Science.gov

Sample records for researchers find ways

  1. A Family Finds Its Way

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury A Family Finds Its Way Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... spoke recently with NIH MedlinePlus ' Christopher Klose. At its heart, TBI, hearing loss, any health condition is ...

  2. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  3. Finding a Safe Way Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Steven M.; Derby, Joel

    1996-01-01

    Building designers, owners, and managers are morally responsible for providing persons with disabilities with a safe way out of multistory buildings. Although codes, standards, and elevator features may make the job more complicated, all of the difficulties can be overcome. Four figures illustrate elevator egress. (MLF)

  4. The Continuing Search to Find a More Effective and Less Intimidating Way to Teach Research Methods in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Existing literature examining the teaching of research methods highlights difficulties students face when developing research competencies. Studies of student-centred teaching approaches have found increased student performance and improved confidence in undertaking research projects. To develop a student-centred approach, it could be beneficial…

  5. 10 Ways to Find More Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitch, Chris

    2008-01-01

    There are two ways to avoid time-crunch panic attacks: work smarter and delegate wisely. In this article, the author provides a list of some strategies and tactics he has used to help more than 500 school executives in North Carolina work smarter, delegate more effectively and become more effective instructional leaders. These strategies fall into…

  6. Osteoarthritis: Research Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... studying: Tools to detect osteoarthritis earlier Genes Tissue engineering—special ways to grow cartilage to replace damaged ... athletes from these injuries. Discovery of the various genetic mutations leading to osteoarthritis could lead to new ...

  7. Design Research: The Way Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereiter, Carl

    2006-01-01

    The phrases "best practice" and "evidence-based" are much in the air, and they imply that the answers are already out there. We just have to choose the right ones. Educational research in this connection is a kind of product testing. The U.S. Office of Education has made it a policy that rigorous product testing is the only kind of educational…

  8. Simulating visual impairment to detect hospital way-finding difficulties.

    PubMed

    Koneczny, Sonja; Rousek, Justin B; Hallbeck, M Susan

    2009-01-01

    As people age, they not only face declining vision, but, due to physiology, increased health problems which necessitate way-finding through healthcare facilities. In this pilot study on way-finding in a hospital setting, 50 healthy, sighted participants donned one of five commonly encountered low-vision impairment simulators. Each tried to find their way along common hospital paths. Data on the obstacles the participants faced was gathered objectively via observation as well as subjectively by post-scenario questionnaires. The results of the study show that for low-vision people, decorative elements often create major disturbances in way-finding. Combined with other age related conditions, this may put patients at a high risk of tripping and falling. In addition, changes in lighting often are misleading and may cause corridors to appear crooked or doorways to appear larger/smaller than they are. The sizes of text on signs as well as the placement, illumination and size of the signs themselves may be unsatisfactory. Most of these problems can easily be detected by the use of low-vision simulation, then categorized and eliminated. Hospitals can improve their facility to reduce potential slips and falls as well as frustration using these data. PMID:19377131

  9. Teacher Retirement Systems: Research Findings. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janet S.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Costrell, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This policy brief summarizes findings presented at a February 2009 research conference on teacher retirement systems hosted by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) at Vanderbilt University's Peabody College. The 2009 conference was the second in a series of NCPI events focusing on findings from recent research on issues related to…

  10. Finding a Voice through Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobo, Jose; Vizcaino, Alida

    2006-01-01

    One question guided this experimental study: What impact does the change from teacher training to educational research have on university teachers' methodology and attitudes to teaching? To find answers to this question, the researchers selected five teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) at the language centre of a private university on…

  11. 77 FR 11538 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., which is critical to normal brain development. Specifically: a. In the VZ/SZ panel (upper row, right... that gestational alcohol exposure had an effect on brain development by affecting the way...

  12. Knowledge translation of research findings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by

  13. Finding flows in the one-way measurement model

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudrap, Niel de

    2008-02-15

    The one-way measurement model is a framework for universal quantum computation in which algorithms are partially described by a graph G of entanglement relations on a collection of qubits. A sufficient condition for an algorithm to perform a unitary embedding between two Hilbert spaces is for the graph G, together with input and output I, O vertices I,O is contained in V(G), to have a flow in the sense introduced by Danos and Kashefi [Phys. Rev. A 74, 052310 (2006)]. For the special case of |I|=|O|, using a graph-theoretic characterization, I show that such flows are unique when they exist. This leads to an efficient algorithm for finding flows by a reduction to solved problems in graph theory.

  14. Research Findings on Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Phani B.; Patra, Sayani

    2015-01-01

    Several physiopathologic conditions lead to the manifestation of overactive bladder (OAB). These conditions include ageing, diabetes mellitus, bladder outlet obstruction, spinal cord injury, stroke and brain injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, interstitial cystitis, stress and depression. This review has discussed research findings in human and animal studies conducted on the above conditions. Several structural and functional changes under these conditions have not only been observed in the lower urinary tract, but also in the brain and spinal cord. Significant changes were observed in the following areas: neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, nerve growth factor, Rho-kinase, interstitial cells of Cajal, and ion and transient receptor potential channels. Interestingly, alterations in these areas showed great variation in each of the conditions of the OAB, suggesting that the pathophysiology of the OAB might be different in each condition of the disease. It is anticipated that this review will be helpful for further research on new and specific drug development against OAB. PMID:26195957

  15. A new way to find evidence quickly and efficiently.

    PubMed

    Rada, Gabriel; Neumann, Ignacio; Cerda, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Evidence coming from scientific research helps us make better decisions in relation with the care we provide to our patients. Some evidence is more reliable than other is, and systematic reviews are considered the best available evidence for answering questions that compare two or more alternatives of care, as long as they are well conducted and up-to-date. There has lately been a fast growth of the amount of available systematic reviews, so users need to choose between several possible options. Epistemonikos database is a highly efficient search resource, since it groups the larger number of systematic reviews worldwide, and allows accessing the body of evidence for a specific question in a simple and intuitive way. Additionally, it offers tools that enable the choice among different systematic reviews and for keeping the evidence for a question updated with minimal effort. PMID:25513884

  16. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Pandit, Inder; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Gupta, Monika

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Of this in vivo study was to evaluate various space maintainers in terms of survival rate, gingival health and presence of caries. Design: A total of 60 extraction sites in the age group of 4 to 9 years were divided into four groups and different space maintainers were placed in them viz (conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop, Ribbond, Super splint). Results: Prefabricated bands with custom made loop showed maximum success rates (84.6%), while super splint (33.33%) was found to be least successful. In terms of gingival health, prefabricated band with custom made loop reported minimum cases with poor gingival health (27.2%), while maximum cases with poor gingival health (50%) were reported with Super splint. None of the space maintainers developed caries at the end of 9 months. How to cite this article: Setia v, Pandit IK, Srivastava N, Gugnani N, Gupta M. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):97-104. PMID:25356008

  17. Women in Combat: Summary of Findings and a Way Ahead.

    PubMed

    Tepe, Victoria; Yarnell, Angela; Nindl, Bradley C; Van Arsdale, Stephanie; Deuster, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    The Women in Combat Symposium was held at the Defense Health Headquarters April 29 to May 1, 2014, cohosted by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs and the Consortium for Health and Military Performance. The conference was a call to renew and extend research investment and policy commitment to recognize operational scenarios, requirements, health priorities, and combat-related injury exposures uniquely relevant to the performance and well-being of female Service members. Symposium participants worked in groups to identify knowledge and capability gaps critical to the successful integration, health, and performance of female Service members in combat roles and to develop recommendations for researchers and policy makers to address gaps in three specific areas of concern: Leadership and Peer Behavior, Operational Performance, and Health and Well-Being. Consensus findings are summarized as 20 research gaps and accompanying recommendations. Each represents an opportunity to advance health and performance outcomes and to leverage female Service members' strengths and capacities to the general benefit of all Service members and their families. PMID:26741909

  18. Navigating Your Way through the Research Jungle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Scott; Brazer, David

    2012-01-01

    These days, information overload seems to be the normal state of existence. School leaders are inundated with descriptions of best practices and programs that work. They are exhorted to use evidence in all facets of decision-making and to employ research-based strategies to improve schools. Of course, research findings are seldom definitive, and…

  19. Finding Your Way: Navigation Activities from the Exploratorium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Peter; And Others

    Where on Earth are you? Where is your home, your school, or the bookstore on the globe we call Earth? The activities in this book are designed to show children how to orient themselves on this planet. The book is divided into three main sections. Section 1, "Finding North, No Matter What," contains the following subsections: (1) Finding North with…

  20. Finding Your Way into an Open Online Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Baaren, John; Schuwer, Robert; Kirschner, Paul; Hendriks, Maaike

    2008-01-01

    Making educational materials freely available on the web can be seen as a noble enterprise in itself but as a way to address the call for people to become lifelong learners. The world is rapidly changing, requiring us to continuously update our knowledge and skills. A problem with this approach to lifelong learning is that the free materials that…

  1. Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia

    MedlinePlus

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia Scientists uncovered a mechanism behind genetic variations previously linked to schizophrenia. The findings may lead to new clinical approaches. ...

  2. Finding our way together on the journey to zero.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, Mary Anne

    2012-01-01

    Remember that classic scene from The Wizard of Oz when Dorothy's house is being hurled into the sky and her world and worries are rotating around her in a great tornado? Ever feel that way at work? To be sure, the modern risk manager and safety professional are facing new challenges and expectations: value-based services, mandatory reporting, pay for performance, new compliance standards, and so on. Sometimes it's disorienting, perhaps similar to how Dorothy must have felt when she realized she was not in Kansas anymore. PMID:22528398

  3. Spitzer Finds Clarity in the Inner Milky Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    More than 800,000 frames from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope were stitched together to create this infrared portrait of dust and stars radiating in the inner Milky Way.

    As inhabitants of a flat galactic disk, Earth and its solar system have an edge-on view of their host galaxy, like looking at a glass dish from its edge. From our perspective, most of the galaxy is condensed into a blurry narrow band of light that stretches completely around the sky, also known as the galactic plane.

    In this mosaic the galactic plane is broken up into five components: the far-left side of the plane (top image); the area just left of the galactic center (second to top); galactic center (middle); the area to the right of galactic center (second to bottom); and the far-right side of the plane (bottom). From Earth, the top two panels are visible to the northern hemisphere, and the bottom two images to the southern hemisphere. Together, these panels represent more than 50 percent of our entire Milky Way galaxy.

    The swaths of green represent organic molecules, called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are illuminated by light from nearby star formation, while the thermal emission, or heat, from warm dust is rendered in red. Star-forming regions appear as swirls of red and yellow, where the warm dust overlaps with the glowing organic molecules. The blue specks sprinkled throughout the photograph are Milky Way stars. The bluish-white haze that hovers heavily in the middle panel is starlight from the older stellar population towards the center of the galaxy.

    This is a three-color composite that shows infrared observations from two Spitzer instruments. Blue represents 3.6-micron light and green shows light of 8 microns, both captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Red is 24-micron light detected by Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer.

    The Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire team (GLIMPSE) used the telescope's infrared array

  4. Finding a Way out of the Ethnographic Paradigm Jungle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Subhadip; Banerjee, Pratyush

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a hybrid ethnographic paradigm, taking the best points from the different approaches of ethnographic research. The pioneering proponents of ethnography differed in their conceptualization of the method, resulting in the development of three distinct schools of thought-holistic, semiotic and…

  5. 76 FR 47589 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has... Research Center: Based on the Respondent's acceptance of ORI's research misconduct findings, ORI found...

  6. 78 FR 941 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... finds that the Respondent knowingly and intentionally: Falsely reported research experiments when the... in normal neurons, when the experiment was not conducted. Falsified Figure 3 of grant application...

  7. 75 FR 18837 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... senior scientist, Discovery Research, Women's Health, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, engaged in research... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI)...

  8. 75 FR 18836 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) and... graduate student, IU, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Center...

  9. 76 FR 64947 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken..., Department of Chemistry, UP, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute...

  10. 76 FR 68460 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has... Resident Physician at UVA Medical Center, engaged in research misconduct by plagiarizing research...

  11. 77 FR 76491 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has..., engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of General Medical...

  12. 77 FR 125 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has... conducted by ORI in its oversight review, ORI found that Dr. Mahesh Visvanathan, Research...

  13. 77 FR 46438 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has..., former Director of the Laboratory of Glycoimmunotheraphy, JWCI, engaged in research misconduct...

  14. 78 FR 21125 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has... found by a preponderance of the evidence that Dr. Andrew Aprikyan, former Research Assistant...

  15. Research Making Its Way into Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter; Goatley, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Identifying researchers whose work has influenced classroom practice, raises questions about the nature of research and its relationship with practice, and the means through which knowledge is distributed. We argue that normally, influence arises through lines of research more than individuals, that knowing-in-practice distribution systems should…

  16. Action research: a way of researching or a way of managing?

    PubMed

    Lilford, Richard; Warren, Rachel; Braunholtz, David

    2003-04-01

    Scrutinising recent systematic reviews both on action research and on the management of change in organisations, we have made two observations which, we believe, clarify a rather amorphous literature. First, by comparing formal descriptions of each, action research cannot be clearly distinguished from many other change methodologies. This applies particularly to total quality management (TQM). Both action research and TQM are cyclical activities involving examination of existing processes, change, monitoring the apparent effects of the change and further change. Both emphasise active participation of stakeholders. The examples used to illustrate action research would serve equally well as examples of TQM and vice versa. Second, the methods used in action research are neither specific to action research nor are they of any particular kind. It therefore follows that action research, in so far as it purports to describe a unique or discrete form of research rather than a change process, is a misnomer. Based on these observations, we make two suggestions. Organisational change should be described in terms of the steps actually taken to effect change rather than in 'terms of art' which, like the various brands of post-Freudian psychotherapy, obscure what they have in common rather than illuminate substantive differences. And the research embedded in any cyclical managerial process can have two broad (non-exclusive) aims: to help local service managers to take the next step or to assist managers in other places and in future years to make decisions. These can be described as limited (formative) and general (summative) aims. Whether, or to what extent, a research finding is generalisable across place and time is a matter of judgement and turns on the form of the research and on its context; it is completely independent of whether or not the research was carried out within a cycle of managerial action currently described by terms such as action research or TQM. PMID

  17. Scientist Researches Way to Reduce Global Warming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the last four years, scientists at the USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Northern Plains Agricultural Research Laboratory have been searching for alternative soil and crop management practices to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon and nitrogen sequestration. “If we can redu...

  18. 78 FR 67363 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has... Professor of Surgery and Pathology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, WU, engaged in...

  19. A "Handy" Way to Introduce Research Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David E.

    1996-01-01

    Provides an exercise for introducing research methods to undergraduates. The students view a graph revealing that left-handed people are underrepresented in older age groups. Small group discussions attempt to explain this phenomenon. A follow-up class discussion focuses on the different approaches and methods available for interpreting the data.…

  20. Leading the Way for Open Access Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warschauer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    "Language Learning & Technology" ("LLT") was launched in the mid-1990s out of a collaboration between the University of Hawai'i National Foreign Language Resource Center (NFLRC) and the Michigan State University Center for Language Education Research (CLEAR). Like other online journals started in the 1990s, "LLT"…

  1. Why most published research findings are false.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2005-08-01

    There is increasing concern that most current published research findings are false. The probability that a research claim is true may depend on study power and bias, the number of other studies on the same question, and, importantly, the ratio of true to no relationships among the relationships probed in each scientific field. In this framework, a research finding is less likely to be true when the studies conducted in a field are smaller; when effect sizes are smaller; when there is a greater number and lesser preselection of tested relationships; where there is greater flexibility in designs, definitions, outcomes, and analytical modes; when there is greater financial and other interest and prejudice; and when more teams are involved in a scientific field in chase of statistical significance. Simulations show that for most study designs and settings, it is more likely for a research claim to be false than true. Moreover, for many current scientific fields, claimed research findings may often be simply accurate measures of the prevailing bias. In this essay, I discuss the implications of these problems for the conduct and interpretation of research. PMID:16060722

  2. 77 FR 38632 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... Exposure to the Widely Used Herbicide, Atrazine: Altered Function and Loss of Neurons in Brain Monamine... experiments carried out at UMDNJ between 2004 and 2006; Falsifying a bar graph representing brain...

  3. Researchers Find Another Way Zika Can Harm Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Close to 6 percent who were diagnosed with microcephaly also had hearing loss To use the sharing ... devastating birth defect seen so far has been microcephaly, a condition where the head and brain are ...

  4. Research Supervisors' Different Ways of Experiencing Supervision of Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Anita; Arvidsson, Barbro

    2011-01-01

    Research supervisors' different ways of experiencing their supervision of doctoral students are analysed in terms of the students' questions and problems as they relate to the supervisor's research, and what consequences this connection, or non-connection, to the supervisor's research has for supervision and the role of supervisor. Thirty…

  5. Needles and Haystacks: Finding Funding for Medical Education Research.

    PubMed

    Gruppen, Larry D; Durning, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    Medical education research suffers from a significant and persistent lack of funding. Although adequate funding has been shown to improve the quality of research, there are a number of factors that continue to limit it. The competitive environment for medical education research funding makes it essential to understand strategies for improving the search for funding sources and the preparation of proposals. This article offers a number of resources, strategies, and suggestions for finding funding. Investigators must be able to frame their research in the context of significant issues and principles in education. They must set their proposed work in the context of prior work and demonstrate its potential for significant new contributions. Because there are few funding sources earmarked for medical education research, researchers much also be creative, flexible, and adaptive as they seek to present their ideas in ways that are appealing and relevant to the goals of funders. Above all, the search for funding requires persistence and perseverance. PMID:26556292

  6. For-Profit Web Venture Shifts Gears, Hoping To Find a Way To Make a Profit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2001-01-01

    A for-profit Web venture, Fathom, backed by several major universities, is changing its strategies for marketing and content, hoping to find a way to make a profit. The site will rely on member institutions to create and contribute shorter, noncredit online courses and seminars to accompany the free content, such as articles, already offered on…

  7. Way-Finding Assistance System for Underground Facilities Using Augmented Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, K.; Yabuki, N.; Fukuda, T.; Michikawa, T.; Motamedi, A.

    2015-05-01

    Way-finding is one of main challenges for pedestrians in large subterranean spaces with complex network of connected labyrinths. This problem is caused by the loss of their sense of directions and orientation due to the lack of landmarks that are occluded by ceilings, walls, and skyscraper. This paper introduces an assistance system for way-finding problem in large subterranean spaces using Augmented Reality (AR). It suggests displaying known landmarks that are invisible in indoor environments on tablet/handheld devices to assist users with relative positioning and indoor way-finding. The location and orientation of the users can be estimated by the indoor positioning systems and sensors available in the common tablet or smartphones devices. The constructed 3D model of a chosen landmark that is in the field of view of the handheld's camera is augmented on the camera's video feed. A prototype system has been implemented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed system for way-finding.

  8. Navigating Our Way through the Research-Teaching Nexus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speake, Janet

    2015-01-01

    This article explores some of the synergetic relationships between research and teaching which can help shape geography undergraduate students' understandings of research. Through the experience of investigating students' attitudes towards, and engagement with, satellite navigation technologies, it considers ways in which learning can be…

  9. Putting Research Findings into Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Deepa; Al-Lawatia, Zainab; Al-Abri, Rashid; Bhargava, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A perception exists that clinicians in Oman are reluctant to adopt evidence-based practice (EBP). This pilot study was undertaken to study the feasibility of using EBP pathways at the point of care in otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery. The ultimate aim was to facilitate EBP with the probability of developing a new system for implementing research findings/translational research at the clinical point of care. Methods: A cross-sectional prospective questionnaire pilot survey of clinicians at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman, a tertiary care medical centre, was undertaken. Respondents included 135 physicians and surgeons with between 3 months and 25 years of clinical experience and included personnel ranging from interns to senior consultants, in areas ranging from primary care to specialist care. Results: Of those polled, 90% (95% confidence interval (CI) 85–95%) either strongly agreed or agreed that evidence-based practice protocols (EBPP) could help in decision making. A total of 87.4% of participants (95% CI 81.8–93%) either strongly agreed or agreed that EBPPs can improve clinical outcomes; 91.8% of participants (95% CI 87.2–96.4%) would use and apply EBPP in day-to-day care if they were available at the point of care and embedded in the hospital information system. Conclusions: The perception that clinicians at SQUH are reluctant to adopt EBP is incorrect. The introduction of EBP pathways is very feasible at the primary care level. Institutional support for embedding EBP in hospital information systems is needed as well as further outcome research to assess the improvement in quality of care. PMID:22548137

  10. Finding new ways to prevent disease in food-producing animals.

    PubMed

    2016-01-23

    Increasing concern about antimicrobial resistance and moves to restrict the use of antibiotics in food-producing animals mean that farmers will need new ways of preventing and controlling disease in their animals. With its focus on addressing the needs of the farming industry, the Moredun Research Institute sees this as an opportunity to be at the forefront of developing new solutions. Kristy Ebanks reports from an event organised to showcase some of the institute's latest research. PMID:26795855

  11. Space Situational Awareness (SSA) research findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, D.

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is the foundation for space superiority and has become a national priority. Providing full SSA requires knowledge of space and ground assets along with communication links between these assets. It also requires an understanding of potential events and threats that may affect these assets. This paper summarizes the findings resulting from a research environment established to explore SSA issues. Non-traditional data sources available on the internet are identified along with methods to mine relevant data. Algorithms to augment this data with value added processing were evaluated and key features are presented. These include all-on-all conjunction analysis utilizing analytical distributed processing approaches and maneuver detection utilizing an approach described in the AMOS 2007 paper "Satellite Maneuver Detection Using Two-line Elements". Data fusion techniques are presented which were utilized to evaluate space launches, enhance maneuver detection capabilities, characterize events and determine possible intent. Several visualization approaches were explored and the key features/limitations are discussed to include performance consideration, event models between visualization components, and data needs at the tactical, operational, and strategic levels. Data dissemination approaches utilizing a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) are highlighted along with challenges such as Multiple Levels of Security associated with the data. Dependencies between visualization and dissemination that impact the system's performance are discussed. Alternatives to balance system performance and application of a User Defined Operational Picture (UDOP) are explored.

  12. Effective methods for disseminating research findings to nurses in practice.

    PubMed

    Cronenwett, L R

    1995-09-01

    Professionals in all disciplines are challenged by the proliferation of new knowledge. Nurses, too, must find cost-effective ways of ensuring that their patients are benefiting from the most current knowledge about health and illness. The methods of research dissemination to clinicians described in this article are presumed to be effective because of anecdotal reports, conference evaluations, or clinician surveys. The profession needs more sophisticated evaluations of the effectiveness of various dissemination methods. In the meantime, whether you are a researcher, an administrator, an educator, or a clinician, you have a role to play in improving research dissemination. Implement just one strategy from this article and evaluate the results. Each contribution moves nursing toward research-based practice. PMID:7567569

  13. [Drug patents and other ways to protect pharmaceutical research].

    PubMed

    Ohana, Patrick; Tardieu, Sophie; Blin, Olivier; Tassy, Sébastien; Sambuc, Roland

    2004-01-01

    Pharmaceutical research constitutes a significant cost for pharmaceutical companies. Because of the importance of the financial investment in research projects, companies must protect their discoveries. There are multiple ways to do this. First, the legal avenue can be divided into three parts: a pharmaceutical company can protect a new drug by a patent, then an additional patent or a secondary patent; moreover, since 1992 in Europe, the pharmaceutical industry has been able to extend a patent by the "Supplementary Protection Certificate" (le Certificat Complémentaire de Protection [CCP]). The nonjuridical way is to use the chiral "switch", which can extend patents close to expiring, thus enhancing profitability. PMID:15359623

  14. Russian research capabilities: Findings of site visits

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, D.W.

    1994-02-01

    In June 1993, a proposal was presented to the International Environmental Institute (IEI) in Kennewick, Washington, to establish cooperation and coordination to further pursue the interests of the United States of America and the Republic of Russia in the application and promotion of environmental technology; characterization, treatment, handling, isolation, and disposal of hazardous and radioactive materials; conversion of defense sites to other purposes; and technology transfer, cooperative programs, joint technology development and contractual research. In response to this proposal, IEI and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) jointly provided funding to send Dr. Dennis W. Wester on a fact-finding mission to Novosibirsk, Moscow, and St. Petersburg, Russia. The trip covered a period of eight weeks, six of which were spent in Novosibirsk and adjoining or related cities and one of which was spent in each of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The general objectives of the trip were to establish a basis for cooperation between IEI and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) for future coordination of mutual interests and objectives such as technology acquisition, development, demonstration, application, and commercialization; use of capabilities and assets developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the RAS; and expediting of cooperative agreements, personnel exchanges, joint ventures and other contractual relationships. The particular objectives of this trip were to evaluate the capabilities of the RAS to satisfy the technology needs associated with the cleanup of the Hanford Site and similar sites in the U.S. and to evaluate the expediency of establishing an IEI presence in Russia.

  15. Teaching nursing research using two-way video technology.

    PubMed

    Parks, P L; O'Shea, K

    1995-06-01

    Schools of nursing are meeting the needs of students by instituting distance education courses that use two-way video technology. This article describes the structural features of the classroom that are changed and provides strategies that can be effective for teaching nursing research. These strategies are related to: teaching and demonstrating use of statistical formulas; selecting and teaching use of software for data analysis; teaching about research design, sampling, and data collection procedures; and critiquing empirical articles. PMID:7539973

  16. Expanding HPC and Research Computing--The Sustainable Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grush, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Increased demands for research and high-performance computing (HPC)--along with growing expectations for cost and environmental savings--are putting new strains on the campus data center. More and more, CIOs like the University of Notre Dame's (Indiana) Gordon Wishon are seeking creative ways to build more sustainable models for data center and…

  17. Research involving pediatric stem cell donors: A way forward.

    PubMed

    Wendler, David; Shah, Nirali N; Pulsipher, Michael A; Fry, Terry; Grady, Christine

    2016-06-01

    The most suitable donor for younger patients who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the research setting is frequently a minor sibling. These cases raise the question of whether minors who serve as stem cell donors for research subjects should be regarded as research subjects themselves. Regarding pediatric donors as research subjects ensures that an Institutional Review Boards reviews their involvement and determines whether it is appropriate. Yet, Institutional Review Boards must follow the US regulations for pediatric research, which were designed for patients and healthy volunteers, not for healthy donors. As a result, regarding pediatric donors as research subjects also can pose unnecessary obstacles to appropriate and potentially life-saving research. This article considers a new way to address this dilemma. The federal research regulations allow for waiver of some or all of the included requirements when they are unnecessary for a study or a class of studies. We argue that this option offers a way to ensure that the involvement of pediatric donors receives sufficient review and approval without inadvertently undermining valuable and potentially life-saving research. PMID:26908544

  18. Way-finding during a fire emergency: an experimental study in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanxing; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The way-finding behaviour and response during a fire emergency in a virtual environment (VE) was experimentally investigated. Forty participants, divided into two groups, were required to find the emergency exit as soon as possible in a virtual hotel building because of a fire escape demand under condition 1 (VE without virtual fire, control group) and condition 2 (VE with virtual fire, treatment group). Compared to the control group, the treatment group induced significantly higher skin conductivity and heart rate, experienced more stress, took longer time to notice the evacuation signs, had quicker visual search and had a longer escape time to find the exit. These results indicated that the treatment condition induced higher physiological and psychological stress, and had influenced the escape behaviour compared to the control group. In practice, fire evacuation education and fire evacuation system design should consider the response characteristics in a fire emergency. PMID:24697193

  19. 77 FR 5254 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Calleen S. Zach, Creighton University: Based on evidence obtained from Creighton University (CU) and additional evidence gathered by the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) during its oversight review, ORI found that Ms. Calleen S. Zach, former Research Assistant and Data Base......

  20. 78 FR 5454 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... phospholipase A2 IIA is Up-regulated by TNF- and IL-1 / after Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rat.'' Brain Research 1134:199- 205, 2007 (hereafter referred to as the ``Brain Research paper''), as the sPLA 2 -IIA... the JBC paper and Figure 2A and 2C of the Brain Research paper by rearranging the bands such that...

  1. 78 FR 47699 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Pratima Karnik, Ph.D., Case Western Reserve University: Based on the admission of the Respondent, ORI found that Dr. Pratima Karnik, Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), engaged in research misconduct in research submitted to the......

  2. [Phenomenography--a way to do qualitative research].

    PubMed

    Simoila, R

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and evaluate theoretical principles, possibilities and limits of the qualitative research method called phenomenography. The article is based on a literature review. Phenomenography is a research methodology initiated by Ference Marton and his research group in Sweden in the 1970s. Unlike phenomenology, phenomenography is not a philosophical school. It is a pragmatic method for doing qualitative research. In phenomenography, the aim of research is to describe the qualitatively different ways in which people perceive the world around them (the second-order perspective). The most common method of data collection is thematic interviewing. The results are categories of description representing the different conceptions of a phenomenon found among a certain population. Phenomenography is a useful method for qualitative analyses. However, it has also been criticized for a static view of human thought--a criticism that points toward the risks of relying on a single method in qualitative research. PMID:8484953

  3. 77 FR 40059 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Sinae Kim, Ph.D., Emory University: Based on the report of an investigation conducted by Emory University (EU) and additional analysis conducted by ORI in its oversight review, ORI found that Dr. Sinae Kim, former Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Medicine, EU, engaged in research......

  4. Finding Exemplars of Research on Academic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toombs, William

    Exemplars of research on academic programs are considered in relation to the qualities of research and types of information used as a framework for analysis. It is suggested that serious investigations of the postsecondary curriculum are characterized by: efforts to move from particularistic approaches to the stipulation of universalistic…

  5. Astronomers Surprised to Find Elongated Radio-Emitting Region At Center of Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-12-01

    For the first time, astronomers have determined the intrinsic size and shape of the highly charged region of radio emission surrounding what most scientists believe to be a supermassive black hole at the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy. The new evidence may force theorists to revise their ideas about how material behaves in the vicinity of black holes. Using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of radio telescopes, an international team of astronomers from the United States and Taiwan studied the area generally thought to mark the Galactic center. This object, known as Sgr A*, and commonly called "Sagittarius A-star," is some 26,000 light years from Earth in the constellation of Sagittarius. Instead of finding something symmetrical, as expected, the researchers observed an odd, cigar-shaped area of radio emission. "If placed in our Solar System at the Sun's location, it would extend beyond Mars," says K. Y. Lo of the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics in Taipei and leader of the research team. "But it would be only a quarter of that distance wide." The VLBA data support the current hypothesis that the central object has a mass about 2.5 million times that of the Sun. The researchers think Sgr A* may be an extremely energetic inner region of ionized gas accreting onto a supermassive black hole. "However, none of the competing models for a black hole can completely explain both the small size and asymmetrical shape of Sgr A* we have observed," says Jun-Hui Zhao, a member of the team from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "The models would have to be changed to include some other mechanism such as a jet or wind to help explain the VLBA data." The nature of Sgr A* has been a long-standing puzzle in astronomy since its discovery in 1974 by Bruce Balick and Bob Brown. Since then, there have been many theories about the structure and emission mechanism of Sgr A*, but, in the past few years, astronomers

  6. 76 FR 23599 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... intentionally tampered with research materials related to five (5) immunoprecipitation/Western blot experiments and switched the labels on four (4) cell culture dishes for cells used in the same type of...

  7. Writing and Publishing Your Research Findings

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Charles T.; Rush, A. John

    2014-01-01

    Writing clearly is critical to the success of your scientific career. Unfortunately, this skill is not taught in medical school or postgraduate training. This article summarizes our approach to the writing and publication of your research. Here we focus on empirical or experimental reports of translational and clinically oriented research. We review the process of choosing what to write, how to write it clearly, and how to navigate the process of submission and publication. PMID:19491626

  8. Human posture experiments under water: ways of applying the findings to microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirlich, Thomas

    For the design and layout human spacecraft interiors the Neutral Body Posture (NBP) in micro-gravity is of great importance. The NBP has been defined as the stable, replicable and nearly constant posture the body "automatically" assumes when a human relaxes in microgravity. Furthermore the NBP, as published, suggests that there is one standard neutral posture for all individuals. Published experiments from space, parabolic flights and under water on the other hand show strong inter-individual variations of neutral (relaxed) postures. This might originate from the quite small sample sizes of subjects analyzed or the different experiment conditions, e. g. space and under water. Since 2008 a collaborative research project focussing on human postures and motions in microgravity has been ongoing at the Technische Univer-sitüt München (TUM). This collaborative effort is undertaken by the Institute of Astronautics a (LRT) and the Institute of Ergonomics (LfE). Several test campaigns have been conducted in simulated microgravity under water using a specially designed standardized experiment setup. Stereo-metric HD video footage and anthropometric data from over 50 subjects (female and male) has been gathered in over 80 experiments. The video data is analyzed using PCMAN software, developed by the LfE, resulting in a 3D volumetric CAD-based model of each subject and posture. Preliminary and ongoing analysis of the data offer evidence for the existence of intra-individually constant neutral postures, as well as continuously recurring relaxation strate-gies. But as with the data published prior the TUM experiments show quite a large variation of inter-individual postures. These variation might be induced or influenced by the special environmental conditions in the underwater experiment. Thus in present paper ways of stan-dardizing data and applying the findings gathered under water to real microgravity are being discussed. The following influences stemming from the

  9. Poison frogs rely on experience to find the way home in the rainforest.

    PubMed

    Pašukonis, Andrius; Warrington, Ian; Ringler, Max; Hödl, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Among vertebrates, comparable spatial learning abilities have been found in birds, mammals, turtles and fishes, but virtually nothing is known about such abilities in amphibians. Overall, amphibians are the most sedentary vertebrates, but poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) routinely shuttle tadpoles from terrestrial territories to dispersed aquatic deposition sites. We hypothesize that dendrobatid frogs rely on learning for flexible navigation. We tested the role of experience with the local cues for poison frog way-finding by (i) experimentally displacing territorial males of Allobates femoralis over several hundred metres, (ii) using a harmonic direction finder with miniature transponders to track these small frogs, and (iii) using a natural river barrier to separate the translocated frogs from any familiar landmarks. We found that homeward orientation was disrupted by the translocation to the unfamiliar area but frogs translocated over similar distances in their local area showed significant homeward orientation and returned to their territories via a direct path. We suggest that poison frogs rely on spatial learning for way-finding in their local area. PMID:25411379

  10. Virtual Reference Environments: a simple way to make research reproducible

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Daniel G.; Budden, David M.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Reproducible research’ has received increasing attention over the past few years as bioinformatics and computational biology methodologies become more complex. Although reproducible research is progressing in several valuable ways, we suggest that recent increases in internet bandwidth and disk space, along with the availability of open-source and free-software licences for tools, enable another simple step to make research reproducible. In this article, we urge the creation of minimal virtual reference environments implementing all the tools necessary to reproduce a result, as a standard part of publication. We address potential problems with this approach, and show an example environment from our own work. PMID:25433467

  11. Effective Ways to Communicate Research Using the Poster Format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabro, A.; Jabro, J.

    2012-04-01

    Effective Ways to Communicate Research Using the Poster Format Numerous academic conferences feature multiple venues for presentation of academic research results. While numerous associations provide conference presenters with potential best practices for the generation and presentation of information, not all presenters follow the suggested guidelines. This study reports the results of a random sample of poster presentations from an international conference spanning five days. More than 100 poster presentations where photographed to allow for manipulation and inspection of content that was content analyzed for key variables related to readability and usability. The results support that less content is best as well as effective use of color, font style and size.

  12. Biotechnology and the developing world. Finding ways to bridge the agricultural technology gap.

    PubMed

    Platais, K W; Collinson, M P

    1992-03-01

    Biotechnology is a controversial subject that involves a range of scientific principles from basic tissue culture to genetic manipulation. Proponents include private sector capitalists, public sector researchers, and developing nation governments. Opponents include environmental organizations and social organizations involved in protecting the rights of developing nations. Biotechnology is being presented as the next step after the Green Revolution and the only way that the people of the developing world will be able to feed themselves in the next half century. Research by industrialized nations world wide total an estimated $11 billion with 66% being contributed by the private sector. Biotechnology represents somewhat of a dilemma. Since the majority of the work is being done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater than that of public welfare or safety. The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is one public sector group that is concerned about this problem. The countries of the developing world fall into 2 categories in relation to use of biotechnology: (1) those that have the potential to adapt imported biotechnologies to local conditions; (2) those that have little or no applied research capacity to effectively use biotechnologies. Currently only Brazil, China, India, and Thailand belong in the 1st category, all other developing countries fall into the 2nd. CGIAR believes it can help in 2 ways: (1) it can provide a bridge for needed information and germplasm between developed and developing countries; (2) it can help to ensure that the agricultural needs of developing countries are not lost. In 1990 CGIAR's plant and animal biotechnology research totaled $14.5 million which was less than 5% of the total CGIAR budget. Networking and institutions building are areas that CGIAR focuses on in an attempt to increase its affect

  13. Educational Research: Biologists Finding Their Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsmond, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Since the publication of the Dearing report (1997) there has been an increasing emphasis on the quality of teaching and learning provision within higher education institutions (HEIs). This focus on provision has in turn generated much educational research into "approaches" to both teaching practice and student learning within higher education…

  14. 78 FR 25274 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Matthew Poore, Advanced Liquid Logic Inc.: Based on the report of an inquiry conducted by Advanced Liquid Logic Inc. (Liquid Logic), the Respondent's admission, and additional analysis conducted by ORI, ORI found that Mr. Matthew Poore, former Technician, Liquid Logic, engaged in......

  15. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

  16. 76 FR 63621 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Nicola Solomon, Ph.D., University of Michigan Medical School: Based on an investigation conducted by the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) and a preliminary analysis conducted by ORI, ORI found that Dr. Nicola Solomon, former postdoctoral scholar, Department of Human......

  17. 78 FR 77467 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... HIV-1 strains, when the original sera were weakly or non-reactive in neutralization assays. Falsified neutralization assay results were widely reported in laboratory meetings, seven (7) national and international... falsified research materials when he provided collaborators with sera for neutralization assays from...

  18. Contemporary research findings on dentine remineralization.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Bo; Peng, Ce; Wang, Guanhong; Tian, Lili; Cai, Qiang; Cui, Fuzhai

    2015-09-01

    Dentine remineralization is important for the treatment of dentine caries and the bonding durability of dentine and resin materials in clinical practice. Early studies of dentine remineralization were mostly based on the classical pathway of crystallization, which involves large-scale deposition of calcium phosphate crystals on collagen and is achieved in a liquid environment containing mineral ions. Results from these studies were unsatisfactory and not suitable for clinical application because they did not simulate the ordering of hydroxyapatite in the collagen fibres of natural teeth. As studies on collagen type I and non-collagenous proteins have advanced, dentine biomimetic remineralization has become a popular research topic and has shifted to processes involving intrafibrillar remineralization, which is more similar to natural tooth formation. The objective of this review was to summarize current theory and research progress as it relates to dentine remineralization. PMID:23955967

  19. 77 FR 76041 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Terry S. Elton, Ph.D., The Ohio State University: Based on the reports of two investigations conducted by The Ohio State University (OSU) and additional analysis conducted by ORI in its oversight review, ORI found that Dr. Terry S. Elton, Professor, College of Pharmacy and Davis......

  20. Evaluating Teaching and Research Activities--Finding the Right Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Javier; Mora, Jose-Gines

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes on a national, regional, and institutional level the evaluation systems used to assess teaching and research activities at Spanish universities. Also examines ways in which evaluation systems orient to promote research activities to the detriment of teaching activities. (SWM)

  1. Latest research findings from petite sismique trials

    SciTech Connect

    Belesky, R.M.; Bieniawski, Z.T.; Greenfield, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Research on a novel in-situ technique known as petite sismique is discussed. This geophysical method is capable of estimating the static deformation modules of a rock mass. The petite-sismique technique utilizes a seismic-refraction survey stressing a correlation between shear-wave frequency and the static deformation modulus. Although the technique was introduced in 1967, petite sismique has not been used extensively due to difficulties in shear-wave generation and detection. Recent developments in geophysical instrumentation provided an opportunity to evaluate better the technique in this study. With the objective of assessing the deformation modulus, field trials were conducted in coal and limestone mines. Despite attempts to develop a reliable shear-wave source, difficulties in frequency determinations persisted due to source characteristics and receiver resonance. A limited number of shear-wave-frequency observations did not confirm the originally documented relationship between shear-wave frequency and the static deformation modulus. The indicated discrepancy is attributed to differences in characteristics of the sources used in the two studies. Arising out of this research are equipment modifications and procedural recommendations which should improve the chances for success in future studies.

  2. How Albot0 finds its way home: a novel approach to cognitive mapping using robots.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Wai K

    2011-10-01

    Much of what we know about cognitive mapping comes from observing how biological agents behave in their physical environments, and several of these ideas were implemented on robots, imitating such a process. In this paper a novel approach to cognitive mapping is presented whereby robots are treated as a species of their own and their cognitive mapping is being investigated. Such robots are referred to as Albots. The design of the first Albot, Albot0 , is presented. Albot0 computes an imprecise map and employs a novel method to find its way home. Both the map and the return-home algorithm exhibited characteristics commonly found in biological agents. What we have learned from Albot0 's cognitive mapping are discussed. One major lesson is that the spatiality in a cognitive map affords us rich and useful information and this argues against recent suggestions that the notion of a cognitive map is not a useful one. PMID:25164506

  3. Whichever way the wind blows, scientists and engineers try to find ways to protect people and property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Timothy Marshall, a failure and damage consultant with the Haag Engineering Company in Dallas, Texas, possesses a passion for storm chasing. On the afternoon of May 3, 1999, with atmospheric conditions creating a potentially explosive situation, Marshall drove several hours north to central Oklahoma to spot tornadoes. A storm started blowing up near Lawton and moved parallel to Interstate 44, with Marshall ahead of it in his Chevy pickup. He parked on the Newcastle overpass bridge, videotaping the long-tracked twister for later study At 7:04 p.m. local time, with the vortex now just one mile away and moving straight toward him, it started appearing three-dimensional, debris and projectiles flying about, the tornado roaring like freight trains, wind howling, red mud raining down, and things “getting a little out of hand,” Marshall recalled. He drove out of its path, only to watch the tornado tear through the suburban streets and houses of Moore, on its way to Oklahoma City.

  4. Acamprosate: recent findings and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Mann, Karl; Kiefer, Falk; Spanagel, Rainer; Littleton, John

    2008-07-01

    This article explores the mechanisms of action and the potential responder profile of acamprosate, a compound efficacious in relapse prevention of alcoholism. New evidence at the molecular and cellular level suggests that acamprosate attenuates hyper-glutamatergic states that occur during early abstinence and involves iono (NMDA)- and metabotrotropic (mGluR5) glutamate receptors along with augmented intracellular calcium release and electrophysiological changes. Thus mutant mice with enhanced glutamate levels exhibit higher alcohol consumption than wild type mice and respond better to acamprosate, demonstrating that acamprosate acts mainly on a hyper-glutamatergic system. This mode of action further suggests that acamprosate exhibits neuroprotective properties. In rats, cue-induced reinstatement behavior is significantly reduced by acamprosate treatment whereas cue-induced craving responses in alcohol-dependent patients seem not to be affected by this treatment. An ongoing study ("Project Predict") defines specific responder profiles for an individualized use of acamprosate and naltrexone. Neurophysiological as well as psychometric data are used to define 2 groups of patients: "reward cravers" and "relief cravers". While naltrexone should work better in the first group, acamprosate is hypothesized to be efficacious in the latter where withdrawal associated and/or cue induced hyper-glutamatergic states are thought to trigger relapse. Further research should target the definition of subgroups applying endophenotypic approaches, e.g. by detecting a hyperglutamatergic syndrome using MR spectroscopy. PMID:18540918

  5. Humor Scholarship and TESOL: Applying Findings and Establishing a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    Research in the areas of second language (L2) pragmatics and of conversational humor has increased in recent decades, resulting in a strong base of knowledge from which applied linguists can draw information for teaching purposes and undertake future research. Yet, whereas empirical findings in L2 pragmatics are beginning to find their way into…

  6. The Easy Way of Finding Parameters in IBM (EWofFP-IBM)

    SciTech Connect

    Turkan, Nureddin

    2008-11-11

    E2/M1 multipole mixing ratios of even-even nuclei in transitional region can be calculated as soon as B(E2) and B(M1) values by using the PHINT and/or NP-BOS codes. The correct calculations of energies must be obtained to produce such calculations. Also, the correct parameter values are needed to calculate the energies. The logic of the codes is based on the mathematical and physical Statements describing interacting boson model (IBM) which is one of the model of nuclear structure physics. Here, the big problem is to find the best fitted parameters values of the model. So, by using the Easy Way of Finding Parameters in IBM (EWofFP-IBM), the best parameter values of IBM Hamiltonian for {sup 102-110}Pd and {sup 102-110}Ru isotopes were firstly obtained and then the energies were calculated. At the end, it was seen that the calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental ones. In addition, it was carried out that the presented energy values obtained by using the EWofFP-IBM are dominantly better than the previous theoretical data.

  7. CLINICAL RESEARCH--A TWO-WAY STREET BETWEEN RESEARCH AND PRACTICE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COOKINGHAM, FRANK; WARD, TED W.

    A CASE IS MADE FOR CLINICAL RESEARCH AS A 2-WAY STREET BETWEEN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND PRACTICE. EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH IS DEFINED AS "THE DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TECHNIQUES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE LEARNING PROCESS IN AN EDUCATIONAL SETTING," THUS QUESTIONING THE RELEVANCY OF "BASIC" VS. "APPLIED" THEORIES. CLINICAL RESEARCH STUDIES CONSIST OF…

  8. Galvanizers, Guides, Champions, and Shields: The Many Ways That Policymakers Use Public Health Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Abby S; Gillespie, James A; Derrick, Gemma E; Hall, Wayne D; Redman, Sally; Chapman, Simon; Sturk, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Context Public health researchers make a limited but important contribution to policy development. Some engage with policy directly through committees, advisory boards, advocacy coalitions, ministerial briefings, intervention design consultation, and research partnerships with government, as well as by championing research-informed policy in the media. Nevertheless, the research utilization literature has paid little attention to these diverse roles and the ways that policymakers use them. This article describes how policymakers use researchers in policymaking and examines how these activities relate to models of research utilization. It also explores the extent to which policymakers’ accounts of using researchers concur with the experiences of “policy-engaged” public health researchers. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with thirty-two Australian civil servants, parliamentary ministers, and ministerial advisers identified as “research-engaged” by public health researchers. We used structured and inductive coding to generate categories that we then compared with some of the major research utilization models. Findings Policymakers were sophisticated and multifaceted users of researchers for purposes that we describe as Galvanizing Ideas, Clarification and Advice, Persuasion, and Defense. These categories overlapped but did not wholly fit with research utilization models. Despite the negative connotation, “being used” was reported as reciprocal and uncompromising, although researchers and policymakers were likely to categorize these uses differently. Policymakers countered views expressed by some researchers. That is, they sought robust dialogue and creative thinking rather than compliance, and they valued expert opinion when research was insufficient for decision making. The technical/political character of policy development shaped the ways in which researchers were used. Conclusions Elucidating the diverse roles that public health

  9. Finding Intercultural Business Communication Research Sites in Companies (Doing Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driskill, Linda; Shaw, Peggy

    1994-01-01

    Describes important resources for discovering sites for communication research related to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), to help identify appropriate companies and contact them. (SR)

  10. Click Chemistry Finds Its Way in Constructing an Ionic Highway in Anion-Exchange Membrane.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qianqian; Ran, Jin; Miao, Jibin; Yang, Zhengjin; Xu, Tongwen

    2015-12-30

    To find the way to construct an ionic highway in anion-exchange membranes (AEMs), a series of side-chain-type alkaline polymer electrolytes (APEs) based on poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) polymer backbones were synthesized via Cu(I)-catalyzed click chemistry. The resulting triazole groups and quaternary ammonium (QA) groups facilitate the formation of a continuous hydrogen bond network, which will lead to high hydroxide conductivity according to Grotthuss-type mechanism. Microphase separation induced by long alkyl side chains contributes at the same time to further improving the hydroxide conductivity of the resultant AEMs. Hydroxide conductivity as high as 52.8 mS/cm is obtained for membrane TA-14C-1.21 (IEC = 1.21 mmol/g) with the longest pendant chain at 30 °C, and the conductivity can be increased to 140 mS/cm when the temperature was increased to 80 °C. Moreover, the corresponding water uptake is only 8.6 wt % at 30 °C. In the meantime, the membrane properties can be tuned by precisely regulating the hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio in the cationic head groups. Compared with AEMs containing triazole and quaternized trimethylammonium head groups, enhanced dimensional stability and mechanical properties are obtained by tuning side-chain chemistry. However, the alkaline stability of the membrane is not as stable as anticipated, probably because of the existence of the triazole ring. Further study will be focused on increasing the alkali stability of the membrane. We envisage that the side-chain-type APEs meditated by click chemistry bearing long hydrophobic side chains pendant to the cationic head groups hold promise as a novel AEMs material. PMID:26645427

  11. Researchers Find 8 Immune Genes in Aggressive Brain Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159031.html Researchers Find 8 Immune Genes in Aggressive Brain Cancer Discovery might eventually lead ... 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers have identified immune genes that may affect how long people live after ...

  12. Finding our way: On the sharing and reuse of animal telemetry data in Australasia.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Hamish A; Beyer, Hawthorne L; Dennis, Todd E; Dwyer, Ross G; Forester, James D; Fukuda, Yusuke; Lynch, Catherine; Hindell, Mark A; Menke, Norbert; Morales, Juan M; Richardson, Craig; Rodgers, Essie; Taylor, Graeme; Watts, Matt E; Westcott, David A

    2015-11-15

    The presence and movements of organisms both reflect and influence the distribution of ecological resources in space and time. The monitoring of animal movement by telemetry devices is being increasingly used to inform management of marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we brought together academics, and environmental managers to determine the extent of animal movement research in the Australasian region, and assess the opportunities and challenges in the sharing and reuse of these data. This working group was formed under the Australian Centre for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (ACEAS), whose overall aim was to facilitate trans-organisational and transdisciplinary synthesis. We discovered that between 2000 and 2012 at least 501 peer-reviewed scientific papers were published that report animal location data collected by telemetry devices from within the Australasian region. Collectively, this involved the capture and electronic tagging of 12 656 animals. The majority of studies were undertaken to address specific management questions; rarely were these data used beyond their original intent. We estimate that approximately half (~500) of all animal telemetry projects undertaken remained unpublished, a similar proportion were not discoverable via online resources, and less than 8.8% of all animals tagged and tracked had their data stored in a discoverable and accessible manner. Animal telemetry data contain a wealth of information about how animals and species interact with each other and the landscapes they inhabit. These data are expensive and difficult to collect and can reduce survivorship of the tagged individuals, which implies an ethical obligation to make the data available to the scientific community. This is the first study to quantify the gap between telemetry devices placed on animals and findings/data published, and presents methods for improvement. Instigation of these strategies will enhance the cost-effectiveness of the research and

  13. Applications of Classroom Management Research Findings. Research Series No. 154.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Joyce; Barnes, Henrietta

    This study examined the long-term effects of providing a research-based approach to classroom management through a two-phase staff development process. The process was designed to promote teachers' ability to establish and maintain effective classroom groups. Teachers' uses of group-development principles, cooperative-learning strategies, and…

  14. Electing Research: Creating a Research Elective Is a Great Way to Teach In-Depth Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Mary Hoffman, was having a hard time teaching in-depth research skills to her middle school students, due to time limitations. So last fall, she approached her principal with an unprecedented idea: to offer kids a semester-long elective on research. What better way to teach comprehensive, analytical skills to those who really wanted a challenge?…

  15. Editorial Decisions May Perpetuate Belief in Invalid Research Findings

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Simpson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Social psychology and related disciplines are seeing a resurgence of interest in replication, as well as actual replication efforts. But prior work suggests that even a clear demonstration that a finding is invalid often fails to shake acceptance of the finding. This threatens the full impact of these replication efforts. Here we show that the actions of two key players – journal editors and the authors of original (invalidated) research findings – are critical to the broader public’s continued belief in an invalidated research conclusion. Across three experiments, we show that belief in an invalidated finding falls sharply when a critical failed replication is published in the same – versus different – journal as the original finding, and when the authors of the original finding acknowledge that the new findings invalidate their conclusions. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our key findings. PMID:24023863

  16. Families Finding the Balance: A Parent Handbook. We Can! Ways to Enhance Children's Activity & Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    We Can! (Ways to Enhance Children's Activity & Nutrition) is a new public education outreach program designed to help children 8-13 years old stay at a healthy weight through improving food choices, increasing physical activity, and reducing screen time. The program is a collaboration of four Institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH):…

  17. The Road to Autonomy: Can Schools, Districts, and Central Offices Find Their Way? Education Sector Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Erin

    2011-01-01

    When policymakers begin to think of ways to help schools improve, they often settle on the idea of giving individual schools greater independence. This led to the "site-based management" movement of the 1990s. Today, granting schools autonomy from some or all rules remains a popular strategy for reform. With expanded autonomy, districts let the…

  18. Researchers Find 8 Immune Genes in Aggressive Brain Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159031.html Researchers Find 8 Immune Genes in Aggressive Brain Cancer Discovery might eventually lead to better ... tissue samples from 170 people with a less aggressive type of brain tumor. This led to the ...

  19. Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease Each year, millions of Americans take statins, ... people these benefits come at a cost: widespread muscle pain that persists as long as the drugs ...

  20. One Way or Return? The Journey from Practitioner to Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buoro, Ivano

    2015-01-01

    The journey from VET practitioner to academic researcher is not an easy one, especially for VET teachers whose educational research training in action and ethnographic research have been inculcated through years of practice. This paper discusses the highlights of the journey from practitioner to practitioner researcher including a discussion of…

  1. Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

  2. Finding Community: A Guide to Community Research and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, W. Ron; And Others

    For those concerned with contemporary social problems, whether as students, members of community groups, or individual citizens, this book attempts not only to describe the issues, but also to offer some starting points for local research and action. As an educational tool, it is based on the belief that a good way to learn about a community is to…

  3. A System for Addressing Incidental Findings in Neuroimaging Research

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Steven C.; Wu, Jennifer; Hanson, Joseph A.; Nouri, Sarvenaz; Karnani, Diraj; Chuang, Tony M.; Le, Vu

    2011-01-01

    When healthy subjects undergo brain imaging, incidental findings are not rare. The optimal response to such findings has been the focus of considerable discussion. The current report describes the operations and results of a system that provides review of incidental findings by an appropriate medical professional. A web-based system was created whereby investigators performing brain MRI scans on healthy subjects could refer images with suspected concerns to a board certified radiologist who had a Certificate of Added Qualification in Neuroradiology. The specific details of this system are described. Among 27 scans suspected by an investigator of having a significant finding, all but one were referred by a researcher with a PhD. The most common concerns described by these investigators were for the possible presence of a cyst or of enlarged ventricles. The most common findings reported by the radiologist were Virchow-Robin spaces and cysts. Findings were generally of low clinical significance, with 1 major exception. Identifying the optimal response to incidental findings in neuroimaging research remains a challenge. The current report describes a system for providing expert assistance and so addresses these issues in the setting of suspected incidental findings. To our knowledge the current system is the first to provide a specific means for evaluation of incidental findings in neuroimaging research. PMID:21224007

  4. Environmentally Mediated Risks for Psychopathology: Research Strategies and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To consider the research design requirements needed to provide a rigorous test of environmental mediation hypotheses and to summarize the main findings from research using such designs. Method: Selective review of empirical evidence dealing with psychopathology. Results: There is robust evidence of environmentally mediated risks for…

  5. Finding a Way: Library Master Agreements at the University of Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halaychik, Corey S.

    2015-01-01

    The contract-review and approval process for purchasing and renewing electronic resources at the University of Tennessee had become cumbersome to campus libraries. To streamline existing procedures, the campus libraries, the Office of Contracts Administration, and the Purchasing Department collaborated to find a solution that restored a measure of…

  6. Adapting Western Research Methods to Indigenous Ways of Knowing

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous communities have long experienced exploitation by researchers and increasingly require participatory and decolonizing research processes. We present a case study of an intervention research project to exemplify a clash between Western research methodologies and Indigenous methodologies and how we attempted reconciliation. We then provide implications for future research based on lessons learned from Native American community partners who voiced concern over methods of Western deductive qualitative analysis. Decolonizing research requires constant reflective attention and action, and there is an absence of published guidance for this process. Continued exploration is needed for implementing Indigenous methods alone or in conjunction with appropriate Western methods when conducting research in Indigenous communities. Currently, examples of Indigenous methods and theories are not widely available in academic texts or published articles, and are often not perceived as valid. PMID:23678897

  7. Through the interaction of neutral and adaptive mutations, evolutionary search finds a way.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tina; Miller, Julian Francis

    2006-01-01

    An evolutionary system that supports the interaction of neutral and adaptive mutations is investigated. Experimental results on a Boolean function and needle-in-haystack problems show that this system enables evolutionary search to find better solutions faster. Through a novel analysis based on the ratio of neutral to adaptive mutations, we identify this interaction as an engine that automatically adjusts the relative amounts of exploration and exploitation to achieve effective search (i.e., it is self-adaptive). Moreover, a hypothesis to describe the search process in this system is proposed and investigated. Our findings lead us to counter the arguments of those who dismiss the usefulness of neutrality. We argue that the benefits of neutrality are intimately related to its implementation, so that one must be cautious about making general claims about its merits or demerits. PMID:16953784

  8. Schematic way to find solution of the outcoupled matter wave with a source term

    SciTech Connect

    Prayitno, T. B.

    2013-09-09

    We propose a schematic way to obtain solution of the outcoupled atom laser beam wave function in the presence of a source term where the beam is influenced by gravity. In this case, we only focus on the external potentials inside the region of Bose-Einstein condensate that are generated by electromagnetic source and gravity. Since the evolution of the atom laser beam can be portrayed through the ordinary Schrödinger equation with a source, we are allowed to express the general solution as the superposition of the homogeneous solution and particular solution. With the given external potentials and ansatz solutions, we attain that the obtained energy depends on the parameter constituting to the ratio between the longitudinal frequency and transverse frequency.

  9. Finding Fault? Exploring Legal Duties to Return Incidental Findings in Genomic Research.

    PubMed

    Pike, Elizabeth R; Rothenberg, Karen H; Berkman, Benjamin E

    2014-01-01

    The use of whole-genome sequencing in biomedical research is expected to produce dramatic advances in human health. The increasing use of this powerful, data-rich new technology in research, however, will inevitably give rise to incidental findings (IFs)-findings with individual health or reproductive significance that are beyond the aims of the particular research-and the related questions of whether and to what extent researchers have an ethical obligation to return IFs. Many have concluded that researchers have an ethical obligation to return some findings in some circumstances but have provided vague or context-dependent approaches to determining which IFs must be returned and when. As a result, researchers have started returning IFs inconsistently, giving rise to concerns about legal liability in circumstances in which notification could have potentially prevented injury. Although it is clear that ethical guidance should not be automatically codified as law and that crafting ethical obligations around legal duties can be inappropriate, the ethical debate should not proceed unaware of the potential legal ramifications of advancing and implementing an ethical obligation to return IFs. This Article assesses the legal claims that could be brought for a researcher's failure to return IFs. The potential for researchers to be held liable in tort is still uncertain and turns largely on a number of factors-including customary practice and guidance documents-that are still in flux. Unlike medical care, which has a well-defined duty into which evolving scientific knowledge about genetics and genomics can readily be incorporated, a researcher's duty to return IFs is less well defined, making it difficult to determine at the outset whether and when legal liability will attach. This Article advocates for a clearer, ethically sound standard of requiring that researchers disclose in the informed consent document which approach to offering IFs will be taken. This approach

  10. Finding Cultural Harmony in Interviewing: The Wisdom of the Middle Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Myra C. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Insider-researchers are said to enjoy many advantages during the interview process that help them to access the innermost thoughts of participants. As a Chinese doctoral student interviewing other Chinese doctoral students, I assumed I was an insider. However, my experiences proved otherwise, as I oscillated between insider and outsider positions.…

  11. Finding the Way: Signposts in Teachers' Development of Effective Interactive Whiteboard Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murcia, Karen; McKenzie, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the process and outcomes of an action research project conducted in collaboration with classroom teachers who developed strategies that utilized Interactive Whiteboard technology for improving children's literacy and numeracy. Critical incident stories are used to demonstrate significant signposts in the teachers' development…

  12. Digital Literature: Finding New Ways to Motivate Students to Read Brazilian Literature Electronic Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbosa, Vania Soares; Lima, Vera; Silva, Rejane; Silva, Willy; Soares, Ana Carolina; de Sousa, Aline

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative and qualitative study is aimed to diagnose and promote the use of new technologies in teaching literature reading in Public (State) Schools, assessing materials accessibility and computer skills. The research consisted of three distinct steps: (1) A survey to detect teachers' and students' computer skills, their use of…

  13. Finding Ways to Effectively Use Year 12 Achievement Data to Inform Practice in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Italiano, Frank; Hine, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    This action research explored how Year 12 achievement data were used by school personnel to inform practice within seven Catholic secondary schools. Deputy Principals of Curriculum from participating schools were interviewed regarding their perceptions of the improvement of Year 12 student achievement outcomes, and their insights into how to…

  14. Recruiting Underserved Mothers to Medical Research: Findings from North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Spears, Chaya R.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; O’Neill, Jenna L.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Feldman, Steven R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Representative samples are required for ethical, valid, and useful health research. Yet, recruiting participants, especially from historically underserved communities, can be challenging. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 40 mothers about factors that might influence their willingness to participate or allow their children to participate in medical research. Saliency analysis organizes the findings. Frequent and important salient themes about research participation included concerns that it might cause participants harm, hope that participants might gain a health benefit, and recognition that time and transportation resources could limit participation. Ultimately, we propose that a theoretical model, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), will facilitate more systematic evaluation of effective methods for recruitment and retention of participants in medical research. Future research should explore the utility of such a model for development of effective recruitment and retention strategies. PMID:24185171

  15. In Search of New Ideas, Research Findings, and Emerging Technologies? Here's Where To Find Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gary C.

    There are many avenues available to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) practitioners and developers in search of access to new ideas, research findings, and emerging technologies that will assist them in developing CAI products. Seven such avenues are described in detail: (1) graduate student interns, who bring unique insights, theory, and…

  16. Finding the Way in Phenotypic Space: The Origin and Maintenance of Constraints on Organismal Form

    PubMed Central

    Pigliucci, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Background One of the all-time questions in evolutionary biology regards the evolution of organismal shapes, and in particular why certain forms appear repeatedly in the history of life, others only seldom and still others not at all. Recent research in this field has deployed the conceptual framework of constraints and natural selection as measured by quantitative genetic methods. Scope In this paper I argue that quantitative genetics can by necessity only provide us with useful statistical summaries that may lead researchers to formulate testable causal hypotheses, but that any inferential attempt beyond this is unreasonable. Instead, I suggest that thinking in terms of coordinates in phenotypic spaces, and approaching the problem using a variety of empirical methods (seeking a consilience of evidence), is more likely to lead to solid inferences regarding the causal basis of the historical patterns that make up most of the data available on phenotypic evolution. PMID:17495983

  17. New genetic findings lead the way to a better understanding of fundamental mechanisms of drug hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Pirmohamed, Munir; Ostrov, David A; Park, B Kevin

    2015-08-01

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions are an important clinical problem for both health care and industry. Recent advances in genetics have identified a number of HLA alleles associated with a range of these adverse reactions predominantly affecting the skin but also other organs, such as the liver. The associations between abacavir hypersensitivity and HLA-B*57:01 and carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and HLA-B*15:02 have been implemented in clinical practice. There are many different mechanisms proposed in the pathogenesis of drug hypersensitivity reactions, including the hapten hypothesis, direct binding to T-cell receptors (the pharmacologic interaction hypothesis), and peptide-binding displacement. A problem with all the hypotheses is that they are largely based on in vitro findings, with little direct in vivo evidence. Although most studies have focused on individual mechanisms, it is perhaps more important to consider them all as being complementary, potentially occurring at the same time with the same drug in the same patient. This might at least partly account for the heterogeneity of the immune response seen in different patients. There is a need to develop novel methodologies to evaluate how the in vitro mechanisms relate to the in vivo situation and how the highly consistent genetic findings with different HLA alleles can be more consistently used for both prediction and prevention of these serious adverse reactions. PMID:26254050

  18. New genetic findings lead the way to a better understanding of fundamental mechanisms of drug hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Pirmohamed, Munir; Ostrov, David A.; Park, B. Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions are an important clinical problem for both health care and industry. Recent advances in genetics have identified a number of HLA alleles associated with a range of these adverse reactions predominantly affecting the skin but also other organs, such as the liver. The associations between abacavir hypersensitivity and HLA-B*57:01 and carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and HLA-B*15:02 have been implemented in clinical practice. There are many different mechanisms proposed in the pathogenesis of drug hypersensitivity reactions, including the hapten hypothesis, direct binding to T-cell receptors (the pharmacologic interaction hypothesis), and peptide-binding displacement. A problem with all the hypotheses is that they are largely based on in vitro findings, with little direct in vivo evidence. Although most studies have focused on individual mechanisms, it is perhaps more important to consider them all as being complementary, potentially occurring at the same time with the same drug in the same patient. This might at least partly account for the heterogeneity of the immune response seen in different patients. There is a need to develop novel methodologies to evaluate how the in vitro mechanisms relate to the in vivo situation and how the highly consistent genetic findings with different HLA alleles can be more consistently used for both prediction and prevention of these serious adverse reactions. PMID:26254050

  19. Public Understanding of Cognitive Neuroscience Research Findings: Trying to Peer beyond Enchanted Glass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotzer, Tina A.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the appeal of cognitive neuroscience research to the general public within the context of the deep puzzles involved in using our minds to understand how our minds work. It offers a few promising examples of findings that illuminate the ways of the mind and reveal these workings to be counter-intuitive with our subjective…

  20. Introducing the Concept of Salutogenesis to School Leadership Research: Problematizing Empirical Methodologies and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces and explores the concept of "salutogenesis" as a way of interpreting school leadership research and its findings in two significant areas: its effect on student outcomes and the motivation of incumbents. In its original setting, salutogenesis describes an approach that focuses on health, rather than on disease, but…

  1. Effective ways to communicate research using the poster format

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous academic conferences feature multiple venues for presentation of academic research results. While numerous associations provide conference presenters with potential best practices for the generation and presentation of information, not all presenters follow the suggested guidelines. This st...

  2. Finding Fault? Exploring Legal Duties to Return Incidental Findings in Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Elizabeth R.; Rothenberg, Karen H.; Berkman, Benjamin E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of whole-genome sequencing in biomedical research is expected to produce dramatic advances in human health. The increasing use of this powerful, data-rich new technology in research, however, will inevitably give rise to incidental findings (IFs)—findings with individual health or reproductive significance that are beyond the aims of the particular research—and the related questions of whether and to what extent researchers have an ethical obligation to return IFs. Many have concluded that researchers have an ethical obligation to return some findings in some circumstances but have provided vague or context-dependent approaches to determining which IFs must be returned and when. As a result, researchers have started returning IFs inconsistently, giving rise to concerns about legal liability in circumstances in which notification could have potentially prevented injury. Although it is clear that ethical guidance should not be automatically codified as law and that crafting ethical obligations around legal duties can be inappropriate, the ethical debate should not proceed unaware of the potential legal ramifications of advancing and implementing an ethical obligation to return IFs. This Article assesses the legal claims that could be brought for a researcher’s failure to return IFs. The potential for researchers to be held liable in tort is still uncertain and turns largely on a number of factors—including customary practice and guidance documents—that are still in flux. Unlike medical care, which has a well-defined duty into which evolving scientific knowledge about genetics and genomics can readily be incorporated, a researcher’s duty to return IFs is less well defined, making it difficult to determine at the outset whether and when legal liability will attach. This Article advocates for a clearer, ethically sound standard of requiring that researchers disclose in the informed consent document which approach to offering IFs will be taken. This

  3. Mutual research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study of two-way partnerships in public health research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Capacity building has been employed in international health and development sectors to describe the process of ‘experts’ from more resourced countries training people in less resourced countries. Hence the concept has an implicit power imbalance based on ‘expert’ knowledge. In 2011, a health research strengthening workshop was undertaken at Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Solomon Islands to further strengthen research skills of the Hospital and College of Nursing staff and East Kwaio community leaders through partnering in practical research projects. The workshop was based on participatory research frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies, which sought to challenge historical power imbalances and inequities. Our research question was, “Is research capacity strengthening a two-way process?” Methods In this qualitative study, five Solomon Islanders and five Australians each responded to four open-ended questions about their experience of the research capacity strengthening workshop and activities: five chose face to face interview, five chose to provide written responses. Written responses and interview transcripts were inductively analysed in NVivo 9. Results Six major themes emerged. These were: Respectful relationships; Increased knowledge and experience with research process; Participation at all stages in the research process; Contribution to public health action; Support and sustain research opportunities; and Managing challenges of capacity strengthening. All researchers identified benefits for themselves, their institution and/or community, regardless of their role or country of origin, indicating that the capacity strengthening had been a two-way process. Conclusions The flexible and responsive process we used to strengthen research capacity was identified as mutually beneficial. Using community-based participatory frameworks underpinned by decolonising methodologies is assisting to redress historical power imbalances and

  4. Resources, challenges and way forward in rare mitochondrial diseases research.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Neeraj Kumar; Singh, Vipin; Bhardwaj, Anshu

    2015-01-01

    Over 300 million people are affected by about 7000 rare diseases globally. There are tremendous resource limitations and challenges in driving research and drug development for rare diseases. Hence, innovative approaches are needed to identify potential solutions. This review focuses on the resources developed over the past years for analysis of genome data towards understanding disease biology especially in the context of mitochondrial diseases, given that mitochondria are central to major cellular pathways and their dysfunction leads to a broad spectrum of diseases. Platforms for collaboration of research groups, clinicians and patients and the advantages of community collaborative efforts in addressing rare diseases are also discussed. The review also describes crowdsourcing and crowdfunding efforts in rare diseases research and how the upcoming initiatives for understanding disease biology including analyses of large number of genomes are also applicable to rare diseases. PMID:26180633

  5. Resources, challenges and way forward in rare mitochondrial diseases research

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Neeraj Kumar; Singh, Vipin; Bhardwaj, Anshu

    2015-01-01

    Over 300 million people are affected by about 7000 rare diseases globally. There are tremendous resource limitations and challenges in driving research and drug development for rare diseases. Hence, innovative approaches are needed to identify potential solutions. This review focuses on the resources developed over the past years for analysis of genome data towards understanding disease biology especially in the context of mitochondrial diseases, given that mitochondria are central to major cellular pathways and their dysfunction leads to a broad spectrum of diseases. Platforms for collaboration of research groups, clinicians and patients and the advantages of community collaborative efforts in addressing rare diseases are also discussed. The review also describes crowdsourcing and crowdfunding efforts in rare diseases research and how the upcoming initiatives for understanding disease biology including analyses of large number of genomes are also applicable to rare diseases. PMID:26180633

  6. Ways To Promote Youth Development in Camp. Research Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gwynn M.

    2003-01-01

    The features of positive youth development settings, identified in recent research, are applied to camp program planning, staff selection, and comprehensive program evaluation. A web-like model of positive features of the program's organizational and social environment provides a systemic viewpoint. (TD)

  7. Managerial Control: A Middle Way. Research Action Brief Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    Hierarchical and decentralized organizational systems are both based on the assumption that power exists in a limited quantity to be divided up among those in the organization. Recent research indicates, to the contrary, that when managers allow their subordinates greater influence in the organization, not only does the job satisfaction and morale…

  8. Undergraduate Research, a Little Experience Goes a Long Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanza, Janet; Smith, Garon C.

    1988-01-01

    Provides information on a program that seeks to increase the nation's supply of engineers and scientists by providing experiences with hands-on research. Describes activities, positive outcomes, and the evaluation of achievements. Concludes that participants and faculty members benefited from the experience. (RT)

  9. Openness--A Way Forward: Development Education Research Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare-Heremia, Mahora

    2014-01-01

    Education is a vital aspect in the lives of humankind. It contributes and shapes our future as citizens of the world. To understand it is to discover the many hidden talents the world has in store for all. The Development Education Research Centre (DERC) holds many resources that aid in the development of education at a global level. With the…

  10. Finding a way to optimize drilling depths in clastic aquifers for geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Putten, M.; van Wees, J. D. A. M.; Pluymaekers, M. P. D.; Kramers, L.

    2012-04-01

    the temperature gradient between 29 and 35 °C/km have only a minor influence on optimal depth. Our findings show that it is important to include porosity-depth characteristics in geothermal exploration for optimizing the subsurface reservoir location. Particularly in cases where subsurface aquifers have strong variations in depth over short distance, defining optimal depth can assist in optimising exploration and production.

  11. Educational Financing in Developing Countries: Research Findings and Contemporary Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    This study focuses on contemporary issues of educational financing in developing countries and on available research findings as these relate, or can be related, to these issues. The first two chapters are analytical, examining common educational finance issues and testing the conventional wisdom of certain usual proposals. Chapter 1, "Issues in…

  12. How Useful are the Findings from the Research on Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, Jane A.

    An overview is presented of research studies (carried out in the 1970s) dealing with the influence of time on student academic achievement. Discussions illuminate studies and findings about: (1) length of school day; (2) academic learning time; (3) achievement levels and academic time; (4) clarity of first day organization and planning; (5) time…

  13. Relationships Always Matter: Findings from a Phenomenological Research Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, David L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from a hermeneutic phenomenological research inquiry which explored the nature of relational experiences in teacher education. Stories of the lived experience of relationships in an educational context were hermeneutically interpreted against the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, Levinas, and Buber. The…

  14. The Children's Hearings Project Research Findings. A Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Sally E.; And Others

    Since 1980 the Children's Hearings Project (CHP) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, has offered status offenders and their families mediation as an alternative to the courts. This report describes CPH's origins and summarizes the results of an extensive research study conducted during the first 2 years of its operation. The key findings were: (1)…

  15. Becoming a Scientist: Research Findings on STEM Students' Gains from Conducting Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, A.; Laursen, S.; Thiry, H.; Seymour, E.

    2006-12-01

    Undergraduate research is widely believed to enhance STEM students' education and increase their persistence to graduate education and careers in the sciences. Yet until very recently, little evidence from research and evaluation studies was available to substantiate such claims and document what students gain from doing undergraduate research or how these gains come about. We have conducted a three-year qualitative research study of STEM students participating in UR at four liberal arts colleges with a strong tradition of faculty-led summer research apprenticeships. Benefits to students reported by both students and their faculty advisors are categorized into six main categories of gains in skills, knowledge, "thinking like a scientist," career preparation, career development, and personal and professional growth. Student and faculty observations are strongly corroborative, but also differ in interesting ways that reflect the distinct perspectives of each group: students are still in the midst of discovering their own career paths while faculty advisors have observed the later career development of their past research students. While not all students find UR to heighten their interest in graduate school, they do find it a powerful growth experience that clarifies their career ambitions by providing a "real world" experience of science. For students whose interest in science is reinforced, UR has a significant role in their professional socialization into the culture and norms of science, which we call "becoming a scientist," through interactions that draw them into the scientific community and experiences that deepen their understanding of the nature of research. Cumulatively, the qualitative data set of nearly 350 interviews offers a rich portrayal of the UR enterprise from a variety of perspectives. Longitudinal data enable us to track the influence of UR on students' career and education trajectories in the years after college, and comparative data from a group

  16. Past missions - the best way to train future planetary researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Natalia; Solodovnikova, Anastasiya; Zubarev, Anatoly; Garov, Andrey; Patraty, Vyacheslav; Kokhanov, Alexander; Karachevtseva, Irina; Nadezhdina, Irina; Konopikhin, Anatoly; Oberst, Juergen

    2015-04-01

    Practice shows that it is much more interesting and useful to learn from real examples than on imaginary tasks from exercise books. The more technologies and software improves and develops, the more information and new products can be obtained from new processing of archive information collected by past planetary missions. So at MIIGAiK we carry out modern processing of lunar panoramic images obtained by Soviet Lunokhod missions (1970-1973). During two years of the study, which is a part of PRoViDE project (http://www.provide-space.eu/), many students, PhD students, young scientists, as well as professors have taken part in this research. Processing of the data obtained so long ago requires development of specific methods, techniques, special software and extraordinary approach. All these points help to interest young people in planetary science and develop their skills as researchers. Another advantage of data from previous missions is that you can compare your results with the ones obtained during the mission. This also helps to test the developed techniques and software on real data and adjust them for implementation in future missions. The work on Lunokhod data processing became the basis of master and PhD theses of MIIGAiK students and scientists at MExLab. Acknowledgments: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement No 312377 PRoViDE.

  17. A very simple and fast way to access and validate algorithms in reproducible research.

    PubMed

    Stegmayer, Georgina; Pividori, Milton; Milone, Diego H

    2016-01-01

    The reproducibility of research in bioinformatics refers to the notion that new methodologies/algorithms and scientific claims have to be published together with their data and source code, in a way that other researchers may verify the findings to further build more knowledge on them. The replication and corroboration of research results are key to the scientific process, and many journals are discussing the matter nowadays, taking concrete steps in this direction. In this journal itself, a recent opinion note has appeared highlighting the increasing importance of this topic in bioinformatics and computational biology, inviting the community to further discuss the matter. In agreement with that article, we would like to propose here another step into that direction with a tool that allows the automatic generation of a web interface, named web-demo, directly from source code in a simple and straightforward way. We believe this contribution can help make research not only reproducible but also more easily accessible. A web-demo associated to a published paper can accelerate an algorithm validation with real data, wide-spreading its use with just a few clicks. PMID:26223526

  18. Research and dissemination: an ethical way to prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugeri, Francesca; Farabollini, Piero

    2015-04-01

    The Italian landscape is well representative of the dualism risk / resource which, along with its contradictions, characterizes the whole country. In fact, it also poses continuous questions to the further parallel duality defense / management, as we think to those cases where the natural environment is a high source of hazard to the population living in the concerned territory, being at the same time a resource thanks to the beauty expressed by the shapes of the landscape. The knowledge of the environment where we live is an essential process, even for the survival itself; the difficult journey towards science and knowledge, has been characterized, in the various ages, from different approaches, conditioned by the availability of tools and resources, as well as by the particular historical social, political phases. Research on the evolution of phenomena in time and space; their description, representation and analysis; the interaction between mankind and the physical environment, are a priority for geologists. More than 50 years after the tragedy of Vajont, the issues of shared knowledge, awareness, perception of risk, are still pending and the prevention practices are still a dramatically distant goal. It is essential to disseminate scientific heritage, by implementing processes of communication, using new codes and strategies, able to make individuals / communities / society aware of the local context, in order to trigger a consistent and shared virtuous behaviour,. The strategies of participatory democracy are based on this indispensable assumption, aiming at involving the public in policy management, as well as in prevention practices, towards the sustainable development of the territory. A shared ethics, for the world of research as well as for the society, must aim at overcoming the usual and sterile actions of a mere repairing of the damage, in order to reach a shared behaviour, based on a conscious knowledge, which is the essential foundation to start

  19. Nest predation research: Recent findings and future perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalfoun, Anna L.; Ibanez-Alamo, J. D.; Magrath, R. D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Thomson, R. L.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Haff, T. M.; Martin, T.E.

    2016-01-01

    Nest predation is a key source of selection for birds that has attracted increasing attention from ornithologists. The inclusion of new concepts applicable to nest predation that stem from social information, eavesdropping or physiology has expanded our knowledge considerably. Recent methodological advancements now allow focus on all three players within nest predation interactions: adults, offspring and predators. Indeed, the study of nest predation now forms a vital part of avian research in several fields, including animal behaviour, population ecology, evolution and conservation biology. However, within nest predation research there are important aspects that require further development, such as the comparison between ecological and evolutionary antipredator responses, and the role of anthropogenic change. We hope this review of recent findings and the presentation of new research avenues will encourage researchers to study this important and interesting selective pressure, and ultimately will help us to better understand the biology of birds.

  20. Finding the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coss, Gretchen

    2007-01-01

    Today's colleges and universities see the value of integrated and well-planned environmental graphics systems, creating a sense of place and extending a school's brand identity throughout the campus. The impact of including this vital element in a campus master plan reaches far beyond first impressions, leading to more cohesive and close-knit…

  1. HIV prevention research: taking stock and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Richard; Kapiga, Saidi; Padian, Nancy; McCormack, Sheena; Wasserheit, Judith

    2010-10-01

    Previous papers in this supplement have reviewed the evidence of the effectiveness of alternative HIV prevention methods from randomized controlled trials and other studies. This paper draws together the main conclusions from these reviews. A conceptual framework is presented that maps the proximal and distal determinants of sexual HIV transmission and helps to identify the stages in the causal pathway at which each intervention approach acts. The advances, gaps and challenges emerging from the reviews of individual intervention methods are summarized and cross-cutting themes identified. Approximately 90% of HIV prevention trials have found no effect on HIV incidence and we explore the alternative explanations for the large number of 'flat' trials. We conclude that there is no single explanation for these flat results, which may be due to interventions that are ineffective or inappropriately targeted or implemented, or to factors related to the design or conduct of trials. We examine the lessons from these flat results and provide recommendations on what should be done differently in future trials. HIV prevention remains of critical importance in an era of expanded delivery of antiretroviral therapy. In future HIV prevention research, it is important that resources are used as efficiently as possible to provide rigorous evidence of the effectiveness of a wider array of complementary prevention tools. PMID:21042056

  2. HIV PREVENTION RESEARCH: TAKING STOCK AND THE WAY FORWARD

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Richard; Kapiga, Saidi; Padian, Nancy; McCormack, Sheena; Wasserheit, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Previous papers in this supplement have reviewed the evidence of the effectiveness of alternative HIV prevention methods from randomised controlled trials and other studies. This paper draws together the main conclusions from these reviews. A conceptual framework is presented that maps the proximal and distal determinants of sexual HIV transmission and helps to identify the stages in the causal pathway at which each intervention approach acts. The advances, gaps and challenges emerging from the reviews of individual intervention methods are summarised and cross-cutting themes identified. Approximately 90% of HIV prevention trials have found no effect on HIV incidence and we explore the alternative explanations for the large number of “flat” trials. We conclude that there is no single explanation for these flat results which may be due to interventions that are ineffective or inappropriately targeted or implemented, or to factors related to the design or conduct of trials. We examine the lessons from these flat results and provide recommendations on what should be done differently in future trials. HIV prevention remains of critical importance in an era of expanded delivery of antiretroviral therapy. In future HIV prevention research, it is important that resources are used as efficiently as possible to provide rigorous evidence of the effectiveness of a wider array of complementary prevention tools. PMID:21042056

  3. Recreation ecology research findings: Implications for wilderness and park managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Recreationists unintentionally trample vegetation, erode soil, and disturb wildlife. Such human-related impacts present a dilemma for managers charged with the dual objectives of providing recreational opportunities and preserving natural environments. This paper presents some of the principal findings and management implications from research on visitor impacts to protected areas, termed recreation ecology research. This field of study seeks to identify the type and extent of resource impacts and to evaluate relationships between use-related, environmental, and managerial factors. The capabilities and managerial utility of recreation impact monitoring are also described.

  4. Thermonuclear Fusion Research Progress and the Way to the Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Raymond

    2006-06-01

    The paper reviews the progress of fusion research and its prospects for electricity generation. It starts with a reminder of the principles of thermonuclear fusion and a brief discussion of its potential role in the future of the world energy production. The reactions allowing energy production by fusion of nuclei in stars and on earth and the conditions required to sustain them are reviewed. At the high temperatures required for fusion (hundred millions kelvins), matter is completely ionized and has reached what is called its 4th state: the plasma state. The possible means to achieve these extreme temperatures is discussed. The remainder of the paper focuses on the most promising of these approaches, magnetic confinement. The operating principles of the presently most efficient machine of this type — the tokamak — is described in some detail. On the road to producing energy with fusion, a number of obstacles have to be overcome. The plasma, a fluid that reacts to electromagnetic forces and carries currents and charges, is a complex medium. Fusion plasma is strongly heated and is therefore a good example of a system far from equilibrium. A wide variety of instabilities can grow in this system and lead to self-organized structures and spontaneous cycles. Turbulence is generated that degrades the confinement and hinders easy achievement of long lasting hot plasmas. Physicists have learned how to quench turbulence, thereby creating sort of insulating bottles inside the plasma itself to circumvent this problem. The recent history of fusion performance is outlined and the prospect of achieving power generation by fusion in a near future is discussed in the light of the development of the "International Tokamak Experimental Reactor" project ITER.

  5. Translating research findings into community based theatre: More than a dead man's wife.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Susan; Hopgood, Alan; Dickins, Marissa

    2013-12-01

    Increasingly, qualitative scholars in health and social sciences are turning to innovative strategies as a way of translating research findings into informative, accessible and enjoyable forms for the community. The aim of this article is to describe how the research findings of a doctoral thesis - a narrative study about 58 older women's experiences of widowhood - were translated into a unique and professionally developed script to form the basis for a successful theatrical production that has travelled extensively within Australia. This article reports on the process of collaboration between a researcher, a highly regarded Australian actor/script writer and an ensemble of well-known and experienced professional actors. Together the collaborating partners translated the research data and findings about growing older and 'widowhood' into a high quality theatre production. In particular, we argue in this paper that research-based theatre is an appropriate medium for communicating research findings about important life issues of concern to older people in a safe, affirming and entertaining manner. By outlining the process of translating research findings into theatre we hope to show that there is a real value in this translation approach for both researcher and audience alike. PMID:24300067

  6. Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.

    PubMed

    Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24246718

  7. Finding a place for genomics in health disparities research.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, S M; Knerr, S; Burke, W

    2012-01-01

    The existence of pronounced differences in health outcomes between US populations is a problem of moral significance and public health urgency. Pursuing research on genetic contributors to such disparities, despite striking data on the fundamental role of social factors, has been controversial. Still, advances in genomic science are providing an understanding of disease biology at a level of precision not previously possible. The potential for genomic strategies to help in addressing population-level disparities therefore needs to be carefully evaluated. Using 3 examples from current research, we argue that the best way to maximize the benefits of population-based genomic investigations, and mitigate potential harms, is to direct research away from the identification of genetic causes of disparities and instead focus on applying genomic methodologies to the development of clinical and public health tools with the potential to ameliorate healthcare inequities, direct population-level health interventions or inform public policy. Such a transformation will require close collaboration between transdisciplinary teams and community members as well as a reorientation of current research objectives to better align genomic discovery efforts with public health priorities and well-recognized barriers to fair health care delivery. PMID:22488458

  8. Recent research related to juvenile sex offending: findings and directions for further research.

    PubMed

    Malin, H Martin; Saleh, Fabian M; Grudzinskas, Albert J

    2014-04-01

    Serious scholarly inquiry into juvenile sex offending represents a relatively new field, dating from the mid 1940s. During the next 4 decades, a mere handful of articles exploring aspects of juvenile sex offending were added to the available literature. By the 1980s, however, the literature began to increase rapidly, a trend that continues today. The purpose of this article is a focused review of the juvenile sex offender literature cited in PubMed over the last 5 years (2009-2013). The authors have chosen studies that will bring readers up to date on research they believe impacts our current understanding of best practices in the management of juvenile sex offending. For convenience, our review is organized into topical categories including research into characteristics and typologies of juvenile sex offenders, risk assessment and recidivism, assessment and treatment, the ongoing debate about mandatory registration of sex offenders as it applies to juveniles, and other thought provoking studies that do not fit neatly into the aforementioned categories. The studies included contain findings that both reinforce and challenge currently held notions about best practices concerning treatment and public policy, suggesting that our knowledge of the field continues to evolve in important ways. PMID:24562765

  9. Alcohol Consumption among Youth: Current Trends and Research Findings. Prevention Research Update. No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory; Roizen, Ron

    This update offers current knowledge about the scope and nature of adolescent drinking. Its goal is to bridge the communications gap between the researcher, the practitioner, and the general population by disseminating research findings in an accessible manner and by providing an introductory review of the significance of these findings. Abstracts…

  10. Dissemination as Dialogue: Building Trust and Sharing Research Findings Through Community Engagement.

    PubMed

    McDavitt, Bryce; Bogart, Laura M; Mutchler, Matt G; Wagner, Glenn J; Green, Harold D; Lawrence, Sean Jamar; Mutepfa, Kieta D; Nogg, Kelsey A

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental feature of community-based participatory research (CBPR) is sharing findings with community members and engaging community partners in the dissemination process. To be truly collaborative, dissemination should involve community members in a two-way dialogue about new research findings. Yet little literature describes how to engage communities in dialogue about research findings, especially with historically marginalized communities where mistrust of researchers may exist because of past or present social injustices. Through a series of interactive community presentations on findings from a longitudinal study, we developed a process for community dissemination that involved several overlapping phases: planning, outreach, content development, interactive presentations, and follow-up. Through this process, we built on existing and new community relationships. Following each interactive presentation, the research team debriefed and reviewed notes to identify lessons learned from the process. Key themes included the importance of creating a flexible dissemination plan, tailoring presentations to each community group, establishing a point person to serve as a community liaison, and continuing dialogue with community members after the presentations. Core strategies for developing trust during dissemination included engaging community members at every step, reserving ample time for discussion during presentations, building rapport by sharing personal experiences, being receptive to and learning from criticism, and implementing input from community members. This process led to a deeper understanding of research findings and ensured that results reached community members who were invested in them. PMID:26986541

  11. Dissemination as Dialogue: Building Trust and Sharing Research Findings Through Community Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Laura M.; Mutchler, Matt G.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Green, Harold D.; Lawrence, Sean Jamar; Mutepfa, Kieta D.; Nogg, Kelsey A.

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental feature of community-based participatory research (CBPR) is sharing findings with community members and engaging community partners in the dissemination process. To be truly collaborative, dissemination should involve community members in a two-way dialogue about new research findings. Yet little literature describes how to engage communities in dialogue about research findings, especially with historically marginalized communities where mistrust of researchers may exist because of past or present social injustices. Through a series of interactive community presentations on findings from a longitudinal study, we developed a process for community dissemination that involved several overlapping phases: planning, outreach, content development, interactive presentations, and follow-up. Through this process, we built on existing and new community relationships. Following each interactive presentation, the research team debriefed and reviewed notes to identify lessons learned from the process. Key themes included the importance of creating a flexible dissemination plan, tailoring presentations to each community group, establishing a point person to serve as a community liaison, and continuing dialogue with community members after the presentations. Core strategies for developing trust during dissemination included engaging community members at every step, reserving ample time for discussion during presentations, building rapport by sharing personal experiences, being receptive to and learning from criticism, and implementing input from community members. This process led to a deeper understanding of research findings and ensured that results reached community members who were invested in them. PMID:26986541

  12. Educating to Tolerance: Effects of Communicating Social Psychology Research Findings.

    PubMed

    La Barbera, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants' motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants' actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual's level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed. PMID:27247671

  13. Educating to Tolerance: Effects of Communicating Social Psychology Research Findings

    PubMed Central

    La Barbera, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants’ motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants’ actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual’s level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed. PMID:27247671

  14. Relating Academics' Ways of Integrating Research and Teaching to Their Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; van Driel, Jan H.; van der Rijst, Roeland M.; Visser, Anthonya; Verloop, Nico

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of studies has been carried out regarding the way academics view the research-teaching nexus, while other studies have focused on the students' experience of research-intensive environments. This study links these two research streams, and describes how 12 staff members in a faculty of humanities integrate research into their…

  15. Managing incidental findings and research results in genomic research involving biobanks and archived data sets.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Susan M; Crock, Brittney N; Van Ness, Brian; Lawrenz, Frances; Kahn, Jeffrey P; Beskow, Laura M; Cho, Mildred K; Christman, Michael F; Green, Robert C; Hall, Ralph; Illes, Judy; Keane, Moira; Knoppers, Bartha M; Koenig, Barbara A; Kohane, Isaac S; Leroy, Bonnie; Maschke, Karen J; McGeveran, William; Ossorio, Pilar; Parker, Lisa S; Petersen, Gloria M; Richardson, Henry S; Scott, Joan A; Terry, Sharon F; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Wolf, Wendy A

    2012-04-01

    Biobanks and archived data sets collecting samples and data have become crucial engines of genetic and genomic research. Unresolved, however, is what responsibilities biobanks should shoulder to manage incidental findings and individual research results of potential health, reproductive, or personal importance to individual contributors (using "biobank" here to refer both to collections of samples and collections of data). This article reports recommendations from a 2-year project funded by the National Institutes of Health. We analyze the responsibilities involved in managing the return of incidental findings and individual research results in a biobank research system (primary research or collection sites, the biobank itself, and secondary research sites). We suggest that biobanks shoulder significant responsibility for seeing that the biobank research system addresses the return question explicitly. When reidentification of individual contributors is possible, the biobank should work to enable the biobank research system to discharge four core responsibilities to (1) clarify the criteria for evaluating findings and the roster of returnable findings, (2) analyze a particular finding in relation to this, (3) reidentify the individual contributor, and (4) recontact the contributor to offer the finding. We suggest that findings that are analytically valid, reveal an established and substantial risk of a serious health condition, and are clinically actionable should generally be offered to consenting contributors. This article specifies 10 concrete recommendations, addressing new biobanks as well as those already in existence. PMID:22436882

  16. Discovery research: the scientific challenge of finding new antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Livermore, David M

    2011-09-01

    The dwindling supply of new antibiotics largely reflects regulatory and commercial challenges, but also a failure of discovery. In the 1990s the pharmaceutical industry abandoned its classical ways of seeking antibiotics and instead adopted a strategy that combined genomics with high-throughput screening of existing compound libraries. Too much emphasis was placed on identifying targets and molecules that bound to them, and too little emphasis was placed on the ability of these molecules to permeate bacteria, evade efflux and avoid mutational resistance; moreover, the compound libraries were systematically biased against antibiotics. The sorry result is that no antibiotic found by this strategy has yet entered clinical use and many major pharmaceutical companies have abandoned antibiotic discovery. Although a raft of start-up companies-variously financed by venture capital, charity or public money--are now finding new antibiotic compounds (some of them very promising in vitro or in early trials), their development through Phase III depends on financial commitments from large pharmaceutical companies, where the discouraging regulatory environment and the poor likely return on investment remain paramount issues. PMID:21700626

  17. Incidental Findings in Imaging Research: Evaluating Incidence, Benefit and Burden

    PubMed Central

    Orme, Nicholas M.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Siddiki, Hassan A.; Harmsen, W. Scott; O’Byrne, Megan M.; Port, John D.; Tremaine, William J.; Pitot, Henry C.; McFarland, Beth; Robinson, Marguerite E.; Koenig, Barabara A.; King, Bernard F.; Wolf, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Context Little information exists concerning the frequency of clinically significant incidental findings (IFs) identified in the course of imaging research across a broad spectrum of imaging modalities and body regions. Objective To estimate the frequency with which research imaging IFs generate further clinical action, and the medical benefit/burden of identifying these IFs. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective review of subjects undergoing a research imaging exam that was interpreted by a radiologist for IFs in the first quarter of 2004, with 3-year clinical follow-up. An expert panel reviewed IFs generating clinical action to determine medical benefit/burden based on predefined criteria. Main Outcome Measures Frequency of (1) IFs that generated further clinical action by modality, body part, age, gender, and (2) IFs resulting in clear medical benefit or burden. Results 1376 patients underwent 1426 research imaging studies. 40% (567/1426) of exams had at least one IF (1055 total). Risk of an IF increased significantly by age (OR=1.5; [1.4–1.7=95% C.I.] per decade increase). Abdominopelvic CT generated more IFs than other exams (OR=18.9 compared with ultrasound; 9.2% with subsequent clinical action), with CT Thorax and MR brain next (OR=11.9 and 5.9; 2.8% and 2.2% with action, respectively). Overall 6.2% of exams (35/567) with an IF generated clinical action, resulting in clear medical benefit in 1.1% (6/567) and clear medical burden in 0.5% (3/567). In most instances, medical benefit/burden was unclear (4.6%; 26/567). Conclusions The frequency of IFs in imaging research exams varies significantly by imaging modality, body region and age. Research imaging studies at high risk for generating IFs can be identified. Routine evaluation of research images by radiologists may result in identification of IFs in a substantial number of cases and subsequent clinical action to address them in much smaller number. Such clinical action can result in medical

  18. MicroResearch--Finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Kollmann, Tobias R; Bortolussi, Robert; MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-06-01

    The urgent need in Africa for research capacity building has been recognized by African leaders and governments for many years. However, lack of large research funding opportunities has been seen as a major obstacle to improving research capacity in precisely those countries that need it the most. Microfinance has shown that a small infusion of capital can "prime the pump" to creative local economic productivity. In a similar way, MicroResearch has proven effective in promoting a similar bottom-up strategy to find sustainable solutions to local health challenges through local community focused research. Specifically, MicroResearch through hands-on didactic courses, mentoring and small-scale research funding promotes small research projects that improve research skills across the entire health-care provider spectrum to unleash a culture of inquiry. This in turn stimulates health care providers to identify the locally most relevant obstacles that need to be overcome and implement locally feasible and sustainable solutions. MicroResearch is a bottom-up strategy proven effective at finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges. PMID:25934328

  19. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  20. Tripping, Slipping and Losing the Way: Moving beyond Methodological Difficulties in Social Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirrie, Anne; Macleod, Gale

    2010-01-01

    This article is intended as a contribution to the debate on the epistemology of educational research. It is as much concerned with research as a social process as it is with the process of social research. The authors draw upon ways of walking, discussions of embodiment, place and materiality, and their analogues in relation to the processes of…

  1. Thinking about the nature of research findings: a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective.

    PubMed

    Greatrex-White, Sheila

    2008-12-01

    Written in response to an ongoing process of reflexivity, I deconstruct the findings of a recently completed qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological research study which was designed to answer the question: "How is study abroad manifest in the experience of nursing students?" The purpose is to assist and urge other researchers to locate their research, themselves and their research participants more transparently in the social and cultural worlds within which they move and are a part. Following a sketch of the research study upon which the paper is based, the relationships between structure, agency, researched and researcher are explored within a hermeneutic phenomenological framework. In particular, I relate some of the challenges encountered through reflections on specific aspects of the research process. I conclude that research findings might best be understood as being a dynamic and complex, two-way constructed interpretation of phenomena involving both structure and agency. I proceed from the stance that the discursive and the emotional, the artistic and the scientific, need to be balanced partners. Where this relationship is harmonious, intellectual ability increases leading to better meaning making, better decisions and greater understanding. PMID:18842262

  2. Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Davidson, Peter J.; Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, while conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors’ research on HIV risk among injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a needle/syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative

  3. Quantitative research on the primary process: method and findings.

    PubMed

    Holt, Robert R

    2002-01-01

    Freud always defined the primary process metapsychologically, but he described the ways it shows up in dreams, parapraxes, jokes, and symptoms with enough observational detail to make it possible to create an objective, reliable scoring system to measure its manifestations in Rorschach responses, dreams, TAT stories, free associations, and other verbal texts. That system can identify signs of the thinker's efforts, adaptive or maladaptive, to control or defend against the emergence of primary process. A prerequisite and a consequence of the research that used this system was clarification and elaboration of the psychoanalytic theory of thinking. Results of empirical tests of several propositions derived from psychoanalytic theory are summarized. Predictions concerning the method's most useful index, of adaptive vs. maladaptive regression, have been repeatedly verified: People who score high on this index (who are able to produce well-controlled "primary products" in their Rorschach responses), as compared to those who score at the maladaptive pole (producing primary-process-filled responses with poor reality testing, anxiety, and pathological defensive efforts), are better able to tolerate sensory deprivation, are more able to enter special states of consciousness comfortably (drug-induced, hypnotic, etc.), and have higher achievements in artistic creativity, while schizophrenics tend to score at the extreme of maladaptive regression. Capacity for adaptive regression also predicts success in psychotherapy, and rises with the degree of improvement after both psychotherapy and drug treatment. Some predictive failures have been theoretically interesting: Kris's hypothesis about creativity and the controlled use of primary process holds for males but usually not for females. This body of work is presented as a refutation of charges, brought by such critics as Crews, that psychoanalysis cannot become a science. PMID:12206540

  4. ALPBP Project Research Component: Summary of Research Findings and Final Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Charlene

    This report summarizes the Assessment of Language Proficiency of Bilingual Persons (ALPBP) project research component and provides a summary of the findings of the other six components of the study. The summary of the research component includes an outline of the goals, activities, and requests for proposals. After the introduction, the following…

  5. Osteoarthritis: Research Findings | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... studying: Tools to detect osteoarthritis earlier Genes Tissue engineering—special ways to grow cartilage to replace damaged ... athletes from these injuries. Discovery of the various genetic mutations leading to osteoarthritis could lead to new ...

  6. Creative Expression as a Way of Knowing in Diabetes Adult Health Education: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckey, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    This action research study explores the meaning-making process using forms of creative expression for eight women with insulin-dependent diabetes. The study is theoretically informed by arts-based ways of knowing and aspects of feminist poststructuralism, and explains the process of creativity used in the action research process. The findings…

  7. Managing Our Environment, A Report on Ways Agricultural Research Fights Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    A report on the ways agricultural research attempts to fight pollution is presented in this series of articles covering some of the major challenges facing scientists and regulatory officials working in agricultural research. Improved resource management is stressed with the use of advanced technologies as the avenue to solving environmental…

  8. Fourth Way in Action: Translation of Research into Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Chew Leng

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between policy, research and practice in the Singapore education landscape in response to Hargreaves and Shirley's arguments of Fourth Way principles of educational change. Examples of recent policy developments in Singapore are used to illustrate the interaction between judicial uses of research data and…

  9. Finding a Mentor for High School Independent Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Amber

    2008-01-01

    Being involved with scientific research in high school is rewarding and fun. Research enables students to: (1) learn in depth about a particular area; (2) meet other students who are also enthusiastic about learning and who have done amazing research; and (3) earn scholarships for college if the research is entered in competitions. Completing a…

  10. Digital animation as a method to disseminate research findings to the community using a community-based participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Nicole A; Jacoby, Sara F; Williams, Thalia; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A; Richmond, Therese S

    2013-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy. PMID:22395365

  11. Experiences in implementation and publication of operations research interventions: gaps and a way forward

    PubMed Central

    Kalibala, Samuel; Woelk, Godfrey B; Gloyd, Stephen; Jani, Nrupa; Kay, Lynnette; Sarna, Avina; Okal, Jerry; Ndwiga, Charity; Haberland, Nicole; Sinai, Irit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction According to UNAIDS, the world currently has an adequate collection of proven HIV prevention, treatment and diagnostic tools, which, if scaled up, can lay the foundation for ending the AIDS epidemic. HIV operations research (OR) tests and promotes the use of interventions that can increase the demand for and supply of these tools. However, current publications of OR mainly focus on outcomes, leaving gaps in reporting of intervention characteristics, which are essential to address for the utilization of OR findings. This has prompted WHO and other international public health agencies to issue reporting requirements for OR studies. The objective of this commentary is to review experiences in HIV OR intervention design, implementation, process data collection and publication in order to identify gaps, contribute to the body of knowledge and propose a way forward to improve the focus on “implementation” in implementation research. Discussion Interventions in OR, like ordinary service delivery programmes, are subject to the programme cycle, which continually uses insights from implementation and the local context to modify service delivery modalities. Given that some of these modifications in the intervention may influence study outcomes, the documentation of process data becomes vital in OR. However, a key challenge is that study resources tend to be skewed towards documentation and the reporting of study outcomes to the detriment of process data, even though process data is vital for understanding factors influencing the outcomes. Conclusions Interventions in OR should be viewed using the lens of programme evaluation, which includes formative assessment (to determine concept and design), followed by process evaluation (to monitor inputs and outputs) and effectiveness evaluation (to assess outcomes and effectiveness). Study resources should be equitably used between process evaluation and outcome measurement to facilitate inclusion of data about

  12. Marketing orientation in hospitals: findings from a multi-phased research study.

    PubMed

    Wrenn, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    It is clear from numerous studies conducted over a wide variety of industries that marketing-oriented organizations perform better than those that do not adopt this business philosophy. Recent studies have confirmed this finding in healthcare organizations as well. What is now coming to light is the way in which a marketing orientation does contribute to better performance in hospitals, and the difficulties marketers face in getting recognition of that fact by non-marketers in their organization. This article reports on a multi-phased research study of the implementation of marketing-oriented behaviors in a hospital setting. PMID:19042516

  13. Neurobiology Research Findings: How the Brain Works during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kweldju, Siusana

    2015-01-01

    In the past, neurobiology for reading was identical with neuropathology. Today, however, the advancement of modern neuroimaging techniques has contributed to the understanding of the reading processes of normal individuals. Neurobiology findings today have uncovered and illuminated the fundamental neural mechanism of reading. The findings have…

  14. Speaking up about Advocacy: Findings from a Partnership Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Melanie; Bannister, Susan; Davies, Julie; Fleming, Simon; Graham, Claire; Mcmaster, Andrea; Seddon, Angela; Wheldon, Anita; Whittell, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a partnership research project carried out by a research team consisting of people with learning disabilities and people without learning disabilities. The research explored people's understandings of advocacy and identified gaps in advocacy provision for people with learning disabilities and their families. Four focus…

  15. School-Based Performance Awards: Research Findings and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Carolyn; Heneman, Herbert, III; Milanowski, Anthony

    This paper synthesizes research on how motivation influenced teachers at two school-based performance award (SBPA) programs in Kentucky and in North Carolina. The research was conducted between 1995 and 1998 by the Consortium for Policy Research in Education. SBPA programs provide teachers and other school staff with pay bonuses for the…

  16. FACTORS INFLUENCING UTILIZATION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS IN INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LYONS, J. DANIEL

    CHANGES IN ARMY TRAINING PROGRAMS AND PROCEDURES ARE DESCRIBED TO ILLUSTRATE INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE RESULTING FROM IMPLEMENTATION OF APPLIED RESEARCH. SERVING SINCE 1951 AS A RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AGENCY UNDER CONTRACT TO THE ARMY, THE HUMAN RESOURCES RESEARCH OFFICE OF GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY HAS IDENTIFIED INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE THROUGH…

  17. Language of instruction in Tanzania: Why are research findings not heeded?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qorro, Martha A. S.

    2013-06-01

    The issue of language of instruction (LOI) and its effects on education in Tanzanian secondary education has been widely researched since the early 1980s. In 2009, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training proposed a new education and training policy that allows English to be used as LOI from nursery school to tertiary education. The proposed policy goes against what researchers in this area have recommended over the years. In the light of the proposed policy, the author of this article felt the need to review studies done on LOI in Tanzania from 1974 to date, aiming to eliminate or greatly reduce the negative effects of the policy on education in Tanzania. Quoting examples, the paper demonstrates students' levels of proficiency in English; suggests reasons why governmental policy has over time ignored research findings; and recommends as well as proposes the way forward.

  18. Finding Ways to Teach to Students with FASD: A Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Kelly; Crichton, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study examines a unique educational program designed for youth with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder [FASD] in Alberta, Canada. Care was taken to include the participants' voice in this case study resulting in key insights and strategies for working with youth and/or students struggling with FASD. Using observation notes, survey and interview…

  19. Environmental Education Policy Research--Challenges and Ways Research Might Cope with Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laessoe, Jeppe; Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the relationship between research and policy and, more specifically, how researchers might relate to policy work. Given the current international policy focus on climate change, green growth and sustainability in general, it argues for strengthening and widening policy research in the areas of Environmental Education (EE),…

  20. Finding Qualitative Research Evidence for Health Technology Assessment.

    PubMed

    DeJean, Deirdre; Giacomini, Mita; Simeonov, Dorina; Smith, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies increasingly use reviews of qualitative research as evidence for evaluating social, experiential, and ethical aspects of health technologies. We systematically searched three bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Social Science Citation Index [SSCI]) using published search filters or "hedges" and our hybrid filter to identify qualitative research studies pertaining to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and early breast cancer. The search filters were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Our screening by title and abstract revealed that qualitative research constituted only slightly more than 1% of all published research on each health topic. The performance of the published search filters varied greatly across topics and databases. Compared with existing search filters, our hybrid filter demonstrated a consistently high sensitivity across databases and topics, and minimized the resource-intensive process of sifting through false positives. We identify opportunities for qualitative health researchers to improve the uptake of qualitative research into evidence-informed policy making. PMID:27117960

  1. Applying Ad Hoc Institutional Research Findings to College Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental scanning, enrollment forecasting, budget analyses, and institutional effectiveness assessment are examples of the explicit contributions institutional research offices make to campus strategic planning.

  2. Zoos in the twenty-first century: Can't we find a better way to love nature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey-Platt, Lauren Kay

    As a new millennium approaches, many forms of life on the planet and the environments in which they have evolved are increasingly threatened by human activities Wildlife is being marginalized, and native habitats are disappearing at an unprecedented rate. Equally disturbing is the impending demise of traditional human societies---peoples who have evolved outside of the confines and conditions of modern Western influence. The loss of these human and animal societies has occurred so rapidly that implications are largely unknown. Research on how modern Americans relate to animals, particularly wildlife, revealed a clear and disturbing incongruity best exemplified in the current paradigm of zoo exhibition and education. Although zoos purport to educate visitors about the ecology of natural environments and the universal plight of wildlife, research shows that people, particularly children, learn less about ecological principles in zoos with live animals than they do in non-living natural history exhibits. While designers employ a variety of visual techniques in natural history exhibition, environmental sound as an educational exhibit component is largely nonexistent. Many animal species communicate through sound, especially species in underwater environments. As the audio equivalent of a landscape, the soundscape is as important as any other habitat feature to the well-being of wildlife populations. Using recorded sounds of natural environments, an exhibition soundscape was designed and produced for Oceanario de Lisboa in Lisbon, Portugal---the centerpiece of the 1998 World Exposition in Lisbon, Portugal. With programmed sound serving as a major component of natural history exhibition, a conceptual design of a novel zoo for the twenty-first century was described. The "NewZew" concept is based on a growing awareness that the best way to save species is to salvage, preserve, and restore their natural habitats---activities that are largely antithetical to current zoo

  3. Family Caregiving and the Elderly: Policy Recommendations and Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office for the Aging, Albany.

    This report is designed to assist in the formulation of public policy as it relates to older people and their families by setting forth a comprehensive research-based framework to guide future public action in this area. It is intended for use by public officials, agency administrators, researchers, and academicians, as well as members of the…

  4. Rutgers University Research Experience for Teachers in Engineering: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffey, Evelyn H.; Cook-Chennault, Kimberly; Hirsch, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    In addressing the nation's need for a more technologically-literate society, the Rutgers University Research Experience for Teachers in Engineering (RU RET-E) is designed to: (1) engage middle and high school math and science teachers in innovative "green" engineering research during the summer, and (2) support teachers in integrating…

  5. "Response to Comments": Finding the Narrative in Narrative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Cathy A.

    2009-01-01

    The author responds to comments by Barone (2009), Clandinin and Murphy (2009), and M. W. Smith (2009) on "The Construction Zone: Literary Elements in Narrative Research" (Coulter & M. L. Smith, 2009). She clarifies issues regarding point of view, authorial surplus, narrative coherence, and the relational qualities of narrative research. She…

  6. Finding Nexus: Connecting Youth Work and Research Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormally, Sinéad; Coburn, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Participation in educational and social research helps to develop understanding of how young people learn and to consider wider aspects of their lives to enable their voices to be heard and acted upon. Research also facilitates the articulation and sharing of methodologies across a range of professional practices. We assert that theory and…

  7. Seeking Renewal, Finding Community: Participatory Action Research in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Roni Jo; Adair, Marta; Broomhead, Paul; Gray, Sharon; Grierson, Sirpa; Hendrickson, Scott; Jensen, Amy P.; Nokes, Jeffery D.; Shumway, Steven; Siebert, Daniel; Wright, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This narrative study describes the experiences of a group of teacher educators as they worked together in a collaborative research activity investigating theories of literacy and the preparation of secondary teachers. The collaboration was organized around the precepts associated with participatory action research (PAR). After four years of…

  8. Putting nursing research findings into practice: research utilization as an aspect of the management of change.

    PubMed

    MacGuire, J M

    1990-05-01

    This paper discusses a number of different levels at which the implementation of nursing research findings needs to be addressed and identifies 10 areas of potential difficulty: the complexity of the change process, the genesis of research programmes, the formulation of research questions, differences in theoretical approaches, timescales and planning cycles, information overload, credibility, applicability, response to change and the management of change. An attempt is made to shift the nature of the discourse from the personal to the organizational and from a diffusionist perspective to that of change management. It is suggested that it is simplistic to regard the apparent lack of take-up of research-based practice findings as a failure on the part of individual nurses to respond rationally to the production of new information. The integration of research and practice has to be addressed at all levels within an organization; from policy statements to procedure manuals and from managers, educators and clinicians to support workers within the framework of the management of change. The potential of action research and quality circles in this context is touched on. PMID:2358579

  9. Researchers Find Order, Beauty in Chaotic Chemical Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stu

    1991-01-01

    Deterministic chaos which involves orderly motion is discussed. Presented is the history of chaos and two tests for chaos. Practical applications and predictions of the long-term significance of chaos research are discussed. (KR)

  10. Keyboarding Issues in Elementary Education: Some Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kercher, Lydia; McClurg, Patricia

    This paper explores the issue of how, when, and where to teach keyboarding at the elementary school level through a review of the keyboarding literature and descriptions of three studies conducted with fifth grade students in the laboratory school at the University of Wyoming. The literature review briefly summarizes findings on the following…

  11. What clinicians want: findings from a psychotherapy practice research network survey.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Sylvestre, John; Balfour, Louise; Chyurlia, Livia; Evans, Jane; Fortin-Langelier, Benjamin; Francis, Kylie; Gandhi, Jasmine; Huehn, Linda; Hunsley, John; Joyce, Anthony S; Kinley, Jackie; Koszycki, Diana; Leszcz, Molyn; Lybanon-Daigle, Vanessa; Mercer, Deanna; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Presniak, Michelle; Ravitz, Paula; Ritchie, Kerri; Talbot, Jeanne; Wilson, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Practice research networks may be one way of advancing knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) in psychotherapy. In this study, we document this process by first asking clinicians what they want from psychotherapy research. Eighty-two psychotherapists in 10 focus groups identified and discussed psychotherapy research topics relevant to their practices. An analysis of these discussions led to the development of 41 survey items. In an online survey, 1,019 participants, mostly practicing clinicians, rated the importance to their clinical work of these 41 psychotherapy research topics. Ratings were reduced using a principal components analysis in which 9 psychotherapy research themes emerged, accounting for 60.66% of the variance. Two postsurvey focus groups of clinicians (N = 22) aided in interpreting the findings. The ranking of research themes from most to least important were-Therapeutic Relationship/Mechanisms of Change, Therapist Factors, Training and Professional Development, Client Factors, Barriers and Stigma, Technology and Adjunctive Interventions, Progress Monitoring, Matching Clients to Therapist or Therapy, and Treatment Manuals. Few differences were noted in rankings based on participant age or primary therapeutic orientation. Postsurvey focus group participants were not surprised by the top-rated items, as they were considered most proximal and relevant to therapists and their work with clients during therapy sessions. Lower ranked items may be perceived as externally imposed agendas on the therapist and therapy. We discuss practice research networks as a means of creating new collaborations consistent with KTE goals. Findings of this study can help to direct practitioner-researcher collaborations. PMID:25528356

  12. 42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for findings of research misconduct... HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General § 93.104 Requirements for findings of research misconduct. A finding of research misconduct made under this part requires that— (a) There be a...

  13. 42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for findings of research misconduct... HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General § 93.104 Requirements for findings of research misconduct. A finding of research misconduct made under this part requires that— (a) There be a...

  14. 42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for findings of research misconduct... HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General § 93.104 Requirements for findings of research misconduct. A finding of research misconduct made under this part requires that— (a) There be a...

  15. 42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for findings of research misconduct... HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General § 93.104 Requirements for findings of research misconduct. A finding of research misconduct made under this part requires that— (a) There be a...

  16. Diverse Ways to Fore-Ground Methodological Insights about Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Mazzei, Lisa A.; Ceglowski, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Texts and articles that put epistemological theories and methodologies to work in the context of qualitative research can stimulate scholarship in various ways such as through methodological innovations, transferability of theories and methods, interdisciplinarity, and transformative reflections across traditions and frameworks. Such…

  17. The Way We Do Things Here: The Significance of Narratives in Research Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledwell-Brown, Jane; Dias, Patrick X.

    1994-01-01

    Demonstrates how story evaluations (various ways of highlighting the point of a story) can reveal a story's significance within an organizational setting by examining two narratives from research interviews that form part of the data in a study of readers' responses to writing in a marketing organization. (SR)

  18. Incorporating Research Findings into Standards and Requirements for Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, J. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Vision for Exploration has been the catalyst for NASA to refocus its life sciences research. In the future, life sciences research funded by NASA will be focused on answering questions that directly impact setting physiological standards and developing effective countermeasures to the undesirable physiological and psychological effects of spaceflight for maintaining the health of the human system. This, in turn, will contribute to the success of exploration class missions. We will show how research will impact setting physiologic standards, such as exposure limits, outcome limits, and accepted performance ranges. We will give examples of how a physiologic standard can eventually be translated into an operational requirement, then a functional requirement, and eventually spaceflight hardware or procedures. This knowledge will be important to the space medicine community as well as to vehicle contractors who, for the first time, must now consider the human system in developing and constructing a vehicle that can achieve the goal of success.

  19. Finding Collaborators: Toward Interactive Discovery Tools for Research Network Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schleyer, Titus K; Becich, Michael J; Hochheiser, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Background Research networking systems hold great promise for helping biomedical scientists identify collaborators with the expertise needed to build interdisciplinary teams. Although efforts to date have focused primarily on collecting and aggregating information, less attention has been paid to the design of end-user tools for using these collections to identify collaborators. To be effective, collaborator search tools must provide researchers with easy access to information relevant to their collaboration needs. Objective The aim was to study user requirements and preferences for research networking system collaborator search tools and to design and evaluate a functional prototype. Methods Paper prototypes exploring possible interface designs were presented to 18 participants in semistructured interviews aimed at eliciting collaborator search needs. Interview data were coded and analyzed to identify recurrent themes and related software requirements. Analysis results and elements from paper prototypes were used to design a Web-based prototype using the D3 JavaScript library and VIVO data. Preliminary usability studies asked 20 participants to use the tool and to provide feedback through semistructured interviews and completion of the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Initial interviews identified consensus regarding several novel requirements for collaborator search tools, including chronological display of publication and research funding information, the need for conjunctive keyword searches, and tools for tracking candidate collaborators. Participant responses were positive (SUS score: mean 76.4%, SD 13.9). Opportunities for improving the interface design were identified. Conclusions Interactive, timeline-based displays that support comparison of researcher productivity in funding and publication have the potential to effectively support searching for collaborators. Further refinement and longitudinal studies may be needed to better understand the

  20. Urban Delinquency and Substance Abuse. Initial Findings. Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Thornberry, Terence P.

    In collaborative efforts three research teams have investigated the problems of urban delinquency and substance abuse in longitudinal studies that have gone on since 1986. The Denver Youth Study is a longitudinal survey that involves annual interviews with probability samples of five different birth cohorts and their parents from areas of Denver…

  1. Process Analysis and Documentation for Utilization of Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Flora

    This document reports on an investigation which surveyed process analysis and documentation concepts, practices, and standards in light of the need for communicating the processes and outcomes of educational research and development. The survey demonstrated that the areas of impartial process analysis and documentation are both important and…

  2. Electrical Distribution. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappe', Hoyt; Kirkpatrick, Thomas

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of electrical distribution, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train apprentice line workers. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase…

  3. FINDING THE BALANCE - QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS VS. RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data. Researchers must use Q...

  4. FINDING THE BALANCE - QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS VS. RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for
    sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data.
    Researchers must...

  5. Operationalizing Culturally Responsive Instruction: Preliminary Findings of CRIOP Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Rebecca; Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Malo-Juvera, Victor; Correll, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many scholars have espoused the use of culturally responsive instruction (CRI) for closing achievement gaps, yet there is a paucity of research supporting its effectiveness. In this article, we share results of a mixed methods study that examined the use of the Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol (CRIOP) as a…

  6. Reconciling (Seemingly) Discrepant Findings: Implications for Practice and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Nicholas A.; Herzog, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research in survey methodology and psychology have yielded important insights about how to create effective and valid survey instruments. As Porter (in press) has argued convincingly, college student surveys often fall well short of these standards by placing unrealistic demands on students' memory and by assuming that students readily…

  7. Emergency Medical Services. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappe', Hoyt; Squires, Sheila S.

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of emergency medical services (EMS), established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train paramedics. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase I;…

  8. Commercial Photography. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ted; Sappe', Hoyt

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of commercial photography, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train photographic technicians. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase…

  9. Most Colleges Chase Prestige on a Treadmill, Researchers Find

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The pursuit of institutional prestige has done little to improve the reputations of most colleges, and it may be causing many of them to become less distinguishable from their competitors, new research shows. In one study presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Kyle V. Sweitzer, a data-resource…

  10. LEADERSHIP IN SMALL MILITARY UNITS--SOME RESEARCH FINDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANGE, CARL J.

    THE EFFECT OF A LEADER'S ACTIONS ON HIS FOLLOWERS IN SMALL MILITARY UNITS WAS THE SUBJECT OF SEVERAL RESEARCH STUDIES CONDUCTED TO EXPLORE THE NATURE OF THE LEADERSHIP PROCESS, WITH THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF DEVELOPING TRAINING THAT WOULD USE IMPROVED PRESENTATIONAL MATERIALS AND WOULD BE BASED ON LEADERSHIP DOCTRINE WITH DEMONSTRATED VALIDITY. THE…

  11. Graphic Organizers in Reading Instruction: Research Findings and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xiangying; Grabe, William

    2007-01-01

    As an instructional tool, graphic organizers (GOs) have been highly recommended and used in contemporary classrooms. Over the past decade, a number of concerns have been raised about claims for the effectiveness of GOs. These concerns involve the inconsistent research results on student improvements, the limitation in generalizability from…

  12. Sheet Metal Contract. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Thomas; Sappe', Hoyt

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of sheet metal, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train sheet metal workers. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase I; description…

  13. Research on Interest in Science: Theories, Methods, and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krapp, Andreas; Prenzel, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of interest research and describes the theoretical and methodological background for the assessment of interest in science in large-scale assessments like the "Programme for International Student Assessment" (PISA). The paper starts with a short retrospective on the history of interest, bringing out theoretical…

  14. Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent 2 highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, and research in this area has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. We conceptualize the…

  15. Researchers Find Essential Brain Circuit in Visual Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this circuit could be controlled in the human brain — for example, with a drug or with implants ... the nation’s leading funder of research on the brain and nervous system. The ... of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting ...

  16. THE IMPACT OF TELEVISION, METHODS AND FINDINGS IN PROGRAM RESEARCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BELSON, W.A.

    SURVEY AND TESTING TECHNIQUES USED BY THE BRITISH BROADCASTING CORPORATION IN THE YEARS 1952-63 TO ANSWER QUESTIONS OF INTEREST TO TELEVISION PLANNERS INDICATE METHODOLOGY FOR FUTURE PLANNING RESEARCH. TO ANSWER THE BASIC QUESTION--WHAT PEOPLE ARE AVAILABLE FOR WATCHING AND LISTENING--BBC USED THE METHOD OF HAVING 2981 MEMBERS OF A NATIONAL SAMPLE…

  17. Instrumentation Technology. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappe', Hoyt; Squires, Sheila S.

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of instrumentation technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train instrumentation technicians. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of…

  18. Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs To Reduce Teen Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Douglas

    This report summarizes three bodies of research on teenage pregnancy and programs to reduce the risk of teenage pregnancy. Studies included in this report were completed in 1980 or later, conducted in the United States or Canada, targeted adolescents, employed an experimental or quasi-experimental design, had a sample size of at least 100 in the…

  19. Employee Retention at ABC & Co. Northwest Arkansas. Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Timothy; And Others

    A 7-month research project was conducted by graduate students at a garment manufacturing plant in Fayetteville, Arkansas, to gain information about high employee turnover. Information also was gathered about the employment situation in northwest Arkansas in general, union-labor relationships, and how other companies handled turnover. Data were…

  20. Dental Laboratory Technology. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappe', Hoyt; Smith, Debra S.

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of dental laboratory technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train dental laboratory technicians. Section 1 contains general information:…

  1. Children of substance abusers: overview of research findings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J L; Leff, M

    1999-05-01

    A relationship between parental substance abuse and subsequent alcohol problems in their children has been documented extensively. Children of alcoholics (COAs) are considered to be at high risk because there is a greater likelihood that they will develop alcoholism compared with a randomly selected child from the same community. COAs and children of other drug-abusing parents are especially vulnerable to the risk for maladaptive behavior because they have combinations of many risk factors present in their lives. The single most potent risk factor is their parent's substance-abusing behavior. This single risk factor can place children of substance abusers at biologic, psychologic, and environmental risk. Since the turn of the century, many reports have described the deleterious influence of parental alcoholism on their children. A series of studies measured mortality, physiology, and general health in the offspring of alcoholic parents and concluded that when mothers stopped drinking during gestation, their children were healthier. Today, research on COAs can be classified into studies of fetal alcohol syndrome, the transmission of alcoholism, psychobiologic markers of vulnerability, and psychosocial characteristics. Each of these studies hypothesizes that differences between COAs and children of nonalcoholics influence maladaptive behaviors later in life, such as academic failure or alcoholism. This research supports the belief that COAs are at risk for a variety of problems that may include behavioral, psychologic, cognitive, or neuropsychologic deficits. The vast literature on COAs far outweighs the literature on children of other drug abusers. Relatively little is known about children of heroin addicts, cocaine abusers, or polydrug abusers. Nonetheless, many researchers suggest that the children of addicted parents are at greater risk for later dysfunctional behaviors and that they, too, deserve significant attention to prevent intergenerational transmission of

  2. Science, research and social change in Indigenous health--evolving ways of knowing.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Peter W

    2009-11-01

    History tells us of the overwhelming destructive influence of exotic culture, politics and knowledge forms upon the worldview and wellbeing of Indigenous Australians. The power of dominant culture to oppress, control and dominate traditional Indigenous ways of knowing and being has been identified as a being a crucial influence on the health status, future hopes and aspirations of Indigenous Australians. Fundamental to this assertion is that the alienating effect of the belief in and application of the scientific method in relation to learning and knowing is a phenomenon that is incompatible with the law and cultural ways of traditional Indigenous people. The establishment of the Centre of Clinical Research Excellence (CCRE) is predicated upon and responds to a deep need in our community today to synthesise the ideological and epistemological premises of an increasing range of cultures and world views. It recognises that clinical research, for example, is important to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, but also that the way such research is designed and carried out is also crucial to its potential to effect change in and improve the state of Indigenous health in Australia. This paper examines knowledge principles and processes associated with research in Indigenous communities, explores emerging research trends in science and proposes an epistemological framework for synthesis of traditional approaches with those of the scientific paradigm. PMID:20166912

  3. Protecting children in research: Safer ways to research with children who may be experiencing violence or abuse.

    PubMed

    Randall, Duncan; Anderson, Anna; Taylor, Julie

    2016-09-01

    Children participating in research, like other children, may be being maltreated. There is also potential for exposure to abuse during research. Research training, practices and protocols to respond to disclosure and discovery of abuse to protect both researchers and children may not be sufficiently robust. Our aim was to compare and contrast research practices reported in the literature related to protecting children and to recommend safer ways to conduct research. The simultaneous increase in research with children, along with an increased willingness to listen to child victims of abuse, means that researchers must consider the protection of children in the research setting. Twenty-three papers were identified in a literature review. These studies reported a wide variation of ethical considerations, methods, methodology and came from different disciplines. From the 23 papers, two overarching themes were identified: social justice and research and safer research. To make research safer teams should consider training, safety protocols and support for child protection, which includes support to report safeguarding concerns to social care. Further work is required to ensure that training, protocols and support are effective in facilitating researchers to identify and make appropriate child abuse referrals. Ethics practices in abuse research need further debate. PMID:26105062

  4. Mental health epidemiological research in South America: recent findings

    PubMed Central

    Silva de Lima, Maurício; Garcia de Oliveira Soares, Bernardo; de Jesus Mari, Jair

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to review the recent mental health epidemiological research conducted in South America. The Latin American and the Caribbean (LILACS) database was searched from 1999 to 2003 using a specific strategy for identification of cohort, case-control and cross-sectional population-based studies in South America. The authors screened references and identified relevant studies. Further studies were obtained contacting local experts in epidemiology. 140 references were identified, and 12 studies were selected. Most selected studies explored the prevalence and risk factors for common mental disorders, and several of them used sophisticated methods of sample selection and analysis. There is a need for improving the quality of psychiatric journals in Latin America, and for increasing the distribution and access to research data. Regionally relevant problems such as violence and substance abuse should be considered in designing future investigations in this area. PMID:16633474

  5. Research Findings on Radiation Hormesis and Radon Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Sadao

    1999-06-06

    Radiation hormesis research in Japan to determine the validity of Luckey's claims has revealed information on the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific data of animal tests we obtained and successful results actually brought by radon therapy on human patients show us a clearer understanding of the health effects of low-level radiation. We obtained many animal test results and epidemiological survey data through our research activities cooperating with more than ten universities in Japan, categorized as follows: 1. suppression of cancer by enhancement of the immune system based on gene activation; 2. rejuvenation and suppression of aging by increasing cell membrane permeability and enzyme syntheses; 3. adaptive response by activation of gene expression on DNA repair and cell apoptosis; 4. pain relief and stress moderation by hormone formation in the brain and central nervous system; 5. avoidance and therapy of obstinate diseases by enhancing damage control systems and form one formation.

  6. Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent two highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Although interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, research on the topic of pain, nicotine, and tobacco smoking has increased dramatically over the past five years. We conceptualize the interaction of pain and smoking as a prototypical example of the biopsychosocial model. Accordingly, the current review extrapolated from behavioral, cognitive, affective, biomedical, and social perspectives to propose causal mechanisms that may contribute to the observed comorbidity between these two conditions. Research in the broad area of pain and smoking was first dichotomized into investigations of either "effects of smoking on pain" or "effects of pain on smoking." We then integrated the extant literature to present a reciprocal model of pain and smoking that is hypothesized to interact in the manner of a positive feedback loop, resulting in greater pain, increased smoking, and the maintenance of tobacco addiction. Finally, we proposed directions for future research, and discussed clinical implications for smokers with comorbid pain disorders. We observed modest evidence to support the notions that smoking may be a risk factor in the multifactorial etiology of some chronically painful conditions, and that the experience of pain may come to serve as a potent motivator of smoking. We also found that whereas animal studies yielded consistent support for direct pain-inhibitory effects of nicotine and tobacco smoke, results from human studies were much less consistent. Future research in the emerging area of pain and smoking has the potential to inform theoretical and clinical applications with respect to tobacco smoking, chronic pain, and their comorbid presentation. PMID:21967450

  7. Journals Find Many Images in Research Are Faked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Kristin Roovers was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Pennsylvania with a bright career ahead of her--a trusted member of a research laboratory at the medical school studying the role of cell growth in diabetes. When an editor of "The Journal of Clinical Investigation" did a spot-check on one of her images for an article in 2005, Roovers'…

  8. Start Your Search Engines. Part 2: When Image is Everything, Here are Some Great Ways to Find One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Anna; Mowers, Helen

    2008-01-01

    There is no doubt that Google is great for finding images. Simply head to its home page, click the "Images" link, enter criteria in the search box, and--voila! In this article, the authors share some of their other favorite search engines for finding images. To make sure the desired images are available for educational use, consider searching for…

  9. Students Lost in a Flattened World: How Resources from the Catholic Tradition Can Help Business Students Find Their Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Daryl

    2013-01-01

    "Academically Adrift," the recent study of undergraduate performance, has revealed that college students are learning little, if anything, over the course of their four years at university. This article suggests that students are academically adrift, in part, because Americans are culturally marooned between two ways to pursue happiness,…

  10. How To Find Work in the 21st Century: Contracting Your Way to a Job or a Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Ron

    This book explains how individuals can contract their way to jobs or careers in the 21st century workplace. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) how the workplace has changed (looking for work instead of a job; hidden employment opportunities; reasons contracting makes sense; making it easier to get hired; the need for…

  11. Challenges in conducting community-driven research created by differing ways of talking and thinking about science: a researcher's perspective.

    PubMed

    Colquhoun, Amy; Geary, Janis; Goodman, Karen J

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, health scientists are becoming aware that research collaborations that include community partnerships can be an effective way to broaden the scope and enhance the impact of research aimed at improving public health. Such collaborations extend the reach of academic scientists by integrating a variety of perspectives and thus strengthening the applicability of the research. Communication challenges can arise, however, when attempting to address specific research questions in these collaborations. In particular, inconsistencies can exist between scientists and community members in the use and interpretation of words and other language features, particularly when conducting research with a biomedical component. Additional challenges arise from differing perceptions of the investigative process. There may be divergent perceptions about how research questions should and can be answered, and in expectations about requirements of research institutions and research timelines. From these differences, misunderstandings can occur about how the results will ultimately impact the community. These communication issues are particularly challenging when scientists and community members are from different ethnic and linguistic backgrounds that may widen the gap between ways of talking and thinking about science, further complicating the interactions and exchanges that are essential for effective joint research efforts. Community-driven research that aims to describe the burden of disease associated with Helicobacter pylori infection is currently underway in northern Aboriginal communities located in the Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada, with the goal of identifying effective public health strategies for reducing health risks from this infection. This research links community representatives, faculty from various disciplines at the University of Alberta, as well as territorial health care practitioners and officials. This highly collaborative work will be used to

  12. Gate valve and motor-operator research findings

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Russell, M.J.; Bramwell, D.

    1995-09-01

    This report provides an update on the valve research being sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The research addresses the need to provide assurance that motor-operated valves can perform their intended safety function, usually to open or close against specified (design basis) flow and pressure loads. This report describes several important developments: Two methods for estimating or bounding the design basis stem factor (in rising-stem valves), using data from tests less severe than design basis tests; a new correlation for evaluating the opening responses of gate valves and for predicting opening requirements; an extrapolation method that uses the results of a best effort flow test to estimate the design basis closing requirements of a gate valve that exhibits atypical responses (peak force occurs before flow isolation); and the extension of the original INEL closing correlation to include low- flow and low-pressure loads. The report also includes a general approach, presented in step-by-step format, for determining operating margins for rising-stem valves (gate valves and globe valves) as well as quarter-turn valves (ball valves and butterfly valves).

  13. Developmental research as a way to an empirically based didactical structure of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lijnse, P. L.

    In the past decades, much work has been done in science education on large-scale curriculum development, ranging from a structure-of-the-discipline approach to STS. At the same time, research on students' ideas has drawn attention to the underestimated problems of learning and teaching, which may largely explain the limited success of the curriculum efforts as far as cognitive learning is concerned. Proposed solutions are mainly inspired by a constructivist cognitive science perspective and are formulated as general teaching strategies that aim at a more or less forced process of conceptual change. However, in our view, developmental research is needed in which small-scale curriculum development is cyclically coupled to indepth classroom research of teaching-learning processes. Such research should resuit in worked out examples of successful ways of teaching, according to new conceptual curriculum structures. Designing such didactical structures constitutes a longer term research program, which asks for international exchange and cooperation.

  14. Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Findings Determine Research Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Qian; Appels, Lise; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-01-01

    “Second generation” bioethanol, with lignocellulose material as feedstock, is a promising alternative for first generation bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the current status and reveals the bottlenecks that hamper its implementation. The current literature specifies a conversion of biomass to bioethanol of 30 to ~50% only. Novel processes increase the conversion yield to about 92% of the theoretical yield. New combined processes reduce both the number of operational steps and the production of inhibitors. Recent advances in genetically engineered microorganisms are promising for higher alcohol tolerance and conversion efficiency. By combining advanced systems and by intensive additional research to eliminate current bottlenecks, second generation bioethanol could surpass the traditional first generation processes. PMID:25614881

  15. Neonatal research in India: current status, challenges, and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shuchita; Chaurasia, Suman; Sankar, M Jeeva; Deorari, Ashok K; Paul, Vinod K; Agarwal, Ramesh

    2014-11-01

    The present article systematically reviews the current status of neonatal research in India by examining the research articles published by Indian authors in the last 10 years. It also enlists the major challenges and proposes a few potential solutions to improve the status of neonatal research in the country. The systematic review of 574 eligible articles indicates that majority of the studies were observational in nature, facility-based, and primarily investigator-driven with no external funding, had small sample size, and were published in journals with low impact factor. Only a few select government and non-government academic institutions contributed to most studies. The major challenges include shortage of faculty, no provision for dedicated research time, inadequate knowledge/skills in research methods, lack of funding opportunities, limited access to literature, non-existence of research administrative cell, inappropriately low perks to research staff, and poor support for data management and statistical analysis. The recently revised guidelines on clinical trials involving drugs have further increased the researcher's dilemma. The potential solutions are to increase the faculty strength in medical colleges, allow dedicated research time to them, appoint dedicated research cadre with emoluments at par with clinical faculty, initiate formal training in research methods, create nationwide free portal for access to literature, facilitate development of good protocols through technical guidance at all stages, make the process of funding quick and transparent, and to promote collaborative trans-disciplinary research. Experts from different domains should come together and formulate evidence based research priorities. Regulatory mechanisms should be kept proportionate to plausible risks of research, and detailed ethical guidelines for research in children should be formulated. And last but not least, harnessing postgraduate thesis potential to answer simple and

  16. Breaking Away to Find a Way: Poverty and School Failure in a Spanish Adolescent Life-History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon-Almendros, I.

    2011-01-01

    This article is part of a biographical research study, and explores the social path that an adolescent from a marginal background in Malaga (Spain) has travelled throughout his life. The research shows a class differentiation that divides society in two: you, who control the means of production, impose your culture, and define the policy and the…

  17. Exploiting multimedia in reproductive science education: research findings.

    PubMed

    Senger, P L; Oki, A C; Trevisan, M S; McLean, D J

    2012-08-01

    Education in reproductive science is operating from an outdated paradigm of teaching and learning. Traditionally, reproductive education follows the pattern where students read a textbook, listen to instructor presentations, re-read the textbook and class notes and then complete a test. This paradigm is inefficient, costly and has not incorporated the potential that technology can offer with respect to increases in student learning. Further, teachers of reproductive science (and all of science for that matter) have little training in the use of documented methods of instructional design and cognitive psychology. Thus, most of us have learned to teach by repeating the approaches our mentors used (both good and bad). The technology now exists to explain complex topics using multimedia presentations in which digital animation and three-dimensional anatomical reconstructions greatly reduce time required for delivery while at the same time improving student understanding. With funding from the Small Business Innovation Research program through the U.S. Department of Education, we have developed and tested a multimedia approach to teaching complex concepts in reproductive physiology. The results of five separate experiments involving 1058 university students and 122 patients in an OB/GYN clinic indicate that students and patients learned as much or more in less time when viewing the multimedia presentations when compared to traditional teaching methodologies. PMID:22827348

  18. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404 Findings of research misconduct and...

  19. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404 Findings of research misconduct and...

  20. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404 Findings of research misconduct and...

  1. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404 Findings of research misconduct and...

  2. HIV research in Australia: linking basic research findings with clinical and public health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Sharon R; Kaldor, John M; Cooper, David A

    2006-01-01

    Despite a population of only 20 million and sustained low prevalence of HIV infection in Australia, Australian researchers have provided many substantial original findings to the fields of HIV pathogenesis, treatment and prevention. More recently, Australian clinicians and scientists have turned their attention to assisting other countries in developing effective responses, particularly within the Asia-Pacific region. It is therefore fitting that the 4th International AIDS Society (IAS) Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention will be held in Sydney in July 2007. The meeting is expected to attract over 5000 participants and will have a dynamic and innovative programme within the three major themes of HIV basic science, clinical research and biomedical prevention. PMID:17140433

  3. Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Global Environmental Change: Research findings and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Corbera, Esteve; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the special feature of Ecology and Society entitled “Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Global Environmental Change. The special feature addresses two main research themes. The first theme concerns the resilience of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (hereafter TEK) and the conditions that might explain its loss or persistence in the face of global change. The second theme relates to new findings regarding the way in which TEK strengthens community resilience to respond to the multiple stressors of global environmental change. Those themes are analyzed using case studies from Africa, Asia, America and Europe. Theoretical insights and empirical findings from the studies suggest that despite the generalized worldwide trend of TEK erosion, substantial pockets of TEK persist in both developing and developed countries. A common trend on the studies presented here is hybridization, where traditional knowledge, practices, and beliefs are merged with novel forms of knowledge and technologies to create new knowledge systems. The findings also reinforce previous hypotheses pointing at the importance of TEK systems as reservoirs of experiential knowledge that can provide important insights for the design of adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with global environmental change. Based on the results from papers in this feature, we discuss policy directions that might help to promote maintenance and restoration of living TEK systems as sources of social-ecological resilience. PMID:26097492

  4. Great lakes research--important human health findings and their impact on ATSDR's Superfund research program.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Heraline E; De Rosa, Christopher T

    2002-03-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) was created by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, commonly known as Superfund. ATSDR is the principal United States federal public health agency involved with issues of public health and applied science concerning the human health impact of living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste site, or emergencies resulting from unplanned releases of hazardous substances into community environments. In pursuing these mandates, ATSDR's mission is to prevent exposure and adverse human health effects and diminished quality of life associated with exposure to hazardous substances from waste sites, unplanned releases, and other sources of pollution present in the environment. There are more than 2,000 toxic substances found at hazardous waste sites in the United States. ATSDR has developed a prioritized list of 275 substances that pose the greatest hazard to human health. In conducting its work ATSDR has identified data gaps in knowledge about the toxicity of various hazardous substances as well as gaps in human exposure characterization. As part of its mandate, ATSDR initiated a Substance-Specific Applied Research Program (SSARP) to address these data gaps. The ATSDR Great Lakes Human Health Effects Research Program (GLHHERP) is a congressionally-mandated research program that characterizes exposure to persistent toxic substances and investigates the potential for adverse health outcome in at-risk populations. The research findings from this program in the areas of exposure, sociodemographic data, and health effects have significant public health implications for ATSDR's Superfund research activities. PMID:12018016

  5. Student Voice and the Community Forum: Finding Ways of "Being Heard" at an Alternative School for Disenfranchised Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroutsis, Aspa; Mills, Martin; McGregor, Glenda; te Riele, Kitty; Hayes, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Opportunities for students to speak and to be heard are important elements of democratic schooling processes but research into student voice has shown that a culture of silence is a more common feature of schooling. Efforts to re-engage young people in learning often recognise the importance of schooling processes that provide them with…

  6. Finding Ways: Excellence under Pressure. Proceedings from the 1986 Spring Meeting of the Nebraska Library Association, College and University Section (Lincoln, Nebraska, May 2, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, Tamra L., Ed.

    Based on the conference theme, "Finding Ways: Excellence under Pressure," papers presented at the 1986 meeting of the association include: (1) "Coping with Budget Pressure: A Public Services Librarian's View" (Janet C. Lu); (2) "The Librarian, the Accession List, and the Database" (B. C. Wehrman); (3) "New Start: Bibliographic Instruction for…

  7. Guiding Improvements in Principal Performance: ACSA and WestEd Have Developed a Community of Practice Aimed at Finding Ways to Improve Principal Guidance, Support and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Karen

    2005-01-01

    For years, experts have said that the way to get things done is to schedule them on the calendar and to find a partner to join in the effort. Following this advice, the Association of California School Administrators (ACSA) joined the Leadership Initiative at WestEd in inviting superintendents and district teams to think through improving…

  8. Stakeholder Engagement in HIV Cure Research: Lessons Learned from Other HIV Interventions and the Way Forward.

    PubMed

    Lo, Ying-Ru; Chu, Carissa; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Excler, Jean-Louis; Tucker, Joseph D

    2015-07-01

    Clinical and basic science advances have raised considerable hope for achieving an HIV cure by accelerating research. This research is dominated primarily by issues about the nature and design of current and future clinical trials. Stakeholder engagement for HIV cure remains in its early stages. Our analysis examines timing and mechanisms of historical stakeholder engagement in other HIV research areas for HIV-uninfected individuals [vaccine development and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)], and HIV-infected individuals (treatment as prevention, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and treatment of acute HIV infection) and articulate a plan for HIV cure stakeholder engagement. The experience from HIV vaccine development shows that early engagement of stakeholders helped manage expectations, mitigating the failure of several vaccine trials, while paving the way for subsequent trials. The relatively late engagement of HIV stakeholders in PrEP research may partly explain some of the implementation challenges. The treatment-related stakeholder engagement was strong and community-led from the onset and helped translation from research to implementation. We outline five steps to initiate and sustain stakeholder engagement in HIV cure research and conclude that stakeholder engagement represents a key investment in which stakeholders mutually agree to share knowledge, benefits, and risk of failure. Effective stakeholder engagement prevents misconceptions. As HIV cure research advances from early trials involving subjects with generally favorable prognosis to studies involving greater risk and uncertainty, success may depend on early and deliberate engagement of stakeholders. PMID:26061668

  9. Stakeholder Engagement in HIV Cure Research: Lessons Learned from Other HIV Interventions and the Way Forward

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Carissa; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Excler, Jean-Louis; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clinical and basic science advances have raised considerable hope for achieving an HIV cure by accelerating research. This research is dominated primarily by issues about the nature and design of current and future clinical trials. Stakeholder engagement for HIV cure remains in its early stages. Our analysis examines timing and mechanisms of historical stakeholder engagement in other HIV research areas for HIV-uninfected individuals [vaccine development and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)], and HIV-infected individuals (treatment as prevention, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and treatment of acute HIV infection) and articulate a plan for HIV cure stakeholder engagement. The experience from HIV vaccine development shows that early engagement of stakeholders helped manage expectations, mitigating the failure of several vaccine trials, while paving the way for subsequent trials. The relatively late engagement of HIV stakeholders in PrEP research may partly explain some of the implementation challenges. The treatment-related stakeholder engagement was strong and community-led from the onset and helped translation from research to implementation. We outline five steps to initiate and sustain stakeholder engagement in HIV cure research and conclude that stakeholder engagement represents a key investment in which stakeholders mutually agree to share knowledge, benefits, and risk of failure. Effective stakeholder engagement prevents misconceptions. As HIV cure research advances from early trials involving subjects with generally favorable prognosis to studies involving greater risk and uncertainty, success may depend on early and deliberate engagement of stakeholders. PMID:26061668

  10. Researchers’ views on return of incidental genomic research results: qualitative and quantitative findings

    PubMed Central

    Klitzman, Robert; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Fyer, Abby; Martinez, Josue; Buquez, Brigitte; Wynn, Julia; Waldman, Cameron R.; Phelan, Jo; Parens, Erik; Chung, Wendy K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Comprehensive genomic analysis including exome and genome sequencing is increasingly being utilized in research studies, leading to the generation of incidental genetic findings. It is unclear how researchers plan to deal with incidental genetic findings. Methods We conducted a survey of the practices and attitudes of 234 members of the US genetic research community and performed qualitative semistructured interviews with 28 genomic researchers to understand their views and experiences with incidental genetic research findings. Results We found that 12% of the researchers had returned incidental genetic findings, and an additional 28% planned to do so. A large majority of researchers (95%) believe that incidental findings for highly penetrant disorders with immediate medical implications should be offered to research participants. However, there was no consensus on returning incidental results for other conditions varying in penetrance and medical actionability. Researchers raised concerns that the return of incidental findings would impose significant burdens on research and could potentially have deleterious effects on research participants if not performed well. Researchers identified assistance needed to enable effective, accurate return of incidental findings. Conclusion The majority of the researchers believe that research participants should have the option to receive at least some incidental genetic research results. PMID:23807616

  11. Multiple attractors and critical parameters and how to find them numerically: the right, the wrong and the gambling way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    True, Hans

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, several authors have proposed 'easier numerical methods' to find the critical speed in railway dynamical problems. Actually, the methods do function in some cases, but in most cases it is really a gamble. In this article, the methods are discussed and the pros and contras are commented upon. I also address the questions when a linearisation is allowed and the curious fact that the hunting motion is more robust than the ideal stationary-state motion on the track. Concepts such as 'multiple attractors', 'subcritical and supercritical bifurcations', 'permitted linearisation', 'the danger of running at supercritical speeds' and 'chaotic motion' are addressed.

  12. The NICHD Research Program in Reading Development, Reading Disorders and Reading Instruction: A Summary of Research Findings. Keys to Successful Learning: A National Summit on Research in Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Reid G.

    This monograph is a synthesis of research findings of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development research program concerning how children learn to read, why some children and adults have difficulties learning to read, and effective ways to help children learn to read. The review covered studies performed over the last 33 years at…

  13. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. When the final HHS action does not result in a settlement or finding of... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding...

  14. A Place Along the Way: Contextualising Findings from the Iron Age Post Enclosure at Lismullin, Co. Meath, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendergast, Frank

    2015-05-01

    The discovery of an Early Iron Age timber-built post enclosure at Lismullin is arguably the most significant Irish archaeological discovery in recent times. When found, it was immediately evident that a site of major importance and cultural significance had been located. The enclosure complex was constructed from a large number of small wooden posts set out in the form of a three ring structure with an easterly facing avenue accentuated by a four-post entrance feature. This paper summarises the analysis of the geospatial data obtained at the site, and addresses three lines of enquiry relating to the construction method and structural orientation. The cultural significance of the discovery and the findings arising from the data analysis are considered.

  15. 42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opportunity to contest findings of research... RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions General Information § 93.501 Opportunity...

  16. New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy: Introduction to Special Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan M.; Wittenborn, Andrea K.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the special section "New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy." Emotionally focused couple therapy researchers have a strong tradition of outcome and process research and this special section presents new findings from three recent studies. The first study furthers the goal of determining the kinds of clients…

  17. 42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions General Information § 93.501 Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions. (a) Opportunity to contest....

  18. 42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions General Information § 93.501 Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions. (a) Opportunity to contest....

  19. 42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opportunity to contest findings of research... RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions General Information § 93.501 Opportunity...

  20. 48 CFR 335.071 - Special determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... findings affecting research and development contracting. 335.071 Section 335.071 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 335.071 Special determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting....

  1. 78 FR 23255 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct AGENCY... Biochemistry, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, engaged in research misconduct in research funded by... evidence that the Respondent committed misconduct in science and research misconduct by: 1. Knowingly...

  2. The emergence and effectiveness of global health networks: findings and future research.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Peter Schmitz, Hans; Berlan, David; Smith, Stephanie L; Quissell, Kathryn; Gneiting, Uwe; Pelletier, David

    2016-04-01

    Global health issues vary in the amount of attention and resources they receive. One reason is that the networks of individuals and organizations that address these issues differ in their effectiveness. This article presents key findings from a research project on the emergence and effectiveness of global health networks addressing tobacco use, alcohol harm, maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, tuberculosis and pneumonia. Although networks are only one of many factors influencing priority, they do matter, particularly for shaping the way the problem and solutions are understood, and convincing governments, international organizations and other global actors to address the issue. Their national-level effects vary by issue and are more difficult to ascertain. Networks are most likely to produce effects when (1) their members construct a compelling framing of the issue, one that includes a shared understanding of the problem, a consensus on solutions and convincing reasons to act and (2) they build a political coalition that includes individuals and organizations beyond their traditional base in the health sector, a task that demands engagement in the politics of the issue, not just its technical aspects. Maintaining a focused frame and sustaining a broad coalition are often in tension: effective networks find ways to balance the two challenges. The emergence and effectiveness of a network are shaped both by its members' decisions and by contextual factors, including historical influences (e.g. prior failed attempts to address the problem), features of the policy environment (e.g. global development goals) and characteristics of the issue the network addresses (e.g. its mortality burden). Their proliferation raises the issue of their legitimacy. Reasons to consider them legitimate include their members' expertise and the attention they bring to neglected issues. Reasons to question their legitimacy include their largely elite composition and the fragmentation they

  3. How Do I Review Thee? Let Me Count the Ways: A Comparison of Research Grant Proposal Review Criteria Across US Federal Funding Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Falk-Krzesinski, Holly J.; Tobin, Stacey C.

    2016-01-01

    While Elizabeth Barrett Browning counted 25 ways in which she loves her husband in her poem, “How Do I Love Thee? Let me Count the Ways,” we identified only eight ways to evaluate the potential for success of a federal research grant proposal. This may be surprising, as it seems upon initial glance of the review criteria used by various federal funding agencies that each has its own distinct set of “rules” regarding the review of grant proposals for research and scholarship. Much of the grantsmanship process is dependent upon the review criteria, which represent the funders’ desired impact of the research. But since most funders that offer research grants share the overarching goals of supporting research that (1) fits within its mission and (2) will bring a strong return on its financial investment, the review criteria used to evaluate research grant proposals are based on a similar set of fundamental questions. In this article, we compare the review criteria of 10 US federal agencies that support research through grant programs, and demonstrate that there are actually only a small and finite number of ways that a grant proposal can be evaluated. Though each funding agency may use slightly different wording, we found that the majority of the agencies’ criteria address eight key questions. Within the highly competitive landscape of research grant funding, new researchers must find support for their research agendas and established investigators and research development offices must consider ways to diversify their funding portfolios, yet all may be discouraged by the apparent myriad of differences in review criteria used by various funding agencies. Guided by research administrators and research development professionals, recognizing that grant proposal review criteria are similar across funding agencies may help lower the barrier to applying for federal funding for new and early career researchers, or facilitate funding portfolio diversification for

  4. Moving Away from Social Work and Half Way Back Again: New Research on Skills in Probation

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Peter; Vanstone, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Research on social work in the criminal justice system was well represented in the social work literature until the 1990s. Since then, changes in the organisation, training and research base of probation practice, particularly in England and Wales, have all contributed to a separation between probation research and the mainstream social work research literature. However, recent probation research, by focusing on individual practice skills and on the quality of relationships, is producing findings which resonate with traditional social work concerns. The study presented here, based on analysis of videotaped interviews between probation staff and the people they are supervising, shows what skills are used and the effects of skilled supervision. People supervised by more skilled staff were significantly less likely to be reconvicted over a two-year follow-up, and the most effective supervisors combined good relationship skills with a range of ‘structuring’ or change-promoting skills. In effect, this can be regarded as a test of the impact of social work skills used by probation staff and suggests that a closer relationship between mainstream social work research and probation research could be productive for both. PMID:27559218

  5. Recognizing Respondents' Ways of Being and Knowing: Lessons Un/learned in Researching Asian Immigrant and Asian-American Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subedi, Binaya

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the productive challenges of researching communities one identifies with and calls for the need to consider race/ethnic interpretations of research methods. By examining participants' perspectives on research, the author argues for the need to further consider culturally appropriate ways of researching communities of color.…

  6. Measuring Graduate Students' Teaching and Research Skills through Self-Report: Descriptive Findings and Validity Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Joanna; Feldon, David

    2010-01-01

    This study extends research on graduate student development by examining descriptive findings and validity of a self-report survey designed to capture graduate students' assessments of their teaching and research skills. Descriptive findings provide some information about areas of growth among graduate students' in the first years of their…

  7. The Ethical Maze: Finding an Inclusive Path towards Gaining Children's Agreement to Research Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocks, Alison J.

    2006-01-01

    In the UK, the ethics of engaging in sociological research directly involving children have primarily been shaped by definitions of "competence". While this has been a crucial guideline for researchers in shaping the concept of informed consent, it has also acted, perhaps inadvertently, as a way of excluding particular children from the research…

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A THEORY OF EDUCATION FROM PSYCHOLOGICAL AND OTHER BASIC RESEARCH FINDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAYLOR, CALVIN W.; AND OTHERS

    A BROAD EXPLORATORY AND THEORETICAL STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE IN A FUNDAMENTAL SENSE THE IMPLICATIONS AND IMPACT WHICH NEW RESEARCH IN THE BASIC BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE FIELDS HAD ON EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE AND THEORY. THE TOTAL TASK WAS TO BUILD A NEW EDUCATIONAL THEORY USING SAMPLINGS FROM ALL BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH AND TO INVESTIGATE WAYS TO REDUCE…

  9. Some current trends in Milky Way research (the Henry Norris Russell Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bok, B. J.

    1983-10-01

    A discussion is presented of the Milky Way Galaxy research trends that have recently established a far greater mass and a greater outward extent for the Galaxy than would have been considered likely only 7-8 years ago. The maximum radius of the Galaxy circa 1975 was believed to be of the order of 20 kpc. The new radius is at least three times, and possibly as much as five times, greater than the earlier value. Attention is given to such pertinent topics as the general luminosity function near the central plane of the disk, space densities at different distances from the galactic plane, the galactic corona, spiral structure studies, giant molecular clouds, and bipolar ejections.

  10. Finding Our Way through Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Deans, Andrew R.; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Huala, Eva; Anzaldo, Salvatore S.; Ashburner, Michael; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Blake, Judith A.; Burleigh, J. Gordon; Chanet, Bruno; Cooper, Laurel D.; Courtot, Mélanie; Csösz, Sándor; Cui, Hong; Dahdul, Wasila; Das, Sandip; Dececchi, T. Alexander; Dettai, Agnes; Diogo, Rui; Druzinsky, Robert E.; Dumontier, Michel; Franz, Nico M.; Friedrich, Frank; Gkoutos, George V.; Haendel, Melissa; Harmon, Luke J.; Hayamizu, Terry F.; He, Yongqun; Hines, Heather M.; Ibrahim, Nizar; Jackson, Laura M.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; James-Zorn, Christina; Köhler, Sebastian; Lecointre, Guillaume; Lapp, Hilmar; Lawrence, Carolyn J.; Le Novère, Nicolas; Lundberg, John G.; Macklin, James; Mast, Austin R.; Midford, Peter E.; Mikó, István; Mungall, Christopher J.; Oellrich, Anika; Osumi-Sutherland, David; Parkinson, Helen; Ramírez, Martín J.; Richter, Stefan; Robinson, Peter N.; Ruttenberg, Alan; Schulz, Katja S.; Segerdell, Erik; Seltmann, Katja C.; Sharkey, Michael J.; Smith, Aaron D.; Smith, Barry; Specht, Chelsea D.; Squires, R. Burke; Thacker, Robert W.; Thessen, Anne; Fernandez-Triana, Jose; Vihinen, Mauno; Vize, Peter D.; Vogt, Lars; Wall, Christine E.; Walls, Ramona L.; Westerfeld, Monte; Wharton, Robert A.; Wirkner, Christian S.; Woolley, James B.; Yoder, Matthew J.; Zorn, Aaron M.; Mabee, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Despite a large and multifaceted effort to understand the vast landscape of phenotypic data, their current form inhibits productive data analysis. The lack of a community-wide, consensus-based, human- and machine-interpretable language for describing phenotypes and their genomic and environmental contexts is perhaps the most pressing scientific bottleneck to integration across many key fields in biology, including genomics, systems biology, development, medicine, evolution, ecology, and systematics. Here we survey the current phenomics landscape, including data resources and handling, and the progress that has been made to accurately capture relevant data descriptions for phenotypes. We present an example of the kind of integration across domains that computable phenotypes would enable, and we call upon the broader biology community, publishers, and relevant funding agencies to support efforts to surmount today's data barriers and facilitate analytical reproducibility. PMID:25562316

  11. A Family Finds Its Way

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the problem? Lee Woodruff: MS, cancer, a hearing disability, autism or whatever. It ripples out to the ... Like another child might wear glasses, Nora wears hearing aids because she doesn't hear as well as others. It's not a disability but a different ability. But the rubber's going ...

  12. Finding our way through phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Deans, Andrew R; Lewis, Suzanna E; Huala, Eva; Anzaldo, Salvatore S; Ashburner, Michael; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Blake, Judith A; Burleigh, J Gordon; Chanet, Bruno; Cooper, Laurel D; Courtot, Mélanie; Csösz, Sándor; Cui, Hong; Dahdul, Wasila; Das, Sandip; Dececchi, T Alexander; Dettai, Agnes; Diogo, Rui; Druzinsky, Robert E; Dumontier, Michel; Franz, Nico M; Friedrich, Frank; Gkoutos, George V; Haendel, Melissa; Harmon, Luke J; Hayamizu, Terry F; He, Yongqun; Hines, Heather M; Ibrahim, Nizar; Jackson, Laura M; Jaiswal, Pankaj; James-Zorn, Christina; Köhler, Sebastian; Lecointre, Guillaume; Lapp, Hilmar; Lawrence, Carolyn J; Le Novère, Nicolas; Lundberg, John G; Macklin, James; Mast, Austin R; Midford, Peter E; Mikó, István; Mungall, Christopher J; Oellrich, Anika; Osumi-Sutherland, David; Parkinson, Helen; Ramírez, Martín J; Richter, Stefan; Robinson, Peter N; Ruttenberg, Alan; Schulz, Katja S; Segerdell, Erik; Seltmann, Katja C; Sharkey, Michael J; Smith, Aaron D; Smith, Barry; Specht, Chelsea D; Squires, R Burke; Thacker, Robert W; Thessen, Anne; Fernandez-Triana, Jose; Vihinen, Mauno; Vize, Peter D; Vogt, Lars; Wall, Christine E; Walls, Ramona L; Westerfeld, Monte; Wharton, Robert A; Wirkner, Christian S; Woolley, James B; Yoder, Matthew J; Zorn, Aaron M; Mabee, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Despite a large and multifaceted effort to understand the vast landscape of phenotypic data, their current form inhibits productive data analysis. The lack of a community-wide, consensus-based, human- and machine-interpretable language for describing phenotypes and their genomic and environmental contexts is perhaps the most pressing scientific bottleneck to integration across many key fields in biology, including genomics, systems biology, development, medicine, evolution, ecology, and systematics. Here we survey the current phenomics landscape, including data resources and handling, and the progress that has been made to accurately capture relevant data descriptions for phenotypes. We present an example of the kind of integration across domains that computable phenotypes would enable, and we call upon the broader biology community, publishers, and relevant funding agencies to support efforts to surmount today's data barriers and facilitate analytical reproducibility. PMID:25562316

  13. Do researchers have an obligation to actively look for genetic incidental findings?

    PubMed

    Gliwa, Catherine; Berkman, Benjamin E

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth of next-generation genetic sequencing has prompted debate about the responsibilities of researchers toward genetic incidental findings. Assuming there is a duty to disclose significant incidental findings, might there be an obligation for researchers to actively look for these findings? We present an ethical framework for analyzing whether there is a positive duty to look for genetic incidental findings. Using the ancillary care framework as a guide, we identify three main criteria that must be present to give rise to an obligation to look: high benefit to participants, lack of alternative access for participants, and reasonable burden on researchers. Our analysis indicates that there is no obligation to look for incidental findings today, but during the ongoing translation of genomic analysis from research to clinical care, this obligation may arise. PMID:23391059

  14. Do Researchers Have an Obligation to Actively Look for Genetic Incidental Findings?

    PubMed Central

    Gliwa, Catherine; Berkman, Benjamin E.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of next-generation genetic sequencing has prompted debate about the responsibilities of researchers toward genetic incidental findings. Assuming there is a duty to disclose significant incidental findings, might there be an obligation for researchers to actively look for these findings? We present an ethical framework for analyzing whether there is a positive duty to look for genetic incidental findings. Using the ancillary care framework as a guide, we identify three main criteria that must be present to give rise to an obligation to look: high benefit to participants, lack of alternative access for participants, and reasonable burden on researchers. Our analysis indicates that there is no obligation to look for incidental findings today, but during the ongoing translation of genomic analysis from research to clinical care, this obligation may arise. PMID:23391059

  15. The ethics of sharing preliminary research findings during public health emergencies: a case study from the 2009 influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Crowcroft, N S; Rosella, L C; Pakes, B N

    2014-01-01

    During the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic, a suite of studies conducted in Canada showed an unexpected finding, that patients with medically attended laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza were more likely to have received seasonal influenza vaccination than test-negative control patients. Different bodies, including scientific journals and government scientific advisory committees, reviewed the evidence simultaneously to determine its scientific validity and implications. Decision-making was complicated when the findings made their way into the media. The normal trajectory of non-urgent research includes peer-review publication after which decision-makers can process the information taking into account other evidence and logistic considerations. In the situation that arose, however, the congruence of an unexpected finding and the simultaneous review of the evidence both within and outside the traditional peer-review sphere raised several interesting issues about how to deal with emerging evidence during a public health emergency. These events are used in this article to aid discussion of the complex interrelationship between researchers, public health decision-makers and scientific journals, the trade-offs between sharing information early and maintaining the peer-review quality assurance process, and to emphasise the need for critical reflection on the practical and ethical norms that govern the way in which research is evaluated, published and communicated in public health emergencies. PMID:24970372

  16. Pedagogy of Connections: Findings of a Collaborative Action Research Project in Outdoor and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Lou; Griffiths, Amma

    2004-01-01

    Improving human-nature relationships is often a stated aim of outdoor education, yet this aim is not always made explicit in practice. This paper reflects on a pedagogical intervention which aims to find ways to explicitly develop students' connections with natural places through a tertiary outdoor and environmental education program. It describes…

  17. Making Sense of Qualitative and Quantitative Findings in Mixed Research Synthesis Studies

    PubMed Central

    VOILS, CORRINE I.; SANDELOWSKI, MARGARETE; BARROSO, JULIE; HASSELBLAD, VICTOR

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research findings is increasingly promoted, but many of the conceptual and methodological issues it raises have yet to be fully understood and resolved. In this article, we describe how we handled issues encountered in efforts to synthesize the findings in forty-two reports of studies of antiretroviral adherence in HIV-positive women in the course of an ongoing study to develop methods to synthesize qualitative and quantitative research findings in common domains of health-related research. Working with these reports underscored the importance of looking past method claims and ideals and directly at the findings themselves, differentiating between aggregative syntheses in which findings are assimilated and interpretive syntheses in which they are configured, and understanding the judgments involved in designating relationships between findings as confirmatory, divergent, or complementary. PMID:18677415

  18. Research and rural; EGPRN and EURIPA—finding common ground. October 2013, Malta.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Richard G; Wynn-Jones, John

    2015-03-01

    The European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN) and the European Rural and Isolated Practitioner Association (EURIPA) convened a historic joint meeting in Malta in October 2013. Speakers reviewed the inadequacies of the current system and conduct of clinical science research and the use and misuse of the resulting findings. Rural communities offer extraordinary opportunities to conduct more holistic, integrative, and relevant research using new methods and data sources. Investigators presented exciting research findings on questions important to the health of those in rural areas. Participants discussed several strategies to enhance the capacity and stature of rural health research and practice. EGPRN and EURIPA pledged to work together to develop rural research courses, joint research projects, and a European Rural Research Agenda based on the most urgent priorities and the European definition of general practice research in rural health care. PMID:25410820

  19. Early Literacy Research: Findings Primary-Grade Teachers Will Want to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray

    2015-01-01

    This article shares recent research findings in early literacy that every primary grade teacher has had questions about at one time or another ranging from handwriting to phonemic awareness, writing to concepts about print, and more. The article reports research that elaborates upon and extends early literacy research that was reported by the…

  20. Applying Effective Instruction Research Findings in Teacher Education: Six Influencing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Elsie W.

    This preliminary report provides an overview of the Applying Research to Teacher Education (ARTE) Research Utilization in Elementary Teacher Education (RUETE) study which began in 1982 and will continue through 1985. ARTE: RUETE explores specific processes for incorporating recent research findings of effective instruction into preservice…

  1. Enhancing the Interpretation of "Significant" Findings: The Role of Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2004-01-01

    The present essay outlines how mixed methods research can be used to enhance the interpretation of significant findings. First, we define what we mean by significance in educational evaluation research. With regard to quantitative-based research, we define the four types of significance: statistical significance, practical significance, clinical…

  2. Research off Limits and Underground: Street Corner Methods for Finding Invisible Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Lizbet

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates research methods for studies of school drop-outs and push-outs, populations that are very difficult to find since they no longer have an institutional affiliation. The work argues that street corner research, which was in favor among the early urban researchers of the Chicago school, may have a renewed role in these…

  3. Processes and factors involved in decisions regarding return of incidental genomic findings in research

    PubMed Central

    Klitzman, Robert; Buquez, Brigitte; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Fyer, Abby; Chung, Wendy K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Studies have begun exploring whether researchers should return incidental findings in genomic studies, and if so, which findings should be returned; however, how researchers make these decisions— the processes and factors involved—has remained largely unexplored. Methods We interviewed 28 genomics researchers in-depth about their experiences and views concerning the return of incidental findings. Results Researchers often struggle with questions concerning which incidental findings to return and how to make those decisions. Multiple factors shape their views, including information about the gene variant (e.g., pathogenicity and disease characteristics), concerns about participants’ well-being and researcher responsibility, and input from external entities. Researchers weigh the evidence, yet they face conflicting pressures, with relevant data frequently being unavailable. Researchers vary in who they believe should decide: participants, principal investigators, institutional review boards, and/or professional organizations. Contextual factors can influence these decisions, including policies governing return of results by institutions and biobanks and the study design. Researchers vary in desires for: guidance from institutions and professional organizations, changes to current institutional processes, and community- wide genetics education. Conclusion These data, the first to examine the processes by which researchers make decisions regarding the return of genetic incidental findings, highlight several complexities involved and have important implications for future genetics research, policy, and examinations of these issues. PMID:24071801

  4. Utility of qualitative research findings in evidence-based public health practice.

    PubMed

    Jack, Susan M

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological data, derived from quantitative studies, provide important information about the causes, prevalence, risk correlates, treatment and prevention of diseases, and health issues at a population level. However, public health issues are complex in nature and quantitative research findings are insufficient to support practitioners and administrators in making evidence-informed decisions. Upshur's Synthetic Model of Evidence (2001) situates qualitative research findings as a credible source of evidence for public health practice. This article answers the following questions: (1) where does qualitative research fit within the paradigm of evidence-based practice and (2) how can qualitative research be used by public health professionals? Strategies for using qualitative research findings instrumentally, conceptually, and symbolically are identified by applying Estabrooks' (1999) conceptual structure of research utilization. Different research utilization strategies are illustrated through the use of research examples from the field of work on intimate partner violence against women. Recommendations for qualitative researchers disseminating findings and for public health practitioners/policy makers considering the use of qualitative findings as evidence to inform decisions are provided. PMID:16684207

  5. NIH Researchers Find Resveratrol Helps Protect Against Diabetes in Animal Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us FAQs Stay Connected You are here Home NIH researchers find resveratrol helps protect against diabetes in ... 10.2337/db13-0266 Share this: ​ Connect with NIH Disclaimer Accessibility Policies Contact Us FOIA Get Acrobat ( ...

  6. FRESHWATER FINDINGS, 1979-1982: RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, DULUTH, MINNESOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report contains citations of publications for the years 1979-1982 on research conducted or supported by the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. All published material has been organized into two major categories: (1) Journal Articles, Book Chapters, Proceedings, etc., ...

  7. Researcher Tales and Research Ethics: The Spaces in Which We Find Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Julie; Fitzgerald, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    The tales we tell here focus on the ethical issues arising from our research practice with vulnerable young participants and those for whom research has been inextricably linked with European imperialism and colonialism. The importance of relational obligations, temporality and potential for a continuing narrative approach to ethical research…

  8. Personalized Research Consultation Service for Graduate Students: Building a Program Based on Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratch, Bonnie G.; York, Charlene C.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development of a Personalized Research Consultation Service (PERCS) for graduate students at Bowling Green State University. Graduate students' library research behavior and adult learning strategies are discussed; an evaluation of the program is reviewed; and the impact on library services, including computer searches and…

  9. Looking Back To Find a Vision: Exploring the Emancipatory Potential of Teacher Research. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Cornett, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the limitations of experimental studies of learning and the emergence of alternative paradigms such as constructivism. Examines the growth of teacher research and its historical influences, including Montessori, Dewey's Progressive Movement, and Lucy Sprague Mitchell. Discusses current trends in teacher research, asserting that it is…

  10. School Effectiveness Research Findings in the Portuguese Speaking Countries: Brazil and Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrão, Maria Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides findings of research on school effectiveness and discusses implications for evaluation in Brazil and Portugal. Most findings reported over the last decade have been published in Brazilian or Portuguese refereed journals. Thus, a brief literature review of such studies enables that knowledge to reach international scholars and…

  11. Impact of problem finding on the quality of authentic open inquiry science research projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labanca, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully completed and presented the results of their open inquiry research at the 2007 Connecticut Science Fair and the 2007 International Science and Engineering Fair. A multicase qualitative study was framed through the lenses of creativity, inquiry strategies, and situated cognition learning theory. Data were triangulated by methods (interviews, document analysis, surveys) and sources (students, teachers, mentors, fair directors, documents). The data demonstrated that the quality of student projects was directly impacted by the quality of their problem finding. Effective problem finding was a result of students using resources from previous, specialized experiences. They had a positive self-concept and a temperament for both the creative and logical perspectives of science research. Successful problem finding was derived from an idiosyncratic, nonlinear, and flexible use and understanding of inquiry. Finally, problem finding was influenced and assisted by the community of practicing scientists, with whom the students had an exceptional ability to communicate effectively. As a result, there appears to be a juxtaposition of creative and logical/analytical thought for open inquiry that may not be present in other forms of inquiry. Instructional strategies are suggested for teachers of science research students to improve the quality of problem finding for their students and their subsequent research projects.

  12. A Transdisciplinary Approach to Training: Preliminary Research Findings Based on a Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimpitsos, Christos; Petridou, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the benefits, barriers and challenges of the transdisciplinary approach to training, and to present findings of a case analysis. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on the research findings of an experimental training program for Greek local government managers co-funded by the European…

  13. Can Technologies Make a Difference for Hospitalized Youth: Findings from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maor, D.; Mitchem, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Children and youth who are hospitalized for a short or long term become socially isolated from their family, school and classmates. As their isolation increases, so does their vulnerability as a result of disrupted schooling. Research studies suggest different ways of using technologies to overcome this isolation and support children during this…

  14. From research to control: Translating research findings into health policies, operational guidelines and health products.

    PubMed

    Kilama, Wen

    2009-11-01

    Although Africa's health research capacity is still weak, African R&D institutions are contributing immensely to the development of health policies, guidelines and products essential for diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of Africa's leading health problems. In order to increase Africa's contributions, all health research stakeholders should participate in setting health research priorities and agenda, followed by establishing health research networks and consortia, holistic capacity strengthening, and gathering of baseline data. The evaluation of candidate tools, and the research preceding it, must abide by international scientific and ethical standards, and must involve institutional and national regulatory authorities. The funding of product development and product availability in Africa benefits from national governments, bilateral, multilateral, and philanthropic agencies. When a trial is over poses many social and ethical issues, and not infrequently existing guidelines may not be adequate. Mechanisms for making products available in resource constrained countries are presented, as are problems relating to manufacturing, markets and procurement. So are obligations to trial and research communities. The paper concludes by outlining the obligations of each stakeholder, in order to make research products readily available in resource constrained settings. PMID:19686696

  15. A Clinical Service to Support the Return of Secondary Genomic Findings in Human Research.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Andrew J; Austin, Howard; Bluemke, David A; Cannon, Richard O; Fischbeck, Kenneth; Gahl, William; Goldman, David; Grady, Christine; Greene, Mark H; Holland, Steven M; Hull, Sara Chandros; Porter, Forbes D; Resnik, David; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Biesecker, Leslie G

    2016-03-01

    Human genome and exome sequencing are powerful research tools that can generate secondary findings beyond the scope of the research. Most secondary genomic findings are of low importance, but some (for a current estimate of 1%-3% of individuals) confer high risk of a serious disease that could be mitigated by timely medical intervention. The impact and scope of secondary findings in genome and exome sequencing will only increase in the future. There is considerable agreement that high-impact findings should be returned to participants, but many researchers performing genomic research studies do not have the background, skills, or resources to identify, verify, interpret, and return such variants. Here, we introduce a proposal for the formation of a secondary-genomic-findings service (SGFS) that would support researchers by enabling the return of clinically actionable sequencing results to research participants in a standardized manner. We describe a proposed structure for such a centralized service and evaluate the advantages and challenges of the approach. We suggest that such a service would be of greater benefit to all parties involved than present practice, which is highly variable. We encourage research centers to consider the adoption of a centralized SGFS. PMID:26942283

  16. Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity

  17. THE INVESTIGATION OF A METHOD FOR THE DISSEMINATION OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH FINDINGS TO PRACTITIONERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DONLEY, DONALD T.; AND OTHERS

    THE RESOURCES AND ACTIVITIES OF A STUDY COUNCIL ON THE PROBLEM OF MORE EFFECTIVE DISSEMINATION OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH FINDINGS WERE REPORTED. THE CAPITAL AREA SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION IN ALBANY, NEW YORK, SURVEYED SCHOOL SYSTEMS TO DETERMINE THEIR MAJOR PROBLEMS AND INTERESTS FOR STUDY AND RESEARCH. MEETINGS WERE HELD TO PLAN PROCEDURES FOR…

  18. Medications for alcohol, illicit drug, and tobacco dependence. An update of research findings.

    PubMed

    Litten, R Z; Allen, J P

    1999-03-01

    Physiologic, behavioral, and social factors contribute to dependence on alcohol, nicotine, and other drugs. During the past decade substantial research has focused on identification/development of medications to assist in reducing urge to use these substances. This article describes these agents and reviews recent research findings on them. PMID:10023607

  19. Research Findings to Support Effective Educational Policies: A Guide for Policymakers. 2nd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In this brief guide, first published in 2009 and updated in March 2011 with new research, The Wallace Foundation highlights what it has learned about how to improve the academic and enrichment opportunities we provide for our children, both in and out of school. The research findings and other resources cited in this document offer…

  20. 42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for findings of research misconduct. 93.104 Section 93.104 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  1. Technology to Support Writing by Students with Learning and Academic Disabilities: Recent Research Trends and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson-Karlan, George R.

    2011-01-01

    The trends and findings from a descriptive analysis of 25 years of research studies examining the effectiveness of technology to support the compositional writing of students with learning and academic disabilities are presented. A corpus of 85 applied research studies of writing technology effectiveness was identified from among 249 items in the…

  2. English Language Learners in U.S. Schools: An Overview of Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genesee, Fred; Lindholm-Leary, Kathryn; Saunders, William; Christian, Donna

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews findings from scientific research that has been conducted in the United States since 1980 on the educational outcomes of English language learners (ELLs). The studies selected for review here are a subset of a more comprehensive body of research conducted during this period that is reported in Genesee, Lindholm-Leary,…

  3. Barriers in implementing research findings in cancer care: the Greek registered nurses perceptions.

    PubMed

    Patiraki, Elisabeth; Karlou, Chrysoula; Papadopoulou, Despina; Spyridou, Ageliki; Kouloukoura, Chrysoula; Bare, Elpida; Merkouris, Anastasios

    2004-09-01

    This study explored Greek nurses' perceptions of the barriers to research utilization faced in every day practice. The barriers between nurses working in cancer and general hospitals, as well as between those employed at central and provincial hospitals were compared. The study used a cross-sectional design and data were collected using the "Barriers Scale" (Funk et al., 1991a, Applied Nursing Research, 4, 39-45). A convenience sample of 301 nurses was randomly selected from 12 hospitals in Greece. The two key barriers identified were related to the 'availability of research findings'. English language was perceived to range between moderate and major barrier for the vast majority of participants (n = 231, 78%). Nurses surveyed indicated the presentation of research findings as the greatest barrier while the characteristics of nurses themselves were perceived as the least important one. No significant differences were found between types of hospitals (cancer/general) and geographical areas (central/provincial). Some differences, however, were observed in relation to specific items of the scale such as feeling isolated from 'research-knowledgeable' colleagues and having insufficient time to implement new ideas. The observations reported here appear to agree with the findings in mainstream literature. The results suggest that more emphasis should be given in research methodology, statistics and critical appraisal skills at all levels of nursing education, and that efforts should be made towards increasing research availability and creating supportive environments for implementation of research findings. PMID:15304232

  4. Learning to Spell: The Way Children Make Use of Morphemic Information. Research Report 1/82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Valerie

    A study investigated the way in which children make use of morphemic information when they are learning to spell. Specifically, it examined the use of morphemic information in spelling compound words; the use made of morphemic information when adding suffixes to words, and the way the morphological rule governing the formation of the past tense is…

  5. Special report: Biomedical Imaging Research Opportunities Workshop IV. A summary of findings and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hendee, William

    2006-10-01

    The fourth Biomedical Imaging Research Opportunities Workshop (BIROW IV) was held in February, 2006 in Bethesda, Maryland. The workshop explored four promising areas of imaging research: Imaging of rodent models; Imaging in drug development; Imaging of chronic metabolic disease--diabetes; and Image-guided intervention in the 4th dimension--time. These explorations uncovered multiple research opportunities that have the potential of enhancing the discovery of new knowledge, providing more efficient pathways for drug development, yielding improvements in the management of chronic metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, and guiding medical interventions such as surgery, radiation oncology, and ablation therapy. Research challenges were identified in each of these areas of opportunity that must be resolved through scientific exploration and technology development. The meeting concluded with the observation that research in biomedical imaging offers the potential of improving patient care in many ways, and the promise of exciting and rewarding careers to young research aspirants. PMID:17063389

  6. Research and Improvement of One's Own Practice--A Way to the Development of Teachers'/Preschool Teachers' Practical Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vujicic, Lidija

    2008-01-01

    Within the context of research called "Changing the culture of educational institutions--a way to qualitative changes in preschool education", implemented within a three year period and, because of the needs of this work, this paper reports the results of the research performed in the first year. The work was carried out with emphases on preschool…

  7. Pressure ulcer prevention and treatment: transforming research findings into consensus based clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Matthew; Pearson, Alan; Ward, Cathy

    2003-04-01

    The translation of research findings into practice guidelines is an important aspect in maintaining the currency of practice and adding value to research. While there has been a large amount of published literature regarding the treatment and prevention of pressure ulcers, very few studies have attempted to provide clear clinical guidelines. The present study proposes a model to transform research into clinical guidelines whilst developing a series of guidelines that can be applied to a variety of clinical settings. PMID:12694478

  8. Evaluating the Impact of Professional Development on Teaching Practice: Research Findings and Future Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Iain

    2011-01-01

    Continuing professional development for teaching is important for institutional renewal, teacher development and student learning improvement. However, our longitudinal research into provision of continuing professional development has shown that the majority of educators who attend professional development workshops do not put what they have…

  9. Research on Self-Determination in Physical Education: Key Findings and Proposals for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Berghe, Lynn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Cardon, Greet; Kirk, David; Haerens, Leen

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the last 30 years, several theories of motivation have generated insights into the motives underlying learners' behavior in physical education. Self-determination theory (SDT), a general theory on social development and motivation, has enjoyed increasing popularity in physical education research during the past decade. SDT…

  10. Nutrition and Growth: Recent Research Findings and Research Priorities. Matrix No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, George G.

    Recent research indicates that low income adults and infants in the United States are more likely to be overweight than undernourished. Very possibly, the assumptions upon which food supplement programs are based are ill-founded. While many of the currently operating broadly conceived supplemental food programs achieve desirable collateral…

  11. Becoming an Engineering Education Researcher: Finding Pathways toward Interdisciplinarity. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allendoerfer, Cheryl; Adams, Robin; Bell, Philip; Fleming, Lorraine; Leifer, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Interdisciplinary thinking is gaining momentum as an important topic for empirical investigation, particularly in regard to how crossing disciplinary boundaries can enrich teaching and learning across fields. There is a need for researchers who can think and work at the interdisciplinary interface. However, despite increased attention given to…

  12. Lifespan and lesions in genetically heterogeneous (four-way cross) mice: a new model for aging research.

    PubMed

    Chrisp, C E; Turke, P; Luciano, A; Swalwell, S; Peterson, J; Miller, R A

    1996-11-01

    Genetically heterogeneous animal models provide many advantages for research on aging but have been used infrequently. We present here lifespan and lesion data from a study of mice bred as a cross between (AKR/J x DBA/2J)F1 females and (C57BL/6J x SJL/J)F1 males. In such a four-way cross population, each mouse is genetically unique, but replicate populations of essentially similar genetic structure can be generated quickly, at low cost, and of arbitrary size from commercially available, genetically stable hybrid parents. We employed a protocol in which mice judged to be severely ill were euthanatized to obtain tissue in optimal condition for necropsy, and we were able to infer a likely cause of illness in 42 of 44 animals. Malignant lymphoma, including at least four histopathologically distinct subtypes, was the most common cause and was also a frequent incidental finding in mice dying of other causes. Neoplastic disease, benign or malignant, was the sole or a contributing cause of illness in 90% of the mice for which a cause could plausibly be assigned. A wide range of lethal and nonlethal degenerative lesions was also noted. The coefficient of variation for lifespan in these genetically heterogeneous mice was 26%, similar to that seen in analyses of recombinant inbred mouse lines. Baseline lifespan and pathology data on four-way cross mice is a useful prelude to the exploitation of this rodent model in tests of genetic and mechanistic hypotheses about aging. PMID:8952040

  13. Top 10 greatest "hits": important findings and future directions for intimate partner violence research.

    PubMed

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author highlights her choice of the 10 most important recent findings from the intimate partner violence research literature, which include (a) the creation of the Conflict Tactics Scale; (b) the finding that violent acts are most often perpetrated by intimates; (c) a series of findings that indicate that women also engage in intimate partner violence; (d) the finding that intimate partner violence typically evolves out of relationship dissatisfaction; (e) the finding that there are different subtypes of domestically violent men; (f) physiological measures that have added to our knowledge of intimate partner violence; (g) the evolving intergenerational transmission of violence theory; (h) the finding that verbal abuse, neglect, and psychological abuse need to be studied alongside physical violence; (i) research on leaving abusive relationships that may inform policy about sheltering battered women; and (j) the finding that alcohol plays an important role in the production of intimate partner violence. In the conclusion, the author describes a dyadic cycle of violence that may characterize some abusive couples. She also argues for a multimodal theory that links findings obtained from individual, relationship, intergenerational, gender-specific, and cultural perspectives. PMID:15618567

  14. Female survivors of child sexual abuse: finding voice through research participation.

    PubMed

    McClain, Natalie; Amar, Angela Frederick

    2013-07-01

    It is unclear whether survivors of trauma are at risk of emotional or psychological distress when they participate in research because there is little data on the subjective experience of research study participants and how they make meaning from their participation in research. This qualitative descriptive study explored the experience of research participation by survivors of childhood sexual abuse. We interviewed 12 female survivors and identified themes. Participants noted both positive personal and societal benefits of study participation and reported no harm due to their research participation. Study findings can help researchers understand the perspectives of participants regarding the benefits of taking part in violence research and can help allay concerns over causing participants undue psychological distress. PMID:23875549

  15. Myalgic encephalomyelitis: a review with emphasis on key findings in biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, M

    2007-01-01

    This review examines research findings in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis in light of the current debate about this chronic multiple‐symptom, multiorgan, multisystem illness and the conflicting views in medicine. These issues cannot be separated from the political opinions and assertions that conflict with science and medicine, and will be part of this review as they have enormous consequences for scientific and medical research, patients, clinicians, carers and policy makers. PMID:16935967

  16. Ethical Considerations for the Return of Incidental Findings in Ophthalmic Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Mackey, David A.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Savarirayan, Ravi; Otlowski, Margaret; Craig, Jamie E.

    2016-01-01

    Whole genome and whole exome sequencing technologies are being increasingly used in research. However, they have the potential to identify incidental findings (IF), findings not related to the indication of the test, raising questions regarding researchers' responsibilities toward the return of this information to participants. In this study we discuss the ethical considerations related to the return of IF to research participants, emphasizing that the type of the study matters and describing the current practice standards. There are currently no legal obligations for researchers to return IF to participants, but some viewpoints consider that researchers might have an ethical one to return IF of clinical validity and clinical utility and that are actionable. The reality is that most IF are complex to interpret, especially since they were not the indication of the test. The clinical utility often depends on the participants' preferences, which can be challenging to conciliate and relies on participants' understanding. In summary, in the context of a lack of clear guidance, researchers need to have a clear plan for the disclosure or nondisclosure of IF from genomic research, balancing their research goals and resources with the participants' rights and their duty not to harm. PMID:26929883

  17. Trends in Two-Way Immersion Education. A Review of the Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Sugarman, Julie; Christian, Donna

    Two-way immersion (TWI) is an instructional approach that integrates native English speakers and native speakers of another language (usually Spanish) and provides instruction to both groups of students in both languages. While the model has been in existence in the United States for almost 40 years, the most dramatic growth has been seen over the…

  18. Linking Pay to Performance: A New Way to Reward Research Scientists and Faculty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Andrew; Keating, Kimberly; Ruggiero-Hopson, Lisa; Powell, Curtis

    2004-01-01

    Limited financial resources are making it more difficult for colleges and universities to attract and retain top talent. Higher education institutions are constantly looking for ways to remedy this problem. This case study examines Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's initiative to redesign its pay system to reward top faculty members and…

  19. A Simple Syllogism-Solving Test: Empirical Findings and Implications for "g" Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shikishima, Chizuru; Yamagata, Shinji; Hiraishi, Kai; Sugimoto, Yutaro; Murayama, Kou; Ando, Juko

    2011-01-01

    It has been reported that the ability to solve syllogisms is highly "g"-loaded. In the present study, using a self-administered shortened version of a syllogism-solving test, the "BAROCO Short," we examined whether robust findings generated by previous research regarding IQ scores were also applicable to "BAROCO Short" scores. Five…

  20. Research-Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorden, Joan F., Ed.; Kuh, Charlotte V., Ed.; Voytuk, James A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment" examines data on the biomedical sciences programs to gather additional insight about the talent, training environment, outcomes, diversity, and international participation in the biomedical sciences workforce. This report supports an earlier…

  1. Programme Implementation in Social and Emotional Learning: Basic Issues and Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durlak, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental importance of achieving quality implementation when assessing the impact of social and emotional learning interventions. Recent findings in implementation science are reviewed that include a definition of implementation, its relation to programme outcomes, current research on the factors that affect…

  2. Educative Accountability Policies for Tasmania's Locally Managed Schools: Interim Policy Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, R. J. S.

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes interim findings of a policy research project in Tasmania, Australia, aimed at producing educative accountability options for identifying processes and criteria to improve learning, teaching, and leadership. Identifies preferred accountability criteria and processes in Tasmania's locally managed school district, maps patterns of…

  3. The Impact of Court on Children: Research Findings and Practical Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovsky, Julie A.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research concerning how frequently children testify in court, whether testifying is harmful, and which innovations in practice reduce children's court-related stress. The studies reviewed consistently demonstrate that many, but not all, children find the court process distressing, but the effects are not long lasting. Innovations include…

  4. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.410 Section 93.410 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  5. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions. 93.404 Section 93.404 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  6. 42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions. 93.501 Section 93.501 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  7. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93.411 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  8. Summary of Research Findings on the Military General Educational Development Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Earl A.

    This report summarizes and integrates the finding of research studies dealing with the military General Educational Development (GED) program. The major areas covered include (1) the field conduct of the GED program, (2) characteristics of GED program participants, (3) a comparison of the utility of the GED certificate with that of the high school…

  9. Plagiarism: Examination of Conceptual Issues and Evaluation of Research Findings on Using Detection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantinidis, Angelos; Theodosiadou, Dimitra; Pappos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze and evaluate the research findings on using Plagiarism Detection Services (PDS) in universities. In order to do that, conceptual issues about plagiarism are examined and the complex nature of plagiarism is discussed. Subsequently, the pragmatic forms of student plagiarism are listed and PDS strategies on…

  10. How Do Psychology Researchers Find Studies to Include in Meta-Analyses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendt, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Meta-analysis is a technique used in a variety of disciplines to combine and summarize the findings of previous research. One step in the production of a meta-analysis is a thorough literature search for relevant studies. A variety of methods can be used to increase the number of studies that are found. This study examines the extent to which some…

  11. Can Research Findings Help School Systems Obtain the Most Bang from the Construction Bucks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earthman, Glen I.; Lemasters, Linda K.

    Research on educational facilities is important to help industry and school districts make decisions on funding and maintaining good educational environments for their students. This paper presents findings from three syntheses of 232 studies on educational facilities and funding decisions, followed by discussions of practical solutions designed…

  12. Teaching About Marital Roles--Using Research Findings to Design Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieren, D. K.; Badir, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    Focuses on selecting learning experiencing which allow students direct involvement in the discussion of issues most important to them. Reports research findings from a 1971 study of marital role expectations of high school students in a large Alberta city and outlines teaching strategies which utilize this data. (Author/RK)

  13. Genetically Informative Research on Adolescent Substance Use: Methods, Findings, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the genetic epidemiology of substance use and misuse in adolescents. Method: A selective review of genetically informative research strategies, their limitations, and key findings examining issues related to the heritability of substance use and substance use disorders in children and adolescents is presented.…

  14. How can ergonomics influence design? Moving from research findings to future systems.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Sidney W A; Nyce, James M

    2004-12-01

    Ergonomics design is about the creation of future work. So how can ergonomics research support and inform design if its findings are cast in a language oriented towards current work derived from field observations or laboratory settings? In this paper we assess instances of three different strands (experimental, ethnomethodological, and surveys) of ergonomics research on paper flight strips in air traffic control, for how they analytically confront future work and how they make the findings relevant or credible with respect to future work. How these justifications come about, or how valid (or well argued for) they are, is rarely considered in the ergonomics literature. All three strands appear to rely on rhetoric and argument as well as method and analysis, to justify findings in terms of their future applicability. Closing the gap between research results and future work is an important aim of the ergonomic enterprise. Better understanding of the processes necessary to bridge this gap may be critical for progress in ergonomics research and for the use of its findings in actual design processes. PMID:15545236

  15. How the Internet Is Changing the Implementation of Traditional Research Methods, People's Daily Lives, and the Way in Which Developmental Scientists Conduct Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Neumann, Linus; van Zalk, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen an impressive increase in web-based research, of which we review and discuss two main types. First, researchers can create online versions of traditional questionnaires. Using the internet in this way usually does not compromise the psychometric properties of such measures, and participants are typically not less…

  16. Comparative Effectiveness of "Scott Foresman Science": A Report of a Randomized Experiment in Federal Way Public Schools. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Gloria I.; Jaciw, Andrew; Wei, Xin

    2007-01-01

    Pearson Education contracted with Empirical Education Inc. to conduct five randomized experiments to determine the effectiveness of its "Scott Foresman Science" ("SFScience") curriculum and associated materials. This report addresses the experiment in Federal Way Public Schools in Washington State. The primary purpose of this research is to…

  17. Research from the Model Spinal Cord Injury Systems: findings from the current 5-year grant cycle.

    PubMed

    Lammertse, Daniel P; Jackson, Amie B; Sipski, Marca L

    2004-11-01

    This issue of the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation is dedicated to current research findings of the Model Spinal Cord Injury Systems (MSCIS) program. The MSCIS grants were established by the Rehabilitation Services Administration in the 1970s. Now administered by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research within the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services in the US Department of Education, the program has included 27 spinal cord injury centers in the United States over the years. In the current 5-year grant cycle (2000-2005), there are 16 designated regional MSCIS centers. In addition to establishing a comprehensive system of care, the grantees contribute patient data to the National Spinal Cord Injury Database (which now contains data on 30,532 subjects with follow-up of up to 30 y). In addition, the MSCIS grants enable the conduct of site-specific and collaborative research projects. To highlight the research findings of the program, the MSCIS have produced a special dissemination effort during each of the previous 5 grant cycles, with this issue of the Archives representing the latest of these endeavors. This article provides a brief history of the MSCIS program and highlights the important findings of the 17 original research articles contained in this issue. PMID:15520967

  18. Finding the Middle Ground in Violent Video Game Research: Lessons From Ferguson (2015).

    PubMed

    Markey, Patrick M

    2015-09-01

    Ferguson's comprehensive meta-analysis provides convincing data that violent video games have almost no effect on children's aggression. Although this finding is unlikely to bring unity to a divided field, Ferguson's article (2015, this issue) provides important rules that should aid all researchers. First, we need to be more accepting of results that are inconsistent with our own theories. Second, extraneous variables are often responsible for the relations previous studies have found between violent media and aggression. Third, we should avoid using unstandardized assessments of important variables whenever possible. Finally, caution is warranted when generalizing laboratory research findings to severe acts of violent in the "real world." It is hoped that, by accepting these basic rules, researchers and others will adopt less extreme positions concerning the effects of violent video games. PMID:26386003

  19. Establishment of research-oriented hospital: an important way for translational medicine development in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Meina; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    Globally, one of the major trends is the development of translational medicine. The traditional hospital structure could not meet the demands of translational medicine development any longer and to explore a novel hospital structure is imperative. Following the times, China proposed and implemented a development strategy for a first-class modern research-oriented hospital. To establish a research-oriented hospital has become an important strategy to guide the scientific development of high-quality medical institutions and to advance translational medicine development. To facilitate translational medicine by developing research-oriented hospital, the Chinese Research Hospital Association (CRHA) has been established, which provides service of medicine, talents cultivation, scientific research and clinical teaching and covers areas of theoretical research, academic exchange, translational medicine, talents training and practice guiding. On the whole, research-oriented hospital facilitated translational medicine by developing interdisciplinary platform, training core competencies in clinical and translational research, providing financial support of translational research, and hosting journals on translational medicine, etc. PMID:25860972

  20. An Investigation of Preschool Teachers' Ways of Seeing Action Research Using Phenomenography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Ho Cheong

    2016-01-01

    One of the purposes of introducing the use of action research in schools is to bring about educational change in policy and practice. To make this happen, it is of paramount importance to look into how teachers actually see action research. We, the writers of this paper, are teacher educators, teaching preschool teachers courses related to action…

  1. Informal Aspects of "Becoming Peer" in Undergraduate Research: "Still Connected but Going Our Separate Ways"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker-Rees, Rod; Haynes, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    This study is grounded in a research project, the CARITAS project (Collaborative Application of Research Into Tutoring for Autonomous Study), which ran in our university from 2007 to 2009. Tutors from a variety of programmes collaborated to review literature and to investigate both formal and informal support for students involved in…

  2. Prevention Research Findings: 1988. Proceedings of the Meeting of the National Conference on Prevention Research Findings (1st, Kansas City, Missouri, March 1988): Implications for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Program Planning. OSAP Prevention Monograph-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    Sixteen papers from a conference on findings from prevention research are presented in this document. The papers are categorized into these six areas: (1) state and federal roles in prevention; (2) prevention research perspectives, including prevention research, school-based drug education research findings, and drug abuse prevention research…

  3. Driving the Way to Tuberculosis Elimination: The Essential Role of Fundamental Research.

    PubMed

    Lienhardt, Christian; Kraigsley, Alison M; Sizemore, Christine F

    2016-08-01

    Tuberculosis has impacted human health for millennia. The World Health Organization estimated that, in 2014, 9.6 million people developed tuberculosis and 1.5 million people died from the disease. In May 2014, the World Health Assembly endorsed the new "End TB Strategy" that presents a pathway to tuberculosis elimination. The strategy outlines 3 areas of emphasis, one of which is intensified research and innovation. In this article we highlight the essential role for fundamental tuberculosis research in the future of tuberculosis diagnostics, treatment, and prevention. To maximize the impact of fundamental research, we must foster collaboration among all stakeholders engaged in tuberculosis research and control to facilitate open dialogue to assure that critical gaps in outcome-oriented science are identified and addressed. We present here a framework for future discussions among scientists, physicians, research and development specialists, and public health managers for the reinforcement of national and international strategies toward tuberculosis elimination. PMID:27270671

  4. Finding paradigms for the future of alcoholism research: an interdisciplinary perspective.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R E

    2001-09-01

    This is a review article and critique of current research strategies in the alcohol field. Although the alcohol field is proud of its multidisciplinary tradition and scientific findings within specific disciplines, there are very few models of cross-disciplinary research and communication. Currently, the favored model of risk is genetic; the favored model of pathophysiology is molecular neuroscience; and the favored model of clinical investigation is narrowly categorical. If there is a hierarchy within science that is based on explanatory power, then models of alcoholism emerging from neuroscience, molecular biology, and genetics should be able to accommodate (if not account for) the findings on clinical aspects of alcohol dependence, as well as data on differential risk, course, and recovery that come from the behavioral and social sciences. The first section of this article reviews the most popular models of alcohol dependence over the past 40 years. I argue that the currently fashionable categorical approach to diagnosis in DSM-IV (and ICD-10) has failed to serve as a framework for interdisciplinary research and has failed to meet the needs of human geneticists, population-based researchers, psychosocial researchers, basic scientists working in animal models, and patient-oriented researchers. I argue for a return to the dimensional approach to diagnosis in the alcohol dependence syndrome construct. In the second section of the article, I lay out an agenda for revitalized patient-oriented research in the alcohol field, as a bridge between basic biological research and innovations in clinical practice, as well as the key to a valid diagnostic system that can inform research strategies in genetics and population-based research. In the third section of the article, I highlight the interface between genetic and psychosocial models of risk and propose a possible structure for future collaboration. I conclude with a plea to funding agencies and investigators to

  5. Funding considerations for the disclosure of genetic incidental findings in biobank research

    PubMed Central

    Black, L; Avard, D; Zawati, MH; Knoppers, BM; Hébert, J; Sauvageau, G

    2013-01-01

    The use of biobanks in biomedical research has grown considerably in recent years. As a result of the increasing analysis of tissue samples stored in biobanks, there has also been an increase in the probability of discovering—in addition to the research target—incidental findings (IF). We identified 23 laws, policies and guidelines from international, regional and national organizations that provide guidance or identify the need for the disclosure of IF to research participants. We analyzed these instruments to determine their contemplation of the funding considerations for the disclosure of IF, examining their guidance for who discloses and the extent of researcher responsibilities. We found that the available normative documents provide little guidance to researchers and biobanks for how they should address cost and funding concerns associated with IF disclosure. It is therefore essential that the research and policy communities think through the financial implications of imposing an ethical responsibility to disclose IF. Concerted efforts should be made by policymakers, ethicists, researchers, clinicians and research institutions to develop detailed funding recommendations, potentially universal in application, to aid in the disclosure of IF, and we provide recommendations on steps that can be taken to ensure full consideration of these issues. PMID:23662709

  6. Young People's Views on Accelerometer Use in Physical Activity Research: Findings from a User Involvement Investigation.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Joanna; Tibbins, Carly; Callens, Claire; Lang, Beckie; Thorogood, Margaret; Tigbe, William; Robertson, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    The use of accelerometers to objectively measure physical activity is important in understanding young people's behaviours, as physical activity plays a key part in obesity prevention and treatment. A user-involvement qualitative study with young people aged 7-18 years (n = 35) was carried out to investigate views on accelerometer use to inform an obesity treatment research study. First impressions were often negative, with issues related to size and comfort reported. Unwanted attention from wearing an accelerometer and bullying risk were also noted. Other disadvantages included feeling embarrassed and not being able to wear the device for certain activities. Positive aspects included feeling "special" and having increased attention from friends. Views on the best time to wear accelerometers were mixed. Advice was offered on how to make accelerometers more appealing, including presenting them in a positive way, using a clip rather than elastic belt to attach, personalising the device, and having feedback on activity levels. Judgements over the way in which accelerometers are used should be made at the study development stage and based on the individual population. In particular, introducing accelerometers in a clear and positive way is important. Including a trial wearing period, considering practical issues, and providing incentives may help increase compliance. PMID:24533214

  7. Research findings from the use of probiotics in tilapia aquaculture: A review.

    PubMed

    Hai, Ngo Van

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to present research findings from the use of probiotics in tilapia aquaculture. In omnivorous species of tilapia aquaculture, intestines and gonads, rearing water and sediments or even commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics. Administration of probiotics varies from direct oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is most commonly used. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. As probiotics have been proven to be either immune enhancers and/or growth promoters in aquatic animals, several modes of actions of probiotics in enhancement of immune responses, and an improvement of growth and survival rates of tilapia are presented, while the effects of others are not yet understood to the same degree as for other fish species. Some points extracted from the research findings are emphasised for further investigation and development. PMID:26003738

  8. Models of Consent to Return of Incidental Findings in Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, Paul S.; Parens, Erik; Waldman, Cameron R.; Klitzman, Robert; Fyer, Abby; Martinez, Josue; Price, W. Nicholson; Chung, Wendy K.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic research has the capacity to generate a wide array of findings that go beyond the goals of the study—usually referred to as “incidental findings.” The evolving consensus of researchers, participants, and expert panels is that at least some incidental results should be made available to participants. However, there are a number of challenges to discussing these issues with participants and ascertaining their preferences, including the complexity and magnitude of the relevant information. Believing that usual models of informed consent are not likely to be effective in this context, we identify four approaches that investigators and IRBs might consider: traditional consent, staged consent, mandatory return, and outsourcing. Each has advantages and disadvantages compared with the other options, and which one is selected for a given project will depend on a mix of practical and normative considerations that are described in this paper. PMID:24919982

  9. Repackaging prostate cancer support group research findings: an e-KT case study.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina S; Lohan, Maria; Bottorff, Joan L

    2015-01-01

    In the context of psychosocial oncology research, disseminating study findings to a range of knowledge "end-users" can advance the well-being of diverse patient subgroups and their families. This article details how findings drawn from a study of prostate cancer support groups were repackaged in a knowledge translation website--www.prostatecancerhelpyourself.ubc.ca--using Web 2.0 features. Detailed are five lessons learned from developing the website: the importance of pitching a winning but feasible idea, keeping a focus on interactivity and minimizing text, negotiating with the supplier, building in formal pretests or a pilot test with end-users, and completing formative evaluations based on data collected through Google™ and YouTube™ Analytics. The details are shared to guide the e-knowledge translation efforts of other psychosocial oncology researchers and clinicians. PMID:24713522

  10. Ways of Research: The Status of the Traditional Research Paper Assignment in First-Year Writing/Composition Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Carra Leah

    2010-01-01

    I created my Exploratory Survey on the Status of the Research Paper Assignment in First-year Writing/Composition Courses to learn whether the traditional research paper remained as common an assignment in 2009 as it had been in the past. My survey updates results from two previous surveys on the status of this assignment. Ambrose N. Manning's…

  11. Child abuse, neglect, and adult behavior: research design and findings on criminality, violence, and child abuse.

    PubMed

    Widom, C S

    1989-07-01

    Using a prospective cohorts design, a large sample of physical and sexual abuse cases was compared to a matched control group. Overall, abused and neglected subjects had higher rates than did controls for adult criminality and arrests for violent offenses, but not for adult arrests for child abuse or neglect. Findings are discussed in the context of intergenerational transmission of violence, and directions for future research are suggested. PMID:2764070

  12. The use of research findings in bereavement programs: a case study.

    PubMed

    Murphy, S A

    2000-01-01

    Violent death is a major public health problem in the United States, yet there is no consensus among bereavement researchers and clinicians regarding a "gold standard" of bereavement services to be offered to family survivors. This article has three purposes: (a) to describe the planning, implementation, and results of a theory-based intervention study involving parents bereaved by the violent deaths of their children; (b) to suggest programmatic elements of bereavement services based on some findings from both the bereavement program and the follow-up data obtained from parents up to 5 years postdeath; and (c) to identify future research and theory development needs. The results of the intervention study involving 261 bereaved parents provide helpful insights regarding parent bereavement program preferences as well as changes in parent outcomes. Some of the most relevant findings pertain to variability in distress levels, gender, and causes of deceased children's deaths. Findings suggest that many different types of services are needed to meet parents' needs. The follow-up data collected from the parents 1, 2, and 5 years postdeath demonstrate that loss accommodation following violent death bereavement is both lengthy and difficult. Recommendations follow for both bereavement services and research studies. PMID:11503670

  13. Sociologist Jailed Because He "Wouldn't Snitch" Ponders the Way Research Ought to Be Done.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A Washington doctoral candidate in sociology is jailed for contempt of court for not revealing conversations with animal-rights activists in a grand jury investigation of a research laboratory raid at his institution. The graduate student refused to breach an American Sociological Association pledge of scholarly confidentiality. (MSE)

  14. Seeking New Ways of Living Community in the Classroom and the World: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Action research is a method of examining one's own practice through reflection and critical self-study. In this paper, the author considers her experience teaching a two-day lesson on connections and relationships in William Forsythe's dance "One Flat Thing, reproduced" (2000) and the accompanying website, Synchronous Objects. The author reviews…

  15. Operational research for improved tuberculosis control: the scope, the needs and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Lienhardt, C; Cobelens, F G J

    2011-01-01

    The promotion of research is one of the main components of the World Health Organizations Stop TB Strategy, which includes 'programme-based operational research (OR)' and 'research on introducing new tools into practice'. The importance of OR in improving tuberculosis (TB) control was recognised a long time ago, and historical OR studies have been instrumental in the development of major strategies for TB control. Although a growing number of OR projects are being conducted in the world today, little is known about their results or their likely impact on TB control programmes. As funding organisations increasingly recognise the need for OR, we propose a rational framework to conduct OR, which covers a spectrum from local setting-oriented to international policy guiding research, and determines the relevance, replicability and generalisability of the results. OR in TB control is aimed at 1) improving programme performance; 2) assessing the feasibility, effectiveness and impact of new strategies or interventions on TB control; and 3) collecting evidence to guide policy recommendations on specific interventions. This requires strengthened capacity to plan and conduct OR in low-income countries and appropriate support to conduct both nationally and internationally led OR projects. Suggestions are made for potential steps for improved purpose-driven OR, which may help to improve TB control locally and inform policy recommendations internationally. PMID:21276290

  16. Throwing down the Gauntlet: Ten Ways to Ensure That Higher Education Research Continues to Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.

    2016-01-01

    As members of ASHE, we have an obligation to ensure that ASHE is an association that both promotes career development of members and advances the production and dissemination of high-quality research-based knowledge on current and emerging issues in higher education. In this presidential address, I look to the future of ASHE, offering questions…

  17. The inverse care law - is Australian primary care research funding headed this way?

    PubMed

    Brett, Tom

    2011-08-01

    Tudor Hart's Inverse Care Law classically described the inequity in medical service access in South Wales. From his primary care perspective, the availability of good medical care varied inversely with the need and the population served. In Australia, future funding for primary care research capacity building appears headed in a similar direction - at least for newly established medical schools. PMID:21814660

  18. Working on a Failed Research: Promiscuity of Wanting and Doing Both Ways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Jeong-eun

    2013-01-01

    By mixing up various writing genres, the author interweaves a hybrid narrative of a fable, her postcolonial feminist subjectivity, and her research. The narrative begins with Aesop's fable, "the Bat, the Bird, and the Beast." In the fable, a bat wants to be both a bird and a beast, but being neither, s/he is refused by both.…

  19. The ITForum Perspective on the Internet and Publishing: Changing the Way Researchers Communicate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieber, Lloyd P.; And Others

    ITForum is an electronic listserv that discusses theories, research, new paradigms, and practices in the field of instructional technology. ITForum is a unique and thriving electronic community of instructional technology scholars and professionals. By offering a schedule of papers and the opportunity to discuss them with the author, ITForum makes…

  20. Review Article: Facing Two Ways? Reflections on Recent Research on Religious Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooling, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    In this article, author Trevor Cooling presents a review of three books that disseminate recent research on religious schools. The first, "Leadership and Religious Schools: International Perspectives and Challenges," edited by Michael T. Buchanan, is an edited volume of essays about leadership in religious schools. Editor Michael…

  1. Mixing students and performance artists to provide innovative ways of communicating scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Manen, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    In May 2007 the Open University (U.K.) in conjunction with the MK (Milton Keynes) Gallery invited performance artists Noble and Silver to work with a group of students to design innovative methods of disseminating their research to a general audience. The students created a multitude of well-received live and multimedia performances based on their research. Students found they greatly benefited from the artists' and each others' different viewpoints and backgrounds, resulting in improved communication skills and varying interpretations of their own topic of interest. This work focuses on research aimed at identifying precursory activity at volcanoes using temperature, earthquake and ground movement data, to aid improvement of early warning systems. For this project an aspect of the research relevant to the public was chosen: the importance of appropriately timed warnings regarding the possibility of an eruption. If a warning is issued too early it may cause complacency and apathy towards the situation, whereas issuing a warning too late may endanger lives and property. An interactive DVD was produced which leads the user through the events preceding a volcanic eruption. The goal is to warn the public about the impending eruption at the most appropriate time. Data is presented in short film clips, after which questions are posed. Based on the player's answers the consequences or follow-up events of the choices are explored. We aim to improve and expand upon this concept in the near future, as well as making the DVD available to schools for educational purposes.

  2. Problematic assumptions have slowed down depression research: why symptoms, not syndromes are the way forward

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Eiko I.

    2015-01-01

    Major depression (MD) is a highly heterogeneous diagnostic category. Diverse symptoms such as sad mood, anhedonia, and fatigue are routinely added to an unweighted sum-score, and cutoffs are used to distinguish between depressed participants and healthy controls. Researchers then investigate outcome variables like MD risk factors, biomarkers, and treatment response in such samples. These practices presuppose that (1) depression is a discrete condition, and that (2) symptoms are interchangeable indicators of this latent disorder. Here I review these two assumptions, elucidate their historical roots, show how deeply engrained they are in psychological and psychiatric research, and document that they contrast with evidence. Depression is not a consistent syndrome with clearly demarcated boundaries, and depression symptoms are not interchangeable indicators of an underlying disorder. Current research practices lump individuals with very different problems into one category, which has contributed to the remarkably slow progress in key research domains such as the development of efficacious antidepressants or the identification of biomarkers for depression. The recently proposed network framework offers an alternative to the problematic assumptions. MD is not understood as a distinct condition, but as heterogeneous symptom cluster that substantially overlaps with other syndromes such as anxiety disorders. MD is not framed as an underlying disease with a number of equivalent indicators, but as a network of symptoms that have direct causal influence on each other: insomnia can cause fatigue which then triggers concentration and psychomotor problems. This approach offers new opportunities for constructing an empirically based classification system and has broad implications for future research. PMID:25852621

  3. Systematic archiving and access to health research data: rationale, current status and way forward.

    PubMed

    Rani, Manju; Buckley, Brian S

    2012-12-01

    Systematically archiving data from health research and large-scale surveys and ensuring access to databases offer economic benefits and can improve the accountability, efficiency and quality of scientific research. Recently, interest in data archiving and sharing has grown and, in developed countries, research funders and institutions are increasingly adopting data-sharing policies. In developing countries, however, there is a lack of awareness of the benefits of data archiving and little discussion of policy. Many databases, even those of large-scale surveys, are not preserved systematically and access for secondary use is limited, which reduces the return on research investment. Several obstacles exist: organizational responsibility is unclear; infrastructure and personnel with appropriate data management and analysis skills are scarce; and researchers may be reluctant to share.This article considers recent progress in data sharing and the strategies and models used to encourage and facilitate it, with a focus on the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region. A case study from the Philippines demonstrates the benefits of data sharing by comparing the number and type of publications associated with two large-scale surveys with different approaches to sharing.Advocacy and leadership are needed at both national and regional levels to increase awareness. A step-by-step approach may be the most effective: initially large national databases could be made available to develop the methods and skills needed and to foster a data-sharing culture. Duplication of costs and effort could be avoided by collaboration between countries. In developing countries, interventions are required to build capacity in data management and analysis. PMID:23284199

  4. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    PubMed

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation. PMID:22382800

  5. Is linking research, teaching and practice in communication in health care the way forward?

    PubMed

    van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn

    2016-09-01

    This paper is based on the keynote lecture given at the ICCH conference in New Orleans in October 2015. With as background the observation that even though research and teaching of communication have been receiving attention for some time now, patients still encounter many problems when they visit clinicians because of health problems, it subsequently touches upon research on integration of communication with correct medical content, person centered communication and the role of placebo on outcomes. For teaching it emphasizes methods working best to teach clinical communication skills and lead to behavior changes in professionals: experiential teaching methods but taking care of a balance with cognitive methods. It then discusses the challenge of transfer to clinical practice and what is needed to overcome these challenges: learning from reflecting on undesired outcomes in clinical practice, feedback from clinicians who are open to communication and support learners with effective feedback in that specific context. It adds suggestions about where linking more between research, teaching and clinical practice could help moving communication in health care forward and builds the case for involving policymakers and members of hospital boards to help manage the necessary climate change in clinical settings. PMID:27473637

  6. Ways of Knowing from Father Sky: Native and Western Research Protocols - From Paradox to Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryboy, N.; Begay, D.; Hawkins, I.; Cline, T.

    Humans across all cultures have venerated observed and studied the Sun the Moon the planets and the stars of Father Sky for thousands of years We will highlight a research and development collaboration between NASA UC Berkeley and the Indigenous Education Institute This unique astronomy-based collaboration has been ongoing for the past eight years including partnerships between the Indigenous Education Institute with several NASA entities The collaboration has sustained a successful track record because it upholds the integrity of both western and indigenous astronomy knowledge and research protocols and because it honors the native languages By working together we have been able to identify common elements from seemingly paradoxical frameworks towards an authentic and sustained collaboration We will compare and contrast the native and western research protocols using the Pleiades as an example Drawing on the fact that stars are suns and the Sun is a star we will draw from our collaborative project to delve into the Sun-Earth Connection The Sun our nearest star provides heat and energy is the cause of the seasons and is responsible for space weather effects that influence today s technology Knowledge of the Sun is also a major part of indigenous traditions and cultural practices Within the content of astronomy we will discuss juxtapositions and collaborative possibilities between western and native science We will share a CD of Navajo oral stories and sound effects developed by the Indigenous Education Institute as

  7. Animals and the 3Rs in toxicology research and testing: The way forward.

    PubMed

    Stokes, W S

    2015-12-01

    Despite efforts to eliminate the use of animals in testing and the availability of many accepted alternative methods, animals are still widely used for toxicological research and testing. While research using in vitro and computational models has dramatically increased in recent years, such efforts have not yet measurably impacted animal use for regulatory testing and are not likely to do so for many years or even decades. Until regulatory authorities have accepted test methods that can totally replace animals and these are fully implemented, large numbers of animals will continue to be used and many will continue to experience significant pain and distress. In order to positively impact the welfare of these animals, accepted alternatives must be implemented, and efforts must be directed at eliminating pain and distress and reducing animal numbers. Animal pain and distress can be reduced by earlier predictive humane endpoints, pain-relieving medications, and supportive clinical care, while sequential testing and routine use of integrated testing and decision strategies can reduce animal numbers. Applying advances in science and technology to the development of scientifically sound alternative testing models and strategies can improve animal welfare and further reduce and replace animal use. PMID:26614819

  8. Appraisal of the research grant schemes of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Shideed, O; Al-Gasseer, N

    2012-05-01

    One way that the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean (EMRO) promotes the important area of health research is by providing research grants within the Region. A desk review of 2 of the EMRO-supported research grant schemes was done to assess: the selection process ofthe research proposals, the priority areas, country data and information on the principal investigator. The 2 schemes were: EMRO grant for Research in Priority Areas of Public Health, started in 2002, and the EMRO and Organization of Islamic Conference Standing Committee for Science and Technological Cooperation Grant for Research in Applied Biotechnology & Genomics in Health, started in 2004. The paper proposes the following recommendations to enhance benefit from the grant process: create a critical mass of researchers through joint collaboration in proposals and mentoring; instigate a more rigorous process to disseminate the call for proposals more widely and effectively; and include relevant stakeholders in the identification of priority areas for research and overall monitoring of the process. PMID:22764440

  9. Standardized Minnesota coding of electrocardiographic findings for purposes of cooperative research on ischaemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Misjavicene, I S; Glazunov, I S; Balavadze, M B; Reklaitene, R A

    1981-01-01

    For purposes of cooperative research on multifactorial prevention of ischaemic heart disease, a standardization system was elaborated in the USSR for classification of ECG findings according to the Minnesota code. The system includes instruction about the coding rules, experimental coding, analysis of faulty codings, and finally a control test consisting in encoding several series of 200 ECG findings each. For assessing the encoder's qualification the criterion was accepted of less than 20% cases of discordance with the standard code of "ischaemic" ECG changes. It was found that after the initial instructive course it was necessary to gain experience with encoding at least 1 000 ECG to qualify the candidate for the specified expert level. The necessity is emphasized of continual surveillance of the quality of ECG classification by the encoders in different centres, and the possibility of reaching a satisfactory level of unification is declared. PMID:7261597

  10. Research on the Caretaking of Children of Incarcerated Parents: Findings and Their Service Delivery Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Thomas E.; Carswell, Steven B.; Rose, Marc

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews research findings on caretaking-related problems associated with the absence of parents from the home following incarceration. It focuses on the impact of incarceration on the welfare and adjustment of urban African American children and on the assumption of caretaking responsibilities by other caretakers, principally maternal grandmothers. Noting the complex situational difficulties involved and the potential burdens associated with surrogate parenting in general, and with this population in particular, the service-provider implications of this parenting arrangement are considered in this review. Findings indicate that problems associated with incarceration of parents tend to be intergenerational and vary considerably in complexity and severity. To the extent that they impact the children involved, these issues should be addressed in coordinated service delivery focusing on prevention. PMID:18311320

  11. Severn School of Psychiatry education fellowships: a new way to promote educational practice and research.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Rob; Arulanandam, Sherlie; Undrill, Guy; Atkinson, Simon; Arnott, Steve; Hughes, Sian; Toogood, Hannah; Scheeres, Karl; Matone, Luciana

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes a model of training in leadership and project management skills for advanced trainees, using educational projects within the Severn School of Psychiatry. Fellowships lasting 1 year have been developed to enable trainees, working with a senior consultant trainer associated with the School of Psychiatry, to support important new educational initiatives. Linkage with the local university training and learning for health professionals research module has provided academic support for the trainees and the projects. Four examples for the first year of the programme are described and feedback from structured interviews with participants is presented. The development of the fellowships appears to have had wider benefits, in developing educational faculty in the School of Psychiatry and the trainees involved have had opportunities to extend their project management and leadership skills. The fellowship programme is continuing to develop, based on feedback from its first successful year. PMID:26191441

  12. Severn School of Psychiatry education fellowships: a new way to promote educational practice and research

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, Rob; Arulanandam, Sherlie; Undrill, Guy; Atkinson, Simon; Arnott, Steve; Hughes, Sian; Toogood, Hannah; Scheeres, Karl; Matone, Luciana

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a model of training in leadership and project management skills for advanced trainees, using educational projects within the Severn School of Psychiatry. Fellowships lasting 1 year have been developed to enable trainees, working with a senior consultant trainer associated with the School of Psychiatry, to support important new educational initiatives. Linkage with the local university training and learning for health professionals research module has provided academic support for the trainees and the projects. Four examples for the first year of the programme are described and feedback from structured interviews with participants is presented. The development of the fellowships appears to have had wider benefits, in developing educational faculty in the School of Psychiatry and the trainees involved have had opportunities to extend their project management and leadership skills. The fellowship programme is continuing to develop, based on feedback from its first successful year. PMID:26191441

  13. 42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.405 Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. (a) When the ORI makes a finding...

  14. 42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.405 Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. (a) When the ORI makes a finding...

  15. 42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.405 Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. (a) When the ORI makes a finding...

  16. Sweeteners and health: findings from recent research and their impact on obesity and related metabolic conditions.

    PubMed

    Rippe, J M; Tappy, L

    2016-03-01

    Few topics in nutrition engender more controversy than added sugars in general, and fructose-containing sugars in particular. Some investigators have argued that added sugars are associated with increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and even sugar 'addiction'. Other investigators have questioned the scientific basis for all of these assertions. This debate has extended far beyond the scientific community into various media outlets including the internet and other non-refereed venues often with heated rhetoric and little science. Against this backdrop, a group of experts and researchers in the metabolism and health effects of added sugars presented a symposium 'Sweeteners and Health: Findings from Recent Research and their Impact on Obesity and Related Metabolic Conditions' at the European Congress on Obesity on 7 May 2015. The papers in this supplement are based on the presentations made at this meeting. The current article is intended to serve as an Introduction to this supplement. PMID:27001641

  17. Operation of Cryogenic Facility in e-way at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, K. V.

    2012-12-01

    In an attempt towards the development of modern, model and paperless cryogenic facility, the Low Temperature Facility of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, at Mumbai, India; carried out many automation works using programmable logic controller (PLC) and other modern electronic tools, with the objective of bringing the entire plant operation to your palm whenever and wherever you are. Efficiency in the plant operation by keeping a watch on the plant healthiness, advance indication about the possible plant problem by means of pre-warning alarms, so that the remedial action can be taken well prior to the actual failure affects the plant operation, reduction in plant down time were achieved by the automation works. Large size in our cryogen production, controlling the complicated helium liquefier, meeting the uninterrupted supply of cryogen to the users on “any time availability basis,” safety in handling cryogens and high pressure gas, effective usage of limited skilled manpower etc., all these requirements call for the definite need of modern electronic gears and gadgets. This paper will describe in details about the automation works carried out at our cryogenic facility at TIFR.

  18. Finding a voice: participatory research with street-involved youth in the youth injection prevention project.

    PubMed

    Coser, Larissa Rodrigues; Tozer, Kira; Van Borek, Natasha; Tzemis, Despina; Taylor, Darlene; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Buxton, Jane A

    2014-09-01

    This article uses a Positive Youth Development framework to explore the experiences of six experiential youth coresearchers (YCs) in the Youth Injection Prevention (YIP) participatory research project, and the parallel track process of empowerment and capacity building that developed. The YIP project was conducted in Metro Vancouver at the BC Centre for Disease Control and community organizations serving street-involved youth. A process evaluation was conducted to explore themes in the YCs experience in the project, as well as process strengths and challenges. Semistructured interviews with the YCs, researcher field notes, and team meeting and debrief session minutes were analyzed. The YIP project appears to have exerted a positive influence on the YCs. Positive self-identities, sense of purpose, reconceptualization of intellectual ability, new knowledge and skills, supportive relationships, finding a voice, and social and self-awareness were among the positive impacts. Process strengths included team-building activities, team check-in and checkout sessions, and professional networking opportunities. Process challenges included the time required to help YCs overcome personal barriers to participation. The YIP project demonstrates that participatory research with street-involved youth is a viable research option that contributes to positive youth development and empowerment. PMID:24668583

  19. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  20. The politics of action research: "if you don't like the way things are going, get off the bus".

    PubMed

    Nugus, Peter; Greenfield, David; Travaglia, Joanne; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2012-12-01

    Participatory action research is lauded for its emancipatory potential and practice relevance. Little research has focused on the ethical and political dimensions of power relations between management gatekeepers and staff in large organizations in the negotiation of action research. To illuminate the dynamics of this engagement, this paper is informed by Aristotle's practical ethics of phronesis, arguing that ethics emerge through human interaction. The paper reports on a multi-method study and intervention in inter-professional learning and collaboration, conducted between 2008 and 2010, across an Australian health system. It draws on results from researchers' progress notes, 139 semi-structured interviews and focus groups (492 participants), more than 200 h of organizational document analysis, and more than 200 h of ethnographic observation. From conventional thematic analysis, we note that the project had considerable support from senior managers who were gatekeepers for the research. Such support stemmed from managerialist tendencies, with senior managers explicitly aligning inter-professionalism with prospective health reforms and improvements to quality of care and patient safety. Senior managers were also enthusiastic about standardized processes. Many frontline staff were less supportive, and some were suspicious of or hostile towards management-led processes to improve and evaluate care. Some senior managers' self perceived alignment with and support for the research process changed to resistance once this finding was presented. This paradox in the interplay of research findings and research process evinces the inherent tension between organizational politics and conducting action research that reflexive researchers need to negotiate in knowledge translation, exchange or mobilization exercises. PMID:22910192

  1. Which Way is Up? Lessons Learned from Space Shuttle Sensorimotor Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Harm, D. L.; Paloski, W. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    .g., sensory aids) will have both space and Earth-based applications. Early postflight field tests are recommended to provide the evidence base for best practices for future commercial flight programs. Learning Objective: Overview of the Space Shuttle Program regarding adaptive changes in sensorimotor function, including what was learned from research, what was implemented for medical operations, and what is recommended for commercial flights.

  2. Application of research findings and summary of research needs: Bud Britton Memorial Symposium on Metabolic Disorders of Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Galyean, M L; Eng, K S

    1998-01-01

    Updated research findings with acidosis, feedlot bloat, liver abscesses, and sudden death syndromes were presented at the Bud Britton Memorial Symposium on Metabolic Disorders of Feedlot Cattle. Possible industry applications include the need to establish guidelines for use of clostridial vaccines in feedlot cattle, further assessment of the relationship between acidosis and polioencephalomalacia, examination of the effects of various ionophores on the incidence of metabolic disorders, and evaluation of the effects of feed bunk management and limit- and restricted-feeding programs on the incidence of metabolic disorders. A multidisciplinary approach among researchers, consulting nutritionists and veterinarians, and feedlot managers will be required for effective progress in research and in the application of research findings. Areas suggested for further research include 1) assessment of feed consumption patterns and social behavior of cattle in large-pen, feedlot settings; 2) evaluation of the relationship between feed intake management systems (feed bunk management programs, limit- and programmed-feeding) and the incidence of metabolic disorders, including delineation of the role of variability in feed intake in the etiology of such disorders; 3) efforts to improve antemortem and postmortem diagnosis, and to establish standardized regional or national epidemiological databases for various metabolic disorders; 4) ascertaining the accuracy of diagnosis of metabolic disorders and determining the relationship of previous health history of animals to the incidence of metabolic disorders; 5) further defining ruminal and intestinal microbiology as it relates to metabolic disorders and deeper evaluation of metabolic changes that occur with such disorders; 6) continued appraisal of the effects of grain processing and specific feed ingredients and nutrients on metabolic disorders, and development of new feed additives to control or prevent these disorders; and 7

  3. Findings of the US Research Needs Workshop on the Topic of Fusion Power

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Raffray, A R; Kurtz, R J; Morley, N B; Reiersen, W T; Sharpe, P; Willms, S

    2009-09-16

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: fusion fuel cycle; power extraction; materials science; safety and environment; and reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.

  4. Exome Sequencing and Unrelated Findings in the Context of Complex Disease Research: Ethical and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Gholson J.; Jiang, Tao; Van Wijk, Richard; Wang, Wei; Bodily, Paul Mark; Xing, Jinchuan; Tian, Lifeng; Robison, Reid J.; Clement, Mark; Lin, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Ying; Moore, Barry; Glessner, Joseph T.; Elia, Josephine; Reimherr, Fred; van Solinge, Wouter W.; Yandell, Mark; Hakonarson, Hakon; Wang, Jun; Johnson, William Evan; Wei, Zhi; Wang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Exome sequencing has identified the causes of several Mendelian diseases, although it has rarely been used in a clinical setting to diagnose the genetic cause of an idiopathic disorder in a single patient. We performed exome sequencing on a pedigree with several members affected with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in an effort to identify candidate variants predisposing to this complex disease. While we did identify some rare variants that might predispose to ADHD, we have not yet proven the causality for any of them. However, over the course of the study, one subject was discovered to have idiopathic hemolytic anemia (IHA), which was suspected to be genetic in origin. Analysis of this subject’s exome readily identified two rare non-synonymous mutations in PKLR gene as the most likely cause of the IHA, although these two mutations had not been documented before in a single individual. We further confirmed the deficiency by functional biochemical testing, consistent with a diagnosis of red blood cell pyruvate kinase deficiency. Our study implies that exome and genome sequencing will certainly reveal additional rare variation causative for even well-studied classical Mendelian diseases, while also revealing variants that might play a role in complex diseases. Furthermore, our study has clinical and ethical implications for exome and genome sequencing in a research setting; how to handle unrelated findings of clinical significance, in the context of originally planned complex disease research, remains a largely uncharted area for clinicians and researchers. PMID:21794208

  5. Community concerns about sex selection: research as a way forward - response to Edgar Dahl's 'The presumption in favour of liberty'.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Catherine A

    2004-03-01

    This commentary argues that notwithstanding the implicit logic underpinning philosophical and moral arguments regarding individual rights to access sex selection for non-medical reasons, community concerns about the psychosocial impact of the technology cannot be dismissed or ignored. It is true, however, that such concerns are often based on unsupported assumptions about the impact of the technology on individuals, families and communities and about the propensity of scientists, unless restrained, to act in ways that are irresponsible or dangerous. The research conducted to date has dispelled many of the myths and assumptions about IVF children and their families. Further careful research is now needed to test the extent to which fears and assumptions regarding 'designer babies' are justified. PMID:15038893

  6. Community Coordinated Modeling Center: Paving the Way for Progress in Space Science Research to Operational Space Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, M. M.; Maddox, M. M.; Mays, M. L.; Mullinix, R.; MacNeice, P. J.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Rastaetter, L.; Shim, J.; Taktakishvili, A.; Zheng, Y.; Wiegand, C.

    2013-12-01

    Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) was established at the dawn of the millennium as an essential element on the National Space Weather Program. One of the CCMC goals was to pave the way for progress in space science research to operational space weather forecasting. Over the years the CCMC acquired the unique experience in preparing complex models and model chains for operational environment, in developing and maintaining powerful web-based tools and systems ready to be used by space weather service providers and decision makers as well as in space weather prediction capabilities assessments. The presentation will showcase latest innovative solutions for space weather research, analysis, forecasting and validation and review on-going community-wide initiatives enabled by CCMC applications.

  7. Frontal alpha asymmetry as a pathway to behavioural withdrawal in depression: Research findings and issues.

    PubMed

    Jesulola, Emmanuel; Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Agnew, Linda L; Wilson, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Depression has been described as a process of behavioural withdrawal from overwhelming aversive stressors, and which manifests itself in the diagnostic symptomatology for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The underlying neurobiological pathways to that behavioural withdrawal are suggested to include greater activation in the right vs the left frontal lobes, described as frontal EEG asymmetry. However, despite a previous meta-analysis that provided overall support for this EEG asymmetry hypothesis, inconsistencies and several methodological confounds exist. The current review examines the literature on this issue, identifies inconsistencies in findings and discusses several key research issues that require addressing for this field to move towards a defensible theoretical model of depression and EEG asymmetry. In particular, the position of EEG asymmetry in the brain, measurement of severity and symptoms profiles of depression, and the effects of gender are considered as potential avenues to more accurately define the specific nature of the depression-EEG asymmetry association. PMID:26051816

  8. [Research on resources chemistry of Chinese medicinal materials and resources recycling utilization ways and goals and tasks].

    PubMed

    Duan, Jin-ao; Su, Shu-lan; Guo, Sheng; Jiang, Shu; Liu, Pei; Yan, Hui; Qian, Da-wei; Zhu, Hua-xu; Tang, Yu-ping; Wu, Qi-nan

    2015-09-01

    The objects of research on the resources chemistry of Chinese medicinal materials (RCCMM) are promotion of efficient production, rational utilization and improving quality of CMM and natural products. The development of TCM cause depends on the efficient utilization and sustainable development of CMM, hinges on the technologies and methods for using and discovering medicinal biological resources, stand or fall on the extension of industy chains, detailed utilizaion of resource chemical components by multi-way, multi-level. All of these may help to the recycling utilization and sound development of RCMM. In this article, five respects were discussed to the RCCMM researches and resources recycling utilization ways and goals and tasks. First, based on the principle of resource scarcity, discovering or replacing CMM resources, protecting the rare or endangered species or resources. Second, based on the multifunctionality of CMM, realizing the value-added and value compensation, and promoting the utilization efficiency through systermatic and detailed exploitation and utilization. Third, based on the resource conservation and environment-friendly, reducing raw material consumption, lowering cost, promoting recycling utilization and elevating utilization efficiency. Fourth, based on the stratege of turning harm into good, using the invasive alien biological resources by multi-ways and enriching the medicial resources. Fifth, based on the method of structure modification of chemical components, exploring and enhancing the utility value of resouces chemical substances. These data should provide references and attention for improving the utilization efficiency, promoting the development of recycling economy, and changing the mode of economic growth of agriculture and industry of CMM fundamentally. PMID:26978979

  9. Meta-analysis in the Social Sciences: A Useful Way To Make Sense of a Series of Findings from a Large Number of Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wampold, Bruce E.; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Kim, Dong-min

    2000-01-01

    Describes meta-analysis, including criticisms; reviews its use in resolving disagreements regarding the results of research in psychotherapy, school funding, and medicine. (Contains 43 references.) (PKP)

  10. "The role of oxytocin in psychiatric disorders: A review of biological and therapeutic research findings"

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, David; Fallon, Daniel; Hill, Michael; Frazier, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin is a peptide hormone integral in parturition, milk let-down, and maternal behaviors that has been demonstrated in animal studies to be important in the formation of pair bonds and in social behaviors. This hormone is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of human social behaviors, including social decision making, evaluating and responding to social stimuli, mediating social interactions, and forming social memories. In addition, oxytocin is intricately involved in a broad array of neuropsychiatric functions, and may be a common factor important in multiple psychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. This review article examines the extant literature on the evidence for oxytocin dysfunction in a variety of psychiatric disorders and highlights the need for further research to understand the complex role of the oxytocin system in psychiatric disease to pave the way for developing new therapeutic modalities. Articles were selected that involved human participants with various psychiatric disorders, either comparing oxytocin biology to healthy controls or examining the effects of exogenous oxytocin administration. PMID:24651556

  11. Finding the Two-Way Street: Women from Mother-Present/Father-Absent Homes and Their Ability to Make Close Female Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marote, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    This heuristic study involving seven coresearchers, which included the author, explores the experiences of women from mother-present/father-absent homes and their ability to form and maintain close female friendships. The heuristic research model was chosen to provide the opportunity to conduct research in a very personalized, collaborative way…

  12. Which Children Can Find a Way through a Strange Town Using a Streetmap?--Results of an Empirical Study on Children's Orientation Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmer, Ingrid; Hemmer, Michael; Kruschel, Katja; Neidhardt, Eva; Obermaier, Gabriele; Uphues, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    This article relates about some results of an interdisciplinary research project analyzing influencing factors of children's spatial orientation competence in real space carried out by geography educators and psychologists. The focus is on the concept of representation as a theoretical foundation. The research design for collecting data of…

  13. Rape treatment outcome research: empirical findings and state of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vickerman, Katrina A; Margolin, Gayla

    2009-07-01

    This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery. PMID:19442425

  14. Genetically informative research on adolescent substance use: methods, findings and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of the genetic epidemiology of substance use and misuse in adolescents. Method We present a selective review of genetically informative research strategies, their limitations and key findings examining issues related to the heritability of substance use and substance use disorders in children and adolescents. Results Adoption, twin and extended family designs have established there is a strong heritable component to liability to nicotine, alcohol and illicit drug dependence in adults. However, shared environmental influences are relatively stronger in youth samples and at earlier stages of substance involvement (e.g., use). There is considerable overlap in the genetic influences associated with the abuse/ dependence across drug classes while shared genetic influences also contribute to the commonly observed associations between substance use disorders and both externalizing and, to a lesser extent, internalizing psychopathology. Rapid technological advances have made the identification of specific gene variants that influence risks for substance use disorders feasible and linkage and association (including genomewide association studies) have identified promising candidate genes implicated in the development of substance use disorders. Conclusions Studies using genetically informative research designs, including those that examine aggregate genetic factors and those examining specific gene variants, individually and in interaction with environmental influences, offer promising avenues not only for delineating genetic effects on substance use disorders but also for understanding the unfolding of risk across development and the interaction between environmental and genetic factors in the etiology of these disorders. PMID:21093770

  15. Rape Treatment Outcome Research: Empirical Findings and State of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Vickerman, Katrina A.; Margolin, Gayla

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery. PMID:19442425

  16. The Role of Serotonin (5-HT) in Behavioral Control: Findings from Animal Research and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, C L; Biskup, C S; Herpertz, S; Gaber, T J; Kuhn, C M; Hood, S H; Zepf, F D

    2015-09-01

    The neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine both have a critical role in the underlying neurobiology of different behaviors. With focus on the interplay between dopamine and serotonin, it has been proposed that dopamine biases behavior towards habitual responding, and with serotonin offsetting this phenomenon and directing the balance toward more flexible, goal-directed responding. The present focus paper stands in close relationship to the publication by Worbe et al. (2015), which deals with the effects of acute tryptophan depletion, a neurodietary physiological method to decrease central nervous serotonin synthesis in humans for a short period of time, on the balance between hypothetical goal-directed and habitual systems. In that research, acute tryptophan depletion challenge administration and a following short-term reduction in central nervous serotonin synthesis were associated with a shift of behavioral performance towards habitual responding, providing further evidence that central nervous serotonin function modulates the balance between goal-directed and stimulus-response habitual systems of behavioral control. In the present focus paper, we discuss the findings by Worbe and colleagues in light of animal experiments as well as clinical implications and discuss potential future avenues for related research. PMID:25991656

  17. Interpretive subgroup analysis extends modified grounded theory research findings in oncologic music therapy.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Hiscock, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Following an investigation into oncologic patients' experiences of the helpfulness of music therapy (O'Callaghan & McDermott, 2004), it was considered that examining relationships between specific patient characteristics and their responses could yield further interesting understandings. "Interpretative subgroup analysis" is introduced, which adapts principles of subgroup analysis in quantitative research to textual data analysis. Anonymous written responses from 128 oncologic patients were analyzed to compare responses from (a) those that had one music therapy session with those who had more than one session, (b) males and females, and (c) middle and older aged respondents. The number of music therapy sessions had scant effect on reported music therapy experiences, and males were much more likely to return questionnaires but much less likely to participate. Unlike some females, males always described positive affective responses when experiencing both sad and positive memories. Variations in the middle and older aged subgroups were evident in type of affective response, and emphases in descriptions of memories and music therapy's effect. Implications of these findings for music therapy practice are considered. Interpretive subgroup analysis is recommended for extending understanding of subjective within group experiences in music therapy research incorporating a grounded theory approach and large enough samples. PMID:17645388

  18. Doing more with less: while hospitals are feeling the financial crunch, smart CIOs are finding ways to improve processes and save money.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Kate Huvane

    2009-02-01

    Outsourcing tasks like help desk support and PC roll-outs can enable organizations to save on costs while developing skills internally. CIOs are finding that some vendors are willing to negotiate contracts to retain business during tough financial times. Although funds may be tight, CIOs need to be part of the solution by pushing clinical transformation and performance improvement. PMID:19266851

  19. 42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notifying the respondent of findings of research... RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.405 Notifying the respondent...

  20. Structuring Professional Learning to Develop a Culture of Data Use: Aligning Knowledge from the Field and Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerzon, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background: This research review provides an analysis of current research related to school and district data use, with a particular focus on identifying key characteristics of schools and districts with effective "data using cultures." The research review identifies and analyzes findings in five key areas of practice: communicating…

  1. Research on Integration of an Automotive Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Generator and a Three-Way Catalytic Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. D.; Chen, Y. L.; Chen, S.; Xianyu, W. D.; Su, C. Q.

    2015-06-01

    A key research topic related to thermoelectric generators (TEGs) for automotive applications is to improve their compatibility with the original vehicle exhaust system, which determines the quality of the exhaust gas treatment and the realization of energy conservation and emission reduction. A new TEG integrated with a three-way catalytic converter (CTEG) by reshaping the converter as the heat exchanger is proposed. A heat-flux coupling simulation model of the integrated TEG is established at the light-off stage of the original three-way catalytic converter (TWC). Temperature distribution maps of the integrated heat exchanger, thermoelectric modules, and cooling-water tank are obtained to present the process of energy flow among the parts of the CTEG. Based on the simulation results, the output power of the CTEG is calculated by a mathematical model. A minimum output power of 31.93 W can be obtained by conversion when the TWC starts working at steady conditions. Theoretically, this case study demonstrates the great potential for use of CTEGs in vehicles.

  2. Ways to Successful Strategies in Drug Research and Development (by H. H. Sedlacek, A. M. Sapienza, V. Eid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Deanne M.

    1998-10-01

    New York, 1996. 265 pp. ISBN 3-527-29415-5. Ways to Successful Strategies in Drug Research and Development was written as a guide to strategic planning in the pharmaceutical industry. It was designed as an interdisciplinary work combining the expertise of the three authors: a medical doctor, an ethicist, and an expert in the field of organizational behavior. Long-term planning is discussed with respect to project selection, organizational structure, management techniques, and ethical obligations to patients, animals, and the environment. Though some of the chapters in the middle of the book provide specific, useful methods for strategic planning, this information is obscured in a confusing milieu of superficial ethical theory and political commentary. The perspective of the author(s) varies from chapter to chapter, as does the intended audience. All combined, these features make the book difficult to follow.

  3. Smart way out nuclear energy: Prospects for the 21st century. Research report, August 1992-April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    DePerro, P.J.

    1993-04-01

    Nuclear energy can be a premier national industry with a promising future if our government and the public 'wake up now and smell the coffee.' There are a number of key issues requiring action to get commercial nuclear power 'back on track' (waste management, regulatory fixes, public support, safety, plant design standardization, executive leadership and government focus). Each of these issues can be resolved in favor of the industry, if only our nation has the will and common sense to take the 'smart way out.' This research paper discusses the following: Nuclear energy as seen hypothetically from the year 2020, The Stagnant Facts pertaining to commercial nuclear power - power plant construction, demand, safety, waste management, public support. The prospects for our future in Nuclear Energy.

  4. Finding the way: a critical discussion of anthropological theories of human spatial orientation with reference to reindeer herders of northeastern Europe and western Siberia.

    PubMed

    Istomin, Kirill V; Dwyer, Mark J

    2009-02-01

    In anthropology, research on human spatial orientation (wayfinding) has centered on two conflicting theories: the "mental map," whereby humans build abstract cognitive representations of the spatial relations between objects, and "practical mastery," which rejects the idea that such abstract representations exist and, in its most developed form, suggests that wayfinding is a process of moving from one recognized visual perspective (vista) to another (transitions between vistas). In this paper we reveal, on the basis of existing psychology and geography research, that both wayfinding theories are in fact complementary: humans rely on mental maps but also memorize vistas while navigating, and an individual's navigation method, ability, and the form of the mental map is likely to depend on a situation as well as on factors such as age, sex, familiarity with the environment, and life history. We demonstrate (using research material obtained during fieldwork carried out among Komi and Nenets reindeer herders) that anthropology can contribute to human spatial cognitive research, which has traditionally been an interdisciplinary endeavor, by identifying differences in spatial representation between different people and peoples. However, future contributions can be achieved only if anthropologists accept that mental maps and route knowledge (as advocated by practical mastery) are part and parcel of spatial cognition. PMID:19579354

  5. Planning for Employee Onboarding: Finding Ways to Increase New Employee Success and Long-Term Retention. Noel-Levitz White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Jo

    2010-01-01

    Are your new campus employees experiencing and acting positively as they assume their new roles? Do they exhibit excitement and anticipation toward their new jobs? Are they enthusiastic about sharing, learning and contributing? Research shows that investing the extra effort, or "onboarding," to capitalize on the enthusiasm of new hires pays…

  6. Problems Teachers Face When Doing Action Research and Finding Possible Solutions: Three Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Through case studies, this paper explores problems teachers face when doing action research: for instance, teachers may misunderstand the research, mistrust university researchers, lack the time or adequate library resources to conduct research, lack theoretical guidance or knowledge of research methodology, and feel pressure or frustration during…

  7. Research on the effect of noise at different times of day: Models, methods and findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Social surveys of residents' responses to noise at different times of day are reviewed. Some of the discrepancies in published reports about the importance of noise at different times of day are reduced when the research findings are classified according to the type of time of day reaction model, the type of time of day weight calculated and the method which is used to estimate the weight. When the estimates of nighttime weights from 12 studies are normalized, it is found that they still disagree, but do not support stronger nighttime weights than those used in existing noise indices. Challenges to common assumptions in nighttime response models are evaluated. Two of these challenges receive enough support to warrant further investigation: the impact of changes in numbers of noise events may be less at night than in the day and nighttime annoyance may be affected by noise levels in other periods. All existing social survey results in which averages of nighttime responses were plotted by nighttime noise levels are reproduced.

  8. Body image of children and adolescents with cancer: a metasynthesis on qualitative research findings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei-Yin; Mu, Pei-Fan; Tsay, Shwu-Feng; Chou, Shin-Shang; Chen, Yu-Chih; Wong, Tai-Tong

    2012-09-01

    Children and adolescents with cancer are confronted with many challenges. This review considered studies that used qualitative methods to examine the body image experience of children and adolescents with cancer. A systematic literature search of English and Chinese databases was undertaken, covering the period between 1960 and October 2010. Qualitative research findings were extracted and pooled using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Eight papers met the inclusion criteria. The derived four metasyntheses included being distanced from the body, loss of self-identity, self-protective strategies and support, and getting rid of the shackles of the body. In conclusion, children and adolescents with cancer also experience various problems associated with changes in their body image. Repeated courses of treatment lead to loss of a normal, orderly life, and might even result in changes in interpersonal interactions. In response to body image change, individuals with cancer develop self-protective, coping strategies. Children and adolescents who experience life-threatening cancer come to face body image change positively, and might hold a confident attitude toward their future. PMID:22672500

  9. Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science

    PubMed Central

    Damschroder, Laura J; Aron, David C; Keith, Rosalind E; Kirsh, Susan R; Alexander, Jeffery A; Lowery, Julie C

    2009-01-01

    Background Many interventions found to be effective in health services research studies fail to translate into meaningful patient care outcomes across multiple contexts. Health services researchers recognize the need to evaluate not only summative outcomes but also formative outcomes to assess the extent to which implementation is effective in a specific setting, prolongs sustainability, and promotes dissemination into other settings. Many implementation theories have been published to help promote effective implementation. However, they overlap considerably in the constructs included in individual theories, and a comparison of theories reveals that each is missing important constructs included in other theories. In addition, terminology and definitions are not consistent across theories. We describe the Consolidated Framework For Implementation Research (CFIR) that offers an overarching typology to promote implementation theory development and verification about what works where and why across multiple contexts. Methods We used a snowball sampling approach to identify published theories that were evaluated to identify constructs based on strength of conceptual or empirical support for influence on implementation, consistency in definitions, alignment with our own findings, and potential for measurement. We combined constructs across published theories that had different labels but were redundant or overlapping in definition, and we parsed apart constructs that conflated underlying concepts. Results The CFIR is composed of five major domains: intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of the individuals involved, and the process of implementation. Eight constructs were identified related to the intervention (e.g., evidence strength and quality), four constructs were identified related to outer setting (e.g., patient needs and resources), 12 constructs were identified related to inner setting (e.g., culture, leadership engagement

  10. Impact of Problem Finding on the Quality of Authentic Open Inquiry Science Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBanca, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully…

  11. NIH Researchers Find Vitamin D Binding Protein May Help to Assess Vitamin D Deficiency in African and White Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Home NIH researchers find vitamin D binding protein may help to assess vitamin D deficiency in ... Americans November 21, 2013 Measuring vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) may be important for accurately determining vitamin ...

  12. Can I be sued for that? Liability risk and the disclosure of clinically significant genetic research findings

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Amy L.; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Zawati, Ma’n H.; Clayton, Ellen Wright

    2014-01-01

    Genomic researchers increasingly are faced with difficult decisions about whether, under what circumstances, and how to return research results and significant incidental findings to study participants. Many have argued that there is an ethical—maybe even a legal—obligation to disclose significant findings under some circumstances. At the international level, over the last decade there has begun to emerge a clear legal obligation to return significant findings discovered during the course of research. However, there is no explicit legal duty to disclose in the United States. This creates legal uncertainty that may lead to unmanaged variation in practice and poor quality care. This article discusses liability risks associated with the disclosure of significant research findings for investigators in the United States. PMID:24676095

  13. Summaries of Conference Papers, Theme 1, Research Findings. International Conference on Evaluation and Research in Educational Television and Radio (Milton Keynes, England, April 9-13, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Open Univ., Walton, Bletchley, Bucks (England).

    Educational television and radio research and evaluation findings are the subject of 25 papers summarized in this document. Seven papers deal with evaluation of research projects in educational television and radio. Four papers on adult education and two on educational technology in teacher training are also summarized. Research in teaching with…

  14. The Search for Extension: 7 Steps to Help People Find Research-Based Information on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul; Rader, Heidi B.; Hino, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    For Extension's unbiased, research-based content to be found by people searching the Internet, it needs to be organized in a way conducive to the ranking criteria of a search engine. With proper web design and search engine optimization techniques, Extension's content can be found, recognized, and properly indexed by search engines and…

  15. "Finding a way out": Case histories of mental health care-seeking and recovery among long-term internally displaced persons in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Namrita S; Jakhaia, Nino; Amonashvili, Nino; Winch, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    Trajectories of illness and recovery are ongoing and incomplete processes cocreated by individuals, their informal support networks, formal care-givers and treatment contexts, and broader social systems. This analysis presents two case histories of care-seeking for, and recovery from, mental illness and psychosocial problems in the context of protracted internal displacement. These case histories present individuals with experiences of schizophrenia and depression drawn from a sample of adult long-term internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Georgia, a country in the South Caucasus. Dimensions of care-seeking were compiled into a matrix for analysis. Interviews were open coded, and codes were linked with matrix dimensions to construct each case history. Findings illustrated that individuals moved cyclically among self-care, household support, lay care, and formal services domains to understand and manage their problems. Living with mental illness and within displacement are experiences that intersect at various points, including in the recognition and perceived causes of illness, stressors such as discrimination and isolation, the affordability and availability of services, and the capacity of social networks to provide informal care. Interventions are needed to support informal care-givers and build lay referral networks, as well as to identify intervention points within care-seeking processes. Interventions that target the mental health needs of displaced persons have the potential to contribute to the development of an innovative community mental health care system in Georgia. PMID:26698164

  16. Clinical research regulation in India-history, development, initiatives, challenges and controversies: Still long way to go.

    PubMed

    Imran, Mohammed; Najmi, Abul K; Rashid, Mohammad F; Tabrez, Shams; Shah, Mushtaq A

    2013-01-01

    The Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation and its chairman Drug Controller general of India are bequeathed to protect the citizens from the marketing of unsafe medication. The startling findings, of the 59(th)report of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Health and Family Welfare, have uncovered the lax standards followed by the regulatory authorities in India. The growing clinical research after the product patents rights for the pharmaceutical industries as per the trade related aspects of intellectual property rights agreement and adverse drug reaction monitoring of the marketed drugs have raised many ethical and regulatory issues regarding the promotion of new drugs in Indian markets. Many controversial group of medicines; unauthorised and irrational FDCs not relevant to India's medical needs, are available which are not sold in any of the countries with matured regulatory bodies. It becomes vital to understand the history, growth and evolution of the regulatory aspects of drugs which are handled by multiple Ministries and Departments of the Government of India. Although amendment to Schedule Y, registration of Contract Research Organisations, registration of Clinical Trials, Speeding up review process, Pharmacovigilance (PhV) programme for India and Inspection of clinical trial sites have been started by the various regulatory agencies. However due to casual approach in marketing approval for sale of the drugs, the unethical steps taken by some pharmaceutical companies and medical practitioners has reiterated the need to get appropriate understanding of present regulation of drugs and clinical research especially regarding the practical rules and regulations. PMID:23559817

  17. Clinical research regulation in India-history, development, initiatives, challenges and controversies: Still long way to go

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Mohammed; Najmi, Abul K.; Rashid, Mohammad F.; Tabrez, Shams; Shah, Mushtaq A.

    2013-01-01

    The Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation and its chairman Drug Controller general of India are bequeathed to protect the citizens from the marketing of unsafe medication. The startling findings, of the 59threport of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Health and Family Welfare, have uncovered the lax standards followed by the regulatory authorities in India. The growing clinical research after the product patents rights for the pharmaceutical industries as per the trade related aspects of intellectual property rights agreement and adverse drug reaction monitoring of the marketed drugs have raised many ethical and regulatory issues regarding the promotion of new drugs in Indian markets. Many controversial group of medicines; unauthorised and irrational FDCs not relevant to India's medical needs, are available which are not sold in any of the countries with matured regulatory bodies. It becomes vital to understand the history, growth and evolution of the regulatory aspects of drugs which are handled by multiple Ministries and Departments of the Government of India. Although amendment to Schedule Y, registration of Contract Research Organisations, registration of Clinical Trials, Speeding up review process, Pharmacovigilance (PhV) programme for India and Inspection of clinical trial sites have been started by the various regulatory agencies. However due to casual approach in marketing approval for sale of the drugs, the unethical steps taken by some pharmaceutical companies and medical practitioners has reiterated the need to get appropriate understanding of present regulation of drugs and clinical research especially regarding the practical rules and regulations. PMID:23559817

  18. Sometimes Sperm Whales (Physeter macrocephalus) Cannot Find Their Way Back to the High Seas: A Multidisciplinary Study on a Mass Stranding

    PubMed Central

    Mazzariol, Sandro; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Petrella, Antonio; Marsili, Letizia; Fossi, Cristina M.; Leonzio, Claudio; Zizzo, Nicola; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Gaspari, Stefania; Pavan, Gianni; Podestà, Michela; Garibaldi, Fulvio; Ferrante, Margherita; Copat, Chiara; Traversa, Donato; Marcer, Federica; Airoldi, Sabina; Frantzis, Alexandros; De Bernaldo Quirós, Yara; Cozzi, Bruno; Fernández, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass strandings of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) remain peculiar and rather unexplained events, which rarely occur in the Mediterranean Sea. Solar cycles and related changes in the geomagnetic field, variations in water temperature and weather conditions, coast geographical features and human activities have been proposed as possible causes. In December 2009, a pod of seven male sperm whales stranded along the Adriatic coast of Southern Italy. This is the sixth instance from 1555 in this basin. Methodology/Principal Findings Complete necropsies were performed on three whales whose bodies were in good condition, carrying out on sampled tissues histopathology, virology, bacteriology, parasitology, and screening of veins looking for gas emboli. Furthermore, samples for age determination, genetic studies, gastric content evaluation, stable isotopes and toxicology were taken from all the seven specimens. The animals were part of the same group and determined by genetic and photo-identification to be part of the Mediterranean population. Causes of death did not include biological agents, or the “gas and fat embolic syndrome”, associated with direct sonar exposure. Environmental pollutant tissue concentrations were relatively high, in particular organochlorinated xenobiotics. Gastric content and morphologic tissue examinations showed a prolonged starvation, which likely caused, at its turn, the mobilization of lipophilic contaminants from the adipose tissue. Chemical compounds subsequently entered the blood circulation and may have impaired immune and nervous functions. Conclusions/Significance A multi-factorial cause underlying this sperm whales' mass stranding is proposed herein based upon the results of postmortem investigations as well as of the detailed analyses of the geographical and historical background. The seven sperm whales took the same “wrong way” into the Adriatic Sea, a potentially dangerous trap for Mediterranean sperm whales

  19. Physics Education Research in the United States: A Summary of Its Rationale and Main Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales-Espada, Wilson J.

    2003-01-01

    Recognizes how difficult it is for secondary and post-secondary students to make connections between physics and everyday phenomena, rationalize the use of a particular formula for a given problem, and go beyond algebraic substitutions to really make sense of physics in a meaningful way. Provides a rationale for physicists to become involved in…

  20. An Exploratory Study of Process Use: Findings and Implications for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preskill, Hallie; Zuckerman, Barbra; Matthews, Bonya

    2003-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in the notion of process use, that is, in understanding the ways in which individuals learn about the evaluand, evaluation practice, and each other, from their involvement in an evaluation study. As a form of social constructivism, process use is most closely related to participatory and…

  1. Research in Online and Blended Learning in the Business Disciplines: Key Findings and Possible Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbaugh, J. B.; Godfrey, Michael R.; Johnson, Marianne; Pollack, Birgit Leisen; Niendorf, Bruce; Wresch, William

    2009-01-01

    In this literature review, we examine and assess the state of research of online and blended learning in the business disciplines with the intent of assessing the state of the field and identifying opportunities for meaningful future research. We review research from business disciplines such as Accounting, Economics, Finance, Information Systems…

  2. English-Language Teachers' Engagement with Research: Findings from Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwaruddin, Sardar M.; Pervin, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report on a small-scale study in which we investigated English-language teachers' engagement with educational research. We conceptualized engagement with research as reading and systematically using research for professional development. Using questionnaires and in-depth interviews, we gathered empirical materials from 40…

  3. New Findings of Welfare and Children's Development: Summary of a Research Briefing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Deborah, Ed.; Bridgman, Anne, Ed.

    In April 1996 the Board on Children, Youth, and Families and the Family and Child Well-Being Research Network convened their second annual research briefing on welfare and children's development. The briefing was intended to: (1) create a venue for productive exchange between researchers and policy makers; (2) maximize the usefulness of research…

  4. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... research misconduct. 93.410 Section 93.410 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement...

  5. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... research misconduct. 93.410 Section 93.410 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement...

  6. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... research misconduct. 93.410 Section 93.410 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement...

  7. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93.411 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or...

  8. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93.411 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or...

  9. 99 Jumpstarts to Research: Topic Guides for Finding Information on Current Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Peggy; Olson, Catherine; Goodwin, Susan Williams

    This book, created by three reference librarians, teaches the beginning researcher good research habits. It provides names of tools students should consult for a well-rounded, well-researched paper on a controversial issue in the news. Books, specialized databases, online resources, and agencies to contact are all included. Each "jumpstart" has…

  10. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93.411 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or...

  11. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93.411 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or...

  12. New Findings on Children, Families, and Economic Self-Sufficiency: Summary of a Research Briefing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Deborah, Ed.; Bridgman, Anne, Ed.

    This report is a summary of a December, 1994 research briefing presented by the Board on Children and Families of the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine, and the Family and Child Well-Being Research Network of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. This…

  13. Teachers' Approaches to Finding and Using Research Evidence: An Information Literacy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dorothy; Coles, Louisa

    2007-01-01

    Background: The use of research evidence produced by others is seen as central to the reflective practice of school teachers. There have been many recent UK initiatives aimed at improving access to research evidence, but there are still concerns about the lack of engagement by teachers. Previous research has looked at this issue from different…

  14. Teaching, Learning and Assessing HRD: Findings from a BMAF/UFHRD Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambrook, Sally; Stewart, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to analyse and explore the results of a research project, which aimed to identify recent and current research on TLA within HRD programmes. From that base the project also intended to identify areas for future research and a basis for establishing a Special Interest Group. Design/methodology/approach: A comprehensive…

  15. Increasing Capacity for Stewardship of Oceans and Coasts: Findings of the National Research Council Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, S. J.; Feeley, M. H.

    2008-05-01

    With the increasing stress on ocean and coastal resources, ocean resource management will require greater capacity in terms of people, institutions, technology and tools. Successful capacity-building efforts address the needs of a specific locale or region and include plans to maintain and expand capacity after the project ends. In 2008, the US National Research Council published a report that assesses past and current capacity-building efforts to identify barriers to effective management of coastal and marine resources. The report recommends ways that governments and organizations can strengthen marine conservation and management capacity. Capacity building programs instill the tools, knowledge, skills, and attitudes that address: ecosystem function and change; processes of governance that influence societal and ecosystem change; and assembling and managing interdisciplinary teams. Programs require efforts beyond traditional sector-by-sector planning because marine ecosystems range from the open ocean to coastal waters and land use practices. Collaboration among sectors, scaling from local community-based management to international ocean policies, and ranging from inland to offshore areas, will be required to establish coordinated and efficient governance of ocean and coastal ecosystems. Barriers Most capacity building activities have been initiated to address particular issues such as overfishing or coral reef degradation, or they target a particular region or country facing threats to their marine resources. This fragmentation inhibits the sharing of information and experience and makes it more difficult to design and implement management approaches at appropriate scales. Additional barriers that have limited the effectiveness of capacity building programs include: lack of an adequate needs assessment prior to program design and implementation; exclusion of targeted populations in decision- making efforts; mismanagement, corruption, or both; incomplete or

  16. Challenge: Reframing, communicating, and finding relevance. Solution: Teachers on the research team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholow, S.; Warburton, J.

    2013-12-01

    PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is a program in which K-12 teachers spend 2-6 weeks participating in hands-on field research experiences in the polar regions. The goal of PolarTREC is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together. Program data has illuminated a crucial dynamic that increases the potential for a successful climate change science campaign. We contend that the inclusion of a teacher into the field research campaign can tackle challenges such as reframing climate change science to better address the need for a particular campaign, as well as garnering the science project the necessary support through effective, authentic, and tangible communication efforts to policymakers, funders, students, and the public. The program evaluation queried researchers on a.) the teachers' primary roles in the field b.) the impact teachers on the team's field research, and c.) the teachers' role conducting outreach. Additionally, researchers identified the importance of the facilitator, the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS), as an integral component to the challenge of providing a meaningful broader impact statement to the science proposal. Researchers reported the value of explaining their science, in-situ, allowed them to reframe and rework the objectives of the science project to attain meaningful outcomes. More than half of the researchers specifically noted that one of the strengths of the PolarTREC project is its benefit to the scientific process. The researchers also viewed PolarTREC as an essential outreach activity for their research project. Other researchers said that the outreach provided by their teacher also improved the research project's public image and articulated complex ideas to the public at large. This presentation will speak to the practices within the PolarTREC program and how researchers can meet outreach expectations, impact

  17. From Local to EXtreme Environments (FLEXE) Student-Scientist Online Forums: hypothesis-based research examining ways to involve scientists in effective science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.; Carlsen, W.; Fisher, C. R.; Kerlin, S.; Trautmann, N.; Petersen, W.

    2011-12-01

    Science education reform since the mid-1990's has called for a "new way of teaching and learning about science that reflects how science itself is done, emphasizing inquiry as a way of achieving knowledge and understanding about the world" (NRC, 1996). Scientists and engineers, experts in inquiry thinking, have been called to help model these practices for students and demonstrate scientific habits of mind. The question, however, is "how best to involve these experts?" given the very real challenges of limited availability of scientists, varying experience with effective pedagogy, widespread geographic distribution of schools, and the sheer number of students involved. Technology offers partial solutions to enable Student-Scientist Interactions (SSI). The FLEXE Project has developed online FLEXE Forums to support efficient, effective SSIs, making use of web-based and database technology to facilitate communication between students and scientists. More importantly, the FLEXE project has approached this question of "how best to do this?" scientifically, combining program evaluation with hypothesis-based research explicitly testing the effects of such SSIs on student learning and attitudes towards science. FLEXE Forums are designed to showcase scientific practices and habits of mind through facilitated interaction between students and scientists. Through these Forums, students "meet" working scientists and learn about their research and the environments in which they work. Scientists provide students with intriguing "real-life" datasets and challenge students to analyze and interpret the data through guiding questions. Students submit their analyses to the Forum, and scientists provide feedback and connect the instructional activity with real-life practice, showcasing their activities in the field. In the FLEXE project, Forums are embedded within inquiry-based instructional units focused on essential learning concepts, and feature the deep-sea environment in contrast

  18. Culturally competent research with American Indians and Alaska Natives: findings and recommendations of the first symposium of the work group on American Indian Research and Program Evaluation Methodology.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Joyce Y; Davis, Jamie D; Du Bois, Barbara; Echo-Hawk, Holly; Erickson, Jill Shephard; Goins, R Turner; Hill, Calvin; Hillabrant, Walter; Johnson, Sharon R; Johnson, Sharon R; Kendall, Elizabeth; Keemer, Kelly; Manson, Spero M; Marshall, Catherine A; Running Wolf, Paulette; Santiago, Rolando L; Schacht, Robert; Stone, Joseph B

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the collective experience of a multidisciplinary network of researchers, practitioners, and program evaluators who support appropriate research and evaluation methods in working with Native peoples. Our experience underlines the critical importance of culture in understanding and conducting research with the diverse populations of American Indians and Alaska Natives, and documents the need for community-based, collaborative, participatory action research. We discuss the major findings of the first American Indian Research and Program Evaluation Methodology national symposium, and articulate a set of 20 guiding principles for conducting research and program evaluation. PMID:17602391

  19. NIH Researchers Find Resveratrol Helps Protect against Cardiovascular Disease in Animal Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... find Resveratrol helps protect against cardiovascular disease in animal study June 3, 2014 Resveratrol, a compound found ... translatable to humans. Multiple studies on resveratrol in animal models, however, have presented ample evidence to support ...

  20. Finding audiences, changing beliefs: the structure of research use in Canadian health policy.

    PubMed

    Lomas, J

    1990-01-01

    The impact of research information depends on its ability to change beliefs or policy assumptions within the relevant audiences. As a hybrid of American and British systems, Canada's chosen decision-making structure for policy-making and its legislative framework for health insurance make these audiences unclear and not readily accessible. This factor and historical characteristics of the research community which made them only partially responsive to the values of decisionmakers provide an explanation for the limited past use of research information in Canadian health policy. More recently, improved responsiveness by researchers and an emerging definition of the audiences by legislative policymakers are bringing about a gradual increase in the potential impact of research at the levels of administrative and clinical policy. Because of continuing decision-making constraints on legislative policy, however, impact at this level is predicted to remain diffuse, with only cautious acceptance of the changes in beliefs implied by research. PMID:2273216

  1. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  2. The crystalline revolution :ISO's finding opens a new research field, "astro-mineralogy"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    Silicate minerals were known to be a main component of dust in space, but detecting them in a crystallised state has been a surprise. It allows the identification of precise silicates in astronomical objects, which will open "a totally new field in astronomy: astro-mineralogy. This is the crystalline revolution", said the author, Dutch astronomer Rens Waters of Amsterdam university. "It's really fantastic, this possibility of identifying the silicates. Before ISO everybody thought that all silicates in space were amorphous, without a well-ordered internal structure; that means you cannot differentiate among the many different silicates existing. Now we can try to identify them and track their presence in different regions. A whole new research field is starting", said Rens Waters, who brought to the press conference samples of several terrestrial crystalline silicates: olivine and pyroxene, the most common silicates on Earth. Crystals give key clues about the physical conditions and evolutionary history of crystal-bearing objects. The precise mechanisms for crystal-making are now being researched now very actively in the laboratories, although some working-hypotheses are already being used. For instance, crystals can be made by heating the material to temperatures above 1 300 degrees Centigrade and then cooling it down slowly. Those found so far by ISO are at -170 degrees Centigrade, both in stellar envelopes and in protoplanetary discs. In the case of the old stars -red giant stars, where crystals are found to account for as much as 20% of all the surrounding dust, astronomers think that that the high temperatures near the star triggered the crystallisation of the silicates. In the protoplanetary discs some experts postulate that electric shocks - like lightning flashes - heated the dust, which cooled afterwards. "The crystals detected by ISO in these discs have a size of about a thousandth of a millimetre. They collide with each other, forming bigger and bigger

  3. Biomedical and Behavioral Research Scientists: Their Training and Supply. Volume 1: Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel.

    This is the first of three volumes which presents the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel's examination of the educational process that leads to doctoral degrees in biomedical and behavioral science (and to postdoctoral study in some cases) and the role of the National Research Service Awards (NRSA) training programs in it.…

  4. Moving beyond Citation Analysis: How Surveys and Interviews Enhance, Enrich, and Expand Your Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deVries, Susann; Kelly, Robert; Storm, Paula M.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional mixed methods research model of citation analysis, a survey, and interviews was selected to determine if the Bruce T. Halle Library at Eastern Michigan University owned the content that faculty cited in their research, if the collection was being utilized, and what library services the faculty used. The combination of objective data…

  5. Classroom Teaching Skills. The Research Findings of the Teacher Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wragg, E. C., Ed.

    This book describes some of the research undertaken during the Teacher Education Project, a four and one-half year research and development project undertaken by the Universities of Nottingham, Leicester, and Exeter (Great Britain) and funded by the Department of Education and Science. This project involved observation of over 1,000 lessons and…

  6. PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM THE NERL RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently conducting the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study. This study represents a one year investigation of PM and related co-pollutants involving two dist...

  7. Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

  8. What They Take with Them: Findings from the Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Bradley; Gillespie, Paula; Kail, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Through the Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project (PWTARP), the authors have set out to explore and document what peer tutors take with them from their training and experience. The Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project has made it possible for the authors to sample and analyze more systematically the reflections of 126 former tutors from…

  9. Evaluation of the NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers: Descriptive and Correlative Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Engineering.

    This report presents results of a survey of participants in the National Science Foundation (NSF) Industry-University Cooperative Research Centers program. The program promotes more rapid technological innovation by creating linkages between industry and university scientists. The Centers function as university research groups, with partial…

  10. panMetaDocs and DataSync - providing a convenient way to share and publish research data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbricht, D.; Klump, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years research institutions, geological surveys and funding organizations started to build infrastructures to facilitate the re-use of research data from previous work. At present, several intermeshed activities are coordinated to make data systems of the earth sciences interoperable and recorded data discoverable. Driven by governmental authorities, ISO19115/19139 emerged as metadata standards for discovery of data and services. Established metadata transport protocols like OAI-PMH and OGC-CSW are used to disseminate metadata to data portals. With the persistent identifiers like DOI and IGSN research data and corresponding physical samples can be given unambiguous names and thus become citable. In summary, these activities focus primarily on 'ready to give away'-data, already stored in an institutional repository and described with appropriate metadata. Many datasets are not 'born' in this state but are produced in small and federated research projects. To make access and reuse of these 'small data' easier, these data should be centrally stored and version controlled from the very beginning of activities. We developed DataSync [1] as supplemental application to the panMetaDocs [2] data exchange platform as a data management tool for small science projects. DataSync is a JAVA-application that runs on a local computer and synchronizes directory trees into an eSciDoc-repository [3] by creating eSciDoc-objects via eSciDocs' REST API. DataSync can be installed on multiple computers and is in this way able to synchronize files of a research team over the internet. XML Metadata can be added as separate files that are managed together with data files as versioned eSciDoc-objects. A project-customized instance of panMetaDocs is provided to show a web-based overview of the previously uploaded file collection and to allow further annotation with metadata inside the eSciDoc-repository. PanMetaDocs is a PHP based web application to assist the creation of metadata in

  11. A quantitative way to estimate clinical off-target effects for human membrane brain targets in CNS research and development

    PubMed Central

    Spiros, Athan; Geerts, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Although many preclinical programs in central nervous system research and development intend to develop highly selective and potent molecules directed at the primary target, they often act upon other off-target receptors. The simple rule of taking the ratios of affinities for the candidate drug at the different receptors is flawed since the affinity of the endogenous ligand for that off-target receptor or drug exposure is not taken into account. We have developed a mathematical receptor competition model that takes into account the competition between active drug moiety and the endogenous neurotransmitter to better assess the off-target effects on postsynaptic receptor activation under the correct target exposure conditions. As an example, we investigate the possible functional effects of the weak off-target effects for dopamine-1 receptor (D1R) in a computer simulation of a dopaminergic cortical synapse that is calibrated using published fast-cyclic rodent voltammetry and human imaging data in subjects with different catechol-O-methyltransferase genotypes. We identify the conditions under which off-target effects at the D1R can lead to clinically detectable consequences on cognitive tests, such as the N-back working memory test. We also demonstrate that certain concentrations of dimebolin (Dimebon), a recently tested Alzheimer drug, can affect D1R activation resulting in clinically detectable cognitive decrease. This approach can be extended to other receptor systems and can improve the selection of clinical candidate compounds by potentially dialing-out harmful off-target effects or dialing-in beneficial off-target effects in a quantitative and controlled way.

  12. Alcohol Use Disorders, Research Findings | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... rethinkingdrinking.niaaa.nih.gov/default.asp Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders web page www.niaaa.nih.gov/research/major-initiatives/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders . Spectrum e-zine story: Underage drinking: One ...

  13. The European antibody network's practical guide to finding and validating suitable antibodies for research

    PubMed Central

    Roncador, Giovanna; Engel, Pablo; Maestre, Lorena; Anderson, Amanda P.; Cordell, Jacqueline L.; Cragg, Mark S.; Šerbec, Vladka Č.; Jones, Margaret; Lisnic, Vanda J.; Kremer, Leonor; Li, Demin; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Pascual, Núria; Rodríguez-Barbosa, Jose-Ignacio; Torensma, Ruurd; Turley, Helen; Pulford, Karen; Banham, Alison H.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies are widely exploited as research/diagnostic tools and therapeutics. Despite providing exciting research opportunities, the multitude of available antibodies also offers a bewildering array of choice. Importantly, not all companies comply with the highest standards, and thus many reagents fail basic validation tests. The responsibility for antibodies being fit for purpose rests, surprisingly, with their user. This paper condenses the extensive experience of the European Monoclonal Antibody Network to help researchers identify antibodies specific for their target antigen. A stepwise strategy is provided for prioritising antibodies and making informed decisions regarding further essential validation requirements. Web-based antibody validation guides provide practical approaches for testing antibody activity and specificity. We aim to enable researchers with little or no prior experience of antibody characterization to understand how to determine the suitability of their antibody for its intended purpose, enabling both time and cost effective generation of high quality antibody-based data fit for publication. PMID:26418356

  14. PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) has completed its first monitoring season (summer 2005) and is progressing toward initiation of its second season (February 2005). The assistance obtained from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality has been instr...

  15. Alcohol Use Disorders, Research Findings | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... booklet www.rethinkingdrinking.niaaa.nih.gov/default.asp Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders web page www.niaaa.nih.gov/research/major-initiatives/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders . Spectrum e-zine story: Underage drinking: One step ...

  16. Nanotechnology finding its way into flame retardancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartel, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21st century. The exploitation of "new" effects that arise from materials structured on the nano-scale has also been proposed successfully for flame retardancy of polymers since the end of the 90s. Of all of the approaches these include, at this time the use of nanocomposites offers the best potential for industrial application, also some other ideas are sketched, such as using electrospun nanofibers mats or layer-by-layer deposits as protection coatings, as well as sub-micrometer multilayer coatings as effective IR-mirrors. The general phenomena, inducing a flow limit in the pyrolysing melt and changing the fire residue, are identified in nanocomposites. Key experiments are performed such as quasi online investigation of the protection layer formation to understand what is going on in detail. The flame retardancy mechanisms are discussed and their impact on fire behaviour quantified. With the latter, the presentation pushes forward the state of the art. For instance, the heat shielding is experimentally quantified for a layered silicate epoxy resin nanocomposite proving that it is the only import mechanism controlling the reduction in peak heat release rate in the investigated system for different irradiations. The flame retardancy performance is assessed comprehensively illuminating not only the strengths but also the weak points of the concepts. Guidelines for materials development are deduced and discussed. Apart from inorganic fillers (layered silicate, boehmite, etc.) not only carbon nanoobjects such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, multilayer graphene and graphene are investigated, but also nanoparticles that are more reactive and harbor the potential for more beneficial interactions with the polymer matrix.

  17. Finding Your Way with Map and Compass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    A topographic map tells you where things are and how to get to them, whether you're hiking, biking, hunting, fishing, or just interested in the world around you. These maps describe the shape of the land. They define and locate natural and manmade features like woodlands, waterways, important buildings, and bridges. They show the distance between any two places, and they also show the direction from one point to another. Distances and directions take a bit of figuring, but the topography and features of the land are easy to determine. The topography is shown by contours. These are imaginary lines that follow the ground surface at a constant elevation; they are usually printed in brown, in two thicknesses. The heavier lines are called index contours, and they are usually marked with numbers that give the height in feet or meters. The contour interval, a set difference in elevation between the brown lines, varies from map to map; its value is given in the margin of each map. Contour lines that are close together represent steep slopes. Natural and manmade features are represented by colored areas and by a set of standard symbols on all U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps. Woodlands, for instance, are shown in a green tint; waterways, in blue. Buildings may be shown on the map as black squares or outlines. Recent changes in an area may be shown by a purple overprint. A road may be printed in red or black solid or dashed lines, depending on its size and surface. A list of symbols is available from the Earth Science Information Center (ESIC).

  18. Finding Our Way in the Dark Proteome.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Asmit; Brookes, David H; Yost, Shane R; Dyson, H Jane; Forman-Kay, Julie D; Gunter, Daniel; Head-Gordon, Martin; Hura, Gregory L; Pande, Vijay S; Wemmer, David E; Wright, Peter E; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2016-08-10

    The traditional structure-function paradigm has provided significant insights for well-folded proteins in which structures can be easily and rapidly revealed by X-ray crystallography beamlines. However, approximately one-third of the human proteome is comprised of intrinsically disordered proteins and regions (IDPs/IDRs) that do not adopt a dominant well-folded structure, and therefore remain "unseen" by traditional structural biology methods. This Perspective considers the challenges raised by the "Dark Proteome", in which determining the diverse conformational substates of IDPs in their free states, in encounter complexes of bound states, and in complexes retaining significant disorder requires an unprecedented level of integration of multiple and complementary solution-based experiments that are analyzed with state-of-the art molecular simulation, Bayesian probabilistic models, and high-throughput computation. We envision how these diverse experimental and computational tools can work together through formation of a "computational beamline" that will allow key functional features to be identified in IDP structural ensembles. PMID:27387657

  19. Nanotechnology finding its way into flame retardancy

    SciTech Connect

    Schartel, Bernhard

    2014-05-15

    Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21{sup st} century. The exploitation of 'new' effects that arise from materials structured on the nano-scale has also been proposed successfully for flame retardancy of polymers since the end of the 90s. Of all of the approaches these include, at this time the use of nanocomposites offers the best potential for industrial application, also some other ideas are sketched, such as using electrospun nanofibers mats or layer-by-layer deposits as protection coatings, as well as sub-micrometer multilayer coatings as effective IR-mirrors. The general phenomena, inducing a flow limit in the pyrolysing melt and changing the fire residue, are identified in nanocomposites. Key experiments are performed such as quasi online investigation of the protection layer formation to understand what is going on in detail. The flame retardancy mechanisms are discussed and their impact on fire behaviour quantified. With the latter, the presentation pushes forward the state of the art. For instance, the heat shielding is experimentally quantified for a layered silicate epoxy resin nanocomposite proving that it is the only import mechanism controlling the reduction in peak heat release rate in the investigated system for different irradiations. The flame retardancy performance is assessed comprehensively illuminating not only the strengths but also the weak points of the concepts. Guidelines for materials development are deduced and discussed. Apart from inorganic fillers (layered silicate, boehmite, etc.) not only carbon nanoobjects such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, multilayer graphene and graphene are investigated, but also nanoparticles that are more reactive and harbor the potential for more beneficial interactions with the polymer matrix.

  20. Finding New Ways To Finance Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wugalter, Harry

    This paper discusses alternative methods for financing education including sales and compensating taxes, mineral leasing, and land income. The author discusses the problem of local control under a full State funding system. He warns that merely allocating money to school districts on an equal basis will fail to accomplish equal education unless…

  1. Finding the Way with a Noisy Brain

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Allen; Vickerstaff, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Successful navigation is fundamental to the survival of nearly every animal on earth, and achieved by nervous systems of vastly different sizes and characteristics. Yet surprisingly little is known of the detailed neural circuitry from any species which can accurately represent space for navigation. Path integration is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous navigation strategies in the animal kingdom. Despite a plethora of computational models, from equational to neural network form, there is currently no consensus, even in principle, of how this important phenomenon occurs neurally. Recently, all path integration models were examined according to a novel, unifying classification system. Here we combine this theoretical framework with recent insights from directed walk theory, and develop an intuitive yet mathematically rigorous proof that only one class of neural representation of space can tolerate noise during path integration. This result suggests many existing models of path integration are not biologically plausible due to their intolerance to noise. This surprising result imposes significant computational limitations on the neurobiological spatial representation of all successfully navigating animals, irrespective of species. Indeed, noise-tolerance may be an important functional constraint on the evolution of neuroarchitectural plans in the animal kingdom. PMID:21085678

  2. How Betta splendens finds its way.

    PubMed

    Luchiari, Ana C

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens performance in associating a stimulus with a specific cue when distractors are present. After trained to associate a specific color cue to a stimulus (conspecific) in a tank containing three colored distractors, the fish was challenged to locate the exact place where the stimulus fish was presented. With only color cues as guides, the Siamese fighting fish spent most of its time close to the color where the stimulus fish was previously presented, regardless of the distractors. However, fish trained to associate an empty place (no cues) to a stimulus fish, and then tested to localize the specific zone where the stimulus was shown, succeeded to locate the place even without any obvious cues/distractors for orientation. This study confirms that Siamese fighting fish show good conditioned learning and cannot be distracted by other stimuli. In addition, an unexpected good performance in the absence of cues may suggest the Betta's ability to orientate by using another sensorial modalities, as magnetic orientation. Collectively, the results of this study confirm Betta as a valid and reliable model for learning and memory tests, and suggest more studies should be developed for the better understanding of the fish's spatial orientation mechanisms. PMID:26655891

  3. Finding the Way for Getting to Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Faced with child obesity rates that have reached record highs, schools across America will soon go on a fitness plan prescribed by Congress. The wellness mandate requires districts that participate in the federal school lunch program to have a policy in place by the start of the 2006-2007 school year. The law is not nearly as far-reaching as the…

  4. Research-informed evidence and support for road safety legislation: findings from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine Clegg; Debinski, Beata; Pollack, Keshia; Vernick, Jon; Bowman, Stephen; Samuels, Alicia; Gielen, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Public opinion is influential in the policymaking process, making it important to understand the factors that influence popular support or opposition to public health policies. Researchers and policymakers tend to agree that scientific evidence can inform decision-making, but this influence has not been explored sufficiently, especially in the area of injury prevention. This paper considers the potential for the communication of evidence-based research and public health data to influence opinion about legislation that could reduce road-related injury. We conducted a nationally-representative online survey to assess public attitudes toward four road-safety laws; ignition interlock, school zone red-light cameras, restrictions on infotainment systems, and children's bicycle helmets. For each law, we assessed initial support and then provided a research-informed statistic on either the injury risk posed or the law's efficacy reducing risk and re-examined the law's support or opposition. The survey was completed by 2397 U.S. adults. Each law was initially supported by a majority of respondents, with greatest support for ignition interlock (74.4%) and children's bicycle helmets (74.8%). Exposure to research-informed statements increased legislative support for 20-30% of respondents. Paired analyses demonstrate significant increases toward supportive opinions when comparing responses to the initial and research-informed statements. The study demonstrates considerable public support for evidence-based road-related laws. Overall support was augmented by exposure to research data. Injury prevention practitioners can capitalize on this support in efforts to build support for legislation that would prevent injury. Researchers should be encouraged to expand their efforts to share research results with both the public and policymakers. PMID:25215926

  5. The barriers to the application of the research findings from the nurses’ perspective: A case study in a teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Mahaki, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The application of the nursing research findings is one of the most important indicators of development in the nursing profession, which leads to providing efficient and effective patient care and improving the quality of nursing care. According the result of some studies, transferring the evidence-based findings to the nurses’ practice and education in the world has been slow and sometimes unsuccessful. This study aimed to investigate the most important barriers to the application of research findings from the nurses’ perspective. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted on a sample of 210 nurses in a teaching hospital in Tehran in 2013. The data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire consisted of two parts, including items about nurses’ demographic characteristics and 30 items to identify the most important barriers to the application of research findings from the studied nurses’ perspective. Results: “The lack of sufficient time for reading the studies,” “the lack of sufficient time to implement the new ideas,” “the lack of adequate facilities to implement the ideas,” “nurses’ little interest in conducting studies,” and “the lack of authority to change the methods and patterns of care” with, respectively, 85%, 84.6%, 83.8%, 83.4%, and 80.5% agreement with the existence of barriers were the most barriers to application of research findings from the studied nurses’ perspective. Conclusion: The lack of time was the most important barrier to the use of research findings from the perspective of studied nurses. Therefore, some effective strategies should be used by hospital managers and health policy makers to overcome this barrier. Some of these strategies can be employing new personnel and hiring skilled and efficient human resources in order to decrease the workload of nurses, organizing the nurses’ work shifts, providing right balance between patients and nurses in the wards, etc. PMID

  6. Evaluation of the Child Development Project: Research Design, Procedures, and Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Daniel; And Others

    Findings of an evaluation of the first 5 years of a longitudinal program designed to enhance children's prosocial development are reported. The program was offered for children in three elmentary schools in a suburban, middle-class district near San Francisco. Three schools in the same district served as a comparison group. Enrollment ranged from…

  7. Communicating Comparative Findings from Meta-Analysis in Educational Research: Some Examples and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Steve; Katsipataki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews some of the strengths and limitations of the comparative use of meta-analysis findings, using examples from the Sutton Trust-Education Endowment Foundation Teaching and Learning "Toolkit" which summarizes a range of educational approaches to improve pupil attainment in schools. This comparative use of quantitative…

  8. Transforming Public Schools: A Synthesis of Research Findings from UCLA's Center X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quartz, Karen Hunter; Priselac, Jody; Franke, Megan Loef

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how one university-based center, UCLA's Center X, has worked to prepare and sustain urban educators over the past 16 years. Synthesizing findings from more than 20 articles, papers, books, and dissertations that report on Center X's work, we argue that three key activities are necessary to spur change and ensure a…

  9. Conclusions: Overview of Findings from the ERA Study, Inferences, and Research Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.

    2010-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors have brought the findings of the English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) study up to age 15 years and, in so doing, have focused especially on the question of whether there are deprivation-specific psychological patterns (DSPs) that differ meaningfully from other forms of psychopathology. For this purpose, their main…

  10. TRADEC II. An Evaluation of Trades Education Schemes. II. Research Findings. A Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen; Brown, Alan

    This report presents findings of an evaluation of the Trades Education (TRADEC) schemes to report on the approach's distinctive features and to assess its effectiveness and potential to meet the needs of the populations it serves. Chapter 1 describes the origins and key features of TRADEC courses; succeeding chapters examine how they were…

  11. Preliminary Findings of Learning Gains for Adult Learners with Developmental Disabilities. Research Brief No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Virginia; Jacobsen, Jared

    2007-01-01

    Public perception of adults with developmental disabilities realizing learning gains often remains illusive. This paper highlights key findings in achievement in basic skills for adults with mental retardation on a functional assessment in a life skills context for three program years (2003-2006). In this study the time period between the pre- and…

  12. World Bank: harnessing civil society expertise in undertaking and disseminating research findings.

    PubMed

    Simms, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development was an essential partner to the evaluation leaders in harnessing the contribution and expertise of civil society. This article describes what the partnership entailed, the additional value it brought and how civil society might use the evaluation findings both as a tool for advocacy and a means for improving its own engagement with the individuals directly affected by HIV and with those who care for them. PMID:23745623

  13. Steps to strengthen ethics in organizations: research findings, ethics placebos, and what works.

    PubMed

    Pope, Kenneth S

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that many organizations overlook needs and opportunities to strengthen ethics. Barriers can make it hard to see the need for stronger ethics and even harder to take effective action. These barriers include the organization's misleading use of language, misuse of an ethics code, culture of silence, strategies of justification, institutional betrayal, and ethical fallacies. Ethics placebos tend to take the place of steps to see, solve, and prevent problems. This article reviews relevant research and specific steps that create change. PMID:25602131

  14. Steps to Strengthen Ethics in Organizations: Research Findings, Ethics Placebos, and What Works

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that many organizations overlook needs and opportunities to strengthen ethics. Barriers can make it hard to see the need for stronger ethics and even harder to take effective action. These barriers include the organization’s misleading use of language, misuse of an ethics code, culture of silence, strategies of justification, institutional betrayal, and ethical fallacies. Ethics placebos tend to take the place of steps to see, solve, and prevent problems. This article reviews relevant research and specific steps that create change. PMID:25602131

  15. Finding the right research question: quality science depends on quality careers.

    PubMed

    Flockhart, D A; Abernethy, D R

    2008-09-01

    When making the transition from trainee to principal investigator, there are few steps more important than selecting the first independent research project. The project must synthesize the excitement and idealism of contributing to the well-being of humankind and the practical realities of an area of inquiry that is likely to lead to a successful career. PMID:18615005

  16. Census of Institutional Repositories in the United States: MIRACLE Project Research Findings. CLIR Publication No. 140

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, Karen; Rieh, Soo Young; St. Jean, Beth; Kim, Jihyun; Yakel, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    In this report, the authors describe results of a nationwide census of institutional repositories in U.S. academic institutions. The census is one of several activities of the MIRACLE Project, an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)-funded research program based at the University of Michigan. The acronym MIRACLE means "Making…

  17. Self-Regulation Advantage for High-IQ Children: Findings from a Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calero, Maria Dolores; Garcia-Martin, Maria Belen; Jimenez, Maria Isabel; Kazen, Miguel; Araque, Arsenio

    2007-01-01

    Current approaches in intelligence research indicate the need for a more extensive determination of characteristics of children with possible giftedness, not only at an intellectual level, but also at the level of self-regulation and motivation. The present study compares self-regulation efficiency between high-IQ and average-ability children aged…

  18. An Attachment Perspective on the Child--Dog Bond: Interdisciplinary and International Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the process of attachment formation in young children has been a focal point in child development research for decades. However, young children's attachments are not only with human beings; they also form bonds with companion animals, particularly dogs ("Canis familiaris"). Given the number of dogs that are kept by families…

  19. Language of Instruction in Tanzania: Why Are Research Findings Not Heeded?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qorro, Martha A. S.

    2013-01-01

    The issue of language of instruction (LOI) and its effects on education in Tanzanian secondary education has been widely researched since the early 1980s. In 2009, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training proposed a new education and training policy that allows English to be used as LOI from nursery school to tertiary education. The…

  20. Teachers' Commitment To, and Experiences of, the Teaching Profession in Tanzania: Findings of Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…

  1. Resources. Some Findings and Conjectures from Recent Research into Resource Development and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The triannual newsletter, "Resources", published by Resources for the Future (RfF) typically contains excerpts from recent research in the area of natural resource development, conservation, and use. Announcements are also made of recent publications by RfF. Those interested in receiving the newsletter regularly should request that their name be…

  2. The Importance of Bonding to School for Healthy Development: Findings from the Social Development Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Richard F.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Fleming, Charles B.; Hawkins, J. David

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes investigations of school connectedness completed by the Social Development Research Group in two longitudinal studies, the Seattle Social Development Project and Raising Healthy Children. The theoretical importance of school connectedness, empirical support for the theoretical propositions of the impact of school…

  3. California Teacher Preparation for Instruction in Critical Thinking: Research Findings and Policy Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Richard W.; Elder, Linda; Bartell, Ted

    This report examines a study on the extent to which California's teacher preparation programs were preparing candidates for teaching critical thinking and problem-solving skills in elementary and secondary schools. Researchers conducted interviews with education and subject matter faculty in private and public colleges and universities. Results…

  4. Increasing the Uptake of Peer Feedback in Primary School Writing: Findings from an Action Research Enquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Stuart Ian

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on how an action research strategy was used to increase children's uptake of feedback during peer assessment in primary school writing. Several different strategies were used in the study that had been successful in increasing students' uptake of peer feedback in contexts such as higher education. In order to evaluate how…

  5. Domestic Violence Between Same-Gender Partners: Recent Findings and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClennen, Joan C.

    2005-01-01

    Empirical literature about same-gender domestic violence was relatively nonexistent until the past 20 years, and conducting research with this population about a sensitive topic remains a daunting endeavor. Existing studies reveal similarities between opposite- and same-gender domestic violence in prevalence, types of abuse, and various dynamics,…

  6. Key Events and Lessons for Managers in a Diverse Workforce: A Report on Research and Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Christina A.

    The research documented in this report builds on earlier work in the 1980s in the area of on-the-job experiences in developing effective leaders. The current study was designed to answer the following: (1) What are the significant events from which African American managers learn and develop? (2) Are the key events and lessons learned different…

  7. Better Together: Research Findings on the Relationship between Racial Justice Organizations and LGBT Communities. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Rinku; Wessler, Seth; Apollon, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    In partnership with the Arcus Foundation, the Applied Research Center (ARC) has undertaken a study of the relationship between racial justice organizations and lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) constituencies and issues, with the understanding that communities of color themselves, including their LGBT members, have a good deal at stake in…

  8. Theory into Practice--The Translation of Research Findings into the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Eileen

    This paper discusses a research project that investigated the effectiveness of student surveys administered to eighth grade students on student involvement and learning. The surveys are called "Thinking About" and are presented at the beginning of each chapter in Core Science Textbooks. Two exercises were chosen for the study--chemical or physical…

  9. A Visitor's Guide to Effect Sizes--Statistical Significance versus Practical (Clinical) Importance of Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Xu, Gang

    2004-01-01

    Effect Sizes (ES) are an increasingly important index used to quantify the degree of practical significance of study results. This paper gives an introduction to the computation and interpretation of effect sizes from the perspective of the consumer of the research literature. The key points made are: (1) "ES" is a useful indicator of the…

  10. The Adult Student. Research Findings from the Wisconsin Assessment Center. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Green Bay. Assessment Center.

    Since 1980, 10 separate studies were conducted to investigate issues related to adult students at the University of Wisconsin (UW). The first of these research efforts was a cohort study that revealed more similarities than differences among the adult students enrolled at UW and their nonenrolled cohorts. Based on a study entitled the Trigger…

  11. Reporting and Interpreting Quantitative Research Findings: What Gets Reported and Recommendations for the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson-Hall, Jenifer; Plonsky, Luke

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a set of guidelines for reporting on five types of quantitative data issues: (1) Descriptive statistics, (2) Effect sizes and confidence intervals, (3) Instrument reliability, (4) Visual displays of data, and (5) Raw data. Our recommendations are derived mainly from various professional sources related to L2 research but…

  12. Social and Emotional Distress among American Indian and Alaska Native Students: Research Findings. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ardy SixKiller

    Many American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are repeatedly exposed to opportunities to participate in self-destructive and illegal behaviors. This digest examines risk factors associated with four contexts: peers, family, school, and community. Recent research has shown that, relative to national averages, AI/AN youth have higher rates of…

  13. The Challenge of Finding Faculty Time for Applied Research Activities in Ontario Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkrantz, Otte

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how the role of Ontario college faculty has evolved since the advent of the Post-Secondary Education Choice and Excellence Act of 2000 and the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology Act of 2002 in terms of whether or not the decision to create a research culture at the colleges included making time…

  14. Designing for Dissemination Among Public Health Researchers: Findings From a National Survey in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Julie A.; Tabak, Rachel G.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We have described the practice of designing for dissemination among researchers in the United States with the intent of identifying gaps and areas for improvement. Methods. In 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 266 researchers using a search of the top 12 public health journals in PubMed and lists available from government-sponsored research. The sample involved scientists at universities, the National Institutes of Health, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States. Results. In the pooled sample, 73% of respondents estimated they spent less than 10% of their time on dissemination. About half of respondents (53%) had a person or team in their unit dedicated to dissemination. Seventeen percent of all respondents used a framework or theory to plan their dissemination activities. One third of respondents (34%) always or usually involved stakeholders in the research process. Conclusions. The current data and the existing literature suggest considerable room for improvement in designing for dissemination. PMID:23865659

  15. Socioeconomic Status and the Undergraduate Engineering Experience: Preliminary Findings from Four American Universities. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Krista; Lichtenstein, Gary; Sheppard, Sheri

    2008-01-01

    Students of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be underrepresented in American higher education, particularly at four-year institutions and more selective universities. Education researchers have shown that in the four year period following high school, low SES students are less likely to persist to a bachelor's degree or have graduate…

  16. Fostering Change from Without: A Practical Perspective. Getting Innovative Practices Into Schools: Related Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandall, David P.; Harris, Richard C.

    Attempts to answer the question "What does research say about getting innovations into schools?" are based on the experiences of a nonprofit organization that has been engaged in staff development efforts to bring about change in schools. The paper presents a general description of the organization's operation; its relationship to other change…

  17. Finding Voice through Teacher-Student Collaboration in a Feminist Research Project: Long-Term Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fey, Marion Harris

    In a feminist classroom an instructor who acts as an "interested party" rather than an authority, fosters an environment of care and connection which can result in life-changing discoveries for the participants. Drawing on David Bleich's conception of a "socially generous research" that removes hierarchical barriers between teacher and student, a…

  18. What Teacher Characteristics Affect Student Achievement? Findings from Los Angeles Public Schools. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Teacher effectiveness is typically measured by traditional teacher qualification standards, such as experience, education, and scores on licensure examinations. RAND researchers found no evidence that these standards have a substantial effect on student achievement in Los Angeles public elementary, middle, and high schools. Alternative measures of…

  19. The Meaning of Work among Chinese University Students: Findings from Prototype Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Sili; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xu

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Chinese university students' conceptualization of the meaning of work. One hundred and ninety students (93 male, 97 female) from Beijing, China, participated in the study. Prototype research methodology (J. Li, 2001) was used to explore the meaning of work and the associations among the identified meanings. Cluster analysis was…

  20. The ABCs of Keeping on Track to Graduation: Research Findings from Baltimore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Messel, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This study of graduation outcomes in Baltimore uses multivariate analysis of longitudinal student cohort data to examine the impact of factors identified in previous research as early warning indicators of a dropout outcome. Student cohort files were constructed from longitudinal administrative data (following all first-time 2004-2005 and…