoparticle, which should be considered when conducting toxicity researches. In particular, more researches on the effect of physico chemical properties and fate of nanoparticles on toxicity effect should be conducted consistently. PMID:24278532

  17. Scientometric trends and knowledge maps of global health systems research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last few decades, health systems research (HSR) has garnered much attention with a rapid increase in the related literature. This study aims to review and evaluate the global progress in HSR and assess the current quantitative trends. Methods Based on data from the Web of Science database, scientometric methods and knowledge visualization techniques were applied to evaluate global scientific production and develop trends of HSR from 1900 to 2012. Results HSR has increased rapidly over the past 20 years. Currently, there are 28,787 research articles published in 3,674 journals that are listed in 140 Web of Science subject categories. The research in this field has mainly focused on public, environmental and occupational health (6,178, 21.46%), health care sciences and services (5,840, 20.29%), and general and internal medicine (3,783, 13.14%). The top 10 journals had published 2,969 (10.31%) articles and received 5,229 local citations and 40,271 global citations. The top 20 authors together contributed 628 papers, which accounted for a 2.18% share in the cumulative worldwide publications. The most productive author was McKee, from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, with 48 articles. In addition, USA and American institutions ranked the first in health system research productivity, with high citation times, followed by the UK and Canada. Conclusions HSR is an interdisciplinary area. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries showed they are the leading nations in HSR. Meanwhile, American and Canadian institutions and the World Health Organization play a dominant role in the production, collaboration, and citation of high quality articles. Moreover, health policy and analysis research, health systems and sub-systems research, healthcare and services research, health, epidemiology and economics of communicable and non-communicable diseases, primary care research, health economics and health costs, and pharmacy of

  18. Research Trends in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for PEMFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, S. M. Javaid

    In this chapter research trends followed by various scientific groups for the development of polymeric membranes have been described and reviewed. Most notably, the developments made at Ballard Advanced Materials (BAM) and some of their results are discussed. In general three different approaches have been followed worldwide by various research groups for the development and conception of alternative membranes. These approaches include: (1) modifying perfluorinated ionomer membranes; (2) functionalization of aromatic hydrocarbon polymers/ membranes; and (3) composite membranes based on solid inorganic proton conducting materials and the organic polymer matrix or prepare acid-base blends and their composite to improve their water retention properties. The current trend is for the composite and hybrid membranes, which combines the properties of both the polymeric component and inorganic part. The most widely studied polymer after Nafion is the sulfonated polyether-ether ketone (SPEEK), as it has a high potential for commercialization. A number of research projects are currently undergoing dealing with the SPEEK polymer in various research labs.

  19. Quantified trends in the history of verbal behavior research

    PubMed Central

    Eshleman, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The history of scientific research about verbal behavior research, especially that based on Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957), can be assessed on the basis of a frequency and celeration analysis of the published and presented literature. In order to discover these quantified trends, a comprehensive bibliographical database was developed. Based on several literature searches, the bibliographic database included papers pertaining to verbal behavior that were published in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behaviorism, The Behavior Analyst, and The Analysis of Verbal Behavior. A nonbehavioral journal, the Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior was assessed as a nonexample comparison. The bibliographic database also included a listing of verbal behavior papers presented at the meetings of the Association for Behavior Analysis. Papers were added to the database if they (a) were about verbal behavior, (b) referenced B.F. Skinner's (1957) book Verbal Behavior, or (c) did both. Because the references indicated the year of publication or presentation, a count per year of them was measured. These yearly frequencies were plotted on Standard Celeration Charts. Once plotted, various celeration trends in the literature became visible, not the least of which was the greater quantity of verbal behavior research than is generally acknowledged. The data clearly show an acceleration of research across the past decade. The data also question the notion that a “paucity” of research based on Verbal Behavior currently exists. Explanations of the acceleration of verbal behavior research are suggested, and plausible reasons are offered as to why a relative lack of verbal behavior research extended through the mid 1960s to the latter 1970s. PMID:22477630

  20. Research needs and opportunities in server intervention programs.

    PubMed

    Saltz, R F

    1989-01-01

    Prevention specialists have recently focused on ways to shape the drinking context and environment to reduce the risks of drinking and driving. Server intervention refers to a set of strategies to control drinking in service establishments through changes in management policies, serving practices, and by training servers and other employees to monitor and control patrons' alcohol consumption. Research on server intervention is mixed, but seems to indicate that some server intervention practices can reduce levels of alcohol intoxication by patrons. Further work is needed to determine how such effects can be enhanced. Topics for future research include optimal components of specific training curriculum, policies needed to support and extend server training, importance of "booster" sessions, and the relationship of server intervention to broader social and legal environments that discourage drinking and driving. PMID:2793495

  1. Trend of the research on construction and demolition waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Hongping; Shen Liyin

    2011-04-15

    Research interests in addressing construction and demolition (C and D) waste management issues have resulted in a large amount of publications during the last decade. This study demonstrates that there is no systematic examination on the research development in literature in the discipline of C and D waste management. This study presents the latest research trend in the discipline through analyzing the publications from 2000 to 2009 in eight major international journals. The analysis is conducted on the number of papers published annually, main authors' contributions, research methods and data analysis methods adopted, and research topics covered. The results exhibit an increasing research interest in C and D waste management in recent years. Researchers from developed economies have contributed significantly to the development of the research in the discipline. Some developing countries such as Malaysia and China have also been making good efforts in promoting C and D waste management research. The findings from this study also indicate that survey and case study are major methods for data collection, and the data are mostly processed through descriptive analysis. It is anticipated that more future studies on C and D waste management will be led by researchers from developing economies, where construction works will remain their major economic activities. On the other hand, more sophisticated modeling and simulating techniques have been used effectively in a number of studies on C and D waste management research, and this is considered a major methodology for future research in the discipline. C and D waste management will continue to be a hot research topic in the future, in particularly, the importance of human factors in C and D waste management has emerged as a new challenging topic.

  2. Publication trends in Aeolian research: An analysis of the biblography of Aeolian research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An analysis of the Bibliography of Aeolian Research has provided information regarding publication trends in aeolian research. Overall, results suggest that there has been a significant increase in the number of publications per year since the first aeolian-research publication appeared in 1646. P...

  3. AAC Interventions for Autism: A Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Debora R. P.

    2008-01-01

    Fifty-six studies from 1980 to 2007 involving the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) by individuals with autism were reviewed. The majority of the studies used single-subject research designs and emphasized language production skills. Many investigations were held in artificial language learning settings, and a few involved…

  4. Aircraft research and development trends in the US and USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1986-01-01

    Research and development related to aircraft has shown significant progress in both the U.S. and the USSR. In some cases, the indications are that technological advances have resulted in new aircraft concepts and, in other cases, there are indications of particular national needs or objectives that have driven the required research and development to meet the need. The progression of aircraft development tends to reflect factors other than technology such as the political atmosphere, the world environment, and other contending national objectives. The trends in aircraft research and development in the U.S. and USSR will be traced from the early 1900's and, in a time-frame manner, will be related to other influencing factors.

  5. Epigenetic research in cancer epidemiology: trends, opportunities, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh; Rogers, Scott; Divi, Rao L; Schully, Sheri D; Nelson, Stefanie; Joseph Su, L; Ross, Sharon A; Pilch, Susan; Winn, Deborah M; Khoury, Muin J

    2014-02-01

    Epigenetics is emerging as an important field in cancer epidemiology that promises to provide insights into gene regulation and facilitate cancer control throughout the cancer care continuum. Increasingly, investigators are incorporating epigenetic analysis into the studies of etiology and outcomes. To understand current progress and trends in the inclusion of epigenetics in cancer epidemiology, we evaluated the published literature and the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported research grant awards in this field to identify trends in epigenetics research. We present a summary of the epidemiologic studies in NCI's grant portfolio (from January 2005 through December 2012) and in the scientific literature published during the same period, irrespective of support from the NCI. Blood cells and tumor tissue were the most commonly used biospecimens in these studies, although buccal cells, cervical cells, sputum, and stool samples were also used. DNA methylation profiling was the focus of the majority of studies, but several studies also measured microRNA profiles. We illustrate here the current status of epidemiologic studies that are evaluating epigenetic changes in large populations. The incorporation of epigenomic assessments in cancer epidemiology studies has and is likely to continue to provide important insights into the field of cancer research. PMID:24326628

  6. Enabling Transformative Learning in the Workplace: An Educative Research Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmson, Lena; Åberg, Marie Moström; Backström, Tomas; Olsson, Bengt Köping

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the potential of an educative research intervention to influence the quality of the learning outcome in the workplace as interpreted from the perspectives of adult learning theory. The research project was designed as a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study. In this article, quantitative survey data were…

  7. Technology transfer: trends in the federalization of biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Bulleit, T N; Bonnet, S M

    1996-07-01

    Federal involvement in biomedical research has increased significantly in the postwar era, particularly throughout the 1980s and early 1990s. New federal laws and regulations now offer unprecedented opportunities to commercialize federally funded and conducted research, essentially creating a new field of "technology transfer" law. As a result, the biomedical research sector of the health care industry must master a number of relatively new and still developing federal laws, regulations, policies, and concerns that will probably continue to significantly affect its operations. To assist academic medical centers and others in understanding the federal presence in biomedical research, the authors give a short history of technology transfer laws and issues and summarize some of the current main areas of federal interest, including federal oversight of federally funded research, sponsored research agreements, conflict of interest, scientific misconduct, and the prospect of government price control over some biomedical inventions. The authors caution academic medical centers to realize that recent trends favoring deregulation and budget cutting could diminish federal involvement in the future. Thus, research institutions should keep abreast not only of existing rules and policies but of ongoing legislative and regulatory activities that portend possible changes. PMID:9158337

  8. Growing Trend of China's Contribution to Global Diabetes Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiyan; Guo, Liangqing; Yuan, Mingze; He, Xinhui; Lin, Yiqun; Gu, Chengjuan; Li, Qingwei; Zhao, Linhua; Tong, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract China, as a rapidly developing country with the largest population in the world, is playing an increasingly important role in diabetes research. There are >10,000 diabetes doctors who care for a large population of diabetic patients. The quantity and quality of research on diabetes from 3 major regions of China, including Mainland China (ML), Taiwan (TW), and Hong Kong (HK), is unknown. We aimed to analyze the contributions of each of these 3 regions to diabetes research. Articles on diabetes originating from ML, TW, and HK that were published from 2005 to 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The quantity of articles, citations, article types, and articles published in high-impact journals were analyzed. A total of 9302 articles were retrieved from the 3 regions of China. There were 6775 from ML, 1993 from TW, and 534 from HK, with an increasing trend in publications from 2005 to 2014. After 2006, the number of publications from ML exceeded TW and HK. The largest total number of citations (48,296) was from ML. The highest mean citations, however, were from HK (15.90). PLoS One was the most popular journal in all 3 regions. The greatest number of RCTs, clinical trials, meta-analyses, and articles published in high-impact journals were from ML. There has been a significant increase in the number of articles published on diabetes research from China during the past 10 years. Most of the articles were published by authors in ML, and an increasing trend began in 2006. HK had the highest quality research output in terms of mean citations per article. PMID:27149452

  9. Research trends of stimuli-responsive polymer hydrogels in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasa, O.

    1993-10-01

    In recent years, biological functions have been increasingly investigated on the molecular and/or atomic level. Synthesis and assemblies of various functional polymers have also been researched. In particular, research of stimuli-responsive polymeric materials having the function and efficiency of a biological system has been of interest. The materials are still in the embryonic period, but there are great expectations surrounding their progress. In this article, the research trends in Japan of stimuli-responsive polymer gel are summarized from the viewpoint of synthesis, fabrication, and applications. On synthesis, researches have been summarized on stimuli including light, heat or temperature, pH or ion, electric field, and chemicals. On fabrication, researches have been summarized on two types of fabrication methods: chemical methods, such as grafting and hybridization; and physical methods, such as blend, microgel, film, fiber and composite. On industrial applications, many attempts have been made in recent years concerning the released control of chemicals, especially drug delivery systems. Controls of adsorption, permeation, and enzyme reaction using stimuli-responsive polymer gels have also been attempted in the chemical engineering and bioengineering fields. On applications to actuators, the construction of some micro-actuating systems has been attempted. The stimuli-responsive polymer gels (chemomechanical gels) are very promising, both in the field of fundamental study and in the field of applied research.

  10. Research Trends in Non Point Source during 1975-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanhua, Zhuang; Thuminh, Nguyen; Beibei, Niu; ei, Shao; Song, Hong

    According to the samples of 2924 articles about non point source of SCI and SSCI databases from 1975 to 2010, this study analysed the articles in the growth trend of article outputs, subject categories and journals, international collaborations, geographic distribution and scientific research issues by using bibliometric analysis. The results showed that non point source research steadily increased over the past 35 years and the annual number of articles published in 2010 was 79 times of that in 1975. Non point source was involved into 67 kinds of subjects and appeared in 451 journals. The main study area was concentrated in North America and Europe, following by East Asia. There were 79 countries/territories participated in non point source research, and USA was the largest contributor in non point source research and had a central position in collaboration networks. A keyword analysis indicated that water quality, non point pollutions, and watershed were the hottest issues of non point source research; "GIS, "watershed management", "modeling", "simulation", "monitoring", and "remote sensing" were the most popular research methods; and "agriculture", "land use", "runoff", and "pollution" were the leading causes of non point pollution.

  11. Methodological Issues in Research on Web-Based Behavioral Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Danaher, Brian G; Seeley, John R

    2013-01-01

    Background Web-based behavioral intervention research is rapidly growing. Purpose We review methodological issues shared across Web-based intervention research to help inform future research in this area. Methods We examine measures and their interpretation using exemplar studies and our research. Results We report on research designs used to evaluate Web-based interventions and recommend newer, blended designs. We review and critique methodological issues associated with recruitment, engagement, and social validity. Conclusions We suggest that there is value to viewing this burgeoning realm of research from the broader context of behavior change research. We conclude that many studies use blended research designs, that innovative mantling designs such as the Multiphase Optimization Strategy and Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial methods hold considerable promise and should be used more widely, and that Web-based controls should be used instead of usual care or no-treatment controls in public health research. We recommend topics for future research that address participant recruitment, engagement, and social validity. PMID:19806416

  12. Trends in catalysis research to meet future refining needs

    SciTech Connect

    Absi-Halabi, M.; Stanislaus, A.; Qabazard, H.

    1997-02-01

    The main emphasis of petroleum refining during the `70s and early `80s was to maximize conversion of heavy oils to gasoline and middle distillate products. While this objective is still important, the current focus that began in the late `80s is to develop cleaner products. This is a result of strict environmental constraints to reduce emissions from both the products and refineries. Developing catalysts with improved activity, selectivity and stability for use in processes producing such environmentally acceptable fuels is the most economical and effective route for refiners. Novel technologies such as biocatalysis and catalytic membranes are examples of current successful laboratory-scale attempts to resolve anticipated future industry problems. Since catalysts play a key role in refining processes, it is important to examine the challenges facing catalysis research to meet future refining developments. The paper discusses the factors influencing refining, advancements in refining technology and catalysis, short-term future trends in refining catalysts research, and long-term trends in refining catalysts. 56 refs.

  13. A systematic review of psycho-oncology research in Chinese populations: emerging trends.

    PubMed

    Chambers, S K; Hyde, M K; Au, A M L; Ip, D; Shum, D; Dunn, J

    2013-11-01

    The burden of cancer in China is increasing with future psycho-oncological interventions crucial. A systematic review of psycho-oncology research in China was undertaken to assess quantity, design and target trends over time. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ProQuest, Web of Science (1999-November Week 4, 2012) were searched. Inclusion criteria were: included cancer patients and/or partners or caregivers from resident Chinese populations (either at least 80% of participants are from China, Hong Kong or Taiwan); assessed psychological adjustment relating to cancer and published in English after 1 January 1999 and prior to 30 November 2012. In all, 208 articles met inclusion criteria. Of these: 52 were cross-sectional descriptive quantitative; 30 were cross-sectional descriptive qualitative; 27 were prospective descriptive quantitative; 2 were prospective descriptive qualitative; 18 assessed interventions; 79 presented instrument validation. Publications increased eightfold from 1999 to 2012. Most studies included patients (n = 195) with 11 articles focusing on caregivers and two on patient-caregiver dyads. The most common cancer studied was breast cancer. The psycho-oncology research effort in China is dramatically increasing. A focus on culturally relevant approaches to underpin the evaluation of empirically derived interventions is warranted; as is direction of efforts to other cancers such as lung and prostate. PMID:23834328

  14. Understanding Systems and Rhythms for Minority Recruitment in Intervention Research

    PubMed Central

    Hines-Martin, Vicki; Speck, Barbara J.; Stetson, Barbara; Looney, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    We describe one approach for recruitment and retention of minority individuals in intervention research using a systematic environmental perspective based on Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems (BES) model and the construct of temporality. An exemplar in a physical activity intervention study with low-income and primarily African American women is presented. The exemplar illustrates application of BES and temporality to enhance recruitment and retention in research focused on understanding and accommodating environmental influences. . Using this theory based approach resulted in successful recruitment and a high level of participant retention. PMID:19885838

  15. Decade-long trends in the timeliness of receipt of a primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Han-Yang; Gore, Joel M; Lapane, Kate L; Yarzebski, Jorge; Person, Sharina D; Kiefe, Catarina I; Goldberg, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine decade-long trends (2001–2011) in, and factors associated with, door-to-balloon time within 90 minutes of hospital presentation among patients hospitalized with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who received a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods Residents of central Massachusetts hospitalized with STEMI who received a primary PCI at two major PCI-capable medical centers in central Massachusetts on a biennial basis between 2001 and 2011 comprised the study population (n=629). Multivariable regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with failing to receive a primary PCI within 90 minutes after emergency department (ED) arrival. Results The average age of this patient population was 61.9 years; 30.5% were women, and 91.7% were White. During the years under study, 50.9% of patients received a primary PCI within 90 minutes of ED arrival; this proportion increased from 2001/2003 (17.2%) to 2009/2011 (70.5%) (P<0.001). Having previously undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery, arriving at the ED by car/walk-in and during off-hours were significantly associated with a higher risk of failing to receive a primary PCI within 90 minutes of ED arrival. Conclusion The likelihood of receiving a timely primary PCI in residents of central Massachusetts hospitalized with STEMI at the major teaching/community medical centers increased dramatically during the years under study. Several groups were identified for purposes of heightened surveillance and intervention efforts to reduce the likelihood of failing to receive a timely primary PCI among patients acutely diagnosed with STEMI. PMID:27350759

  16. [See the strabismus and amblyopia research development trend from the twelfth World Congress of strabismus].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kanxing; Kang, Xiaoli; Liu, Hu; Wei, Yan

    2015-06-01

    The International strabismus association conference has a history of fifty years until now. It's the most influential academic communication forum for the worldwide doctors and related scientists or technical carers in strabismus and amblyopia area. The conference gathered the top-level experts. The latest clinical/research achievements of strabismus, amblyopia in the field of binocular vision and ocular motility have been showed. The breakthroughs in the etiology study of incomitant strabismus have been and are being transformed into new therapeutic concepts and techniques. Re-adjust the competition between dominant and amblyopic eye using binocular stimulation methods may overcome the existing defects of monocular occlusion therapy, expand new interventional methods to treat amblyopia, and represent the future trends of amblyopia therapy. In this paper, we will introduce the main contents of the XII ISA meeting and spread knowledge of strabismus/amblyopia promoting directions in order to provide reference ideas for the clinicians and research colleagues in this field. PMID:26310112

  17. Cognitive Radio Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Challenges and Research Trends

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-01-01

    A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized. PMID:23974152

  18. Cognitive radio wireless sensor networks: applications, challenges and research trends.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-01-01

    A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized. PMID:23974152

  19. Impacts of Family Support in Early Childhood Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Anna C.; Summers, Jean Ann; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review intervention research to determine the types of family support that are reported and evaluated in early childhood. This review includes 26 articles evaluating (a) parent training programs; (b) general family-centered practice models which offer comprehensive supports; (c) peer support; (d) two-generation…

  20. Improving Breastfeeding Behaviors: Evidence from Two Decades of Intervention Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Cynthia P.

    This report summarizes research on interventions intended to improve four key breastfeeding behaviors: early initiation of breastfeeding, feeding of colostrum to newborns, exclusive breastfeeding for the first 0-6 months, and continued breastfeeding through the second year and beyond. It clarifies what is known about improving these practices in…

  1. Action Research and Response to Intervention: Bridging the Discourse Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to define and clarify the process of instructional problem-solving using assessment data within action research (AR) and Response to Intervention (RtI). Similarities between AR and RtI are defined and compared. Lastly, specific resources and examples of the instructional problem-solving process of AR within…

  2. Review of Selected Intervention Research with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James O.

    Reviewing of long term and short term intervention research undertaken by Skeels and Dye (1939), Dawe (1942), Brazziel and Terrell (1962), Carter (1966), Sigel, Roeper, and Hooper (1966), Weikart (1967), Klaus and Gray (1967), Karnes and others (1966), Bereiter and Engelmann (1966), Blatt and Garfunkel (1965), Nimnicht (1966), and Smilansky (1964…

  3. Intervention Research in Social Work: Recent Advances and Continuing Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mark W.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review substantive and methodological advances in interventive research. Three substantive advances are discussed: (a) the growing use of a risk factor perspective, (b) the emergence of practice-relevant micro social theories, and (c) the increased acceptance of structured treatment protocols and manual. In…

  4. Methodological Issues in Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypri, Kypros

    2007-01-01

    The research literature on screening and brief intervention (SBI) for unhealthy alcohol use is large and diverse. More than 50 clinical trials and 9 systematic reviews have been published on SBI in a range of healthcare settings, and via a variety of delivery approaches, in general practice, hospital wards, emergency departments, addiction…

  5. Research trends in biomimetic medical materials for tissue engineering: commentary.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Dong; Wang, Xiumei; Lee, Jae Young; Park, Kyung Min; Zhang, ShengMin; Noh, Insup

    2016-01-01

    We introduce our active experts' communications and reviews (Part II) of 2015 Korea-China Joint Symposium on Biomimetic Medical Materials in Republic of Korea, which reflect their perspectives on current research trends of biomimetic medical materials for tissue regeneration in both Korea and China. The communications covered three topics of biomimetics, i.e., 1) hydrogel for therapeutics and extracellular matrix environments, 2) design of electrical polymers for communications between electrical sources and biological systems and 3) design of biomaterials for nerve tissue engineering. The reviews in the Part II will cover biomimetics of 3D bioprinting materials, surface modifications, nano/micro-technology as well as clinical aspects of biomaterials for cartilage. PMID:27026826

  6. Digital Reconstructions of Neuronal Morphology: Three Decades of Research Trends

    PubMed Central

    Halavi, Maryam; Hamilton, Kelly A.; Parekh, Ruchi; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of neuronal morphology has been recognized from the early days of neuroscience. Elucidating the functional roles of axonal and dendritic arbors in synaptic integration, signal transmission, network connectivity, and circuit dynamics requires quantitative analyses of digital three-dimensional reconstructions. We extensively searched the scientific literature for all original reports describing reconstructions of neuronal morphology since the advent of this technique three decades ago. From almost 50,000 titles, 30,000 abstracts, and more than 10,000 full-text articles, we identified 902 publications describing ∼44,000 digital reconstructions. Reviewing the growth of this field exposed general research trends on specific animal species, brain regions, neuron types, and experimental approaches. The entire bibliography, annotated with relevant metadata and (wherever available) direct links to the underlying digital data, is accessible at NeuroMorpho.Org. PMID:22536169

  7. Trends in animal use at US research facilities.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Justin; Chandna, Alka; Roe, Katherine

    2015-07-01

    Minimising the use of animals in experiments is universally recognised by scientists, governments and advocates as an ethical cornerstone of research. Yet, despite growing public opposition to animal experimentation, mounting evidence that animal studies often do not translate to humans, and the development of new research technologies, a number of countries have reported increased animal use in recent years. In the USA--one of the world's largest users of animals in experiments--a lack of published data on the species most commonly used in laboratories (eg, mice, rats and fish) has prevented such assessments. The current study aimed to fill this gap by analysing the use of all vertebrate animals by the top institutional recipients of National Institutes of Health research funds over a 15-year period. These data show a statistically significant 72.7% increase in the use of animals at these US facilities during this time period-driven primarily by increases in the use of mice. Our results highlight a need for greater efforts to reduce animal use. We discuss technical, institutional, sociological and psychological explanations for this trend. PMID:25717142

  8. Recent Research Trends on the Enzymatic Synthesis of Structured Lipids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Hee; Akoh, Casimir C

    2015-08-01

    Structured lipids (SLs) are lipids that have been chemically or enzymatically modified from their natural biosynthetic form. Because SLs are made to possess desired nutritional, physicochemical, or textural properties for various applications in the food industry, many research activities have been aimed at their commercialization. The production of SLs by enzymatic procedures has a great potential in the future market because of the specificity of lipases and phospholipases used as the biocatalysts. The aim of this review is to provide concise information on the recent research trends on the enzymatic synthesis of SLs of commercial interest, such as medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols, human milk fat substitutes, cocoa butter equivalents, trans-free or low-trans plastic fats (such as margarines and shortenings), low-calorie fats/oils, health-beneficial fatty acid-rich fats/oils, mono- or diacylglycerols, and structurally modified phospholipids. This limited review covers 108 research articles published between 2010 and 2014 which were searched in Web of Science. PMID:26189491

  9. Joint custody and shared parenting. Research and interventions.

    PubMed

    Pruett, M K; Hoganbruen, K

    1998-04-01

    Joint custody is a reality for many children of divorce. This article first examines the structure and forms joint custody takes, and then explores what is known about shared parenting from research that is relevant to clinical work with families of divorce. An overview of interventions for children and families of divorce that are relevant to coparenting issues follows, along with what is known about their effectiveness. The final section presents several modes of intervention to assist families in maximizing the effectiveness of shared parenting situations for children and their parents. PMID:9894064

  10. Trends in stillbirths, early and late neonatal mortality in rural Bangladesh: the role of public health interventions.

    PubMed

    Ronsmans, Carine; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Alam, Nurul; Koblinsky, Marge; El Arifeen, Shams

    2008-05-01

    Trends were examined in a cohort study of stillbirths and early and late neonatal deaths in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh between 1975 and 2002, using routinely collected demographic surveillance data. Main outcome measures were stillbirths per 1000 births, early neonatal deaths per 1000 livebirths, and late neonatal deaths per 1000 children surviving after 1 week. We performed a logistic regression examining trends over time and between two areas in the three outcome measures, controlling for the effects of parental education, religion, time, geography, parity, maternal age and birth spacing. There was a marked decline in stillbirths, early and late neonatal mortality over time in both areas, though the pace of decline was somewhat faster in the ICDDR,B (International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh) service area. Stillbirths declined by 24% overall in the ICDDR,B service area (crude OR comparing 1996-2002 with 1975-81: 0.76 [95% CI 0.68, 0.84]), compared with 15% in the Government service area (crude OR comparing 1996-2002 with 1975-81: 0.85 [0.76, 0.94]). The overall reduction in early and late neonatal mortality comparing the same periods was 39% and 73%, respectively, in the ICDDR,B area, compared with 30% and 63%, respectively, in the Government service area. Adjusting for socio-economic or demographic factors did not substantially alter the time or area differentials. The dramatic decline in neonatal mortality was, in large part, due to a fall in deaths from neonatal tetanus. The pace of decline was faster in the area receiving intense maternal and child health and family planning interventions, but stillbirths, early and late neonatal deaths also declined in the area not receiving such intense attention, suggesting that factors outside the formal health sector play an important role. PMID:18426522

  11. RESEARCH ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INTERVENTIONS: ETHICAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    PubMed Central

    RESNIK, DAVID B.; ZELDIN, DARRYL C.; SHARP, RICHARD R.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews a variety of ethical issues one must consider when conducting research on environmental health interventions on human subjects. The paper uses the Kennedy Krieger Institute lead abatement study as well as a hypothetical asthma study to discuss questions concerning benefits and risks, risk minimization, safety monitoring, the duty to warn, the duty to report, the use of control groups, informed consent, equitable subject selection, privacy, conflicts of interest, and community consultation. Research on environmental health interventions can make an important contribution to our understanding of human health and disease prevention, provided it is conducted in a manner that meets prevailing scientific, ethical, and legal standards for research on human subjects. PMID:16220621

  12. A Descriptive Analysis of Intervention Research Published in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions: 1999 through 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Shelley; Dunlap, Glen

    2008-01-01

    The "Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions" (JPBI) has been publishing reports of empirical intervention research since 1999, with a commitment to serve as a vehicle for dissemination of data and perspectives pertinent to positive behavior support (PBS). PBS is distinguished by an emphasis on certain features of interventions, such as…

  13. Research trends in wireless visual sensor networks when exploiting prioritization.

    PubMed

    Costa, Daniel G; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The development of wireless sensor networks for control and monitoring functions has created a vibrant investigation scenario, where many critical topics, such as communication efficiency and energy consumption, have been investigated in the past few years. However, when sensors are endowed with low-power cameras for visual monitoring, a new scope of challenges is raised, demanding new research efforts. In this context, the resource-constrained nature of sensor nodes has demanded the use of prioritization approaches as a practical mechanism to lower the transmission burden of visual data over wireless sensor networks. Many works in recent years have considered local-level prioritization parameters to enhance the overall performance of those networks, but global-level policies can potentially achieve better results in terms of visual monitoring efficiency. In this paper, we make a broad review of some recent works on priority-based optimizations in wireless visual sensor networks. Moreover, we envisage some research trends when exploiting prioritization, potentially fostering the development of promising optimizations for wireless sensor networks composed of visual sensors. PMID:25599425

  14. Research Trends in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks When Exploiting Prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Daniel G.; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The development of wireless sensor networks for control and monitoring functions has created a vibrant investigation scenario, where many critical topics, such as communication efficiency and energy consumption, have been investigated in the past few years. However, when sensors are endowed with low-power cameras for visual monitoring, a new scope of challenges is raised, demanding new research efforts. In this context, the resource-constrained nature of sensor nodes has demanded the use of prioritization approaches as a practical mechanism to lower the transmission burden of visual data over wireless sensor networks. Many works in recent years have considered local-level prioritization parameters to enhance the overall performance of those networks, but global-level policies can potentially achieve better results in terms of visual monitoring efficiency. In this paper, we make a broad review of some recent works on priority-based optimizations in wireless visual sensor networks. Moreover, we envisage some research trends when exploiting prioritization, potentially fostering the development of promising optimizations for wireless sensor networks composed of visual sensors. PMID:25599425

  15. Trends in research involving human beings in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ricardo Eccard da; Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho; Pastor, Elza Martínez; Barragan, Elena; Amato, Angélica Amorim

    2015-02-01

    Developing countries have experienced a dramatic increase in the number of clinical studies in the last decades. The aim of this study was to describe 1) the number of clinical trials submitted to the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, Anvisa) from 2007 to 2012 and the number of human-subject research projects approved by research ethics committees (RECs) and the National Research Ethics Committee (Comissão Nacional de Ética em Pesquisa, CONEP) in Brazil from 2007 to 2011 and 2) the diseases most frequently studied in Brazilian states in clinical trials approved in the country from 2009 to 2012, based on information from an Anvisa databank. Two databases were used: 1) the National Information System on Research Ethics Involving Human Beings (Sistema Nacional de Informação Sobre Ética em Pesquisa envolvendo Seres Humanos, SISNEP) and 2) Anvisa's Clinical Research Control System (Sistema de Controle de Pesquisa Clínica, SCPC). Data from the SCPC indicated an increase of 32.7% in the number of clinical trials submitted to Anvisa, and data from the SISNEP showed an increase of 69.9% in those approved by RECs and CONEP (from 18 160 in 2007 to 30 860 in 2011). Type 2 diabetes (26.0%) and breast cancer (20.5%)-related to the main causes of mortality in Brazil-were the two most frequently studied diseases. The so-called “neglected diseases,” such as dengue fever, were among the least studied diseases in approved clinical trials, despite their significant impact on social, economic, and health indicators in Brazil. Overall, the data indicated 1) a clear trend toward more research involving human beings in Brazil, 2) good correspondence between diseases most studied in clinical trials approved by Anvisa and the main causes of death in Brazil, and 3) a low level of attention to neglected diseases, an issue that should be considered in setting future research priorities, given their socioeconomic and health effects. PMID

  16. Canadian Institutes of Health Research support for population health intervention research in Canada.

    PubMed

    Di Ruggiero, Erica; Rose, Adria; Gaudreau, Kim

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines the results of an assessment respecting the extent of Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) funding in population health intervention research from 2001 to 2006. The analysis is presented within the context of the barriers and enablers to the generation, support for and uptake of population health intervention research. Given data quality concerns, the assessment should only be considered as an estimate of CIHR funding in this area. Eight percent of applications received in all CIHR competitions were in population health intervention research, of which 22% were funded over the period in question. The results show that the number and success of these applications tend to vary across peer review committees and among different types of funding competitions. To address identified gaps, the authors highlight several collaborative opportunities under way that are aimed at better support for population health intervention research in Canada. PMID:19263978

  17. Boom in clinical research industry: a dangerous trend.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vikas; Saraya, Anoop

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade or so India has witnessed a phenomenal growth in the clinical trial industry. The projections forecast a continuing growth of this trend. It has been predicted that by 2011 India will be in charge of 15% of global clinical trials. The enthusiasm for the growth of this industry in India is shared not just by the major pharmaceutical companies and CROs but also equally so by government agencies. The raison d'être for medical research is that it should lead to maximum possible benefit to the largest number of people. Hence, an examination of the extent to which public good is served can act as a measure for objective analysis of this exponential increase in the clinical trial industry. After all it is the health and lives of the people that are at stake. On the face of it, it would seem that all trials testing the safety and efficacy of various molecules, by their very nature work towards public welfare as they are indispensible to the development of any drug including the life-saving ones. An increasing number of clinical trials at all stages in a product's life cycle are funded by the pharmaceutical industry. It would then seem that the industry-sponsored medical research is necessarily furthering the larger objective of human wellbeing. However, the operations of the pharmaceutical industry, the nature of the processes involved and the operative motives are a bit too complex to facilitate this larger objective so simply, just as yet. This warrants a closer look at the various aspects of industry-sponsored clinical research. PMID:20306757

  18. Trends in dermatologic surgery research over the past decade.

    PubMed

    Akerman, Lehavit; Hodak, Emmilia; Pavlovsky, Lev; Mimouni, Francis B; David, Michael; Mimouni, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to study the rate of change in number and categories of publications in dermatologic surgery in dermatology versus non-dermatology journals. PubMed was searched for articles on dermatologic surgery from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2007, using the search word "dermatology" AND "surgery". Articles were characterized by publication and journal type per year. Regression analysis was used to determine the effect of year of publication on number of publications of each type. The search yielded 7570 publications on dermatologic surgery. Seventy-three percent appeared in dermatology journals. Overall, the number of publications increased linearly with time. Most of this increase was accounted for by publications in non-dermatology journals. However, there was an increase in randomized control trials over the course of the study period in dermatology journals only, while low quality-of-evidence publications accounted for most of the increase in non-dermatology journals. Over the past 10 years the field of dermatologic surgery has had a significant yearly increase in published original studies. It appears that high quality evidence on dermatologic surgery is mostly published in dermatology journals. Current trends towards evidence-based dermatology might impact future research and publications in the field of dermatologic surgery. PMID:20167567

  19. Hepatocyte and Sertoli Cell Aquaporins, Recent Advances and Research Trends.

    PubMed

    Bernardino, Raquel L; Marinelli, Raul A; Maggio, Anna; Gena, Patrizia; Cataldo, Ilaria; Alves, Marco G; Svelto, Maria; Oliveira, Pedro F; Calamita, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are proteinaceous channels widespread in nature where they allow facilitated permeation of water and uncharged through cellular membranes. AQPs play a number of important roles in both health and disease. This review focuses on the most recent advances and research trends regarding the expression and modulation, as well as physiological and pathophysiological functions of AQPs in hepatocytes and Sertoli cells (SCs). Besides their involvement in bile formation, hepatocyte AQPs are involved in maintaining energy balance acting in hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism, and in critical processes such as ammonia detoxification and mitochondrial output of hydrogen peroxide. Roles are played in clinical disorders including fatty liver disease, diabetes, obesity, cholestasis, hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. In the seminiferous tubules, particularly in SCs, AQPs are also widely expressed and seem to be implicated in the various stages of spermatogenesis. Like in hepatocytes, AQPs may be involved in maintaining energy homeostasis in these cells and have a major role in the metabolic cooperation established in the testicular tissue. Altogether, this information represents the mainstay of current and future investigation in an expanding field. PMID:27409609

  20. Hepatocyte and Sertoli Cell Aquaporins, Recent Advances and Research Trends

    PubMed Central

    Bernardino, Raquel L.; Marinelli, Raul A.; Maggio, Anna; Gena, Patrizia; Cataldo, Ilaria; Alves, Marco G.; Svelto, Maria; Oliveira, Pedro F.; Calamita, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are proteinaceous channels widespread in nature where they allow facilitated permeation of water and uncharged through cellular membranes. AQPs play a number of important roles in both health and disease. This review focuses on the most recent advances and research trends regarding the expression and modulation, as well as physiological and pathophysiological functions of AQPs in hepatocytes and Sertoli cells (SCs). Besides their involvement in bile formation, hepatocyte AQPs are involved in maintaining energy balance acting in hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism, and in critical processes such as ammonia detoxification and mitochondrial output of hydrogen peroxide. Roles are played in clinical disorders including fatty liver disease, diabetes, obesity, cholestasis, hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. In the seminiferous tubules, particularly in SCs, AQPs are also widely expressed and seem to be implicated in the various stages of spermatogenesis. Like in hepatocytes, AQPs may be involved in maintaining energy homeostasis in these cells and have a major role in the metabolic cooperation established in the testicular tissue. Altogether, this information represents the mainstay of current and future investigation in an expanding field. PMID:27409609

  1. Behavioral Intervention Technologies: Evidence review and recommendations for future research

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, David C.; Burns, Michelle Nicole; Schueller, Stephen M.; Clarke, Gregory; Klinkman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a technical expert panel convened by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Institute of Mental Health, charged with reviewing the state of research on behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) in mental health and identifying the top research priorities. BITs is the comprehensive term used to refer to behavioral and psychological interventions that use information and communication technology features to address behavioral and mental health outcomes. Mental health BITs using videoconferencing and standard telephone technologies to deliver psychotherapy have been wellvalidated. Web-based interventions have shown efficacy across a broad range of mental health outcomes, although outcomes vary widely. Social media such as online support groups have produced generally disappointing outcomes when used alone. Mobile technologies have received limited attention for mental health outcomes, although findings from behavioral health suggest they are promising. Virtual reality has shown good efficacy for anxiety and pediatric disorders. Serious gaming has received relatively little work in mental health. Recommendations for next step research in each of these are made. Research focused on understanding of reach, adherence, barriers and cost is recommended. As BITs can generate large amounts of data, improvements in the collection, storage, analysis, and visualization of big data will be required. Traditional psychological and behavioral theories have proven insufficient to understand how BITs produce behavioral change. Thus new theoretical models, as well as new evaluation strategies, will be required. Finally, for BITs to have a public health impact, research on implementation and application to prevention will be required. PMID:23664503

  2. SEVEN-YEAR TRENDS IN THE CROATIAN PRIMARY PERCUTANEOUS CORONARY INTERVENTION NETWORK.

    PubMed

    Babić, Zdravko; Pintarić, Hrvoje; Starčević, Boris; Bulum, Joško; Tomulić, Vjekoslav; Giunio, Lovel; Vuković, Ivo; Steiner, Robert; Stipić, Hrvoje; Šikić, Jozica; Zekanović, Dražen; Prvulović, Deiti; Kozmar, Damir; Miličić, Davor

    2015-09-01

    The authors investigated trends in the Croatian primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (pPCI) Network results among three consecutive time intervals (2005-2007, first phase; 2008-2009, second phase; and 2010-2011, third phase). Data on 5650 patients with acute myocardial infarction with ST-elevation (STEMI) transferred or directly admitted and treated with pPCI in 11 Croatian PCI centers during the study period were collected and analyzed. The number of patients with acute STEMI treated with pPCI per year rose continuously during the study period (581 vs. 1272 vs. 1949 patients/year). The patient risk profile worsened during the study period: age (60 vs. 61 vs. 63 years; p<0.01), anterior myocardial wall involvement (43% vs. 44% vs. 51%; p<0.01), shock rate (7% vs. 9% vs. 11%; p<0.05), and percentage of transferred patients (42% vs. 36% vs. 46%; p<0.01). While the door-to-balloon time shortened (108 vs. 98 vs. 75 min; p<0.01), the symptom onset-to-door time increased (130 vs. 175 vs. 195 min; p<0.01), but without statistically significant influence on the total ischemic time. Multivariate log-linear analysis eliminated influence of a higher risk profile on the results of treatment and yielded no statistically significant changes in final TIMI 3 flow (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 3), in-hospital mortality, and six-month mortality rate, but revealed a significant increase in the rate of angina pectoris (12 vs. 22 vs. 36%; p<0.01) and other major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; 6 vs. 23 vs. 14%; p<0.01) during follow up. In conclusion, the Croatian pPCI Network continuously ensures very good results of STEMI treatment in this economically less developed European country despite worsening of the risk profile in treated patients and opening of new, less experienced PCI centers. The higher percentage of MACE over time could be explained by changes in the pPCI strategy introduced over time (the culprit lesion only) and higher availability of PCI centers

  3. Methodological Issues in Exercise Intervention Research in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Bernardine M.; Floyd, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that offered exercise interventions for adults diagnosed and treated for cancer related to design, sample, type of intervention and outcomes. Data sources Several electronic data-bases were searched and recent review papers were scanned to identify relevant publications. Conclusion Exercise adoption seems clearly feasible for early-stage cancer patients, particularly breast cancer patients. Data support positive effects for physical functioning, quality of life (QOL), and psychological well-being. Effects for patients with later-stage disease and other cancers are less clear. The impact of exercise adoption on biomarkers of disease status, immune functioning and hormone levels should also be examined. Implications for nursing practice There are many opportunities for nurses to promote exercise in clinical care and in a research context. PMID:18022057

  4. Behavioral Decision Research Intervention Reduces Risky Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Downs, Julie S; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Although adolescents are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted infections, most sex education programs have shown little effect on sexual behavior. An interactive video intervention developed by our team has been identified as one of a few programs that have been documented to reduce sexually transmitted infections in this population. Building on behavioral decision research, we used a mental models approach to interview young women about their sexual decisions, finding, among other things, the strong role of perceived social norms. We based our intervention on these results, aiming to help young women identify and implement personally and socially acceptable decision strategies. A randomized controlled trial found that the video reduced risky sexual behavior and the acquisition of chlamydia infection. We recently revised the video to suit more diverse audiences, and upgraded it to modern standards of cinematography and interactivity. It is now in field trial. PMID:26149165

  5. Current Trends in Early Hearing Diagnosis and Intervention in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretto, Aneesha Patrice

    2010-01-01

    In North Carolina, the eligibility criteria for enrollment in Part C early intervention services do not exclude infants and toddlers based on the severity or laterality of hearing loss. As such, the state's early intervention population represents a widely diverse array of children ranging from those with minimal to profound hearing losses. While…

  6. Tiered Intervention: History and Trends in Finland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnukainen, Markku; Itkonen, Tiina

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the similarities and differences of relatively newly established tiered intervention models for the support of students with special needs in the United States (response to intervention) and in Finland (learning and schooling support). The current models in both countries consist of several tiers with fairly similar…

  7. Trends and Recent Estimates: Sexual Activity among U.S. Teens. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2006-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Manlove, Jennifer; Cottingham, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    This Research Brief draws on recently released nationally representative data to provide information on teenage sexual activity. In this brief, the authors provide trends through 2002 on multiple indicators of sexual experience and activity for males and females, members of racial and ethnic groups, and for younger and older teenagers. These new…

  8. Children in Poverty: Trends, Consequences, and Policy Options. Child Trends Research Brief, Publication #2009-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Redd, Zakia; Burkhauser, Mary; Mbwana, Kassim; Collins, Ashleigh

    2009-01-01

    The number of U.S. children living in poverty increased in 2007--continuing an upward trend dating back to 2000: in 2007, 13.3 million children were living in poverty, up from 11.6 million children in 2000. The percentage of children living in families with incomes below the poverty line has increased from 16.2 percent in 2000 to 18.0 percent in…

  9. An Analysis of Research Trends in Dissertations and Theses Studying Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drysdale, Jeffery S.; Graham, Charles R.; Spring, Kristian J.; Halverson, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the research of 205 doctoral dissertations and masters' theses in the domain of blended learning. A summary of trends regarding the growth and context of blended learning research is presented. Methodological trends are described in terms of qualitative, inferential statistics, descriptive statistics, and combined approaches…

  10. Reducing neurodevelopmental disorders and disability through research and interventions.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Michael J; Kakooza, Angelina M; Warf, Benjamin C; Davidson, Leslie L; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2015-11-19

    We define neurodevelopment as the dynamic inter-relationship between genetic, brain, cognitive, emotional and behavioural processes across the developmental lifespan. Significant and persistent disruption to this dynamic process through environmental and genetic risk can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders and disability. Research designed to ameliorate neurodevelopmental disorders in low- and middle-income countries, as well as globally, will benefit enormously from the ongoing advances in understanding their genetic and epigenetic causes, as modified by environment and culture. We provide examples of advances in the prevention and treatment of, and the rehabilitation of those with, neurodevelopment disorders in low- and middle-income countries, along with opportunities for further strategic research initiatives. Our examples are not the only possibilities for strategic research, but they illustrate problems that, when solved, could have a considerable impact in low-resource settings. In each instance, research in low- and middle-income countries led to innovations in identification, surveillance and treatment of a neurodevelopmental disorder. These innovations have also been integrated with genotypic mapping of neurodevelopmental disorders, forming important preventative and rehabilitative interventions with the potential for high impact. These advances will ultimately allow us to understand how epigenetic influences shape neurodevelopmental risk and resilience over time and across populations. Clearly, the most strategic areas of research opportunity involve cross-disciplinary integration at the intersection between the environment, brain or behaviour neurodevelopment, and genetic and epigenetic science. At these junctions a robust integrative cross-disciplinary scientific approach is catalysing the creation of technologies and interventions for old problems. Such approaches will enable us to achieve and sustain the United Nations moral and legal mandate for

  11. Emerging Trends of Research on Transfer of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subedi, Bhawani Shankar

    2004-01-01

    The terms "transfer of learning" and "transfer of training" are usually found mutually exclusive in training and development literature. Transfer is a key concept in adult learning theories because most education and training aspires to transfer. The end goals of training and education are not achieved unless transfer occurs. Emerging trends of…

  12. Educational Trends in South Carolina. Office of Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Research.

    This publication is designed to provide users with trends in quantitative facts relevant to public education in South Carolina. Information for the 1985-86 school year is presented along with information beginning with the reference or base year of 1969-70. The reference year may vary due to the availability of data. The data are presented in…

  13. Trends Shaping Education 2016. Centre for Educational Research and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Did you ever wonder if education has a role to play in stemming the obesity epidemic sweeping across all OECD countries? Or what the impact of increasing urbanisation might be on our schools, families, and communities? Or whether new technologies really are fundamentally changing the way our children think and learn? "Trends Shaping…

  14. Advancing Intervention Research in School Psychology: Finding the Balance between Process and Outcome for Social and Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappella, Elise; Reinke, Wendy M.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.

    2011-01-01

    School psychology research focused on child outcomes is critical for understanding which social and behavioral interventions affect children in schools. Yet effective interventions fulfill their promise when they fit their implementation contexts, are implemented well with existing resources, and can be sustained or scaled up to new populations.…

  15. Applying drug dependence research to prevention interventions in Spain.

    PubMed

    Espada, José P; Lloret, Daniel; García del Castillo, José A

    2008-06-01

    This article examines the status of evidence-based interventions for preventing drug dependence in Spain. The evolution of the perception that the Spanish have of the problem and how this has influenced prevention efforts is described. An analysis is made of how programs designed to prevent drug use have been translated from the field of experimental research to implementation. The characteristics of evidence-based programs developed in Spain are outlined, analyzing their efficacy and the adaptations of programs from other countries to the Spanish context. Most have been school based, although some family and leisure-time based programs also have been developed. The processes for translation and cultural adaptation of evidence-based programs are described. Finally, pending aspects of the adaptation of research in drug dependence within Spain are discussed. PMID:18349352

  16. Publication trends in aeolian research: An analysis of the Bibliography of Aeolian Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, John E.; Warren, Andrew; Gill, Thomas E.

    2009-04-01

    An analysis of the Bibliography of Aeolian Research has provided information regarding publication trends in aeolian research. Results suggest that there has been a significant increase in the number of publications per year since the first aeolian-research publication appeared in 1646. Rates of publication have increased from only three publications in the 17th Century to nearly three publications per day in the 21st Century. The temporal distribution of publications follows a complex pattern that is influenced by many factors. In the 17th and 18th Centuries, publications appear as isolated clusters indicating limited interest in aeolian research and limited opportunities for individuals to contribute to scientific literature. With time, many new scientific societies are formed and many new scientific journals are established, opening new opportunities for scientists to contribute to scientific discourse. Landmark publications open up new research areas and define new directions for aeolian research. General advances in science and technology provide new techniques for sampling blowing sand and dust. In addition, clear signs exist that publication rates respond to major environmental and climatic events, especially large-scale disasters that focus attention on wind erosion and blowing dust. The Sirocco dust events of 1901-1903, the North American Dust Bowl of the1930s, and the recent sand and dust storm problems in China have all led to significant increases in the number of publications in aeolian research. Rates of publication are negatively influenced by major political and social upheavals, especially global conflicts such as World Wars I and II. Sudden shifts in government structure and support can also influence publication rates. A good example is the increased publication rates in China following the end of the Cultural Revolution, a trend that continues today.

  17. Research Facts on Homeschooling. General Facts and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet presents the following general facts and trends. Homeschooling may be the fastest-growing form of education in the United States and it is also growing around the world in many nations. There are about 2 million homeschool students in the United States. There were an estimated 1.9 to 2.4 million children (in grades K to 12) home…

  18. Intervention research in occupational safety and health: examples from construction.

    PubMed

    Ringen, K; Stafford, E J

    1996-04-01

    Construction is one of the largest industries in the United States, with 13% of the gross national product and 5-6% of the labor force. It is also one of the most dangerous industries, accounting for 15% of occupational fatalities and 17% of all workers' compensation costs. In 1989, the Building and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO, completed an agreement with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to develop a national labor-management initiative to improve occupational safety and health throughout the construction industry. The aim was to remedy a lack of research on construction occupational safety and health. The first years were spent on surveillance to characterize construction safety and health problems, development of awareness about safety and health issues among decisionmakers in the industry, and some limited interventions. A second phase was initiated in 1994, which focuses on intervention activities. Results from this joint program include a growth in annual federal construction safety and health research expenditure from $300,000 in 1989 to $12 million in 1995, a research network that now encompasses more than 30 institutions, a national conference that established an agenda to change construction safety and health, four regional conferences to develop coalitions and implementation strategies, and the development of a feasible goal to reduce fatality and injury rates by 80%. The program may already be having an impact. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, lost-time injury rates for construction for the three most recent years of reporting declined by 20%. PMID:8728131

  19. Mixed Research in Counseling: Trends in the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The results of a content analysis of the articles published in the leading counseling journal, "Journal of Counseling & Development", between 2002 and 2010 are presented. The authors present a brief description of mixed research to encourage counseling researchers to explore mixed research as a viable research tool. (Contains 3 tables and 1…

  20. Children in Poverty: Trends, Consequences, and Policy Options. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Redd, Zakia

    Noting that the U.S. child poverty rate is no longer declining, this research brief uses 2001 Census data to present a statistical portrait of poor children in the United States. The research brief also highlights some consequences of poverty for children and considers promising approaches for decreasing poverty among low-income children and their…

  1. Trends in Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use among Teens. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Elizabeth; Manlove, Jennifer

    The current research and policy debate over why teen pregnancy and birth rates have declined in the 1990s has focused on whether increased abstinence or increased contraceptive use is primarily responsible. This research brief indicates that both factors appear to be contributing factors. It finds that: (1) the percentage of teens who reported…

  2. A Research Note on Trends in Black Hypersegregation

    PubMed Central

    Tannen, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In this note, we use a consistently defined set of metropolitan areas to study patterns and trends in black hypersegregation from 1970 to 2010. Over this 40-year period, 52 metropolitan areas were characterized by hypersegregation at one point or another, although not all at the same time. Over the period, the number of hypersegregated metropolitan areas declined by about one-half, but the degree of segregation within those areas characterized by hypersegregation changed very little. As of 2010, roughly one-third of all black metropolitan residents lived in a hypersegregated area. PMID:25791615

  3. Strengthening implementation and utilization of nutrition interventions through research: a framework and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Menon, Purnima; Covic, Namukolo M; Harrigan, Paige B; Horton, Susan E; Kazi, Nabeeha M; Lamstein, Sascha; Neufeld, Lynnette; Oakley, Erica; Pelletier, David

    2014-12-01

    Undernutrition among women and children contributes to almost half the global burden of child mortality in developing countries. The impact of nutrition on economic development has highlighted the need for evidence-based solutions and yielded substantial global momentum. However, it is now recognized that the impact of evidence-based interventions is limited by the lack of evidence on the best operational strategies for scaling up nutrition interventions. With the goal of encouraging greater engagement in implementation research in nutrition and generating evidence on implementation and utilization of nutrition interventions, this paper brings together a framework and a broad analysis of literature to frame and highlight the crucial importance of research on the delivery and utilization of nutrition interventions. The paper draws on the deliberations of a high-level working group, an e-consultation, a conference, and the published literature. It proposes a framework and areas of research that have been quite neglected, and yet are critical to better understanding through careful research to enable better translation of global and national political momentum for nutrition into public health impact. PMID:24934307

  4. Research Trends in Staff Development and Inservice Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daresh, John C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the methodology of recent research (1979-84) on staff development and inservice teacher education in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. A research agenda for the future is suggested. (Author/MT)

  5. Conducting Intervention Research among Underserved Populations: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Pyatak, Elizabeth A.; Blanche, Erna I.; Garber, Susan L.; Diaz, Jesus; Blanchard, Jeanine; Florindez, Lucia; Clark, Florence A.

    2013-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard in research design for establishing treatment efficacy. However, the rigorous and highly controlled conditions of RCTs can be difficult to attain when conducting research among individuals living with a confluence of disability, low socioeconomic status, and being a member of a racial/ethnic minority group, who may be more likely to have unstable life circumstances. Research on effective interventions for these groups is urgently needed, as evidence regarding approaches to reduce health disparities and improve health outcomes is lacking. In this methodological paper we discuss the challenges and lessons learned in implementing the Lifestyle Redesign® for Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Spinal Cord Injury (LR-PUPS) study among a highly disadvantaged population. These issues are discussed in terms of strategies to enhance recruitment, retention, and intervention relevance to the target population. Recommendations for researchers seeking to conduct RCTs among socioeconomically disadvantaged, ethnically diverse populations are provided. PMID:23262157

  6. Developmentally-Appropriate Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions for Adolescents: Rationale, Review of Interventions, and Recommendations for Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Pedlow, C. Teal; Carey, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Context Despite awareness of the need to design developmentally-appropriate sexual risk reduction interventions for adolescents, limited information exists to identify the aspects of intervention design or content that make an intervention “developmentally appropriate.” Objectives (a) To clarify the rationale for designing developmentally-appropriate interventions, (b) to review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adolescent sexual risk reduction interventions, (c) to identify developmentally-appropriate strategies, (d) to examine the relationship between developmental appropriateness and sexual risk outcomes, and (e) to provide recommendations for research. Study Selection Studies (n = 24) published before 2003 that evaluated a risk reduction intervention, sampled adolescents, used a RCT study design, and evaluated sexual behavior outcomes. Results Content analysis indicated that the interventions tested were often tailored to the cognitive level of adolescents, as indicated by the use of exercises on decision-making, goal-setting and planning, and concrete explanation of abstract concepts. Interventions also addressed the social influences of risky sex such as peer norms and provided communication skills training. Overall, the interventions tested in RCTs were more effective in delaying the onset of sexual activity than in promoting abstinence among sexually-active youth. Interventions with booster sessions were effective in reducing sexual risk behavior. The use of process measures, linked with developmental constructs, was rare. However, improvements in sexual communication skills and perceived norms for safer sex were associated with reductions in sexual risk outcomes. Conclusions Developmental transitions during adolescence influence sexual behavior, and need to be considered when developing and evaluating risk reduction interventions for youth. Future research should assess process measures of key developmental constructs as well as risk behavior and

  7. Publication Trends Over 55 Years of Behavioral Genetic Research.

    PubMed

    Ayorech, Ziada; Selzam, Saskia; Smith-Woolley, Emily; Knopik, Valerie S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; DeFries, John C; Plomin, Robert

    2016-09-01

    We document the growth in published papers on behavioral genetics for 5-year intervals from 1960 through 2014. We used 1861 papers published in Behavior Genetics to train our search strategy which, when applied to Ovid PsychINFO, selected more than 45,000 publications. Five trends stand out: (1) the number of behavioral genetic publications has grown enormously; nearly 20,000 papers were published in 2010-2014. (2) The number of human quantitative genetic (QG) publications (e.g., twin and adoption studies) has steadily increased with more than 3000 papers published in 2010-2014. (3) The number of human molecular genetic (MG) publications increased substantially from about 2000 in 2000-2004 to 5000 in 2005-2009 to 9000 in 2010-2014. (4) Nonhuman publications yielded similar trends. (5) Although there has been exponential growth in MG publications, both human and nonhuman QG publications continue to grow. A searchable resource of this corpus of behavioral genetic papers is freely available online at http://www.teds.ac.uk/public_datasets.html and will be updated annually. PMID:26992731

  8. Research and Trends in the Studies of Homeschooling Practices: A Review on Selected Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamaludin, Khairul Azhar; Alias, Norlidah; DeWitt, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    The practice of homeschooling still receives contrasting responses on its relevancy and effectiveness. The current study is aimed to map the trends in the selected eleven studies from various educational journals. The analysis focuses on mapping the trends on: a) research settings, b) target sample, c) method or instrument used, d) common focus or…

  9. Trends in Distance Education Research: A Content Analysis of Journals 2009-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozkurt, Aras; Akgun-Ozbek, Ela; Yilmazel, Sibel; Erdogdu, Erdem; Ucar, Hasan; Guler, Emel; Sezgin, Sezan; Karadeniz, Abdulkadir; Sen-Ersoy, Nazife; Goksel-Canbek, Nil; Dincer, Gokhan Deniz; Ari, Suleyman; Aydin, Cengiz Hakan

    2015-01-01

    This study intends to explore the current trends in the field of distance education research during the period of 2009-2013. The trends were identified by an extensive review of seven peer reviewed scholarly journals: "The American Journal of Distance Education" (AJDE), "Distance Education" (DE), "The European Journal of…

  10. Epidemiology of HIV Among Injecting and Non-injecting Drug Users: Current Trends and Implications for Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Stockman, Jamila K.

    2010-01-01

    Injecting drug use is a major driver of HIV infections in Eastern Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States, North Africa, the Middle East, and many parts of Asia and North America. We provide a global overview of the epidemiology of HIV infection among drug users and present current drug use trends that may constitute important epidemic drivers. We describe trends in ethnic disparities among injecting drug using (IDU) populations in the United States, and comment upon how these trends may now be changing. We present examples where HIV infection among non-IDUs who use cocaine, crack, and methamphetamine by other routes of administration is similar to that among IDUs, and discuss potential mechanisms of HIV spread in this overlooked population. Finally, we comment upon the potential implications of these observations for HIV interventions among IDU and non-IDU populations, taking into account different strategies that are needed in settings where HIV and/or injecting drug use has been established, or threatens to emerge. PMID:20425564

  11. [Trend in person-situation controversy about personality research].

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, A

    1993-10-01

    The purpose is to review the trend in "person-situation controversy", and to comment on recent literature and their implications. "Person-situation controversy" is related to whether people do or do not have consistent personality traits. Although the topic is not at all new, it aroused a great deal of interest since the publication of Mischel's (1968) "personality and assessment". Here, we began with Mischel's criticism against the trait approach, then, we discussed two opposite viewpoints of situationism and interactionism. Situationism is the idea that situational variables influence more on the behavior of people than personality traits, while interactionism is the idea that personality traits and situations interact with each other to influence behavior. Furthermore, this article focussed on three conceptual issues, such as consistency, prediction, and meaning of traits. Finally, the reconsideration and evaluation of the two viewpoints were presented from a viewpoint of personality psychology. PMID:8301895

  12. The Wide and Complex Field of NAFLD Biomarker Research: Trends

    PubMed Central

    Macheiner, Tanja; Kavsek, Barbara; Sargsyan, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is now acknowledged as a complex public health issue linked to sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and related disorders like type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Aims. We aimed to retrieve its trends out of the huge amount of published data. Therefore, we conducted an extensive literature search to identify possible biomarker and/or biomarker combinations by retrospectively assessing and evaluating common and novel biomarkers to predict progression and prognosis of obesity related liver diseases. Methodology. We analyzed finally 62 articles accounting for 157 cohorts and 45,288 subjects. Results. Despite the various approaches, most cohorts were considerably small and rarely comparable. Also, we found that the same standard parameters were measured rather than novel biomarkers. Diagnostics approaches appeared incomparable. Conclusions. Further collaborative investigations on harmonizing ways of data acquisition and identifying such biomarkers for clinical use are necessary to yield sufficient significant results of potential biomarkers. PMID:27335843

  13. New Trends in Nuclear Data Research for Medical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Qaim, S. M.

    2005-05-24

    Nuclear methods play an important role in medicine, both in diagnosis and therapy. The status of nuclear data with regard to the production of commonly used diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides is discussed. The new trends and data needs in the development of potentially useful radionuclides are outlined. They pertain to longer-lived positron emitters (e.g., 64Cu, 76Br, 124I) for studying slow metabolic processes, to positron emitters needed for quantification purposes (94mTc, 86Y, etc.) and to soft radiation emitting therapeutic radionuclides (103Pd, 186Re, 225Ac, etc.). The imaging problems with new positron emitters are discussed. As regards radiation therapy, data on the formation of short-lived activation products in proton therapy are reported.

  14. Neutron Imaging Facility Development and Research Trend at NIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, M.; Hussey, D. S.; Baltic, E. M.; Jacobson, D. L.

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)maintains a sustained focus in the development of advanced neutron imaging facilities and hardware components to enable breakthrough research with vastly improved spatial and temporal resolutions, and to identify and employ research practices important to a wide variety of industrial and scientific applications. NIST's main focus is to enable research with broad appeal and commercial impacts. In this article we will give a brief overview of the NIST facility, select examples of current research, and finally comment on emerging technologies including advance manufacturing where neutron imaging has the potential to play an important role.

  15. Trends in Qualitative Research in Language Teaching since 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews developments in qualitative research in language teaching since the year 2000, focusing on its contributions to the field and identifying issues that emerge. Its aims are to identify those areas in language teaching where qualitative research has the greatest potential and indicate what needs to be done to further improve the…

  16. The Research Consortium, 1977-2010: Contributions, Milestones, and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Claman, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    Research and innovation are a cornerstone of any progressive organization. The Research Consortium (RC) has served as the principal organization fulfilling this function on behalf of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) throughout much of its history. The RC is an organization of approximately 5,000…

  17. Trends in Educational Research in Turkey: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goktas, Yuksel; Hasancebi, Funda; Varisoglu, Behice; Akcay, Ahmet; Bayrak, Naci; Baran, Mukadder; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on educational research papers published from 2005-2009 in journals listed in SSCI and the ULAKBIM database in Turkey. Study types, research methods, investigated specific topics, used data collection tools, employed data analysis methods, and utilized types of samples and sampling methods were analyzed. A total of 2115 papers…

  18. Mass Communication Research Trends from 1980 to 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamhawi, Rasha; Weaver, David

    2003-01-01

    Uses thematic meta-analysis to examine study method, medium and area of focus, theoretical approach, funding source, and time period covered in research articles published in 10 major mass communications journals during the 1980 to 1999 period. Finds that qualitative research methods continued to be much less common than quantitative methods…

  19. New trends in combustion research for gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    Research on combustion is being conducted to provide improved analytical models of the complex flow and chemical reaction processes which occur in the combustor of gas turbine engines, in order to enable engine manufacturers to reduce the development time of these concepts. The elements of the combustion fundamentals program is briefly discussed with examples of research projects described more fully. Combustion research will continue to emphasize the development of analytical models and the support of these models with fundamental flow experiments to assess the models accuracy and shortcomings.

  20. Trends in antenatal care attendance and health facility delivery following community and health facility systems strengthening interventions in Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal morbidity and mortality remains high in Uganda; largely due to inadequate antenatal care (ANC), low skilled deliveries and poor quality of other maternal health services. In order to address both the demand and quality of ANC and skilled deliveries, we introduced community mobilization and health facility capacity strengthening interventions. Methods Interventions were introduced between January 2010 and September 2011. These included: training health workers, provision of medical supplies, community mobilization using village health teams, music dance and drama groups and male partner access clubs. These activities were implemented at Kitgum Matidi health center III and its catchment area. Routinely collected health facility data on selected outcomes in the year preceding the interventions and after 21 months of implementation of the interventions was reviewed. Trend analysis was performed using excel and statistical significance testing was performed using EPINFO StatCal option. Results The number of pregnant women attending the first ANC visit significantly increased from 114 to 150 in the first and fourth quarter of 2010 (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.39–2.12) and to 202 in the third quarter of 2011(OR 11.41; 95% CI 7.97–16.34). The number of pregnant women counselled, tested and given results for HIV during the first ANC attendance significantly rose from 92 (80.7%) to 146 (97.3%) in the first and fourth quarter of 2010 and then to 201 (99.5%) in the third quarter of 2011. The number of male partners counseled, tested and given results together with their wives at first ANC visit rose from 13 (16.7%) in the fourth quarter of 2009 to 130 (89%) in the fourth quarter of 2010 and to 180 (89.6%) in the third quarter of 2011. There was a significant rise in the number of pregnant women delivering in the health facility with provision of mama-kits (delivery kits), from 74 (55.2%) to 149 (99.3%) in the second and fourth quarter of 2010. Conclusions

  1. Differential Time Trends of Outcomes and Costs of Care for Acute Myocardial Infarction Hospitalizations by ST Elevation and Type of Intervention in the United States, 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Takehiro; Hasegawa, Kohei; Kobayashi, Yasuki; Takahashi, Osamu; Fukui, Tsuguya; Tsugawa, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known whether time trends of in‐hospital mortality and costs of care for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) differ by type of AMI (ST‐elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] vs. non‐ST‐elevation [NSTEMI]) and by the intervention received (percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI], coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG], or no intervention) in the United States. Methods and Results We conducted a serial cross‐sectional study of all hospitalizations for AMI aged 30 years or older using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2001–2011 (1 456 154 discharges; a weighted estimate of 7 135 592 discharges). Hospitalizations were stratified by type of AMI and intervention, and the time trends of in‐hospital mortality and hospital costs were examined for each combination of the AMI type and intervention, after adjusting for both patient‐ and hospital‐level characteristics. Compared with 2001, adjusted in‐hospital mortality improved significantly for NSTEMI patients in 2011, regardless of the intervention received (PCI odds ratio [OR] 0.68, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.83; CABG OR 0.57, 0.45 to 0.72; without intervention OR 0.61, 0.57 to 0.65). As for STEMI, a decline in adjusted in‐hospital mortality was significant for those who underwent PCI (OR 0.83; 0.73 to 0.94); however, no significant improvement was observed for those who received CABG or without intervention. Hospital costs per hospitalization increased significantly for patients who underwent intervention, but not for those without intervention. Conclusions In the United States, the decrease in in‐hospital mortality and the increase in costs differed by the AMI type and the intervention received. These non‐uniform trends may be informative for designing effective health policies to reduce the health and economic burdens of AMI. PMID:25801759

  2. Current Practice in Research Ethics: Global Trends and New Opportunities for African Universities. Research and Innovation Policy Series. Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Liam

    2007-01-01

    Research Ethics has emerged as one of the most well-developed policy areas within the sphere of Research and Innovation Management. As such, for African institutions looking to strengthen their policy frameworks, develop increased collaborations, and increase research outputs, a thorough understanding of global trends in Ethics will be vital.…

  3. Trends in Global Assisted Reproductive Technologies Research: a Scientometrics study

    PubMed Central

    Okhovati, Maryam; Zare, Morteza; Zare, Fatemeh; Bazrafshan, Maliheh Sadat; Bazrafshan, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study illustrated the global contribution to assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) research in MEDLINE database from 1998 to 2014. Methods In March 2015, the MEDLINE database was searched for research publications indexed under ‘reproductive techniques, assisted’ (including the following MeSH headings: in vitro fertilization [IVF]; intracytoplasmic sperm injections; cryopreservation; and ovulation induction), with the following expressions in the fields of title or abstract: intrauterine insemination; sperm donation; embryo/egg donation and surrogate mothers. The number of publications in MEDLINE database was recorded for each individual year, 1998–2014, and for each country. The following countries were arbitrarily selected for data retrieval: United States, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Canada, Italy, Japan (G7 countries), Brazil, Russia, India, China (BRIC countries), Egypt, Turkey, Israel and Iran. Results The absolute number of publications for each country from 1998 to 2014 ranged from 75 to 16453, with a median of 2024. The top five countries were the US (16453 publications), the UK (5427 publications), Japan (4805), China (4660) and France (3795). ART (20277), cryopreservation (11623) and IVF (11209) were the most researched areas. Conclusion Global research on ARTs were geographically distributed and highly concentrated among the world’s richest countries. Cryopreservation and IVF were the most productive research domains among ARTs. PMID:26813255

  4. Interventions for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Evaluation of Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertz, Hannah H.; Reichow, Brian; Tan, Paulo; Vaiouli, Potheini; Yildirim, Emine

    2012-01-01

    Recently emerging intervention studies for toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were reviewed through a systematic assessment of intervention outcomes, research rigor, and intervention features. The review includes published peer-reviewed experimental studies of toddlers with high risk for or diagnosis of ASD in which the majority of…

  5. Principles of Early Intervention Reflected in Toddler Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertz, Hannah H.; Baker, Crystal; Hurwitz, Sarah; Benner, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    This review examines how recommended practices for toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are integrated into interventions in the first generation of research targeting toddlers with ASD. The purpose was not to review intervention effectiveness, which is addressed in other reviews; rather, it was to assess reported intervention methods in…

  6. A Review of Research on Intervention with Preschool Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quay, Lorene C.

    This research review focuses on the effects of early intervention on the preschool children of low-income families, examining studies of intervention programs begun in the 1960s through the present. It then relates this analysis to the new Georgia Prekindergarten Program. The interventions reviewed are grouped into four hierarchical categories…

  7. Methodological Status and Trends in Expository Text Structure Instruction Efficacy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohaty, Janet J.; Hebert, Michael A.; Nelson, J. Ron; Brown, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    This systematic descriptive historical review was conducted to examine the status and trends in expository text structure instruction efficacy research for first through twelfth grade students. The analysis included sixty studies, which spanned the years 1978 to 2014. Descriptive dimensions of the research included study type, research design,…

  8. Toddler Research and Intervention Project Report-Year II. IMRID Behavioral Science Monograph No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Diane; Bricker, William

    The report summarizes the second year of the Toddler Research and Intervention Project, which uses experimental research to devise and evaluate educational intervention techniques with approximately 28 normal or developmentally delayed children 1- to 4-years-old and their families. Described are researchers/teachers relationships, behavioral…

  9. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand’s consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  10. Current trends and future directions in flower development research

    PubMed Central

    Scutt, Charlie P.; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  11. Taught Postgraduate Students: Market Trends and Opportunities. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Susan; Ramsden, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This report brings together information and analysis about taught postgraduate students from data provided by the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) and from a search of relevant published information. The authors' contention is that these students are distinctively different from undergraduates and from research postgraduate students.…

  12. Values Education Research Trends in Turkey: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beldag, Adem

    2016-01-01

    The present study makes a situation analysis of graduate theses on values education published between 1999 and 2015 in Turkey. It has a qualitative research design, wherein data is collected through document analysis. The form developed for this purpose is comprised of nine sections, each of which focuses on a different aspect: universities,…

  13. Multilingualism in Australia: Reflections on Current and Future Research Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubino, Antonia

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a critical overview of Australian research in the area of immigrant languages, arguing that this field of study is a significant component of the wider applied linguistics scene in Australia and has also contributed to enhancing the broad appreciation of the cultural and linguistic diversity of the country. It shows that research…

  14. Postgraduate Research in Pacific Education: Interpretivism and Other Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Greg; Lingam, Govinda Ishwar

    2012-01-01

    This article examines research by postgraduate students in education at the University of the South Pacific (USP) between 1968 and 2009. These experienced educators, who later return to their original education sector to influence policy and practice in some way, are producing new knowledge intimately connected to Pacific education systems. The…

  15. Trends in Behavior-Analytic Gambling Research and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Mark R; Whiting, Seth W; Gunnarsson, Karl F; Daar, Jacob H; Rowsey, Kyle E

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present review was to analyze research outcomes for all gambling studies reported in the behavior analysis literature. We used the search term "gambling" to identify articles that were published in behaviorally oriented journals between the years 1992 and 2012 and categorized the content of each article as empirical or conceptual. Next, we examined and categorized the empirical articles by inclusion of an experimental manipulation and treatment to alleviate at least some aspect of pathological gambling, participant population used, type of gambling task employed in the research, whether the participants in the study actually gambled, and the behavioral phenomena of interest. The results show that the rate of publication of gambling research has increased in the last 6 years, and a vast majority of articles are empirical. Of the empirical articles, examinations of treatment techniques or methods are scarce; slot machine play is the most represented form of gambling, and slightly greater than half of the research included compensation based on gambling outcomes within experiments. We discuss implications and future directions based on these observations of the published literature. PMID:27606170

  16. Trends in High School Graduation Rates. Research Brief. Volume 0710

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanik, Dale; Froman, Terry

    2008-01-01

    This Research Brief addresses an outcome measure that is of paramount importance to senior high schools--graduation rate. Nationwide a student drops out of school approximately every nine seconds. The significance of this issue locally is exemplified by a recent American Civil Liberties Union filing of a class action law suit against the Palm…

  17. The Engaged Dissertation: Exploring Trends in Doctoral Student Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Audrey J.; Tuchmayer, Jeremy B.; Morin, Shauna M.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which doctoral students are conducting community-engaged scholarship and investigated the characteristics of their degree-granting institutions. The research utilized the most immediate work of doctoral students by examining completed dissertations. Analysis showed which graduate students are pursuing community…

  18. Research trends in electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Tianlong; Wang, Juan; Wang, Qunhui; Meng, Huimin; Wang, Lihong

    2015-03-01

    It is difficult to completely degrade wastewater containing refractory pollutants without secondary pollution by biological treatment, as well as physical-chemical process. Therefore, electrochemical technology has attracted much attention for its environmental compatibility, high removal efficiency, and potential cost effectiveness, especially on the industrial wastewater treatment. An effective bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Core Collection database was conducted to evaluate electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment related research from 1994 to 2013. The amount of publications significantly increased in the last two decades. Journal of the Electrochemical Society published the most articles in this field with a top h-index of 90, taking 5.8 % of all, followed by Electrochimica Acta and Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry. The researchers focused on categories of chemistry, electrochemistry, and materials science. China and Chinese Academy of Sciences were the most productive country and institution, respectively, while the USA, with the most international collaborative articles and highest h-index of 130, was the major collaborator with 15 other countries in top 20 most productive countries. Moreover, based on the analysis of author keywords, title, abstract, and `KeyWords Plus', a new method named "word cluster analysis" was successfully applied to trace the research hotspot. Nowadays, researchers mainly focused on novel anodic electrode, especially on its physiochemical and electrochemical properties.

  19. Trends of Soviet Psychological and Educational Research: 1982-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEneaney, John E.

    A study reviewed Russian-language research reports published during the year 1982-1989 (spanning pre- and post-perestroika). Statistical analysis of the numbers of articles published each year in specific topic areas revealed a number of changes over the years under review. Numbers of publications in general psychology, human experimental…

  20. Fathers' Activities with Their Kids. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Brett V.; Michelsen, Erik A.; Halle, Tamara G.; Moore, Kristin A.

    One of the critical elements of children's healthy development is the participation of parents in important activities in their children's lives. This research brief reports on the involvement of fathers in their children's lives. The brief focuses on the involvement of fathers who live with their children, including single fathers raising their…

  1. Trends and Directions in Family Research in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berardo, Felix M.

    1990-01-01

    Introduces special journal issue devoted to a review of research on marriage and the family over the past decade. Provides overview of marital issues, feminism, parent-child relationships, day care, divorce, remarriage, stepfamilies, adolescence, later life families, religion, Blacks, Hispanics, adolescent childbearing, health, employment,…

  2. Road traffic injuries in Thailand: trends, selected underlying determinants and status of intervention.

    PubMed

    Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Kanchanasut, Somchai

    2003-01-01

    Injuries and deaths from traffic crashes have become a major public health and socio-economic problem in Thailand. Injuries, fatalities and economic losses due to traffic crashes have increased with the rising level of motorization. This study analyzes hospital-based data compiled by the Ministry of Public Health, data compiled by the National Police Office and data compiled by the traffic engineering division of the Department of Highways, Ministry of Transport and Communications. Analysis reveals that 70% of the people injured or killed in traffic crashes are aged 10-39. Men are at four to five times higher risk of death and injury due to traffic crashes than women. The number and rate of traffic injury in Thailand swung from a record low during the economic recovery in the 1980's to record a high during the bubble economy, then declined with the economic crisis in 1997. The economic costs were estimated at U.S.$1.6 billion in 1995. An urban-rural difference in traffic injuries has been recorded with a higher rural case-fatality rate. A number of known behavioral risk factors have been identified, i.e., drunk driving, speeding, substance abuse and failure to use helmets and seat belts. However, determinants of behavior need further investigation. Hazardous road locations have also been mapped. Trends of traffic injuries seem to follow trends of economic growth. Without effective policy and implementation programs to control the determinants, it is expected that traffic injuries will increase as the country recovers from economic crisis. A major pitfall to many current government programs is that they incorporate no systematic evaluation. The fragmented structure of road safety authorities further complicates collaboration and coordination. A broad coalition of stakeholders is needed to catalyze policy action. PMID:12772492

  3. Child prostitution: global health burden, research needs, and interventions.

    PubMed

    Willis, Brian M; Levy, Barry S

    2002-04-20

    Child prostitution is a significant global problem that has yet to receive appropriate medical and public health attention. Worldwide, an estimated 1 million children are forced into prostitution every year and the total number of prostituted children could be as high as 10 million. Inadequate data exist on the health problems faced by prostituted children, who are at high risk of infectious disease, pregnancy, mental illness, substance abuse, and violence. Child prostitution, like other forms of child sexual abuse, is not only a cause of death and high morbidity in millions of children, but also a gross violation of their rights and dignity. In this article we estimate morbidity and mortality among prostituted children, and propose research strategies and interventions to mitigate such health consequences. Our estimates underscore the need for health professionals to collaborate with individuals and organisations that provide direct services to prostituted children. Health professionals can help efforts to prevent child prostitution through identifying contributing factors, recording the magnitude and health effects of the problem, and assisting children who have escaped prostitution. They can also help governments, UN agencies, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to implement policies, laws, and programmes to prevent child prostitution and mitigate its effects on children's health. PMID:11978356

  4. Can Genetics Research Benefit Educational Interventions for All?

    PubMed

    Asbury, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Pretty much everyone knows that our genes have at least something to do with how able or how high achieving we are. Some believe that we should not speak of this common knowledge, nor inquire into how genetic influence works or what it might mean. If we do not keep an open mind to the fact of genetic influence on academic achievement, however, then we cannot explore its possible implications. And if we do not consider the implications, then we cannot, as a society, harness any potential benefits or avoid possible pitfalls. So that's what this essay is about-exploring what behavioral genetics research might be able to offer to educational theory, policy, and practice. We cannot yet use biological information to make accurate predictions for all children. We do know, however, that academic achievement is heritable, which is to say that differences between individuals are influenced by differences in their DNA. If genes are part of the problem for some pupils (to take the negative spin on this), then it seems likely that studying them could be part of a solution. And that's what behavioral geneticists are trying to do-to chart and understand pathways from DNA to behavior and to identify interventions that can maximize outcomes for all. The fact is, though, that we have an awfully long way to go. PMID:26413947

  5. From Dynamic Assessment of Cognitive Abilities to Educational Interventions: Trends in Cognitive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalcíková, Iveta

    2015-01-01

    Having spent over two decades training teachers, Iveta Kovalcíková writes in this editorial that she has lately been attracted by ideas bridging the growing gap between neurological and psychological research findings and their practical application in practice. Here she argues that outcomes of research on learning processes are insufficiently…

  6. Coaching with Parents in Early Intervention: An Interdisciplinary Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Peggy; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to synthesize intervention studies using coaching with parents in early intervention with a focus on (a) definitions and descriptions of coaching with parents; (b) characteristics of families and coaches; (c) parameters such as settings, contexts, dosage, and professional development related to coaching; and (d)…

  7. Screening and Brief Interventions: Research Update. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Developed in 1993 at the University of Washington, Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) is a preventive intervention program to reduce drinking and enhance awareness about alcohol-related issues. BASICS targets college students who are considered at risk because of heavy drinking behaviors. The brief intervention…

  8. Truancy Interventions: A Review of the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutphen, Richard D.; Ford, Janet P.; Flaherty, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a systematic review of the literature on evaluative studies of truancy interventions. Method: Included studies evaluating truancy interventions appearing in peer-reviewed academic journals from 1990 to 2007. Findings: In total, 16 studies were assessed. Eight studies used group comparison designs and eight studies…

  9. Response to Intervention: A Research-Based Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Charles A.; Dexter, Douglas D.

    2011-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) is an instructional framework through which schools can provide early intervention for students experiencing academic and behavioral difficulties. It is also promoted as an alternative to the IQ-discrepancy model for identifying students with learning disabilities. Most states have developed, or are developing,…

  10. [Trends in modern international gerontological research. Experimental aspects].

    PubMed

    von Hahn, H P

    1978-01-01

    In a personal statement the author takes the view that gerontology and geriatrics deal with the same fundamental biological phenomenon, namely loss of adaptability and of the capacity to maintain the parameters of homeostasis. Two focal points of recent research in gerontology are cell cultures and the central nervous system. Work with cell cultures has so far been unexpectedly disappointing as far as basic understanding of the ageing process in vivo is concerned. Biochemical, morphological, physiological and pharmacological investigations into the ageing brain have on the other hand provided a wealth of new data which promise major insights into basic mechanisms of the ageing process. Aim of all gerontologocal research must be an "old age worth living" rather than a speculative search for a prolongation of lifespan. PMID:26239

  11. Review of recent trends in cholera research and control

    PubMed Central

    Felsenfeld, O.

    1966-01-01

    Since 1961 cholera El Tor has been sweeping through the Far East, and this dissemination of the disease has stimulated research not only in the countries afflicted but also in Europe and the Americas. New laboratories and workers have entered the field and many fresh ideas and concepts have emerged. The time seemed ripe, therefore, to survey the most important papers published since 1959, when the literature on cholera was thoroughly reviewed by Pollitzer, for the benefit both of those engaged in research and of those concerned with public health practice. This review covers history and incidence, causative agents (including the ”classical”, ”El Tor” and ”incomplete” forms), pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, mode of spreading and control measures (with particular reference to public health education and the International Sanitary Regulations). An annex, intended for laboratory use, contains selected procedures for the isolation and identification of cholera vibrios. PMID:5328492

  12. Current trends in antimicrobial agent research: chemo- and bioinformatics approaches.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Riadh; Fliss, Ismail

    2010-07-01

    Databases and chemo- and bioinformatics tools that contain genomic, proteomic and functional information have become indispensable for antimicrobial drug research. The combination of chemoinformatics tools, bioinformatics tools and relational databases provides means of analyzing, linking and comparing online search results. The development of computational tools feeds on a diversity of disciplines, including mathematics, statistics, computer science, information technology and molecular biology. The computational approach to antimicrobial agent discovery and design encompasses genomics, molecular simulation and dynamics, molecular docking, structural and/or functional class prediction, and quantitative structure-activity relationships. This article reviews progress in the development of computational methods, tools and databases used for organizing and extracting biological meaning from antimicrobial research. PMID:20546918

  13. Emerging trends in contract research industry in India.

    PubMed

    Drabu, Sushma; Gupta, Alka; Bhadauria, Anupama

    2010-09-01

    A Contract Research Organization (CRO) is a service organization that provides support to the pharmaceutical industry and offers a wide range of "outsourced" pharmaceutical research services to aid in R&D process and is thus an essential tool for undertaking clinical trials in the present scenario when high stakes are involved in the drug discovery process. This industry also offers a safe option of investment as the industry is largely recession-proof, with a significant upscale growth. Presently India occupies a very small pie of the global market share in the Clinical Trials Industry but it is estimated to conduct nearly 5% of global clinical trials by 2012. The global CRO industry valued $18 bn in 2008 and the market is expected to grow at an annual rate of 14% between 2009 and 13. Top multinational pharmaceuticals companies are venturing into the Indian business, in collaboration with the Indian Drug Companies. According to a recent study by Mckinsey & Company, the Indian Clinical Research Industry can attract $1.5 bn of revenue from US and EU by 2010. Such an increase in outsourcing from the western countries has led the global pharma companies and Indian entrepreneurs to set up Contract Research Organizations (CROs) in India. To bring this into realization and fulfil the market demand, while simultaneously aiding in improving the country's economical standards and market position, joint and well-coordinated efforts on part of the government, industry, and working professionals are needed in terms of regulatory affairs, audits, transparency in work affairs, garnering patient confidence, and pharmacovigilance. PMID:20609394

  14. Job Loss and Unemployment Research from 1994 to 1998: A Review and Recommendations for Research and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanisch, Kathy A.

    1999-01-01

    This review of research on unemployment examines the prevalence of job loss, meaning of unemployment, individual outcomes, coping, effects on families, reemployment issues, and interventions. The article suggests additional research needed to understand the unemployment experience. Lists 91 references. (SK)

  15. Usability, learnability and performance evaluation of Intelligent Research and Intervention Software: A delivery platform for eHealth interventions.

    PubMed

    Wozney, Lori; McGrath, Patrick J; Newton, Amanda; Huguet, Anna; Franklin, Marcia; Perri, Kaitlin; Leuschen, K; Toombs, Elaine; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation of an eHealth platform, Intelligent Research and Intervention Software was undertaken via cross-sectional survey of staff users and application performance monitoring. The platform is used to deliver psychosocial interventions across a range of clinical contexts, project scopes, and delivery modalities (e.g. hybrid telehealth, fully online self-managed, randomized control trials, and clinical service delivery). Intelligent Research and Intervention Software supports persuasive technology elements (e.g. tailoring, reminders, and personalization) as well as staff management tools. Results from the System Usability Scale involving 30 Staff and Administrative users across multiple projects were positive with overall mean score of 70 ("Acceptable"). The mean score for "Usability" sub-scale was 82 and for "Learnability" sub-scale 61. There were no significant differences in perceptions of usability across user groups or levels of experience. Application performance management analytics (e.g. Application Performance Index scores) across two test sites indicate the software platform is robust and reliable when compared to industry standards. Intelligent Research and Intervention Software is successfully operating as a flexible platform for creating, delivering, and evaluating eHealth interventions. PMID:26105726

  16. Trends in research and development for future detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattai, Ariella

    2013-12-01

    Development of novel detector concepts has always played a major role in supporting and enabling scientific research. In the forthcoming phase of high energy physics (HEP), the design and development of new detectors and detector concepts will be even more important than it was in the past owing to the harsh environmental conditions and the challenging requests imposed by the physicists' needs for: improved spatial and time resolution, innovative functions, acquisition speed, radiation tolerance, minimal power consumption, robustness and reliability, minimal material and more. This overview addresses the challenges that upgrades and future projects in HEP will impose in terms of novel technologies and stresses the detectors' potential and limitations in attempting to achieve the scientific goals. In addition the increasingly strong dependence on large-scale industrial production and industrial development, especially in the area of integrated electronics, sensors and large complex systems will be addressed.

  17. Current Trends in Modeling Research for Turbulent Aerodynamic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatski, Thomas B.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Manceau, Remi

    2007-01-01

    The engineering tools of choice for the computation of practical engineering flows have begun to migrate from those based on the traditional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach to methodologies capable, in theory if not in practice, of accurately predicting some instantaneous scales of motion in the flow. The migration has largely been driven by both the success of Reynolds-averaged methods over a wide variety of flows as well as the inherent limitations of the method itself. Practitioners, emboldened by their ability to predict a wide-variety of statistically steady, equilibrium turbulent flows, have now turned their attention to flow control and non-equilibrium flows, that is, separation control. This review gives some current priorities in traditional Reynolds-averaged modeling research as well as some methodologies being applied to a new class of turbulent flow control problems.

  18. Application of Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and Recent Research Trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Nobuhiro

    As the applications of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion, research and development for high-efficiency and low emission electric power generation system, MHD accelerations and/or MHD thrusters, and flow control around hypersonic and re-entry vehicles are introduced. For closed cycle MHD power generation, high-efficiency MHD single system is the most hopeful system and space power system using mixed inert gas (MIG) working medium is proposed. For open cycle MHD, high-efficiency coal fired MHD system with CO2 recovery has been proposed. As inverse process of MHD power generation, MHD accelerators/thrusters are expected as the next generation propulsion system. Heat flux reduction to protect re-entry vehicles is expected by an MHD process for safety return from space missions.

  19. Chagas' disease: trends in immunological research and prospects for immunoprophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Antonio R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi usually subsides spontaneously but the mortality rate encountered in individuals with the chronic infection is high. Much evidence has accumulated in the last five years that autoimmunity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the myocarditis that is common in the chronic phase. A negative relationship has been observed between the demonstrable parasitaemia and the presence of severe cardiac lesions. This myocarditis is characterized by lymphocytic infiltrates and destruction of normal heart cells, in the absence of the parasite in situ. Furthermore, the demonstration in vitro of heart cell lysis by T. cruzi-sensitized T lymphocytes is strong evidence of autoimmunity in Chagas' disease. Acquired immunity plays a major role in the course that T. cruzi infections may run in the mammalian host. As a result of the immune mechanisms induced by the parasite, the infection is controlled at subpatent levels, and the immune host does not develop acute T. cruzi infection again. At present there are several means of achieving immunoprotection against experimental T. cruzi infections, but it is not known whether vaccinated animals might develop chronic Chagas' disease and die many months or years later. Studies on immunoprotection against Chagas' disease should therefore not be limited only to the acute phase of the infection. Furthermore, the involvement of autoimmunity in the production of the lesions of Chagas' disease indicates that research in this area should be conducted with caution. The definition of an animal model for chronic Chagas' disease is essential to further development of immunological research devoted to immunoprophylaxis. PMID:120233

  20. Trend of laser research developments in global level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golnabi, H.; Mahdieh, M. H.

    2006-03-01

    An up-to-date progress of the international laser research and development is given in this article. The number of scientific publications and filed patents are considered as a figure of merit and based on these numbers the growth pace and important aspects are investigated. We have used the Science Finder Scholar search engine, which indexes more than 4000 journals, in different languages, and represents most significant published materials in laser science and engineering. The growth of the laser and related fields are described in terms of resulting scientific publications for the period of 1990-2003. The share of top nations in scientific publications, and in particular laser publications in terms of their gross domestic product (GDP) is presented. It is noted that the four countries including the USA, Japan, Germany and China have a laser publication contribution of 58.9% while the rest of the world including 189 countries contribute 41.1%. However, for the case of patent, which is a more important factor, these four countries hold a share of 90.1% while the remaining nations have a small share of 9.9%. The USA heads all the nations in the number of scientific publications, citations, and laser publications, however, in terms of accepted laser patents Japan shows a big lead. Scientific scopes of the laser systems are presented and some requirements to be met in each field are described. The key points in this field of research, which might be helpful in the future development of the laser technology are discussed.

  1. Research-Based Family Interventions for the Treatment of Schizophrenia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingerich, Susan L.; Bellack, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    Well-controlled clinical trials have established the efficacy of a number of family-based psychosocial interventions for the treatment of schizophrenia. Reviews seven studies with long term follow-up. (Author)

  2. Current trends in research into the waterborne parasite Giardia.

    PubMed

    Lane, Samantha; Lloyd, David

    2002-01-01

    The waterborne flagellated parasite Giardia intestinalis continues to be the most frequent protozoan agent of intestinal disease world-wide, causing an estimated 2.8 x 10(8) cases per annum. Severe symptoms of diarrhea and sickness can be persistent and even life threatening in the immunocompromised, in infants, and in the aged, although self-limiting in the majority of patients. Despite a growing awareness and intensified research many uncertainties remain, especially with respect to the risk of potential zoonotic transmission. Water supplies can be monitored for cysts using automated cytofluorimetric immunoassays, but this does not measure infectivity. Filtration provides the best protection, because cysts are highly resistant to chlorine and ozone. Other incompletely elucidated aspects include mechanisms of pathogenicity, host reaction to infection, immunity and parasite control using vaccines or antigiardial compounds; the 5-nitroimidazole metronidazole is the most effective of these. Molecular typing of various isolates indicates that most animal parasites are not infective to humans, but those that are can be genotypically classified as assemblage A or B. The phylogeny of the organism remains uncertain, but there is a growing opinion that Giardia is not an ancient primitive eukaryote, but that it is derived from a more complex mitochondria-containing protozoon. PMID:12109771

  3. Handbook of Research on Emerging Priorities and Trends in Distance Education: Communication, Pedagogy, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuzer, T. Volkan, Ed.; Eby, Gulsun, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of distance education in the post-modern world, progressive research on the best methods, tools, and technologies in the field is necessary to continue to take advantage of the pedagogical opportunities and improvements offered through remote learning platforms. The "Handbook of Research on Emerging Priorities and Trends in…

  4. Recent research trends in the use of predators for biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We focus on recent interesting research trends in biological control using predators by selecting four areas of current research: 1) Intraguild predation (IGP): defined as the “killing and eating of species that use similar resources and are thus potential competitors”. In biological control, the si...

  5. Technology to Support Writing by Students with Learning and Academic Disabilities: Recent Research Trends and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson-Karlan, George R.

    2011-01-01

    The trends and findings from a descriptive analysis of 25 years of research studies examining the effectiveness of technology to support the compositional writing of students with learning and academic disabilities are presented. A corpus of 85 applied research studies of writing technology effectiveness was identified from among 249 items in the…

  6. Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book “Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America” summarizes published research in soil science and agronomy from various field experiments conducted in the soil-climatic/agro-ecological regions of the Northern Great Plains of North America....

  7. Mental Retardation Research Funding Trends of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A.; Berkson, Gershon

    1982-01-01

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development is the federal agency with the explicit legislative mandate to support mental retardation research. Examination of funding trends within that institute over the past 10 years reveals a steady and linear decline in relative support for mental retardation research. (Author)

  8. Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy Research: A Systematic Review of Methodological and Thematic Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikens, Kathleen; McKenzie, Marcia; Vaughter, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic literature review of policy research in the area of environmental and sustainability education. We analyzed 215 research articles, spanning four decades and representing 71 countries, and which engaged a range of methodologies. Our analysis combines quantification of geographic and methodological trends with…

  9. The Nature and Trends in Research and Journal Literature in English Speaking Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemna, Anaba; Badu, Ellis

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study that examined three major international library science journals to investigate the nature and trends of library and information science research in Africa from 1990 through 1992. Highlights include status of authors, gender, affiliation, country, types of research, types of cited documents, subjects covered, and most cited…

  10. [Modern trends of research in nutritiology and nutrition hygiene].

    PubMed

    Zhminchenko, V M; Gapparov, M M G

    2015-01-01

    Advances in instrumental analysis and new knowledge in biology and medicine have allowed nutritiology and nutrition hygiene: 1) to go from studies of dietary intake of the population and the establishment of standards nutrient and energy needs to ensuring of public health and prevention of diseases by changing the composition and structure of nutrition; 2) to assume that the nutrition includes all the processes of cell and organism vital functions; 3) to develop an individualized nutrition and dietetics purposeful; 4) to evaluate energy value of ontogeny; 5) to ensure food safety at all stages of its manufacture; 6) to combine many disciplines into a single unit to achieve scientific and practical problems. Nutritiology achievements of the 21st century will be based on the development of cell biology as a basis for systematic studies of ontogenetic development of a unicellular or multicellular organism on the external factors, including food. OMICs-disciplines should be used for these purposes in order to understand the physiological meaning of transmission and coding signals to food interaction of genes, proteins, metabolites inside cells or in the organism, to reveal the mechanisms of encoding cell responses to these specific interactions. The nutrition process covers all aspects of life of the cell and organism. Postnatal ontogenetic development of placental mammals has its own specific energy dimension. Consumption of 100 kJ/kg body weight provides 1/50,000 of their ontogeny. A hypothesis of lifespan regulating by changing the rate of ontogenetic development (aging) of organs and tissues of mammals, depending on the amount of energy consumed and food has been offered. Heterochronicity of internal organs and tissues aging depends on the work they are doing and the specific impact on them of food and substances. Research should be directed at identifying the regulatory properties of food substances on pre- and postnatal ontogenetic development of human. This

  11. Early Childhood Intervention Programs: What Are the Costs and Benefits? Congressional Research Briefing Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Currie, Janet; Besharov, Douglas J.

    While recent research in cognitive development suggests that the period from birth to age 3 provides a unique opportunity for interventions to change the life-course of children, there is great disagreement regarding the best means of allocating public funds toward early childhood intervention. Further, there is little research into the long-term…

  12. Reconceptualizing Intervention Integrity: A Partnership-Based Framework for Linking Research with Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Thomas J.; Blom-Hoffman, Jessica; Clarke, Angela T.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Kelleher, Constance; Manz, Patricia H.

    2005-01-01

    Prevention and intervention research studies often fail to include an assessment of program integrity, and when they do, it is often examined in a limited way. Further, despite efforts to reform the intervention research process to include community stakeholders more actively in every phase of investigation, current practice generally employs a…

  13. Empirically Supported Interventions in School Psychology: The Role of Negative Results in Outcome Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Stoiber, Karen Callan; Gutkin, Terry B.

    2000-01-01

    Article discusses the role that negative results or "no-difference" findings play in research and research reviews of empirically supported interventions in school psychology. Argues for publication of these findings in school psychology journals when they occur in the context of development of empirically supported interventions and translations…

  14. Bridging Mental Health and Education in Urban Elementary Schools: Participatory Research to Inform Intervention Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappella, Elise; Jackson, Daisy R.; Bilal, Caroline; Hamre, Bridget K.; Soule, Carles

    2011-01-01

    Guided by participatory research and implementation science, we conducted a two-phase study to contextualize a school mental health intervention for its implementation settings. Drawing from research and existing programs, we created a teacher consultation and coaching intervention delivered by indigenous school and community mental health…

  15. Early Intervention Research Institute: Final Report, 1982-83 Work Scope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Univ., Logan. Exceptional Child Center.

    The report examines three major research thrusts of the Early Intervention Research Institute at Utah State University. First, meta analysis, a procedure used to review and integrate results of 156 studies (1937-1983) on the efficacy of early intervention with handicapped, at-risk, or disadvantaged children, is evaluated and its needs established.…

  16. Mathematics Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome: A Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, C. J.; Powell, S. R.; King, S. A.; Davidson, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many children and adolescents with Down syndrome fail to achieve proficiency in mathematics. Researchers have suggested that tailoring interventions based on the behavioural phenotype may enhance efficacy. Method: The research questions that guided this review were (1) what types of mathematics interventions have been empirically…

  17. Divisions of Labour: Activity Theory, Multi-Professional Working and Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon, but also critiques, activity theory by combining analysis of how an activity theory derived research intervention attempted to address both everyday work practices and organisational power relationships among children's services professionals. It offers two case studies of developmental work research (DWR) interventions in…

  18. Connecting Neuroscience, Cognitive, and Educational Theories and Research to Practice: A Review of Mathematics Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeger, Lori A.; Brown, Rhonda Douglas; O'Brien, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This article describes major theories and research on math cognition across the fields of neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and education and connects these literatures to intervention practices. Commercially available math intervention programs were identified and evaluated using the following questions: (a) Did neuroscience…

  19. Fidelity in After-School Program Intervention Research: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Peters, Kristen E.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Sarteschi, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether and to what extent researchers addressed intervention fidelity in research of after-school programs serving at-risk students. Method: Systematic review procedures were used to search, retrieve, select, and analyze studies for this review. Fifty-five intervention studies were assessed on the following…

  20. The Use of Google Trends in Health Care Research: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nuti, Sudhakar V.; Wayda, Brian; Ranasinghe, Isuru; Wang, Sisi; Dreyer, Rachel P.; Chen, Serene I.; Murugiah, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Background Google Trends is a novel, freely accessible tool that allows users to interact with Internet search data, which may provide deep insights into population behavior and health-related phenomena. However, there is limited knowledge about its potential uses and limitations. We therefore systematically reviewed health care literature using Google Trends to classify articles by topic and study aim; evaluate the methodology and validation of the tool; and address limitations for its use in research. Methods and Findings PRISMA guidelines were followed. Two independent reviewers systematically identified studies utilizing Google Trends for health care research from MEDLINE and PubMed. Seventy studies met our inclusion criteria. Google Trends publications increased seven-fold from 2009 to 2013. Studies were classified into four topic domains: infectious disease (27% of articles), mental health and substance use (24%), other non-communicable diseases (16%), and general population behavior (33%). By use, 27% of articles utilized Google Trends for casual inference, 39% for description, and 34% for surveillance. Among surveillance studies, 92% were validated against a reference standard data source, and 80% of studies using correlation had a correlation statistic ≥0.70. Overall, 67% of articles provided a rationale for their search input. However, only 7% of articles were reproducible based on complete documentation of search strategy. We present a checklist to facilitate appropriate methodological documentation for future studies. A limitation of the study is the challenge of classifying heterogeneous studies utilizing a novel data source. Conclusion Google Trends is being used to study health phenomena in a variety of topic domains in myriad ways. However, poor documentation of methods precludes the reproducibility of the findings. Such documentation would enable other researchers to determine the consistency of results provided by Google Trends for a well

  1. TREND: a tool for rapid online research literature analysis and quantification.

    PubMed

    Landers, Richard N

    2008-08-01

    The Research Explicator for oNline Databases (TREND) tool was developed out of a need to quantify large research literatures rapidly and objectively on the basis of online research database output. By parsing such output with TREND, a researcher can in minutes extract the most commonly cited articles, the most frequently published authors, a distribution of publication dates, and a variety of other information from a research literature several thousand articles in size. This tool thus enables an increase in productivity both for researchers venturing into new areas of interest and for advisors and instructors putting together core reading lists. The processing of citations from articles represents a unique challenge, however, because deviations from strict APA formatting cause problems that are sometimes difficult to correct mechanically. A case study of one particularly troublesome citation (Baron & Kenny, 1986) is presented. Usage and implications are discussed. PMID:18697661

  2. A Synthesis of Research on Informational Text Reading Interventions for Elementary Students With Learning Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ciullo, Stephen; Lo, Yu-Ling Sabrina; Wanzek, Jeanne; Reed, Deborah K

    2016-05-01

    This research synthesis was conducted to understand the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve learning from informational text for students with learning disabilities in elementary school (K-5). The authors identified 18 studies through a comprehensive search. The interventions were evaluated to determine treatment effects and to understand implementation and methodological variables that influenced outcomes. Moderate to large effect sizes on researcher-developed measures for cognitive strategy interventions were reported. Interventions that utilized graphic organizers as study guides to support social studies learning were also associated with improved outcomes. The findings are considered within the context of limited implementation of standardized measures. The authors extend findings from previous research by reporting a paucity of interventions to enhance higher-level cognitive and comprehension skills. The majority of reviewed studies targeted fact acquisition and main idea identification, and overall encouraging findings were noted for these skills. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24958632

  3. Informal Caregivers of Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Patients: A Review and Recommendations for Interventions and Research

    PubMed Central

    Gemmill, Robin; Cooke, Liz; Williams, Anna Cathy; Grant, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Background Informal caregivers (IC) for medically fragile hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients are a vital unrecognized population supporting the transplant patient along the illness continuum. The long transplant recovery period shifts a greater burden of care to the patient’s IC. Assessment of HCT caregiver quality of life and health status is critical to implementation of timely intervention and support. Methods A literature search using several search strategies covering 1980 to 2010 identified studies on ICs of hematopoietic cell transplant patients. These studies were summarized within the caregiver concepts of quality of life, role, and resources. Findings of this review were used to create recommended interventions and identify implications for further research. Results Although limited, research on ICs of hematopoietic call transplant patients provides beginning evidence for clinical interventions to support this caregiver population. Interventions created focus on Education, Psychosocial Support, and Self Care. Conclusions Although limited randomized trials of interventions have been reported, descriptive studies provide evidence for creating intervention content that addresses needs of ICs of hematopoietic cell transplant patients. Testing of these interventions and additional areas of research are identified. Implications for Practice Beginning descriptive evidence provides the basis for interventions for ICs of hematopoietic cell transplant patients. These interventions support caregiver quality of life and role implementation depending on individual caregivers’ resources and needs. Further evaluation and clinical research is needed. PMID:21242762

  4. Interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, David S; Estabrooks, Carole A; Scott-Findlay, Shannon; Moore, Katherine; Wallin, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background There has been considerable interest recently in developing and evaluating interventions to increase research use by clinicians. However, most work has focused on medical practices; and nursing is not well represented in existing systematic reviews. The purpose of this article is to report findings from a systematic review of interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing. Objective To assess the evidence on interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing. Methods A systematic review of research use in nursing was conducted using databases (Medline, CINAHL, Healthstar, ERIC, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Psychinfo), grey literature, ancestry searching (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews), key informants, and manual searching of journals. Randomized controlled trials and controlled before- and after-studies were included if they included nurses, if the intervention was explicitly aimed at increasing research use or evidence-based practice, and if there was an explicit outcome to research use. Methodological quality was assessed using pre-existing tools. Data on interventions and outcomes were extracted and categorized using a pre-established taxonomy. Results Over 8,000 titles were screened. Three randomized controlled trials and one controlled before- and after-study met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of included studies was generally low. Three investigators evaluated single interventions. The most common intervention was education. Investigators measured research use using a combination of surveys (three studies) and compliance with guidelines (one study). Researcher-led educational meetings were ineffective in two studies. Educational meetings led by a local opinion leader (one study) and the formation of multidisciplinary committees (one study) were both effective at increasing research use. Conclusion Little is known about how to increase research use in nursing, and the evidence to

  5. Interventions Promoting Educators' Use of Data: Research Insights and Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: In recent years, states, districts, schools, and external partners have recognized the need to proactively foster the use of data to guide educational decision-making and practice. Understanding that data alone will not guarantee use, individuals at all levels have invested in interventions to support better access to,…

  6. Mississippi's DUI Offender Intervention: 40 Years of Programming and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Angela A.; Gardner, Sheena; Xu, Xiaohe; Chi, Guangqing; McCluskey, D. Lee

    2013-01-01

    The Mississippi Alcohol Safety Education Program (MASEP) is a court-mandated driving under the influence (DUI) intervention for persons convicted of DUI. This study describes the evolution of the curriculum, evaluates the effectiveness of MASEP in reducing recidivism, and examines whether recent program revisions have led to improvements in…

  7. Trauma and Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Research, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Ricky, Ed.

    This book addresses the connection between childhood trauma and juvenile delinquency. It includes theoretical models of this relationship and examinations of its most important aspects, explorations of trauma-related assessment issues, and practical therapeutic interventions for use with juvenile delinquents. Chapters include: (1) "The Role of…

  8. A vision for chronic disease prevention intervention research: report from a workshop.

    PubMed

    Ashbury, Frederick D; Little, Julian; Ioannidis, John P A; Kreiger, Nancy; Palmer, Lyle J; Relton, Clare; Taylor, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Population Studies Research Network of Cancer Care Ontario hosted a strategic planning workshop to establish an agenda for a prevention intervention research program in Ontario, including priority topics for investigation and design considerations. The two-day workshop included: presentations on background papers developed to facilitate participants' preparation for and discussions in the workshop; keynote presentations on intervention research concerning primary prevention of chronic diseases, design and study implementation considerations; a dedicated session on critical and creative thinking to stimulate participation and discussion topics; break out groups to identify, discuss and present study ideas, designs, implementation considerations; and a consensus process to discuss and identify recommendations for research priorities and next steps. The retreat yielded the following recommendations: 1) develop an intervention research agenda that includes working with existing large-scale cohorts; 2) develop an intervention research agenda that includes novel research designs that could target individuals or groups; and 3) develop an intervention research agenda in which studies collect data on costs, define stakeholders, and ensure clear strategies for stakeholder engagement and knowledge transfer. The Population Studies Research Network will develop options from these recommendations and release a call for proposals in 2014 for intervention research pilot projects that reflect these recommendations. Pilot projects will be evaluated based on their fit with the retreat's recommendations, and their potential to scale up to full studies and application in practice. PMID:24886853

  9. Scientific Mobility and International Research Networks: Trends and Policy Tools for Promoting Research Excellence and Capacity Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Merle; Meek, V. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    One of the ways in which globalization is manifesting itself in higher education and research is through the increasing importance and emphasis on scientific mobility. This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of current trends and policy tools for promoting mobility. The article argues that the mobility of scientific labour is an…

  10. "Shall I compare thee to a dose of donepezil?": cultural arts interventions in dementia care research.

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, Kate; Basting, Anne

    2014-06-01

    The cultural arts have gained attention for their potential to generate social and behavioral changes in people with dementia. Although individual cultural arts intervention studies have reported positive outcomes, most are excluded from systematic reviews because of methodological weakness. We reviewed findings from 27 systematic and integrative reviews of pharmacologic, psychosocial, and cultural arts interventions to identify promising outcomes as well as limitations in current approaches. Although results point to the potential success of interventions tailored to individual interests, most focused on limited measurements of individual change. In moving forward, cultural arts intervention research must not be limited to the tools of the clinical trial model. Instead, researchers should carefully rethink what constitutes rigorous and effective research for interventions aimed at creating a meaningful personal experience for the participant rather than measurable change. PMID:23749388

  11. Adherence behaviors in research protocols: comparison of two interventions.

    PubMed

    Drozda, D J; Allen, S R; Turner, A M; Slusher, J A; McCain, G C

    1993-01-01

    The effectiveness of an enhanced preparation intervention was compared with the standard preparation intervention for accuracy in overnight urine specimen collections. The sample consisted of 179 individuals with type I insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Subjects were assigned randomly to an enhanced or standard preparation group. The enhanced preparation included written instructions, a reminder to post instructions in the bathroom, a toilet seat cover with a reminder to save urine, and a nurse-initiated telephone call to review the instructions. The standard preparation included written instructions and a telephone number to call with any questions. For subjects without previous collection experience, significantly fewer inaccurate collections were reported in the enhanced preparation group than in the standard group (chi 2 = 4.61, P < .05). There were no differences in collection accuracy between enhanced and standard groups for subjects with collection experience (chi 2 = .4598, P > .05). PMID:8137694

  12. Research Trends in Mobile Assisted Language Learning from 2000 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Guler; Orhon, Gunseli; Gedik, Nuray

    2015-01-01

    In order to trace how mobile assisted language learning (MALL) has evolved in recent years, we analysed studies published from 2000 to 2012 to examine their characteristics and research trends. These studies were published in international journals listed in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Sixty-nine studies that fit the time frame and…

  13. Main Trends of Research in the Social and Human Sciences, Part 1: Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This volume is the result of a study, initiated by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), to report on the main trends of social sciences research, not on the results achieved. Part I contains an examination of the present state and perspectives for development of the disciplines of sociology (Lazarsfeld),…

  14. Trend of Increasingly Higher Units Attempted by Students Continues. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glyer-Culver, Betty

    2005-01-01

    This July 2005 Research presents an analysis of the changing picture of average units attempted by students who attend the four Los Rios colleges in Sacramento, California--American River College, Cosumnes River College, Folsom Lake College and Sacramento City College. Beginning in 2000 a six-year trend of declining average units attempted by Los…

  15. Methodological Trends in Secondary Education and Transition Research: Looking Backward and Moving Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Brock, Matthew E.; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Bartholomew, Audrey; Boehm, Thomas L.; Cease-Cook, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Prevailing policy and practice in the field of transition emphasizes the importance of designing services and supports based on research-based practices. We reviewed every article published across the 35-year history of "Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals" (CDTEI) to document methodological trends in research…

  16. Research Trends and Issues in Educational Technology: A Content Analysis of TOJET (2008-2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozkaya, Mujgan; Aydin, Irem Erdem; Kumtepe, Evrim Genc

    2012-01-01

    This study has been conducted to evaluate the contents of articles published in the Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology (TOJET) between 2008 and 2011. General aim of the study is to review on what trends, issues and research methods on which studies of educational technology have concentrated in the last four years. Thus, articles…

  17. EcoTrends: Learning how to support synthetic research through innovative solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The EcoTrends project is an LTER network-level synthesis program geared toward making long-term ecological data highly explorable, accessible and comparable for cross-site synthesis research. Five years of working with 50 sites (LTER, USDA ARS, USFS, and other agencies) have offered many lessons tha...

  18. Research Trends on Socioscientific Issues: A Content Analysis of Publications in Selected Science Education Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekin, Nurcan; Aslan, Oktay; Yilmaz, Suleyman

    2016-01-01

    Socioscientific issues (SSIs) have gained recently more importance in science education. SSIs are an important component of scientific literacy. SSIs are social dilemmas including conceptual or technological links to science. The present study aims to determine SSIs related research trends via content analyses of the articles published from 2004…

  19. Trends and Issues in Educational Technologies: A Review of Recent Research in TOJET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Ayfer; Gulbahar, Yasemin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research study is to investigate the articles published between 2003-2007 in "Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology" ("TOJET") in order to reveal the trends and issues addressed in this electronic journal for the field of educational technology. The specific purposes of this article are to reveal: (1) the methodologies…

  20. Trends of E-Learning Research from 2000 to 2008: Use of Text Mining and Bibliometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Jui-long

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal trends of e-learning research using text mining techniques. Six hundred and eighty-nine (689) refereed journal articles and proceedings were retrieved from the Science Citation Index/Social Science Citation Index database in the period from 2000 to 2008. All e-learning publications were grouped into two…

  1. Job Satisfaction: Is There a Trend? Manpower Research Monograph No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Robert P.; And Others

    A detailed review is presented of some of the major research on job satisfaction conducted in the past 40 years. The information is discussed in five major sections, each introduced by a series of related questions, under the following headings: national trends in job satisfaction, 1958-73; distribution of job satisfaction in the work force (by…

  2. Causal Modeling--Path Analysis a New Trend in Research in Applied Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastegar, Mina

    2006-01-01

    This article aims at discussing a new statistical trend in research in applied linguistics. This rather new statistical procedure is causal modeling--path analysis. The article demonstrates that causal modeling--path analysis is the best statistical option to use when the effects of a multitude of L2 learners' variables on language achievement are…

  3. Recent Research Trends in Italy: Cognitive & Communicative Development of Deaf Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battacchi, Marco W.; Manfredi, Marta Montanini

    1986-01-01

    A review of recent research trends in Italy regarding cognitive and communicative development of deaf children indicates that deaf children's potential for communicative and cognitive growth is enormous. This potential may be realized if provision is made for an educational environment based on a multiple code, gestural communication, spoken…

  4. QED's School Market Trends: Teacher Buying Behavior & Attitudes, 2001-2002. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quality Education Data, Inc., Denver, CO.

    This study examined teachers' classroom material buying behaviors and trends. Data came from Quality Education Data's National Education Database, which includes U.S. K-12 public, private, and Catholic schools and districts. Researchers surveyed K-8 teachers randomly selected from QED's National Education Database. Results show that teachers spend…

  5. Trends and Developments of Higher Education Research in Hong Kong: In Pursuit of a Cosmopolitan Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, William Yat Wai; Ng, Felix Sai Kit

    2015-01-01

    With the processes of inter- and intranationalization, higher education in Hong Kong has been rapidly expanding in an effort to develop the city into a regional education hub. This article explores the trends and developments of higher education research (HER) in Hong Kong in the context of inter- and intranationalization. By drawing on the data…

  6. Recent Trends in the Research on Innovations in Education. Report No. 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberghe, Roland

    An overview of recent trends in research on educational innovation contributes to a framework for further analysis. Two basic assumptions made are that innovation depends on multiple factors and that innovation itself is a three-stage process involving initiation, implementation, and incorporation into an organizational structure. The most…

  7. The American Freshman: Twenty Year Trends, 1966-1985. Cooperative Institutional Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Alexander W.; And Others

    Results of the Cooperative Institutional Research Program's annual surveys of college freshmen since 1966 are presented separately for men, women, and all freshmen. In addition to a narrative summary, the normative data are presented under seven headings: academic skills and preparation, demographic trends, high school experiences, educational and…

  8. The Cooperative Institutional Research Program: A National, Regional, and Institutional Perspective of Trends in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.; King, Margo R.

    The results of the 1980 Freshman Survey, which is part of the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP), are summarized, and trend data concerning students enrolled in colleges in the western states and in the nation are examined. Among the findings of the 1980 Freshman Survey are the following: grade inflation in the nation's high schools…

  9. Career Interventions for Gay and Lesbian Clients: A Synopsis of Practice Knowledge and Research Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive review of the professional literature on career counseling interventions with gay and lesbian clients. Interventions summarized were directed at counselors themselves, at counseling activities, and at social-community action. Provides recommendations on what research needs to be conducted to establish the area of gay and…

  10. Fidelity of Implementation and Instructional Alignment in Response to Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David R.; King, Seth A.; Lemons, Christopher J.; Partanen, Jane N.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we explore the extent to which researchers evaluating the efficacy of Tier 2 elementary reading interventions within the framework of Response to Intervention reported on fidelity of implementation and alignment of instruction between tiers. A literature search identified 22 empirical studies from which conclusions were drawn.…

  11. Evolution of Research on Interventions for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Behavior Analysts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tristram

    2012-01-01

    The extraordinary success of behavior-analytic interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has fueled the rapid growth of behavior analysis as a profession. One reason for this success is that for many years behavior analysts were virtually alone in conducting programmatic ASD intervention research. However, that era has…

  12. Theory and Empiricism in Intervention Research: A Dialectic To Be Avoided.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochman, John E.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews several central themes raised in Hughes' target article that are appropriate for further development of intervention research, including the beneficial aspects of empirically supported treatments (ESTs); importance of theory in intervention development; and models of developmental psychopathology. Comments on potential dialectic between…

  13. The Prevention Science of Reading Research within a Response-to-Intervention Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lembke, Erica S.; McMaster, Kristen L.; Stecker, Pamela M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe research-based reading intervention within a Response-to-Intervention (RTI) model, using prevention science as a context. First, RTI is defined and a rationale is provided for its use in improving the reading performance of all students, particularly those students identified as at risk for…

  14. Research on Language Intervention for Disadvantaged Children: Rationale, Results, and Recommendations. Interpretive Study I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Vernon C.; Mery, Michael

    This paper on intervention research critically reviews evaluations of experimental procedures designed to effect changes in the language development of disadvantaged children. It includes a summary of intervention projects and survey of present knowledge and theory about language which constitute the rationale for such projects. Specific…

  15. Highlighting the Need for Further Response to Intervention Research in General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Sara; Albritton, Kizzy; Roach, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RtI) provides a framework for effective prevention and intervention at all achievement levels. RtI also allows school districts to use an alternative method for identifying students with disabilities, but there is a paucity of published empirical research aimed to inform RtI best practices among general educators. The…

  16. A Complex Quest: The Development and Research of Underachievement Interventions for Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Lisa Davia; Siegle, Del; Reis, Sally M.; Mccoach, D. Betsy; Burton, Meredith Greene

    2012-01-01

    The seeming lack of motivation of many academically gifted students is an area of frustration and concern for many parents, teachers, and psychologists. This article explores two studies in which researchers designed interventions to improve academic achievement. Both interventions were created using the Achievement-Orientation Model. The first…

  17. Phonological Awareness Intervention Research: A Critical Review of the Experimental Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troia, Gary A.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluates the methodological quality of 39 studies of phonological-awareness interventions in children. Finds only seven studies met two-thirds or more of all the evaluative criteria (internal and external validity), although all of these investigations demonstrated at least one fatal flaw. Suggests improvements for future intervention research.…

  18. Assessing Statistical Change Indices in Selected Social Work Intervention Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Amanda D.; Huggins-Hoyt, Kimberly Y.; Pettus, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined how evaluation and intervention research (IR) studies assessed statistical change to ascertain effectiveness. Methods: Studies from six core social work journals (2009-2013) were reviewed (N = 1,380). Fifty-two evaluation (n= 27) and intervention (n = 25) studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies were…

  19. When Does Consultation Lead to Intervention Implementation?: Critical Issues for Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noell, George H.; Witt, Joseph C.

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that, in applying the consultation model to the special educational needs of students in regular classes, little is known about the extent to which regular teachers actually implement recommended interventions following consultation. Proposes research on the relationship between consultation and intervention implementation and addresses…

  20. Successfully Promoting 21st Century Online Research Skills: Interventions in 5th-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Cassady, Jerrell C.; Tancock, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study was developed to explore the ability to impact elementary student 21st Century online research skills with a planned classroom intervention curriculum. The repeated measures quasi-experimental study randomly assigned all 5th grade classes in a Midwestern, suburban school (n = 418) to a 12-week intervention or control…

  1. Positioning the arts for intervention design research in the human services.

    PubMed

    Moxley, David P; Calligan, Holly Feen

    2015-12-01

    The arts have been integral to the human experience fostering innovation in social arrangements, strengthening group cohesion, and merging esthetics with the utilitarian properties of technology. For intervention design research in the human services the arts can harness innovation and creativity in meeting human needs and addressing social issues. Given their capacities to stimulate expression of first person experience through interpretative strategies, the arts can equip people and groups, including researchers, with opportunities to express primary experiential knowledge through creative means, portray useful ways of meeting human needs, educate others about the social issues people experience, and formulate intervention strategies or even models to address the causes and consequences of those issues. In this paper, the authors discuss how the arts can inform and deepen human service intervention design and development and, as a result, advance innovation in the human services. They offer a rationale supporting the inclusion of the arts in the design of human service interventions, examine the contributions of the arts to the formulation of intervention concept and developmental research to further improve interventions, and consider how the arts can advance the reflexivity of intervention designers. The authors draw implications for how researchers can position the arts in the nine steps of intervention design and development the authors offer in this paper. PMID:26262890

  2. Global trends in research resources and scientific output in microbiology in Spain (1998-2007).

    PubMed

    Arguimbau, Llorenç

    2008-09-01

    This work assesses the main features of microbiological research developed in Spain over the last decade (1998-2007), observing its changes and trends along the time and comparing them to those which have taken place in other life sciences. This analysis encompasses the entire scientific cycle: the organizations involved (basically, universities, research centers, scientific societies, and companies), resources invested (human and economic), and outputs or results obtained (journals, articles, doctoral theses, and other documents or publications). Summarizing, there is a positive trend in Spanish microbiology regarding research projects and scientific articles; the scientific output (research articles) of Spanish microbiologists ranks 6th in the world, which is higher than the ranking of Spain with respect to economic development. PMID:18843601

  3. Educating low-SES and LEP survivors about breast cancer research: pilot test of the Health Research Engagement Intervention.

    PubMed

    Nickell, Alyssa; Burke, Nancy J; Cohen, Elly; Caprio, Maria; Joseph, Galen

    2014-12-01

    The Health Research Engagement Intervention (HREI) aims to reduce information and access disparities for breast cancer research opportunities among low-socioeconomic status (SES) and limited English proficient (LEP) breast cancer survivors by providing neutral, non-trial-specific information about health research via a trusted patient navigator. Qualitative methods in the context of a community-based participatory research design were used to iteratively design the HREI in collaboration with community-based care navigators from a trusted community organization, Shanti Project, and to locate appropriate research studies in collaboration with a web-based trial-matching service, BreastCancerTrials.org (BCT). Navigators were first trained in clinical trials and health research and then to deliver the HREI, providing feedback that was incorporated into both the HREI design and BCT's interface. Our intervention pilot with low SES and LEP survivors (n = 12) demonstrated interest in learning about "health research." All 12 participants opted to obtain more information when offered the opportunity. Post-intervention questionnaires showed that three of 11 (27 %) participants independently pursued additional information about research opportunities either online or by phone in the week following the intervention. Post-intervention navigator questionnaires indicated that navigators could confidently and efficiently deliver the intervention. LEP patients who pursued information independently faced language barriers. The HREI is a promising and potentially scalable intervention to increase access to neutral information about breast cancer research opportunities for low-SES and LEP individuals. However, in order for it to be effective, systems barriers to participation such as language accessibility at sources of health research information must be addressed. PMID:24744119

  4. Time Series Analysis of Trends in Malaria Cases and Deaths at Hospitals and the Effect of Antimalarial Interventions, 2001–2011, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Aregawi, Maru; Lynch, Michael; Bekele, Worku; Kebede, Henok; Jima, Daddi; Taffese, Hiwot Solomon; Yenehun, Meseret Aseffa; Lilay, Abraham; Williams, Ryan; Thomson, Madeleine; Nafo-Traore, Fatoumata; Admasu, Kesetebirhan; Gebreyesus, Tedros Adhanom; Coosemans, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background The Government of Ethiopia and its partners have deployed artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) since 2004 and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) since 2005. Malaria interventions and trends in malaria cases and deaths were assessed at hospitals in malaria transmission areas during 2001–2011. Methods Regional LLINs distribution records were used to estimate the proportion of the population-at-risk protected by LLINs. Hospital records were reviewed to estimate ACT availability. Time-series analysis was applied to data from 41 hospitals in malaria risk areas to assess trends of malaria cases and deaths during pre-intervention (2001–2005) and post-interventions (2006–2011) periods. Findings The proportion of the population-at-risk potentially protected by LLINs increased to 51% in 2011. The proportion of facilities with ACTs in stock exceeded 87% during 2006–2011. Among all ages, confirmed malaria cases in 2011 declined by 66% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44–79%) and SPR by 37% (CI, 20%–51%) compared to the level predicted by pre-intervention trends. In children under 5 years of age, malaria admissions and deaths fell by 81% (CI, 47%–94%) and 73% (CI, 48%–86%) respectively. Optimal breakpoint of the trendlines occurred between January and June 2006, consistent with the timing of malaria interventions. Over the same period, non-malaria cases and deaths either increased or remained unchanged, the number of malaria diagnostic tests performed reflected the decline in malaria cases, and rainfall remained at levels supportive of malaria transmission. Conclusions Malaria cases and deaths in Ethiopian hospitals decreased substantially during 2006–2011 in conjunction with scale-up of malaria interventions. The decrease could not be accounted for by changes in hospital visits, malaria diagnostic testing or rainfall. However, given the history of variable malaria transmission in Ethiopia, more data would be required to exclude the

  5. Language Phenotypes and Intervention Planning: Bridging Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, Deborah J.; Philofsky, Amy; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the communication and language pheno-types associated with three genetic disorders: Down syndrome, Williams syndrome, and fragile X syndrome. It is argued that there is empirical evidence that these disorders predispose children to specific profiles of strength and weakness in some areas of speech, language, and communication, and that intervention planning for children with each syndrome may take an approach informed by these profiles. Issues related to within-group variability, shared outcomes among syndromes, and the need for empirical validation for syndrome-specific recommendations are discussed. PMID:17326117

  6. Translating Genetic Research into Preventive Intervention: The Baseline Target Moderated Mediator Design

    PubMed Central

    Howe, George W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Brody, Gene H.; Wyman, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss a novel research approach, the baseline target moderated mediation (BTMM) design, that holds substantial promise for advancing our understanding of how genetic research can inform prevention research. We first discuss how genetically informed research on developmental psychopathology can be used to identify potential intervention targets. We then describe the BTMM design, which employs moderated mediation within a longitudinal study to test whether baseline levels of intervention targets moderate the impact of the intervention on change in that target, and whether change in those targets mediates causal impact of preventive or treatment interventions on distal health outcomes. We next discuss how genetically informed BTMM designs can be applied to both microtrials and full-scale prevention trials. We use simulated data to illustrate a BTMM, and end with a discussion of some of the advantages and limitations of this approach. PMID:26779062

  7. Research and Intervention. Preventing Substance Abuse in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo M., Ed.; Clement, Vonnie V., Ed.

    This publication presents four major research papers on college campus substance abuse prevention and research with reviews of the papers by practitioners in the substance abuse prevention field. Following a Preface and Introduction, the first paper is "Theories, Dominant Models, and the Need for Applied Research" by Gerardo M. Gonzalez. It…

  8. [Techniques of underwater intervention: means, methods, research and outlook].

    PubMed

    Gardette, B; Delauze, H G

    1996-05-01

    In France, diving activities are practised by a large number of people, included recreational or sport divers, commercial and military divers. Different diving technics are used, depending on depth and duration of underwater interventions: human intervention under pressure (diving), one atmosphere submarine, remotely operated vehicle (ROV). The diver used specific equipment and procedures with air, heliox (oxygen -helium), hydrox (oxygen-hydrogen) or hydreliox (oxygen-hydrogen-helium) breathing gas mixtures; and for decompression, specific tables adapted to gas mixtures and underwater time exposures. In 1988, six Comex and French Navy divers worked at a record depth of 534 msw with hydreliox and in 1992 a world record onshore dive at 701 msw was performed by Comex in Marseille. These dives showed the efficiency of hydrogen diving at very deep depth. Among a lot of submarines built for undersea works, the latest in the range of Comex's innovative submarines, the "Remora 2000" combines the functions and instrumentation of an oceanographic subsea vessel with eye catching design of a recreational submarine. Now, ROV's replace more and more the diver on oil subsea offshore fields. PMID:8963715

  9. Nutrition education intervention with community-dwelling older adults: research challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Beverly P

    2014-08-01

    This study critically reviewed empirical literature examining nutrition education intervention studies with community-dwelling older adults over the period 2003-2012 to: (1) determine the number, (2) evaluate the research designs, and (3) report the study outcomes. A search of online databases yielded 74 studies six of which met our criteria. The studies reported favorable intervention outcomes. Because of the number, variability in the types, designs, measures, scope, educational and behavioral strategies, results can only inform future studies and encourage scholars to use strong evaluation design. We recommend the utilization of an ecological conceptual model when conducting nutrition interventions studies and discussed implications in terms of research and practice. PMID:24368631

  10. Introduction to ecological description of a community intervention: building prevention through collaborative field based research.

    PubMed

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V

    2014-09-01

    This special issue of the American Journal of Community Psychology is the result of a 18-year partnership with Alaska Native communities using collaborative field based research methods. Its goal is to provide a case study fulfilling the spirit of ecological inquiry, offering a detailed and nuanced description of a community intervention. The articles describe the nature of our work, including some of our successes, as well as challenges, dilemmas, and even disappointments we experienced along the way. Our primary aim was to develop and assess the feasibility of a complex, multi-level intervention to increase protective factors hypothesized to reduce suicide and alcohol abuse among rural Yup'ik Alaska Native youth ages 12-18. The articles that follow include descriptions of the cultural context, relevant literature and project history, our methods of community engagement in measurement development strategies, an empirical test of the prevention model that guided the intervention, the development and implementation of the intervention, a feasibility and impact assessment, and an evaluation of community engagement. A final article summarizes what is generalizable from the work in field based intervention research with rural and culturally distinct populations, and future prospects for decolonizing community intervention research methods. These papers raise important issues, including (1) need for deep, contextual ecological descriptions, (2) reconceptualization of time in the research relationship, (3) distinctions between populations and communities, and (4) the conflict between values of communities and intervention science. PMID:24912872

  11. Introduction to Ecological Description of a Community Intervention: Building Prevention through Collaborative Field Based Research

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of the American Journal of Community Psychology is the result of a 18-year partnership with Alaska Native communities using collaborative field based research methods. Its goal is to provide a case study fulfilling the spirit of ecological inquiry, offering a detailed and nuanced description of a community intervention. The articles describe the nature of our work, including some of our successes, as well as challenges, dilemmas, and even disappointments we experienced along the way. Our primary aim was to develop and assess the feasibility of a complex, multi-level intervention to increase protective factors hypothesized to reduce suicide and alcohol abuse among rural Yup’ik Alaska Native youth ages 12 to 18. The articles that follow include descriptions of the cultural context, relevant literature and project history, our methods of community engagement in measurement development strategies, an empirical test of the prevention model that guided the intervention, the development and implementation of the intervention, a feasibility and impact assessment, and an evaluation of community engagement. A final article summarizes what is generalizable from the work in field based intervention research with rural and culturally distinct populations, and future prospects for decolonizing community intervention research methods. These papers raise important issues, including (1) need for deep, contextual ecological descriptions, (2) reconceptualization of time in the research relationship, (3) distinctions between populations and communities, and (4) the conflict between values of communities and intervention science. PMID:24912872

  12. An Effective Intervention in Research Methods That Reduces Psychology Majors' Sexist Prejudices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Janice D.; Mills, Aeriel S.; Raffa, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    We tested the effectiveness of a course-long intervention in an undergraduate Research Methods course aimed toward reducing students' endorsement of hostile sexism (HS) and benevolent sexism (BS). Reading assignments illustrating diverse research methodologies, lecture examples, and a hands-on research project designed by student teams focused on…

  13. Development of Innovative Group Work Practice Using the Intervention Research Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Edna; Meier, Andrea; Galinsky, Maeda J.

    2004-01-01

    Rothman and Thomas' intervention research (IR) paradigm provides an alternative, developmental research method that is appropriate for practice research, especially at the early stages. It is more flexible than conventional experimental designs, capitalizes on the availability of small samples, accommodates the dynamism and variation in practice…

  14. Rethinking the Bar on Standards of Evidence for Social Work Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurius, Paula S.

    2010-01-01

    The research reports by Boyd et al. and Herman et al. provide insights about intervention research with vulnerable populations that highlight often-neglected standards of evidence. This commentary describes linkages of nonspecific therapeutic factors critical to these outcome studies as illustrative of research to practice standards we must…

  15. History and Trends of "Personal Health Record" Research in PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongeun; Bates, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to review history and trends of personal health record research in PubMed and to provide accurate understanding and categorical analysis of expert opinions. Methods For the search strategy, PubMed was queried for 'personal health record, personal record, and PHR' in the title and abstract fields. Those containing different definitions of the word were removed by one-by-one analysis from the results, 695 articles. In the end, total of 229 articles were analyzed in this research. Results The results show that the changes in terms over the years and the shift to patient centeredness and mixed usage. And we identified history and trend of PHR research in some category that the number of publications by year, topic, methodologies and target diseases. Also from analysis of MeSH terms, we can show the focal interest in regards the PHR boundaries and related subjects. Conclusions For PHRs to be efficiently used by general public, initial understanding of the history and trends of PHR research may be helpful. Simultaneously, accurate understanding and categorical analysis of expert opinions that can lead to the development and growth of PHRs will be valuable to their adoption and expansion. PMID:21818452

  16. Reading Interventions With Behavioral and Social Skill Outcomes: A Synthesis of Research

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Garrett J.; Solis, Michael; Ciullo, Stephen; McKenna, John W.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Research findings have suggested that reading deficits and problem behaviors are positively related. This synthesis investigated how reading interventions impact behavioral/social skill outcomes by reviewing studies that included (a) a reading intervention without behavioral/social skill components, (b) behavioral/social skill dependent variables, and (c) students in Grades K-12. Fifteen articles were evaluated by the type of reading intervention, associations between positive reading effects and behavioral/social skill outcomes, and The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) determinants of study ratings. Findings suggested that reading interventions tended to have positive reading outcomes, while behavioral/social skill outcomes were small or negative. Research did not suggest an association between improved reading and behavioral performance, regardless of the WWC study determinants rating. Implications include reading instruction may not be sufficient to improve behavioral and social skill outcomes. Additional research is warranted to investigate the long-term impact of reading on behavioral and social skill outcomes. PMID:25548392

  17. Technology intervention research with deaf and hard of hearing learners: levels of evidence.

    PubMed

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer; Cannon, Joanna E

    2014-01-01

    The authors evaluated the research base relative to technology use with deaf and hard of hearing students, examining 29 peer-reviewed studies published January 2000-August 2013 that used technology-based intervention (multimedia instructional applications/software) and investigating its effects on academic variables (academic skills used in instructional settings). They then evaluated the studies according to quality indicators for evidence-based research, both individually and as a body of evidence supporting intervention for deaf and hard of hearing students (Gersten et al., 2005; Horner et al., 2005; Institute of Education Sciences, 2013; Kratochwill et al., 2010, 2013). One of 24 group design studies met all Essential Quality Indicators; 3 of 5 single-case design studies did (Horner et al., 2005). No reviewed technology intervention met criteria for an established evidence base. Interventions are presented across technology types and academic areas to facilitate discussion of implications for researchers and practitioners. PMID:24745105

  18. Twenty Years of Communication Intervention Research with Individuals who have Severe Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities1

    PubMed Central

    Snell, Martha E.; Brady, Nancy; McLean, Lee; Ogletree, Billy T.; Siegel, Ellin; Sylvester, Lorraine; Mollica, Beth M.; Paul, Diane; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose

    2011-01-01

    This literature review was conducted to evaluate the current state of evidence supporting communication interventions for individuals with severe disabilities. Authors reviewed 116 articles published between 1987 and 2007 in refereed journals meeting three criteria: (a) described a communication intervention, (b) involved one or more participants with severe disabilities, and (c) addressed one or more areas of communication performance. Many researchers failed to report treatment fidelity or to assess basic aspects of intervention effects including generalization, maintenance, and social validity. The evidence reviewed indicates that 96% of the studies reported positive changes in some aspects of communication. These findings support the provision of communication intervention to persons with severe disabilities. Gaps in the research were reported with recommendations for future research. PMID:20687822

  19. Manualization of Occupational Therapy Interventions: Illustrations from the Pressure Ulcer Prevention Research Program

    PubMed Central

    Blanche, Erna Imperatore; Fogelberg, Donald; Diaz, Jesus; Carlson, Mike; Clark, Florence

    2011-01-01

    The manualization of a complex occupational therapy intervention is a crucial step in ensuring treatment fidelity for both clinical application and research purposes. Towards this latter end, intervention manuals are essential for assuring trustworthiness and replicability of randomized controlled trials (RCT’s) that aim to provide evidence of the effectiveness of occupational therapy. In this paper, literature on the process of intervention manualization is reviewed. The prescribed steps are then illustrated through our experience in implementing the University of Southern California/Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center’s collaborative Pressure Ulcer Prevention Project (PUPP). In this research program, qualitative research provided the initial foundation for manualization of a multifaceted occupational therapy intervention designed to reduce incidence of medically serious pressure ulcers in people with SCI. PMID:22214116

  20. Using natural experiments to evaluate population health interventions: new Medical Research Council guidance.

    PubMed

    Craig, Peter; Cooper, Cyrus; Gunnell, David; Haw, Sally; Lawson, Kenny; Macintyre, Sally; Ogilvie, David; Petticrew, Mark; Reeves, Barney; Sutton, Matt; Thompson, Simon

    2012-12-01

    Natural experimental studies are often recommended as a way of understanding the health impact of policies and other large scale interventions. Although they have certain advantages over planned experiments, and may be the only option when it is impossible to manipulate exposure to the intervention, natural experimental studies are more susceptible to bias. This paper introduces new guidance from the Medical Research Council to help researchers and users, funders and publishers of research evidence make the best use of natural experimental approaches to evaluating population health interventions. The guidance emphasises that natural experiments can provide convincing evidence of impact even when effects are small or take time to appear. However, a good understanding is needed of the process determining exposure to the intervention, and careful choice and combination of methods, testing of assumptions and transparent reporting is vital. More could be learnt from natural experiments in future as experience of promising but lesser used methods accumulates. PMID:22577181

  1. Scholarship as Intervention: Critique, Collaboration and the Research Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Marcia

    2009-01-01

    Following Scott (this issue), this paper examines how environmental education researchers might intervene to greater effect in the policies and practices of our governments and local and international organizations through individual and collective programmes of research. Suggesting that public scholarship or academic activism can engage a wide…

  2. Towards systematic planning of small-scale hydrological intervention-based research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramana, K. E. R.; Ertsen, M. W.; van de Giesen, N. C.

    2015-09-01

    Many small-scale water development initiatives are accompanied by hydrological research to study either the shape of the intervention or its impacts. Humans influence both, and thus one needs to take human agency into account. This paper focuses on the effects of human actions in the intervention and its associated hydrological research, as these effects have not yet been discussed explicitly in a systematic way. In this paper, we propose a systematic planning, based on evaluating three hydrological research projects in small-scale water intervention projects in Vietnam, Kenya, and Indonesia. The main purpose of the three projects was to understand the functioning of interventions in their hydrological contexts. Aiming for better decision-making on hydrological research in small-scale water intervention projects, we propose two analysis steps: (1) being prepared for surprises and (2) cost-benefit analysis. By performing the two analyses continuously throughout a small-scale hydrological intervention based project, effective hydrological research can be achieved.

  3. CASPER's New Educational Research Group: The Physical Environment and Educational Interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Wang, Li; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    CASPER research has long included the area of STEM science education, which grew out of its history in educational intervention and curriculum development and its NSF funded REU summer program, which has been active since 1994. Recently CASPER's Educational Research group entered into a partnership with the Region 12 Educational Service Center and Huckabee, Inc. to examine the role the physical environment plays in educational intervention and the impact this combination has on student engagement and learning. This talk introduces the partnership, explains the framework guiding the research and presents the roles each partner plays in the research.

  4. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part VI: Interventional Research and the Disaster Logic Model.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P; Kushner, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Disaster-related interventions are actions or responses undertaken during any phase of a disaster to change the current status of an affected community or a Societal System. Interventional disaster research aims to evaluate the results of such interventions in order to develop standards and best practices in Disaster Health that can be applied to disaster risk reduction. Considering interventions as production functions (transformation processes) structures the analyses and cataloguing of interventions/responses that are implemented prior to, during, or following a disaster or other emergency. Since currently it is not possible to do randomized, controlled studies of disasters, in order to validate the derived standards and best practices, the results of the studies must be compared and synthesized with results from other studies (ie, systematic reviews). Such reviews will be facilitated by the selected studies being structured using accepted frameworks. A logic model is a graphic representation of the transformation processes of a program [project] that shows the intended relationships between investments and results. Logic models are used to describe a program and its theory of change, and they provide a method for the analyzing and evaluating interventions. The Disaster Logic Model (DLM) is an adaptation of a logic model used for the evaluation of educational programs and provides the structure required for the analysis of disaster-related interventions. It incorporates a(n): definition of the current functional status of a community or Societal System, identification of needs, definition of goals, selection of objectives, implementation of the intervention(s), and evaluation of the effects, outcomes, costs, and impacts of the interventions. It is useful for determining the value of an intervention and it also provides the structure for analyzing the processes used in providing the intervention according to the Relief/Recovery and Risk-Reduction Frameworks

  5. Gender Development Research in Sex Roles: Historical Trends and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cindy Faith; Ruble, Diane N.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    The late 1960s through the 1970s marked an important turning point in the field of gender research, including theory and research in gender development. The establishment of Sex Roles in 1975 as a forum for this research represented an important milestone in the field. In this article, we celebrate the 35th anniversary of Sex Roles and, in particular, its contributions to the field of research on children’s and adolescents’ gender development. We examine the trends in research on gender development published in Sex Roles since its inception and use this analysis as a vehicle for exploring how the field has grown and evolved over the past few decades. We begin with a brief review of the history of this field of research since 1975. Then, we present a descriptive assessment of articles published on gender development in Sex Roles over time, and link this assessment to general trends that have occurred in the study of gender development over the past 35 years. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for the field of gender development. In particular, we highlight areas in which the journal could play a role in promoting more diversity in topics, methods, and ages employed in gender development research. PMID:21747580

  6. Call for research on bystander intervention to prevent sexual violence: the role of campus environments.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    An important next step for the field is to determine what setting-level factors beyond the individual are critical to fostering campus environments that support pro-social, helpful bystander intervention action to prevent sexual violence. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide a research agenda to investigate key areas of the campus environment and their potential influence on bystander intervention. To create the research agenda, a number of steps were followed including: (1) systematically reviewing the larger bystander literature to identify key environmental areas, (2) assessing what research is available specific to college campuses and sexual assault in each of these areas, and (3) outlining future research to address each of these areas on college campuses and determine their applicability to sexual violence situations. Five main groups of factors were found to influence bystander intervention beyond the individual, group and situational levels, including: social norms, sense of community, pro-social modeling, policies, and the physical environment. Certain areas of research on environmental influences on bystander intervention are more developed such as social norms, with little research on areas such as policies and the physical environment. However, further research is needed in each of the identified five areas to help identify how college campuses can support bystander intervention. PMID:25896230

  7. Economic analysis of nutrition interventions for chronic disease prevention: methods, research, and policy.

    PubMed

    Wong, John B; Coates, Paul M; Russell, Robert M; Dwyer, Johanna T; Schuttinga, James A; Bowman, Barbara A; Peterson, Sarah A

    2011-09-01

    Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about the economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or healthcare policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and US regulatory, policy, and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development. PMID:21884133

  8. Effects of an Educational Intervention on Female Biomedical Scientists’ Research Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Bakken, Lori L.; Byars-Winston, Angela; Gundermann, Dawn M.; Ward, Earlise C.; Slattery, Angela; King, Andrea; Scott, Denise; Taylor, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Women and people of color continue to be underrepresented among biomedical researchers to an alarming degree. Research interest and subsequent productivity have been shown to be affected by the research training environment through the mediating effects of research self-efficacy. This article presents the findings of a study to determine whether a short-term research training program coupled with an efficacy enhancing intervention for novice female biomedical scientists of diverse racial backgrounds would increase their research self-efficacy beliefs. Forty-three female biomedical scientists were randomized into a control or intervention group and 15 men participated as a control group. Research self-efficacy significantly increased for women who participated in the self-efficacy intervention workshop. Research self-efficacy within each group also significantly increased following the short-term research training program, but cross-group comparisons were not significant. These findings suggest that educational interventions that target sources of self-efficacy and provide domain-specific learning experiences are effective at increasing research self-efficacy for women and men. Further studies are needed to determine the longitudinal outcomes of this effort. PMID:19774477

  9. A Community-based Participatory Research Approach to the Development of a Peer Navigator Health Promotion Intervention for People with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Susan D.; Gillenwater, Gwen; Toatley, Sherwood; Rodgers, Marka D.; Todd, Nathan; Epperly, Diane; Andrews, Jeannette O.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent trends indicate research targeting outcomes of importance to people with disabilities, such as spinal cord injury (SCI), may be best informed by those individuals; however, there are very few published rehabilitation intervention studies that include people with disabilities in the research process in a role beyond study participant. Objective To describe a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to the development and pilot testing of an intervention using community-based Peer Navigators with SCI to provide health education to individuals with SCI, with the goal of reducing preventable secondary conditions and rehospitalizations, and improving community participation. Methods A CBPR framework guides the research partnership between academic researchers and a community-based team of individuals who either have SCI or provide SCI-related services. Using this framework, the processes of our research partnership supporting the current study are described including: partnership formation, problem identification, intervention development, and pilot testing of the intervention. Challenges associated with CBPR are identified. Results Using CBPR, the SCI Peer Navigator intervention addresses the partnership’s priority issues identified in the formative studies. Utilization of the framework and integration of CBPR principles into all phases of research have promoted sustainability of the partnership. Recognition of and proactive planning for challenges that are commonly encountered in CBPR, such as sharing power and limited resources, has helped sustain our partnership. Conclusions The CBPR framework provides a guide for inclusion of individuals with SCI as research partners in the development, implementation, and evaluation of interventions intended to improve outcomes after SCI. PMID:25224988

  10. Bibliometric and Social Network Analysis of Doctoral Research: Research Trends in Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Jason Kirtland

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated research topics of doctoral dissertations that examined issues in distance learning from 2000-2014. Twelve reviews of research on distance learning, spanning from 1997-2015, were identified. It was found that only one of these reviews of research (Davies, Howell, & Petri, 2010) looked at doctoral dissertations. The…

  11. Longitudinal trends in global obesity research and collaboration: a review using bibliometric metadata.

    PubMed

    Khan, A; Choudhury, N; Uddin, S; Hossain, L; Baur, L A

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to understand research trends and collaboration patterns together with scholarly impact within the domain of global obesity research. We developed and analysed bibliographic affiliation data collected from 117,340 research articles indexed in Scopus database on the topic of obesity and published from 1993-2012. We found steady growth and an exponential increase of publication numbers. Research output in global obesity research roughly doubled each 5 years, with almost 80% of the publications and authors from the second decade (2003-2012). The highest publication output was from the USA - 42% of publications had at least one author from the USA. Many US institutions also ranked highly in terms of research output and collaboration. Fifteen of the top-20 institutions in terms of publication output were from the USA; however, several European and Japanese research institutions ranked more highly in terms of average citations per paper. The majority of obesity research and collaboration has been confined to developed countries although developing countries have showed higher growth in recent times, e.g. the publication ratio between 2003-2012 and 1993-2002 for developing regions was much higher than that of developed regions (9:1 vs. 4:1). We also identified around 42 broad disciplines from authors' affiliation data, and these showed strong collaboration between them. Overall, this study provides one of the most comprehensive longitudinal bibliometric analyses of obesity research. This should help in understanding research trends, spatial density, collaboration patterns and the complex multi-disciplinary nature of research in the obesity domain. PMID:26864566

  12. Using Mixed-Methods Research to Adapt and Evaluate a Family Strengthening Intervention in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E.; Stevenson, Anne; Ingabire, Charles; Kanyanganzi, Fredrick; Munyana, Morris; Mushashi, Christina; Teta, Sharon; Fayida, Ildephonse; Cyamatare, Felix Rwabukwisi; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Research in several international settings indicates that children and adolescents affected by HIV and other compounded adversities are at increased risk for a range of mental health problems including depression, anxiety, and social withdrawal. More intervention research is needed to develop valid measurement and intervention tools to address child mental health in such settings. Objective This article presents a collaborative mixed-methods approach to designing and evaluating a mental health intervention to assist families facing multiple adversities in Rwanda. Methods Qualitative methods were used to gain knowledge of culturally-relevant mental health problems in children and adolescents, individual, family and community resources, and contextual dynamics among HIV-affected families. This data was used to guide the selection and adaptation of mental health measures to assess intervention outcomes. Measures were subjected to a quantitative validation exercise. Qualitative data and community advisory board input also informed the selection and adaptation of a family-based preventive intervention to reduce the risk for mental health problems among children in families affected by HIV.. Community-based participatory methods were used to ensure that the intervention targeted relevant problems manifest in Rwandan children and families and built on local strengths. Results Qualitative data on culturally-appropriate practices for building resilience in vulnerable families has enriched the development of a Family-Strengthening Intervention (FSI). Input from community partners has also contributed to creating a feasible and culturally-relevant intervention. Mental health measures demonstrate strong performance in this population. Conclusion The mixed-methods model discussed represents a refined, multi-phase protocol for incorporating qualitative data and community input in the development and evaluation of feasible, culturally-sound quantitative assessments

  13. Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology: An Illustration of Task Force Coding Criteria Using Single-Participant Research Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shernoff, Elisa Steele; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Stoiber, Karen Callan

    2002-01-01

    Illustrates the application of the Task Force on Evidence-Based Interventions in School Psychology coding criteria using a single-participant research design study. Concludes that this study possessed several important strengths, including a strong research design, identifiable intervention components, and strong intervention effects for several…

  14. Spatial and temporal overview of research in pediatric and congenital cardiology: trends and global challenges.

    PubMed

    Bräutigam, Martina; Kempny, Aleksander; Radke, Robert; Baumgartner, Helmut; Diller, Gerhard-Paul

    2014-08-01

    Available information on the global distribution of research output in pediatric cardiology (PC) is sparse. This study took a bibliometric approach to characterize research output, assess the level of competition, describe the geographic distribution of the leading research centers in the field, and investigate determinants of research output. In addition, the study characterized the journals publishing PC research and identified temporal trends in research interest over time. Publications presenting original research in PC between 1995 and 2011 were identified. A total of 9,410 relevant articles were identified based on a PubMed search followed by subsequent electronic filtering and manual review. A dramatic increase in PC publications was seen during the study period (from 309 in 1995 to 1,075 in 2011). This was accompanied by an increase in impact factors and an overproportional rise in PC contributions relative to the general PubMed trend. Research in PC was shown to be highly competitive and becoming increasingly so (Herfindahl-Hirschman index of 1.64%). Research output correlated with gross domestic product, national levels of corruption, education, urbanization, geography, and presence of national centers of excellence. The data presented in this report allow benchmarking of different cities and countries and provide insights into the potential determinants of high-quality publications and the spectrum of publishing journals. The report also highlights the central role of subspecialty journals and shows that PC research output is related to national wealth, surrogates of appropriate use of resources, an adequate workforce, and education. Additionally, it emphasizes the potential beneficial effects of establishing centers of excellence in the field. PMID:24584212

  15. Youth Participatory Action Research Groups as School Counseling Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Laura; Davis, Kathryn; Bhowmik, Malika

    2010-01-01

    Youth participatory action research (YPAR) projects offer young people the opportunity to increase their sociocultural awareness, critical thinking abilities, and sense of agency within a collaborative group experience. Thus far, however, such projects have been primarily the province of educators and social psychologists, and not substantively…

  16. An Evaluation of Research Students' Writing Support Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Barry; Verezub, Elena; Dalrymple, John; Bertone, Santina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Achieving quality standards in postgraduate education, particularly among Higher Degree by Research (HDR) students, can be challenging. In addition to the diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of these students, thesis writing frequently involves the development of new skills associated with the comprehension of a large volume of…

  17. Interventions to Combat the Many Facets of Absenteeism: Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Jill Friedman

    2011-01-01

    This paper operationalizes the definition of action research (AR) and the importance of conducting such studies to improve the lives of students and professionals. This paper provides an overview of literature regarding variables related to truancy and absenteeism. The paper discusses the importance of students being present and engaged, negative…

  18. Inference Instruction for Struggling Readers: A Synthesis of Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Colby S.

    2016-01-01

    Skill in generating inferences predicts reading comprehension for students in the elementary and intermediate grades even after taking into account word reading, vocabulary knowledge, and cognitive ability (Cain et al., "Journal of Educational Psychology, 96," 671-81, 2004; Kendeou et al., "Journal of Research in Reading," 31,…

  19. Political interventions in U.S. human embryo research: an ethical assessment.

    PubMed

    Green, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    For more than 30 years, beginning with the Reagan administration's refusal to support and provide oversight for embryo research, and continuing to the present in congressionally imposed limits on funding for such research, progress in infertility medicine and the development of stem cell therapies has been seriously delayed by a series of political interventions. In almost all cases, these interventions result from a view of the moral status of human embryo premised largely on religious assumptions. Although some believe that these interventions are valid expressions of religious values in the public sector, it is argued here that they, in fact, contradict Rawls's conception of public reasoning. Both the prohibition of research involving the human embryo as well as bans on federal funding for embryo-related research place the particular religious views of some citizens above the pressing health needs of almost all, and thus violate the ideal of civility implicit in the Rawlsian standard. PMID:20579245

  20. Comparison of Research Designs for Two Controlled Trials of Mass Media Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares two controlled trials of mass media interventions, factors influencing their designs, and design lessons learned from these experiences. Mass media evaluations based on a scientific research model are motivated by gaps in knowledge. The results of such research are intended to serve the needs of consensus development processes through which confident recommendations can be made for intervention strategies that should be more widely applied. For these purposes, the scientific research context emphasizes internal validity of evaluation design, such as controlled experiments. This paper describes two such trials, implemented at different times with differing social contexts for youth cigarette smoking, smoking prevention research evidence bases, and tobacco control environments. Common and unique features of the two trials are reviewed, and observations are noted about the conditions under which controlled trials of mass media interventions might be warranted. PMID:20046992

  1. Realist complex intervention science: Applying realist principles across all phases of the Medical Research Council framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Adam; Jamal, Farah; Moore, Graham; Evans, Rhiannon E.; Murphy, Simon; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The integration of realist evaluation principles within randomised controlled trials (‘realist RCTs’) enables evaluations of complex interventions to answer questions about what works, for whom and under what circumstances. This allows evaluators to better develop and refine mid-level programme theories. However, this is only one phase in the process of developing and evaluating complex interventions. We describe and exemplify how social scientists can integrate realist principles across all phases of the Medical Research Council framework. Intervention development, modelling, and feasibility and pilot studies need to theorise the contextual conditions necessary for intervention mechanisms to be activated. Where interventions are scaled up and translated into routine practice, realist principles also have much to offer in facilitating knowledge about longer-term sustainability, benefits and harms. Integrating a realist approach across all phases of complex intervention science is vital for considering the feasibility and likely effects of interventions for different localities and population subgroups. PMID:27478401

  2. Capacity building for health through community-based participatory nutrition intervention Research in rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building community capacity for health promotion in small rural communities is essential if health promotion research is to yield sustainable outcomes. Since its inception, capacity-building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative, a tri-state collaboration in ...

  3. Research Standards in Early Intervention: Defining, Describing, and Measuring the Independent Variable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeLaurin, Kathryn; Wolery, Mark

    1992-01-01

    This paper considers methodological issues related to the independent variable in early intervention research. Three standards are proposed: (1) use theory to guide research; (2) provide operational definitions of independent variables, quantify them, and describe how they relate to theory; and (3) measure treatment fidelity. Three levels of…

  4. Understanding Interventions that Encourage Minorities to Pursue Research Careers: Major Questions and Appropriate Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagen, Adam P.; Labov, Jay B.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a workshop, supported by the National Academy of Sciences and the National Institute of Health, that examines the current state of research about interventions that could significantly influence the participation of underrepresented minorities in pursuing research careers in the biomedical and behavioral sciences and other…

  5. Putting Research into Practice in School Violence Prevention and Intervention: How Is School Counseling Doing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Charles; Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a national survey of practicing school counselors regarding their knowledge of current research in school violence prevention and intervention. The authors describe four active areas of youth violence research over the past two decades and present findings that suggest that a potentially dangerous gap may exist…

  6. 76 FR 37341 - Final Priority; Rehabilitation Research and Training Center-Interventions To Promote Community...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Research Projects and Centers Program in the Federal Register on March 29, 2011 (76 FR 17400). That notice...-Range Plan (Plan). The Plan, which was published in the Federal Register on February 15, 2006 (71 FR... Final Priority; Rehabilitation Research and Training Center-- Interventions To Promote Community...

  7. Capacity building for health through community based participatory nutrition intervention research in rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building community capacity for health promotion in small rural communities is essential if health promotion research is to yield sustainable outcomes. Since its inception, capacity-building has been a stated goal of the Delta Nutrition Intervention Research initiative, a tri-state collaboration in ...

  8. Identifying Evidence-Based Special Education Interventions from Single-Subject Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer; Sugai, George

    2013-01-01

    Special educators are required to use evidence-based academic and behavioral interventions in their classrooms (U.S. Department of Education, 2010). No rigorous and comprehensive database currently exists to support educators. Within the field of special education, single-subject research is the primary research methodology (Horner, Carr, Halle,…

  9. Researching Early Intervention and Young Children's Perspectives--Developing and Using a "Listening to Children Approach"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige-Smith, Alice; Rix, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This article, by Alice Paige-Smith and Jonathan Rix, considers the current context of early intervention in England from the perspective and experiences of two families and in particular focuses on two young children identified as having Down syndrome. This case study research has emerged from previous research conducted by the authors, both of…

  10. Using Participatory Action Research to Design an Intervention Integrity System in the Urban Schools

    PubMed Central

    Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Feinberg, Betsy E.; Freedman, Melanie A.; Jawad, Abbas; Leff, Stephen S.

    2010-01-01

    While integrity is often thought of as the degree to which a program is applied as intended, researchers have recently widened the lens to include not only monitoring of program content, but also evaluating the process by which interventions are implemented and the extent to which the intervention is received as intended. Further, a partnership-based approach has been identified to be as critical to facilitating appropriate and accurate monitoring and interpretation of intervention integrity in the cultural context. Building on these expanded definitions of intervention integrity, this study describes how an intervention monitoring system was developed through participatory research in the context of a classroom-based aggression prevention program for students in an inner-city elementary school. The system highlighted evaluation of the quality of intervention delivery and participant responsiveness. Factor analysis, descriptive statistics, and comparison to a less nuanced integrity monitoring system provided information on the informativeness of this new system. Preliminary investigation, however, suggested that future research is necessary to examine the extent to which differences in quality of implementation across classrooms predict clinically significant differences in program outcomes. PMID:20428475

  11. Alcohol Consumption among Youth: Current Trends and Research Findings. Prevention Research Update. No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory; Roizen, Ron

    This update offers current knowledge about the scope and nature of adolescent drinking. Its goal is to bridge the communications gap between the researcher, the practitioner, and the general population by disseminating research findings in an accessible manner and by providing an introductory review of the significance of these findings. Abstracts…

  12. Mapping Usability: A Critical Research Analysis of Trends in Software Usability Research, Theory, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Morgan Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The impetus for this project stemmed from a curiosity about two particular areas in the history of usability research. For one, I began research for this project with a desire to learn about patterns in the theory, practice, attitude, and perception about usability work, both in academic contexts and in corporate contexts, with a focus on the…

  13. A review of cervical cancer screening intervention research: implications for public health programs and future research.

    PubMed

    Marcus, A C; Crane, L A

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we review the published literature with respect to cervical cancer screening intervention research. Mass media campaigns appear to work best in promoting cervical cancer screening when multiple media are used, when they promote specific screening programs that eliminate or reduce access barriers, or when they are used in combination with other strategies. Many positive examples of using outreach staff to promote cervical cancer screening, as well as using mobile examination rooms in the community, were found. Substantial evidence that letters mailed to patient populations are efficacious was found, especially in promoting interval screening; however, bulk mailings to nonpatient populations have generally not been successful. Both physician and patient prompts have shown promise as well as opportunistic screenings in both the outpatient and the inpatient settings. In addition, several strategies for reducing loss to follow-up among women with abnormal test results were identified, including telephone follow-up, educational mailouts, audiovisual programs, clinic-based educational presentations and workshops, transportation incentives, and economic vouchers. Of special note is the success of other countries in establishing centralized recall systems to promote interval screening for cervical cancer. Ultimately, such systems could replace the need for opportunistic screening in underserved populations and perhaps many community outreach efforts. It is argued that health departments represent a logical starting point for developing a network of recall systems in the United States for underserved women. PMID:9465350

  14. Functional abdominal pain in childhood: background studies and recent research trends.

    PubMed

    Levy, Rona L; van Tilburg, Miranda A L

    2012-01-01

    The present review summarizes many of the major research trends investigated in the past five years regarding pediatric functional abdominal pain, and also summarizes the primary related findings from the authors' research program. Specific areas discussed based on work within the authors' group include familial illness patterns, genetics, traits, and mechanisms or processes related to abdominal pain. Topics covered from research published in the past five years include prevalence and cost, longitudinal follow-up, overlap with other disorders, etiology and mechanisms behind functional abdominal pain and treatment studies. It is hoped that findings from this work in abdominal pain will be interpreted as a framework for understanding the processes by which other pain phenomena and, more broadly, reactions to any physical state, can be developed and maintained in children. The present article concludes with recommendations for clinical practice and research. PMID:23248815

  15. From computer-assisted intervention research to clinical impact: The need for a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Ourselin, Sébastien; Emberton, Mark; Vercauteren, Tom

    2016-10-01

    The early days of the field of medical image computing (MIC) and computer-assisted intervention (CAI), when publishing a strong self-contained methodological algorithm was enough to produce impact, are over. As a community, we now have substantial responsibility to translate our scientific progresses into improved patient care. In the field of computer-assisted interventions, the emphasis is also shifting from the mere use of well-known established imaging modalities and position trackers to the design and combination of innovative sensing, elaborate computational models and fine-grained clinical workflow analysis to create devices with unprecedented capabilities. The barriers to translating such devices in the complex and understandably heavily regulated surgical and interventional environment can seem daunting. Whether we leave the translation task mostly to our industrial partners or welcome, as researchers, an important share of it is up to us. We argue that embracing the complexity of surgical and interventional sciences is mandatory to the evolution of the field. Being able to do so requires large-scale infrastructure and a critical mass of expertise that very few research centres have. In this paper, we emphasise the need for a holistic approach to computer-assisted interventions where clinical, scientific, engineering and regulatory expertise are combined as a means of moving towards clinical impact. To ensure that the breadth of infrastructure and expertise required for translational computer-assisted intervention research does not lead to a situation where the field advances only thanks to a handful of exceptionally large research centres, we also advocate that solutions need to be designed to lower the barriers to entry. Inspired by fields such as particle physics and astronomy, we claim that centralised very large innovation centres with state of the art technology and health technology assessment capabilities backed by core support staff and open

  16. Promoting family meals: a review of existing interventions and opportunities for future research.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Laura; Oh, April; Patrick, Heather; Hennessy, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that regular family meals protect against unhealthy eating and obesity during childhood and adolescence. However, there is limited information on ways to promote family meals as part of health promotion and obesity prevention efforts. The primary aim of this review was to synthesize the literature on strategies to promote family meals among families with school-aged children and adolescents. First, we reviewed interventions that assess family meals as an outcome and summarized strategies that have been used in these interventions. Second, we reviewed correlates and barriers to family meals to identify focal populations and target constructs for consideration in new interventions. During May 26-27, 2014, PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched to identify literature on family meals published between January 1, 2000 and May 27, 2014. Two reviewers coded 2,115 titles/abstracts, yielding a sample of 139 articles for full-text review. Six interventions and 43 other studies presenting data on correlates of or barriers to family meals were included in the review. Four interventions resulted in greater family meal frequency. Although there were a small number of interventions, intervention settings were diverse and included the home, community, medical settings, the workplace, and the Internet. Common strategies were goal setting and interactive group activities, and intervention targets included cooking and food preparation, cost, shopping, and adolescent influence. Although methodological nuances may contribute to mixed findings, key correlates of family meals were employment, socioeconomic and demographic factors, family structure, and psychosocial constructs. Barriers to consider in future interventions include time and scheduling challenges, cost, and food preferences. Increasing youth involvement in mealtime, tailoring interventions to family characteristics, and providing support for families experiencing time-related barriers are suggested

  17. Promoting family meals: a review of existing interventions and opportunities for future research

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Laura; Oh, April; Patrick, Heather; Hennessy, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that regular family meals protect against unhealthy eating and obesity during childhood and adolescence. However, there is limited information on ways to promote family meals as part of health promotion and obesity prevention efforts. The primary aim of this review was to synthesize the literature on strategies to promote family meals among families with school-aged children and adolescents. First, we reviewed interventions that assess family meals as an outcome and summarized strategies that have been used in these interventions. Second, we reviewed correlates and barriers to family meals to identify focal populations and target constructs for consideration in new interventions. During May 26–27, 2014, PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched to identify literature on family meals published between January 1, 2000 and May 27, 2014. Two reviewers coded 2,115 titles/abstracts, yielding a sample of 139 articles for full-text review. Six interventions and 43 other studies presenting data on correlates of or barriers to family meals were included in the review. Four interventions resulted in greater family meal frequency. Although there were a small number of interventions, intervention settings were diverse and included the home, community, medical settings, the workplace, and the Internet. Common strategies were goal setting and interactive group activities, and intervention targets included cooking and food preparation, cost, shopping, and adolescent influence. Although methodological nuances may contribute to mixed findings, key correlates of family meals were employment, socioeconomic and demographic factors, family structure, and psychosocial constructs. Barriers to consider in future interventions include time and scheduling challenges, cost, and food preferences. Increasing youth involvement in mealtime, tailoring interventions to family characteristics, and providing support for families experiencing time-related barriers are suggested

  18. Are researcher development interventions, alone or in any combination, effective in improving researcher behavior? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mazmanian, Paul E; Coe, Antoinette B; Evans, Jessica A; Longo, Daniel R; Wright, Barbara A

    2014-03-01

    Academic institutions funded by the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Program of the National Institutes of Health were challenged recently by the Institute of Medicine to expand traditional mentoring of graduate and postdoctoral scholars to include training and continuing education for faculty, professional staff, and community partners. A systematic review was conducted to determine whether researcher development interventions, alone or in any combination, are effective in improving researcher behavior. PubMed, CINAHL, and Education Research Complete databases and select journals were searched for relevant articles published from January 2000 through October 2012. A total of 3,459 papers were identified, and 114 papers were retrieved for in-depth analysis. None included randomization. Twenty-two papers reported subjects with professional degrees, interventions, and outcomes. Interventions were meetings, outreach visits, colleague mediation, audit and feedback, and multifaceted interventions. Most studies reported multifaceted interventions (68.2%), often involving mentored learning experiences, and meetings. All studies reported a change in performance, including numbers of publications or grant applications. Nine studies reported changes in competence, including writing, presentation, or analytic skills, and performance in research practice (40.9%). Even as, the quality of evidence was weak to establish causal linkages between researcher development and improved researcher behavior, nearly all the projects (81.8%) received funding from governmental agencies, professional societies, or other organizations. Those who design researcher development activities and those who evaluate the programs are challenged to develop tools and conduct studies that measure the effectiveness, costs, and sustainability of researcher development in the CTSA Program. PMID:24214416

  19. People Awakening: Collaborative Research to Develop Cultural Strategies for Prevention in Community Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Beehler, Sarah; Rowe, Hillary L.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and suicide create immense health disparities among Alaska Native people. The People Awakening project is a long-term collaboration between Alaska Native (AN) communities and university researchers seeking to foster health equity through development of positive solutions to these disparities. These efforts initiated a research relationship that identified individual, family, and community protective factors from AUD and suicide. AN co-researchers next expressed interest in translating these findings into intervention. This led to development of a strengths-based community intervention that is the focus of the special issue. The intervention builds these protective factors to prevent AUD and suicide risk within AN youth, and their families and communities. This review provides a critical examination of existing literature and a brief history of work leading to the intervention research. These work efforts portray a shared commitment of university researchers and community members to function as co-researchers, and to conduct research in accord with local Yup’ik cultural values. This imperative allowed the team to navigate several tensions we locate in a convergence of historical and contemporary ecological contextual factors inherent in AN tribal communities with countervailing constraints imposed by Western science. PMID:24903819

  20. People awakening: collaborative research to develop cultural strategies for prevention in community intervention.

    PubMed

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Beehler, Sarah; Rowe, Hillary L

    2014-09-01

    The consequences of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and suicide create immense health disparities among Alaska Native people. The People Awakening project is a long-term collaboration between Alaska Native (AN) communities and university researchers seeking to foster health equity through development of positive solutions to these disparities. These efforts initiated a research relationship that identified individual, family, and community protective factors from AUD and suicide. AN co-researchers next expressed interest in translating these findings into intervention. This led to development of a strengths-based community intervention that is the focus of the special issue. The intervention builds these protective factors to prevent AUD and suicide risk within AN youth, and their families and communities. This review provides a critical examination of existing literature and a brief history of work leading to the intervention research. These work efforts portray a shared commitment of university researchers and community members to function as co-researchers, and to conduct research in accord with local Yup'ik cultural values. This imperative allowed the team to navigate several tensions we locate in a convergence of historical and contemporary ecological contextual factors inherent in AN tribal communities with countervailing constraints imposed by Western science. PMID:24903819

  1. The contribution of behavioural science to primary care research: development and evaluation of behaviour change interventions.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    Behavioural science is concerned with predicting, explaining and changing behaviour. Taking a personal perspective, this article aims to show how behavioural science can contribute to primary care research, specifically in relation to the development and evaluation of interventions to change behaviour. After discussing the definition and measurement of behaviour, the principle of compatibility and theories of behaviour change, the article outlines two examples of behaviour change trials (one on medication adherence and the other on physical activity), which were part of a research programme on prevention of chronic disease and its consequences. The examples demonstrate how, in a multidisciplinary context, behavioural science can contribute to primary care research in several important ways, including posing relevant research questions, defining the target behaviour, understanding the psychological determinants of behaviour, developing behaviour change interventions and selection or development of measures. The article concludes with a number of recommendations: (i) whether the aim is prediction, explanation or change, defining the target behaviour is a crucial first step; (ii) interventions should be explicitly based on theories that specify the factors that need to be changed in order to produce the desired change in behaviour; (iii) intervention developers need to be aware of the differences between different theories and select a theory only after careful consideration of the alternatives assessed against relevant criteria; and (iv) developers need to be aware that interventions can never be entirely theory based. PMID:22284944

  2. Adding Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research to Health Intervention Studies: Interacting With Differences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R Burke; Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain how to improve intervention designs, such as randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in health science research using a process philosophy and theory known as dialectical pluralism (DP). DP views reality as plural and uses dialectical, dialogical, and hermeneutical approaches to knowledge construction. Using DP and its "both/and" logic, and its attempt to produce new creative syntheses, researchers on heterogeneous teams can better dialogue with qualitative and mixed methods approaches, concepts, paradigms, methodologies, and methods to improve their intervention research studies. The concept of reflexivity is utilized but is expanded when it is a component of DP. Examples of strategies for identifying, inviting, and creating divergence and integrative strategies for producing strong mixed methods intervention studies are provided and illustrated using real-life examples. PMID:26657970

  3. Effectiveness of iterative interventions to increase research productivity in one residency program

    PubMed Central

    Alweis, Richard; Wenderoth, Suzanne; Donato, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires residency programs to expose residents to research opportunities. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a series of iterative interventions to increase scholarly activity in one internal medicine residency. Methods Retrospective analysis of the effectiveness of a series of interventions to increase resident and faculty scholarly productivity over a 14-year period was performed using quality improvement methodology. Outcomes measured were accepted regional and national abstracts and PubMed indexed manuscripts of residents and faculty. Results Initially, regional meeting abstracts increased and then were supplanted by national meeting abstracts. Sustained gains in manuscript productivity occurred in the eighth year of interventions, increasing from a baseline of 0.01 publications/FTE/year to 1.57 publications/FTE/year in the final year measured. Run chart analysis indicated special cause variation associated with the interventions performed. Conclusions Programs attempting to stimulate research production among faculty and residents can choose among many interventions cited in the literature. Since success of any group of interventions is likely additive and may take years to show benefit, measuring outcomes using quality improvement methodology may be an effective way to determine success. PMID:26653689

  4. Research design issues for evaluating complex multicomponent interventions in neighborhoods and communities.

    PubMed

    Komro, Kelli A; Flay, Brian R; Biglan, Anthony; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-03-01

    Major advances in population health will not occur unless we translate existing knowledge into effective multicomponent interventions, implement and maintain these in communities, and develop rigorous translational research and evaluation methods to ensure continual improvement and sustainability. We discuss challenges and offer approaches to evaluation that are key for translational research stages 3 to 5 to advance optimized adoption, implementation, and maintenance of effective and replicable multicomponent strategies. The major challenges we discuss concern (a) multiple contexts of evaluation/research, (b) complexity of packages of interventions, and (c) phases of evaluation/research questions. We suggest multiple alternative research designs that maintain rigor but accommodate these challenges and highlight the need for measurement systems. Longitudinal data collection and a standardized continuous measurement system are fundamental to the evaluation and refinement of complex multicomponent interventions. To be useful to T3-T5 translational research efforts in neighborhoods and communities, such a system would include assessments of the reach, implementation, effects on immediate outcomes, and effects of the comprehensive intervention package on more distal health outcomes. PMID:27012263

  5. Implementing the foundations of learning project: considerations for preschool intervention research.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Chrishana M; Morris, Pamela A; Portilla, Ximena A

    2014-01-01

    While studies have documented the importance of strong implementation in intervention studies (e.g., see Durlak & Dupre, 2008 ), more information is needed about how to ensure strong fidelity and quality of program implementation when delivering interventions under "real world conditions" and on a large scale. In this article, key lessons in implementing a demonstration and evaluation project known as the Foundations of Learning (FOL) demonstration are presented. Our discussion highlights several key components to the success of the project, including the building of effective coalitions before, and during, the delivery of the intervention to support the implementation process, as well as intensive, collaborative, and multilayered technical assistance provided as the intervention was delivered. Key lessons learned over the course of this project represent some that are highly consistent with prior research on this topic, as well as some that are unique, thus representing new areas for exploration in this burgeoning area of study. PMID:25321642

  6. Assessment of caregivers' willingness to participate in an intervention research study.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Margaret R; Escamilla, Monica I; Blackwell, Paula H; Lucke, Kathy T; Miner-Williams, Denise; Shaw, Virginia; Lewis, Sharon L

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify factors that influenced family caregivers' decisions to participate in an intervention research study. In interviews conducted before and after the intervention, caregivers (n=21) described reasons for participation. A focused content analysis was used to examine responses. Themes that emerged included: (a) caregivers recognized a need for help; (b) expectations and motivations toward change; (c) recognition of self worth as caregivers; (d) timeliness of recruitment strategies; (e) support of research staff affected recruitment; and (f) caregivers recognized the benefits of participation. These findings support the importance of many different strategies for effective recruitment of caregivers in future studies. PMID:17514708

  7. Research Trends in Emerging Contaminants on the Aquatic Environments of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Miraji, H.; Othman, O. C.; Ngassapa, F. N.; Mureithi, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    The continuity for discovery and production of new chemicals, allied products, and uses has currently resulted into generation of recent form of contaminants known as Emerging Contaminants (ECs). Once in the aquatic environment ECs are carcinogenic and cause other threats to both human's and animals' health. Due to their effects this study was aimed at investigating research trends of ECs in Tanzania. Findings revealed that USA and EU countries were leading in ECs researches, little followed by Asia, South Africa, and then Zambia. Only few guidelines from USA-EPA, WHO, Canada, and Australia existed. Neither published guidelines nor regulations for ECs existed in Tanzania; rather only the occurrence of some disinfection by-products and antibiotics was, respectively, reported in Arusha and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. As these reports had a limited coverage of ECs, henceforth, these findings constitute the first-line reference materials for ECs research in Tanzania which shall be useful for future monitoring and regulation planning. PMID:26998381

  8. Recent trends in humanoid robotics research: scientific background, applications, and implications.

    PubMed

    Solis, Jorge; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2010-11-01

    Even though the market size is still small at this moment, applied fields of robots are gradually spreading from the manufacturing industry to the others as one of the important components to support an aging society. For this purpose, the research on human-robot interaction (HRI) has been an emerging topic of interest for both basic research and customer application. The studies are especially focused on behavioral and cognitive aspects of the interaction and the social contexts surrounding it. As a part of these studies, the term of "roboethics" has been introduced as an approach to discuss the potentialities and the limits of robots in relation to human beings. In this article, we describe the recent research trends on the field of humanoid robotics. Their principal applications and their possible impact are discussed. PMID:21069592

  9. Never the Twain shall meet? Closing the gap between coping research and clinical intervention research.

    PubMed

    Coyne, J C; Racioppo, M W

    2000-06-01

    Two distinct literatures have contributed to a tremendous growth of interest in coping. The 1st consists of descriptive studies that have used coping checklists. This literature is in crisis because of its failure to yield substantive findings concerning the role of coping in adaptation that cannot be dismissed as truisms, trivia, or the product of a confounding of stress, coping, and distress. The 2nd literature concerns interventions to improve adaptation by enhancing coping. It provides evidence of the efficacy of intervention but provides little understanding of crucial ingredients, mechanisms of change, or barriers to maintaining gains. Both literatures would benefit from cross-fertilization. Process studies of interventions designed to improve coping provide an alternative to fruitless and potentially misleading correlational studies using checklists. Such studies might also aid in understanding and refining intervention strategies. PMID:10892208

  10. Mixed Research in Gifted Education: A Mixed Research Investigation of Trends in the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Jiao, Qun G.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of mixed research techniques in empirical studies published in gifted education journals. During Phase 1, empirical full-text databases and relevant electronic bibliographic databases related to gifted education were searched during a time span of 10 to 18 years, resulting in the…

  11. Review of Research Trends and Methods in Nano Environmental, Health, and Safety Risk Analysis.

    PubMed

    Erbis, Serkan; Ok, Zeynep; Isaacs, Jacqueline A; Benneyan, James C; Kamarthi, Sagar

    2016-08-01

    Despite the many touted benefits of nanomaterials, concerns remain about their possible environmental, health, and safety (EHS) risks in terms of their toxicity, long-term accumulation effects, or dose-response relationships. The published studies on EHS risks of nanomaterials have increased significantly over the past decade and half, with most focused on nanotoxicology. Researchers are still learning about health consequences of nanomaterials and how to make environmentally responsible decisions regarding their production. This article characterizes the scientific literature on nano-EHS risk analysis to map the state-of-the-art developments in this field and chart guidance for the future directions. First, an analysis of keyword co-occurrence networks is investigated for nano-EHS literature published in the past decade to identify the intellectual turning points and research trends in nanorisk analysis studies. The exposure groups targeted in emerging nano-EHS studies are also assessed. System engineering methods for risk, safety, uncertainty, and system reliability analysis are reviewed, followed by detailed descriptions where applications of these methods are utilized to analyze nanomaterial EHS risks. Finally, the trends, methods, future directions, and opportunities of system engineering methods in nano-EHS research are discussed. The analysis of nano-EHS literature presented in this article provides important insights on risk assessment and risk management tools associated with nanotechnology, nanomanufacturing, and nano-enabled products. PMID:26882074

  12. Formative research to develop a community-based intervention for chronic disease prevention in Guatemalan school-age children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, even in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Recent trends in health promotion emphasize community-based interventions as an important strategy for improving health outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct formative research regarding the perceptions of NCD risk factors, their influencing factors, and community resources available to aid the development and implementation of a community-based intervention with school-age children. Methods Focus group discussions (n = 18), home visits (n = 30), and individual semi-structured interviews (n = 26) were conducted in three urban communities in Guatemala with school-age children (10–12 years of age), teachers, parents, and local community members (i.e., school principals, school food kiosk vendors, religious leaders, authority representatives). All focus groups and interviews were transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis. Results Children, parents, and teachers have general knowledge about modifiable risk factors. Adults worried more about tobacco use, as compared to unhealthy diet and physical inactivity in children. Participants identified features at the intrapersonal (e.g., negative emotional state), interpersonal (e.g., peers as role models), and organizational and community levels (e.g., high levels of crime) that influence these risk factors in children. School committees, religious leaders, and government programs and activities were among the positive community resources identified. Conclusions These findings should help researchers in Guatemala and similar LMIC to develop community-based interventions for NCD prevention in school-age children that are effective, feasible, and culturally acceptable. PMID:24485389

  13. Overview of technical trend of optical fiber/cable and research and development strategy of Samsung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin H.

    2005-01-01

    Fiber-to-the-Premise (FTTP), a keyword in the current fiber and cable industry, leads us variegated directions of the research and development activities. In fact, this momentum of industry seems to be weak yet, since the bandwidth demand by market is still unbalanced to the capacity in the several market segments. However, the recent gradual recovery in metro and access network indicates a positive sign for FTTP deployment projects. It is the very preferable for us to optimize R&D strategy applicable to the current market trend of sequential investment.

  14. Improving Validity of Informed Consent for Biomedical Research in Zambia Using a Laboratory Exposure Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Lisulo, Mpala Mwanza; Besa, Ellen; Kaonga, Patrick; Chisenga, Caroline C.; Chomba, Mumba; Simuyandi, Michelo; Banda, Rosemary; Kelly, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Complex biomedical research can lead to disquiet in communities with limited exposure to scientific discussions, leading to rumours or to high drop-out rates. We set out to test an intervention designed to address apprehensions commonly encountered in a community where literacy is uncommon, and where complex biomedical research has been conducted for over a decade. We aimed to determine if it could improve the validity of consent. Methods Data were collected using focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observations. We designed an intervention that exposed participants to a detailed demonstration of laboratory processes. Each group was interviewed twice in a day, before and after exposure to the intervention in order to assess changes in their views. Results Factors that motivated people to participate in invasive biomedical research included a desire to stay healthy because of the screening during the recruitment process, regular advice from doctors, free medical services, and trust in the researchers. Inhibiting factors were limited knowledge about samples taken from their bodies during endoscopic procedures, the impact of endoscopy on the function of internal organs, and concerns about the use of biomedical samples. The belief that blood can be used for Satanic practices also created insecurities about drawing of blood samples. Further inhibiting factors included a fear of being labelled as HIV positive if known to consult heath workers repeatedly, and gender inequality. Concerns about the use and storage of blood and tissue samples were overcome by a laboratory exposure intervention. Conclusion Selecting a group of members from target community and engaging them in a laboratory exposure intervention could be a useful tool for enhancing specific aspects of consent for biomedical research. Further work is needed to determine the extent to which improved understanding permeates beyond the immediate group participating in the intervention

  15. Perceptions of community-based participatory research in the delta nutrition intervention research initiative:an academic perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta NIRI) is an academic-community partnership between seven academic institutions and three communities in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. A range of community-based participatory methods have been employed to develop susta...

  16. Racism and Health II: A Needed Research Agenda for Effective Interventions.

    PubMed

    Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the empirical evidence that suggests that there is a solid foundation for more systematic research attention to the ways in which interventions that seek to reduce the multiple dimensions of racism can improve health and reduce disparities in health. First, research reveals that policies and procedures that seek to reduce institutional racism by improving neighborhood and educational quality and enhancing access to additional income, employment opportunities and other desirable resources can improve health. Second, research is reviewed that shows that there is the potential to improve health through interventions that can reduce cultural racism at the societal and individual level. Finally, research is presented that suggests that the adverse consequences of racism on health can be reduced through policies that maximize the health-enhancing capacities of medical care, address the social factors that initiate and sustain risk behaviors and empower individuals and communities to take control of their lives and health. Directions for future research are outlined. PMID:24347667

  17. Racism and Health II: A Needed Research Agenda for Effective Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Mohammed, Selina A.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical evidence that suggests that there is a solid foundation for more systematic research attention to the ways in which interventions that seek to reduce the multiple dimensions of racism can improve health and reduce disparities in health. First, research reveals that policies and procedures that seek to reduce institutional racism by improving neighborhood and educational quality and enhancing access to additional income, employment opportunities and other desirable resources can improve health. Second, research is reviewed that shows that there is the potential to improve health through interventions that can reduce cultural racism at the societal and individual level. Finally, research is presented that suggests that the adverse consequences of racism on health can be reduced through policies that maximize the health-enhancing capacities of medical care, address the social factors that initiate and sustain risk behaviors and empower individuals and communities to take control of their lives and health. Directions for future research are outlined. PMID:24347667

  18. Community-Based Participatory Research Contributions to Intervention Research: The Intersection of Science and Practice to Improve Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged in the last decades as a transformative research paradigm that bridges the gap between science and practice through community engagement and social action to increase health equity. CBPR expands the potential for the translational sciences to develop, implement, and disseminate effective interventions across diverse communities through strategies to redress power imbalances; facilitate mutual benefit among community and academic partners; and promote reciprocal knowledge translation, incorporating community theories into the research. We identify the barriers and challenges within the intervention and implementation sciences, discuss how CBPR can address these challenges, provide an illustrative research example, and discuss next steps to advance the translational science of CBPR. PMID:20147663

  19. Patient-centered outcomes research in radiology: trends in funding and methodology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christoph I; Jarvik, Jeffrey G

    2014-09-01

    The creation of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Trust Fund and the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 presents new opportunities for funding patient-centered comparative effectiveness research (CER) in radiology. We provide an overview of the evolution of federal funding and priorities for CER with a focus on radiology-related priority topics over the last two decades, and discuss the funding processes and methodological standards outlined by PCORI. We introduce key paradigm shifts in research methodology that will be required on the part of radiology health services researchers to obtain competitive federal grant funding in patient-centered outcomes research. These paradigm shifts include direct engagement of patients and other stakeholders at every stage of the research process, from initial conception to dissemination of results. We will also discuss the increasing use of mixed methods and novel trial designs. One of these trial designs, the pragmatic trial, has the potential to be readily applied to evaluating the effectiveness of diagnostic imaging procedures and imaging-based interventions among diverse patient populations in real-world settings. PMID:24998691

  20. Characteristics and Methodological Quality of 25 Years of Research Investigating Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Anne; Sohl, Stephanie J.; Knapp-Oliver, Sarah K.; Schneider, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The considerable amount of research examining psychosocial interventions for cancer patients makes it important to examine its scope and methodological quality. This comprehensive overview characterizes the field with as few exclusions as possible. A systematic search strategy identified 673 reports comprising 488 unique projects conducted over a 25-year time span. Although the literature on this topic has grown over time, the research was predominantly conducted in the United States (57.0%), largely with breast cancer patients (included in 70.5% of the studies). The intervention approach used most frequently was cognitive behavioral (32.4%), the treatment goal was often improving quality of life generally (69.5%), and the professionals delivering the interventions were typically nurses (29.1%) or psychologists (22.7%). Overall, there was some discrepancy between the types of interventions studied and the types of supportive services available to and sought by cancer patients. Strengths of this research include using randomized designs (62.9%), testing for baseline group equivalence (84.5%), and monitoring treatment, which rose significantly from being used in 48.1% to 64.4% of projects over time. However, deficiencies in such areas as examining treatment mechanisms and the adequacy of reporting of methodology, essential for useful syntheses of research on these interventions, remain to be addressed. Methodological challenges related to the complexity of this applied research, such as participants seeking treatment outside of research, contamination, and reactions to randomization, also were apparent. Future research could benefit from closer interactions between academic and voluntary sectors and expanding the diversity of participants. PMID:19264411

  1. Evaluation of Policy and Research Interventions in Science and Technology: Consequence Assessment of Regulatory and Technology Transfer Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Mary Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    This research contributes to efforts in assessment studies related to science and technology interventions. The work presented in this thesis focuses on understanding the effects of policies that influence science and technology interventions, and determining the impact of science and technology interventions themselves. Chapter 1 explores how…

  2. Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Design Research on Self-Regulatory Interventions for Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Valerie; Albeg, Loren; Tung, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of self-regulatory interventions on reading, writing, and math by conducting a meta-analysis of single-case design research. Self-regulatory interventions have promise as an effective approach that is both minimally invasive and involves minimal resources. Effects of the interventions were analyzed by…

  3. Growing Trend of China's Contribution to Global Diabetes Research: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiyan; Guo, Liangqing; Yuan, Mingze; He, Xinhui; Lin, Yiqun; Gu, Chengjuan; Li, Qingwei; Zhao, Linhua; Tong, Xiaolin

    2016-05-01

    China, as a rapidly developing country with the largest population in the world, is playing an increasingly important role in diabetes research. There are >10,000 diabetes doctors who care for a large population of diabetic patients. The quantity and quality of research on diabetes from 3 major regions of China, including Mainland China (ML), Taiwan (TW), and Hong Kong (HK), is unknown. We aimed to analyze the contributions of each of these 3 regions to diabetes research.Articles on diabetes originating from ML, TW, and HK that were published from 2005 to 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The quantity of articles, citations, article types, and articles published in high-impact journals were analyzed.A total of 9302 articles were retrieved from the 3 regions of China. There were 6775 from ML, 1993 from TW, and 534 from HK, with an increasing trend in publications from 2005 to 2014. After 2006, the number of publications from ML exceeded TW and HK. The largest total number of citations (48,296) was from ML. The highest mean citations, however, were from HK (15.90). PLoS One was the most popular journal in all 3 regions. The greatest number of RCTs, clinical trials, meta-analyses, and articles published in high-impact journals were from ML.There has been a significant increase in the number of articles published on diabetes research from China during the past 10 years. Most of the articles were published by authors in ML, and an increasing trend began in 2006. HK had the highest quality research output in terms of mean citations per article. PMID:27149452

  4. Developing Internet-Based Health Interventions: A Guide for Public Health Researchers and Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Ecklund, Alexandra M; Hunt, Shanda L; Nelson, Toben F; Toomey, Traci L

    2015-01-01

    Background Researchers and practitioners interested in developing online health interventions most often rely on Web-based and print resources to guide them through the process of online intervention development. Although useful for understanding many aspects of best practices for website development, missing from these resources are concrete examples of experiences in online intervention development for health apps from the perspective of those conducting online health interventions. Objective This study aims to serve as a series of case studies in the development of online health interventions to provide insights for researchers and practitioners who are considering technology-based interventional or programmatic approaches. Methods A convenience sample of six study coordinators and five principal investigators at a large, US-based land grant university were interviewed about the process of developing online interventions in the areas of alcohol policy, adolescent health, medication adherence, and human immunodeficiency virus prevention in transgender persons and in men who have sex with men. Participants were asked questions that broadly addressed each of the four phases of the User-Centered Design Process Map from the US Department of Health and Human Services' Research-Based Web Design & Usability Guidelines. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Qualitative codes were developed using line-by-line open coding for all transcripts, and all transcripts were coded independently by at least 2 authors. Differences among coders were resolved with discussion. Results We identified the following seven themes: (1) hire a strong (or at least the right) research team, (2) take time to plan before beginning the design process, (3) recognize that vendors and researchers have differing values, objectives, and language, (4) develop a detailed contract, (5) document all decisions and development activities, (6) use a content management system, and (7) allow extra

  5. Trends in Study Methods Used in Undergraduate Medical Education Research, 1969–2007

    PubMed Central

    Baernstein, Amy; Liss, Hillary K.; Carney, Patricia A.; Elmore, Joann G.

    2011-01-01

    Context Evidence-based medical education requires rigorous studies appraising educational efficacy. Objectives To assess trends over time in methods used to evaluate undergraduate medical education interventions and to identify whether participation of medical education departments or centers is associated with more rigorous methods. Data Sources The PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry, Campbell Collaboration, and ERIC databases (January 1966–March 2007) were searched using terms equivalent to students, medical and education, medical crossed with all relevant study designs. Study Selection We selected publications in all languages from every fifth year, plus the most recent 12 months, that evaluated an educational intervention for undergraduate medical students. Four hundred seventy-two publications met criteria for review. Data Extraction Data were abstracted on number of participants; types of comparison groups; whether outcomes assessed were objective, subjective, and/or validated; timing of outcome assessments; funding; and participation of medical education departments and centers. Ten percent of publications were independently abstracted by 2 authors to assess validity of the data abstraction. Results The annual number of publications increased over time from 1 (1969–1970) to 147 (2006–2007). In the most recent year, there was a mean of 145 medical student participants; 9 (6%) recruited participants from multiple institutions; 80 (54%) used comparison groups; 37 (25%) used randomized control groups; 91 (62%) had objective outcomes; 23 (16%) had validated outcomes; 35 (24%) assessed an outcome more than 1 month later; 21 (14%) estimated statistical power; and 66 (45%) reported funding. In 2006–2007, medical education department or center participation, reported in 46 (31%) of the recent publications, was associated only with enrolling more medical student participants (P = .04); for all studies from 1969 to 2007, it was associated only with

  6. Articles Published in Six School Psychology Journals from 2005-2009: Where's the Intervention Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Victor; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; McCormick, Anita S.; Simek, Amber; Yoon, Hyunhee

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a content analysis of six school psychology journals spanning the years 2005-2009, with a particular focus on published intervention research. The analysis showed that (a) research articles were the most frequently published, with the largest category being descriptive research; (b) the percentage of intervention studies…

  7. Proceedings of the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Francesca C; Benson, Jody; Hanson, Stephanie; Mark, Carol; Wetovsky, Marvin A

    2004-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring, held 21-23 September, 2004 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  8. Interdisciplinary Research on Climate Change: Past Trends and Challenges for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlon, J. R.; Mitchell, R.

    2009-12-01

    Interdisciplinary research is crucial to understanding complex and urgent environmental problems, particularly climate change. Universities are increasingly hosting trans-, multi-, and inter-disciplinary workshops and conferences and developing innovative interdisciplinary training programs (e.g., NSF’s IGERT program) to foster such research. Yet, much doctoral training remains highly disciplinary with very little evidence of graduate training producing transformative research that bridges the natural/social-science divide. Indeed, strong cultural and institutional obstacles often deter or preclude doctoral students from conducting such research. Here we analyze the past three decades of climate-change related dissertation abstracts to assess the balance between disciplinary and interdisciplinary scholarship among young climate change scholars. We analyze trends in the number of dissertations in natural vs. social science disciplines and code the abstracts of over 500 recent dissertations to assess how many dissertations reference one or more disciplines beyond the PhD-granting one. This research is sponsored by the Dissertations Initiative for the Advancement of Climate Change Research (DISCCRS).

  9. Trends in research on energy balance supported by the National Cancer Institute.

    PubMed

    Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Siddiqi, Sameer M; Berrigan, David A; Ross, Sharon A; Nebeling, Linda C; Dowling, Emily C

    2013-04-01

    Over the past decade, the body of research linking energy balance to the incidence, development, progression, and treatment of cancer has grown substantially. No prior NIH portfolio analyses have focused on energy balance within one institute. This portfolio analysis describes the growth of National Cancer Institute (NCI) grant research on energy balance-related conditions and behaviors from 2004 to 2010 following the release of an NCI research priority statement in 2003 on energy balance and cancer-related research. Energy balance grants from fiscal years (FY) 2004 to 2010 were identified using multiple search terms and analyzed between calendar years 2008 and 2010. Study characteristics related to cancer site, design, population, and energy balance area (physical activity, diet, and weight) were abstracted. From FY2004 to FY2010, the NCI awarded 269 energy balance-relevant grants totaling $518 million. In FY2010, 4.2% of NCI's total research project grants budget was allocated to energy balance research, compared to 2.1% in FY2004. The NCI more than doubled support for investigator-initiated research project grants (R01) and increased support for cooperative agreement (U01, U54) and exploratory research (R21) grants. In the portfolio, research examining energy balance areas in combination accounted for 41.6%, and observational and interventional studies were equally represented (38.3% and 37.2%, respectively). Breast cancer was the most commonly studied cancer. Inclusion of minorities rose, and funding specific to cancer survivors more than doubled. From FY2004 to FY2010, NCI's investment in energy balance and related health behavior research showed growth in funding and diversity of mechanisms, topics, and disciplines-growth that reflects new directions in this field. PMID:23498109

  10. [Literature of so-called "clinical research": structure and trends, 1991-2010].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András; Somogyi, Anikó

    2014-11-30

    The authors studied trends and patterns in the literature of research labeled as clinical (i.e., having the word "clinical" in their title) in the period between 1991 and 2010. The main findings are: 1. The growth of the literature under study was somewhat stronger than that of the overall medical literature. 2. The dominance of the USA is strong but is challenged by some of the most rapidly developing countries (particularly in the Far-East region: China, Korea) in total production, and by the developed European countries in highly cited publications. The eminence of Italy is remarkable. 3. In comparing the medical fields, the most striking tendencies are the increase of oncology and the attenuation of internal medicine. Surgery is steadily growing in size but decreasing in its citation influence. 4. Word frequency studies support the ever growing weight of oncology and also of genetics. 5. Beyond the thematic changes, word frequency studies also reveal a substantial change in attitude: in the period under study more and more effort was made on emphasizing the usefulness, efficiency and risks of the results in contrast with the more descriptive, investigative approach of the past. The role of therapy is growing, the role of diagnostics is decreasing. The knowledge of these trends and patterns may orient health and science policy makers to cope appropriately with the ever changing world of clinical research. PMID:25417139

  11. Trends in radar: a U.S. Army Research Laboratory perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Eric; Dietlein, Charles; Hedden, Abigail; Martone, Anthony; Mitchell, Gregory; Zaghloul, Amir; Ranney, Kenneth; Dogaru, Traian; Gallagher, Kyle; Govoni, Mark A.

    2016-05-01

    Today's military radars are being challenged to satisfy multiple mission requirements and operate in complex, dynamic electromagnetic (EM) environments. They are simultaneously constrained by practical considerations like cost, size, weight and power (SWaP), and lifecycle requirements. Tomorrow's radars need to be resilient to changing operating environments and capable of doing more with fewer resources. Radar research supports this shift toward more agile and efficient radar systems, and current trends include modular hardware and software development for multi-purpose, scalable radio frequency (RF) solutions. Software-defined radios (SDRs) and other commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology are being used for flexible waveform generation, signal processing, and nontraditional radar applications. Adaptive RF technology, including apertures and other front-end components, are being developed for multi-purpose functionality and resiliency. Together, these research trends will result in a technology framework for more robust future systems that are capable of implementing cognitive processing techniques and adapting their behavior to meet the demands of a congested and contested EM environment.

  12. Living with HIV: Responses to a Mantram Intervention Using the Critical Incident Research Method

    PubMed Central

    Bormann, Jill E.; Shively, Martha; Kelly, Ann; Becker, Sheryl; Bone, Patricia; Belding, Wendy; Gifford, Allen L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The objective of this study was to identify and describe ways that a spiritually based intervention of silently repeating a mantram—sacred word or phrase—was used as a coping strategy for managing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Design The design was a qualitative research method, the critical incident technique. Settings/location The study was conducted at an academically affiliated Veterans Affairs Hospital in southern California. Subjects The subjects were outpatient adults living with HIV (n=32) who were receiving care through HIV clinics, community agencies, and HIV providers. Interventions Subjects who participated in the intervention arm of a randomized controlled trial that tested the efficacy of a 5-weekly group mantram intervention were interviewed 2 months postintervention. Follow-up telephone interviews were specifically aimed at identifying instances of mantram use, and also participant perceptions of intervention usefulness or nonusefulness. Outcome measures The outcome measures comprised categorization and comparison of the types and frequency of incidents reported, describing ways that the intervention was “helpful” or “not helpful” in managing stressors of HIV disease. Results Participants reported a total of 185 incidents. Analysis and classification of the incidents resulted in eight mutually exclusive categories, including Increasing calm and/or peace, Mastering the technique, Changing my viewpoint, Increasing personal awareness, Adjusting behaviors, Managing physical symptoms, Increasing spirituality, and Enhancing relationships. Conclusions This study shows support for the benefits of the mantram intervention for adults with HIV. Additionally, the spiritually based mantram repetition intervention was found to be more helpful in providing a convenient, portable tool for managing a wide range of situations related to living with HIV disease. PMID:22268972

  13. Evaluating interventions against Salmonella in broiler chickens: applying synthesis research in support of quantitative exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Bucher, O; Fazil, A; Rajić, A; Farrar, A; Wills, R; McEwen, S A

    2012-05-01

    A scoping study and systematic review-meta-analyses (SR-MAs) were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of various interventions for Salmonella in broiler chicken, from grow-out farm to secondary processing. The resulting information was used to inform a quantitative exposure assessment (QEA) comparing various control options within the context of broiler chicken production in Ontario, Canada. Multiple scenarios, including use of two separate on-farm interventions (CF3 competitive exclusion culture and a 2% lactose water additive), a package of processing interventions (a sodium hydroxide scald water disinfectant, a chlorinated post-evisceration spray, a trisodium phosphate pre-chill spray and chlorinated immersion chilling) a package consisting of these farm and processing interventions and a hypothetical scenario (reductions in between-flock prevalence and post-transport concentration), were simulated and compared to a baseline scenario. The package of on-farm and processing interventions was the most effective in achieving relative reductions (compared to baseline with no interventions) in the concentration and prevalence of Salmonella by the end of chilling ranging from 89·94% to 99·87% and 43·88% to 87·78%, respectively. Contaminated carcasses entering defeathering, reductions in concentration due to scalding and post-evisceration washing, and the potential for cross-contamination during chilling had the largest influence on the model outcomes under the current assumptions. Scoping study provided a transparent process for mapping out and selecting promising interventions, while SR-MA was useful for generating more precise and robust intervention effect estimates for QEA. Realization of the full potential of these methods was hampered by low methodological soundness and reporting of primary research in this area. PMID:21781371

  14. Increasing the prevalence of successful children: The case for community intervention research

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, Anthony; Metzler, Carol W.; Ary, Dennis V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper makes a case for research on community interventions on child rearing. Sufficient evidence has accumulated about the development of children's problem behavior to justify evaluating efforts to reduce the prevalence of these problems in whole communities. The contextual risk factors for diverse child behavior problems are well understood, and interventions to ameliorate individual risk factors have been developed and evaluated. Because interventions with individual children have proven to be efficacious, it is now appropriate to direct energy toward reducing the prevalence of children with behavior problems. At the same time, existing interventions have limitations. Community interventions may be needed to modify the larger social context for families. This paper enumerates possible components of a community intervention to improve child-rearing outcomes. Existing evidence indicates that communities would benefit from making parent training and family support programs available to parents. Validated methods of identifying and remediating academic and behavioral problems in schools are available, but influencing schools to adopt them remains a problem. Community organizing could mobilize communities to allocate the resources necessary to support such parenting and schooling programs as well as encourage their adoption. Media campaigns could foster community support and directly influence parenting practices. Efforts to modify peer influences to use illicit substances have received empirical support; similar efforts may be relevant to preventing other problems. The development of a science of community interventions on child rearing is hampered by overreliance on randomized control trials. For this reason, two examples of time-series experimental evaluations of community intervention components are described here. PMID:22478196

  15. Extensive Reading Interventions in Grades K-3: From Research to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scammacca, Nancy; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Wanzek, Jeanne; Torgesen, Joseph K.

    2007-01-01

    The report summarizes relevant high-quality research studies and synthesizes their findings to determine the relative effectiveness of interventions for struggling early readers. Additionally, the authors outline the implications of these findings for practice. Specific suggestions for implementing the findings are discussed in detail beginning on…

  16. A comprehensive evaluation of a community based participatory research intervention-Fit for Life Steps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study describes the process evaluation of Fit for Life Steps, a community-based participatory research-influenced intervention focused on improving physical activity and health. Process evaluation data were collected from participants, including volunteer coaches who led walking group members, ...

  17. Methods Used to Document Procedural Fidelity in School-Based Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, David; Hawkins, Renee; McCoy, Dacia; Wahl, Elaine; Shier, Ashley; Denune, Hilary; Kimener, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    There has been a paucity of guidance on the methodological details needed for measuring and sampling the independent variable or actual intervention occurrences in research and practice. Furthermore, the planning and support necessary to document the independent variable in both circumstances may be considerable. The current study extends prior…

  18. A Descriptive Analysis of Positive Behavioral Intervention Research with Young Children with Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Dunlap, Glen; Clarke, Shelley; Alter, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to critically examine the positive approaches to behavioral intervention research and young children demonstrating challenging behavior. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of articles published between 1984 and 2003 across 23 peer-reviewed journals. Each article that met the criteria for inclusion in the…

  19. Moving beyond Efficacy and Effectiveness in Child and Adolescent Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Greca, Annette M.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Lochman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This Special Section of the "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" focuses on research that extends beyond documenting the efficacy and effectiveness of specific psychological treatments or preventive interventions for children and youths. In the past 30 years, there have been remarkable advances in the development and evaluation of…

  20. Translating Basic Psychopathology Research to Preventive Interventions: A Tribute to John R. Z. Abela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Judy; Korelitz, Katherine; Samanez-Larkin, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights how the many important contributions of John R. Z. Abela's research program can inform the development and implementation of interventions for preventing depression in youth. Abela provided evidence of multiple vulnerabilities to depression including cognitive (e.g., inferential style, dysfunctional attitudes, ruminative…

  1. Use of Movement Imagery in Neurorehabilitation: Researching Effects of a Complex Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Susy M.; Wade, Derick T.; Beurskens, Anna J. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of the new millennium, the use of mental practice and movement imagery within several medical professions in rehabilitation and therapy has received an increased attention. Before this introduction in healthcare, the use of movement imagery was mainly researched in sports science. Mental practice is a complex intervention. When…

  2. Instructional Engineering Principles to Frame the Future of Reading Intervention Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I outline thoughts regarding the complexities and possibilities of the next generation of reading intervention for students who do not benefit from typical instructional practices. I ground my recommendations in school-based research and observations conducted primarily in kindergarten through third grade and more recently in…

  3. Evaluating the Impact of Interventions That Promote Successful Transitions from High School. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangser, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This research brief examines the challenges and opportunities presented in evaluating whether an intervention achieves defined goals of increasing students' educational attainment, employment, and earnings after high school. The report concludes that evaluations should: (1) Distinguish between gross outcomes (such as how many young people attend…

  4. Review of Teacher Involvement in the Applied Intervention Research for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; Shogren, Karrie; Chan, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Tonya; Lancioni, Giulio; Hopkins, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    This review examined the involvement of teachers in the intervention research for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from 1996 through February 2008. Forty-nine studies involving teachers of children with ASD were coded for different types of involvement. Findings are discussed in regards to three issues: (a) the manner in which…

  5. Using Action Research Interventions to Improve the Effectiveness of an Executive Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct an in-depth investigation of an executive team, to determine which internal and external factors impacted the team and to determine in what ways action research interventions improved the team's effectiveness. Methodology: The subjects in this study were seven members of a school district…

  6. Meta-Analysis of Interventions for Basic Mathematics Computation in Single-Case Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Methe, Scott A.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Neiman, Cheryl; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris

    2012-01-01

    This study examined interventions for addition and subtraction that were implemented through single-case design (SCD) research studies. We attempted to extend prior SCD meta-analyses by examining differences in effect sizes across several moderating variables and by including a novel index of effect, improvement rate difference (IRD). We also…

  7. Intervention Research to Benefit People with Autism: How Old Are the Participants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Timothy L.; Watkins, Erin E.; Lotfizadeh, Amin D.; Poling, Alan

    2012-01-01

    We determined the reported ages of participants with autism (or autism spectrum disorders) in 146 intervention research studies published recently in four prominent journals. Most participants were between two and eight years of age and only 1.7% of them were 20 or more years of age. These findings suggest that the special needs of older people…

  8. Technology Intervention Research with Deaf and Hard of Hearing Learners: Levels of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer; Cannon, Joanna E.

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated the research base relative to technology use with deaf and hard of hearing students, examining 29 peer-reviewed studies published January 2000-August 2013 that used technology-based intervention (multimedia instructional applications/software) and investigating its effects on academic variables (academic skills used in…

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Design Writing Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Leslie Ann; Graham, Steve

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable concern that students do not develop the writing skills needed for school, occupational, or personal success. A frequent explanation for this is that schools do not do a good job of teaching this complex skill. A recent meta-analysis of true- and quasi-experimental writing intervention research (S. Graham & D. Perin, 2007a)…

  10. Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research: Cold Plasma as a Nonthermal food processing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, and fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is an ongoing concern. The Food Safety and Intervention Technologies Research Unit develops and validates innovative approaches and new technologies that control pathogenic bacteria and viruses while preser...

  11. A comprehensive process evaluation of a community based participatory research intervention, Fit for Life Steps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive process evaluation of Fit for Life Steps (FFLS), a community based participatory research (CBPR) influenced intervention focused on improving physical activity and health in residents of the Lower Mississippi Delta. A comprehensive framework f...

  12. Research Trends of Soft Actuators based on Electroactive Polymers and Conducting Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneto, K.

    2016-04-01

    Artificial muscles (or soft actuators) based on electroactive polymers (EAPs) are attractive power sources to drive human-like robots in place of electrical motor, because they are quiet, powerful, light weight and compact. Among EAPs for soft actuators, conducting polymers are superior in strain, stress, deformation form and driving voltage compared with the other EAPs. In this paper, the research trends of EAPs and conducting polymers are reviewed by retrieval of the papers and patents. The research activity of EAP actuators showed the maximum around 2010 and somehow declining now days. The reasons for the reducing activity are found to be partly due to problems of conducting polymer actuators for the practical application. The unique characteristics of conducting polymer actuators are mentioned in terms of the basic mechanisms of actuation, creeping, training effect and shape retention under high tensile loads. The issues and limitation of conducting polymer soft actuators are discussed.

  13. Measurement of Religiosity/Spirituality in Adolescent Health Outcomes Research: Trends and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    McGrady, Meghan E.; Rosenthal, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between religious/spiritual (R/S) factors and adolescent health outcomes has been studied for decades; however, the R/S measurement tools used may not be developmentally relevant for adolescents. A systematic literature review was conducted to review and evaluate trends in measuring R/S in adolescent health outcomes research. In this review a total of 100 articles met criteria for inclusion. Relatively few (n = 15) included adolescent-specific R/S measures or items accounting for developmentally relevant issues such as parental religiosity or age-appropriate language. Future R/S and health research with adolescents would be strengthened by incorporating developmentally relevant R/S measurement tools, psychometrics, and multidimensional measures. PMID:20127172

  14. Interventions to Alleviate Symptoms Related to Breast Cancer Treatments and Areas of Needed Research

    PubMed Central

    Janelsins, Michelle C; Mustian, Karen M; Peppone, Luke J; Sprod, Lisa K; Shayne, Michelle; Mohile, Supriya; Chandwani, Kavita; Gewandter, Jennifer S; Morrow, Gary R

    2012-01-01

    Treatments for breast cancer produce a host of side effects, which can become debilitating. Some cancer treatment-related side effects occur in up to 90% of patients during treatment and can persist for months or years after treatment has ended. As the number of breast cancer survivors steadily increases, the need for cancer control intervention research to alleviate side effects also grows. This review provides a general overview of recent clinical research studies of selected topics in the areas of symptom management for breast cancer with a focus on cognitive difficulties, fatigue, cardiotoxicity, bone loss, insomnia, and cancer pain. We review both pharmacological and behavioral intervention clinical research studies, conducted with breast cancer patients and survivors. Additionally, clinical perspectives on symptom management and recommendations for areas of needed research are provided. PMID:22855701

  15. Experiences in implementation and publication of operations research interventions: gaps and a way forward

    PubMed Central

    Kalibala, Samuel; Woelk, Godfrey B; Gloyd, Stephen; Jani, Nrupa; Kay, Lynnette; Sarna, Avina; Okal, Jerry; Ndwiga, Charity; Haberland, Nicole; Sinai, Irit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction According to UNAIDS, the world currently has an adequate collection of proven HIV prevention, treatment and diagnostic tools, which, if scaled up, can lay the foundation for ending the AIDS epidemic. HIV operations research (OR) tests and promotes the use of interventions that can increase the demand for and supply of these tools. However, current publications of OR mainly focus on outcomes, leaving gaps in reporting of intervention characteristics, which are essential to address for the utilization of OR findings. This has prompted WHO and other international public health agencies to issue reporting requirements for OR studies. The objective of this commentary is to review experiences in HIV OR intervention design, implementation, process data collection and publication in order to identify gaps, contribute to the body of knowledge and propose a way forward to improve the focus on “implementation” in implementation research. Discussion Interventions in OR, like ordinary service delivery programmes, are subject to the programme cycle, which continually uses insights from implementation and the local context to modify service delivery modalities. Given that some of these modifications in the intervention may influence study outcomes, the documentation of process data becomes vital in OR. However, a key challenge is that study resources tend to be skewed towards documentation and the reporting of study outcomes to the detriment of process data, even though process data is vital for understanding factors influencing the outcomes. Conclusions Interventions in OR should be viewed using the lens of programme evaluation, which includes formative assessment (to determine concept and design), followed by process evaluation (to monitor inputs and outputs) and effectiveness evaluation (to assess outcomes and effectiveness). Study resources should be equitably used between process evaluation and outcome measurement to facilitate inclusion of data about

  16. Update on Smoking Cessation: E-Cigarettes, Emerging Tobacco Products Trends, and New Technology-Based Interventions.

    PubMed

    Das, Smita; Tonelli, Makenzie; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco use disorders (TUDs) continue to be overly represented in patients treated in mental health and addiction treatment settings. It is the most common substance use disorder (SUD) and the leading cause of health disparities and increased morbidity/mortality amongst individuals with a psychiatric disorder. There are seven Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medications and excellent evidence-based psychosocial treatment interventions to use in TUD treatment. In the past few years, access to and use of other tobacco or nicotine emerging products are on the rise, including the highly publicized electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). There has also been a proliferation of technology-based interventions to support standard TUD treatment, including mobile apps and web-based interventions. These tools are easily accessed 24/7 to support outpatient treatment. This update will review the emerging products and counter-measure intervention technologies, including how clinicians can integrate these tools and other community-based resources into their practice. PMID:27040275

  17. The Internal Structure and Ecological Context of Coparenting: A Framework for Research and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Research on coparenting has grown over the past decade, supporting a view of coparenting as a central element of family life that influences parental adjustment, parenting, and child outcomes. This article introduces a multi-domain conception of coparenting that organizes existing research and paves the way for future research and intervention. This article advances a conceptualization of how coparenting domains influence parental adjustment, parenting, and child adjustment. An ecological model that outlines influences on coparenting relationships, as well as mediating and moderating pathways, is described. Areas of future research in the developmental course of coparenting relationships are noted. PMID:21980259

  18. Substance Use Disorders and HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment Intervention: Research and Practice Considerations

    PubMed Central

    CAMPBELL, AIMEE N. C.; TROSS, SUSAN; CALSYN, DONALD A.

    2013-01-01

    Social workers are often on the front lines of the HIV/AIDS epidemic – delivering prevention education and interventions, offering or linking individuals to HIV testing, and working to improve treatment access, retention, and adherence, especially among vulnerable populations. Individuals with substance use disorders face additional challenges to reducing sexual and drug risk behaviors, as well as barriers to testing, treatment, and antiretroviral therapy adherence. This paper presents current data on HIV transmission and research evidence on prevention and intervention with substance abusers and highlights how individual social workers can take advantage of this knowledge in practice and through adoption and implementation within organizations. PMID:23731423

  19. Improving Control System Security through the Evaluation of Current Trends in Computer Security Research

    SciTech Connect

    Rolston

    2005-03-01

    At present, control system security efforts are primarily technical and reactive in nature. What has been overlooked is the need for proactive efforts, focused on the IT security research community from which new threats might emerge. Evaluating cutting edge IT security research and how it is evolving can provide defenders with valuable information regarding what new threats and tools they can anticipate in the future. Only known attack methodologies can be blocked, and there is a gap between what is known to the general security community and what is being done by cutting edge researchers --both those trying to protect systems and those trying to compromise them. The best security researchers communicate with others in their field; they know what cutting edge research is being done; what software can be penetrated via this research; and what new attack techniques and methodologies are being circulated in the black hat community. Standardization of control system applications, operating systems, and networking protocols is occurring at a rapid rate, following a path similar to the standardization of modern IT networks. Many attack methodologies used on IT systems can be ported over to the control system environment with little difficulty. It is extremely important to take advantage of the lag time between new research, its use on traditional IT networks, and the time it takes to port the research over for use on a control system network. Analyzing nascent trends in IT security and determining their applicability to control system networks provides significant information regarding defense mechanisms needed to secure critical infrastructure more effectively. This work provides the critical infrastructure community with a better understanding of how new attacks might be launched, what layers of defense will be needed to deter them, how the attacks could be detected, and how their impact could be limited.

  20. A research synthesis of therapeutic interventions for whiplash-associated disorder (WAD): Part 4 – noninvasive interventions for chronic WAD

    PubMed Central

    Teasell, Robert W; McClure, J Andrew; Walton, David; Pretty, Jason; Salter, Katherine; Meyer, Matthew; Sequeira, Keith; Death, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a significant public health problem, resulting in substantial social and economic costs throughout the industrialized world. While many treatments have been advocated for patients with WAD, scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness is often lacking. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the strength of evidence for various WAD therapies. Multiple databases (including Web of Science, EMBASE and PubMed) were searched to identify all studies published from January 1980 through March 2009 that evaluated the effectiveness of any clearly defined treatment for acute (less than two weeks), subacute (two to 12 weeks) or chronic (longer than 12 weeks) WAD. The present article, the fourth in a five-part series, evaluates the evidence for noninvasive interventions initiated during the chronic phase of WAD. Twenty-two studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified, 12 of which were randomized controlled trials with ‘good’ overall methodological quality (median Physiotherapy Evidence Database score of 6). For the treatment of chronic WAD, there is evidence to suggest that exercise programs are effective in relieving whiplash-related pain, at least over the short term. While the majority of a subset of nine studies supported the effectiveness of interdisciplinary interventions, the two randomized controlled trials provided conflicting results. Finally, there was limited evidence, consisting of one supportive case series each, that both manual joint manipulation and myofeedback training may provide some benefit. Based on the available research, exercise programs were the most effective noninvasive treatment for patients with chronic WAD, although many questions remain regarding the relative effectiveness of various exercise regimens. PMID:21038010

  1. Research on rehabilitation interventions for adults living with HIV: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Marianne E; Nixon, Stephanie A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to use a scoping review to investigate the extent, range, and nature of research on rehabilitation interventions for adults living with HIV. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and PsychINFO) and reference lists of the included articles were searched. Authors were emailed when possible for unavailable articles. A total of 897 titles and abstracts were retrieved. Thirty-three articles were included. There were 27 different rehabilitation interventions delivered by 18 professions. The studies were completed in four different countries. Most studies were published in 2008. A randomized-controlled trial was the most used method. The nature of the studies was analyzed according to the three-core concepts of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: 28 studies addressed impairments; six studies addressed activity limitations; and 14 studies addressed participation restrictions. This scoping study advances the knowledge of research on rehabilitation interventions for adults living with HIV. More research on rehabilitation interventions is needed in sub-Saharan Africa and other low-income and middle-income countries to ensure that these individuals are receiving the best possible care. There is a need for the HIV field to recognize the important contribution of rehabilitation toward the HIV care continuum. PMID:27028287

  2. Formative research methods for designing culturally appropriate, integrated child nutrition and development interventions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Margaret E; Johnson, Susan L; Wasser, Heather; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Shroff, Monal; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia; Cunningham, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional and developmental insults in the first few years of life have profound public health implications, including substantial contributions to neonatal, infant, and early childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as longer term effects on cognitive development, school achievement, and worker productivity. Optimal development that can lead to the attainment of an individual's fullest potential, therefore, requires a combination of genetic capacity, adequate nutrition, psychosocial stimulation, and safe, clean physical environments. Researchers and policymakers have called for integrated child nutrition and development interventions for more than 20 years, yet there are only a handful of efficacy trials and even fewer examples of integrated interventions that have been taken to scale. While a critical component in the design of such interventions is formative research, there is a dearth of information in both the literature and policy arenas to guide this phase of the process. To move the field forward, this paper first provides an overview of formative research methods with a focus on qualitative inquiry, a description of the critical domains to be assessed (infant and young child feeding, responsive feeding, and child development), and currently available resources. Application of these methods is provided through a real-world case study--the design of an integrated nutrition and child development efficacy trial in Andhra Pradesh, India. Recommendations for next steps are discussed, the most important of which is the need for a comprehensive set of formative guidelines for designing locally tailored, culturally appropriate, integrated interventions. PMID:24673167

  3. Designing interventions that include delayed reinforcement: implications of recent laboratory research.

    PubMed Central

    Stromer, R; McComas, J J; Rehfeldt, R A

    2000-01-01

    The search for robust and durable interventions in everyday situations typically involves the use of delayed reinforcers, sometimes delivered well after a target behavior occurs. Integrating the findings from laboratory research on delayed reinforcement can contribute to the design and analysis of those applied interventions. As illustrations, we examine articles from the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior that analyzed delayed reinforcement with respect to response allocation (A. M. Williams & Lattal, 1999), stimulus chaining (B. A. Williams, 1999), and self-control (Jackson & Hackenberg, 1996). These studies help to clarify the conditions under which delayed reinforcement (a) exercises control of behavior, (b) entails conditioned reinforcement, and (c) displaces the effects of immediate reinforcement. The research has applied implications, including the development of positive social behavior and teaching people to make adaptive choices. DESCRIPTORS: delayed reinforcement, response allocation, stimulus chains, self-control, integration of basic and applied research PMID:11051582

  4. Global trends of research on emerging contaminants in the environment and humans: a literature assimilation.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Wei, Yan-Li; Yao, Yao; Ruan, Qin-Qin; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2015-02-01

    Available literature data on five typical groups of emerging contaminants (EMCs), i.e., chlorinated paraffins (CPs), dechlorane plus and related compounds (DPs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), phthalate esters, and pyrethroids, accumulated between 2003 and 2013 were assimilated. Research efforts were categorized by environmental compartments and countries, so that global trends of research on EMCs and data gaps can be identified. The number of articles on the target EMCs ranged from 126 to 1,379 between 2003 and 2013. The numbers of articles on CPs, DPs, HBCDs, and pyrethroids largely followed the sequence of biota > sediment ≥ air > water ≥ soil > human tissue, whereas the sequence for phthalate esters was water > sediment > soil > human tissue ≥ biota ≥ air. Comprehensive studies on the target EMCs in biological samples and human tissues have been conducted worldwide. However, investigations into the occurrence of the target EMCs in soil of background areas and water are still scarce. Finally, developed and moderately developed countries, such as the USA, China, Canada, Japan, and Germany, were the main contributors to the global research efforts on EMCs, suggesting that economic prosperity may be one of the main factors propelling scientific research on EMCs. PMID:25096494

  5. Psychological research with Muslim Americans in the age of Islamophobia: trends, challenges, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Amer, Mona M; Bagasra, Anisah

    2013-04-01

    Like other minority groups in North America, Muslim Americans have been largely ignored in the psychological literature. The overwhelming pressures faced by this group, including surveillance, hate crimes, and institutional discrimination, stimulate an urgent need for psychologists to better understand and ensure the well-being of this population. This article reviews challenges in conducting research with Muslim Americans in order to offer recommendations for culturally sensitive approaches that can enhance the growth of future scholarship. We first contextualize this endeavor by assessing trends in psychological scholarship pertinent to Muslims in North America over the past two decades. A total of 559 relevant publications were identified through a PsycINFO database search. The 10 years post 9/11 saw a more than 900% increase in the annual number of publications, paralleling a national interest in the Muslim American community subsequent to the World Trade Center attacks. Researchers who conducted these studies faced numerous barriers, including unclear definition of the target sample, unavailability of culturally sensitive measures, sampling difficulties, and obstacles to participant recruitment. To navigate these challenges, we provide a framework for effective research design along the continuum of the research process from study conceptualization to dissemination of results. The challenges and recommendations are illustrated with examples from previous studies. PMID:23586489

  6. Characteristics and Trends of Published Adult Hip Research over the Last Decade

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Hong Suk; Yoon, Pil Whan; Park, Moon Seok; Kim, Hee Joong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We designed this study to demonstrate recent trends in the proportion of adult hip research in orthopedics, to identify countries leading the adult hip research, and to evaluate the relationship between the economic power of the countries and their contributions. Materials and Methods Studies published in seven select orthopedic journals were retrieved from PubMed. Among them, we determined the number of adult hip studies. The countries-of-origin of adult hip studies, and the economic power of the countries were investigated. Results A total of 7218 orthopedic publications and 1993 (27.6%) addressed adult hip research were identified. Adult hip studies increased from 313 (23.7%) in 2000 to 555 (27.9%) in 2011. Twenty-five countries accounted for 97.6% of the total number of adult hip studies, and gross domestic product correlated with publication volume (Spearman's rho, 0.723; p=0.000). Conclusion Researchers from a limited number of developed countries have published their studies in the adult hip discipline. PMID:25510756

  7. Intervention, integration and translation in obesity research: Genetic, developmental and metaorganismal approaches

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is the focus of multiple lines of inquiry that have -- together and separately -- produced many deep insights into the physiology of weight gain and maintenance. We examine three such streams of research and show how they are oriented to obesity intervention through multilevel integrated approaches. The first research programme is concerned with the genetics and biochemistry of fat production, and it links metabolism, physiology, endocrinology and neurochemistry. The second account of obesity is developmental and draws together epigenetic and environmental explanations that can be embedded in an evolutionary framework. The third line of research focuses on the role of gut microbes in the production of obesity, and how microbial activities interact with host genetics, development and metabolism. These interwoven explanatory strategies are driven by an orientation to intervention, both for experimental and therapeutic outcomes. We connect the integrative and intervention-oriented aspects of obesity research through a discussion of translation, broadening the concept to capture the dynamic, iterative processes of scientific practice and therapy development. This system-oriented analysis of obesity research expands the philosophical scrutiny of contemporary developments in the biosciences and biomedicine, and has the potential to enrich philosophy of science and medicine. PMID:21276254

  8. Economic Analysis of Nutrition Interventions for Chronic Disease Prevention: Methods, Research, and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, John B.; Coates, Paul M.; Russell, Robert M.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Schuttinga, James A.; Bowman, Barbara A.; Peterson, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Increased interest in the potential societal benefit of incorporating health economics as a part of clinical translational science, particularly nutrition interventions, led the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health to sponsor a conference to address key questions about economic analysis of nutrition interventions to enhance communication among health economic methodologists, researchers, reimbursement policy makers, and regulators. Issues discussed included the state of the science, such as what health economic methods are currently used to judge the burden of illness, interventions, or health care policies, and what new research methodologies are available or needed to address knowledge and methodological gaps or barriers. Research applications included existing evidence-based health economic research activities in nutrition that are ongoing or planned at federal agencies. International and U.S. regulatory, policy and clinical practice perspectives included a discussion of how research results can help regulators and policy makers within government make nutrition policy decisions, and how economics affects clinical guideline development. PMID:21884133

  9. Dietetics trends as reflected in various primary research projects, 1995-2011.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Dick

    2012-03-01

    At the behest of the Commission on Dietetic Registration (CDR) Workforce Demand Task Force, a retrospective examination and reanalysis of 12 primary research projects (sponsored by CDR and/or the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics between 1995 and 2011) was undertaken to identify trends in supply of and demand for registered dietitians (RDs) and dietetic technicians, registered (DTRs). The analysis suggests that supply of RDs (and possibly DTRs) lags slightly behind demand-although, in the case of DTRs, that does not necessarily imply that demand is growing (supply was shrinking throughout most of the study period). The population of both groups is aging, and the number of RDs and DTRs reporting expected retirement in the near future is sure to affect supply/demand relationships. Neither group reflects the US population as a whole in terms of either sex or racial/ethnic diversity, and the trend lines in these areas are essentially flat. RD practice is seen to be moving incrementally toward the clinical arena, in inpatient and (increasingly) outpatient settings. The proportion of RDs in clinical long-term-care, as well as in food/nutrition management and consultation/business practice, is decreasing; a longer-term trend away from foodservice is noted. There is small growth in both the prevalence and the compensation of clinical specialists in areas like renal, pediatrics, and weight management at the expense of more general clinical practitioners. In a trend likely related to the increase in clinical practice, RD positions are gradually losing managerial responsibility. DTRs have experienced a similar phenomenon. For almost all RD positions in the clinical arena, registration as an RD is a requirement for employment, suggesting that clinical employment should continue to grow along with the increasing health care demand from an aging population. The DTR credential is not required at similarly high rates. A major supply issue is the relative shortage of DTRs in

  10. Adapting Practice-Based Intervention Research to Electronic Environments: Opportunities and Complexities at Two Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Stille, Christopher J.; Lockhart, Steven A.; Maertens, Julie A.; Madden, Christi A.; Darden, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Primary care practice-based research has become more complex with increased use of electronic health records (EHRs). Little has been reported about changes in study planning and execution that are required as practices change from paper-based to electronic-based environments. We describe the evolution of a pediatric practice-based intervention study as it was adapted for use in the electronic environment, to enable other practice-based researchers to plan efficient, effective studies. Methods: We adapted a paper-based pediatric office-level intervention to enhance parent-provider communication about subspecialty referrals for use in two practice-based research networks (PBRNs) with partially and fully electronic environments. We documented the process of adaptation and its effect on study feasibility and efficiency, resource use, and administrative and regulatory complexities, as the study was implemented in the two networks. Results: Considerable time and money was required to adapt the paper-based study to the electronic environment, requiring extra meetings with institutional EHR-, regulatory-, and administrative teams, and increased practice training. Institutional unfamiliarity with using EHRs in practice-based research, and the consequent need to develop new policies, were major contributors to delays. Adapting intervention tools to the EHR and minimizing practice disruptions was challenging, but resulted in several efficiencies as compared with a paper-based project. In particular, recruitment and tracking of subjects and data collection were easier and more efficient. Conclusions: Practice-based intervention research in an electronic environment adds considerable cost and time at the outset of a study, especially for centers unfamiliar with such research. Efficiencies generated have the potential of easing the work of study enrollment, subject tracking, and data collection. PMID:25848633

  11. Adult Education Research in the Countries in Transition. Adult Education Research Trends in the Former Socialist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic Region. Research Project Report. Studies and Researches 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelenc, Zoran

    This document presents results of an investigation into the state of the art of research on the education of adults in Central and Eastern European and Baltic countries. The first section discusses the background and implementation of the research. Section 2 is "Adult Education Research Trends in Central and Eastern Europe: Research Project…

  12. Some current trends in Milky Way research (the Henry Norris Russell Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bok, B. J.

    1983-10-01

    A discussion is presented of the Milky Way Galaxy research trends that have recently established a far greater mass and a greater outward extent for the Galaxy than would have been considered likely only 7-8 years ago. The maximum radius of the Galaxy circa 1975 was believed to be of the order of 20 kpc. The new radius is at least three times, and possibly as much as five times, greater than the earlier value. Attention is given to such pertinent topics as the general luminosity function near the central plane of the disk, space densities at different distances from the galactic plane, the galactic corona, spiral structure studies, giant molecular clouds, and bipolar ejections.

  13. Main trends in experimental morphological research in angiology and outlook for its development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzhavakhishvili, N. A.; Melman, Y. P.

    1980-01-01

    The main prospective trends in the problem of collateral circulation and new trends in experimental angiology with respect to the effect of gravitational forces, hypodynamia and hypokinesia on the vascular bed are discussed.

  14. How to Increase Reach and Adherence of Web-Based Interventions: A Design Research Viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Ludden, Geke D S; van Rompay, Thomas J L; Kelders, Saskia M; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, technology is increasingly used to increase people's well-being. For example, many mobile and Web-based apps have been developed that can support people to become mentally fit or to manage their daily diet. However, analyses of current Web-based interventions show that many systems are only used by a specific group of users (eg, women, highly educated), and that even they often do not persist and drop out as the intervention unfolds. In this paper, we assess the impact of design features of Web-based interventions on reach and adherence and conclude that the power that design can have has not been used to its full potential. We propose looking at design research as a source of inspiration for new (to the field) design approaches. The paper goes on to specify and discuss three of these approaches: personalization, ambient information, and use of metaphors. Central to our viewpoint is the role of positive affect triggered by well-designed persuasive features to boost adherence and well-being. Finally, we discuss the future of persuasive eHealth interventions and suggest avenues for follow-up research. PMID:26163456

  15. How to Increase Reach and Adherence of Web-Based Interventions: A Design Research Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, technology is increasingly used to increase people’s well-being. For example, many mobile and Web-based apps have been developed that can support people to become mentally fit or to manage their daily diet. However, analyses of current Web-based interventions show that many systems are only used by a specific group of users (eg, women, highly educated), and that even they often do not persist and drop out as the intervention unfolds. In this paper, we assess the impact of design features of Web-based interventions on reach and adherence and conclude that the power that design can have has not been used to its full potential. We propose looking at design research as a source of inspiration for new (to the field) design approaches. The paper goes on to specify and discuss three of these approaches: personalization, ambient information, and use of metaphors. Central to our viewpoint is the role of positive affect triggered by well-designed persuasive features to boost adherence and well-being. Finally, we discuss the future of persuasive eHealth interventions and suggest avenues for follow-up research. PMID:26163456

  16. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress biology research join forces

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child’s body, alterations which may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathology and for society, and we recommend that stress-biology research and intervention science join forces to tackle the problem. We examine the evidence base in relation to stress-sensitive measures for the body (inflammatory reactions, telomere erosion, epigenetic methylation, and gene expression) and brain (mental disorders, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing). We also review promising interventions for families, couples, and children that have been designed to reduce the effects of childhood violence exposure. We invite intervention scientists and stress-biology researchers to collaborate in adding stress-biology measures to randomized clinical trials of interventions intended to reduce effects of violence exposure and other traumas on young people. PMID:24342859

  17. Using ethnography in implementation research to improve nutrition interventions in populations.

    PubMed

    Tumilowicz, Alison; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Pelto, Gretel H

    2015-12-01

    'Implementation research in nutrition' is an emerging area of study aimed at building evidence-based knowledge and sound theory to design and implement programs that will effectively deliver nutrition interventions. This paper describes some of the basic features of ethnography and illustrates its applications in components of the implementation process. We review the central purpose of ethnography, which is to obtain the emic view--the insider's perspective--and how ethnography has historically interfaced with nutrition. We present examples of ethnographic studies in relation to an analytic framework of the implementation process, situating them with respect to landscape analysis, formative research, process evaluation and impact evaluation. These examples, conducted in various parts of the world by different investigators, demonstrate how ethnography provided important, often essential, insights that influenced programming decisions or explained programme outcomes. Key messages Designing, implementing and evaluating interventions requires knowledge about the populations and communities in which interventions are situated, including knowledge from the 'emic' (insider's) perspective. Obtaining emic perspectives and analysing them in relation to cultural, economic and structural features of social organisation in societies is a central purpose of ethnography. Ethnography is an essential aspect of implementation research in nutrition, as it provides important insights for making decisions about appropriate interventions and delivery platforms; determining how best to fit aspects of programme design and implementation into different environmental and cultural contexts; opening the 'black box' in interventions to understand how delivery and utilisation processes affect programme outcomes or impacts; and understanding how programme impacts were achieved, or not. PMID:26778802

  18. Alcohol and Sexuality Research in the AIDS Era: Trends in Publication Activity, Target Populations and Research Design

    PubMed Central

    George, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Research addressing relationships between alcohol and human sexuality has proliferated, due in part to efforts to characterize alcohol's role in HIV risk behavior. This study provides a descriptive review of the alcohol–sexuality literature, using abstracts from 264 identified studies to estimate changes in publication activity, target populations, and the prevalence of HIV-related studies over time. We also examine methodological trends by estimating the prevalence of experimental vs. non-experimental studies. Findings show considerable increases in research activity and diversity of populations studied since the mid-1980's and highlight the emergence of HIV-related studies as a focal point of alcohol–sexuality research efforts. Results also demonstrate a substantial decline in the proportion of studies utilizing experimental methods, in part because of frequent use of non-experimental approaches in studies of alcohol and HIV risk behavior. We discuss implications and review the role of experiments in evaluating causal relationships between alcohol and sexual risk behavior. PMID:16897352

  19. Trends and Recent Estimates: Contraceptive Use among U.S. Teens. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2006-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzetta, Kerry; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Manlove, Jennifer; Ikramullah, Erum

    2006-01-01

    This Research Brief draws on recently released nationally representative data to provide information on teenagers' patterns of contraceptive use during heterosexual, vaginal intercourse. In this brief, the authors examine these patterns for males and females, for members of racial and ethnic groups, and for younger and older teenagers. Among the…

  20. Annual CPS Test Trend Review, 2000. Research Data Brief. Academic Productivity Series, 2000 Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, John Q.; Rosenkranz, Todd; Bryk, Anthony S.

    This report presents elementary school test trend data for the Chicago Public Schools (CPS), Illinois for 2000 for the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS). In spring 2000, ITBS trend data show that mathematics test scores in the CPS elementary schools continue their long-term improvements for all age levels. Positive trends in ITBS reading scores…

  1. A new research trend in social neuroscience: Towards an interactive-brain neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Pelowski, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    The ability to flexibly modulate our behaviors in social contexts and to successfully interact with other persons is a fundamental, but pivotal, requirement for human survival. Although previous social neuroscience research with single individuals has contributed greatly to our understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying social perception and social emotions, much of the dynamic nature of interactions between persons remains beyond the reach of single-brain studies. This has led to a growing argument for a shift to the simultaneous measurement of the brain activity of two or more individuals in realistic social interactions-an approach termed "hyperscanning." Although this approach offers important promise in unlocking the brain's role in truly social situations, there are multiple procedural and theoretical questions that require review and analysis. In this paper we discuss this research trend from four aspects: hyperscanning apparatus, experimental task, quantification method, and theoretical interpretation. We also give four suggestions for future research: (a) electroencephalography and near-infrared spectroscopy are useful tools by which to explore the interactive brain in more ecological settings; (b) games are an appropriate method to simulate daily life interactions; (c) transfer entropy may be an important method by which to quantify directed exchange of information between brains; and (d) more explanation is needed of the results of interbrain synchronization itself. PMID:26271937

  2. Visualization analysis of research frontiers and trends in nerve regeneration and osseoperception in the repair of tooth loss

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoge; Tang, Tian; Zhao, Zhihe; Zheng, Leilei; Ding, Yin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed 85 articles indexed by the Web of Science concerning nerve regeneration and osseoperception during tooth loss repair. Using the Web of Science database and Citespace III software, a document co-citation network map was drawn by document co-citation analysis and word frequency analysis methods. Combined with emergent node secondary literature retrieval, subject headings with apparent changing word frequency trends were retrieved so as to identify research frontiers and development trends. Research frontiers and hotspots for neuronal calcium sensor protein were quantitatively explored to forecast future research developments in nerve regeneration and osseoperception during repair of tooth loss. PMID:25598785

  3. Connecting active living research and public policy: transdisciplinary research and policy interventions to increase physical activity.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Joseph M; Giles-Corti, Billie; Sallis, James F

    2009-01-01

    National and international organizations recommend creation of environments that support physical activity where people live, work, play, study, and travel. Policy changes can lead to activity-supportive environments and incentives. Research on environmental and policy influences on physical activity is well underway in many countries. An important use of the research is to inform policy debates, but the "translation" of research to policy is an emerging science. The papers in this supplement were presented at the 2008 Active Living Research Conference whose theme was "Connecting Active Living Research to Policy Solutions." The papers include evaluations of policy initiatives and research that suggests promising new policies. Commentaries propose principles for improving the translation of research to policy. Improving the rigor of research, asking policy-relevant questions, presenting country-specific data, and effectively communicating findings to policy makers are likely to contribute to greater impact of research on policy processes. PMID:19190567

  4. Research Trends in Science Education from 2008 to 2012: A Systematic Content Analysis of Publications in Selected Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the third study of research trends in science education. In this review, a total of 990 papers published in the "International Journal of Science Education," the "Journal of Research in Science Teaching," and "Science Education" from 2008 to 2012 were analyzed. The results indicate that in the…

  5. Delimiting the Problem of Generalizability of Research Results: An Example from a Trend Study of a Citizenship Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.; Grant, Evelyn T.

    1984-01-01

    How social studies researchers can use National Assessment of Educational Progress Public Use Data File tapes to delimit the problem of generalizability of research results is described. An example using data from a trend study of a citizenship education project is used to demonstrate the procedure. (Author/RM)

  6. Comment on Technology-Based Intervention Research for Individuals on the Autism Spectrum.

    PubMed

    McCleery, Joseph P

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this letter to the editor is to comment on several review papers recently published in the current Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Special Issue on Technology: Software, Robotics, and Translational Science. These reviews address a variety of aspects relating to technology-aided intervention and instruction for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Here, I comment on and evaluate the overall status of research and development in this area, including reflection on current challenges in this area in the context of previous challenges and resolutions in behavioral intervention research. From these reviews and the current evaluation, I further discuss important next steps for the field which may be critical for guiding progress toward meaningful impacts upon individuals with ASD. PMID:26537909

  7. Reading interventions for struggling readers in the upper elementary grades: a synthesis of 20 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Ciullo, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A synthesis of the extant research on reading interventions for students with reading difficulties and disabilities in fourth and fifth grade (ages 9–11) is presented. Thirteen studies with treatment/comparison study designs and eleven single group or single subject studies were located and synthesized. Findings from the 24 studies revealed high effects for comprehension interventions on researcher-developed comprehension measures. Word recognition interventions yielded small to moderate effects on a range of reading outcomes. Few studies were located implementing vocabulary and multi-component interventions. PMID:21072128

  8. Interventions for comorbid problem gambling and psychiatric disorders: Advancing a developing field of research.

    PubMed

    Dowling, N A; Merkouris, S S; Lorains, F K

    2016-07-01

    Despite significant psychiatric comorbidity in problem gambling, there is little evidence on which to base treatment recommendations for subpopulations of problem gamblers with comorbid psychiatric disorders. This mini-review draws on two separate systematic searches to identify possible interventions for comorbid problem gambling and psychiatric disorders, highlight the gaps in the currently available evidence base, and stimulate further research in this area. In this mini-review, only 21 studies that have conducted post-hoc analyses to explore the influence of psychiatric disorders or problem gambling subtypes on gambling outcomes from different types of treatment were identified. The findings of these studies suggest that most gambling treatments are not contraindicated by psychiatric disorders. Moreover, only 6 randomized studies comparing the efficacy of interventions targeted towards specific comorbidity subgroups with a control/comparison group were identified. The results of these studies provide preliminary evidence for modified dialectical behavior therapy for comorbid substance use, the addition of naltrexone to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for comorbid alcohol use problems, and the addition of N-acetylcysteine to tobacco support programs and imaginal desensitisation/motivational interviewing for comorbid nicotine dependence. They also suggest that lithium for comorbid bipolar disorder, escitalopram for comorbid anxiety disorders, and the addition of CBT to standard drug treatment for comorbid schizophrenia may be effective. Future research evaluating interventions sequenced according to disorder severity or the functional relationship between the gambling behavior and comorbid symptomatology, identifying psychiatric disorders as moderators of the efficacy of problem gambling interventions, and evaluating interventions matched to client comorbidity could advance this immature field of study. PMID:26900888

  9. Integrating basic research with prevention/intervention to reduce risky substance use among college students

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Danielle M.; Hancock, Linda C.

    2015-01-01

    Too often basic research on etiological processes that contribute to substance use outcomes is disconnected from efforts to develop prevention and intervention programming. Substance use on college campuses is an area of concern where translational efforts that bring together basic scientists and prevention/intervention practitioners have potential for high impact. We describe an effort at a large, public, urban university in the United States to bring together researchers across the campus with expertise in college behavioral health with university administration and health/wellness practitioners to address college student substance use and mental health. The project “Spit for Science” examines how genetic and environmental influences contribute to behavioral health outcomes across the college years. We argue that findings coming out of basic research can be used to develop more tailored prevention and intervention programming that incorporates both biologically and psychosocially influenced risk factors. Examples of personalized programming suggest this may be a fruitful way to advance the field and reduce risky substance use. PMID:25999878

  10. Strategies for mHealth research: lessons from 3 mobile intervention studies

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Zeev, Dror; Schueller, Stephen M.; Begale, Mark; Duffecy, Jennifer; Kane, John M.; Mohr, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity of Mobile Health (mHealth) technologies to propel healthcare forward is directly linked to the quality of mobile interventions developed through careful mHealth research. mHealth research entails several unique characteristics, including collaboration with technologists at all phases of a project, reliance on regional telecommunication infrastructure and commercial mobile service providers, and deployment and evaluation of interventions “in the wild”, with participants using mobile tools in uncontrolled environments. In the current paper, we summarize the lessons our multi-institutional/multi-disciplinary team has learned conducting a range of mHealth projects using mobile phones with diverse clinical populations. First, we describe three ongoing projects that we draw from to illustrate throughout the paper. We then provide an example for multidisciplinary teamwork and conceptual mHealth intervention development that we found to be particularly useful. Finally, we discuss mHealth research challenges (i.e. evolving technology, mobile phone selection, user characteristics, the deployment environment, and mHealth system “bugs and glitches”), and provide recommendations for identifying and resolving barriers, or preventing their occurrence altogether. PMID:24824311

  11. Research Status and Development Trend of Remote Sensing in China Using Bibliometric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y.; Zhang, J.; Niu, R.

    2015-06-01

    Remote sensing was introduced into China in 1970s and then began to flourish. At present, China has developed into a big remote sensing country, and remote sensing is increasingly playing an important role in various fields of national economic construction and social development. Based on China Academic Journals Full-text Database and China Citation Database published by China National Knowledge Infrastructure, this paper analyzed academic characteristics of 963 highly cited papers published by 16 professional and academic journals in the field of surveying and mapping from January 2010 to December 2014 in China, which include hot topics, literature authors, research institutions, and fundations. At the same time, it studied a total of 51,149 keywords published by these 16 journals during the same period. Firstly by keyword selection, keyword normalization, keyword consistency and keyword incorporation, and then by analysis of high frequency keywords, the progress and prospect of China's remote sensing technology in data acquisition, data processing and applications during the past five years were further explored and revealed. It can be seen that: highly cited paper analysis and word frequency analysis is complementary on subject progress analysis; in data acquisition phase, research focus is new civilian remote sensing satellite systems and UAV remote sensing system; research focus of data processing and analysis is multi-source information extraction and classification, laser point cloud data processing, objectoriented high resolution image analysis, SAR data and hyper-spectral image processing, etc.; development trend of remote sensing data processing is quantitative, intelligent, automated, and real-time, and the breadth and depth of remote sensing application is gradually increased; parallel computing, cloud computing and geographic conditions monitoring and census are the new research focuses to be paid attention to.

  12. Researchers lack data on trends in UV radiation at Earth's surface

    SciTech Connect

    Zurer, P.S.

    1993-07-26

    Current anxiety about depletion of stratospheric ozone stems from the expected resulting increase in biologically damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation at Earth's surface. Atmospheric ozone absorbs sunlight with wavelengths shorter than 320 nm--the highest-energy UV-B wavelengths (280-320 nm) that can damage DNA in living systems. But surprisingly, despite firm evidence the ozone layer is being eroded by chlorine and bromine from man-made compounds, very little information exists on how UV light intensity is changing. Solid data from Antarctica reveal that UV radiation soars under the ozone hole, where fully half of the atmospheric ozone is destroyed each spring. But elsewhere on the globe, where ozone has been thinning at a rate of a few percent per decade, the corresponding trends in UV intensity are not at all clear. In the late 1970s and early 1980s the problem of ozone depletion seemed solved. The US had banned the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in aerosols. Model calculations were predicting CFCs would cause only a small loss of ozone by the second half of the 21st century. Costly monitoring of UV radiation commanded little attention. Attitudes began to change with the 1985 discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole. The National Science Foundation (NSF) established UV monitoring stations in the Antarctic in 1988, adding an Alaskan station in 1990. Both the Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have programs in the works that will eventually place monitoring stations across the US, but it will be many years before researchers have access to the kind of extensive database necessary to reliably evaluation long-term trends in UV intensity.

  13. Recent Directions in Telemedicine: Review of Trends in Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Laurence S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Healthcare is now routinely delivered by telecommunications-based services in all developed countries and an increasing number of developing countries. Telemedicine is used in many clinical specialities and across numerous healthcare settings, which range from mobile patient-centric applications to complex interactions amongst clinicians in tertiary referral hospital settings. This paper discusses some recent areas of significant development and progress in the field with the purpose of identifying strong trends in both research and practice activities. Methods To establish the breadth of new ideas and directions in the field, a review of literature was made by searching PubMed for recent publications including terms (telemedicine OR telehealth) AND (challenge OR direction OR innovation OR new OR novel OR trend), for all searchable categories. 3,433 publications were identified that have appeared since January 1, 2005 (2,172 of these since January 1, 2010), based on a search conducted on June 1, 2015. Results The current interest areas in these papers span both synchronous telemedicine, including intensive care, emergency medicine, and mental health, and asynchronous telemedicine, including wound and burns care, dermatology and ophthalmology. Conclusions It is concluded that two major drivers of contemporary tele medicine development are a high volume demand for a particular clinical service, and/or a high criticality of need for clinical exper tise to deliver the service. These areas offer promise for further study and enhancement of applicable telemedicine methods and have the potential for large-scale deployments internationally, which would contribute significantly to the advancement of healthcare. PMID:26618026

  14. Health in climate change research from 1990 to 2014: positive trend, but still underperforming

    PubMed Central

    Verner, Glenn; Schütte, Stefanie; Knop, Juliane; Sankoh, Osman; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Background Climate change has been recognized as both one of the biggest threats and the biggest opportunities for global health in the 21st century. This trend review seeks to assess and characterize the amount and type of scientific literature on the link between climate change and human health. Design We tracked the use of climate-related terms and their co-occurrence with health terms during the 25 years since the first Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, from 1990 to 2014, in two scientific databases and in the IPCC reports. We investigated the trends in the number of publications about health and climate change through time, by nature of the health impact under study, and by geographic area. We compared the scientific production in the health field with that of other sectors on which climate change has an impact. Results The number of publications was extremely low in both databases from 1990 (325 and 1,004, respectively) until around 2006 (1,332 and 4,319, respectively), which has since then increased exponentially in recent years (6,079 and 17,395, respectively, in 2014). However, the number of climate change papers regarding health is still about half that of other sectors. Certain health impacts, particularly malnutrition and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), remain substantially understudied. Approximately two-thirds of all published studies were carried out in OECD countries (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), predominantly in Europe and North America. Conclusions There is a clear need for further research on the links between climate change and health. This pertains particularly to research in and by those countries in which health will be mostly affected and capacity to adapt is least. Specific undertreated topics such as NCDs, malnutrition, and mental health should gain the priority they deserve. Funding agencies are invited to take note of and establish calls for proposals accordingly. Raising the interest

  15. Social Media, Peer Review, and Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) in Chemistry: Trends, Pitfalls, and Promises.

    PubMed

    Jogalekar, Ashutosh S

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, various themes inherent in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) in chemistry have been brought to light through prominent cases of research misconduct. This article will describe a few of these cases especially through the lens of social media such as blogs and Twitter. A case will be made that these wholly novel modalities of online discussion are now complementing, and in some cases even circumventing some of the limitations of traditional peer review in chemistry. We present in detail our evaluation of three recent cases of RCR along with several other social media illustrations. These cases have been selected to be representative and showcase several of the most prominent issues at the intersection of traditional and social-media based peer review. In each case, basic details are presented along with a brief discussion of the underlying issues-readers interested in deeper analysis of each subject are referred to a collection of relevant articles and websites. This perspective focuses on the most important RCR issues that have arisen in the past decade, a time which we believe coincides with the serious participation of the scientific community in general, and the chemistry community in particular, in social media-based, citizen-enabled peer-review. A discussion of important trends in RCR in the age of social media, outstanding developments in this area, and questions of enduring interest for the near future concludes the article. PMID:26155733

  16. Social Media, Peer Review, and Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) in Chemistry: Trends, Pitfalls, and Promises

    PubMed Central

    Jogalekar, Ashutosh S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, various themes inherent in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) in chemistry have been brought to light through prominent cases of research misconduct. This article will describe a few of these cases especially through the lens of social media such as blogs and Twitter. A case will be made that these wholly novel modalities of online discussion are now complementing, and in some cases even circumventing some of the limitations of traditional peer review in chemistry. We present in detail our evaluation of three recent cases of RCR along with several other social media illustrations. These cases have been selected to be representative and showcase several of the most prominent issues at the intersection of traditional and social-media based peer review. In each case, basic details are presented along with a brief discussion of the underlying issues—readers interested in deeper analysis of each subject are referred to a collection of relevant articles and websites. This perspective focuses on the most important RCR issues that have arisen in the past decade, a time which we believe coincides with the serious participation of the scientific community in general, and the chemistry community in particular, in social media-based, citizen-enabled peer-review. A discussion of important trends in RCR in the age of social media, outstanding developments in this area, and questions of enduring interest for the near future concludes the article. PMID:26155733

  17. Trends in RCT nursing research over 20 years: mind the gap.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Ileana; Dal Lago, Elisa; De Bardi, Sara; Sartor, Giada; Soriani, Nicola; Zanotti, Renzo; Gregori, Dario

    Randomised controlled trial (RCT) literature plays a fundamental role in informing evidence-based medicine and nursing. This paper aims to track geographical and temporal trends in the publication of RCTs in nursing over the past 20 years by means of a bibliometric analysis. The PubMed database was searched for articles published from 1 January 1991 to 31 October 2011 and satisfying this search strategy: nursing [MeSH Terms] AND (RCT OR trial* OR 'experimental study' OR randomised OR randomisation) AND (English[lang]). Abstracts were reviewed to assess whether they met the criteria for an RCT. A manual search of information on country of origin was carried out and Journal Citation Reports® was used to allocate journals to subject areas. RCT methodology is increasingly drawing the attention of nursing researchers worldwide. However, there is a large disparity in research productivity, at least in terms of number of published RCTs in the English language and listed on PubMed, between the most productive continents, North America and Europe, and the others. PMID:25203760

  18. Systematic Review of ED-based Intimate Partner Violence Intervention Research

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Esther K.; Gottlieb, Amy S.; DeLuca, Marie; Tape, Chantal; Colwell, Lauren; Zlotnick, Caron

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Assessment reactivity may be a factor in the modest results of brief interventions for substance use in the emergency department (ED). The presence of assessment reactivity in studies of interventions for intimate partner violence (IPV) has not been studied. Our objectives were to identify ED IPV intervention studies and evaluate the presence of a consistently positive effect on the control groups. Methods We performed a systematic search of electronic databases for English=language intervention studies addressing IPV in the ED published since 1990. Study selection and assessment of methodologic quality were performed by two independent reviewers. Data extraction was performed by one reviewer and then independently checked for completeness and accuracy by a second reviewer. Results Of 3,620 unique manuscripts identified by database search, 667 underwent abstract review and 12 underwent full-text review. Only three met full eligibility criteria; data on the control arm were available for two studies. In these two studies, IPV-related outcomes improved for both the experimental and control condition. Conclusion The paucity of controlled trials of IPV precluded a robust evaluation for assessment reactivity. This study highlighted a critical gap in ED research on IPV. PMID:26759650

  19. A mixed methods study of the factors that influence whether intervention research has policy and practice impacts: perceptions of Australian researchers

    PubMed Central

    Newson, Robyn; King, Lesley; Rychetnik, Lucie; Bauman, Adrian E; Redman, Sally; Milat, Andrew J; Schroeder, Jacqueline; Cohen, Gillian; Chapman, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate researchers’ perceptions about the factors that influenced the policy and practice impacts (or lack of impact) of one of their own funded intervention research studies. Design Mixed method, cross-sectional study. Setting Intervention research conducted in Australia and funded by Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council between 2003 and 2007. Participants The chief investigators from 50 funded intervention research studies were interviewed to determine if their study had achieved policy and practice impacts, how and why these impacts had (or had not) occurred and the approach to dissemination they had employed. Results We found that statistically significant intervention effects and publication of results influenced whether there were policy and practice impacts, along with factors related to the nature of the intervention itself, the researchers’ experience and connections, their dissemination and translation efforts, and the postresearch context. Conclusions This study indicates that sophisticated approaches to intervention development, dissemination actions and translational efforts are actually widespread among experienced researches, and can achieve policy and practice impacts. However, it was the links between the intervention results, further dissemination actions by researchers and a variety of postresearch contextual factors that ultimately determined whether a study had policy and practice impacts. Given the complicated interplay between the various factors, there appears to be no simple formula for determining which intervention studies should be funded in order to achieve optimal policy and practice impacts. PMID:26198428

  20. Geographic trends in research output and citations in veterinary medicine: insight into global research capacity, species specialization, and interdisciplinary relationships

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    in most other regions and countries. Conclusions Bibliographic data reflect the demographic changes affecting veterinary medicine worldwide and provide insight into current and changing global research capacity, specialization, and interdisciplinary affiliations. A more detailed analysis of species-specific trends is warranted and could contribute to a better understanding of educational and workforce needs in veterinary medicine. PMID:23758872

  1. Making the case for change: What researchers need to consider when designing behavior change interventions aimed at improving medication dispensing.

    PubMed

    Cadogan, Cathal A; Ryan, Cristín; Hughes, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis on behavior change in intervention development programmes aimed at improving public health and healthcare professionals' practice. A number of frameworks and methodological tools have been established to assist researchers in developing interventions seeking to change healthcare professionals' behaviors. The key features of behavior change intervention design involve specifying the target group (i.e. healthcare professional or patient cohort), the target behavior and identifying mediators (i.e. barriers and facilitators) of behavior change. Once the target behavior is clearly specified and understood, specific behavior change techniques can then be used as the basis of the intervention to target identified mediators of behavior change. This commentary outlines the challenges for pharmacy practice-based researchers in targeting dispensing as a behavior when developing behavior change interventions aimed at pharmacists and proposes a definition of dispensing to consider in future research. PMID:25936272

  2. Theory of Change: a theory-driven approach to enhance the Medical Research Council's framework for complex interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Medical Research Councils’ framework for complex interventions has been criticized for not including theory-driven approaches to evaluation. Although the framework does include broad guidance on the use of theory, it contains little practical guidance for implementers and there have been calls to develop a more comprehensive approach. A prospective, theory-driven process of intervention design and evaluation is required to develop complex healthcare interventions which are more likely to be effective, sustainable and scalable. Methods We propose a theory-driven approach to the design and evaluation of complex interventions by adapting and integrating a programmatic design and evaluation tool, Theory of Change (ToC), into the MRC framework for complex interventions. We provide a guide to what ToC is, how to construct one, and how to integrate its use into research projects seeking to design, implement and evaluate complex interventions using the MRC framework. We test this approach by using ToC within two randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized evaluation of complex interventions. Results Our application of ToC in three research projects has shown that ToC can strengthen key stages of the MRC framework. It can aid the development of interventions by providing a framework for enhanced stakeholder engagement and by explicitly designing an intervention that is embedded in the local context. For the feasibility and piloting stage, ToC enables the systematic identification of knowledge gaps to generate research questions that strengthen intervention design. ToC may improve the evaluation of interventions by providing a comprehensive set of indicators to evaluate all stages of the causal pathway through which an intervention achieves impact, combining evaluations of intervention effectiveness with detailed process evaluations into one theoretical framework. Conclusions Incorporating a ToC approach into the MRC framework holds promise for

  3. An ecological model of workplace bullying: a guide for intervention and research.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Susan L

    2011-01-01

    The origins and outcomes of workplace bullying can be understood through the use of a conceptual model which is based on the ecological perspective. This model portrays the work environment as a series of nested, interconnected layers that exist within society as a whole. These layers are society (macrosystem), the corporation (exosystem), the co-workers and managers of the bully and target (mesosystem), and the bully and target (microsystem). Workplace bullying does not occur in isolation. Elements at each of these levels serve as antecedents to bullying, and the outcomes of bullying are manifested at each of these levels. These antecedents and outcomes need to be considered when developing interventions that target workplace bullying. The model can be used as a theoretical framework to guide intervention planning and evaluation, and can also be used to guide the formulation of questions for empirical research. PMID:21517878

  4. Enterprise Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Education research experts Eduventures released a report in February 2007 on where U.S. districts are headed with large system management. "Trends in K-12 Enterprise Management: Are Districts Ready to Cross the Chasm?" provides a detailed assessment of the themes and the trends that are driving the market for K-12 enterprise management systems.…

  5. Use of the Medical Research Council Framework to Develop a Complex Intervention in Pediatric Occupational Therapy: Assessing Feasibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missiuna, Cheryl; Pollock, Nancy; Campbell, Wenonah N.; Bennett, Sheila; Hecimovich, Catherine; Gaines, Robin; DeCola, Cindy; Cairney, John; Russell, Dianne; Molinaro, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The United Kingdom Medical Research Council recommends use of a conceptual framework for designing and testing complex therapeutic interventions. "Partnering for Change" (P4C) is an innovative school-based intervention for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) that was developed by an interdisciplinary team who were guided by…

  6. Summary of Research Generated by Striving Readers on the Effectiveness of Interventions for Struggling Adolescent Readers. NCEE 2016-4001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulay, Beth; Goodson, Barbara; Frye, Michael; Blocklin, Michelle; Price, Cristofer

    2015-01-01

    The Striving Readers program aimed to raise the literacy levels of middle and high school students reading below grade level and to build a strong research base on effective adolescent literacy interventions. This report summarizes the results of a systematic review of evaluations of the ten different interventions funded by the Striving Readers…

  7. Concerning trends and outcomes for National Institutes of Health funding of cancer research.

    PubMed

    Bland, Kirby I

    2007-02-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) considers its principal mission for three modalities: (1) the integration of discovery activities with collaborations of interdisciplinary types; (2) the acceleration of innovations and provision of technology that will allow achievements of translational research; and (3) to move the aforementioned new discoveries via translational methods for application in clinics and public health programs. This article will focus on the contemporary trends for 2003-2004 and the NIH budget of 2005 to enumerate the progress in surgical funding by the NIH and NCI. Specifically, this presentation focuses on outcomes in departments of surgery nationally with correlates for non-surgical clinical sciences and their funding. While the NCI and NIH continue to undergo a comprehensive scrutiny of their resources in this budget-reduced environment related to the efforts to secure peace in Iraq, it is highly probable that our current mechanisms in place will not change without participation of surgical scientists in oncology in the award mechanisms. It should be highly encouraged that surgeon-scientists actively participate on Study Sections of the NIH-NCI to provide surgical investigators the opportunity to be competitive with non-surgeons when reviews of meritorious proposals are submitted by their surgical oncology peers. PMID:17262723

  8. Enhancing Quality Interventions Promoting Healthy Sexuality (EQUIPS): A novel application of translational research methods

    PubMed Central

    Chinman, Matthew; Acosta, Joie; Ebener, Patricia; Driver, Jennifer; Keith, Jamie; Peebles, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Translational research is expanding, in part, because Evidence-Based Programs or Practices (EBPs) are not adopted in many medical domains. However, little translational research exists on EBPs that are prevention programs delivered in non-clinical, community-based settings. These organizations often have low capacity, which undermines implementation quality and outcomes. Rigorous translational research is needed in these settings so within a single study, capacity, implementation quality, and outcomes are measured and links between them tested. This paper overviews the study Enhancing Quality Interventions Promoting Healthy Sexuality (EQUIPS), which tests how well a community-based setting (Boys & Girls Clubs) conducts an EBP called Making Proud Choices that aims to prevent teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, with and without an implementation support intervention called Getting To Outcomes®. The study design is novel as it assesses: Getting To Outcomes’ impact on capacity, implementation quality, and outcomes simultaneously and in both study conditions; will assess sustainability by measuring capacity and fidelity a year after the Getting To Outcomes support ends; and will operate on a large scale similar to many national initiatives. Many studies have not incorporated all these elements and thus EQUIPS could serve as a model for translational research in many domains. PMID:23751031

  9. An Analysis of Enrollment Trends in Connecticut Higher Education: 1982. Research Report R-2-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Jennifer B.

    Fall 1982 enrollment trends in Connecticut higher education are presented in narrative and statistical summaries. In addition to current and historical trends, enrollment is examined by student gender, minority status, residence status, and age. Detailed tables also present the information for specific institutions and sectors. Highlights include…

  10. Enrollment Trends in Texas Public Schools. Policy Research Report Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Office of Policy Planning and Research.

    This report provides an overview of Texas enrollment trends and growth of special instructional programs, and redistribution of the student population geographically and by community type. National enrollment trends are also presented. In the 10 years from 1987-88 to 1997-98, Texas public school enrollment increased at a faster rate than national…

  11. Trends in Funding Higher Education in Maryland, FY 1976-FY 1985. Postsecondary Education Research Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Janice

    Trends in Maryland's support of higher education during fiscal years 1976 to 1985 are reported, along with comparisons to other states. Attention is also directed to shifts in the distribution of state appropriations among the various segments of higher education and key trends in expenditure patterns at the four-year public institutions. It is…

  12. Integrating an evidenced-based research intervention in the discharge of mental health clients.

    PubMed

    Martin, Mary-Lou; Jensen, Elsabeth; Coatsworth-Puspoky, Robin; Forchuk, Cheryl; Lysiak-Globe, Tanya; Beal, Georgiana

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this Canadian qualitative study was to explore the experiences of clinical staff who implemented a research intervention: the Transitional Discharge Model (TDM). The TDM provided mental health clients who were hospitalized with peer support and an inpatient staff member to bridge the therapeutic transitioning from hospital staff to the community care provider. Staff from three tertiary care mental health facilities in Canada identified their learning needs in regard to providing the intervention. An educational program was developed and delivered to the clinical staff to support and facilitate the implementation of the new TDM. The extent of the utilization of knowledge and implementation of the TDM varied across the three tertiary care mental health facilities. Focus groups (N=49) with clinical staff were conducted to explore various factors related to the training process as well as the challenges and benefits of implementing the TDM. Data were analyzed using Leininger's Phases of Ethnonursing Qualitative Data Analysis [Leininger, M. (2002). The theory of culture care and the ethnonursing research method. In M. Leininger & M. McFarland (eds.), Transcultural nursing: Concepts, theories, research, and practice (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill]. Findings revealed that clinical staff experienced challenges in roles and responsibilities, relationships with others, values and beliefs of clients, staff and community, resources, and the processes of care. From the findings, strategies were identified to support the integration of knowledge about the TDM into practice and to increase clinical staff's skills in implementing research interventions. These included support from others, as well as support of practice, policy, and education. PMID:17397692

  13. Dealing with Alcohol-related problems in the Night-Time Economy: A Study Protocol for Mapping trends in harm and stakeholder views surrounding local community level interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This project will provide a comprehensive investigation into the prevalence of alcohol-related harms and community attitudes in the context of community-based interventions being implemented to reduce harm in two regional centres of Australia. While considerable experimentation and innovation to address these harms has occurred in both Geelong and Newcastle, only limited ad-hoc documentation and analysis has been conducted on changes in the prevalence of harm as a consequence, leaving a considerable gap in terms of a systematic, evidence-based analysis of changes in harm over time and the need for further intervention. Similarly, little evidence has been reported regarding the views of key stakeholder groups, industry, government agencies, patrons or community regarding the need for, and the acceptability of, interventions to reduce harms. This project will aim to provide evidence regarding the impact and acceptability of local initiatives aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms. Methods/Design This study will gather existing police data (assault, property damage and drink driving offences), Emergency Department presentations and Ambulance attendance data. Further, the research team will conduct interviews with licensed venue patrons and collect observational data of licensed venues. Key informant interviews will assess expert knowledge from key industry and government stakeholders, and a community survey will assess community experiences and attitudes towards alcohol-related harm and harm-reduction strategies. Overall, the project will assess: the extent of alcohol-related harm in the context of harm-reduction interventions, and the need for and acceptability of further intervention. Discussion These findings will be used to improve evidence-based practice both nationally and internationally. Ethical Approval This project has been approved by Deakin University HREC. PMID:21682908

  14. Testing Brief Intervention and Phone Contact among Subjects with Suicidal Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Trial in French Polynesia in the Frames of the World Health Organization/Suicide Trends in At-Risk Territories Study

    PubMed Central

    Amadéo, Stéphane; Rereao, Moerani; Malogne, Aurelia; Favro, Patrick; Nguyen, Ngoc Lam; Jehel, Louis; Milner, Allison; Kolves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization Suicide trends in at-risk territories study is a multi-site regional research program operating first in French Polynesia and countries of the Western Pacific, then extended to the world. The aims of the study were to establish a monitoring system for suicidal behaviors and to conduct a randomised control trial intervention for non-fatal suicidal behaviors. The latter part is the purpose of the present article. Over the period 2008-2010, 515 patients were admitted at the Emergency Department of the Centre Hospitalier de Polynésie Française for suicidal behavior. Those then hospitalized in the Psychiatry Emergency Unit were asked to be involved in the study and randomly allocated to either Treatment As Usual (TAU) or TAU plus Brief Intervention and Contact (BIC), which provides a psycho-education session and a follow-up of 9 phone contacts over an 18-months period. One hundred persons were assigned to TAU, while 100 participants were allocated to the BIC group. At the end of the follow-up there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of number of presentations to the hospital for repeated suicidal behaviors. Although the study could not demonstrate the superiority of a treatment over the other, nevertheless – given its importance – the investigation captured public attention and was able to contribute to the awareness of the need of suicide prevention in French Polynesia. The BIC model of intervention seemed to particularly suit the geographical and health care context of the country. PMID:26605034

  15. Child Poverty in the States: Levels and Trends from 1979 to 1998. Childhood Poverty Research Brief 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Neil G.; Lu, Hsien-Hen

    This research brief uses the official measure of poverty and the most recent data available from the U.S. Census Bureau to document poverty rates for children under age 18 in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The brief examines long-term trends in child poverty between 1979 and 1998 in each state. Further, the brief examines components…

  16. Methodological Trends in Disability and Higher Education Research: Historical Analysis of the Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faggella-Luby, Michael; Lombardi, Allison; Lalor, Adam R.; Dukes, Lyman, III

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the status of the research base that informs "what works" for students with disabilities in higher education, it is necessary to conduct an examination of the methodologies used in the literature. The authors of the current study analyzed the methodological trends across the thirty-year lifespan of the "Journal of…

  17. Trends and Issues in Vocational Education; Implications for Vocational Education Research and Development. Occasional Paper No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Reginald E.

    Examining the trends and issues in vocational education, this speech focuses on the historical basis for vocational education, the current situation in vocational education, vocational education in the 1980's, the role of vocational education in economic development, and research related to these topics. Issues which are currently being discussed…

  18. Translating basic psychopathology research to preventive interventions: A tribute to John Abela

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Judy; Korelitz, Katherine E.; Larkin, Silvia Samanez

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights how the many important contributions of John R. Z. Abela’s research program can inform the development and implementation of interventions for preventing depression in youth. Abela provided evidence of multiple vulnerabilities to depression including cognitive (e.g., inferential style, dysfunctional attitudes, ruminative response style), interpersonal (e.g., reassurance seeking, attachment, dependency), personality (e.g., neuroticism, self-criticism), and contextual (e.g., stress, parental depression). He introduced important methodological advances to the study of the hopelessness model of depression, especially in children, including the “weakest link” approach, cognitive priming, and idiographic measurement of stress. We briefly review what is currently known about the prevention of depression regarding intervention targets, content, outcomes, effect sizes, moderators, mediators, specificity, and durability. Next, we summarize several of Abela’s contributions that are most relevant to the prevention of depression. We describe the implications of Abela’s work for the development, implementation, and testing of programs aimed at preventing depression, and discuss important challenges such as the transfer of training to and the personalization of interventions so as to capitalize on individuals’ strengths versus compensate for their weaknesses. PMID:22891820

  19. Translating Research into Practice Intervention Improves Management of Acute Pain in Older Hip Fracture Patients

    PubMed Central

    Titler, Marita G; Herr, Keela; Brooks, John M; Xie, Xian-Jin; Ardery, Gail; Schilling, Margo L; Marsh, J Lawrence; Everett, Linda Q; Clarke, William R

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test an interdisciplinary, multifaceted, translating research into practice (TRIP) intervention to (a) promote adoption, by physicians and nurses, of evidence-based (EB) acute pain management practices in hospitalized older adults, (b) decrease barriers to use of EB acute pain management practices, and (c) decrease pain intensity of older hospitalized adults. Study Design Experimental design with the hospital as the unit of randomization. Study Setting Twelve acute care hospitals in the Midwest. Data Sources (a) Medical records (MRs) of patients ≥65 years or older with a hip fracture admitted before and following implementation of the TRIP intervention and (b) physicians and nurses who care for those patients. Data Collection Data were abstracted from MRs and questions distributed to nurses and physicians. Principal Findings The Summative Index for Quality of Acute Pain Care (0–18 scale) was significantly higher for the experimental (10.1) than comparison group (8.4) at the end of the TRIP implementation phase. At the end of the TRIP implementation phase, patients in the experimental group had a lower mean pain intensity rating than those in the comparison group (p<.0001). Conclusion The TRIP intervention improved quality of acute pain management of older adults hospitalized with a hip fracture. PMID:19146568

  20. How did formative research inform the development of a home-based neonatal care intervention in rural Ghana?

    PubMed

    Hill, Z; Manu, A; Tawiah-Agyemang, C; Gyan, T; Turner, K; Weobong, B; Ten Asbroek, A H A; Kirkwood, B R

    2008-12-01

    Formative research is often used to inform intervention design, but the design process is rarely reported. This study describes how an integrated home visit intervention for newborns in Ghana was designed. As a first step in the design process, the known intervention parameters were listed, information required to refine the intervention was then identified and a formative research strategy designed. The strategy included synthesizing available data, collecting data on newborn care practices in homes and facilities, on barriers and facilitators to adopting desired behaviors and on practical issues such as whom to include in the intervention. The data were used to develop an intervention plan through workshops with national and international stakeholders and experts. The intervention plan was operationalized by district level committees. This included developing work plans, a creative brief for the materials and completing a community volunteer inventory. The intervention was then piloted and the intervention materials were finalized. The design process took over a year and was iterative. Throughout the process, literature was reviewed to identify the best practice. The intervention focuses on birth preparedness, using treated bednets in pregnancy, early and exclusive breastfeeding, thermal care, special care for small babies and prompt care seeking for newborns with danger signs. The need for a problem-solving approach was identified to help ensure behavior change. A subset of behaviors were already being performed adequately, or were the focus of other interventions, but were important to reinforce in the visits. These include attending antenatal care and care seeking for danger signs in pregnancy. On the basis of the intervention content, the timing of newborn deaths and the acceptability of visits, two antenatal and three visits in the first week of life (days 1, 3 and 7) were planned. Several household members were identified to include in the visits as they

  1. Epidemiology to public health intervention for preventing cardiovascular diseases: The role of translational research

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Anand; Yadav, Kapil; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Despite significant progress in medical research, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) continue to be the largest contributors of morbidity and mortality both in developed and developing countries. The status of public health interventions related to CVDs prevention was reviewed to identify actions that are required to bridge the existing gap between the evidence and the policy. We used a framework comprising two steps - “bench to bedside” and from “bedside to community” to evaluate translational research. Available literature was reviewed to document the current status of CVD prevention and control at national level in India. Case studies of risk factor surveillance, tobacco control and blood pressure measurement were used to understand different aspects of translational research. National level initiatives in non-communicable diseases surveillance, prevention and control are a recent phenomena in India. The delay in translation of research to policy has occurred primarily at the second level, i.e., from ‘bedside to community’. The possible reasons for this were: inappropriate perception of the problem by policy makers and programme managers, lack of global public health guidelines and tools, and inadequate nationally relevant research related to operationalization and cost of public health interventions. Public health fraternity, both nationally and internationally, needs to establish institutional mechanisms to strengthen human resource capacity to initiate and monitor the process of translational research in India. Larger public interest demands that focus should shift to overcoming the barriers at community level translation. Only this will ensure that the extraordinary scientific advances of this century are rapidly translated for the benefit of more than one billion Indians. PMID:21150018

  2. [Child endangerment: a research update regarding etiology, consequences, diagnostics, and intervention].

    PubMed

    Kindler, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    In Germany child protection law is governed by the term "child endangerment". Based on a definition of that term recent research on child maltreatment is reviewed. Regarding etiology the need to go beyond risk factors and to consider risk mechanisms is highlighted. The discussion on the impact of child maltreatment focuses on the often underestimated effects of early neglect. After a review of progresses regarding the evaluation of maltreated children and the assessment of risk based on a systematic literature review suggestions for design of effective family interventions after abuse or neglect are made. PMID:20158166

  3. Engaging nurses in research for a randomized clinical trial of a behavioral health intervention.

    PubMed

    Roll, Lona; Stegenga, Kristin; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna; Barnes, Yvonne J; Cherven, Brooke; Docherty, Sharron L; Robb, Sheri L; Haase, Joan E

    2013-01-01

    Nurse involvement in research is essential to the expansion of nursing science and improved care for patients. The research participation challenges encountered by nurses providing direct care (direct care nurses) include balancing patient care demands with research, adjusting to fluctuating staff and patient volumes, working with interdisciplinary personnel, and feeling comfortable with their knowledge of the research process. The purpose of this paper is to describe efforts to engage nurses in research for the Stories and Music for Adolescent/Young Adult Resilience during Transplant (SMART) study. SMART was an NIH-funded, multisite, randomized, behavioral clinical trial of a music therapy intervention for adolescents/young adults (AYA) undergoing stem cell transplant for an oncology condition. The study was conducted at 8 sites by a large multidisciplinary team that included direct care nurses, advanced practice nurses, and nurse researchers, as well as board-certified music therapists, clinical research coordinators, and physicians. Efforts to include direct care nurses in the conduct of this study fostered mutual respect across disciplines in both academic and clinical settings. PMID:24102024

  4. Demographic Trends in the United States: A Review of Research in the 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Cherlin, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Demographic trends in the 2000s showed the continuing separation of family and household due to factors such as childbearing among single parents, the dissolution of cohabiting unions, divorce, repartnering, and remarriage. The transnational families of many immigrants also displayed this separation, as families extended across borders. In addition, demographers demonstrated during the decade that trends such as marriage and divorce were diverging according to education. Moreover, demographic trends in the age structure of the population showed that a large increase in the elderly population will occur in the 2010s. Overall, demographic trends produced an increased complexity of family life and a more ambiguous and fluid set of categories than demographers are accustomed to measuring. PMID:22399825

  5. International Trends in Heritage and Environmental Interpretation: Future Directions for Australian Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Roy; Uzzell, David

    1999-01-01

    In the past decade, heritage and environmental interpretation shifted from technical emphasis to social perspective, reflected in five international trends: growing concern with theory, increasing ecotourism and consequent changes in environmental interpretation, reactions to globalization (homogeneity versus uniqueness), interpretation of…

  6. Changing Trends within the Population of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Flanders (Belgium): Effects of 12 Years of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening, Early Intervention, and Early Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Raeve, Leo; Lichtert, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the changing trends within the population of children who are deaf and hard of hearing in Belgium over the last 12 years. The combination of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening programs, early intervention, and cochlear implants have tremendously influenced the education and support of children who are deaf or…

  7. Research Trends in Science Education from 2008 to 2012: A systematic content analysis of publications in selected journals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the third study of research trends in science education. In this review, a total of 990 papers published in the International Journal of Science Education, the Journal of Research in Science Teaching, and Science Education from 2008 to 2012 were analyzed. The results indicate that in the recent five years (2008-2012), the top three research topics in the published papers were those regarding the context of students' learning, science teaching, and students' conceptual learning. The changes in the most popular research topics in the past 15 years also evidentially indicate shifts in the journals' preferences and researchers' interest. For example, in 2003-2007, context of students' learning replaced students' conceptual learning, which was the most published research topic from 1998 to 2002. The research topic of students' learning contexts continued to rank the first in 2008-2012. Moreover, there was an increasing trend of research papers regarding science teaching from 1998 to 2012. The analysis of highly cited papers revealed that research topics such as argumentation, inquiry-based learning, and scientific modeling were recently highlighted by science educators. In recent 15 years, productive researchers' publications also focused on the topics about context of students' learning, science teaching, and students' conceptual learning.

  8. Increasing the scale and adoption of population health interventions: experiences and perspectives of policy makers, practitioners, and researchers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Decisions to scale up population health interventions from small projects to wider state or national implementation is fundamental to maximising population-wide health improvements. The objectives of this study were to examine: i) how decisions to scale up interventions are currently made in practice; ii) the role that evidence plays in informing decisions to scale up interventions; and iii) the role policy makers, practitioners, and researchers play in this process. Methods Interviews with an expert panel of senior Australian and international public health policy-makers (n = 7), practitioners (n = 7), and researchers (n = 7) were conducted in May 2013 with a participation rate of 84%. Results Scaling up decisions were generally made through iterative processes and led by policy makers and/or practitioners, but ultimately approved by political leaders and/or senior executives of funding agencies. Research evidence formed a component of the overall set of information used in decision-making, but its contribution was limited by the paucity of relevant intervention effectiveness research, and data on costs and cost effectiveness. Policy makers, practitioners/service managers, and researchers had different, but complementary roles to play in the process of scaling up interventions. Conclusions This analysis articulates the processes of how decisions to scale up interventions are made, the roles of evidence, and contribution of different professional groups. More intervention research that includes data on the effectiveness, reach, and costs of operating at scale and key service delivery issues (including acceptability and fit of interventions and delivery models) should be sought as this has the potential to substantially advance the relevance and ultimately usability of research evidence for scaling up population health action. PMID:24735455

  9. America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences. Volume I. [Proceedings of the Research Conference on Racial Trends in the United States (Washington, D.C., October 15-16, 1998)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelser, Neil J., Ed.; Wilson, William Julius, Ed.; Mitchell, Faith, Ed.

    This collection of papers explores past and current trends among African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans in the context of a white majority. The papers, presented at the 1998 Research Conference on Racial Trends in the United States, provide analyses of racial and social dynamics and recommendations for future…

  10. America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences. Volume II. [Proceedings of the Research Conference on Racial Trends in the United States (Washington, D.C., October 15-16, 1998)].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelser, Neil J., Ed.; Wilson, William Julius, Ed.; Mitchell, Faith, Ed.

    This collection of papers explores past and current trends among African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans in the context of a white majority. The papers, presented at the 1998 Research Conference on Racial Trends in the United States, provide analyses of racial and social dynamics and recommendations for future…

  11. Single- versus Double-Scoring of Trend Responses in Trend Score Equating with Constructed-Response Tests. Research Report. ETS RR-10-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Xuan; Ricker, Kathryn L.; Puhan, Gautam

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the differences in equating outcomes between two trend score equating designs resulting from two different scoring strategies for trend scoring when operational constructed-response (CR) items are double-scored--the single group (SG) design, where each trend CR item is double-scored, and the nonequivalent groups with anchor…

  12. Disseminating research in rural Yup'ik communities: challenges and ethical considerations in moving from discovery to intervention development

    PubMed Central

    Rivkin, Inna; Trimble, Joseph; Lopez, Ellen D. S.; Johnson, Samuel; Orr, Eliza; Allen, James

    2013-01-01

    Background The native people of Alaska have experienced historical trauma and rapid changes in culture and lifestyle patterns. As a consequence, these populations shoulder a disproportionately high burden of psychological stress. The Yup'ik Experiences of Stress and Coping project originated from rural Yup'ik communities’ concerns about stress and its effects on health. It aimed to understand the stressful experiences that affect Yup'ik communities, to identify coping strategies used to deal with these stressors and to inform culturally responsive interventions. Objectives Here, we examine the process of moving from research (gaining understanding) to disseminating project findings to translation into intervention priorities. We highlight the importance of community participation and discuss challenges encountered, strategies to address these challenges and ethical considerations for responsible intervention research with indigenous communities that reflect their unique historical and current socio-cultural realities. Design Community-wide presentations and discussions of research findings on stress and coping were followed by smaller Community Planning Group meetings. During these meetings, community members contextualized project findings and discussed implications for interventions. This process placed priority on community expertise in interpreting findings and translating results and community priorities into grant applications focused on intervention development and evaluation. Results Challenges included translation between English and Yup'ik, funding limitations and uncertainties, and the long timelines involved in moving from formative research to intervention in the face of urgent and evolving community needs. The lack of congruence between institutional and community worldviews in the intervention research enterprise highlights the need for “principled cultural sensitivity”. Conclusions Cultural sensitivity requires sharing results that have

  13. Predicting and Evaluating the Epidemic Trend of Ebola Virus Disease in the 2014-2015 Outbreak and the Effects of Intervention Measures.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zuiyuan; Xiao, Dan; Li, Dongli; Wang, Xiuhong; Wang, Yayu; Yan, Tiecheng; Wang, Zhiqi

    2016-01-01

    We constructed dynamic Ebola virus disease (EVD) transmission models to predict epidemic trends and evaluate intervention measure efficacy following the 2014 EVD epidemic in West Africa. We estimated the effective vaccination rate for the population, with basic reproduction number (R0) as the intermediate variable. Periodic EVD fluctuation was analyzed by solving a Jacobian matrix of differential equations based on a SIR (susceptible, infective, and removed) model. A comprehensive compartment model was constructed to fit and predict EVD transmission patterns, and to evaluate the effects of control and prevention measures. Effective EVD vaccination rates were estimated to be 42% (31-50%), 45% (42-48%), and 51% (44-56%) among susceptible individuals in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, respectively. In the absence of control measures, there would be rapid mortality in these three countries, and an EVD epidemic would be likely recur in 2035, and then again 8~9 years later. Oscillation intervals would shorten and outbreak severity would decrease until the periodicity reached ~5.3 years. Measures that reduced the spread of EVD included: early diagnosis, treatment in isolation, isolating/monitoring close contacts, timely corpse removal, post-recovery condom use, and preventing or quarantining imported cases. EVD may re-emerge within two decades without control and prevention measures. Mass vaccination campaigns and control and prevention measures should be instituted to prevent future EVD epidemics. PMID:27049322

  14. Predicting and Evaluating the Epidemic Trend of Ebola Virus Disease in the 2014-2015 Outbreak and the Effects of Intervention Measures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongli; Wang, Xiuhong; Wang, Yayu; Yan, Tiecheng; Wang, Zhiqi

    2016-01-01

    We constructed dynamic Ebola virus disease (EVD) transmission models to predict epidemic trends and evaluate intervention measure efficacy following the 2014 EVD epidemic in West Africa. We estimated the effective vaccination rate for the population, with basic reproduction number (R0) as the intermediate variable. Periodic EVD fluctuation was analyzed by solving a Jacobian matrix of differential equations based on a SIR (susceptible, infective, and removed) model. A comprehensive compartment model was constructed to fit and predict EVD transmission patterns, and to evaluate the effects of control and prevention measures. Effective EVD vaccination rates were estimated to be 42% (31–50%), 45% (42–48%), and 51% (44–56%) among susceptible individuals in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, respectively. In the absence of control measures, there would be rapid mortality in these three countries, and an EVD epidemic would be likely recur in 2035, and then again 8~9 years later. Oscillation intervals would shorten and outbreak severity would decrease until the periodicity reached ~5.3 years. Measures that reduced the spread of EVD included: early diagnosis, treatment in isolation, isolating/monitoring close contacts, timely corpse removal, post-recovery condom use, and preventing or quarantining imported cases. EVD may re-emerge within two decades without control and prevention measures. Mass vaccination campaigns and control and prevention measures should be instituted to prevent future EVD epidemics. PMID:27049322

  15. Developmental approach to prevent adolescent suicides: research pathways to effective upstream preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Wyman, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    The 2012 National Strategy for Suicide Prevention expands the current suicide prevention paradigm by including a strategic direction aimed at promoting healthy populations. Childhood and adolescence are key suicide prevention window periods, yet knowledge of suicide prevention pathways through universal interventions is limited (Aspirational Goal 11). Epidemiologic evidence suggests that prevention programs in normative social systems such as schools are needed for broad suicide prevention impact. Prevention trial results show that current universal prevention programs for children and young adolescents are effective in reducing adolescent emotional and behavioral problems that are risk factors for suicidal behavior, and in the case of the Good Behavior Game, suicide attempts. A developmentally sequenced upstream suicide prevention approach is proposed: (1) childhood programs to strengthen a broad set of self-regulation skills through family and school-based programs, followed by (2) adolescent programs that leverage social influences to prevent emerging risk behaviors such as substance abuse and strengthen relationships and skills. Key knowledge breakthroughs needed are evidence linking specific intervention strategies to reduced suicidal behaviors and mortality and their mechanisms of action. Short- and long-term objectives to achieve these breakthroughs include combining evidence from completed prevention trials, increasing motivators for prevention researchers to assess suicide-related outcome, and conducting new trials of upstream interventions in populations using efficient designs acceptable to communities. In conclusion, effective upstream prevention programs have been identified that modify risk and protective factors for adolescent suicide, and key knowledge breakthroughs can jump-start progress in realizing the suicide prevention potential of specific strategies. PMID:25145747

  16. Dietary interventions in children with autism spectrum disorders - an updated review of the research evidence.

    PubMed

    Marti, Luis F

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a group of life-long neurodevelopmental disorders, with onset before 3 years of age. They are characterized by qualitative impairmentin social interactions, absent or impaired language and communication skills, and present with a wide range of stereotyped, repetitive behaviors. Function and outcome are affected not only by core deficits but by associated behaviors such as hyperactivity, aggression, anxiety, and depression. Increasing evidence indicates that autism is a complex, multifactorial disorder involving the brain and the body, a result of genetic vulnerabilities interacting with environmental factors. Although genetics plays a role, the fact, that the incidence of autism in identical twins is not 100% points to external or environmental factors as contributors. No etiology - based treatment has yet been developed. During the last two decades many educational, psychosocial and pharmacological interventions had been utilized and claimed to be effective and even "curative". The word treatment should be used with caution, and should stand for interventions that are aimed to help people with ASD to adjust more effectively to their environment. Many studies have indicated that behavioral therapy and medication may be at least partially helpful in the treatment of children with ASD particularly on the symptoms of aggression, hyperactivity and attention. In the light of an approved and well established treatment for ASD, over the past two decades research on the effect of diet and nutrition on autism has been increasing. Particular attention has focused on the role of food additives, refined sugar, food allergies, and fatty acid metabolism. However, the results are conflicting and not conclusive. We present here anupdated review summarizing the potentials and limits of the most frequent nutritional and dietary interventions in the treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders. PMID:24050740

  17. The PROblem Gambling RESearch Study (PROGRESS) research protocol: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of psychological interventions for problem gambling

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Shane A; Merkouris, Stephanie S; Browning, Colette J; Radermacher, Harriet; Feldman, Susan; Enticott, Joanne; Jackson, Alun C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction International prevalence rates for problem gambling are estimated at 2.3%. Problem gambling is a serious global public health concern due to adverse personal and social consequences. Previous research evaluating the effectiveness of psychological interventions for the treatment of problem gambling has been compromised by methodological limitations, including small sample sizes and the use of waitlist control groups. This article describes the study protocol for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), behaviour therapy (BT), motivational interviewing (MI) against a non-directive supportive therapy (NDST) control, in treating problem gambling. Methods and analysis This study was a mixed-methods design, with a parallel group, pragmatic RCT as the primary component, and embedded qualitative studies conducted alongside. A total of 297 participants were recruited from the community in Victoria, Australia. Individuals aged 18 years and over, could communicate in English and wished to receive treatment for a gambling problem were eligible. Participants were randomly allocated in to 1 of the 4 psychological interventions: CBT, BT, MI and NDST. Repeated measures were conducted at pretreatment and post-treatment, and 6 and 12 months post-treatment. The statistical analysis will use an intention-to-treat approach. Multilevel mixed modelling will be used to examine changes in the primary outcome measures: gambling symptom severity, using the Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale, and gambling behaviours (frequency, time and expenditure). Secondary outcomes are depression, anxiety, stress and alcohol use. Individual semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted at pretreatment and post-treatment and 12 months post-treatment for a subset of participants (n=66). Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the Victorian Department of Justice, Monash University and the University

  18. Implementation intention and planning interventions in Health Psychology: Recommendations from the Synergy Expert Group for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; de Wit, John; Benyamini, Yael; Burkert, Silke; Chamberland, Pier-Eric; Chater, Angel; Dombrowski, Stephan U; van Dongen, Anne; French, David P; Gauchet, Aurelie; Hankonen, Nelli; Karekla, Maria; Kinney, Anita Y; Kwasnicka, Dominika; Hing Lo, Siu; López-Roig, Sofía; Meslot, Carine; Marques, Marta Moreira; Neter, Efrat; Plass, Anne Marie; Potthoff, Sebastian; Rennie, Laura; Scholz, Urte; Stadler, Gertraud; Stolte, Elske; Ten Hoor, Gill; Verhoeven, Aukje; Wagner, Monika; Oettingen, Gabriele; Sheeran, Paschal; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural medicine who convened to discuss priority issues in planning interventions in health contexts and develop a set of recommendations for future research and practice. The expert group adopted a nominal groups approach and voting system to elicit and structure priority issues in planning interventions and implementation intentions research. Forty-two priority issues identified in initial discussions were further condensed to 18 key issues, including definitions of planning and implementation intentions and 17 priority research areas. Each issue was subjected to voting for consensus among group members and formed the basis of the position statement and recommendations. Specifically, the expert group endorsed statements and recommendations in the following areas: generic definition of planning and specific definition of implementation intentions, recommendations for better testing of mechanisms, guidance on testing the effects of moderators of planning interventions, recommendations on the social aspects of planning interventions, identification of the preconditions that moderate effectiveness of planning interventions and recommendations for research on how people use plans. PMID:26892502

  19. [Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter focuses on the theme of early intervention which infants and young children with special needs in nine brief articles: "Early Intervention: A Matter of Context" (Samuel J. Meisels); "Early Intervention Research: Asking and Answering Meaningful Questions" (Jack P. Shonkoff); "From Case Management to Service Coordination: Families,…

  20. Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abery, Brian, Ed.; McConnell, Scott, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This "feature issue" focuses on early intervention with handicapped children, with an emphasis on: Project EDGE (Expanding Developmental Growth through Education), an early intervention research project initiated in 1968; strategies for developing family-friendly early intervention services; and progress reports from various states and programs.…