Science.gov

Sample records for researchers upend modern

  1. Research Explains Modern Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eickhorst, William S.

    1985-01-01

    This tongue-in-cheek article calls for the critical reexamination of the history of modern art. The author believes that modern art is neither an extension of the Renaissance aesthetic nor a collective by-product of artists possessed of creative genius. Creators of modern art were actually representational artists suffering from visual stuttering.…

  2. Modernizing Academic Research Facilities: A Comprehensive Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This report, prepared in response to a requirement in the Academic Research Facilities Modernization Act, proposes a plan for the modernization of general research facilities in which academic research is conducted, including research buildings, research laboratories, support rooms, and other institutional or departmental facilities in scientific…

  3. Planning Construction Research of Modern Urban Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Z. Q.; Chen, W.

    With the development and expansion of the city's traditional urban landscape planning methods have been difficult to adapt to the requirements of modern urban development, in the new urban construction, planning what kind of urban landscape is a new research topic. The article discusses the principles of modern urban landscape planning and development, promote the adoption of new concepts and theories, building more regional characteristics, more humane, more perfect, more emphasis on urban landscape pattern natural ecological protection and construction can sustainable development of urban living environment, and promote the development and construction of the city.

  4. Research on Modern Gas Discharge Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, M.; Markus, T.

    This article gives an overview of today's gas discharge light sources and their application fields with focus on research aspects. In Sect. 15.1 of this chapter, an introduction to electric light sources, the lighting market and related research topics is outlined. Due to the complexity of the subject, we have focused on selected topics in the field of high intensity discharge (HID) lamps since these represent an essential part of modern lamp research. The working principle and light technical properties of HID lamps are described in Sect. 15.2. Physical and thermochemical modelling procedures and tools as well as experimental analysis are discussed in Sects. 15.3 and 15.4, respectively. These tools result in a detailed scientific insight into the complexity of real discharge lamps. In particular, analysis and modelling are the keys for further improvement and development of existing and new products.

  5. Editorial Research Reports on Modern Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, William B., Jr., Ed.

    Nine reports published in this volume study the uneasy coexistence of modern man and the complex society he has wrought. Man's apparent disorganized behavior is attributed to his inability to adapt readily to the charged pace of technological change. To combat the advancement of machine over man, he must, therefore, insist that moral and…

  6. The Modern University, Qualitative Research, and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    This paper uses the occasion of reviewing three books on university issues and higher education to discuss the ability of university faculty to enter into dialogue and discussion about higher education. The paper reviews the following books: "The Idea of a Modern University" (edited by Sidney Hook and others) a book which presents the views of…

  7. Oersted Lecture 2014: Physics education research and teaching modern Modern Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollman, Dean

    2016-08-01

    Modern Physics has been used as a label for most of physics that was developed since the discovery of X-rays in 1895. Yet, we are teaching students who would not use the label "modern" for anything that happened before about 1995, when they were born. So, are we and our students in worlds that differ by a century? In addition to content, sometimes our students and we have differing views about methods and styles of teaching. A modern course in any topic of physics should include applications of contemporary research in physics education and the learning sciences as well as research and developments in methods of delivering the content. Thus, when we consider teaching Modern Physics, we are challenged with deciding what the content should be, how to adjust for the ever increasing information on how students learn physics, and the constantly changing tools that are available to us for teaching and learning. When we mix all of these together, we can teach modern Modern Physics or maybe teach Modern Physics modernly.

  8. Career Research in a Post-Modern Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, career theory and practice has been challenged to revise and reinvigorate itself in order to remain relevant in the post-modern world. The most fundamental challenge is to produce an identity for career practice that is congruent with the post-modern world (Watson & McMahon, 2005). Career research is facing a similar challenge as…

  9. Modern International Research Groups: Networks and Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katehi, Linda

    2009-05-01

    In a globalized economy, education and research are becoming increasing international in content and context. Academic and research institutions worldwide try to internationalize their programs by setting formal or informal collaborations. An education that is enhanced by international experiences leads to mobility of the science and technology workforce. Existing academic cultures and research structures are at odds with efforts to internationalize education. For the past 20-30 years, the US has recognized the need to improve the abroad experience of our scientists and technologists: however progress has been slow. Despite a number of both federally and privately supported programs, efforts to scale up the numbers of participants have not been satisfactory. The exchange is imbalanced as more foreign scientists and researchers move to the US than the other way around. There are a number of issues that contribute to this imbalance but we could consider the US academic career system, as defined by its policies and practices, as a barrier to internationalizing the early career faculty experience. Strict curricula, pre-tenure policies and financial commitments discourage students, post doctoral fellows and pre-tenure faculty from taking international leaves to participate in research abroad experiences. Specifically, achieving an international experience requires funding that is not provided by the universities. Furthermore, intellectual property requirements and constraints in pre-tenure probationary periods may discourage students and faculty from collaborations with peers across the Atlantic or Pacific or across the American continent. Environments that support early career networking are not available. This presentation will discuss the increasing need for international collaborations and will explore the need for additional programs, more integration, better conditions and improved infrastructures that can encourage and support mobility of scientists. In addition

  10. Facility modernization Annular Core Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.M.; Luera, T.F.; McCrory, F.M.; Nelson, D.A.; Trowbridge, F.R.; Wold, S.A.

    1990-07-01

    The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) has undergone numerous modifications since its conception in response to program needs. The original reactor fuel, which was special U-ZrH TRIGA fuel designed primarily for pulsing, has been replaced with a higher pulsing capacity BeO fuel. Other advanced operating modes which use this increased capability, in addition to the pulse and steady state, have been incorporated to tailor power histories and fluences to the experiments. Various experimental facilities have been developed that range from a radiography facility to a 50 cm diameter External Fuel Ring Cavity (FREC) using 180 of the original ZrH fuel elements. Currently a digital reactor console is being produced with GA, which will give enhanced monitoring capabilities of the reactor parameters while leaving the safety-related shutdown functions with analog technology. (author)

  11. Modern Statistical Graphs that Provide Insight in Research Results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern statistical graphics offer insight in assessing the results of many common statistical analyses. These ideas, however, are rarely employed in agronomic research articles. This work presents several commonly used graphs, offers one or more alternatives for each, and provides the reasons for pr...

  12. [Use of Ancient texts in modern therapeutic research].

    PubMed

    Fabre, André

    2003-01-01

    Two main purposes were assigned to this study of medicinal prescription of spices at the time of the Roman Empire: analyze Roman pharmacopoeia of spices in reference to modern criteria and assess a new discipline, close to "ethno-botany" and "ethno-pharmacology", aiming to a new approach of drug research: "archeopharmacology". A brief overview is given of the Roman world of spices : all aromatic substances from Orient, India and Far-East held a major place which can only be compared to the role of petroleum in our modern times. The study is conducted on a thesaurus of 2600 quotations from twelve authors: Apicius, Caelius Aurelianus, Cassius Felix, Celsus, Dioscorides, Galen, Marcellus,(Anonymous) Mulonmedicina, Pelagorius, Pliny the Elder, Serenus Sammonicus and Scribonius Largus and a set of 33 medicinal spices among which: cyperus, ferulas (Asa foetida), frankincense, pepper, myrrh and saffron. Medicinal use of spices (mainly for pneumology, dermatology and gastroenterology) do not differ notably from the rest of Roman pharmacopoeia: the main criteria for prescription of spices is not their place of origin but a "therapeutic profile" which is clearly assigned to each substance by tradition. During the last decades, new methods of therapeutic research: ethno-botany and ethno-pharmacology have been used extensively to explore traditional medicines. A new discipline is ready to emerge: "archeo-pharmacology", aiming towards a drug research based on Ancient texts. PMID:14606484

  13. Using a Research Simulator for Validating Control Room Modernization Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Vivek Agarwal; Julius J. Persensky; Jeffrey C. Joe

    2012-05-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is a research, development, and deployment program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy. The program is operated in close collaboration with industry research and development programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of nuclear power plants that are currently in operation. Advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies are needed to support the continued safe and reliable production of power from nuclear energy systems during sustained periods of operation up to and beyond their expected licensed lifetime. This requires that new capabilities to achieve process control be developed and eventually implemented in existing nuclear control rooms. It also requires that approaches be developed and proven to achieve sustainability of I&C systems throughout the period of extended operation. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe life extension of current reactors. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Current analog control rooms are growing obsolete, and it is difficult for utilities to maintain them. Using its reconfigurable control room simulator adapted from a training simulator, INL serves as a neutral test bed for implementing new control room system technologies and assisting in control room modernization efforts across.

  14. [Constructing climate. From classical climatology to modern climate research].

    PubMed

    Heymann, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Both climate researchers and historians of climate science have conceived climate as a stable and well defined category. This article argues that such a conception is flawed. In the course of the 19th and 20th century the very concept of climate changed considerably. Scientists came up with different definitions and concepts of climate, which implied different understandings, interests, and research approaches. Understanding climate shifted from a timeless, spatial concept at the end of the 19th century to a spaceless, temporal concept at the end of the 20th. Climatologists in the 19th and early 20th centuries considered climate as a set of atmospheric characteristics associated with specific places or regions. In this context, while the weather was subject to change, climate remained largely stable. Of particular interest was the impact of climate on human beings and the environment. In modern climate research at the close of the 20th century, the concept of climate lost its temporal stability. Instead, climate change has become a core feature of the understanding of climate and a focus of research interests. Climate has also lost its immediate association with specific geographical places and become global. The interest is now focused on the impact of human beings on climate. The paper attempts to investigate these conceptual shifts and their origins and impacts in order to provide a more comprehensive perspective on the history of climate research. PMID:19848193

  15. ABO research in the modern era of genomics.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Fumiichiro; Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Miyako; Blancher, Antoine

    2012-04-01

    Research on ABO has advanced significantly in recent years. A database was established to manage the sequence information of an increasing number of novel alleles. Genome sequencings have identified ABO orthologues and paralogues in various organisms and enhanced the knowledge on the evolution of the ABO and related genes. The most prominent advancements include clarification of the association between ABO and different disease processes. For instance, ABO status affects the infectivity of certain strains of Helicobacter pylori and Noroviruses as well as the sequestration and rosetting of red blood cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Genome-wide association studies have conclusively linked the ABO locus to pancreatic cancer, venous thromboembolism, and myocardial infarction in the presence of coronary atherosclerosis. These findings suggest ABO's important role in determining an individual's susceptibility to such diseases. Furthermore, our understanding of the structures of A and B transferases and their enzymology has been dramatically improved. ABO has also become a research subject in neurobiology and the preparation of artificial/universal blood and became a topic in the pseudoscience of "blood type diets." With such new progress, it has become evident that ABO is a critical player in the modern era of genomic medicine. This article provides the most up-to-date information regarding ABO genomics. PMID:21945157

  16. The Mechanism of Moxibustion: Ancient Theory and Modern Research

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xueyong

    2013-01-01

    The moxibustion has a dual effect of tonification and purgation in TCM theories, which are based on two aspects: the actions of the meridian system and the roles of moxa and fire. Modern research works of the moxibustion mechanism mainly relate to the thermal effects, radiation effects, and pharmacological actions of moxa and its combustion products. Experimental results showed that moxibustion thermal stimulation affects both shallow and deep tissues of the skin, and the warm-heat effects of moxibustion have a close relation to the warm receptors or/and the polymodal receptor. The burning moxa radiation spectrum ranges from 0.8 to 5.6 μm; peak is nearby 1.5 μm, lying within the near infrared portion. There is an amazing consistency in the infrared spectrums of three types of indirect moxibustion and the unified spectrum of acupoints; all have their peaks of radiation near 10 μm. Lots of ingredients had been identified from mugwort leaves and moxa smoke, which have a variety of biological activities; they were considered to participate in the comprehensive effects of moxibustion. Although lots of research works have been carried out and made some progress, there is still a great distance from fully understanding the mechanism of moxibustion. PMID:24159344

  17. State of Modern Measurement Approaches in Social Work Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unick, George J.; Stone, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The need to develop measures that tap into constructs of interest to social work, refine existing measures, and ensure that measures function adequately across diverse populations of interest is critical. Item response theory (IRT) is a modern measurement approach that is increasingly seen as an essential tool in a number of allied professions.…

  18. Perspectives of DSNB neutrino researches in modern detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodikhina, L.

    2016-02-01

    Studies of diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) by modern underground detectors are reviewed. DSNB neutrino fluxes, their spectra and current experimental limits on their flux are discussed. Currently the best upper limit on DSNB neutrino flux is 2.9 cm-2s-1. Also posibilities to improve upper limits on future detectors and perspectivies of DSNB neutrino detection are discussed.

  19. Modern British Literature: Sources for Criticism. A Research Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This handout is a guide to library resources in the J. Murrey Atkins Library at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte, intended to help students find sources of criticism on Modern British Literature (long fiction, short fiction, poetry, and drama). The guide explains important reference sources in the Atkins library reference collection and…

  20. Learning from FITS: Limitations in use in modern astronomical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, B.; Jenness, T.; Economou, F.; Greenfield, P.; Hirst, P.; Berry, D. S.; Bray, E.; Gray, N.; Muna, D.; Turner, J.; de Val-Borro, M.; Santander-Vela, J.; Shupe, D.; Good, J.; Berriman, G. B.; Kitaeff, S.; Fay, J.; Laurino, O.; Alexov, A.; Landry, W.; Masters, J.; Brazier, A.; Schaaf, R.; Edwards, K.; Redman, R. O.; Marsh, T. R.; Streicher, O.; Norris, P.; Pascual, S.; Davie, M.; Droettboom, M.; Robitaille, T.; Campana, R.; Hagen, A.; Hartogh, P.; Klaes, D.; Craig, M. W.; Homeier, D.

    2015-09-01

    The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) standard has been a great boon to astronomy, allowing observatories, scientists and the public to exchange astronomical information easily. The FITS standard, however, is showing its age. Developed in the late 1970s, the FITS authors made a number of implementation choices that, while common at the time, are now seen to limit its utility with modern data. The authors of the FITS standard could not anticipate the challenges which we are facing today in astronomical computing. Difficulties we now face include, but are not limited to, addressing the need to handle an expanded range of specialized data product types (data models), being more conducive to the networked exchange and storage of data, handling very large datasets, and capturing significantly more complex metadata and data relationships.

  1. [Modern pharmacodynamics research and clinic application of huangqintang].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao-guo; Liang, Xiao-xia; Liu, Qing-fang

    2008-11-01

    To collect the researching documents of recent years about the pharmacodynamics research and modem clinic application of Huangqintang and its relative prescription, and to discuss the current general situation of the pharmacodynamics research and clinic application. Huangqintang has the pharmacodynamics effect such as resist bacteria and inflammation, adjust immune system, ease pain, protect the liver, lower the index of aminotransferase, anti-cancer and virus, lower the physical temperature, and calm down the emotion. The original and relative prescription can be commonly used in curing intestines disease such as diarrhea, acute enteritis and gastritis, ameba diarrhea, etc. It can also be used in internal medicine, gynecology, dermatology, etc. PMID:19216147

  2. Language Learner Strategy Research and Modern Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenfell, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses language learner strategy research in the context of second language learning and teaching in the UK. It arises from two sources: firstly, a personal background in research and writing about language learner strategy research in the context of modern foreign language learning and teaching in England and Wales; secondly, a…

  3. Open science versus commercialization: a modern research conflict?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Efforts to improve research outcomes have resulted in genomic researchers being confronted with complex and seemingly contradictory instructions about how to perform their tasks. Over the past decade, there has been increasing pressure on university researchers to commercialize their work. Concurrently, they are encouraged to collaborate, share data and disseminate new knowledge quickly (that is, to adopt an open science model) in order to foster scientific progress, meet humanitarian goals, and to maximize the impact of their research. Discussion We present selected guidelines from three countries (Canada, United States, and United Kingdom) situated at the forefront of genomics to illustrate this potential policy conflict. Examining the innovation ecosystem and the messages conveyed by the different policies surveyed, we further investigate the inconsistencies between open science and commercialization policies. Summary Commercialization and open science are not necessarily irreconcilable and could instead be envisioned as complementary elements of a more holistic innovation framework. Given the exploratory nature of our study, we wish to point out the need to gather additional evidence on the coexistence of open science and commercialization policies and on its impact, both positive and negative, on genomics academic research. PMID:22369790

  4. [Twenty years' review and prospect of modernization research on traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo-li; Zhang, Jun-hua

    2015-09-01

    The modernization strategy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been implemented for 20 years, which has provided a strong impetus to the development of TCM and gained remarkable achievements in scientific research platform, research result, industry scale, clinical evaluation, internationalization and professionals training as well. The achievements of TCM modernization greatly improved the clinical service ability and level of TCM, broadened the scope of service, become the important foundation of the big health industry. TCM has played an irreplaceable role in the health care reform, benefiting people's livelihood, promoting industrial structure adjustment and cultivating strategic emerging industries. This article summarized the main achievements of the modernization of TCM and prospected the direction and tasks in the next 20 years in order to further promote the modernization process of TCM. PMID:26978967

  5. [Trends in modern international gerontological research. Experimental aspects].

    PubMed

    von Hahn, H P

    1978-01-01

    In a personal statement the author takes the view that gerontology and geriatrics deal with the same fundamental biological phenomenon, namely loss of adaptability and of the capacity to maintain the parameters of homeostasis. Two focal points of recent research in gerontology are cell cultures and the central nervous system. Work with cell cultures has so far been unexpectedly disappointing as far as basic understanding of the ageing process in vivo is concerned. Biochemical, morphological, physiological and pharmacological investigations into the ageing brain have on the other hand provided a wealth of new data which promise major insights into basic mechanisms of the ageing process. Aim of all gerontologocal research must be an "old age worth living" rather than a speculative search for a prolongation of lifespan. PMID:26239

  6. Learning from FITS: Limitations in use in modern astronomical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, B.; Jenness, T.; Economou, F.; Greenfield, P.; Hirst, P.; Berry, D. S.; Bray, E.; Gray, N.; Muna, D.; Turner, J.; de Val-Borro, M.; Santander-Vela, J.; Shupe, D.; Good, J.; Berriman, G. B.; Kitaeff, S.; Fay, J.; Laurino, O.; Alexov, A.; Landry, W.; Masters, J.; Brazier, A.; Schaaf, R.; Edwards, K.; Redman, R. O.; Marsh, T. R.; Streicher, O.; Norris, P.; Pascual, S.; Davie, M.; Droettboom, M.; Robitaille, T.; Campana, R.; Hagen, A.; Hartogh, P.; Klaes, D.; Craig, M. W.; Homeier, D.

    2015-09-01

    The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) standard has been a great boon to astronomy, allowing observatories, scientists and the public to exchange astronomical information easily. The FITS standard, however, is showing its age. Developed in the late 1970s, the FITS authors made a number of implementation choices that, while common at the time, are now seen to limit its utility with modern data. The authors of the FITS standard could not anticipate the challenges which we are facing today in astronomical computing. Difficulties we now face include, but are not limited to, addressing the need to handle an expanded range of specialized data product types (data models), being more conducive to the networked exchange and storage of data, handling very large datasets, and capturing significantly more complex metadata and data relationships. There are members of the community today who find some or all of these limitations unworkable, and have decided to move ahead with storing data in other formats. If this fragmentation continues, we risk abandoning the advantages of broad interoperability, and ready archivability, that the FITS format provides for astronomy. In this paper we detail some selected important problems which exist within the FITS standard today. These problems may provide insight into deeper underlying issues which reside in the format and we provide a discussion of some lessons learned. It is not our intention here to prescribe specific remedies to these issues; rather, it is to call attention of the FITS and greater astronomical computing communities to these problems in the hope that it will spur action to address them. Of course, objects in astronomy are more likely to involve things like observations, instruments, celestial coordinates and actual astronomical objects such as stars. Likely properties one will encounter in a FITS file include things like observational parameters (start/end times), astronomical

  7. Historical Aspects of Propolis Research in Modern Times

    PubMed Central

    Kuropatnicki, Andrzej K.; Krol, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Propolis (bee glue) has been known for centuries. The ancient Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians were aware of the healing properties of propolis and made extensive use of it as a medicine. In the middle ages propolis was not a very popular topic and its use in mainstream medicine disappeared. However, the knowledge of medicinal properties of propolis survived in traditional folk medicine. The interest in propolis returned in Europe together with the renaissance theory of ad fontes. It has only been in the last century that scientists have been able to prove that propolis is as active and important as our forefathers thought. Research on chemical composition of propolis started at the beginning of the twentieth century and was continued after WW II. Advances in chromatographic analytical methods enabled separation and extraction of several components from propolis. At least 180 different compounds have been identified so far. Its antibacterial, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, anesthetic, and healing properties have been confirmed. Propolis has been effectively used in treatment of dermatological, laryngological, and gynecological problems, neurodegenerative diseases, in wound healing, and in treatment of burns and ulcers. However, it requires further research that may lead to new discoveries of its composition and possible applications. PMID:23710243

  8. Sunspots Resource--From Ancient Cultures to Modern Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, N.

    2000-10-01

    Sunspots is a web-based lesson that was developed by the Science Education Gateway (SEGway) program with participants from the Exploratorium, a well known science Museum in San Francisco, UC Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory, and teachers from several California schools. This space science resource allows 8-12 grade students to explore the nature of sunspots and the history of solar physics in its effort to understand their nature. Interviews with solar physicists and archeo-astronomers, historic images, cutting-edge NASA images, movies, and research results, as well as a student-centered sunspot research activity using NASA space science data defines this lesson. The sunspot resource is aligned with the NCTM and National Science Education Standards. It emphasizes inquiry-based methods and mathematical exercises through measurement, graphic data representation, analysis of NASA data, lastly, interpreting results and drawing conclusions. These resources have been successfully classroom tested in 4 middle schools in the San Francisco Unified School District as part of the 3-week Summer School Science curricula. Lessons learned from the Summer School 1999 will be explained. This resource includes teacher-friendly lesson plans, space science background material and student worksheets. There will be Sunspots lesson CD-ROM and printed version of the relevant classroom-ready materials and a teacher resource booklet available. Sunspot resource is brought to you by, The Science Education Gateway - SEGway - Project, and the HESSI satellite and NASA's Office of Space Science Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum.

  9. Historical aspects of propolis research in modern times.

    PubMed

    Kuropatnicki, Andrzej K; Szliszka, Ewelina; Krol, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Propolis (bee glue) has been known for centuries. The ancient Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians were aware of the healing properties of propolis and made extensive use of it as a medicine. In the middle ages propolis was not a very popular topic and its use in mainstream medicine disappeared. However, the knowledge of medicinal properties of propolis survived in traditional folk medicine. The interest in propolis returned in Europe together with the renaissance theory of ad fontes. It has only been in the last century that scientists have been able to prove that propolis is as active and important as our forefathers thought. Research on chemical composition of propolis started at the beginning of the twentieth century and was continued after WW II. Advances in chromatographic analytical methods enabled separation and extraction of several components from propolis. At least 180 different compounds have been identified so far. Its antibacterial, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, anesthetic, and healing properties have been confirmed. Propolis has been effectively used in treatment of dermatological, laryngological, and gynecological problems, neurodegenerative diseases, in wound healing, and in treatment of burns and ulcers. However, it requires further research that may lead to new discoveries of its composition and possible applications. PMID:23710243

  10. Citation Analysis for the Modern Instructor: An Integrated Review of Emerging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    While online instructors may be versed in conducting e-Research (Hung, 2012; Thelwall, 2009), today's faculty are probably less familiarized with the rapidly advancing fields of bibliometrics and informetrics. One key feature of research in these areas is Citation Analysis, a rather intricate operational feature available in modern indexes…

  11. Structure and Evolution of Scientific Collaboration Networks in a Modern Research Collaboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepe, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of scientific collaboration at the Center for Embedded Networked Sensing (CENS), a modern, multi-disciplinary, distributed laboratory involved in sensor network research. By use of survey research and network analysis, this dissertation examines the collaborative ecology of CENS in terms of three networks of…

  12. The Beginnings of Modern Research on Propolis in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kłósek, Małgorzata; Król, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Propolis studies in Poland were initiated by Professor Stan Scheller in the 1960s. It was a team of Polish researchers who developed a method of introducing hydrophobic ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP) into aqueous solutions, which enabled the study of their biological properties. The studies performed in Poland showed that EEP possesses antioxidant, radioprotective, and immunostimulating properties. It was possible to demonstrate antibacterial activity of propolis on Gram-positive bacteria, virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and protozoa as well as stimulating activity of aqueous extracts of propolis on proliferation of cells in vitro. Polish investigators showed that propolis stimulates regeneration of tissue, acts as antioxidant and radioprotector, has strong immunostimulative properties, affects animals' life span by extending it, and improves intellectual and life functions of the elderly. PMID:23864903

  13. NASA Ames Research Center 60 MW Power Supply Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choy, Yuen Ching; Ilinets, Boris V.; Miller, Ted; Nagel, Kirsten (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center 60 MW DC Power Supply was built in 1974 to provide controlled DC power for the Thermophysics Facility Arc Jet Laboratory. The Power Supply has gradually losing reliability due to outdated technology and component life limitation. NASA has decided to upgrade the existing rectifier modules with contemporary high-power electronics and control equipment. NASA plans to complete this project in 2001. This project includes a complete replacement of obsolete thyristor stacks in all six rectifier modules and rectifier bridge control system. High power water-cooled thyristors and freewheeling diodes will be used. The rating of each of the six modules will be 4000 A at 5500 V. The control firing angle signal will be sent from the Facility Control System to six modules via fiberoptic cable. The Power Supply control and monitoring system will include a Master PLC in the Facility building and a Slave PLC in each rectifier module. This system will also monitor each thyristor level in each stack and the auxiliary equipment.

  14. [Modern trends of research in nutritiology and nutrition hygiene].

    PubMed

    Zhminchenko, V M; Gapparov, M M G

    2015-01-01

    Advances in instrumental analysis and new knowledge in biology and medicine have allowed nutritiology and nutrition hygiene: 1) to go from studies of dietary intake of the population and the establishment of standards nutrient and energy needs to ensuring of public health and prevention of diseases by changing the composition and structure of nutrition; 2) to assume that the nutrition includes all the processes of cell and organism vital functions; 3) to develop an individualized nutrition and dietetics purposeful; 4) to evaluate energy value of ontogeny; 5) to ensure food safety at all stages of its manufacture; 6) to combine many disciplines into a single unit to achieve scientific and practical problems. Nutritiology achievements of the 21st century will be based on the development of cell biology as a basis for systematic studies of ontogenetic development of a unicellular or multicellular organism on the external factors, including food. OMICs-disciplines should be used for these purposes in order to understand the physiological meaning of transmission and coding signals to food interaction of genes, proteins, metabolites inside cells or in the organism, to reveal the mechanisms of encoding cell responses to these specific interactions. The nutrition process covers all aspects of life of the cell and organism. Postnatal ontogenetic development of placental mammals has its own specific energy dimension. Consumption of 100 kJ/kg body weight provides 1/50,000 of their ontogeny. A hypothesis of lifespan regulating by changing the rate of ontogenetic development (aging) of organs and tissues of mammals, depending on the amount of energy consumed and food has been offered. Heterochronicity of internal organs and tissues aging depends on the work they are doing and the specific impact on them of food and substances. Research should be directed at identifying the regulatory properties of food substances on pre- and postnatal ontogenetic development of human. This

  15. Governing the Modern, Neoliberal Child through ICT Research in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valero, Paola; Knijnik, Gelsa

    2015-01-01

    Research on the pedagogical uses of ICT for the learning of mathematics formulates cultural thesis about the desired subject of education and society, and thereby contribute to fabricate the rational, Modern, self­-regulated, entrepreneurial neoliberal child. Using the Foucauldian notion of governmentality, the section Technology in the…

  16. Progress in Language Classroom Research: Evidence from "The Modern Language Journal," 1916-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudron, Craig

    2001-01-01

    Reviews topical and methodological trends in the past 85 years of research on language classrooms in "The Modern Language Journal." Focus is on empirical investigations into oral classroom instruction in post-secondary classes, which include comparisons of language teaching methodology, observational procedures in classrooms, examinations of…

  17. STUDY TO DEVELOP A RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR THE DESIGN DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN COLLEGE LIBRARIES. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Historical Evaluation and Research Organization, McLean, VA.

    THIS STUDY FORMULATES A RESEARCH PROGRAM TO FACILITATE THE ESTABLISHMENT OF LIBRARIES FOR SMALL LIBERAL ARTS COLLEGES USING MODERN LIBRARY METHODS AND TECHNOLOGY AND NEW TECHNIQUES OF INFORMATION STORAGE, RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER. AS A RESULT OF INTERVIEWS WITH LIBRARIANS AND OTHERS IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE AND FROM A REVIEW OF CURRENT…

  18. Predesign study for a modern 4-bladed rotor for the NASA rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, H. E.; Burkam, J. E.; Heminway, R. C.; Keys, C. N.; Smith, K. E.; Smith, J. H.; Staley, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Trade-off study results and the rationale for the final selection of an existing modern four-bladed rotor system that can be adapted for installation on the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) are reported. The results of the detailed integration studies, parameter change studies, and instrumentation studies and the recommended plan for development and qualification of the rotor system is also given. Its parameter variants, integration on the RSRA, and support of ground and flight test programs are also discussed.

  19. Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Global Water and Energy Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Chen, Junye

    2008-01-01

    The Modern. Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalyses has produced several years of data, on the way to a completing. the 1979-present modern satellite era. Here, we present a preliminary evaluation of those years currently available, includin g comparisons with the existing long reanalyses (ERA40, JRA25 and NCE P I and II) as well as with global data sets for the water and energy cycle Time series shows that the MERRA budgets can change with some of the variations in observing systems. We will present all terms of the budgets in MERRA including the time rates of change and analysis increments (tendency due to the analysis of observations)

  20. Application of metabonomic analytical techniques in the modernization and toxicology research of traditional Chinese medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lao, Yong-Min; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Yan, Lu

    2009-01-01

    In the recent years, a wide range of metabonomic analytical techniques are widely used in the modern research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). At the same time, the international community has attached increasing importance to TCM toxicity problems. Thus, many studies have been implemented to investigate the toxicity mechanisms of TCM. Among these studies, many metabonomic-based methods have been implemented to facilitate TCM toxicity investigation. At present, the most prevailing methods for TCM toxicity research are mainly single analysis techniques using only one analytical means. These techniques include nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), etc.; with these techniques, some favourable outcomes have been gained in the toxic reaction studies of TCM, such as the action target organs assay, the establishment of action pattern, the elucidation of action mechanism and the exploration of action material foundation. However, every analytical technique has its advantages and drawbacks, no existing analytical technique can be versatile. Multi-analysed techniques can partially overcome the shortcomings of single-analysed techniques. Combination of GC-MS and LC-MS metabolic profiling approaches has unravelled the pathological outcomes of aristolochic acid-induced nephrotoxicity, which can not be achieved by single-analysed techniques. It is believed that with the further development of metabonomic analytical techniques, especially multi-analysed techniques, metabonomics will greatly promote TCM toxicity research and be beneficial to the modernization of TCM in terms of extending the application of modern means in the TCM safety assessment, assisting the formulation of TCM safety norms and establishing the international standards indicators. PMID:19508399

  1. Langley Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel: Testing Capabilities and Recent Modernization Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micol, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Description, capabilities, initiatives, and utilization of the NASA Langley Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel are presented. A brief overview of the facility's operational capabilities and testing techniques is provided. A recent Construction of Facilities (Car) project to improve facility productivity and efficiency through facility automation has been completed and is discussed. Several new and maturing thrusts are underway that include systematic efforts to provide credible assessment for data quality, modifications to the new automation control system for increased compatibility with the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) testing methodology, and process improvements for better test coordination, planning, and execution.

  2. Langley Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel: Testing Capabilities and Recent Modernization Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micol, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Description, capabilities, initiatives, and utilization of the NASA Langley Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel are presented. A brief overview of the facility's operational capabilities and testing techniques is provided. A recent Construction of Facilities (CoF) project to improve facility productivity and efficiency through facility automation has been completed and is discussed. Several new and maturing thrusts are underway that include systematic efforts to provide credible assessment for data quality, modifications to the new automation control system for increased compatibility with the Modern Design Of Experiments (MDOE) testing methodology, and process improvements for better test coordination, planning, and execution.

  3. Cancer stem cell hypotheses: impact on modern molecular physiology and pharmacology research.

    PubMed

    Pantic, Igor

    2011-12-01

    Although questioned on several occasions, the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been confirmed by a number of studies on experimental animal models. Nevertheless, it was shown that CSC hypotheses have several limitations and inconsistencies regarding the explanation of CSC origin, CSC identification and isolation, possible heterogeneity within CSC population, as well as methodology issues in some studies that were carried out in order to prove CSC existence. The aim of this article is to give a short and comprehensive review of recent advances concerning CSC hypothesis and to describe its impact on modern molecular physiology and pharmacology research. PMID:22116294

  4. W. D. Miller. The pioneer who laid the foundation for modern dental research.

    PubMed

    Ring, Malvin E

    2002-02-01

    Toothache has been the most ubiquitous ailment to plague mankind from time immemorial. Until the late 1700s, it was thought that the cause of this torment was the wriggling, in a carious tooth, of a worm. And early attempts at treatment were focused on driving the "worm" out. It was one of the world's greatest scientists, the dentist W. D. Miller, who, after extensive research, in 1891 published his epochal work, The Microorganisms of the Human Mouth, which set forth a new theory regarding the cause of dental caries. His postulating a "chemico-parasitic" origin of caries laid the basis for all the modern research in dentistry aimed at wiping this scourge out. Contemporary research has proven the worth of Miller's groundbreaking theory. PMID:11898270

  5. Native Geosciences: Pathways to Traditional Knowledge in Modern Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways in our natural sacred homelands and environments. Tribal cultures are the expression of deep understandings of geosciences shared through oral histories, language, traditional practices and ceremonies. Today, Native people as all people are living in a definite time of change. The developing awareness of "change" brings forth an immense opportunity to expand, elevate and incorporate Traditional Native geosciences knowledge into modern research and education to expand understandings for all learners. At the center of "change" is the need to balance the needs of the people with the needs of the environment. Native traditions and our inherent understanding of what is "sacred above is sacred below" is the foundation for a multi-faceted approach for increasing the representation of Natives in geosciences. The approach is centered on the incorporation of traditional knowledge into modern research/education. The approach is also a pathway to assist in Tribal language revitalization, connection of oral histories and ceremonies to place and building an intergenerational teaching/learning community. Humboldt State University, Sinte Gleska University and Tribes in Northern California (Hoopa, Yurok, & Karuk) and Great Plains (Lakota) Tribes have nurtured Native geosciences learning and research communities connected to Tribal Sacred Sites and natural resources. Native geoscience learning is centered on the themes of earth, wind, fire and water and the Native application of remote sensing technologies. Tribal Elders and Native geoscientists work collaboratively providing Native families in-field experiential intergenerational learning opportunities which invite participants to immerse themselves spiritually, intellectually, physically and emotionally in the experiences. Through this immersion and experience Native students and families strengthen the circle of our future Tribal communities and a return to

  6. The Photo-Mosaic Assistant: Incorporating Historic Aerial Imagery into Modern Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flathers, E.

    2013-12-01

    One challenge that researchers face as data organization and analysis shift into the digital realm is the incorporation of 'dirty' data from analog back-catalogs into current projects. Geospatial data collections in university libraries, government data repositories, and private industry contain historic data such as aerial photographs that may be stored as negatives, prints, and as scanned digital image files. A typical aerial imagery series is created by taking photos of the ground from an aircraft along a series of parallel flight lines. The raw photos can be assembled into a mosaic that represents the full geographic area of the collection, but each photo suffers from individual distortion according to the attitude and altitude of the collecting aircraft at the moment of acquisition, so there is a process of orthorectification needed in order to produce a planimetric composite image that can be used to accurately refer to locations on the ground. Historic aerial photo collections often need significant preparation for consumption by a GIS: they may need to be digitized, often lack any explicit spatial coordinates, and may not include information about flight line patterns. Many collections lack even such basic information as index numbers for the photos, so it may be unclear in what order the photos were acquired. When collections contain large areas of, for example, forest or agricultural land, any given photo may have few visual cues to assist in relating it to the other photos or to an area on the ground. The Photo-Mosaic Assistant (PMA) is a collection of tools designed to assist in the organization of historic aerial photo collections and the preparation of collections for orthorectification and use in modern research applications. The first tool is a light table application that allows a user to take advantage of visual cues within photos to organize and explore the collection, potentially building a rough image mosaic by hand. The second tool is a set of

  7. [Review and reflection of the research of history of plague in modern China in recent 25 years].

    PubMed

    Shangguan, D Y

    2016-05-01

    Influenced by the research on history of disease abroad, the research on the history of plague in modern China began in 1989. For the recent 25 years, the related researches on plague mainly took place in Guangzhou, Hong Kong, the Northeast and Shanxi, supplemented by other places, showing its clear regional characteristic, with diversified research views, methods and application of materials. As an important content of research on disease history, the research of history of plague in modern China revealed obvious defects, viz. mainly traditional and one-way or linear research, reflecting the research was still at the borderland. Of late years, some scholars began to break through the limitation of traditional historical concept and method, and try to apply the interdisciplinary view for widening the research scope. With the promotion of this academic concept, the research of plague history began " to regard history by a bottom-up approach" , and paid more attention to the living space. PMID:27485872

  8. Women in Physics in Australia as the Expectations of the Modern Researcher Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, C. P.

    2009-04-01

    Publicly funded science, which employs the majority of research scientists in Australia, has since 1988 had significant shifts in the basis for funding with the expectation that all research, regardless of how fundamental, should have a plan or potential for impact for the community's benefit. This may be solving major problems for Australia (e.g., climate change and provision of water and energy) to creating new technologies and industries to boost the Australian economy. At the same time, there has been some improvement in the status of women in science in Australia. There is recognition that women bring diversity to research teams, making teams more effective, and this is being embraced. However, other issues are still creating difficulties for women from the drop in the quality of child care while its costs increase; the need to juggle family and career, particularly balancing the need for travel; the poorly paid maternity leave provisions; and the difficulty in restarting a career in science if time is taken out for child rearing. The changing expectations of the modern researcher, the status of women in Australian physics as a specific example, and the issues that are limiting women's opportunities in a ``well meaning'' culture that does not realize the limitations it is creating are reported, along with what the Australian Institute of Physics is doing to overcome them.

  9. Modernization of the vacuum system of synchrotron radiation sources at the National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseiko, N. I.; Krylov, Yu. V.; Moseiko, L. A.; Odintsov, D. G.; Semenov, B. I.; Shirokov, A. V.

    2012-07-01

    The modernization project of the vacuum system of the synchrotron radiation source at the National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (NRC KI) has been designed and is being implemented; it includes a change in the system to high-voltage power sources for NMD and PVIG-0.25/630 pumps. The system is controlled via the CAN bus, and the vacuum is controlled by measuring pump currents in a range of 0.0001-10 mA. The system ensures a vacuum of 10-7 Pa. The status is mapped and the data collected into the archive are processed on the MS SQL Server platform. The efficiency and reliability of the vacuum system is increased by this work, making it possible to improve the main parameters of the SR source.

  10. Views from academia and industry on skills needed for the modern research environment.

    PubMed

    Talgar, Cigdem P; Goodey, Nina M

    2015-01-01

    Reports from employers of higher education graduates indicate the existence of a considerable gap between the skills required by employers and those possessed by recent graduates. As a first step toward closing this gap, this study aims to determine its origin. Interviews with nine research-active biochemistry professionals were used to identify the most important skills for biochemistry students to succeed in research positions postgraduation. The results of these interviews were used to develop a survey, which was then administered to a larger group of biochemistry faculty and industry professionals. The output of the survey was a list of 52 skills valued by biochemistry professionals and rated by perceived importance. Importantly, the survey results also afford a comparative look at the prioritization of skills by two key populations: the academic faculty training students and the industry professionals hiring them. While there are many areas of agreement between these two populations, the survey also reveals areas were priorities diverge. The discrepancies found here suggest that the skills gap manifest at the point of employment may stem directly from differences in prioritization between the academic and industrial environments. This article aims to provide insight into the needs and requirements of the modern biochemical research environment, and invites debate concerning the preparation students receive in academia. Moreover, the results presented herein point to a need for further exploration of the possible misalignment of these two critical environments for young scientists. PMID:26147139

  11. NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA): Early Results and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried

    2008-01-01

    This talk will review the status and progress of the NASA/Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) atmospheric global reanalysis project called the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). An overview of NASA's emerging capabilities for assimilating a variety of other Earth Science observations of the land, ocean, and atmospheric constituents will also be presented. MERRA supports NASA Earth science by synthesizing the current suite of research satellite observations in a climate data context (covering the period 1979-present), and by providing the science and applications communities with of a broad range of weather and climate data with an emphasis on improved estimates of the hydrological cycle. MERRA is based on a major new version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS-5), that includes the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)-based GEOS-5 atmospheric general circulation model and the new NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) unified grid-point statistical interpolation (GST) analysis scheme developed as a collaborative effort between NCEP and the GMAO. In addition to MERRA, the GMAO is developing new capabilities in aerosol and constituent assimilation, ocean, ocean biology, and land surface assimilation. This includes the development of an assimilation capability for tropospheric air quality monitoring and prediction, the development of a carbon-cycle modeling and assimilation system, and an ocean data assimilation system for use in coupled short-term climate forecasting.

  12. To Explore or to Research: Trends in modern age ocean studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, M. A.; Valette-Silver, N. J.; Lobecker, E.; Skarke, A. D.; Elliott, K.; McDonough, J.

    2013-12-01

    season in NE Atlantic canyon. This has been one of the first ever campaigns to systematically map the NE canyons from US-Canada border to Cape Hatteras. After the 3D mapping of the canyons that included multibeam sonar derived bathymetry and backscatter, OER provided the first ever comprehensive maps of the seafloor and water column which have become the basis for further exploration and research in this region. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer currently remains the only federal vessel dedicated solely to Ocean Exploration. Examples of some of the recent discoveries of the ship will be provided to explain as how Exploration and Research are merging together in modern era of ocean sciences.

  13. The Development of the Foundations of Modern Pedagogy: Paradigmal and Methodological Aspects of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dmitrenko, ?amara ?.; Lavryk, Tatjana V.; Yaresko, Ekaterina V.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the various fields of knowledge influenced the pedagogical science. The article explains the structure of the foundations of modern pedagogy through paradigmal and methodological aspects. Bases of modern pedagogy include complex of paradigms, object and subject of science, general and specific principles, methods and technologies.…

  14. Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Global Water and Energy Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Chen, Junye

    2009-01-01

    In the Summer of 2009, NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) will have completed 28 years of global satellite data analyses. Here, we characterize the global water and energy budgets of MERRA, compared with available observations and the latest reanalyses. In this analysis, the climatology of the global average components are studied as well as the separate land and ocean averages. In addition, the time series of the global averages are evaluated. For example, the global difference of precipitation and evaporation generally shows the influence of water vapor observations on the system. Since the observing systems change in time, especially remotely sensed observations of water, significant temporal variations can occur across the 28 year record. These then are also closely connected to changes in the atmospheric energy and water budgets. The net imbalance of the energy budget at the surface can be large and different signs for different reanalyses. In MERRA, the imbalance of energy at the surface tends to improve with time being the smallest during the most recent and abundant satellite observations.

  15. Data Management in the Modern Structural Biology and Biomedical Research Environment

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Matthew D.; Grabowski, Marek; Domagalski, Marcin J.; MacLean, Elizabeth M.; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Minor, Wladek

    2014-01-01

    Modern high-throughput structural biology laboratories produce vast amounts of raw experimental data. The traditional method of data reduction is very simple—results are summarized in peer-reviewed publications, which are hopefully published in high-impact journals. By their nature, publications include only the most important results derived from experiments that may have been performed over the course of many years. The main content of the published paper is a concise compilation of these data, an interpretation of the experimental results, and a comparison of these results with those obtained by other scientists. Due to an avalanche of structural biology manuscripts submitted to scientific journals, in many recent cases descriptions of experimental methodology (and sometimes even experimental results) are pushed to supplementary materials that are only published online and sometimes may not be reviewed as thoroughly as the main body of a manuscript. Trouble may arise when experimental results are contradicting the results obtained by other scientists, which requires (in the best case) the reexamination of the original raw data or independent repetition of the experiment according to the published description of the experiment. There are reports that a significant fraction of experiments obtained in academic laboratories cannot be repeated in an industrial environment (Begley CG & Ellis LM, Nature 483(7391):531–3, 2012). This is not an indication of scientific fraud but rather reflects the inadequate description of experiments performed on different equipment and on biological samples that were produced with disparate methods. For that reason the goal of a modern data management system is not only the simple replacement of the laboratory notebook by an electronic one but also the creation of a sophisticated, internally consistent, scalable data management system that will combine data obtained by a variety of experiments performed by various individuals on

  16. The Use of Modern Educational Technology for Instruction of Undereducated Adults: Research Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Dept. of Adult Education.

    The major goal of the Developmental and Demonstration Project in Adult Basic Education at North Carolina State University is to identify, develop, and evaluate innovative materials and instructional systems that will accelerate and enhance the learning process in undereducated adults through the use of modern educational technology and media.…

  17. A Textual Research on the First Private University in Modern China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Zhengping; Chen, Taolan

    2008-01-01

    Recently there have been many viewpoints as to which private university was founded firstly in modern China. The schools, such as Fudan University (or the former Aurora Academy), Nankai University, China College, Wuchang Zhonghua University, Nanyang College and Zhengmeng Academy are all considered to be the first private university. From two…

  18. BiteScis: Connecting K-12 teachers with science graduate students to produce lesson plans on modern science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battersby, Cara

    2016-01-01

    Many students graduate high school having never learned about the process and people behind modern science research. The BiteScis program addresses this gap by providing easily implemented lesson plans that incorporate the whos, whats, and hows of today's scienctific discoveries. We bring together practicing scientists (motivated graduate students from the selective communicating science conference, ComSciCon) with K-12 science teachers to produce, review, and disseminate K-12 lesson plans based on modern science research. These lesson plans vary in topic from environmental science to neurobiology to astrophysics, and involve a range of activities from laboratory exercises to art projects, debates, or group discussion. An integral component of the program is a series of short, "bite-size" articles on modern science research written for K-12 students. The "bite-size" articles and lesson plans will be made freely available online in an easily searchable web interface that includes association with a variety of curriculum standards. This ongoing program is in its first year with about 15 lesson plans produced to date.

  19. [Trends in research on the history of medicine in Korea before the modern era].

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongwon

    2010-06-30

    Research on the history of medicine in Korea in the form of modern scholarship began with the publication in 1930 of Yi Neunghwa's "A History of the Development of Medicine in Korea." The purpose of the present study lies in surveying studies on the history of medicine in Korea in the past 80 years since the publication of Yi's paper. In terms of periodization, research on the history of medicine in Korea is bifurcated by the publication of two comprehensive histories-i. e., Miki Sakae's A History of Medicine and Disease in Korea (1963) and Kim Du-jong's The Complete History of Medicine in Korea (1966). Indeed, all earlier studies converged in these two books. Because Miki and Kim both had majored in Western medicine and conducted research based on similar perspectives, data, and methods, the two works overlap considerably, and Kim's book, as the later of the two, unfortunately lost the initiative to the former to a considerable extent. As a result of these two scholars' research, it became possible to trace the overall flow of the history of medicine in Korea. Following the publication of works by Miki and Kim and with the advent of the 1980's, research on the history of medicine in premodern Korea was renovated with the emergence of no fewer than some dozen new doctoral degree holders in the field. In fact, these young scholars went beyond surveying trends in each era to expand the scope of specific discussions and topics per era, to delve into the actual contents, and to elucidate the function of medicine in society. The fruits of studies conducted in the past 80 years on the history of medicine in premodern Korea can be summarized as follows. 1) before the 5th century AD: the existence of a comprehensive medical practice in regions inhabited by those considered to be the ancestors of the Korean people; and information on medication including ginseng. 2) 5th-10th centuries: the existence of professional medical posts; the management of medicine by the royal

  20. From Topos to Oikos: The Standardization of Glass Containers as Epistemic Boundaries in Modern Laboratory Research (1850-1900).

    PubMed

    Espahangizi, Kijan

    2015-09-01

    Glass vessels such as flasks and test tubes play an ambiguous role in the historiography of modern laboratory research. In spite of the strong focus on the role of materiality in the last decades, the scientific glass vessel - while being symbolically omnipresent - has remained curiously neglected in regard to its materiality. The popular image or topos of the transparent, neutral, and quasi-immaterial glass container obstructs the view of the physico-chemical functionality of this constitutive inner boundary in modern laboratory environments and its material historicity. In order to understand how glass vessels were able to provide a stable epistemic containment of spatially enclosed experimental phenomena in the new laboratory ecologies emerging in the nineteenth and early twentieth century, I will focus on the history of the material standardization of laboratory glassware. I will follow the rise of a new awareness for measurement errors due to the chemical agency of experimental glass vessels, then I will sketch the emergence of a whole techno-scientific infrastructure for the improvement of glass container quality in late nineteenth-century Germany. In the last part of my argument, I will return to the laboratory by looking at the implementation of this glass reform that created a new oikos for the inner experimental milieus of modern laboratory research. PMID:26256505

  1. Ancient Records and Modern Research on the Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-ming; Liang, Feng-xia

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) have been extensively and intensively studied through from both clinical and experimental perspectives and CHM have been proved to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study, by searching ancient records and modern research papers, reviewed CHM in terms of their clinical application and principal mechanism in the treatment of DM. We summarized the use of CHM mentioned in 54 famous ancient materia medica monographs and searched papers on the hypoglycemic effect of several representative CHM. Main mechanisms and limitations of CHM and further research direction for DM were discussed. On the basis of the study, we were led to conclude that TCM, as a main form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), was well recorded in ancient literatures and has less adverse effects as shown by modern studies. The mechanisms of CHM treatment of DM are complex, multilink, and multitarget, so we should find main hypoglycemic mechanism through doing research on CHM monomer active constituents. Many CHM monomer constituents possess noteworthy hypoglycemic effects. Therefore, developing a novel natural product for DM and its complications is of much significance. It is strongly significant to pay close attention to CHM for treatment of DM and its complications. PMID:25815039

  2. Genetics as a modernization program: biological research at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes and the political economy of the Nazi State.

    PubMed

    Gausemeier, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    During the Third Reich, the biological institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) underwent a substantial reorganization and modernization. This paper discusses the development of projects in the fields of biochemical genetics, virus research, radiation genetics, and plant genetics that were initiated in those years. These cases exemplify, on the one hand, the political conditions for biological research in the Nazi state. They highlight how leading scientists advanced their projects by building close ties with politicians and science-funding organizations and companies. On the other hand, the study examines how the contents of research were shaped by, and how they contributed to, the aims and needs of the political economy of the Nazi system. This paper therefore aims not only to highlight basic aspects of scientific development under Nazism, but also to provide general insights into the structure of the Third Reich and the dynamics of its war economy. PMID:20957826

  3. Condensed matter research at the modernized IBR-2 reactor: from functional materials to nanobiotechnologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, V. L.; Balagurov, A. M.; Kozlenko, D. P.

    2016-07-01

    An overview of the main scientific areas of condensed matter research, which are extended with the use of the IBR-2 high-flux research reactor, is presented. It is demonstrated that the spectrometer facility of the upgraded reactor has great potential for studying the structural, magnetic, and dynamical properties of novel functional materials and nanobiosystems, which ensures the leading position of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in neutron research of condensed matter for the long-term prospect.

  4. Bioengineering and Bioinformatics Summer Institutes: Meeting Modern Challenges in Undergraduate Summer Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Peter J.; Dong, Cheng; Snyder, Alan J.; Jones, A. Daniel; Sheets, Erin D.

    2008-01-01

    Summer undergraduate research programs in science and engineering facilitate research progress for faculty and provide a close-ended research experience for students, which can prepare them for careers in industry, medicine, and academia. However, ensuring these outcomes is a challenge when the students arrive ill-prepared for substantive research…

  5. Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and mental health: from Metchnikoff to modern advances: Part II - contemporary contextual research.

    PubMed

    Bested, Alison C; Logan, Alan C; Selhub, Eva M

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been a renewed interest concerning the ways in which the gastrointestinal tract - its functional integrity and microbial residents - might influence human mood (e.g. depression) and behavioral disorders. Once a hotbed of scientific interest in the early 20th century, this area lay dormant for decades, in part due to its association with the controversial term 'autointoxication'. Here we review contemporary findings related to intestinal permeability, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) exposure, D-lactic acid, propionic acid, and discuss their relevance to microbiota and mental health. In addition, we include the context of modern dietary habits as they relate to depression, anxiety and their potential interaction with intestinal microbiota. PMID:23497633

  6. Playing the power game for qualitative researchers: the possibility of a post-modern approach.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, C; Beech, I

    1998-04-01

    The later work of Wittgenstein (1953) takes language and meaning as arising in use. A local 'grammar' is created. Ethical/research awarding committees have developed, and clashing, meanings about what constitutes 'good' research. The fixed rule language game of the committee is implicitly powerful because it is part of well-rehearsed societal narratives which equate science and knowledge. This creates a force on the qualitative researcher to conform to the authoritative grammar which it is difficult to counter. In these circumstances, qualitative researchers may choose to inhabit two, parallel research universes by 'storying' their research proposal according to the audience. But a question arises as to whether ethical approval has been gained when a 'Trojan horse' approach is used. Moving between worlds involves the researcher living with a dual identity. The postmodernist movement away from structure, form and singular truth is seen as setting a context for a new archaeology of knowledge which transcends good/bad dichotomies in relation to research. The qualitative researcher is encouraged to enter into dialogical communication with committees with the hope that a shared grammar may emerge. PMID:9578210

  7. [Research on the hospital construction and structure in Daehan empire and colonial modern period].

    PubMed

    Han, Dong Gwan; Ryu, Chang Ug; Ko, Sang Kyun; Jung, Jae Kook; Moon, Jong Youn; Park, Yoon Hyung

    2011-12-31

    It was the late Chosun Dynasty and Daehan Empire era that Western Medicine has firstly been introduced to Korea, previously operating on a basis of Korean traditional medicine. Western Medicine has been introduced by American missionary and Japanese Imperialism. An introduction of Western Medicine made it feasible to proceed new type medical care including operation, leading to require a new form of medical facilities. In the beginning, new facilities were constructed by Japanese Imperialism. Other hand many of facilities including Severance Hospital were established by missionaries. First of all, Daehan Empire established and managed a modern type of medical facility named "Jejoongwon" in 1885 as a government institution hospital. The Red Cross Hospital built in 1889. Afterwards, Jejoongwon and the Red Cross Hospital were taken over to missionary hospital and Japanese Imperialism, respectively. Japanese Imperialists firstly have protected their nationals residing in Chosun but have proceeded care a few Chosun people to exploit medical treatment as a mean to advertise superiority of the Empire of Japan. The facility that has firstly been established and managed was Jeseang Hospital in Busan in 1877, leading to establish in Wonju, Wonsan, and Mokpo. Afterwards, Japan has organized "Donginhoi" as a civil invasion organization, leading for "Donginhoi" to established "Dongin Hospital" in Pyeongyang, Daegu, and Seoul. Since 1909, governmental leading medical facility named Jahye Hospital was established according to an imperial order, leading to establish 32 hospitals all over the nation. American missionaries have established and managed 28 hospitals started from Severance Hospital built in 1904. However, Chosun doctors started to having educated and opening up their own hospital since 1920, leading for many of medical facilities to be established, but most of them have taken different roles followed by 6.25 War and economic development period. However, some of them

  8. The Revival of Research Circles: Meeting the Needs of Modern Aging and the Third Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostlund, Britt

    2008-01-01

    This article provides evidence that it is worthwhile to reconsider the traditional research circle method as a means of involving people in the third age in fulfilling their needs to participate in learning activities and make their voices heard. The findings are based on three cases of research circles consistently driven by the interests of the…

  9. Liquid Modernity: Exploring the Research Contract Nexus within Contemporary Scottish Political Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holligan, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to our understanding of a supposed free-market in research, where knowledge-transfer is to government, which then brokers the evidence into professional fields. Education research contracts are put out to tender by Scottish Government and a constellation of factors constructing this phenomenon has epistemological and…

  10. Current Instrumentation and Technologies in Modern Radiobiology Research-Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Ford, Eric; Deye, Jim

    2016-10-01

    There is a growing awareness of the gaps in the technical methods employed in radiation biology experiments. These quality gaps can have a substantial effect on the reliability and reproducibility of results as outlined in several recent meta-studies. This is especially true in the context of the newer laboratory irradiation technologies. These technologies allow for delivery of highly localized dose distributions and increased spatial accuracy but also present increased challenges of their own. In this article, we highlight some of the features of the new technologies and the experiments they support; this includes image-guided localized radiation systems, microirradiator systems using carbon nanotubes and physical radiation modifiers like gold nanoparticles. We discuss the key technical issues related to the consistency and quality of modern radiation biology experiments including dosimetry protocols that are essential to all experiments, quality assurance approaches, methods to validate physical radiation targeting including immunohistochemical assays and other biovalidation approaches. We highlight the future needs in terms of education and training and the creation of tools for cross-institutional benchmarking quality in preclinical studies. The demands for increased experimental rigor are challenging but can be met with an awareness and a systematic approach which ensures quality. PMID:27619256

  11. On a set of 20th century monumental events that shaped the modern discipline of ocean wind wave's research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.

    2012-04-01

    History is made up of individual events. The modern ocean wind waves research has been active for nearly 70 years since the early years of the decade of 1940's while the World War II was still fighting in earnest and Sverdrup and Munk were embarked on an unprecedented attempt to make wave condition prediction for Navy Amphibious forces carrying out landing operation. That was certainly a monumental event that started the modern ocean wind wave's research. Here I wish to present a set of other monumental events in the intervening years which, in my personal view, are vital to the formation of our present day conventional ocean wind wave's research: • Circa 1945: The war time invention of underwater pressure wave gage that measures pressure fluctuations induced by surface waves and also marked as the start of single-point wave measurements prevalent today. • Circa 1950: When oceanographer Pierson met statistician Tukey and ocean wave spectrum analysis was thereby born. • Circa 1952: Something old something new - Longuet-Higgins introduced the distribution function of Load Rayleigh to the emerging ocean wave data analysis and Rayleigh distribution has been the mainstay of ocean wind wave's research ever since. • Circa 1953: Neumann started the quest to formulate a wind wave spectrum with his impressive first empirical spectrum before spectrum was widely measured. • Circa 1957: Phillips worked out the resonance theory for wind wave's generation. • Circa 1957: Miles simultaneously developed the shear flow model for wind wave's generation, complementary to Phillips theory. • Circa 1959: Hasselmann formulated the source function to start the first framework of comprehensive wind wave modeling. These are all the basic innovative milestones that the bulk of the conventional ocean wind wave research studies today were evolved from. While the monumental status of these works may represent merely the personal opinion of a single aficionado, I do feel that they

  12. Has Modern Biology Entered the Mouth? The Clinical Impact of Biological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Three areas of biological research that are beginning to have an impact on clinical medicine are examined, including molecular biology, cell biology, and biotechnology. It is concluded that oral biologists and educators must work cooperatively to bring rapid biological and biomedical advances into dental training in a meaningful way. (MSE)

  13. Modernization Through Education of Mother-Child Dyads: Description of Research Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Diana T.; Spencer, Margaret B.

    This paper describes research strategy for evaluating mother-child intervention programs for black infants in three Chicago low-income housing projects. Mothers were observed with their infants in pre- and post-testing sessions in a room with magazines, children's books, and a television. Analysis of the data is intended to show: (1) the extent to…

  14. Views from Academia and Industry on Skills Needed for the Modern Research Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talgar, Cigdem P.; Goodey, Nina M.

    2015-01-01

    Reports from employers of higher education graduates indicate the existence of a considerable gap between the skills required by employers and those possessed by recent graduates. As a first step toward closing this gap, this study aims to determine its origin. Interviews with nine research-active biochemistry professionals were used to identify…

  15. Higher Technical Education - Research vs. Education. Technique Of Teaching, Between Classical And Modern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pâmîntaş, Eugen

    2015-07-01

    The results, not at all encouraging the graduates and the growing gap between the requirements of the employers and the graduate knowledge base bring us some questions and the look for the most appropriate answers. Of them, the work stops at two, namely: higher technical education prepares engineers, research scientists, or both, respectively, the teaching methods in engineering education today are appropriate? In search of answers and solving problems arising from questions shall be made an analysis of the educational process and master's degree. The analysis is based both on documents and facts generally known, but also the authors' own teaching experience. Conclusions are warning signals for improving the training of engineers and master of technical education but also to reform education in proper selection and training support staff for research.

  16. The Evolution of Research and Education Networks and their Essential Role in Modern Science

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, W.; Chaniotakis, E.; Dart, E.; Guok, C.; Metzger, J.; Tierney, B.

    2009-06-15

    ESnet - the Energy Sciences Network - has the mission of enabling the aspects of the US Department of Energy's Office of Science programs and facilities that depend on large collaborations and large-scale data sharing to accomplish their science. The Office of Science supports a large fraction of all U.S. physical science research and operates many large science instruments and supercomputers that are used by both DOE and University researchers. The network requirements of this community have been explored in some detail by ESnet and a long-term plan has been developed in order to ensure adequate networking to support the science. In this paper we describe the planning process (which has been in place for several years and was the basis of a new network that is just now being completed and a new set of network services) and examine the effectiveness and adequacy of the planning process in the light of evolving science requirements.

  17. Science Teachers' Misconceptions in Science and Engineering Distinctions: Reflections on Modern Research Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antink-Meyer, Allison; Meyer, Daniel Z.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to learn about the misconceptions that may arise for elementary and high school science teachers in their reflections on science and engineering practice. Using readings and videos of real science and engineering work, teachers' reflections were used to uncover the underpinnings of their understandings. This knowledge ultimately provides information about supporting professional development (PD) for science teachers' knowledge of engineering. Six science teachers (two elementary and four high school teachers) participated in the study as part of an online PD experience. Cunningham and Carlsen's (Journal of Science Teacher Education 25:197-210, 2014) relative emphases of science and engineering practices were used to frame the design of PD activities and the analyses of teachers' views. Analyses suggest misconceptions within the eight practices of science and engineering from the US Next Generation Science Standards in four areas. These are that: (1) the nature of the practices in both science and engineering research is determined by the long-term implications of the research regardless of the nature of the immediate work, (2) engineering and science are hierarchical, (3) creativity is inappropriate, and (4) research outcomes cannot be processes. We discuss the nature of these understandings among participants and the implications for engineering education PD for science teachers.

  18. The golden ratio and Loshu-Fibonacci Diagram: novel research view on relationship of Chinese medicine and modern biology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao-xue; Huang, Yun-kun; Sun, Ying

    2014-02-01

    Associating geometric arrangements of 9 Loshu numbers modulo 5, investigating property of golden rectangles and characteristics of Fibonacci sequence modulo 10 as well as the two subsequences of its modular sequence by modulo 5, the Loshu-Fibonacci Diagram is created based on strict logical deduction in this paper, which can disclose inherent relationship among Taiji sign, Loshu and Fibonacci sequence modulo 10 perfectly and unite such key ideas of holism, symmetry, holographic thought and yin-yang balance pursuit from Chinese medicine as a whole. Based on further analysis and reasoning, the authors discover that taking the golden ratio and Loshu-Fibonacci Diagram as a link, there is profound and universal association existing between researches of Chinese medicine and modern biology. PMID:24352682

  19. Evaluation of the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Global Water and Energy Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, F. R.; Chen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalyses has completed 27 years of data) soon to be caught up to present. Here) we present an evaluation of those years currently available) including comparisons with the existing long reanalyses (ERA40) JRA25 and NCEP I and II) as well as with global data sets for the water and energy cycle. Time series shows that the MERRA budgets can change with some of the variations in observing systems, but that the magnitude of energy imbalance in the system is improved with more observations. We will present all terms of the budgets in MERRA including the time rates of change and analysis increments (tendency due to the analysis of observations).

  20. Ergonomics in modern dairy practice: a review of current issues and research needs.

    PubMed

    Douphrate, David I; Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Jakob, Martina; Pinzke, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Dairy farming is an ancient occupation. Traditionally, cows have been manually milked while tethered in stalls or stanchions. In the latter half of the 20th century as machine milking emerged, the parlor milking system has become more popular, especially among larger dairy farms. The transition from manual milking to automatic milking systems as well as the transition from stanchion to parlor milking systems involved a dramatic change in milking tasks. These transitions have resulted in changing patterns of occupational exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dairy workers. However, aspects of the milking task such as sanitization of teats, stripping milk from teats, and attachment and detachment of milking equipment have remained relatively the same. Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms have been reported in the low back, shoulders, hands/wrists, and knees. Research that has measured exposures to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dairy farm workers has been limited, especially when using ergonomic tools to directly measure exposure, such as electrogoniometry or electromyography. Self-reported exposure measures have been most commonly used. The interventions that have been tested to reduce exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders include assisted lift-hold devices, use of lighter-weight equipment, adjustable flooring, and use of rubber mats. However, research evaluating potential solutions to reduce dairy farm worker exposure to risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders is scarce. Future research efforts should further characterize hazards while simultaneously testing viable solutions that fit within the business model of the dairy farm industry. PMID:23844788

  1. Moving Toward Integrative, Multidimensional Research in Modern Psychiatry: Lessons Learned From Fragile X Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fung, Lawrence K; Reiss, Allan L

    2016-07-15

    The field of psychiatry is approaching a major inflection point. The basic science behind cognition, emotion, behavior, and social processes has been advancing rapidly in the past 20 years. However, clinical research supporting the classification system in psychiatry has not kept up with these scientific advances. To begin organizing the basic science of psychiatry in a comprehensive manner, we begin by selecting fragile X syndrome, a neurogenetic disease with cognitive-behavioral manifestations, to illustrate key concepts in an integrative, multidimensional model. Specifically, we describe key genetic and molecular mechanisms (e.g., gamma-aminobutyric acidergic dysfunction and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5-associated long-term depression) relevant to the pathophysiology of fragile X syndrome as well as neural correlates of cognitive-behavioral symptoms. We then describe what we have learned from fragile X syndrome that may be applicable to other psychiatric disorders. We conclude this review by discussing current and future opportunities in diagnosing and treating psychiatric diseases. PMID:26868443

  2. Application of modern control design methodology to oblique wing research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, James H.

    1991-01-01

    A Linear Quadratic Regulator synthesis technique was used to design an explicit model following control system for the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA). The forward path model (Maneuver Command Generator) was designed to incorporate the desired flying qualities and response decoupling. The LQR synthesis was based on the use of generalized controls, and it was structured to provide a proportional/integral error regulator with feedforward compensation. An unexpected consequence of this design approach was the ability to decouple the control synthesis into separate longitudinal and lateral directional designs. Longitudinal and lateral directional control laws were generated for each of the nine design flight conditions, and gain scheduling requirements were addressed. A fully coupled 6 degree of freedom open loop model of the OWRA along with the longitudinal and lateral directional control laws was used to assess the closed loop performance of the design. Evaluations were performed for each of the nine design flight conditions.

  3. The new 2meter RCC Telescope in the Northern CAucasus (3100m) for Modern Astronomical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarady, V.; Yatskiv, Ya.

    A new 2 meter Ritchey-Chretien-Coude telescope in the Northern Caucasus is expected to be ready for astronomical research in late 1995. The telescope is located on the Terskol peak (near Elbrus) with the altitude of 3100 meter. The low atmospheric water vapour content and the high air transparency in the ultraviolet region allow us to infer that the Terskol peak is one of the best sites in Europe for astronomical ground observation. The mean seeing is about 1 arcsec at the Terskol peak. The main parameters of the optical system are as follows: * equivalent focal length is 16000 mm for the Ritchey-Chretien system and 72000 mm for the Coude system; * diameter of the field free from vignetting is 108' for the Ritchey-Chretien system and 5' for another one; *spot concentration is 80% inside the 0.5" circle. The new telescope will be used in investigating the fundamental problems of the star brightness variability, physics of stars and galaxies, studying the planet and satellite atmosphere dynamics. The precise astrometrical problems can also be solved with this telescope. The telescope will be equiped with the following detectors: -CCD Echelle spectrograph in the Coude focus; - astronomical infrared Fourie spectrometre; -digital panoramic polarimeter; -panoramic spectrophotometer with Fabry-Perot interferometer. This project is realized by the joint efforts of the Main Astronomical Observatory in Kiev (Ukrainian Academy of Sciences) and the International Centre for Astronomical and Medical-Ecological Investigations. Proposals for Scientific observation at the Terskol Observatory are encouraged.

  4. Molecular targets of naturopathy in cancer research: bridge to modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aamir; Ginnebaugh, Kevin R; Li, Yiwei; Padhye, Subhash B; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of naturopathy (defined as the practice of medicine for the treatment of human diseases with natural agents) in human cancer is beginning to be appreciated, as documented by renewed interest in nutraceutical research, the natural anticancer agents of dietary origin. Because of their pleiotropic effects and the ability to modulate multiple signaling pathways, which is a good attribute of natural agents, nutraceuticals have frequently been demonstrated to re-sensitize drug-resistant cancers. The effectiveness of nutraceuticals can be further enhanced if the tools for the relative assessment of their molecular targets are readily available. Such information can be critical for determining their most effective uses. Here, we discuss the anticancer potential of nutraceuticals and the associated challenges that have interfered with their translational potential as a naturopathic approach for the management of cancers. In the years to come, an efficient screening and assessment of molecular targets will be the key to make rapid progress in the area of drug design and discovery, especially focusing on evidence-based development of naturopathy for the treatment of human malignancies. PMID:25569626

  5. Using Data to Upend Conventional Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Many school districts are putting data to good use, although much of the data used in administrative decision making ultimately derives from standardized test scores, which raises a host of other related concerns. The author's purpose in this article is not to critique the types or sources of data that administrators use, but to suggest that there…

  6. The History of Mental Health Services in Modern England: Practitioner Memories and the Direction of Future Research.

    PubMed

    Turner, John; Hayward, Rhodri; Angel, Katherine; Fulford, Bill; Hall, John; Millard, Chris; Thomson, Mathew

    2015-10-01

    Writing the recent history of mental health services requires a conscious departure from the historiographical tropes of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries which have emphasised the experience of those identified (and legally defined) as lunatics and the social, cultural, political, medical and institutional context of their treatment. A historical narrative structured around rights (to health and liberty) is now complicated by the rise of new organising categories such as 'costs', 'risks', 'needs' and 'values'. This paper, drawing on insights from a series of witness seminars attended by historians, clinicians and policymakers, proposes a programme of research to place modern mental health services in England and Wales in a richer historical context. Historians should recognise the fragmentation of the concepts of mental illness and mental health need, acknowledge the relationship between critiques of psychiatry and developments in other intellectual spheres, place the experience of the service user in the context of wider socio-economic and political change, understand the impacts of the social perception of 'risk' and of moral panic on mental health policy, relate the politics of mental health policy and resources to the general determinants of institutional change in British central and local government, and explore the sociological and institutional complexity of the evolving mental health professions and their relationships with each other and with their clients. While this is no small challenge, it is perhaps the only way to avoid the perpetuation of 'single-issue mythologies' in describing and accounting for change. PMID:26352306

  7. Astronomy in Modern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eker, Zeki; Demircan, Osman, Kirbiyik, Halil; Bilir, Selcuk

    2013-01-01

    Present-day astronomy and its development in the recent history of Turkey are described. Current astronomy education in modern-day Turkish Republic from primary to high schools, including modern-day university education is discussed. Astronomical and space research together with the existing observatories and present-day Turkish astronomy in the global state is presented.

  8. Representation of tropical storms in the northwestern pacific by the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for research and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myong-In; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Kim, Dongmin

    2011-05-01

    This study examines the tropical storms simulated in the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) global atmospheric reanalysis for the recent 12 years (1998-2009), focusing on the tropical storm activity over the Northwestern Pacific. For validation, the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) dataset is used as an observational counterpart. Climatological-mean features of the tropical storm genesis, tracks and their maximum intensity are the primary interests in this study. Regarding the genesis location of tropical storms, MERRA is reasonable in resolving major development regions over the South China Sea and the Northwestern Pacific close to the Philippines. The seasonal variation of the number of storms is also reproduced in a realistic way in MERRA, with peak values occurring from July to September. In addition, MERRA tends to reproduce the observed interannual variation of the number of tropical storms during the 12-years, though with a limited accuracy. The simulated paths toward higher latitudes are also reasonable in MERRA, where the reanalysis corresponds well with the observations in resolving frequent paths of westward moving storms and recurving storms toward the northeast. Regarding the intensity, MERRA captures the linear relationship between the minimum center pressure and the maximum wind speed near the surface at the maximum development. Some discrepancies from the observed features are found in the reanalysis, such as less frequent development of storms over the South China Sea and less frequent paths over this region. The reanalysis also does not attain the observed maximum intensity for the resolved tropical storms, particularly underestimating the center pressure. These deficiencies are likely related to limitations in the horizontal resolution and the parameterized physics of the data assimilation system.

  9. The History of Mental Health Services in Modern England: Practitioner Memories and the Direction of Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Turner, John; Hayward, Rhodri; Angel, Katherine; Fulford, Bill; Hall, John; Millard, Chris; Thomson, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Writing the recent history of mental health services requires a conscious departure from the historiographical tropes of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries which have emphasised the experience of those identified (and legally defined) as lunatics and the social, cultural, political, medical and institutional context of their treatment. A historical narrative structured around rights (to health and liberty) is now complicated by the rise of new organising categories such as ‘costs’, ‘risks’, ‘needs’ and ‘values’. This paper, drawing on insights from a series of witness seminars attended by historians, clinicians and policymakers, proposes a programme of research to place modern mental health services in England and Wales in a richer historical context. Historians should recognise the fragmentation of the concepts of mental illness and mental health need, acknowledge the relationship between critiques of psychiatry and developments in other intellectual spheres, place the experience of the service user in the context of wider socio-economic and political change, understand the impacts of the social perception of ‘risk’ and of moral panic on mental health policy, relate the politics of mental health policy and resources to the general determinants of institutional change in British central and local government, and explore the sociological and institutional complexity of the evolving mental health professions and their relationships with each other and with their clients. While this is no small challenge, it is perhaps the only way to avoid the perpetuation of ‘single-issue mythologies’ in describing and accounting for change. PMID:26352306

  10. Modern Era Retrospective Restrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Services at the GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrick, Stephen W.; Shen, Suhung; Ostrenga, Dana

    2008-01-01

    The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset is a NASA satellite era, 30 year (1979 - present), reanalysis using the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System, Version 5 (GEOS-5). The project, run out of NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office at Goddard Space Flight Center, provides the science and application communities with a state-of-the-art global analysis with emphasis on improved estimates of the hydrological cycle over a broad range of weather and climate time scales. MERRA products are generated as a long-term synthesis that places the NASA EOS suite of observations in a climate context. The MERRA analysis is performed at a horizontal resolution of 2/3 longitude x 1/2 latitude (540x361 global gridpoints) with observational analyses every 6 hours. The MERRA output data will include 3 dimensional state fields for every 6 hourly analysis cycle on 42 pressure levels (or 72 terrain following model coordinate levels) from the surface through the stratosphere. Several data products are specifically designed to support chemistry and stratosphere transport modeling. The 2 dimensional surface and atmospheric diagnostics (numbering 259) are being stored on the native grid at 1 hourly intervals. These include radiation and vertical integrals of the atmosphere for water and energy budget studies and also surface diagnostics where the diurnal cycle is important. The one hourly surface and near surface data product will also facilitate research on the integrated analysis of Earth system observations in the land, ocean and cryosphere. The MERRA products are archived and distributed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) through its Modeling DISC Web (MDISC) portal. Multiple data access methods and services are available for MERRA data through MDISC: (1) Mirador offers a quick, comprehensive search of MERRA and all GES DISC archived data holdings, allowing searches on

  11. American Meteorological Society (AMS) - The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Accessibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    daSilva, Arlindo

    2009-01-01

    The AM Short Course on The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data and accessibility will be held on January 11, 2009 preceding the 89th Annual Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona. Preliminary programs, registration, hotel, and general information will be posted on the AMS Web site in mid-September 2008. Retrospective-analyses (or reanalyses) have been established as an important tool in weather and climate research over the last decade. As computer power increases, the data assimilation and modeling systems improve and become more advanced, the input data quality increases and so reanalyses become more reliable. In 2008, NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office began producing a new reanalysis called the Modem Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The initial data from the reanalysis has been made available to the community and should be complete through 30 years (1979-present) by Fall of 2009. MERRA has taken advantage of the advancement of computing resources to provide users more data than previously available. The native spatial resolution is nominally 1/2 degrees and the surface two dimensional data are one hourly frequency. In addition to the meteorological analysis data, complete mass, energy and momentum budget data and also stratospheric data are provided. The eventual data holdings will exceed 150Tb. In order to facilitate user accessibility to the data, it will be stored in online hard drives (not tape storage) and available through several portals. Subsetting tools will also be available to allow users to tailor their data requests. The goals of this short course are to provide hands on users of reanalyses instruction on MERRA systems and also interactive experience with the online data and access tools. The course is intended for students and research scientists who will be actively interested in accessing and applying MERRA data in their weather, climate or applications work. The course has

  12. [Takeki Kudoh's Research on Modern Medical Science and Japanized Confucianism in Colonial Korea (Chosŏn)].

    PubMed

    Ch'oi, Jae-Mok; Kim, Jeŏng-Gon

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews Kudoh Takeki's activity critically during the colonial Korea period, regarding his research on Medical Science and Japanized Confucianism. He managed 'The Seoul Gynecological Hospital'for approximately 35 years in the Chosŏn period as a Japanese resident with Chosŏn status. He published medical knowledge about obstetrics through more than 280 articles, and attempted to improve the hygiene and health of 'Korean Women'. He tried to complete his will toward 'One Unity of Chosŏn and Japan'by terminating the Chosŏn culture 'gene'as an intention. The purpose would enlighten Chosŏn by Japanese blessing. This paper aims to confirm his intention by two aspect of analysis by 'Medical Science'as an occupation and 'Confucianism'and the background of his thought. The content of Kudoh Takeki's research in Chosŏn regarding Medical Science-Confucianism is described as below. First, the purpose and mission of Kudoh Takeki regarding Chosŏn was analyzed. The papers revealed the Kudoh Takeki mentioned only the 'HusbandMurders of Corean Women', which was defined by Kudoh Takeki as 'A Special Crime of Corea'. This paper examined his intensions. Second, writings by Kudoh Takeki were listed to verify the 'medical'field and 'non-medical'field according to the subject. No list of contents was found for his more than 280 articles or essays in magazines/newspapers/ publications, and these papers only described the Kudoh paper "A Special Crime of Corea"and studied the separate book publication by Kudoh THE GYNAECOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF HUSBANDMURDERS OF COREAN WOMEN, A SPECIAL CRIME OF COREA. Third, the genealogy of Confucianism of Kudoh Takeki was analyzed as his background of mental·thought by his hometown and the school he graduated from. The people from Kumamoto and Seiseiko school who were influenced by 'Yi Toegye'of Chosŏn Confucianism were more active than general Japanese. Fourth, the practical activity of Kudoh Takeki in Chosŏn was described. The paper

  13. Modernity's Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Argues for reframing and reforging the relationship between text and context. Argues that the silences that modernity's tribute to text invites are grotesque, untenable, and fundamentally anti-intellectual. (SR)

  14. [Research on integrated application of tumor magnetic induction hyperthermia treatment planning system and modern medical information systems].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Zihan; Zhai, Weiming; Cai, Dongyang; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tang, Jintian

    2014-02-01

    Magnetic induction hyperthermia becomes a very important tumor treatment method at present. In order to ensure a successful operation, doctors should make hyperthermia treatment planning before surgery. Based on Integration Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) framework and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medcine (DICOM) standard, we proposed and carried out a network workflow integrated with modern medical information systems for the dissemination of information in magnetic induction hyperthermia like accurate accessing patient information and radiology image data, storing processed images, sharing and verifying hyperthermia reports. The results proved that our system could not only improve the efficiency of magnetic induction hyperthermia treatment planning, but also save medical resources and reduce labor costs. PMID:24804509

  15. Facility Modernization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D; Ackley, R

    2007-05-10

    Modern and technologically up-to-date facilities and systems infrastructure are necessary to accommodate today's research environment. In response, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a continuing commitment to develop and apply effective management models and processes to maintain, modernize, and upgrade its facilities to meet the science and technology mission. The Facility Modernization Pilot Study identifies major subsystems of facilities that are either technically or functionally obsolete, lack adequate capacity and/or capability, or need to be modernized or upgraded to sustain current operations and program mission. This study highlights areas that need improvement, system interdependencies, and how these systems/subsystems operate and function as a total productive unit. Although buildings are 'grandfathered' in and are not required to meet current codes unless there are major upgrades, this study also evaluates compliance with 'current' building, electrical, and other codes. This study also provides an evaluation of the condition and overall general appearance of the structure.

  16. Modern Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Gordon M.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the basic ideas of modern spectroscopy. Both the angular momenta and wave-nature approaches to the determination of energy level patterns for atomic and molecular systems are discussed. The interpretation of spectra, based on atomic and molecular models, is considered. (LC)

  17. Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, London (England).

    This survey of educational practices in Great Britain is intended to allow a comparative view of the state of modern language instruction as it exists within the country and abroad. Chapters focus on general principles, language selection, grammar and secondary schools, instructional materials, foreign relations, teacher training, and teaching…

  18. Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and mental health: from Metchnikoff to modern advances: Part II – contemporary contextual research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been a renewed interest concerning the ways in which the gastrointestinal tract – its functional integrity and microbial residents – might influence human mood (e.g. depression) and behavioral disorders. Once a hotbed of scientific interest in the early 20th century, this area lay dormant for decades, in part due to its association with the controversial term ‘autointoxication’. Here we review contemporary findings related to intestinal permeability, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) exposure, D-lactic acid, propionic acid, and discuss their relevance to microbiota and mental health. In addition, we include the context of modern dietary habits as they relate to depression, anxiety and their potential interaction with intestinal microbiota. PMID:23497633

  19. Current Perspectives and Research on the Role of Bacteria in Precipitating Carbonate Minerals in Aquatic Environments: Modern Bahamian Ooids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J. B.

    2006-12-01

    Heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria are known to precipitate a diverse array of carbonate minerals in vast quantities. Quantitative bacterial calcification studies are still needed in order to advance our predictive capacity for global carbon cycling and the sequestration of anthropogenic carbon. Bacterial carbonate precipitation may result in the formation of vast carbonate muds (e.g. whitings), large reservoirs of small sedimentary grains (e.g. ooid shoals) and large areas covered by sedimentary structures (e.g. thrombolites and stromatolites) in marine and freshwater environments over the past 3.5 Ga. Multiple lines of evidence will be presented for a diverse prokaryotic association with modern ooids and for their possible key role in the formation of both modern and ancient ooids. We have begun to characterize the bacterial community associated with Bahamian ooids via traditional culture techniques and environmental 16S rDNA molecular techniques. Our current results demonstrate the presence of a diverse prokaryotic community on and within ooids. We have also started to characterize the bacterial-ooid association via light, epifluorescence, scanning and transmission electron, microscopy. The ooids also contain abundant bacterial pigments as revealed by epifluorescent microscopy, culturing, and detailed HPLC analyses of extracted pigments. Electron microscopy illustrates the presence of bacteria on the surface of ooid and within the ooids. Preliminary calcification experiments using bacterial isolates demonstrate their ability to precipitate carbonate minerals from filter-sterilized seawater. The calcification experiments demonstrate the ability of the isolates to alter the pH of seawater via alkali production, which results in the precipitation of calcium carbonate and the depletion of calcium ions from solution. Bacterial carbonate precipitation is ubiquitous in tropical marine environments and the mechanisms and quantification of the precipitation are only

  20. Cyberspace modernization :

    SciTech Connect

    Keliiaa, Curtis M.; McLane, Victor N.

    2014-07-01

    A common challenge across the communications and information technology (IT) sectors is Internet + modernization + complexity + risk + cost. Cyberspace modernization and cyber security risks, issues, and concerns impact service providers, their customers, and the industry at large. Public and private sectors are struggling to solve the problem. New service opportunities lie in mobile voice, video, and data, and machine-to-machine (M2M) information and communication technologies that are migrating not only to predominant Internet Protocol (IP) communications, but also concurrently integrating IP, version 4 (IPv4) and IP, version 6 (IPv6). With reference to the Second Internet and the Internet of Things, next generation information services portend business survivability in the changing global market. The planning, architecture, and design information herein is intended to increase infrastructure preparedness, security, interoperability, resilience, and trust in the midst of such unprecedented change and opportunity. This document is a product of Sandia National Laboratories Tribal Cyber and IPv6 project work. It is a Cyberspace Modernization objective advisory in support of bridging the digital divide through strategic partnership and an informed path forward.

  1. Modern Biotechnology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  2. Modern biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned. PMID:19626302

  3. Modern Process Studies in Kongsfjord, Svalbard: Arctic Geoscience Research Experience for U.S. Undergraduates (Svalbard REU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, R. D.; Brigham-Grette, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Svalbard REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates) program focuses on understanding how high latitude glaciers, meltwater streams, and sedimentation in lakes and fjords respond to changing climate. Since summer of 2004, six under-graduate students have been selected to participate in the summer field program. Students work on individual projects and in close conjunction with faculty advisors and other student researchers. They formulate their own research questions, develop their project, and complete their field research during a five-week program on Svalbard, Norway. Following the summer program, students complete their projects at their home institution during the following academic year as a senior thesis. A spring symposium brings all participants back together again with their final results. The most recent field season was completed in Kongsfjord (79N) showing that the contemporary studies of tidewater glacier margins provide an unparalleled opportunity for introducing motivated third year undergraduate students to the challenges and rewards of polar geoscientific field research. Rates of rapid change in this high-latitude Arctic environment emphasize the complexity of the Earth System at the interface of the ocean, atmosphere and cryosphere. Given background information in glacial and marine geology, glaciology, hydrology, climatology and fjord oceanography not routinely offered in undergraduate curricula, students develop the science questions to be addressed and establish a field plan for instrumentation and sampling. Working together in small boats in one of the most challenging natural environments, the students expand their leadership skills, learn the value of teamwork and collaborative data sharing while maintaining a strong sense of ownership over their individual science projects. The rigors of studying an actively calving tidewater glacier also builds on their outdoor skills, especially when it is necessary to improvise and become

  4. A technical perspective in modern tree-ring research--how to overcome dendroecological and wood anatomical challenges.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Holger; Cherubini, Paolo; Fonti, Patrick; von Arx, Georg; Schneider, Loïc; Nievergelt, Daniel; Verstege, Anne; Bast, Alexander; Schweingruber, Fritz H; Büntgen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Dendroecological research uses information stored in tree rings to understand how single trees and even entire forest ecosystems responded to environmental changes and to finally reconstruct such changes. This is done by analyzing growth variations back in time and correlating various plant-specific parameters to (for example) temperature records. Integrating wood anatomical parameters in these analyses would strengthen reconstructions, even down to intra-annual resolution. We therefore present a protocol on how to sample, prepare, and analyze wooden specimen for common macroscopic analyses, but also for subsequent microscopic analyses. Furthermore we introduce a potential solution for analyzing digital images generated from common small and large specimens to support time-series analyses. The protocol presents the basic steps as they currently can be used. Beyond this, there is an ongoing need for the improvement of existing techniques, and development of new techniques, to record and quantify past and ongoing environmental processes. Traditional wood anatomical research needs to be expanded to include ecological information to this field of research. This would support dendro-scientists who intend to analyze new parameters and develop new methodologies to understand the short and long term effects of specific environmental factors on the anatomy of woody plants. PMID:25866965

  5. A Technical Perspective in Modern Tree-ring Research - How to Overcome Dendroecological and Wood Anatomical Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Gärtner, Holger; Cherubini, Paolo; Fonti, Patrick; von Arx, Georg; Schneider, Loïc; Nievergelt, Daniel; Verstege, Anne; Bast, Alexander; Schweingruber, Fritz H.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Dendroecological research uses information stored in tree rings to understand how single trees and even entire forest ecosystems responded to environmental changes and to finally reconstruct such changes. This is done by analyzing growth variations back in time and correlating various plant-specific parameters to (for example) temperature records. Integrating wood anatomical parameters in these analyses would strengthen reconstructions, even down to intra-annual resolution. We therefore present a protocol on how to sample, prepare, and analyze wooden specimen for common macroscopic analyses, but also for subsequent microscopic analyses. Furthermore we introduce a potential solution for analyzing digital images generated from common small and large specimens to support time-series analyses. The protocol presents the basic steps as they currently can be used. Beyond this, there is an ongoing need for the improvement of existing techniques, and development of new techniques, to record and quantify past and ongoing environmental processes. Traditional wood anatomical research needs to be expanded to include ecological information to this field of research. This would support dendro-scientists who intend to analyze new parameters and develop new methodologies to understand the short and long term effects of specific environmental factors on the anatomy of woody plants. PMID:25866965

  6. Herbicides as weed control agents: state of the art: I. Weed control research and safener technology: the path to modern agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kraehmer, Hansjoerg; Laber, Bernd; Rosinger, Chris; Schulz, Arno

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of modern industrial herbicides is to control weeds. The species of weeds that plague crops today are a consequence of the historical past, being related to the history of the evolution of crops and farming practices. Chemical weed control began over a century ago with inorganic compounds and transitioned to the age of organic herbicides. Targeted herbicide research has created a steady stream of successful products. However, safeners have proven to be more difficult to find. Once found, the mode of action of the safener must be determined, partly to help in the discovery of further compounds within the same class. However, mounting regulatory and economic pressure has changed the industry completely, making it harder to find a successful herbicide. Herbicide resistance has also become a major problem, increasing the difficulty of controlling weeds. As a result, the development of new molecules has become a rare event today. PMID:25104723

  7. Herbicides as Weed Control Agents: State of the Art: I. Weed Control Research and Safener Technology: The Path to Modern Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Kraehmer, Hansjoerg; Laber, Bernd; Rosinger, Chris; Schulz, Arno

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of modern industrial herbicides is to control weeds. The species of weeds that plague crops today are a consequence of the historical past, being related to the history of the evolution of crops and farming practices. Chemical weed control began over a century ago with inorganic compounds and transitioned to the age of organic herbicides. Targeted herbicide research has created a steady stream of successful products. However, safeners have proven to be more difficult to find. Once found, the mode of action of the safener must be determined, partly to help in the discovery of further compounds within the same class. However, mounting regulatory and economic pressure has changed the industry completely, making it harder to find a successful herbicide. Herbicide resistance has also become a major problem, increasing the difficulty of controlling weeds. As a result, the development of new molecules has become a rare event today. PMID:25104723

  8. The survey project: researching women’s everyday experience and envisioning modernity in rural Bohemia at the end of the Second World War.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a survey of rural Czech women conducted in 1944–1945. It argues that the survey tells two very different stories. First, the survey provides an unvarnished look into the everyday material circumstances of a few rural Czech women. But for all they tell us about the material conditions of these rural women’s lives, the surveys tell us very little about their ideals, hopes, and dreams. The surveys do, however, reveal quite a bit about the inner motivations of the very different group of women who commissioned this research, a group known as the Women’s Center. Reading in between the lines of these texts shows how the activists of the Women’s Center imagined modernity in the countryside. Theirs was a vision of rational households, technological advances, and good taste, even in rural villages. PMID:22250311

  9. Modernizing Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Vincent L.; Hildebrand, Verna

    1981-01-01

    Suggests assignment of research duties and rotation of teaching and management roles for college administrators, to increase their effectiveness and diminish the negative effects of declining enrollments. (JD)

  10. The Historical Development of Deqi Concept from Classics of Traditional Chinese Medicine to Modern Research: Exploitation of the Connotation of Deqi in Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hong-Wen; Ma, Liang-Xiao; Qi, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Peng; Li, Chun-Hua; Zhu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Although it is difficult in fully clarifying its mechanisms and effects, Deqi still can be considered as an instant “sign” of acupuncture response of the patient and acupuncturist, which has a significant value in clinic and research. This paper aims to take a history trace to the development of Deqi theory, understand the connotation of Deqi based on Chinese medicine theory, and establish an evaluation methodology accordingly. We believe that Deqi is not only the needling sensation, but also the perception of changes of qi′ flowing of the patient elicited by needling on acupoints. The signs of Deqi include the patient's subjective perception (needling sensation), the objective physiological changes (common referred to the skin redness around the acupoints and the response of brain), and the acupuncturists' perception. Although Deqi is essential for attaining the effect, it may not be the necessary sign of the ideal efficacy. It is found that the characteristics of Deqi sensations, Deqi's intensity, time duration, and the propagation will all affect the efficacy. Thus, acupuncturists should pay attention to elicit and control Deqi state, which is also the key point in modern research on the therapeutic implications of Deqi. PMID:24302968

  11. Traditional Japanese Kampo Medicine: Clinical Research between Modernity and Traditional Medicine—The State of Research and Methodological Suggestions for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenji; Matsuura, Keiko; Gao, Pengfei; Hottenbacher, Lydia; Tokunaga, Hideaki; Nishimura, Ko; Imazu, Yoshihiro; Reissenweber, Heidrun; Witt, Claudia M.

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese traditional herbal medicine, Kampo, has gradually reemerged and 148 different formulations (mainly herbal extracts) can be prescribed within the national health insurance system. The objective of this article is to introduce Kampo and to present information from previous clinical studies that tested Kampo formulae. In addition, suggestions on the design of future research will be stated. The literature search was based on a summary, up until January 2009, by the Japanese Society of Oriental Medicine and included only those trials which were also available in either Pubmed or ICHUSHI (Japan Medical Abstracts Society). We included 135 studies, half of these studies (n = 68) used a standard control and 28 a placebo control. Thirty-seven trials were published in English [all randomized controlled trials (RCTs)] and the remaining articles were in Japanese only. The sample size for most studies was small (two-third of the studies included less than 100 patients) and the overall methodological quality appeared to be low. None of the studies used Kampo diagnosis as the basis for the treatment. In order to evaluate Kampo as a whole treatment system, certain aspects should be taken into account while designing studies. RCTs are the appropriate study design to test efficacy or effectiveness; however, within the trial the treatment could be individualized according to the Kampo diagnosis. Kampo is a complex and individualized treatment with a long tradition, and it would be appropriate for further research on Kampo medicine to take this into account. PMID:21687585

  12. Biodiesel Emissions Testing with a Modern Diesel Engine - Equipment Only: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-399

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the emissions and performance impact of biodiesel in a modern diesel engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter. This testing is in support of the Non-Petroleum Based Fuels (NPBF) 2010 Annual Operating Plan (AOP).

  13. Modern Physics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Douglas; Hiller, John R.; Moloney, Michael J.

    1995-10-01

    The Consortium for Upper Level Physics Software (CUPS) has developed a comprehensive series of Nine Book/Software packages that Wiley will publish in FY `95 and `96. CUPS is an international group of 27 physicists, all with extensive backgrounds in the research, teaching, and development of instructional software. The project is being supported by the National Science Foundation (PHY-9014548), and it has received other support from the IBM Corp., Apple Computer Corp., and George Mason University. The Simulations being developed are: Astrophysics, Classical Mechanics, Electricity & Magnetism, Modern Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Solid State, Thermal and Statistical, and Wave and Optics.

  14. Breazeale Reactor Modernization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, C. C.

    2003-04-16

    The Penn State Breazeale Nuclear Reactor is the longest operating licensed research reactor in the nation. The facility has played a key role in educating scientists, engineers and in providing facilities and services to researchers in many different disciplines. In order to remain a viable and effective research and educational institution, a multi-phase modernization project was proposed. Phase I was the replacement of the 25-year old reactor control and safety system along with associated wiring and hardware. This phase was fully funded by non-federal funds. Tasks identified in Phases II-V expand upon and complement the work done in Phase I to strategically implement state-of-the-art technologies focusing on identified national needs and priorities of the future.

  15. Upending the Grammar of the Conventional Religious School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Isa

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview and analysis of a relatively new phenomenon: congregational schools that have altered the conventional grammar of schooling, either through their structural arrangements or through their curricular approaches. Five pre-bar/bat mitzvah models are discussed: family schools, schools as communities,…

  16. Pre-design study for a modern four-bladed rotor for the Rotor System Research Aircraft (RSRA). [integrating the YAH-64 main rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, C. W.; Logan, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    Various candidate rotor systems were compared in an effort to select a modern four-bladed rotor for the RSRA. The YAH-64 rotor system was chosen as the candidate rotor system for further development for the RSRA. The process used to select the rotor system, studies conducted to mate the rotor with the RSRA and provide parametric variability, and the development plan which would be used to implement these studies are presented. Drawings are included.

  17. Similitude in modern pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, M Z

    1999-07-01

    The principle of the similitude, the basis of homeopathy, has correspondences in the clinical studies of secondary effects of many modern pharmaceutical agents through the observation of the rebound effects of these drugs. Through clinical pharmacology, I proposed a model on which to base the scientificism of the homeopathic model. We have studied the effects of the drugs in the human body using pharmacological compendia and recent scientific works, confirming the mechanism of the homeopathic medicines' action through the verification of the primary action of the drugs and the consequent secondary reaction of the organism in hundreds of pharmaceutical agents. Treatment exploiting the "rebound" effect (curative vital reaction) may also be observed. This work suggests a research methodology to scientifically base the therapeutic principle of similitude. PMID:10449051

  18. Modern Zoos: New Challenges, New Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandford, Floyd

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the changing function of the modern zoo from its merely recreational role to its newly emerging role as preserver of species, educator, and center for research. Describes the San Diego Zoo as the model for the modern zoo and provides tips for planning field trips to a zoo. (JM)

  19. Mendel in the Modern Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.

    2015-01-01

    Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and modern biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the modern biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical controversies that have relevance to modern curricular design, such as Fisher's (Ann Sci 1:115-137, 1936/2008) claim that Mendel's data were too good to be true. We also address questions about Mendel's status as the father of genetics as well as questions about the sequencing of Mendel's work in genetics instruction in relation to modern molecular genetics and evolution. Next, we present a systematic set of examples of research based approaches to the use of Mendel in the modern classroom along with criticisms of these designs and questions about the historical accuracy of the story of Mendel as presented in the typical classroom. Finally, we identify gaps in our understanding in need of further study and present a selected set of resources that, along with the references cited, should be valuable to science educators interested in further study of the story of Mendel.

  20. Modern Technologies of Nondestructive Testing of Construction Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fediuk, R.; Yushin, A.

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the modern methods of research of building materials (such as styrofoam, cement, concrete admixtures, etc.), applied in the Far Eastern Federal University. The latest equipment described for these studies and modern methods of testing.

  1. Research and analytical evaluation of the Soviet Union and modernization of nuclear weapons forces in Europe. Final report, 15 May 80-30 Mar 82

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenberg, M.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides an indepth of the Soviet campaign against NATO nuclear modernization. It examines the background of Soviet efforts against NATO since its inception, with particular emphasis on precursor Soviet campaigns against NATO nuclear armaments. It surveys in detail Soviet views and actions against the 1979 NATO decision on deployment of Pershing II and cruise missiles in Europe, analyzes Soviet concerns about the possibility of such deployment, and explores likely Soviet countermoves before, immediately after and for an extended period following implementation of the NATO decision.

  2. Recent Developments in Corpus Linguistics and Corpus-Based Research/Department of Linguistics and Modern Language Studies at the Hong Kong Institute of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has transformed the landscape of empirical research on languages in recent decades. The proliferation of corpus technology has enabled researchers worldwide to conduct research in their own geographical locations with few hindrances. It has become increasingly commonplace for researchers to compile their own corpora for specific…

  3. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  4. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Hans M.

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  5. Modern state of cycle chemistry monitoring systems at thermal power stations according to the experience gained at the moscow power engineering institute and Element research and production center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egoshina, O. V.; Voronov, V. N.; Nazarenko, M. P.

    2014-03-01

    Information about the development history of cycle chemistry monitoring systems is presented. The first pilot monitoring system at the Ryazan district power station is briefly described including the characteristics of the analyzers used in the system. The main principles for constructing monitoring systems are formulated. The characteristics of the monitoring systems that were designed and put in operation in the period from 2008 to 2011 are given together with a list of instruments and sample preparation devices used in them. The main advantages of modern analyzers used for chemical monitoring purposes are pointed out. Some problems affecting the operation of monitoring system equipment in the startup and transient operating modes of main power-generating equipment are specially mentioned.

  6. Ancestors of modern plant crops.

    PubMed

    Salse, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    Recent accumulation of plant genomic resources offers the opportunity to compare modern genomes and model their evolutionary history from their reconstructed Most Recent Common Ancestors (MRCAs) that can be used as a guide to unveil the forces driving the evolutionary success of angiosperms and ultimately to perform applied translational research from models to crops. This article reviews the current state of art of recent structural comparative genomics studies through ancestral genome reconstruction, that is, the field of in silico paleogenomics. PMID:26985732

  7. Modern midwifery: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S

    1985-01-01

    To gain more understanding of the practices of modern midwives, 2 births occurring in a Botswanan District Hospital Maternity Ward were observed by a research assistant. Naturalistic observation was considered more reliable than interviews with either patients or modern midwives to assess the biosocial aspects of birth in the modern sector. At admission to the labor room, these 2 midwives checked the patient's blood pressure, performed a vaginal examination, checked the fetal heart, palpated the uterus, shaved the public hair, and administered an enema. Both midwives did not communicate with their patients during these procedures or offer information on the results. The patients were told not to push; 1 midwife commented, "In the hospital, nobody delivers by herself." Rather, patients were instructed to do their "breathing exercises," a term with which they were not familiar and was not explained. In the 1st case, an episiotomy was performed. Both births were uneventful in terms of complications, but marked by a lack of attention to the psychological needs of the patient or sufficient explanations as to the progress of the delivery. Overall, all communications between the modern midwives observed and their patients were impersonal, with an emphasis on technical procedures. PMID:12282440

  8. ART MODERN/DIALOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Katharine K.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews ART MODERN, an on-line data base which provides comprehensive coverage of current worldwide literature on modern art and design since 1800. Areas described include scope, coverage, arrangement of printed and on-line indexes, characteristics of basic index and code searching; also search hints, search negotiation, searchguide, and data base…

  9. MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JACKSON, R. GRAHAM

    CHOICES AND ISSUES IN SELECTING MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT. BACKGROUND INFORMATION IS INTRODUCED IN TERMS OF REASONS FOR ABANDONMENT, THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SCHOOL BUILDING OBSOLESCENCE, AND PROBLEMS IN THE MODERNIZATION PROCESS. INTERIOR PARTITIONS ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF BUILDING MATERIALS,…

  10. Myth and Modern Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patai, Raphael

    Various theories about the purpose of myth are described briefly, and then the place of myth in modern life is explored. Modern man is found to still create his own myths, and his life is still influenced by mythical prototypes and images. Myths, mythical beliefs, and mythical thinking are discovered in socialist, Communist, and totalitarian…

  11. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  12. IGISOL control system modernization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koponen, J.; Hakala, J.

    2016-06-01

    Since 2010, the IGISOL research facility at the Accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä has gone through major changes. Comparing the new IGISOL4 facility to the former IGISOL3 setup, the size of the facility has more than doubled, the length of the ion transport line has grown to about 50 m with several measurement setups and extension capabilities, and the accelerated ions can be fed to the facility from two different cyclotrons. The facility has evolved to a system comprising hundreds of manual, pneumatic and electronic devices. These changes have prompted the need to modernize also the facility control system taking care of monitoring and transporting the ion beams. In addition, the control system is also used for some scientific data acquisition tasks. Basic guidelines for the IGISOL control system update have been remote control, safety, usability, reliability and maintainability. Legacy components have had a major significance in the control system hardware and for the renewed control system software the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been chosen as the architectural backbone.

  13. The emergence of modern statistics in agricultural science: analysis of variance, experimental design and the reshaping of research at Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1919-1933.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the mathematician and geneticist R. A. Fisher during the 1920s, while he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where agricultural research was in turn reshaped by Fisher's methods. Analysis of variance and experimental design required new practices and instruments in field and laboratory research, and imposed a redistribution of expertise among statisticians, experimental scientists and the farm staff. On the other hand the use of statistical methods in agricultural science called for a systematization of information management and made computing an activity integral to the experimental research done at Rothamsted, permanently integrating the statisticians' tools and expertise into the station research programme. Fisher's statistical methods did not remain confined within agricultural research and by the end of the 1950s they had come to stay in psychology, sociology, education, chemistry, medicine, engineering, economics, quality control, just to mention a few of the disciplines which adopted them. PMID:25311906

  14. A modern trends retrospective.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Edward E

    2011-06-01

    Editorship of the Modern Trends section has been a great ride. The section raised the level of interest and readership of Fertility and Sterility, while providing important, up-to-date material for students, scientists and practitioners. PMID:21496803

  15. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 5: Design and development of a Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) for steep final approach using modern control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halyo, N.

    1983-01-01

    The design and development of a 3-D Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) for the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) Research Aircraft, a B-737-100 is described. The system was designed using sampled data Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LOG) methods, resulting in a direct digital design with a modern control structure which consists of a Kalman filter followed by a control gain matrix, all operating at 10 Hz. DIALS uses Microwave Landing System (MLS) position, body-mounted accelerometers, as well as on-board sensors usually available on commercial aircraft, but does not use inertial platforms. The phases of the final approach considered are the localizer and glideslope capture which may be performed simultaneously, localizer and steep glideslope track or hold, crab/decrab and flare to touchdown. DIALS captures, tracks and flares from steep glideslopes ranging from 2.5 deg to 5.5 deg, selected prior to glideslope capture. Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System is the first modern control design automatic landing system successfully flight tested. The results of an initial nonlinear simulation are presented here.

  16. Providing Database Services in a Nationwide Research Organisation--Coexistence of Traditional Information Services and a Modern CD-ROM/Online Hybrid Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Benjamin F.

    For the past two decades the central Information Retrieval Services of the Max Planck Society has been providing database searches for scientists in Max Planck Institutes and Research Groups throughout Germany. As a supplement to traditional search services offered by professional intermediaries, they have recently fostered the introduction of a…

  17. Can Archival Tissue Reveal Answers to Modern Research Questions?: Computer-Aided Histological Assessment of Neuroblastoma Tumours Collected over 60 Years

    PubMed Central

    Chetcuti, Albert; Mackie, Nicole; Tafavogh, Siamak; Graf, Nicole; Henwood, Tony; Charlton, Amanda; Catchpoole, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Despite neuroblastoma being the most common extracranial solid cancer in childhood, it is still a rare disease. Consequently, the unavailability of tissue for research limits the statistical power of studies. Pathology archives are possible sources of rare tissue, which, if proven to remain consistent over time, could prove useful to research of rare disease types. We applied immunohistochemistry to investigate whether long term storage caused any changes to antigens used diagnostically for neuroblastoma. We constructed and quantitatively assessed a tissue microarray containing neuroblastoma archival material dating between 1950 and 2007. A total of 119 neuroblastoma tissue cores were included spanning 6 decades. Fourteen antibodies were screened across the tissue microarray (TMA). These included seven positive neuroblastoma diagnosis markers (NB84, Chromogranin A, NSE, Ki-67, INI1, Neurofilament Protein, Synaptophysin), two anticipated to be negative (S100A, CD99), and five research antibodies (IL-7, IL-7R, JAK1, JAK3, STAT5). The staining of these antibodies was evaluated using Aperio ImageScope software along with novel pattern recognition and quantification algorithms. This analysis demonstrated that marker signal intensity did not decrease over time and that storage for 60 years had little effect on antigenicity. The construction and assessment of this neuroblastoma TMA has demonstrated the feasibility of using archival samples for research.

  18. The modern era of research on language evolution: Moving forward. Comment on "Towards a computational comparative neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain" by Michael A. Arbib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Dietrich

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-five years ago, Pinker and Bloom [1] helped reinvigorate research on language evolution by arguing that language "shows signs of complex design for the communication of propositional structures, and the only explanation for the origin of organs with complex design is the process of natural selection." Since then, empirical research has tested the assertions of (cross-cultural) universality, (cross-species) uniqueness, and (cross-domain) specificity underpinning this argument from design. Appearances aside, points of consensus have emerged. The existence of a core computational and neural substrate unique to language and/or humans is still debated, but it is widely agreed that: 1) human language performance overlaps with behaviors in other domains and species, and 2) such general, pre-existing capacities provided the context for language-specific evolution (e.g. [2]).

  19. AOI 1— COMPUTATIONAL ENERGY SCIENCES:MULTIPHASE FLOW RESEARCH High-fidelity multi-phase radiation module for modern coal combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Modest, Michael

    2013-11-15

    The effects of radiation in particle-laden flows were the object of the present research. The presence of particles increases optical thickness substantially, making the use of the “optically thin” approximation in most cases a very poor assumption. However, since radiation fluxes peak at intermediate optical thicknesses, overall radiative effects may not necessarily be stronger than in gas combustion. Also, the spectral behavior of particle radiation properties is much more benign, making spectral models simpler (and making the assumption of a gray radiator halfway acceptable, at least for fluidized beds when gas radiation is not large). On the other hand, particles scatter radiation, making the radiative transfer equation (RTE) much more di fficult to solve. The research carried out in this project encompassed three general areas: (i) assessment of relevant radiation properties of particle clouds encountered in fluidized bed and pulverized coal combustors, (ii) development of proper spectral models for gas–particulate mixtures for various types of two-phase combustion flows, and (iii) development of a Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) solution module for such applications. The resulting models were validated against artificial cases since open literature experimental data were not available. The final models are in modular form tailored toward maximum portability, and were incorporated into two research codes: (i) the open-source CFD code OpenFOAM, which we have extensively used in our previous work, and (ii) the open-source multi-phase flow code MFIX, which is maintained by NETL.

  20. Chinese medicine and its modernization demands.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Feng; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Chen, Jian

    2008-02-01

    As a typical naturally derived drug, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has developed for several thousands of years and accumulated abundant human pharmacological information and experience to form an integrated theory system. However, the problems of lower product quality, substandard codes and standards, and under-enhancement of fundamental research have restricted its further development and acceptance internationally. In this review, we explain the origin and developmental history of TCM, species involved in TCM, and their distributions in biotaxy. According to the status and problems, it is concluded that TCM modernization has become necessary and urgent. Modernization of TCM means the combination of TCM with modern technology, modern academic thoughts, and modern scientific culture, in which the most important point is to elucidate the active component of TCM, especially the material foundation of compound prescriptions and their pharmacodynamic mechanisms. Technology of analytical chemistry (HPLC, HPCE, HSCCC, etc.) and molecular biology (patch clamp, gene clamp, gene chip, fluorescent probe, DNA TUNEL assay, in situ hybridization, etc.) are useful tools to realize the modernization of TCM. Based on those studies and achievements and coupled with computer technology, all TCM products will achieve digitalization and normalization. TCM modernization will provide the world with useful reference information on traditional medicines. PMID:18164973

  1. Expanding the modern synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2010-10-01

    The Modern Evolutionary Synthesis formalizes the role of variation, heredity, differential reproduction and mutation in population genetics. Here we explore a mathematical structure, based on the asymptotic limit theorems of communication theory, that instantiates the punctuated dynamic relations of organisms with their embedding environments, including the possibility of the transfer of heritage information between different classes of organism. The approach applies a standard coevolutionary argument to genes, environment, and gene expression reconfigured as interacting information sources. In essence, we provide something of a formal roadmap for the modernization of the Modern Synthesis, making applications to both relatively rapid evolutionary punctuated equilibrium and to the conservation of ecological interactions across deep evolutionary time. PMID:20965439

  2. Modern Chinese: History and Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping

    This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the development of modern Chinese from the late 19th century up to the 1990s, concentrating on three major aspects: modern spoken Chinese, modern written Chinese, and the modern Chinese writing system. It describes and analyzes in detail, from historical and sociolinguistic perspectives,…

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Modern Supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulish, Petr P.

    2006-12-01

    We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques. The author, trying to be closer to applications of SUSY in the real world of elementary particles, is also anticipating the importance of supersymmetry for rigorous study of nonperturbative phenomena in quantum field theory. In particular, he presents the `exact' SUSY β function using instanton methods, phenomena of anomalies and dualities. Supersymmetry algebra is introduced by adding two anticommuting spinor generators to Poincaré algebra and by presenting massive and massless supermultiplets of its representations. The author prefers to use mostly the component description of field contents of the theories in question rather than the superfield formalism. Such a style makes the account closer to physical chartacteristics. Relations required by SUSY among β functions of the gauge, Yukawa and quartic interactions are checked by direct calculations as well as to all orders in perturbation theory, thus demonstrating that SUSY survives quantization. A discussion is included of the hierarchy problem of different scales of weak and strong interactions and its possible solution by the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Different SUSY breaking mechanisms are presented corresponding to a realistic phenomenology. The monograph can also be considered as a guide to `duality' relations connecting different SUSY gauge theories, supergravities and superstrings. This is demonstrated referring to the particular properties and characteristics of these theories (field contents, scaling dimensions of appropriate operators etc). In particular, the last chapter deals with the Ad

  4. Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of…

  5. Modernizing Mechanical Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Norman L.

    Some of the problems of renovating school buildings and in particular the modernization of mechanical services in existing facilities are discussed. According to school management publications, approximately 42 per cent of our elementary and 59 per cent of our secondary schools are 15 years old or older. School plants, which were built 12 to 15…

  6. Principles of Modern Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beim, George

    This book is written to give a better understanding of the principles of modern soccer to coaches and players. In nine chapters the following elements of the game are covered: (1) the development of systems; (2) the principles of attack; (3) the principles of defense; (4) training games; (5) strategies employed in restarts; (6) physical fitness…

  7. Modern splinting bandages.

    PubMed

    Wytch, R; Ashcroft, G P; Ledingham, W M; Wardlaw, D; Ritchie, I K

    1991-01-01

    We have assessed the current range of synthetic splinting bandages, using physical and mechanical tests and the subjective opinions of patients, volunteers and orthopaedic staff. Modern bandages have some better properties than standard plaster bandage but do not conform as well, are more expensive, and potentially more hazardous. PMID:1991785

  8. Modern NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinski, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic…

  9. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  10. Modern programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  11. [Modern wound dressings].

    PubMed

    Triller, Ciril; Huljev, Dubravko; Planinsek Rucigaj, Tanja

    2013-10-01

    Chronic wounds are, due to the slow healing, a major clinical problem. In addition to classic materials, a great number of supportive wound dressings for chronic wound treatment, developed on the basis of new knowledge about the pathophysiological events in non-healing wounds, are available on the market. Today we know that modern wound dressings provide the best local environment for optimal healing (moisture, warmth, appropriate pH). Wound dressings control the amount of exudate from the wound and bacterial load, thus protecting local skin from the wound exudate and the wound from secondary infections from the environment. Using supportive wound dressings makes sense only when the wound has been properly assessed, the etiologic factors have been clarified and the obstacles making the wound chronic identified. The choice of dressing is correlated with the characteristics of the wound, the knowledge and experience of the medical staff, and the patient's needs. We believe that the main advantage of modern wound dressing versus conventional dressing is more effective wound cleaning, simple dressing application, painless bandaging owing to reduced adhesion to the wound, and increased absorption of the wound exudate. Faster wound granulation shortens the length of patient hospitalization, and eventually facilitates the work of medical staff. The overall cost of treatment is a minor issue due to faster wound healing despite the fact that modern supportive wound dressings are more expensive than conventional bandaging. The article describes different types of modern supportive wound dressings, as well as their characteristics and indications for use. PMID:24371980

  12. Gnotobiology in modern medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podoprigora, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    A review is given of currently accepted theories and applications of gnotobiology. A brief history of gnotobiology is supplied. Problems involved in creating germ-free gnotobiota and the use of these animals in experimental biology are cited. Examples of how gnotobiology is used in modern medical practice illustrate the future prospects for this area of science.

  13. Teaching Modern Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, G., Ed.

    Key areas of modern language teaching are addressed in 10 articles. In addition to a general overview of methods and aims of foreign language teaching, attention is directed to the audiolingual and audiovisual revolution, language study for the slow-learning child and for the child with above average ability, imaginative learning activities for…

  14. Modern Anaesthesia Vapourisers

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarti, Sucharita; Basu, Srabani

    2013-01-01

    Inhalational anaesthetic agents are usually liquids at room temperature and barometric pressure and need to be converted to vapour before being used and this conversion is effected using a vapouriser. Vapourisers have evolved from very basic devices to more complicated ones. Anaesthetists should understand the basic principles of anaesthetic vapouriser, including the principles that affect vapouriser output and how they influence vapouriser design. Most of the modern vapourisers in use are designed to be used between the flow meter and the common gas outlet on the anaesthesia machine. Modern vapourisers are flow and temperature compensated, concentration calibrated, direct reading, dial controlled and are unaffected by positive-pressure ventilation. Safety features include an anti-spill and a select-a-tec mechanism and a specific vapouriser filling device. Desflurane has unique physical properties requiring the use of a specific desflurane vapouriser. The most recently designed vapourisers are controlled by a central processing unit in the anaesthetic machine. The concentration of vapour is continuously monitored and adjusted by altering fresh gas flow through the vapouriser. This article looks at the basic design and functioning of the modern vapourisers. PMID:24249879

  15. The origins of modern clinical research.

    PubMed

    Green, Stuart A

    2002-12-01

    The single-blind or double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial is considered the gold standard for evaluating the potential efficacy of pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and treatment protocols. The characteristic features of placebo-controlled clinical evaluations include two essential elements: a sham intervention and subject ignorance about the bogus nature of that intervention. Although it commonly is assumed that such clinical trials were developed in the 1930s, the first published report that used intentional subject ignorance and sham intervention was the result of a 1784 French royal commission investigation into mesmerism, headed by Benjamin Franklin. The strategy the Franklin commission used to debunk Franz Mesmer's assertions about health and illness served as a model for subsequent inquiries that use placebo controls and blinded assessment to arrive at their conclusions. PMID:12461388

  16. Modern optical diagnostics in engine research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leipertz, A.; Wensing, M.

    2007-10-01

    Different optical diagnistic techniques are used to gain insight into the single steps forming the functioning chain of the engine combustion process and the complex interplay between these single steps. Examples are given for the application of Mie scattering, laser-induced fluorescence, Raman scattering, CARS and laser-induced incandescence to study diesel engine, SI engine and HCCI combustion processes. The careful adaptation of each optical tool to one part of the engine process makes it possible to get valuable information with minimum change of the process investigated. The paper demonstrates that in addition to conventional engine measurement techniques, a number of different optical techniques must be applied -- and sometimes simultaneously -- to successfully determine the critical parameters of the processes and to investigate their influences on the performance and the quality of real engine combustion.

  17. MODERN LINGUISTICS, ITS DEVELOPMENT AND SCOPE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEVIN, SAMUEL R.

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN LINGUISTICS STARTED WITH JONES' DISCOVERY IN 1786 THAT SANSKRIT IS CLOSELY RELATED TO THE CLASSICAL, GERMANIC, AND CELTIC LANGUAGES, AND HAS ADVANCED TO INCLUDE THE APPLICATION OF COMPUTERS IN LANGUAGE ANALYSIS. THE HIGHLIGHTS OF LINGUISTIC RESEARCH HAVE BEEN DE SAUSSURE'S DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE DIACHRONIC AND THE…

  18. An Introduction to Modern Missing Data Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baraldi, Amanda N.; Enders, Craig K.

    2010-01-01

    A great deal of recent methodological research has focused on two modern missing data analysis methods: maximum likelihood and multiple imputation. These approaches are advantageous to traditional techniques (e.g. deletion and mean imputation techniques) because they require less stringent assumptions and mitigate the pitfalls of traditional…

  19. Appropriate Uses of Modern Technology. Classroom Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Modern technology and the Internet have opened the door to a plethora of new opportunities to learn. It is now easier to research, communicate and study, thanks to advances in technology. There are, however, problems and dangers associated with new technology. Teachers need to remain up to date on these advances. The widespread popularity of…

  20. Modern Transformations of the University in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felderhof, Marius C.

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to evaluate universities against an ideal and finds the modern university gravely wanting in terms of its governance, staff and student relationships, and in the way it delivers its teaching and research. It is corrupted by power relationships, the lack of real accountability of SMTs, the failure to recognise the disciplines and…

  1. The Competencies of the Modern Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nessipbayeva, Olga

    2012-01-01

    The principal aim of this study is to consider the competencies of the modern teacher. To understand 21st-century instructional skills, we researched the following issues: students' skills; levels of teachers' professional growth; teachers' pedagogical culture; pedagogical innovations, and 21st-century teaching competencies. [For complete volume,…

  2. Trends in Modern Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Eder, Jörg; Herrling, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    Drugs discovered by the pharmaceutical industry over the past 100 years have dramatically changed the practice of medicine and impacted on many aspects of our culture. For many years, drug discovery was a target- and mechanism-agnostic approach that was based on ethnobotanical knowledge often fueled by serendipity. With the advent of modern molecular biology methods and based on knowledge of the human genome, drug discovery has now largely changed into a hypothesis-driven target-based approach, a development which was paralleled by significant environmental changes in the pharmaceutical industry. Laboratories became increasingly computerized and automated, and geographically dispersed research sites are now more and more clustered into large centers to capture technological and biological synergies. Today, academia, the regulatory agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry all contribute to drug discovery, and, in order to translate the basic science into new medical treatments for unmet medical needs, pharmaceutical companies have to have a critical mass of excellent scientists working in many therapeutic fields, disciplines, and technologies. The imperative for the pharmaceutical industry to discover breakthrough medicines is matched by the increasing numbers of first-in-class drugs approved in recent years and reflects the impact of modern drug discovery approaches, technologies, and genomics. PMID:26330257

  3. The microscopist of modern life.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, J Andrew

    2003-01-01

    This is an essay in the history of observation of the natural and social worlds. It explores how nineteenth-century Paris became a field and object of scientific observation and how the everyday lives, and even the health, of scientists living in the city and leaving the city for the "country" modeled observations and theoretical interpretation. The story concerns the first important work in the research school of Louis Pasteur to focus on a human and urban disease, diphtheria, rather than animal and rural ones. An urban field practice emerged from characteristically Parisian forms and literary fictions of street life and public space, leisure, spectacle, and crowds. Some of these, such as transcience, were (and still are) viewed as not only characteristic of "modern life," but also the source of new practices and sensibilities in painting and literature. Microbiological studies elsewhere --such as in New York and Hamburg--were based on very different urban structures, patterns of everyday life, national cultures, and aspects of modernity. PMID:12964593

  4. Through Kazan ASPERA to Modern Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Alexander; Kitiashvili, Irina; Petrova, Natasha

    Now the European Union form the Sixth Framework Programme. One of its the objects of the EU Programme is opening national researches and training programmes. The Russian PhD students and young astronomers have business and financial difficulties in access to modern databases and astronomical projects and so they has not been included in European overview of priorities. Modern requirements to the organization of observant projects on powerful telescopes assumes painstaking scientific computer preparation of the application. A rigid competition for observation time assume preliminary computer modeling of target object for success of the application. Kazan AstroGeoPhysics Partnership

  5. A Modern Laboratory XAFS Cookbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidler, GT; Mortensen, DR; Ditter, AS; Ball, NA; Remesnik, AJ

    2016-05-01

    We have recently demonstrated a very favorable, inexpensive modernization of lab- based x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) using only commercially-available optics and x-ray tube sources. Here, we survey several proven instrument designs that can be readily implemented in any laboratory setting to achieve synchrotron-quality XAFS and XES for many systems in the 5 keV to 10 keV energy range. These approaches are based on our immediate experience with the development of: (1) an inexpensive, low-powered monochromator capable of performing either XAFS or XES, (2) a mid-scale XAFS user facility having 106/sec flux with sub-eV bandwidth on each of two independent beamlines, and (3) multiple XES spectrometers having outstanding performance that can complement synchrotron XAFS studies in battery and actinide research.

  6. Modern plasma fractionation.

    PubMed

    Burnouf, Thierry

    2007-04-01

    Protein products fractionated from human plasma are an essential class of therapeutics used, often as the only available option, in the prevention, management, and treatment of life-threatening conditions resulting from trauma, congenital deficiencies, immunologic disorders, or infections. Modern plasma product production technology remains largely based on the ethanol fractionation process, but much has evolved in the last few years to improve product purity, to enhance the recovery of immunoglobulin G, and to isolate new plasma proteins, such as alpha1-protease inhibitor, von Willebrand factor, and protein C. Because of the human origin of the starting material and the pooling of 10,000 to 50,000 donations required for industrial processing, the major risk associated to plasma products is the transmission of blood-borne infectious agents. A complete set of measures--and, most particularly, the use of dedicated viral inactivation and removal treatments--has been implemented throughout the production chain of fractionated plasma products over the last 20 years to ensure optimal safety, in particular, and not exclusively, against HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. In this review, we summarize the practices of the modern plasma fractionation industry from the collection of the raw plasma material to the industrial manufacture of fractionated products. We describe the quality requirements of plasma for fractionation and the various treatments applied for the inactivation and removal of blood-borne infectious agents and provide examples of methods used for the purification of the various classes of plasma protein therapies. We also highlight aspects of the good manufacturing practices and the regulatory environment that govern the whole chain of production. In a regulated and professional environment, fractionated plasma products manufactured by modern processes are certainly among the lowest-risk therapeutic biological products in use today. PMID:17397761

  7. Our Modern Stone Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, W. D.

    Unlike most books dealing with industrial minerals and rocks, Our Modern Stone Age is a pleasure to read. Within a matter of several hours, one can get an excellent introduction to nonmetallic mineral resources and industries exclusive o f the mineral fuels. The book is very well written and well illustrated with photographs and drawings; although pitched for the intelligent layman, it is in no way dull reading for even a well-versed economic geologist. Nearly every geologist, mining engineer, mineral economist, planner, and politician will find points of interest in this book.

  8. Attitudes of Trainers and Medical Students towards Using Modern Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadzhiiliev, Vassil Stefanov; Dobreva, Zhaneta Stoykova

    2011-01-01

    The development of universities as independent scientific centers determines their mission to incorporate the most modern achievements of science into the students' practical training. This research on the attitudes of the participants in this process towards the use of modern practices encompasses both trainers and students, and it consists of…

  9. Attitudes of Kuwait University Students towards Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouhmama, Djilali; Bouhmama, Soumia

    2015-01-01

    This research work endeavors to examine Kuwait University language students' attitude towards Modern Standard Arabic under the spread of English as a dominant language. It attempts also to examine differences between males and females' attitudes towards English as medium of instruction as opposed to Modern Standard Arabic. The undertaken study…

  10. Heliotropism in modern stromatolites

    SciTech Connect

    Awramik, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Three different examples of modern microbial mats and stromatolites have been discovered that exhibit a preferred orientation towards specular sunlight. In Hamelin Pool of Shark Bay, Western Australia, subtidal decimeter-sized discrete columns and intertidal centimeter-sized tufts were found pointing north. In thermal spring effluents and pools of Yellowstone National Park, columnar and conical centimeter-sized microbial structures were found to be inclined to the south. None of these inclined structures show growth orientation in response to prevailing fluid directions. Each example occurs in markedly different environments and each has different photosynthetic microbes: (1) the subtidal Shark Bay columns are dominated by surficial diatoms: (2) the intertidal Shark Bay tufts constructed by a filamentous cyanobacterium; and (3) the cones and columns in Yellowstone are built by filamentous flexibacteria and cyanobacteria. Sunlight must be considered a major driving force in stromatolite morphogenesis. Extrapolation of these modern heliotropic columnar stromatolites to fossil examples supports the paleolatitude hypothesis of Vologdin (1961) and of Nordeng (1963) and the days per year hypothesis of Vanyo and Awramik (1982). Taken together, and especially when combined with paleomagnetic analyses, the procedures yield an impressive array of data on Earth and Earth-Sun-Moon histories.

  11. Telling Modernization: Three Voices. Life History, Gender and the Discourse of Modernization. Roskilde University Life History Project Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Linda

    The relationship between life history, gender, and the discourse of modernization was examined from the perspective of a researcher with extensive experience performing evaluations about modernization within human services in Denmark. Three stories about site-based management in two human service institutionsa youth center and a boarding school…

  12. Modern problems of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    The role of energy and methods of its saving for the development of human society and life are analyzed. The importance of future use of space energy flows and energy of water and air oceans is emphasized. The authors consider the idea of the unit for production of electric energy and pure substances using sodium chloride which reserves are limitless on the planet. Looking retrospectively at the development of power engineering from the elementary fire to modern electric power station, we see that the used method of heat production, namely by direct interaction of fuel and oxidizer, is the simplest. However, it may be possible to combust coal, i.e., carbon in salt melt, for instance, sodium chloride that would be more rational and efficient. If the stated problems are solved positively, we would master all energy properties of the substance; and this is the main problem of thermodynamics being one of the sciences on energy.

  13. Modern carbonate environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, A.; Friedman, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    This book offers help in evaluating potential sites for oil and gas accumulations. Pointing the way to discovery of hydrocarbons in carbonate reservoirs, this volume discusses modern carbonate depositional environments in different geomorphic settings. It compiles papers by scientists whose observations have revolutionized current thinking on facies relationships in ancient carbonate rock. Contents include: Selected carbonate regions --The Algal Sediments on Androa Island in the Bahamas, Sedimentary Facies, Interaction of Genetic Processes in Holocene Reefs off North Eleuthera Island in the Bahamas, Recent Anhydrite, Holocene Shallow-Water Carbonate and Evaporite Sediments of Khor al Bazam; Carbonate production--On the Origin of Aragonite in the Dead Sea, Carbonate Production by Coral Reefs; Cold-water carbonates--Contributions on the Geology of the Northwestern Peninsula of Iceland, Evaluation of Cold-Water Carbonates as a Possible Paleoclimatic Indicator.

  14. [Modernization of ophthalmoscopic techniques].

    PubMed

    Pomerantzeff, O; Vallat, M

    1987-01-01

    The great principles of ophthalmoscopy have been known for many decades. This paper intends show the new possibilities allowed by modern technology, especially in two fields. First of all, it is possible, even in keeping basic principles, to improve previous machines with, for example, better magnification, new ophthalmoscopic lens, or to create new materials as telescopes for clinical practice or intra-ocular surgery, wide angle or high magnification fundus cameras for posterior pole examination. Secondary, by revolutionary principles, it is possible to introduce laser in the ophthalmoscopic field and to imagine new ophthalmoscopes: SLO i.e. Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope or SLM i.e. Scanning Laser Microscope, which opens a window on the future. PMID:3598060

  15. Modernizing sports facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, R.

    1996-09-01

    Modernization and renovation of sports facilities challenge the design team to balance a number of requirements: spectator and owner expectations, existing building and site conditions, architectural layouts, code and legislation issues, time constraints and budget issues. System alternatives are evaluated and selected based on the relative priorities of these requirements. These priorities are unique to each project. At Alexander Memorial Coliseum, project schedules, construction funds and facility usage became the priorities. The ACC basketball schedule and arrival of the Centennial Olympics dictated the construction schedule. Initiation and success of the project depended on the commitment of the design team to meet coliseum funding levels established three years ago. Analysis of facility usage and system alternative capabilities drove the design team to select a system that met the project requirements and will maximize the benefits to the owner and spectators for many years to come.

  16. Modern Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    The imaging and clinical management of patients with brain tumor continue to evolve over time and now heavily rely on physiologic imaging in addition to high-resolution structural imaging. Imaging remains a powerful noninvasive tool to positively impact the management of patients with brain tumor. This article provides an overview of the current state-of-the art clinical brain tumor imaging. In this review, we discuss general magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and their application to the diagnosis of, treatment planning and navigation, and disease monitoring in patients with brain tumor. We review the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of structural imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging techniques, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography/MR, and functional imaging. Overall this review provides a basis for understudying the role of modern imaging in the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:25977902

  17. Modern operative hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Centini, Gabriele; Troia, Libera; Lazzeri, Lucia; Petraglia, Felice; Luisi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Hysteroscopy is an endoscopic surgical procedure that has become an important tool to evaluate intrauterine pathology. It offers a direct visualization of the entire uterine cavity and provides the possibility of performing biopsy of suspected lesions that can be missed by dilatation and curettage (D&C). In most cases, the intrauterine pathologies can be diagnosed and treated at the same setting as office hysteroscopy ("see and treat approach"). For example, endometrial polyps can be diagnosed and removed; similarly, intrauterine adhesions can be liberated in the outpatient setting without the need for an operating theatre. Today, many hysteroscopic procedures can be performed in the office or outpatient setting. This is due to the feasibility of operative hysteroscopy using saline as a distending medium, the vaginoscopic approach of hysteroscopy and the availability of mini-hysteroscopic endoscopes. There is good evidence to suggest that hysteroscopy in an ambulatory setting is preferable for the patient, and that it avoids complications, allows a quicker recovery time and lowers cost. Advances in technology have led to miniaturization of high-definition hysteroscopes without compromising optical performance, thereby making hysteroscopy a simple, safe and well-tolerated office procedure. The new surgical technology such as bipolar electrosurgery, endometrial ablation devices, hysteroscopic sterilization, and morcellators has revolutionized this surgical modality. The modern development of hysteroscopy completely transformed the approach to the uterine intracavitary pathologies moving from a blind procedure under general anesthesia to an outpatient procedure performed under direct visualization, offering therapeutic and irreplaceable possibilities of treatment that should belong to every modern gynecologist. PMID:26930389

  18. The Tapestry of Modern Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shore, Steven N.

    2002-10-01

    The scope of modern astrophysics is the entire cosmos and everything in it. As and substantial as its subject, The Tapestry of Modern Astrophysics provides advanced undergraduates or graduate-level students with a comprehensive introduction to the subject. Avoiding axiomatic presentations, the author combines extensive qualitative discussions with analytical treatments so that students develop physical intuition the combination of observations and theoretical "horse sense" that is necessary for research in the field. The text is particularly distinguished by its deep and broad coverage, showing the way apparently different parts of astrophysics are intimately connected. Emphasizing the physical basis of the astrophysical phenomena along with the interpretation of data, Shore covers: The physical processes common to all cosmic bodies gravitation, thermal physics, and the gas laws. Special topics include statistical mechanics of stellar systems, rate equations, and General Relativity

  19. Overview of instrumentation and data analysis methods including calibration, instrumentation, and image formation and reconstruction Radiative transfer and physical processes in stellar and planetary atmospheres. Special topics include spectral classification and techniques for treating scattering Stellar structure and evolution, energy sources, and nucleosynthesis The interstellar medium with a general introduction to radiative and hydrodynamical processes The Milky Way as a galaxy, emphasizing the connection between locally observed phenomena and broader properties of extragalactic systems, active galaxies, and clusters of galaxies Cosmology and structure formation STEVEN N. SHORE is Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Indiana University South Bend. He is a scientific editor of the Astrophysical Journal and a visiting professor at Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, University of Pisa, University of Notre Dame, and Arizona State University. He is

  20. North wall, showing modern switch boxes and in fill panel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, showing modern switch boxes and in fill panel at the east end (series 4 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  21. ENANTIOMER-SPECIFIC FATE AND EFFECTS OF MODERN CHIRAL PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide presentation presents enantiomer-specific fate and effects of modern chiral pesticides. The research areas presented were analytical separation of enantiomers; environmental occurrence of enantiomers; transformation rates and enantioselectivity; bioaccumulation; and e...

  1. Teaching Modern Literature: Poetry and Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damashek, Richard

    This monograph, part of a series for language arts teachers, discusses the essential components for teaching modern poetry and modern fiction. The section on modern poetry considers traditional versus modern poetry, modernism in poetry, imagism, the function of poetry in modern times, social change in poetry, and offers a brief list of recommended…

  2. Dialogue on Modernity and Modern Education in Dispute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael; Peters, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This is a dialogue or conversation between Michael Baker (MB) and Michael A. Peters (MP) on the concept of modernity and its significance for educational theory. The dialogue took place originally as a conversation about a symposium on modernity held at the American Educational Studies Association meeting 2010. It was later developed for…

  3. Bibliographie Moderner Fremdsprachenunterricht (A Bibliography of Modern Foreign Language Instruction), Vol. 6, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Informationszentrum fuer Fremdsprachenforschung, Marburg (West Germany).

    This annotated bibliography on the teaching of modern foreign languages was prepared by the West German documentation center dealing with foreign language research. The center has an information dissemination service which closely resembles the Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics of the ERIC system (ERIC/CLL). This bibliography, published…

  4. FINAL REPORT - CENTER FOR GRID MODERNIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Markiewicz, Daniel R

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the CGM was to develop high-priority grid modernization technologies in advanced sensors, communications, controls and smart systems to enable use of real-time or near real-time information for monitoring, analyzing and managing distribution and transmission grid conditions. The key strategic approach to carry out individual CGM research and development (R&D) projects was through partnerships, primarily with the GridApp™ Consortium utility members.

  5. Modern Written Arabic, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naja, A. Nashat; Snow, James A.

    This second volume of Modern Written Arabic builds on the previous volume and is the second step designed to teach members of the Foreign Service to read the modern Arabic press. The student will gain recognitional mastery of an extensive set of vocabulary items and will be more intensively exposed to wider and more complex morphological and…

  6. Mendel in the Modern Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike U.; Gericke, Niklas M.

    2015-01-01

    Mendel is an icon in the history of genetics and part of our common culture and modern biology instruction. The aim of this paper is to summarize the place of Mendel in the modern biology classroom. In the present article we will identify key issues that make Mendel relevant in the classroom today. First, we recount some of the historical…

  7. When and What to Modernize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, D. Dana

    After a brief discussion of when a school board should consider modernizing mechanical and electrical equipment the speaker explored the specifics of lighting, heating, and ventilation. Technical data on foot candles, types of light fixtures, and the importance of air conditioning in modern school buildings are presented. The presentation…

  8. Modernizing medical photography, part 1.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Paul

    2004-12-01

    Government, media and public focus on waiting times in the National Health Service in the United Kingdom has forced the organization to look closely at the process by which a patient progresses through an increasingly complex and ever changing system. In an effort to streamline the patient journey or care pathway, modernizers have turned to business and manufacturing for solutions. Whilst medical photographers need to recognize their role in this context, they are also facing major technological modernization through the development of digital photography. Part 1 of this paper looks at the origins of some of the techniques presently being used to modernize the patient journey. Part 2 shows how these tools of modernization can be utilized to harness the advantages of digital technology to provide a modern and appropriate medical photography service in a large, disparate teaching hospital. PMID:15805027

  9. [Modern mitral valve surgery].

    PubMed

    Bothe, W; Beyersdorf, F

    2016-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, Cutler and Levine performed the first successful surgical treatment of a stenotic mitral valve, which was the only treatable heart valve defect at that time. Mitral valve surgery has evolved significantly since then. The introduction of the heart-lung machine in 1954 not only reduced the surgical risk, but also allowed the treatment of different mitral valve pathologies. Nowadays, mitral valve insufficiency has become the most common underlying pathomechanism of mitral valve disease and can be classified into primary and secondary mitral insufficiency. Primary mitral valve insufficiency is mainly caused by alterations of the valve (leaflets and primary order chords) itself, whereas left ventricular dilatation leading to papillary muscle displacement and leaflet tethering via second order chords is the main underlying pathomechanism for secondary mitral valve regurgitation. Valve reconstruction using the "loop technique" plus annuloplasty is the surgical strategy of choice and normalizes life expectancy in patients with primary mitral regurgitation. In patients with secondary mitral regurgitation, implanting an annuloplasty is not superior to valve replacement and results in high rates of valve re-insufficiency (up to 30 % after 3 months) due to ongoing ventricular dilatation. In order to improve repair results in these patients, we add a novel subvalvular technique (ring-noose-string) to the annuloplasty that aims to prevent ongoing ventricular remodeling and re-insufficiency. In modern mitral surgery, a right lateral thoracotomy is the approach of choice with excellent repair and cosmetic results. PMID:26907868

  10. Scientific knowledge and modern prospecting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuerburg, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Modern prospecting is the systematic search for specified and generally ill-exposed components of the Earth's crust known as ore. This prospecting depends entirely on reliable, or scientific knowledge for guidance and for recognition of the search objects. Improvement in prospecting results from additions and refinements to scientific knowledge. Scientific knowledge is an ordered distillation of observations too numerous and too complex in themselves for easy understanding and for effective management. The ordering of these observations is accomplished by an evolutionary hierarchy of abstractions. These abstractions employ simplified descriptions consisting of characterization by selected properties, sampling to represent much larger parts of a phenomenon, generalized mappings of patterns of geometrical and numerical relations among properties, and explanation (theory) of these patterns as functional relations among the selected properties. Each abstraction is predicated on the mode of abstraction anticipated for the next higher level, so that research is a deductive process in which the highest level, theory, is indispensible for the growth and refinement of scientific knowledge, and therefore of prospecting methodology. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Modernization of experimental air turbine VT-400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimko, Marek; Okresa, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    This article briefly describes a modernization of the experimental device - air turbine (VT-400), which is a part of the research activities at the Department of Power System Engineering, University of West Bohemia (KKE-UWB). This device serves for the research of steam turbine blades within the framework of a long-term cooperation between the Department and Doosan Skoda Power (DSPW). Due to the age of the device, some necessary changes had to be performed and some obsolete components had to be replaced or new ones added. A part of this article is also a comparison with the previous state and an evaluation of the contribution after the reconstruction.

  12. Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1984-01-01

    This potpourri surveys research on various topics: neurologically based curricula, midafternoon slumps in student attention, accounting for contexts in research, feelings of powerlessness among students and teachers, further equity implications of computers in schools, misreporting of research findings, and accounting for media transfer in…

  13. The origin of modern terrestrial life

    PubMed Central

    Forterre, Patrick; Gribaldo, Simonetta

    2007-01-01

    The study of the origin of life covers many areas of expertise and requires the input of various scientific communities. In recent years, this research field has often been viewed as part of a broader agenda under the name of “exobiology” or “astrobiology.” In this review, we have somewhat narrowed this agenda, focusing on the origin of modern terrestrial life. The adjective “modern” here means that we did not speculate on different forms of life that could have possibly appeared on our planet, but instead focus on the existing forms (cells and viruses). We try to briefly present the state of the art about alternative hypotheses discussing not only the origin of life per se, but also how life evolved to produce the modern biosphere through a succession of steps that we would like to characterize as much as possible. PMID:19404443

  14. Marijuana: modern medical chimaera.

    PubMed

    Lamarine, Roland J

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous other uses. This article reviews the research literature related to medical applications of various forms of cannabis. Benefits related to medical use of cannabinoids are examined and a number of potential risks associated with cannabis use, both medical and recreational, are considered. There is a clearly identified need for further research to isolate significant benefits from the medical application of cannabinoids and to establish dosage levels, appropriate delivery mechanisms and formulations, and to determine what role, if any, cannabinoids might play in legitimate medical applications. It is also imperative to determine if reported dangers pose a significant health risks to users. PMID:22873011

  15. Modernizing the Physics Curriculum by Being Less Modern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleckman, Philip

    2010-03-01

    This presentation offers suggestions for changes that could be made to the undergraduate physics program to better prepare scientists and engineers for careers in energy, and in particular, renewable energy. The author's perspective comes from the traditional academic training at the undergraduate and PhD levels in physics followed by work experience in industrial research in solar energy. The traditional physics undergraduate curriculum is composed of Hamiltonian mechanics, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and special relativity. In the laboratory, students typically repeat famous experiments in modern physics. While these subjects are essential to a comprehensive understanding of the physical world they do not provide the foundation necessary for work in energy production. The subjects at the core of energy production are classical thermodynamics, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics, yet they receive little if any attention in the physics curriculum. Most students of physics are familiar with the historic year 1905 but few know that one year earlier Prandtl revolutionized our understanding of fluid mechanics with his invention of the boundary layer which is at the heart of heat transfer. Reynolds and Nusselt are equally obscure. We will give examples of how the design of solar power plants requires solving elementary physical problems that are foreign to most physics students. Thermodynamic analysis, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer are core disciplines underlying the production of steam from which 90 per cent of the electricity in the US is derived. Knowledge of these subjects will continue to be essential for the future development of renewable energy. Unlike quantum mechanics, classical physics also helps to explain the phenomena of everyday life.

  16. Modernizing Fortran 77 Legacy Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decyk, Viktor; Norton, Charles

    2003-01-01

    An incremental approach to modernization of scientific software written in the Fortran 77 computing language has been developed. This approach makes it possible to preserve the investment in legacy Fortran software while augmenting the software with modern capabilities to satisfy expanded requirements. This approach could be advantageous (1) in situations in which major rewriting of application programs is undesirable or impossible, or (2) as a means of transition to major rewriting.

  17. Modernizing Natural History: Berkeley's Museum of Vertebrate Zoology in Transition.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the twentieth century calls to modernize natural history motivated a range of responses. It was unclear how research in natural history museums would participate in the significant technological and conceptual changes that were occurring in the life sciences. By the 1960s, the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California, Berkeley, was among the few university-based natural history museums that were able to maintain their specimen collections and support active research. The MVZ therefore provides a window to the modernization of natural history. This paper concentrates on the directorial transitions that occurred at the MVZ between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the MVZ had four directors: Alden H. Miller (Director 1940-1965), an ornithologist; Aldo Starker Leopold (Acting Director 1965-1966), a conservationist and wildlife biologist; Oliver P. Pearson (Director 1966-1971), a physiologist and mammalogist; and David B. Wake (Director 1971-1998), a morphologist, developmental biologist, and herpetologist. The paper explores how a diversity of overlapping modernization strategies, including hiring new faculty, building infrastructure to study live animals, establishing new kinds of collections, and building modern laboratories combined to maintain collections at the MVZ's core. The paper examines the tensions between the different modernization strategies to inform an analysis of how and why some changes were institutionalized while others were short-lived. By exploring the modernization of collections-based research, this paper emphasizes the importance of collections in the transformation of the life sciences. PMID:22990484

  18. On Heidegger, medicine, and the modernity of modern medical technology.

    PubMed

    Brassington, Iain

    2007-06-01

    This paper examines medicine's use of technology in a manner from a standpoint inspired by Heidegger's thinking on technology. In the first part of the paper, I shall suggest an interpretation of Heidegger's thinking on the topic, and attempt to show why he associates modern technology with danger. However, I shall also claim that there is little evidence that medicine's appropriation of modern technology is dangerous in Heidegger's sense, although there is no prima facie reason why it mightn't be. The explanation for this, I claim, is ethical. There is an initial attraction to the thought that Heidegger's thought echoes Kantian moral thinking, but I shall dismiss this. Instead, I shall suggest that the considerations that make modern technology dangerous for Heidegger are simply not in the character - the ethos - of medicine properly understood. This is because there is a distinction to be drawn between chronological and historical modernity, and that even up-to-date medicine, empowered by technology, retains in its ethos crucial aspects of a historically pre-modern understanding of technology. A large part of the latter half of the paper will be concerned with explaining the difference. PMID:17077993

  19. Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen

    In May of 1999, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences hosted a conference on ways to improve the scientific quality of educational research. In medicine, thanks to work 40 years ago by 2 researchers, Howard Hyatt and Frederick Mosteller, the commitment of medical professionals to base their diagnoses and prescriptions on clinical trials in…

  20. Kraepelin and modern psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, M

    1995-01-01

    A summarised account is given of Emil Kraepelin's research in the field of mental disorder, underlining his emphasis on objectivity and natural science and the need for a multi-disciplinary approach. At the same time attention is drawn to the limitations of his general outlook and to his political views, which in their historical context carry disturbing overtones of proto-fascism. It does not detract from the value of his work as a clinical scientist to conclude that his philosophical amblyopia, allied to an ineradicable chauvinism that was shared by many Germans of his class and status, resulted in a failure to demarcate the boundaries of his professional expertise and distorted his judgment on the wider implications of his own achievements. The lessons for the theory and practice of psychological medicine are briefly discussed. PMID:7578280

  1. Network technology for depot modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, C.J.

    1990-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to summarize existing and emerging information system technology and standards applicable to Depot System Command (DESCOM) modernization efforts. The intent of this summarization is to provide the Revitalization of Army Depots for the Year 2000 (READY 2000) team a clear understanding of the enabling information system technologies required to support effective modernization activities. Much of the information contained in this report was acquired during the last year in support of the US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) Facility Integrated Manufacturing Management System (FIMMS) project at PNL, which is targeting the modernization of plant-wide information systems at Army Ammunition Plants. The objective of information system modernization is to improve the effectiveness of an organization in performing its mission. Information system modernization strives to meet this objective by creating an environment where data is electronically captured near the source and readily available to all areas of the organization. Advanced networks, together with related information system technology, are the enabling mechanisms that make modern information system infrastructures possible. The intent of this paper is to present an overview of advanced information system network technology to support depot modernization planners in making technology management decisions. Existing and emerging Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Government Open System Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) standards are explained, as well as a brief assessment of existing products compliant with these standards. Finally, recommendations for achieving plant-wide integration using existing products are presented, and migration strategies for full OSI compliance are introduced. 5 refs., 16 figs. (JF)

  2. [On the origins of modern science].

    PubMed

    de Micheli-Serra, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    The Renaissance savants essentially repelled the scholastic translations and commentaries of the ancient writings. Nevertheless, they did not reach a modern vision of experimental science. Moreover, education at the universities was not credited for the development of science. In fact, academic training of students was rather precarious. The first professional associations, such as the "Royal College of Physicians" of London, were not any better. Regarding the hermetic influence on Renaissance thought, the cultured and philosophical reformed magic (so-called white magic) was the equivalent of science at the time. Once the animistic universe, operated by magic, was transformed into the mathematical universe operated by mechanics, the era of science came into being. This movement began during the post-Renaissance age and gradually progressed following the physical-mathematical orientation of Galileo and his pupils: Borelli; Fabrizi; Santorio; Harvey, etc. They initiated physiological studies and introduced the quantitative method into the research field. Harvey's doctrine was the first adequate explanation of an organic phenomenon and a starting point for the way toward experimental physiology. However, the English physician did not completely leave the pre-scientific era, as can be inferred from his monography on animals reproduction. In this work, some points suggesting the birth of modern scientific reasoning alternate with confused, vague, and capricious assertions. In fact, modern science did not arise suddenly, but was elaborated and sustained slowly starting in the XVII century: Galileo's century. PMID:14635572

  3. Modernization Enhancements in SCALE 6.2

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T; Lefebvre, Robert A; Lefebvre, Jordan P; Clarno, Kevin T; Williams, Mark L; Petrie Jr, Lester M; Mertyurek, Ugur

    2014-01-01

    SCALE is a widely used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. For more than 30 years, regulators, industry, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. However, the underlying architecture of SCALE is based on a 40-year old design with dozens of independent functional modules and control programs, primarily implemented in the Fortran programming language, with extensive use of customized intermediate files to control the logical flow of the analysis. Data are passed between individual computational codes using custom binary files that are read from and written to the hard disk. The SCALE modernization plan provides a progression towards SCALE 7, which will provide an object-oriented parallel-enabled software infrastructure with state-of-the-art methods implemented as reusable components. This paper provides a brief overview of the goals of SCALE modernization and details some modernized features available with SCALE 6.2.

  4. Investigating the Purpose of Trigonometry in the Modern Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertel, Joshua T.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation reports the results of a qualitative research project that aimed to develop a research-based perspective on the purpose of trigonometry in the modern sciences. The investigation was guided by three objectives. First, the study sought to identify the purpose of trigonometry as described by educators and high school textbooks.…

  5. Modern Psychometrics for Assessing Achievement Goal Orientation: A Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Winne, Philip H.; Edwards, Ordene V.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A program of research is needed that assesses the psychometric properties of instruments designed to quantify students' achievement goal orientations to clarify inconsistencies across previous studies and to provide a stronger basis for future research. Aim: We conducted traditional psychometric and modern Rasch-model analyses of the…

  6. Against the current: Ecological education in a modern world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivnick, Janet Claudia

    Ecophilosophers suggest that the beliefs, values and priorities of the western world are, in large part, responsible for the degradation of the natural environment. These scholars provide a critical assessment of the assumptions which are inherent in a modern worldview, and suggest ways of being which may be more environmentally sound. But people who are attempting to ground their lives in an ecological perspective find that they come up against many obstacles. Modern and ecological viewpoints arise from different ontological and epistemological assumptions, and as such communication across the boundaries of these two ways of being can be challenging. Since modernity forms the dominant way of understanding the world at present, ecological assumptions may be misunderstood and dismissed, causing great pain for those who understand the world through an ecological lens. At the same time, an ecological perspective can be challenging to comprehend for those people who are steeped within modern assumptions. Viewed through the lens of modernity, ecological understandings can seem non-sensical, threatening or impractical. Using educational encounters as the research context, this dissertation explores the challenges which arise when an ecological perspective and a modern perspective meet head on. The empirical aspect of this study involves interviews with ecologically-oriented educators and their adult students to come to better understand the challenges of ecological education in a modern world.

  7. Research

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance.

  8. Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  9. Burnout at Work in Modern Times

    PubMed Central

    Neves Pinheiro da Costa, Sofia; Teixeira, Luis Henrique Amorim; Bezerra, Luiza Neves Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    The theme of this research is burnout at work in modern times. The main objective is to analyze aspects of mental health worker. The specific objectives are to evaluate the issue of health and mental illness in the workplace, to understand the field of psychodynamics of work, and to analyze the work and the mental strain. The methodology used is the literature review. We conclude that is not the hostile environment that directly causes burnout and other conditions, but the inability to deal with the powerlessness of the working conditions. PMID:26345381

  10. Diffusive transport in modern polymeric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Doering, C.; Bier, M.; Christodoulou, K.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Polymers, composites, and synthetic modern materials are replacing traditional materials in many older scientific, engineering, commercial, and military applications. This project sought to focus on the new polymeric materials, deriving and analyzing models that predict their seemingly mysterious transport properties. It sought to identify the dominant physical mechanisms and the pertinent dimensionless parameters, produce viable theoretical models, and devise asymptotic and numerical methods for use in specific problems.

  11. Modern and ancient alluvial fan deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    Understanding the structure and depositional processes of alluvial fans (river outwash deposits) has a special interest for those involved with the exploration of petroleum and many minerals. This collection of facsimile reprints of significant and classical research papers sheds new light on the subject. This reference covers the stratigraphy, sedimentology, and depositional processes of modern and ancient alluvial fans. Geographical areas considered include Arctic Canada, the American Southwest, Australia, Wyoming, Norway, and Spain. It includes a state-of-the-art introduction by the editor along with commentaries on all the papers included, a master author citation index and a subject index, and a chronological listing of early studies of alluvial fans.

  12. [Natural science and historicity in modern times].

    PubMed

    von Engelhardt, D

    1977-09-29

    The history of science in modern times is the history of the loss of and gain in historicity. In contrast to the increasing historicizing of nature (as the objective dimension), the knowledge of nature (as the subjective dimension) after a time of parallelism between historical studies and scientific research (Enlightenment) and a time of integration (Idealism/Romanticism) was fundamentally dehistoricized during the positivistic 19th century. The history of science and science itself have since that time fallen apart--consciousness of science is restricted to consciousness of the presence. PMID:334653

  13. [Modern technologies in cranio-maxillofacial surgery].

    PubMed

    Lübbers, Heinz-Theo; Matthews, Felix; Kruse, Astrid L

    2014-02-26

    Modern technologies are influencing medicine everyday. The oral and maxillofacial surgery meet the worlds from medicine and dentistry. So technologies from both fields are utilized. This article provides an overview about technologies in clinical use, which are typical for the specialty. Their principles and indications are described as well as benefits and limitations. Based on Cone Beam Computed Tomography image fusion and mirroring techniques are explained as well as patient specific models and implants, template guided and free surgical navigation with and without intraoperative three-dimensional imaging. An overall assessment reveals further need of research regarding indications and patient benefit. PMID:24568761

  14. Beck, Asia and second modernity.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Craig

    2010-09-01

    The work of Ulrich Beck has been important in bringing sociological attention to the ways issues of risk are embedded in contemporary globalization, in developing a theory of 'reflexive modernization', and in calling for social science to transcend 'methodological nationalism'. In recent studies, he and his colleagues help to correct for the Western bias of many accounts of cosmopolitanism and reflexive modernization, and seek to distinguish normative goals from empirical analysis. In this paper I argue that further clarification of this latter distinction is needed but hard to reach within a framework that still embeds the normative account in the idea that empirical change has a clear direction. Similar issues beset the presentation of diverse patterns in recent history as all variants of 'second modernity'. Lastly, I note that ironically, given the declared 'methodological cosmopolitanism' of the authors, the empirical studies here all focus on national cases. PMID:20840434

  15. Bibliographie Moderner Fremdsprachenunterricht, 1991 (Bibliography of Modern Language Instruction, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibliographie Moderner Fremdsprachenunterricht, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This annotated bibliography on the teaching of modern languages is a quarterly product of a German information dissemination system (IFS) similar to ERIC. Citations are compiled in conjunction with the ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics and a number of other institutions around the world. Entries include mostly German, French,…

  16. COMMERCIAL UTILITY PERSPECTIVES ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring; Julius J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States need to modernize their main control rooms (MCR). Many NPPs have done partial upgrades with some success and with some challenges. The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, and in particular the Advanced Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) and Information Systems Technologies Research and Development (R&D) Pathway within LWRS, is designed to assist commercial nuclear power industry with their MCR modernization efforts. As part of this framework, a survey was issued to utility representatives of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems/Technologies (II&C) Utility Working Group to obtain their views on a range of issues related to MCR modernization, including: drivers, barriers, and technology options, and the effects these aspects will have on concepts of operations, modernization strategies, and staffing. This paper summarizes the key survey results and discusses their implications.

  17. Retraining the Modern Civil Engineer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priscoli, Jerome Delli

    1983-01-01

    Discusses why modern engineering requires social science and the nature of planning. After these conceptional discussions, 12 practical tools which social science brings to engineering are reviewed. A tested approach to training engineers in these tools is then described. Tools include institutional analysis, policy profiling, and other impact…

  18. Chaos Theory and Post Modernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Chaos theory is often associated with post modernism. However, one may make the point that both terms are misunderstood. The point of this article is to define both terms and indicate their relationship. Description: Chaos theory is associated with a definition of a theory dealing with variables (butterflies) that are not directly related to a…

  19. Lead Safety and School Modernization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Robin; Harrington, David

    This factsheet is for anyone responsible for modernization projects in California's public schools where materials containing lead may be disturbed or where lead abatement is planned. It explains the state requirements for properly dealing with lead hazards so that children and workers are protected. Its sections address why to be concerned about…

  20. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are described in the…

  1. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Physics of Hypersonic Flow and TPS Considerations. Destinations, Missions and Requirements. State of the Art Thermal Protection Systems Capabilities. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS. Entry Systems Concepts. Flexible TPS for Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators. Conformal TPS for Rigid Aeroshell. 3-D Woven TPS for Extreme Entry Environment. Multi-functional Carbon Fabric for Mechanically Deployable.

  2. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 19 to 25 of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (CHemTeC) curriculum material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. Laboratory techniques and procedures are emphasized. The chapters cover the areas of the techniques of sampling, the techniques of weighing, sample preparation, the measurement of pH,…

  3. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 14-18 for the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. The content concentrates on the background needed to understand the periodic table; names of inorganic compounds; structures, names and classes of common organic material; chemistry and…

  4. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is the first in a series of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum which is to prepare chemical technicians. The chapters concentrate on gas chromatography, tests for purity, properties of gases, and gas measurements. Included is the appropriate content, exercises, laboratory activities, and all needed mathematics.…

  5. Modern Indian Psychology. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryde, John F.

    Written on the basis of senior Indian verbal relatings collected over a 23-year span, this revised edition on modern Indian psychology incorporates suggestions from Indian students and their teachers, Indian and non-Indian social studies experts, and other Indian people. The book contains 6 major divisions: (1) "Culture and Indian Values" relates…

  6. PROBLEMS IN MODERN GREEK LEXICOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KAHANE, HENRY; KAHANE, RENEE

    PROBLEMS DEALING WITH LEVELS OF SPEECH AND LEVELS OF ANALYSIS IN CONNECTION WITH MODERN GREEK LEXICOGRAPHICAL STUDY WERE DISCUSSED. CONCERNING THE POSSIBLE CONSTRUCTION OF A COMPETENT BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, THE INVESTIGATORS SUGGESTED THAT THE VARIOUS STRUCTURES (NAMELY, PHONOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, AND SYNTAX) BE TIED TOGETHER TO INVOLVE (1) LISTING IN…

  7. Post-Modern Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    The history of software development includes elements of art, science, engineering, and fashion(though very little manufacturing). In all domains, old ideas give way or evolve to new ones: in the fine arts, the baroque gave way to rococo, romanticism, modernism, postmodernism, and so forth. What is the postmodern programming equivalent? That is, what comes after object orientation?

  8. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume contains chapters 8 to 13 of the ACS "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) curriculum material which is intended to prepare chemical technologists. The content is centered around the background needed to understand the structure of the atom, covalence, electrovalence, elements and compounds, liquids and solutions, and chemical…

  9. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 32-39 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional materials intended to prepare chemical technologists. The study of organic chemistry is continued as these major topics are considered: alcohols and phenols, alkyl and aryl halides, ethers, aldehydes and ketones,…

  10. The Herschels and Modern Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerke, Agnes Mary

    2010-05-01

    Preface; 1. Early life of William Herschel; 2. The King's astronomer; 3. The explorer of the heavens; 4. Herschel's special investigations; 5. The influence of Herschel's career on modern astronomy; 6. Caroline Herschel; 7. Sir John Herschel at Cambridge and Slough; 8. Expedition to the Cape; 9. Life at Collingwood; 10. Writings and experimental investigations; Index.

  11. Psychosomatic symptoms, stress, and modernization: a model.

    PubMed

    Dressler, W W

    1985-09-01

    The quantity of research on the effects of stress on disease has increased substantially in recent years, but little effort has been devoted to examining the effects of cultural influences in the stress process. A model is proposed in this paper in which cultural context exerts a modifying influence on the relationship between sociocultural stressors and psychosomatic symptoms, specifically in the context of modernization. In change situations involving increasing modernization there is increased differentiation in systems of social stratification within a community, due to increased potential for upward social mobility. The individuals who are upwardly mobile adopt a particular style of life, involving the acquisition of western consumer goods, as symbolic of their success. Lower class individuals strive to attain this same style of life as a claim to a higher status social identity, but their lower economic condition results in stressful incongruities and higher psychosomatic symptoms. Individuals who are successful in upward mobility are confronted by a different set of stressors that are primarily intrapsychic in nature. Events and circumstances perceived as threats to their self-identity are related to more psychosomatic symptoms. Thus, the meaning of specific stressors changes depending on the sociocultural context of the individual, and this meaning serves as a bridge between environmental circumstances and physiological outcomes. This model receives substantial empirical support in two field studies. Limitations of the model and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:4028786

  12. The cost of lithium is unlikely to upend the price of Li-ion storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciez, Rebecca E.; Whitacre, J. F.

    2016-07-01

    As lithium ion batteries become more common in electric vehicles and other storage applications, concerns about the cost of their namesake material, and its impact on the cost of these batteries, will continue. However, examining the constituent materials of these devices shows that lithium is a relatively small contributor to both the battery mass and manufacturing cost. The use of more expensive lithium precursor materials results in less than 1% increases in the cost of lithium ion cells considered. Similarly, larger fluctuations in the global lithium price (from 0 to 25/kg from a baseline of 7.50 per kg of Li2CO3) do not change the cost of lithium ion cells by more than 10%. While this small cost increase will not have a substantial impact on consumers, it could affect the manufacturers of these lithium ion cells, who already operate with small profit margins.

  13. Invisible World and Modern Physics: Modern Science and Theology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.; Danezis, E.

    2010-07-01

    A characteristic of the Western thought is the effort to counter Christian theology through arguments based on scientific discoveries (antirrhetic theology). Two objections can be raised against this trait: a) Modern science considers as a fact the future expansions, corrections, even total abolishment of scientific knowledge in the face of new discoveries. Therefore, dogmatic positions must not be based on temporary scientific views. b) Antirrhetic theology is mostly based on out-of-date scientific views of the period 1650-1900, which are not valid any more. The example of modern physics and cosmology is prime among them; in these sciences, the prevailing theories are based on the existence of an imperceptible reality, or on apparently “illogical” (in the sense of classical logic) fundamental properties of matter and its particles in quantum mechanics.

  14. Aerodynamic Characterization of a Modern Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Robert M.; Holland, Scott D.; Blevins, John A.

    2011-01-01

    A modern launch vehicle is by necessity an extremely integrated design. The accurate characterization of its aerodynamic characteristics is essential to determine design loads, to design flight control laws, and to establish performance. The NASA Ares Aerodynamics Panel has been responsible for technical planning, execution, and vetting of the aerodynamic characterization of the Ares I vehicle. An aerodynamics team supporting the Panel consists of wind tunnel engineers, computational engineers, database engineers, and other analysts that address topics such as uncertainty quantification. The team resides at three NASA centers: Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Ames Research Center. The Panel has developed strategies to synergistically combine both the wind tunnel efforts and the computational efforts with the goal of validating the computations. Selected examples highlight key flow physics and, where possible, the fidelity of the comparisons between wind tunnel results and the computations. Lessons learned summarize what has been gleaned during the project and can be useful for other vehicle development projects.

  15. 'Wellbeing': a collateral casualty of modernity?

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Sandra; Henderson, Gregor; Hanlon, Phil W

    2009-11-01

    In the now vast empirical and theoretical literature on wellbeing knowledge of the subject is provided mainly by psychology and economics, where understanding of the concept are framed in very different ways. We briefly rehearse these, before turning to some important critical points which can be made about this burgeoning research industry, including the tight connections between the meanings of the concept with the moral value systems of particular 'modern' societies. We then argue that both the 'science' of wellbeing and its critique are, despite their diversity, re-connected by and subsumed within the emerging environmental critique of modern consumer society. This places concerns for individual and social wellbeing within the broader context of global human problems and planetary wellbeing. A growing number of thinkers now suggest that Western society and culture are dominated by materialistic and individualistic values, made manifest at the political and social levels through the unending pursuit of economic growth, and at the individual level by the seemingly endless quest for consumer goods, regardless of global implications such as broader environmental harms. The escalating growth of such values is associated with a growing sense of individual alienation, social fragmentation and civic disengagement and with the decline of more spiritual, moral and ethical aspects of life. Taken together, these multiple discourses suggest that wellbeing can be understood as a collateral casualty of the economic, social and cultural changes associated with late modernity. However, increasing concerns for the environment have the potential to counter some of these trends, and in so doing could also contribute to our wellbeing as individuals and as social beings in a finite world. PMID:19765875

  16. Modernity and narcissistic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Paris, Joel

    2014-04-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a trait-based disorder that can be understood as a pathological amplification of narcissistic traits. While temperamental vulnerability and psychological adversity are risk factors for NPD, sociocultural factors are also important. This review hypothesizes that increases in narcissistic traits and cultural narcissism could be associated with changes in the prevalence of NPD. These shifts seem to be a relatively recent phenomenon, driven by social changes associated with modernity. While the main treatment for NPD remains psychotherapy, that form of treatment is itself a product of modernity and individualism. The hypothesis is presented that psychological treatment, unless modified to address the specific problems associated with NPD, could run the risk of supporting narcissism. PMID:22800179

  17. [Modernity in dreams and myths].

    PubMed

    Scopelliti, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The very presence of myths in psychoanalysis raises questions about their scientific status: that leads to reconsider the whole issue of Freudian mythology in a non-medical manner, by envisaging it in the more general context of modern myths, both political and artistic. Special attention is then paid to Surrealism, as the only avant-garde movement at the same time focused on psychoanalysis and politics: the role played by dreams in foundering myths is examined in both Surrealism and psychoanalysis. Surrealistic myths, such as Dalí's Grand Paranoïaque Comestible, finally prove to be so non-oedipian as the Nazi Ubermensch myth; nevertheless, their comparison with Freudian mythology points out their common origin, as they all fulfilled the need of the mass society for a modern myth, able to express his deeply renewed self-awareness. PMID:20695408

  18. Modern Detectors for Astroparticle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Adriani, Oscar

    2005-10-12

    This paper focus on the necessary requirements for a modern astroparticle physics detector based either on stratospheric balloons, either on satellite. The main technical solutions used to build a reliable detector are described. Finally, the most relevant experiments that have been developed with the INFN contribution and that will be ready in the near future (both for {gamma} and charged cosmic rays detection) are described.

  19. Modern Management of Clinical Chorioamnionitis

    PubMed Central

    Knuppel, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical chorioamnionitis continues to contribute to fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Significant advances have been made in the last 20 years in understanding the pathophysiologic processes leading to chorioamnionitis. This review addresses the history, incidence, pathophysiology, host defenses, risk factors, diagnosis, and maternal and neonatal management of clinically evident chorioamnionitis. After a detailed review of the physiologic processes leading to clinical chorioamnionitis and sepsis, we present a modern management scheme designed to optimize perinatal outcome for both mother and fetus. PMID:18476034

  20. The origins of modern divorce.

    PubMed

    Coontz, Stephanie

    2007-03-01

    High rates of marital dissolution and easy access to divorce are not unprecedented, historically or cross-culturally. But contemporary divorce in North America and Western Europe has different origins and features than divorce in previous cultures. The origins of modern divorce patterns date back more than 200 years, to the invention of the historically unprecedented idea that marriage should be based on love and mutual affection. Ironically, then, the fragility of modern marriage stems from the same values that have elevated the marital relationship above all other personal and familial commitments: the concentration of emotion, passion, personal identity, and self-validation in the couple relationship and the attenuation of emotional attachments and obligations beyond the conjugal unit. The immediate causes of divorce may range from factors as diverse as the personal psychological characteristics of one or both spouses to the stresses of economic hardship and community disintegration. But in a larger perspective, the role of divorce in modern societies and its relatively high occurrence both flow from the same complex of factors that have made good marriages so much more central to people's happiness than through most of the past, and deterioration of a marital relationship so much more traumatic. PMID:17375725

  1. Modernization of B-2 Data, Video, and Control Systems Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cmar, Mark D.; Maloney, Christian T.; Butala, Vishal D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal-vacuum facility with propellant systems capability. B-2 has completed a modernization effort of its facility legacy data, video and control systems infrastructure to accommodate modern integrated testing and Information Technology (IT) Security requirements. Integrated systems tests have been conducted to demonstrate the new data, video and control systems functionality and capability. Discrete analog signal conditioners have been replaced by new programmable, signal processing hardware that is integrated with the data system. This integration supports automated calibration and verification of the analog subsystem. Modern measurement systems analysis (MSA) tools are being developed to help verify system health and measurement integrity. Legacy hard wired digital data systems have been replaced by distributed Fibre Channel (FC) network connected digitizers where high speed sampling rates have increased to 256,000 samples per second. Several analog video cameras have been replaced by digital image and storage systems. Hard-wired analog control systems have been replaced by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), fiber optic networks (FON) infrastructure and human machine interface (HMI) operator screens. New modern IT Security procedures and schemes have been employed to control data access and process control flows. Due to the nature of testing possible at B-2, flexibility and configurability of systems has been central to the architecture during modernization.

  2. Modernization of B-2 Data, Video, and Control Systems Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cmar, Mark D.; Maloney, Christian T.; Butala, Vishal D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA's third largest thermal-vacuum facility with propellant systems capability. B-2 has completed a modernization effort of its facility legacy data, video and control systems infrastructure to accommodate modern integrated testing and Information Technology (IT) Security requirements. Integrated systems tests have been conducted to demonstrate the new data, video and control systems functionality and capability. Discrete analog signal conditioners have been replaced by new programmable, signal processing hardware that is integrated with the data system. This integration supports automated calibration and verification of the analog subsystem. Modern measurement systems analysis (MSA) tools are being developed to help verify system health and measurement integrity. Legacy hard wired digital data systems have been replaced by distributed Fibre Channel (FC) network connected digitizers where high speed sampling rates have increased to 256,000 samples per second. Several analog video cameras have been replaced by digital image and storage systems. Hard-wired analog control systems have been replaced by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), fiber optic networks (FON) infrastructure and human machine interface (HMI) operator screens. New modern IT Security procedures and schemes have been employed to control data access and process control flows. Due to the nature of testing possible at B-2, flexibility and configurability of systems has been central to the architecture during modernization.

  3. Natural products in modern life science

    PubMed Central

    Göransson, Ulf; Alsmark, Cecilia; Wedén, Christina; Backlund, Anders

    2010-01-01

    With a realistic threat against biodiversity in rain forests and in the sea, a sustainable use of natural products is becoming more and more important. Basic research directed against different organisms in Nature could reveal unexpected insights into fundamental biological mechanisms but also new pharmaceutical or biotechnological possibilities of more immediate use. Many different strategies have been used prospecting the biodiversity of Earth in the search for novel structure–activity relationships, which has resulted in important discoveries in drug development. However, we believe that the development of multidisciplinary incentives will be necessary for a future successful exploration of Nature. With this aim, one way would be a modernization and renewal of a venerable proven interdisciplinary science, Pharmacognosy, which represents an integrated way of studying biological systems. This has been demonstrated based on an explanatory model where the different parts of the model are explained by our ongoing research. Anti-inflammatory natural products have been discovered based on ethnopharmacological observations, marine sponges in cold water have resulted in substances with ecological impact, combinatory strategy of ecology and chemistry has revealed new insights into the biodiversity of fungi, in depth studies of cyclic peptides (cyclotides) has created new possibilities for engineering of bioactive peptides, development of new strategies using phylogeny and chemography has resulted in new possibilities for navigating chemical and biological space, and using bioinformatic tools for understanding of lateral gene transfer could provide potential drug targets. A multidisciplinary subject like Pharmacognosy, one of several scientific disciplines bridging biology and chemistry with medicine, has a strategic position for studies of complex scientific questions based on observations in Nature. Furthermore, natural product research based on intriguing scientific

  4. Natural products in modern life science.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, Lars; Göransson, Ulf; Alsmark, Cecilia; Wedén, Christina; Backlund, Anders

    2010-06-01

    With a realistic threat against biodiversity in rain forests and in the sea, a sustainable use of natural products is becoming more and more important. Basic research directed against different organisms in Nature could reveal unexpected insights into fundamental biological mechanisms but also new pharmaceutical or biotechnological possibilities of more immediate use. Many different strategies have been used prospecting the biodiversity of Earth in the search for novel structure-activity relationships, which has resulted in important discoveries in drug development. However, we believe that the development of multidisciplinary incentives will be necessary for a future successful exploration of Nature. With this aim, one way would be a modernization and renewal of a venerable proven interdisciplinary science, Pharmacognosy, which represents an integrated way of studying biological systems. This has been demonstrated based on an explanatory model where the different parts of the model are explained by our ongoing research. Anti-inflammatory natural products have been discovered based on ethnopharmacological observations, marine sponges in cold water have resulted in substances with ecological impact, combinatory strategy of ecology and chemistry has revealed new insights into the biodiversity of fungi, in depth studies of cyclic peptides (cyclotides) has created new possibilities for engineering of bioactive peptides, development of new strategies using phylogeny and chemography has resulted in new possibilities for navigating chemical and biological space, and using bioinformatic tools for understanding of lateral gene transfer could provide potential drug targets. A multidisciplinary subject like Pharmacognosy, one of several scientific disciplines bridging biology and chemistry with medicine, has a strategic position for studies of complex scientific questions based on observations in Nature. Furthermore, natural product research based on intriguing scientific

  5. Examining the Pedagogical Foundations of Modern Educational Computer Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kebritchi, Mansureh; Hirumi, Atsusi

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the pedagogical foundations of modern educational (computer video) games. Specifically, Cooper's [Cooper, H. (1985, Mar 31-April 4). A taxonomy of literature reviews. In Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL] literature review framework was used to locate and examine relevant literature…

  6. Modern Apprenticeships in the Retail Sector: Stresses, Strains and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielhofer, Thomas; Sims, David

    2004-01-01

    The findings reported in this article are based on qualitative research that explored the views and experiences of key stakeholders, including employer-bodies, training providers, employers and apprentices of Modern Apprenticeships (MAs) in retail. The study identifies fundamental barriers to the successful implementation of MAs in this sector.…

  7. Modern Gravitational Lens Cosmology for Introductory Physics and Astronomy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huwe, Paul; Field, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Recent and exciting discoveries in astronomy and cosmology have inspired many high school students to learn about these fields. A particularly fascinating consequence of general relativity at the forefront of modern cosmology research is gravitational lensing, the bending of light rays that pass near massive objects. Gravitational lensing enables…

  8. Modern offices now occupying the completely renovated "machine shop" area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Modern offices now occupying the completely renovated "machine shop" area (see drawing copy NV-35-B-5) at the Southeast corner of the building. - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  9. Modern Languages and Distance Education: Thirteen Days in the Cloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dona, Elfe; Stover, Sheri; Broughton, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This research study documents the journey of two modern language faculty (Spanish and German) from their original beliefs that teaching foreign languages can only be conducted in a face-to-face format to their eventual development of an online class using Web 2.0 technologies to encourage their students' active skills of reading and speaking…

  10. Technology and Modernity at the Boundaries of Global Delhi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkar, Sreela

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation studies the promise of inclusion in the global information society for marginalized groups in India, a nation that represents a modular case for technology and modernization initiatives in the global South. There has been significant research on the problematic notion of the "digital divide," based on the premise that…

  11. Value Dimensions Versus Social Indicators as Predictors of Individual Modernity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korsching, Peter F.; Burdge, Rabel J.

    This investigation is an empirical attempt to locate variables which best predict individual modernity and to explicate causal relationships. The dimensions chosen for analysis are defined by several relevant models in past research. The independent variables include two personal characteristics (age and sex); five structural variables (residence,…

  12. Premature termination codons in modern human genomes

    PubMed Central

    Fujikura, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    The considerable range of genetic variation in human populations may partly reflect distinctive processes of adaptation to variable environmental conditions. However, the adaptive genomic signatures remain to be completely elucidated. This research explores candidate loci under selection at the population level by characterizing recently arisen premature termination codons (PTCs), some of which indicate a human knockout. From a total of 7595 participants from two population exome projects, 246 PTCs were found where natural selection has resulted in new alleles with a high frequency (from 1% to 96%) of derived alleles and various levels of population differentiation (FST = 0.00139–0.626). The PTC genes formed protein and regulatory networks limited to 15 biological processes or gene families, of which seven categories were previously unreported. PTC mutations have a strong tendency to be introduced into members of the same gene family, even during modern human evolution, although the exact nature of the selection is not fully known. The findings here suggest the ongoing evolutionary plasticity of modern humans at the genetic level and also partly provide insights into common human knockouts. PMID:26932450

  13. Premature termination codons in modern human genomes.

    PubMed

    Fujikura, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    The considerable range of genetic variation in human populations may partly reflect distinctive processes of adaptation to variable environmental conditions. However, the adaptive genomic signatures remain to be completely elucidated. This research explores candidate loci under selection at the population level by characterizing recently arisen premature termination codons (PTCs), some of which indicate a human knockout. From a total of 7595 participants from two population exome projects, 246 PTCs were found where natural selection has resulted in new alleles with a high frequency (from 1% to 96%) of derived alleles and various levels of population differentiation (FST = 0.00139-0.626). The PTC genes formed protein and regulatory networks limited to 15 biological processes or gene families, of which seven categories were previously unreported. PTC mutations have a strong tendency to be introduced into members of the same gene family, even during modern human evolution, although the exact nature of the selection is not fully known. The findings here suggest the ongoing evolutionary plasticity of modern humans at the genetic level and also partly provide insights into common human knockouts. PMID:26932450

  14. [Schizophrenia and modern culture: reasons for insanity].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Álvarez, Marino

    2012-02-01

    After pointing out the uncertainty and confusion to which neurobiological research has led schizophrenia, as shown and acknowledged in recent reviews, we offer seven reasons for reconsidering schizophrenia a disorder of the self, rather than of the brain. The first reason starts out conceiving schizophrenia as a disorder of the self, in the perspective of current phenomenology. The second relates the fact of its recent origin (as of 1750) with the particular configuration of the modern self and with the great transformation of the community into a society of individuals (industrialization, urbanization). The third reason emphasizes the affinity between schizophrenia and adolescence, a critical age in the formation of the self, which started to be problematic at the end of the 18th century. The fourth is the better prognosis of schizophrenia in developing countries, in comparison to developed countries, which probably has to do with the process of modernization (which still maintains community structures in less developed countries). The fifth is the high incidence of schizophrenia among immigrants, as a fact to be explained in terms of a socio-evolutionary model. The sixth reason reviews the genetic legend of schizophrenia, and how epigenetics gives protagonism back to the environment. The seventh and last reason refers to the reconsideration of psychological therapy as the possible treatment of choice and not merely an adjunct to medication, as it is known that, for patients, interpersonal chemistry is more important than neurochemistry. PMID:22269356

  15. Universal Cosmic Absolute and Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    The official Sciences, especially all natural sciences, respect in their researches the principle of methodic naturalism i.e. they consider all phenomena as entirely natural and therefore in their scientific explanations they do never adduce or cite supernatural entities and forces. The purpose of this paper is to show that Modern Science has its own self-existent, self-acting, and self-sufficient Natural All-in Being or Omni-Being i.e. the entire Nature as a Whole that justifies the scientific methodic naturalism. Since this Natural All-in Being is one and only It should be considered as the own scientifically justified Natural Absolute of Science and should be called, in my opinion, the Universal Cosmic Absolute of Modern Science. It will be also shown that the Universal Cosmic Absolute is ontologically enormously stratified and is in its ultimate i.e. in its most fundamental stratum trans-reistic and trans-personal. It means that in its basic stratum. It is neither a Thing or a Person although It contains in Itself all things and persons with all other sentient and conscious individuals as well, On the turn of the 20th century the Science has begun to look for a theory of everything, for a final theory, for a master theory. In my opinion the natural Universal Cosmic Absolute will constitute in such a theory the radical all penetrating Ultimate Basic Reality and will substitute step by step the traditional supernatural personal Absolute.

  16. Acupuncture: From Ancient Practice to Modern Science

    MedlinePlus

    ... Section CAM Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... of Progress / Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science / Low Back Pain and CAM / Time to Talk / ...

  17. Individual Patient Data Analysis of Progression-Free Survival Versus Overall Survival As a First-Line End Point for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer in Modern Randomized Trials: Findings From the Analysis and Research in Cancers of the Digestive System Database

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Qian; de Gramont, Aimery; Grothey, Axel; Zalcberg, John; Chibaudel, Benoist; Schmoll, Hans-Joachim; Seymour, Matthew T.; Adams, Richard; Saltz, Leonard; Goldberg, Richard M.; Punt, Cornelis J.A.; Douillard, Jean-Yves; Hoff, Paulo M.; Hecht, Joel Randolph; Hurwitz, Herbert; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Porschen, Rainer; Tebbutt, Niall C.; Fuchs, Charles; Souglakos, John; Falcone, Alfredo; Tournigand, Christophe; Kabbinavar, Fairooz F.; Heinemann, Volker; Van Cutsem, Eric; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Buyse, Marc; Sargent, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Progression-free survival (PFS) has previously been established as a surrogate for overall survival (OS) for first-line metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Because mCRC treatment has advanced in the last decade with extended OS, this surrogacy requires re-examination. Methods Individual patient data from 16,762 patients were available from 22 first-line mCRC studies conducted from 1997 to 2006; 12 of those studies tested antiangiogenic and/or anti–epidermal growth factor receptor agents. The relationship between PFS (first event of progression or death) and OS was evaluated by using R2 statistics (the closer the value is to 1, the stronger the correlation) from weighted least squares regression of trial-specific hazard ratios estimated by using Cox and Copula models. Results Forty-four percent of patients received a regimen that included biologic agents. Median first-line PFS was 8.3 months, and median OS was 18.2 months. The correlation between PFS and OS was modest (R2, 0.45 to 0.69). Analyses limited to trials that tested treatments with biologic agents, nonstrategy trials, or superiority trials did not improve surrogacy. Conclusion In modern mCRC trials, in which survival after the first progression exceeds time to first progression, a positive but modest correlation was observed between OS and PFS at both the patient and trial levels. This finding demonstrates the substantial variability in OS introduced by the number of lines of therapy and types of effective subsequent treatments and the associated challenge to the use of OS as an end point to assess the benefit attributable to a single line of therapy. PFS remains an appropriate primary end point for first-line mCRC trials to detect the direct treatment effect of new agents. PMID:25385741

  18. Evaluating College Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Modern Physics: Test of Understanding on Concepts of Modern Physics (TUCO-MP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2011-01-01

    In present paper, we propose a new diagnostic test to measure students' conceptual knowledge of principles of modern physics topics. Over few decades since born of physics education research (PER), many diagnostic instruments that measure students' conceptual understanding of various topics in physics, the earliest tests developed in PER are Force…

  19. Rousseau and the Image of "Modern Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oelkers, Jurgen

    2002-01-01

    The concept of "modern education" is directly connected with Rousseau's theory of education. It is often said that Rousseau "founded" modern education, or at least was its most influential predecessor. The paper argues that "modern learning" or "experimental education" was discussed within the late-17th century "quarrel of the ancients and…

  20. Teaching Modern Dance: A Conceptual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enghauser, Rebecca Gose

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual approach to teaching modern dance can broaden the awareness and deepen the understanding of modern dance in the educational arena in general, and in dance education specifically. This article describes a unique program that dance teachers can use to introduce modern dance to novice dancers, as well as more experienced dancers,…

  1. African Cultural Traditions and Modernization: A Reaffirmation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Felix A.

    1978-01-01

    The viability of African cultural traditions and their role in modernization and nation-building in Africa are examined. Social and political organization and formal education are discussed in relation to the process of modernization. Although Africa may utilize Western models of development, Westernization and modernization are not synonymous.…

  2. Analysis of Variance in the Modern Design of Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a tutorial introduction to the analysis of variance (ANOVA), intended as a reference for aerospace researchers who are being introduced to the analytical methods of the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE), or who may have other opportunities to apply this method. One-way and two-way fixed-effects ANOVA, as well as random effects ANOVA, are illustrated in practical terms that will be familiar to most practicing aerospace researchers.

  3. Modern Experimental Techniques in Turbine Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; Bruckner, R. J.; Bencic, T. J.; Braunscheidel, E. P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes application of two modern experimental techniques, thin-film thermocouples and pressure sensitive paint, to measurement in turbine engine components. A growing trend of using computational codes in turbomachinery design and development requires experimental techniques to refocus from overall performance testing to acquisition of detailed data on flow and heat transfer physics to validate these codes for design applications. The discussed experimental techniques satisfy this shift in focus. Both techniques are nonintrusive in practical terms. The thin-film thermocouple technique improves accuracy of surface temperature and heat transfer measurements. The pressure sensitive paint technique supplies areal surface pressure data rather than discrete point values only. The paper summarizes our experience with these techniques and suggests improvements to ease the application of these techniques for future turbomachinery research and code verifications.

  4. Dramatic innovations in modern surgical subspecialties

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Chad G.; Sutherland, Francis; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Dixon, Elijah; MacLean, Anthony R.; Mack, Lloyd A.; Feliciano, David V.; Rajani, Ravi R.; Karmy-Jones, Riyad; Buie, W. Donald; Temple, Walley J.; Rozycki, Grace S.; Simeone, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Innovation is defined as the introduction of something new, whether an idea, method or device. In this article, we describe the most important and innovative concepts and techniques that have advanced patient care within modern surgical subspecialties. We performed a systematic literature review and consulted academic subspecialty experts to evaluate recent changes in practice. The identified innovations included reduced blood loss and improved training in hepatobiliary surgery, total mesorectal excision and neoadjuvant therapies in colorectal surgery, prosthetic mesh in outpatient surgery, sentinel lymph node theory in surgical oncology, endovascular and wire-based skills in vascular and cardiovascular surgery, and the acceptance of abnormal anatomy through damage-control procedures in trauma and critical care. The common denominator among all subspecialties is an improvement in patient care manifested as a decrease in morbidity and mortality. Surgeons must continue to pursue innovative thinking, technological advances, improved training and systematic research. PMID:20858379

  5. Transverse damping systems in modern synchrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhabitsky, V. M.

    2006-12-01

    Transverse feedback systems for suppression of transverse coherent beam oscillations are used in modern synchrotrons for preventing the development of transverse instabilities and damping residual beam oscillations after injection. Information on damper systems for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC; CERN, Geneva) and the accelerator complex FAIR (GSI, Darmstadt) is presented. The project for the LHC is being performed at the Laboratory of Particle Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in collaboration with CERN. The information concerning the state of the project and the plans of its completion at the LHC is given. The results of the first design activity on transverse damping systems at the SIS100 and SIS300 synchrotrons, to be created in the framework of the new international project FAIR, are presented.

  6. Self psychology and the modern dance choreographer.

    PubMed

    Press, Carol M

    2009-04-01

    Theory and research methodology of self psychology are integrated with the experiences of modern dance choreographers to investigate the importance of creativity, art making, and aesthetics in mental health and our everyday lives. Empathy, as aesthetically based, is explored to understand the capacity of the arts to unite us in our humanity. Connections between aesthetic development, creativity, and infant patterns of learning are drawn. The influence of sensual and exploration/assertion motivational systems upon the contemporary choreographer are highlighted, leading to an understanding of the selfobject function of sensation and movement for the dance artist. Through an examination of the moment to moment ritualized experiences of studio work, the creative process in making dances is discussed. Ultimately understanding creativity and aesthetically based empathy inform our delineation of mental health and the need for aesthetic experience in everyday life. PMID:19379243

  7. Human performance in the modern cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. K.; Cohen, M. M.

    1992-01-01

    This panel was organized by the Aerospace Human Factors Committee to illustrate behavioral research on the perceptual, cognitive, and group processes that determine crew effectiveness in modern cockpits. Crew reactions to the introduction of highly automated systems in the cockpit will be reported on. Automation can improve operational capabilities and efficiency and can reduce some types of human error, but may also introduce entirely new opportunities for error. The problem solving and decision making strategies used by crews led by captains with various personality profiles will be discussed. Also presented will be computational approaches to modeling the cognitive demands of cockpit operations and the cognitive capabilities and limitations of crew members. Factors contributing to aircrew deviations from standard operating procedures and misuse of checklist, often leading to violations, incidents, or accidents will be examined. The mechanisms of visual perception pilots use in aircraft control and the implications of these mechanisms for effective design of visual displays will be discussed.

  8. Philosophical aspects of modern cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinkernagel, Henrik

    2014-05-01

    Cosmology is the attempt to understand in scientific terms the structure and evolution of the universe as a whole. This ambition has been with us since the ancient Greeks, even if the developments in modern cosmology have provided a picture of the universe dramatically different from that of Pythagoras, Plato and Aristotle. The cosmological thinking of these figures, e.g. the belief in uniform circular motion of the heavens, was closely related to their philosophical ideas, and it shaped the field of cosmology at least up to the times of Copernicus and Kepler.

  9. Modern concepts in diverticular disease.

    PubMed

    Collins, Danielle; Winter, Des C

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been a striking shift in our understanding of the epidemiology, pathology, and management of diverticular disease. Indeed, many of the guidelines published in the late nineties and early 2000s are now redundant. High-fiber diets, avoidance of nuts and seeds, antibiotic treatment for mild diverticulitis, elective resection after 2 attacks of diverticulitis, Hartmann's procedure (HP), and aggressive management of young patients are all open to question. The more we challenge our understanding of diverticulitis it becomes apparent how little we know about this disease entity. This review aims update the reader on current hypotheses and evidencebased modern management strategies in diverticular disease. PMID:25811113

  10. The naturalistic fallacy is modern.

    PubMed

    Daston, Lorraine

    2014-09-01

    The naturalistic fallacy appears to be ubiquitous and irresistible. The avant-garde and the rearguard, the devout and the secular, the learned elite and the lay public all seem to want to enlist nature on their side, everywhere and always. Yet a closer look at the history of the term "naturalistic fallacy" and its associated arguments suggests that this way of understanding (and criticizing) appeals to nature's authority in human affairs is of relatively modern origin. To apply this category cross-historically masks considerable variability and naturalizes our own assumptions about the natural and the human. PMID:25816480

  11. Morphological Integration of the Modern Human Mandible during Ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Polanski, Joshua M.

    2011-01-01

    Craniofacial integration is prevalent in anatomical modernity research. Little investigation has been done on mandibular integration. Integration patterns were quantified in a longitudinal modern human sample of mandibles. This integration pattern is one of modularization between the alveolar and muscle attachment regions, but with age-specific differences. The ascending ramus and nonalveolar portions of the corpus remain integrated throughout ontogeny. The alveolar region is dynamic, becoming modularized according to the needs of the mandible at a particular developmental stage. Early in ontogeny, this modularity reflects the need for space for the developing dentition; later, modularity is more reflective of mastication. The overall pattern of modern human mandibular integration follows the integration pattern seen in other mammals, including chimpanzees. Given the differences in craniofacial integration patterns between humans and chimpanzees, but the similarities in mandibular integration, it is likely that the mandible has played the more passive role in hominin skull evolution. PMID:21716741

  12. Methodology of a Modern Foreign Language Lesson for Postgraduate Students of Technical Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toporkova, Olga; Novozhenina, Elena; Tchechet, Tamara; Likhacheva, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The integration of Russia into the international common space of research and education accompanied by modernization of the national system of education puts forward new demands to postgraduate education. The processes of integration and modernization increase the importance of learning a foreign language for a future scientist. The article deals…

  13. The Underdevelopment and Modernization of the Third World. Commission on College Geography. Resource Paper No. 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Anthony R.; Porter, Philip W.

    Helping undergraduate college geography students understand the processes and forces which, in the name of modernization, continue to intensify a world spatial disequilibrium in the relations of people and resources is the purpose of this resource paper. It presents current ideas in social science research on modernization and development with…

  14. The Hearing School: An Exploration of Sound and Listening in the Modern School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Catherine; Grosvenor, Ian

    2011-01-01

    In recent years sensory history has emerged as a research topic of growing interest to historians and has been accompanied by a call to incorporate the senses into our understanding of the past. Under modernity, social direction and control were built into the infrastructure of modern life as specialist institutions emerged and multiplied in the…

  15. The Modern Ways of Development of the Scientific Data Processing Centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, E. A.; Amzarakov, M. B.; Pugachev, V. D.; Samodurov, V. A.; Sukhov, P. P.; Kobylka, N. A.

    In this paper shown, the development of modern datacenters (DC) for science and business. As an example of modern scientific datacenters used: buffer datacenter PRAO ASC LPI for the space project "Radioastron", compute cluster Pushchino Research Center (IMPB RAS) and Stack Data Network (SDN) - Russia's first network of datacenters.

  16. The Culture of Business Education and Its Place in the Modern University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers believe that the modern university is in a state of crisis like never before. One of the main reasons cited for this decline is that the modern university has a closer resemblance to a transnational corporation than to a traditional scholarly institution (Lewis, 2005). This paper attempts to define the term "university"…

  17. The linguistic roots of Modern English anatomical terminology.

    PubMed

    Turmezei, Tom D

    2012-11-01

    Previous research focusing on Classical Latin and Greek roots has shown that understanding the etymology of English anatomical terms may be beneficial for students of human anatomy. However, not all anatomical terms are derived from Classical origins. This study aims to explore the linguistic roots of the Modern English terminology used in human gross anatomy. By reference to the Oxford English Dictionary, etymologies were determined for a lexicon of 798 Modern English gross anatomical terms from the 40(th) edition of Gray's Anatomy. Earliest traceable language of origin was determined for all 798 terms; language of acquisition was determined for 747 terms. Earliest traceable languages of origin were: Classical Latin (62%), Classical Greek (24%), Old English (7%), Post-Classical Latin (3%), and other (4%). Languages of acquisition were: Classical Latin (42%), Post-Classical Latin (29%), Old English (8%), Modern French (6%), Classical Greek (5%), Middle English (3%), and other (7%). While the roots of Modern English anatomical terminology mostly lie in Classical languages (accounting for the origin of 86% of terms), the anatomical lexicon of Modern English is actually much more diverse. Interesting and perhaps less familiar examples from these languages and the methods by which such terms have been created and absorbed are discussed. The author suggests that awareness of anatomical etymologies may enhance the enjoyment and understanding of human anatomy for students and teachers alike. PMID:22461143

  18. Genetic features of Mycobacterium tuberculosis modern Beijing sublineage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingyun; Luo, Tao; Dong, Xinran; Sun, Gang; Liu, Zhu; Gan, Mingyun; Wu, Jie; Shen, Xin; Gao, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) Beijing strains have caused a great concern because of their rapid emergence and increasing prevalence in worldwide regions. Great efforts have been made to investigate the pathogenic characteristics of Beijing strains such as hypervirulence, drug resistance and favoring transmission. Phylogenetically, MTB Beijing family was divided into modern and ancient sublineages. Modern Beijing strains displayed enhanced virulence and higher prevalence when compared with ancient Beijing strains, but the genetic basis for this difference remains unclear. In this study, by analyzing previously published sequencing data of 1082 MTB Beijing isolates, we determined the genetic changes that were commonly present in modern Beijing strains but absent in ancient Beijing strains. These changes include 44 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two short genomic deletions. Through bioinformatics analysis, we demonstrated that these genetic changes had high probability of functional effects. For example, 4 genes were frameshifted due to premature stop mutation or genomic deletions, 19 nonsynonymous SNPs located in conservative codons, and there is a significant enrichment in regulatory network for all nonsynonymous mutations. Besides, three SNPs located in promoter regions were verified to alter downstream gene expressions. Our study precisely defined the genetic features of modern Beijing strains and provided interesting clues for future researches to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie this sublineage's successful expansion. These findings from the analysis of the modern Beijing sublineage could provide us a model to understand the dynamics of pathogenicity of MTB. PMID:26905026

  19. GIS application on modern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Bharath

    This is a GIS based tool for showcasing the history of modern Mexico starting from the post-colonial era to the elections of 2012. The tool is developed using simple language and is flexible so as to allow for future enhancements. The application consists of numerous images and textual information, and also some links which can be used by primary and high school students to understand the history of modern Mexico, and also by tourists to look for all the international airports and United States of America consulates. This software depicts the aftermaths of the Colonial Era or the Spanish rule of Mexico. It covers various topics like the wars, politics, important personalities, drug cartels and violence. All these events are shown on GIS (Geographic information Science) maps. The software can be customized according to the user requirements and is developed using JAVA and GIS technology. The user interface is created using JAVA and MOJO which contributes to effective learning and understanding of the concepts with ease. Some of the user interface features provided in this tool includes zoom-in, zoom-out, legend editing, location identifier, print command, adding a layer and numerous menu items.

  20. Modernity and putty-clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, Trichur Kailas

    This dissertation addresses issues arising out of the problems of capital accumulation, productivity growth and 'putty-clay' technology. The concept of economic modernity occupies a central place in the subject-matter studied here in that it expresses both the incessant drive for newness that characterizes economic reality and the persistence of dated techniques that successfully resist replacement. This study examines the way in which an expansive development-theoretic 'putty-clay' framework may be employed to explain the historical processes behind both the avalanche of newness (innovations) and the conservatism of technology in the U.S. economy. The guiding link is the fixity of investments in physical capital equipment over time and space. The dilemma of fixed capital is studied in the context of the constant entrepreneurial search for flexibility and liquidity. The thesis advanced is that a development (Entwicklung)-theoretic 'putty-clay' conceptualization of the economic system adequately addresses the recurring problems of fixity, flexibility, and liquidity, and thereby permits important insights into the enigma surrounding the persistent productivity growth slowdown and 'stagflation' of the late sixties and seventies and the related phenomena of physical 'capital obsolescence' and the financial or 'speculative explosions' of our times. The notion of 'putty-clay' used here is an innovative one in that it departs from the growth-theoretic literature to re-appear as a Schumpeterian theory of modernity modified by a Veblenite view of an economic system directed by the exigencies of the 'machine-process'. The empirical aptitude of a macroeconomic 'putty-clay' model to explain capital obsolescence mediated by the energy 'crises' (supply shocks) of the seventies and eighties is examined in a separate chapter with results that differ markedly from the standard (Berndt and Wood) conclusions for the U.S. economy. The final chapter in the dissertation reverts to the

  1. Cache Energy Optimization Techniques For Modern Processors

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2013-01-01

    and veterans in the field of cache power management. It will help graduate students, CAD tool developers and designers in understanding the need of energy efficiency in modern computing systems. Further, it will be useful for researchers in gaining insights into algorithms and techniques for micro-architectural and system-level energy optimization using dynamic cache reconfiguration. We sincerely believe that the ``food for thought'' presented in this book will inspire the readers to develop even better ideas for designing ``green'' processors of tomorrow.

  2. Modern Messaging for Distributed Sytems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnoni, L.

    2015-05-01

    Modern software applications rarely live in isolation and nowadays it is common practice to rely on services or consume information provided by remote entities. In such a distributed architecture, integration is key. Messaging, for more than a decade, is the reference solution to tackle challenges of a distributed nature, such as network unreliability, strong-coupling of producers and consumers and the heterogeneity of applications. Thanks to a strong community and a common effort towards standards and consolidation, message brokers are today the transport layer building blocks in many projects and services, both within the physics community and outside. Moreover, in recent years, a new generation of messaging services has appeared, with a focus on low-latency and high-performance use cases, pushing the boundaries of messaging applications. This paper will present messaging solutions for distributed applications going through an overview of the main concepts, technologies and services.

  3. Modern solid state laser materials

    SciTech Connect

    Krupke, W.F.

    1984-06-20

    This document contains visual aids used in an invited talk entitled Modern Solid State Laser Materials, presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) held in Anaheim, California, on June 20, 1984. Interest at LLNL in solid state lasers focuses on evaluating the potential of solid state laser media for high average power applications, including inertial fusion power production. This talk identifies the relevant bulk material parameters characterizing average power capacity and uses chromium and neodymium co-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nd:Cr:GSGG) as an example of a laser material with improved laser properties relative to Nd:YAG (plausible large-scale growth, more efficient spectral coupling to xenon flashlamp radiation, reduced stimulated emission cross section, adequate thermal shock and optical damage threshold parameters, etc.). Recently measured spectroscopic, kinetic, and thermo-mechanical properties of Nd:Cr:GSGG are given.

  4. Modern control techniques for accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, R.W.; Shea, M.F.

    1984-05-01

    Beginning in the mid to late sixties, most new accelerators were designed to include computer based control systems. Although each installation differed in detail, the technology of the sixties and early to mid seventies dictated an architecture that was essentially the same for the control systems of that era. A mini-computer was connected to the hardware and to a console. Two developments have changed the architecture of modern systems: (a) the microprocessor and (b) local area networks. This paper discusses these two developments and demonstrates their impact on control system design and implementation by way of describing a possible architecture for any size of accelerator. Both hardware and software aspects are included.

  5. Brain development is similar in Neanderthals and modern humans.

    PubMed

    Ponce de León, Marcia S; Bienvenu, Thibaut; Akazawa, Takeru; Zollikofer, Christoph P E

    2016-07-25

    While the braincase of adult Neanderthals had a similar volume to that of modern humans from the same period, differences in endocranial shape suggest that brain morphology differed between modern humans and Neanderthals. When and how these differences arose during evolution and development is a topic of ongoing research, with potential implications for species-specific differences in brain and cognitive development, and in life history [1,2]. Earlier research suggested that Neanderthals followed an ancestral mode of brain development, similar to that of our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees [2-4]. Modern humans, by contrast, were suggested to follow a uniquely derived mode of brain development just after birth, giving rise to the characteristically globular shape of the adult human brain case [2,4,5]. Here, we re-examine this hypothesis using an extended sample of Neanderthal infants. We document endocranial development during the decisive first two years of postnatal life. The new data indicate that Neanderthals followed largely similar modes of endocranial development to modern humans. These findings challenge the notion that human brain and cognitive development after birth is uniquely derived [2,4]. PMID:27458909

  6. FOREWORD: Modern Applications of Timescales Modern Applications of Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. F.; Lewandowski, W.

    2011-08-01

    The development of the first atomic frequency standard by Louis Essen in the 1950s is at the origin of the adoption of the atomic definition of the SI second by the 13th General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1967 and the consequent adoption of the atomic timescale. After the short reign of ephemeris time as the world's reference timescale from 1954 until 1967, Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), synchronized to universal time UT1, appeared as the best compromise for satisfying the requests of all users. At the moment of the discussion on the adoption of an atomic timescale to replace ephemeris time, the possibility of having both an astronomical time and an atomic time to serve different purposes was discussed. In the words of Essen [1], this 'would cause endless confusion as well as involving duplication of equipment'. Forty years after the adoption of the definition of Coordinated Universal Time at the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), we are close to the moment of making a decision on whether or not to decouple UTC from its tight link to the rotation of the Earth embodied in UT1. It has been a ten-year process of discussion, mainly at the ITU with the input of the International Astronomical Union, the BIPM, the Consultative Committee for Time and Frequency and other organizations. The majority opinion supported the change based on developers and users of systems that need time synchronization to a stable and continuous reference timescale; others insist on the necessity of keeping the leap-second strategy for serving some applications or just for tradition. It is our hope that, as happened in the seventies, the most appropriate definition to serve all modern applications will be adopted with the consensus of the different sectors. The redirection of international timekeeping from astronomy to metrology can be considered the benchmark that started the era of modern timescales, all based on atomic properties. The aim of this special issue of

  7. The Role of Modern Control Theory in the Design of Controls for Aircraft Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J.; Lehtinen, B.; Merrill, W.

    1982-01-01

    Accomplishments in applying Modern Control Theory to the design of controls for advanced aircraft turbine engines were reviewed. The results of successful research programs are discussed. Ongoing programs as well as planned or recommended future thrusts are also discussed.

  8. Acupuncture and Its Role in Modern Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Andrew J.

    1974-01-01

    Although both the philosophic and physiologic basis of acupuncture seems fanciful to Western medical thinking, the results obtained in the treatment of certain disease states cannot be lightly dismissed. Its use in the induction of surgical analgesia may have immediate application for Western Medicine. Its mechanism of action is a complete enigma, but information accumulated from research in hypnosis, visceral learning and, most important, the physiology of pain perception may contain clues to the pathophysiologic principles involved. The fact that many disorders for which acupuncture therapy is useful are thought to have a large psychosomatic component only serves to reinforce the Eastern concept of inseparability of mind and body. A great deal of attention is being given to this concept in the current medical literature. In order to define the role of acupuncture in modern medical practice, a more scientific approach in both clinical and basic research is necessary. If acupuncture can be proved safe and efficacious in the treatment of certain diseases, lack of knowledge regarding its mechanism of action should not delay its incorporation into our medical armamentarium. PMID:4590887

  9. Malocclusion in Early Anatomically Modern Human: A Reflection on the Etiology of Modern Dental Misalignment

    PubMed Central

    Sarig, Rachel; Slon, Viviane; Abbas, Janan; May, Hila; Shpack, Nir; Vardimon, Alexander Dan; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Malocclusions are common in modern populations. Yet, as the study of occlusion requires an almost intact dentition in both the maxilla and mandible, searching for the ultimate cause of malocclusion is a challenge: relatively little ancient material is available for research on occlusal states. The Qafzeh 9 skull is unique, as its preserved dentition allowed us to investigate the presence and manifestations of malocclusion. The aim of this study was thus to examine the occlusal condition in the Qafzeh 9 specimen in light of modern knowledge regarding the etiology of malocclusion. We revealed a pathologic occlusion in the Qafzeh 9 skull that probably originated in the early developmental stage of the dentition, and was aggravated by forces applied by mastication. When arch continuity is interrupted due to misalignment of teeth as in this case, force transmission is not equal on both sides, causing intra-arch outcomes such as mesialization of the teeth, midline deviation, rotations and the aggravation of crowding. All are evident in the Qafzeh 9 skull: the midline deviates to the left; the incisors rotate mesio-buccally; the left segment is constricted; the left first molar is buccally positioned and the left premolars palatally tilted. The inter-arch evaluation revealed anterior cross bite with functional shift that might affect force transmission and bite force. In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggest that malocclusion of developmental origin was already present in early anatomically modern humans (AMH) (the present case being the oldest known case, dated to ca. 100,000 years); that there is no basis to the notion that early AMH had a better adjustment between teeth and jaw size; and that jaw-teeth size discrepancy could be found in prehistoric populations and is not a recent phenomenon. PMID:24278319

  10. Early modern human diversity suggests subdivided population structure and a complex out-of-Africa scenario

    PubMed Central

    Gunz, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L.; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Stadlmayr, Andrea; Seidler, Horst; Weber, Gerhard W.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of genetic evidence regarding modern human origins depends, among other things, on assessments of the structure and the variation of ancient populations. Because we lack genetic data from the time when the first anatomically modern humans appeared, between 200,000 and 60,000 years ago, instead we exploit the phenotype of neurocranial geometry to compare the variation in early modern human fossils with that in other groups of fossil Homo and recent modern humans. Variation is assessed as the mean-squared Procrustes distance from the group average shape in a representation based on several hundred neurocranial landmarks and semilandmarks. We find that the early modern group has more shape variation than any other group in our sample, which covers 1.8 million years, and that they are morphologically similar to recent modern humans of diverse geographically dispersed populations but not to archaic groups. Of the currently competing models of modern human origins, some are inconsistent with these findings. Rather than a single out-of-Africa dispersal scenario, we suggest that early modern humans were already divided into different populations in Pleistocene Africa, after which there followed a complex migration pattern. Our conclusions bear implications for the inference of ancient human demography from genetic models and emphasize the importance of focusing research on those early modern humans, in particular, in Africa. PMID:19307568

  11. Casebooks in Early Modern England:

    PubMed Central

    Kassell, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    summary Casebooks are the richest sources that we have for encounters between early modern medical practitioners and their patients. This article compares astrological and medical records across two centuries, focused on England, and charts developments in the ways in which practitioners kept records and reflected on their practices. Astrologers had a long history of working from particular moments, stellar configurations, and events to general rules. These practices required systematic notation. Physicians increasingly modeled themselves on Hippocrates, recording details of cases as the basis for reasoned expositions of the histories of disease. Medical records, as other scholars have demonstrated, shaped the production of medical knowledge. Instead, this article focuses on the nature of casebooks as artifacts of the medical encounter. It establishes that casebooks were serial records of practice, akin to diaries, testimonials, and registers; identifies extant English casebooks and the practices that led to their production and preservation; and concludes that the processes of writing, ordering, and preserving medical records are as important for understanding the medical encounter as the records themselves. PMID:25557513

  12. Modern control concepts in hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, N.; Johnson, G. R.; Winn, C. B.

    1974-01-01

    Two approaches to an identification problem in hydrology are presented based upon concepts from modern control and estimation theory. The first approach treats the identification of unknown parameters in a hydrologic system subject to noisy inputs as an adaptive linear stochastic control problem; the second approach alters the model equation to account for the random part in the inputs, and then uses a nonlinear estimation scheme to estimate the unknown parameters. Both approaches use state-space concepts. The identification schemes are sequential and adaptive and can handle either time invariant or time dependent parameters. They are used to identify parameters in the Prasad model of rainfall-runoff. The results obtained are encouraging and conform with results from two previous studies; the first using numerical integration of the model equation along with a trial-and-error procedure, and the second, by using a quasi-linearization technique. The proposed approaches offer a systematic way of analyzing the rainfall-runoff process when the input data are imbedded in noise.

  13. Moodle, KUSSS and MUSSS - Modern teaching at university

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duller, Christine

    2016-06-01

    This research shows some modern teaching methods for introductory courses in statistics. Past results showed, that students have difficulties in interpreting "statistical" diagrams or in very basic mathematics, but especially interpreting diagrams is very important in professional and daily life. Therefore statisticians/teachers have to focus not only on technical skills in statistics, but also in understanding and correct interpreting of results and diagrams.

  14. The Modern Design of Experiments: A Technical and Marketing Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, R.

    2000-01-01

    A new wind tunnel testing process under development at NASA Langley Research Center, called Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE), differs from conventional wind tunnel testing techniques on a number of levels. Chief among these is that MDOE focuses on the generation of adequate prediction models rather than high-volume data collection. Some cultural issues attached to this and other distinctions between MDOE and conventional wind tunnel testing are addressed in this paper.

  15. Modernization and new technologies: Coping with the information explosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blados, Walter R.; Cotter, Gladys A.

    1993-01-01

    Information has become a valuable and strategic resource in all societies and economies. Scientific and technical information is especially important in developing and maintaining a strong national science and technology base. The expanding use of information technology, the growth of interdisciplinary research, and an increase in international collaboration are changing characteristics of information. This modernization effort applies new technology to current processes to provide near-term benefits to the user. At the same time, we are developing a long-term modernization strategy designed to transition the program to a multimedia, global 'library without walls'. Notwithstanding this modernization program, it is recogized that no one information center can hope to collect all the relevant data. We see information and information systems changing and becoming more international in scope. We are finding that many nations are expending resources on national systems which duplicate each other. At the same time that this duplication exists, many useful sources of aerospace information are not being collected to cover expanded sources of information. This paper reviews the NASA modernization program and raises for consideration new possibilities for unification of the various aerospace database efforts toward a cooperative international aerospace database initiative, one that can optimize the cost/benefit equation for all participants.

  16. Childhood and Citizenship: A Conversation across Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the problematic nature of citizenship as a modern achievement faced with the challenge of vindicating ancient ideals in what is increasingly considered to be a "postmodern" world. It offers a parallel analysis of childhood as a characteristically modern construct whose reality in children's life-worlds is threatened by social…

  17. On the Emergence of Modern Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amati, Daniele; Shallice, Tim

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of modern humans with their extraordinary cognitive capacities is ascribed to a novel type of cognitive computational process (sustained non-routine multi-level operations) required for abstract projectuality, held to be the common denominator of the cognitive capacities specific to modern humans. A brain operation (latching) that…

  18. Incorporate Technology into the Modern Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleberry, Gwen Troxell; Evers, Rebecca B.

    2010-01-01

    This column describes how technology can enrich the learning environment provided by the modern language classroom. Typically, modern languages taught in U.S. public schools are French, Spanish, and German. A general broadening of high school graduation and college and professional school admission requirements to include a certain level of modern…

  19. Secondary Modern Schools: Are Their Pupils Disadvantaged?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levacic, Rosalind; Marsh, Alan J.

    2007-01-01

    There are still 10 English local educational authorities (LEAs) that are wholly selective and a further 10 with some grammar and secondary modern schools. This article examines the academic performance of pupils in secondary modern schools and the funding of these schools using national data sets matching pupils' performance at Key Stage 2 and…

  20. Modernity: a non-European conceptualization.

    PubMed

    Mouzelis, N

    1999-03-01

    In the light of insights drawn from historical sociology and Parsons' theory of differentiation/modernization, an attempt is made to conceptualize modernity in such a way as to avoid both eurocentrism and the total rejection of the concept by those who view it as an ideological means for the further advancement of western cultural imperialism. PMID:15266678

  1. "On Making Man Modern"--A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    A. Inkeles' cross-cultural work is reviewed. Inkeles studied young factory workers in six developing countries (Argentina, Chile, India, Israel, Nigeria, and East Pakistan) to determine their "modernity" characteristics versus their "traditional" or rural orientations. The use of the "modern man" thesis in this study, that is, that the factory can…

  2. Problems and Possibilities: The Public Library in the Borderline between Modernity and Late Modernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Casper Hvenegaard; Jochumsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The public library is a product of modernity that follows in the wake of industrialization, urbanization, and popular movements, while at the same time the public library itself supports the building up and development of the modern. This article will examine the arrival of modernity and the prerequisites for the rise of public libraries, as well…

  3. The burrowing origin of modern snakes

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hongyu; Norell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Modern snakes probably originated as habitat specialists, but it controversial unclear whether they were ancestrally terrestrial burrowers or marine swimmers. We used x-ray virtual models of the inner ear to predict the habit of Dinilysia patagonica, a stem snake closely related to the origin of modern snakes. Previous work has shown that modern snakes perceive substrate vibrations via their inner ear. Our data show that D. patagonica and modern burrowing squamates share a unique spherical vestibule in the inner ear, as compared with swimmers and habitat generalists. We built predictive models for snake habit based on their vestibular shape, which estimated D. patagonica and the hypothetical ancestor of crown snakes as burrowers with high probabilities. This study provides an extensive comparative data set to test fossoriality quantitatively in stem snakes, and it shows that burrowing was predominant in the lineages leading to modern crown snakes. PMID:26702436

  4. From Hippocrates to modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Orfanos, C E

    2007-07-01

    Hippocrates was the first to introduce the concept of 'physis' and to transform hieratic or theocratic medicine into rational medicine. The overall construction of the Asclepieion on Kos clearly indicates that he and his school followed a holistic concept, combining scientific thought with drug therapy, diet schedules, and physical and mental exercise, also asking for God's help. Hippocrates also formulated the first standards and ethical rules to be followed in medical profession, which are still valid today. The knowledge of Graeco-Roman medicine has been transferred by Arab scholars into the West, whereas renaissance, urbanization, and industrialisation have changed its face over the centuries. With the entrance of molecular technology and economy, modern medicine now faces the risk of becoming itself industrialized. Correct use of new scientific knowledge, individualized management with a Hippocratic holistic approach and compassionate sympathy for the patient who suffers, should be considered in the years to come for maintaining the level of medical profession. The venue of our European Congress in Rhodes is very close to Kos, another historic Aegean island, the place where Hippocrates has given the first professional standards in European medicine and in medicine in general. They were established 2600 years ago and are still valid today.(1,2) If one draws a red line and marks some cornerstones of the evolution that has taken place in medicine over the past centuries, it is evident that these first rules formulated by Hippocrates and his school also reveal the future responsibilities for our profession and make them better recognizable and more conclusive. PMID:17567335

  5. Philosophy, Methodology and Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Wilfred

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of methodology in action research. It begins by showing how, as a form of inquiry concerned with the development of practice, action research is nothing other than a modern 20th century manifestation of the pre-modern tradition of practical philosophy. It then draws in Gadamer's powerful vindication of…

  6. Radiation chemistry for modern nuclear energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Szołucha, Monika M.

    2016-07-01

    Radiation chemistry plays a significant role in modern nuclear energy development. Pioneering research in nuclear science, for example the development of generation IV nuclear reactors, cannot be pursued without chemical solutions. Present issues related to light water reactors concern radiolysis of water in the primary circuit; long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel; radiation effects on cables and wire insulation, and on ion exchangers used for water purification; as well as the procedures of radioactive waste reprocessing and storage. Radiation effects on materials and enhanced corrosion are crucial in current (II/III/III+) and future (IV) generation reactors, and in waste management, deep geological disposal and spent fuel reprocessing. The new generation of reactors (III+ and IV) impose new challenges for radiation chemists due to their new conditions of operation and the usage of new types of coolant. In the case of the supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), water chemistry control may be the key factor in preventing corrosion of reactor structural materials. This paper mainly focuses on radiation effects on long-term performance and safety in the development of nuclear power plants.

  7. Testability and epistemic shifts in modern cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade new developments in theoretical and speculative cosmology have reopened the old discussion of cosmology's scientific status and the more general question of the demarcation between science and non-science. The multiverse hypothesis, in particular, is central to this discussion and controversial because it seems to disagree with methodological and epistemic standards traditionally accepted in the physical sciences. But what are these standards and how sacrosanct are they? Does anthropic multiverse cosmology rest on evaluation criteria that conflict with and go beyond those ordinarily accepted, so that it constitutes an "epistemic shift" in fundamental physics? The paper offers a brief characterization of the modern multiverse and also refers to a few earlier attempts to introduce epistemic shifts in the science of the universe. It further discusses the several meanings of testability, addresses the question of falsifiability as a sine qua non for a theory being scientific, and briefly compares the situation in cosmology with the one in systematic biology. Multiverse theory is not generally falsifiable, which has led to proposals from some physicists to overrule not only Popperian standards but also other evaluation criteria of a philosophical nature. However, this is hardly possible and nor is it possible to get rid of explicit philosophical considerations in some other aspects of cosmological research, however advanced it becomes.

  8. History of modern genetics in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Friederike

    2002-01-01

    The history of modern genetics in Germany during the 20th century is a story of missed chances. In the USA the genetic revolution opened a fascinating new field for ambitious scientists and created a rapidly growing new industry. Meanwhile Germany stood aside, combating with political and social restrictions. Promising young scientists who wanted to work in the field left Germany for the US, and big companies moved their facilities out of the country. Up until the middle of the 1990s molecular biology in Germany remained a "sleeping beauty" even though many brilliant scientists did their jobs very well. Then a somewhat funny idea changed everything: the German minister for education and science proclaimed the BioRegio contest in order to award the most powerful biotechnology region in Germany concerning academia and especially industry. Since then Germany's biotechnology industry has grown constantly and rapidly due to the foundation of a number of small biotech companies; big companies have returned their interests and their investments to Germany, paralleled by an improvement in academic research because of more funding and better support especially for younger scientists. In respect to biotechnology and molecular biology, Germany is still a developing country, but it has started to move and to take its chances in an exciting global competition. PMID:11783839

  9. Yoga and mental health: A dialogue between ancient wisdom and modern psychology

    PubMed Central

    Vorkapic, Camila Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many yoga texts make reference to the importance of mental health and the use of specific techniques in the treatment of mental disorders. Different concepts utilized in modern psychology may not come with contemporary ideas, instead, they seem to share a common root with ancient wisdom. Aims: The goal of this perspective article is to correlate modern techniques used in psychology and psychiatry with yogic practices, in the treatment of mental disorders. Materials and Methods: The current article presented a dialogue between the yogic approach for the treatment of mental disorder and concepts used in modern psychology, such as meta-cognition, disidentification, deconditioning and interoceptive exposure. Conclusions: Contemplative research found out that modern interventions in psychology might not come from modern concepts after all, but share great similarity with ancient yogic knowledge, giving us the opportunity to integrate the psychological wisdom of both East and West. PMID:26865774

  10. Delonix regia: historic perspectives and modern phytochemical and pharmacological researches.

    PubMed

    Modi, Anuj; Mishra, Vijay; Bhatt, Ajita; Jain, Aviral; Mansoori, Mohd Hashim; Gurnany, Ekta; Kumar, Vimal

    2016-01-01

    Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook) Raffin (Fabaceae), also known as flame of forest, is a semi-deciduous tree, distributed throughout Madagascar, India, Africa, and Northern Australia. Various parts of the plant are traditionally used for the treatment of different ailments such as inflammation, rheumatism, bronchitis, diabetes, anemia, fever, gynecological disorders, and pneumonia. The plant possess antioxidant, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, wound healing, antiarthritic, larvicidal, antimalarial, antiemetic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antidiarrhoeal, antiheamolytic, diuretic, and anthelmintic activities. This review is an up-to-date compilation on its traditional uses in context to phytochemical and pharmacological perspectives. PMID:26850344

  11. Imposture: A Late Modern Notion in Poststructuralist SLA Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the feelings of imposture that are sometimes experienced by multilingual subjects--learners of a language other than their own or users of multiple languages--and their difficulty of finding authentic or legitimate subject positions in a global world with fluid boundaries and uncertain categories of identity. It examines what…

  12. Modern approaches in probiotics research to control foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Bhunia, Arun K

    2012-01-01

    Foodborne illness is a serious public health concern. There are over 200 known microbial, chemical, and physical agents that are known to cause foodborne illness. Efforts are made for improved detection, control and prevention of foodborne pathogen in food, and pathogen associated diseases in the host. Several commonly used approaches to control foodborne pathogens include antibiotics, natural antimicrobials, bacteriophages, bacteriocins, ionizing radiations, and heat. In addition, probiotics offer a potential intervention strategy for the prevention and control of foodborne infections. This review focuses on the use of probiotics and bioengineered probiotics to control foodborne pathogens, their antimicrobial actions, and their delivery strategies. Although probiotics have been demonstrated to be effective in antagonizing foodborne pathogens, challenges exist in the characterization and elucidation of underlying molecular mechanisms of action and in the development of potential delivery strategies that could maintain the viability and functionality of the probiotic in the target organ. PMID:23034117

  13. The new biology: beyond the Modern Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Michael R; Oakley, Todd H

    2007-01-01

    Background The last third of the 20th Century featured an accumulation of research findings that severely challenged the assumptions of the "Modern Synthesis" which provided the foundations for most biological research during that century. The foundations of that "Modernist" biology had thus largely crumbled by the start of the 21st Century. This in turn raises the question of foundations for biology in the 21st Century. Conclusion Like the physical sciences in the first half of the 20th Century, biology at the start of the 21st Century is achieving a substantive maturity of theory, experimental tools, and fundamental findings thanks to relatively secure foundations in genomics. Genomics has also forced biologists to connect evolutionary and molecular biology, because these formerly Balkanized disciplines have been brought together as actors on the genomic stage. Biologists are now addressing the evolution of genetic systems using more than the concepts of population biology alone, and the problems of cell biology using more than the tools of biochemistry and molecular biology alone. It is becoming increasingly clear that solutions to such basic problems as aging, sex, development, and genome size potentially involve elements of biological science at every level of organization, from molecule to population. The new biology knits together genomics, bioinformatics, evolutionary genetics, and other such general-purpose tools to supply novel explanations for the paradoxes that undermined Modernist biology. Open Peer Reviewers This article was reviewed by W.F. Doolittle, E.V. Koonin, and J.M. Logsdon. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' Comments section. PMID:18036242

  14. Principles of modern low vision rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Samuel N

    2006-06-01

    Low vision rehabilitation is a new emerging subspecialty drawing from the traditional fields of ophthalmology, optometry, occupational therapy, and sociology, with an ever-increasing impact on our customary concepts of research, education, and services for the visually impaired patient. A multidisciplinary approach and coordinated effort are necessary to take advantage of new scientific advances and achieve optimal results for the patient. Accordingly, the intent of this paper is to outline the principles and details of a modern low vision rehabilitation service. All rehabilitation attempts must start with a first hand interview (the intake) for assessing functionality and priority tasks for rehabilitation, as well as assessing the patient's all-important cognitive skills. The assessment of residual visual functions follows the intake and offers a unique opportunity to measure, evaluate, and document accurately the extent of functional loss sustained by the patient from disease. An accurate assessment of residual visual functions includes assessment of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, binocularity, refractive errors, perimetry, oculomotor functions, cortical visual integration, and light characteristics affecting visual functions. Functional vision assessment in low vision rehabilitation measures how well one uses residual visual functions to perform routine tasks, using different items under various conditions, throughout the day. Of the many functional vision skills known, reading skills is an obligatory item for all low vision rehabilitation assessments. Results of assessment guide rehabilitation professionals in developing rehabilitation plans for the individual and recommending appropriate low vision devices. The outcome from assessing residual visual functions is detection of visual functions that can be improved with the use of optical devices. Methods for prescribing devices such as image relocation with prisms to a preferred retinal locus, field

  15. Some Problems of modern acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan, A.

    1974-01-01

    The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary character of acoustics is considered and its scientific, technological, economical and social implications, as well as the role of acoustics in creating new machines and equipment and improving the quality of products are outlined. Research beyond audible frequencies, as well as to extremely high acoustic intensities, which requires the development of a nonlinear acoustics is elaborated.

  16. The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Haidan; Ma, Qianqian; Ye, Li; Piao, Guangchun

    2016-01-01

    Natural products and traditional medicines are of great importance. Such forms of medicine as traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, Kampo, traditional Korean medicine, and Unani have been practiced in some areas of the world and have blossomed into orderly-regulated systems of medicine. This study aims to review the literature on the relationship among natural products, traditional medicines, and modern medicine, and to explore the possible concepts and methodologies from natural products and traditional medicines to further develop drug discovery. The unique characteristics of theory, application, current role or status, and modern research of eight kinds of traditional medicine systems are summarized in this study. Although only a tiny fraction of the existing plant species have been scientifically researched for bioactivities since 1805, when the first pharmacologically-active compound morphine was isolated from opium, natural products and traditional medicines have already made fruitful contributions for modern medicine. When used to develop new drugs, natural products and traditional medicines have their incomparable advantages, such as abundant clinical experiences, and their unique diversity of chemical structures and biological activities. PMID:27136524

  17. Reframing Romaine Brooks' heroic queer modernism.

    PubMed

    Langer, Cassandra L

    2010-01-01

    Modernism was not a wholesale embracing of Greenberg's definition as abstracting, non-objective, and autonomous. The expatriate U.S. artist and lesbian Romaine Brooks politicized her portraits of females based on a queer combination of the Byronic erotic and Baudelaire's modern dandy. Her execution of her queer modernist aesthetics re-presents female heroes as part of a self-reflective dynamic of lesbian modernity that emphasizes the ambiguity of normative gender binaries and plays with style, personality, and impersonation as disrupting to bourgeoisie mores. My focus is on how Brooks shatters normative conventions of portraiture in her revolutionary critique of heteronormativity. PMID:20408008

  18. Modern human origins: progress and prospects.

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The question of the mode of origin of modern humans (Homo sapiens) has dominated palaeoanthropological debate over the last decade. This review discusses the main models proposed to explain modern human origins, and examines relevant fossil evidence from Eurasia, Africa and Australasia. Archaeological and genetic data are also discussed, as well as problems with the concept of 'modernity' itself. It is concluded that a recent African origin can be supported for H. sapiens, morphologically, behaviourally and genetically, but that more evidence will be needed, both from Africa and elsewhere, before an absolute African origin for our species and its behavioural characteristics can be established and explained. PMID:12028792

  19. Deconstruction and analysis of multiphonic clusters in the modern flute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barravecchio, Shauna

    The modern flute has been acoustically analyzed in great detail by many, but only from the point of view of traditional playing techniques. Very little research exists to date on more modem, "extended" technique performance. This paper explores the production of multiphonic note clusters as played on the modern flute. Several clusters as notated in James Pellerite's book on flute fingerings are recorded and analyzed for frequency content. Each one is then compared to the expected frequency content based on John Backus' 1978 paper on woodwind multiphonics. Using this information, the fingering configuration of each cluster can be deconstructed and each component pitch explained in terms of the root frequencies, overtone series, and sideband frequencies.

  20. Hippocratic messages for modern medicine (the vindication of Hippocrates).

    PubMed

    Katsambas, A; Marketos, S G

    2007-07-01

    Medicine feels the need to combine more than ever the traditional concepts of Hippocrates in perfect balance with the enormous power of modern biotechnology. In our times, the old message 'go back to Hippocrates' sounds like a utopian vision. On the other hand, technological progress tends to remove modern medicine from its anthropocentric mission. The realistic message for tomorrow's physicians must be 'to go forward' together with his perennial humanistic values and clinical messages, combining the recent advances of biotechnology with the Hippocratic rationalism, which is based on logical reasoning, on careful clinical examination, and on a whole humane approach to the patient and his environment. Today's physician can still learn from the Hippocratic heritage and will need to be an expert Hippocratic physician, ever more humane and competent to use all new methods and facilities of basic dermatological research. PMID:17567336

  1. [European health systems and the integration problem of modern societies].

    PubMed

    Lüschen, G

    2000-04-01

    With reference to the national health systems in Germany and the UK we must acknowledge that it was in particular Bismarck's Reform, originally directed toward a solidarity among the socially weak, which entailed in its development a marked redistribution via progressive health fees and standardized health services. In view of Alfred Marshall's original expectations this has resulted in a specific integration of the socially weak and with some difference for nationally tax-financed and social security financed health systems to a genuine contribution towards integration of modern society. An open research question is whether as a consequence of solidarity and integration through health systems there is a decline of social inequality for health. Equally open is the question as to the socio-structural and economic consequences the expansion of modern health systems has. PMID:10838787

  2. Progress of modern agricultural chemistry and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Agriculture is facing an enormous challenge: it must ensure that enough high-quality food is available to meet the needs of a continually growing population. Current and future agronomic production of food, feed, fuel and fibre requires innovative solutions for existing and future challenges, such as climate change, resistance to pests, increased regulatory demands, renewable raw materials or requirements resulting from food chain partnerships. Modern agricultural chemistry has to support farmers to manage these tasks. Today, the so-called 'side effects' of agrochemicals regarding yield and quality are gaining more importance. Agrochemical companies with a strong research and development focus will have the opportunity to shape the future of agriculture by delivering innovative integrated solutions. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the innovative products launched over the past 10 years and describes the progress of modern agricultural chemistry and its future prospects. PMID:26577980

  3. The use of modern technologies and techniques in material testing

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, M.G. ); Lombard, M.D. )

    1993-01-01

    We live in a world of change, and the material procurement area is one of the most dynamic in our industry. We have experienced a significant increase in external pressures and regulations, which are contributing to the escalating cost of producing power. At the same time, we are being asked by our management to reduce cost within our organizations. To exist as a profitable utility in the 1990s and beyond, we need to adapt our procurement activities to the ever-changing marketplace by utilizing modern technologies and techniques. By utilizing these modern technologies and techniques along with the recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) guidelines, Niagara Mohawk can improve the procurement process, give ourselves a higher level of assurance of getting the right items, and provide our utility with significant monetary savings. This paper focuses on the technical and economic benefits of Niagara Mohawk's Material Testing Facility.

  4. Federal incentives for industrial modernization: Historical review and future opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Sandra C.; Batson, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    Concerns over the aging of the U.S. aerospace industrial base led DOD to introduce first its Technology Modernization (Tech Mod) Program, and more recently the Industrial Modernization Incentive Program (IMIP). These incentives include productivity shared savings rewards, contractor investment protection to allow for amortization of plant and equipment, and subcontractor/vendor participation. The purpose here is to review DOD IMIP and to evaluate whether a similar program is feasible for NASA and other non-DOD agencies. The IMIP methodology is of interest to industrial engineers because it provides a structured, disciplined approach to identifying productivity improvement opportunities and documenting their expected benefit. However, it is shown that more research on predicting and validating cost avoidance is needed.

  5. Modern Imaging Technology: Recent Advances

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.

    2004-06-18

    This 2-day conference is designed to bring scientist working in nuclear medicine, as well as nuclear medicine practitioners together to discuss the advances in four selected areas of imaging: Biochemical Parameters using Small Animal Imaging, Developments in Small Animal PET Imaging, Cell Labeling, and Imaging Angiogenesis Using Multiple Modality. The presentations will be on molecular imaging applications at the forefront of research, up to date on the status of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as in related imaging areas. Experts will discuss the basic science of imaging techniques, and scheduled participants will engage in an exciting program that emphasizes the current status of molecular imaging as well as the role of DOE funded research in this area.

  6. Historical development of modern anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Daniel H; Toledo, Alexander H

    2012-06-01

    Of all milestones and achievements in medicine, conquering pain must be one of the very few that has potentially affected every human being in the world. It was in 1846 that one of mankind's greatest fears, the pain of surgery, was eliminated. This historical review article describes how the various elements of anesthesiology (gasses, laryngoscopes, endotracheal tubes, intravenous medications, masks, and delivery systems) were discovered and how some brilliant entrepreneurs and physicians of the past two centuries have delivered them to humanity. One name stands out amongst all others when the founder of modern anesthesia is discussed, William T.G. Morton (1819-1868). A young Boston Dentist, Dr. Morton had been in the search for a better agent than what had been used by many dentists: nitrous oxide. With Dr. Morton's tenacity driven by enthusiasm and discovery, he and renowned surgeon at Massachusetts General Hospital, John Collins Warren (1778-1856) made history on October 16, 1846 with the first successful surgical procedure performed with anesthesia. Dr. Morton had single-handedly proven to the world that ether is a gas that when inhaled in the proper dose, provided safe and effective anesthesia. One of the first accounts of an endotracheal tube being used for an airway comes from the pediatrician Joseph O'Dwyer (1841-1898). He used the metal "O'dwyer" tubes in diphtheria cases and passed them into the trachea blindly. Adding a cuff to the tube is credited to Arthur Guedel (1883-1956) and Ralph M. Waters (1883-1979) in 1932. This addition suddenly gave the practitioner the ability to provide positive pressure ventilation. The anesthesiologist Chevalier Jackson (1865-1958) promoted his handheld laryngoscope for the insertion of endotracheal tubes and its popularity quickly caught hold. Sir Robert Reynolds Macintosh's (1897-1989) breakthrough technique of direct laryngoscopy came after being appointed Nuffield professor of anesthetics at the University of Oxford

  7. Modernizing confidence-building measures for the Biological Weapons Convention.

    PubMed

    Koblentz, Gregory D; Chevrier, Marie Isabelle

    2011-09-01

    The Seventh Review Conference of the Biological Weapons Convention in December 2011 provides an opportunity to modernize the treaty to better address the challenges of the 21st century. The key to this modernization is to redesign the treaty's Confidence-Building Measures (CBMs), the only formal mechanism for increasing transparency and demonstrating compliance with the treaty, to address changes in the global scientific, health, and security environments since the end of the Cold War. The scope of the CBMs should be expanded beyond state-run biological warfare programs to encompass a broader array of threats to global security, such as biological terrorism, laboratory accidents, dual-use research, and disease pandemics. Modernizing the CBM mechanism to take into account these new risks would extend the transparency-enhancing benefits of CBMs to a range of new and important topics, such as biosafety, laboratory biosecurity, and dual-use research oversight; make the CBMs and the treaty itself more relevant to the concerns and priorities of more states; and build on progress made during the recent series of intersessional meetings. To accomplish this, the CBMs need to be revised to shift their focus from hardware, the dual-use capabilities relevant to the treaty, to software, the political and legal institutions that govern the development and use of these capabilities. A more modern CBM mechanism should encourage greater participation in the confidence-building process, improve international cooperation against the full spectrum of biological risks, and promote the goal of universal membership in the treaty. PMID:21819226

  8. Measuring Modernism: Theoretical and Empirical Explorations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnaiberg, Allan

    1970-01-01

    Using data from married Turkish women in Ankara city and four villages, it appears that each of the (6) measures of modernism represents a distinct behavioral sphere. A common denominator appears to lie in an emancipation" complex. (Author)

  9. Computational Chemistry Using Modern Electronic Structure Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Stephen; Dines, Trevor J.; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Withnall, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Various modern electronic structure methods are now days used to teach computational chemistry to undergraduate students. Such quantum calculations can now be easily used even for large size molecules.

  10. The modern library: lost and found.

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, D A

    1996-01-01

    The modern library, a term that was heard frequently in the mid-twentieth century, has fallen into disuse. The over-promotion of computers and all that their enthusiasts promised probably hastened its demise. Today, networking is transforming how libraries provide--and users seek--information. Although the Internet is the natural environment for the health sciences librarian, it is going through growing pains as we face issues of censorship and standards. Today's "modern librarian" must not only be adept at using the Internet but must become familiar with digital information in all its forms--images, full text, and factual data banks. Most important, to stay "modern," today's librarians must embark on a program of lifelong learning that will enable them to make optimum use of the advantages offered by modern technology. PMID:8938334

  11. The Evolution of Modern Dance Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Fran

    1988-01-01

    The article traces the impact of the modern dance movement from the early 1900s and its emphasis on creativity and self-expression on the professional and institutional development of dance therapy. (CB)

  12. Intrusions of Modernity on a Traditional Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anne Horsfall

    1991-01-01

    Presents a teacher's impressions of India, gathered during a Fulbright-sponsored study tour. Examines modernizing influences in the midst of traditional culture, religious cultural groups and potential religious conflict, women's status, and problems due to overpopulation. (CH)

  13. Wallerstein, World Systems Analysis, and Early Modern European History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPlessis, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    Surveys evaluations of Immanuel Wallerstein's "The Modern World-System" by specialists in early modern history and examines Wallerstein's influence on early modern historiography. Concludes by considering some attempts to synthesize world-systems analysis with other approaches. (LS)

  14. Ancient advice for modern mariners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, David A.

    Some unusual preparations may be advised for persons anticipating voyages in sailing research vessels. For example, cooking facilities on sailing ships tend to be of modest means, and a scientist embarking on such a vessel may wonder whether he should bring his own essential provisions. Casting about for ideas, I happened on some relevant advice from Benjamin Franklin, who was seldom reluctant to sermonize on matters at hand. In spite of his numerous Atlantic crossings, Franklin was humble about offering advice to mariners, who he realized were generally suspicious of landlubbers.

  15. Mantle Convection on Modern Supercomputers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weismüller, J.; Gmeiner, B.; Huber, M.; John, L.; Mohr, M.; Rüde, U.; Wohlmuth, B.; Bunge, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Mantle convection is the cause for plate tectonics, the formation of mountains and oceans, and the main driving mechanism behind earthquakes. The convection process is modeled by a system of partial differential equations describing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Characteristic to mantle flow is the vast disparity of length scales from global to microscopic, turning mantle convection simulations into a challenging application for high-performance computing. As system size and technical complexity of the simulations continue to increase, design and implementation of simulation models for next generation large-scale architectures is handled successfully only in an interdisciplinary context. A new priority program - named SPPEXA - by the German Research Foundation (DFG) addresses this issue, and brings together computer scientists, mathematicians and application scientists around grand challenges in HPC. Here we report from the TERRA-NEO project, which is part of the high visibility SPPEXA program, and a joint effort of four research groups. TERRA-NEO develops algorithms for future HPC infrastructures, focusing on high computational efficiency and resilience in next generation mantle convection models. We present software that can resolve the Earth's mantle with up to 1012 grid points and scales efficiently to massively parallel hardware with more than 50,000 processors. We use our simulations to explore the dynamic regime of mantle convection and assess the impact of small scale processes on global mantle flow.

  16. Mead production: tradition versus modernity.

    PubMed

    Ramalhosa, Elsa; Gomes, Teresa; Pereira, Ana Paula; Dias, Teresa; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2011-01-01

    Honey is a natural product with recognized physical and chemical properties, which contribute to its biological activity. However, honey is currently being sold at low prices, making it imperative to find alternatives to make apiculture a viable national enterprise. One of these alternatives could be mead production. Despite the excellent properties of honey, mead production faces several problems, namely, delays and "pouts" fermentations, lack of product uniformity, and production of yeast off-flavors. Many factors might be related with these problems, such as honey variety, temperature, medium composition (vitamin and nitrogen content), fermentative yeast, and pH. Due to all these factors, mead production has decreased over the years. To overcome this situation, more research is needed to optimize the production of this beverage. This chapter presents a comprehensive review of previous research on mead production. It will focus on honey characterization and mead production. The first section covers honey composition and the way this affects honey properties, as well as important parameters that are indicators of honey quality. The second section discusses mead production, including fermentative microorganisms, fermentation conditions, and required postfermentation adjustments and maturation conditions. The final section focuses on the problems that must be surpassed and what the future holds for mead production. PMID:21867893

  17. A Computerized Phrase-Structure Grammar (Modern Hebrew): Part IV, An Algorithm for Analyzing Hebrew Sentences. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James D.

    The final part of a four-part report of research on the development of a computerized, phrase-structure grammar of modern Hebrew describes the computerized algorithm for analyzing the sentences generated based on a complex-constituent-phrase structure grammar. The first section here discusses a structural model for modern Hebrew; the second…

  18. Environmental Education is History: The Extent to Which Modern History Education Adopts Characteristics of Socially Critical Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Clayton

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a research study that investigated the extent to which the Queensland secondary school subject Modern History adopts characteristics of socially critical environmental education. The study found that while the Modern History syllabus gives ample opportunities for students to focus their inquiries on "environment", Modern…

  19. [Modern psychosomatic aspects of dermatology].

    PubMed

    Jovanović, M; Duran, V; Poljacki, M; Misić-Pavkov, G; Matović, L; Subotić, M; Golub, R

    1994-01-01

    Concerning their origin most diseases are multifactorial and that goes for skin diseases too. Emphasizing just one must not exclude further research and other aspects of etiopathogenetic mechanisms. It has been known for along time that psychological factors have a certain influence on the start, aggravation and maintenance on skin changes and that cosmetic defects of this kind disturb the psychological peace of the sick person and his capacity of establishing satisfactory social relations. Psychosomatic approach in dermatology cannot be reduced to investigation of specific etiology in the field of psyche without physical or social spheres. It unites all of them and in that way the old question what cause and what the consequence is has no importance, because there is no time or distance limit among them. They act simultaneously, holistically. PMID:7739438

  20. The first modern human dispersals across Africa.

    PubMed

    Rito, Teresa; Richards, Martin B; Fernandes, Verónica; Alshamali, Farida; Cerny, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of more refined chronologies for climate change and archaeology in prehistoric Africa, and for the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), now make it feasible to test more sophisticated models of early modern human dispersals suggested by mtDNA distributions. Here we have generated 42 novel whole-mtDNA genomes belonging to haplogroup L0, the most divergent clade in the maternal line of descent, and analysed them alongside the growing database of African lineages belonging to L0's sister clade, L1'6. We propose that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs (carried by "mitochondrial Eve") possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size. By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African "megadroughts" of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135-75 ka) which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup LO. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution. PMID:24236171

  1. Modern approach to treating mental patients in colonial chosun.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bang Hyun

    2013-08-01

    them or who posed a threat to others, or else commissioned them to the government hospital. Thus, the final responsibility for mental patients was imposed on the modern Western medical team, because the district commissioners sent them to the police and the police sent them to the government mental hospital. Most educated people and government personnel in the colonial era thought modern Western psychiatry circles were responsible for mental patient management, and the Japanese empire enacted mental-healthrelated laws and made efforts to secure funds for the establishment of mental hospitals. As the literature at that time also show the position of the modern Western medical circle, their ambivalent attitude to mental patients must also be clarified to interpret the modern approach to treating mental patients in colonial Chosun. In this context, a research on historical figures in Japanese psychiatry, a study on the specific treatment methods used by the modern Western psychiatric team in the colonial era and their effects, and the extension of the subject period for such researches are suggested. PMID:24005649

  2. Investigation of the Reasons of Negative Perceptions of Undergraduate Students Regarding the Modern Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksakalli, Ayhan; Salar, Riza; Turgut, Umit

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the negative perceptions of undergraduate students regarding modern physics course and the causes of their negative perceptions have been investigated. For this investigation, a qualitative and quantitative method (mix method) was chosen for data collection and analysis. The study group of the research consists of a total of 169…

  3. Energy potential of modern landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Methane produced by refuse decomposition in a sanitary landfill can be recovered for commercial use. Landfill methane is currently under-utilized, with commercial recovery at only a small percentage of US landfills. New federal regulations mandating control of landfill gas migration and atmospheric emissions are providing impetus to methane recovery schemes as a means of recovering costs for increased environmental control. The benefits of landfill methane recovery include utilization of an inexpensive renewable energy resource, removal of explosive gas mixtures from the subsurface, and mitigation of observed historic increases in atmospheric methane. Increased commercial interest in landfill methane recovery is dependent on the final form of Clean Air Act amendments pertaining to gaseous emissions from landfills; market shifts in natural gas prices; financial incentives for development of renewable energy resources; and support for applied research and development to develop techniques for increased control of the gas generation process in situ. This paper will discuss the controls on methane generation in landfills. In addition, it will address how landfill regulations affect landfill design and site management practices which, in turn, influence decomposition rates. Finally, future trends in landfilling, and their relationship to gas production, will be examined. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Mantle convection on modern supercomputers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weismüller, Jens; Gmeiner, Björn; Mohr, Marcus; Waluga, Christian; Wohlmuth, Barbara; Rüde, Ulrich; Bunge, Hans-Peter

    2015-04-01

    Mantle convection is the cause for plate tectonics, the formation of mountains and oceans, and the main driving mechanism behind earthquakes. The convection process is modeled by a system of partial differential equations describing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Characteristic to mantle flow is the vast disparity of length scales from global to microscopic, turning mantle convection simulations into a challenging application for high-performance computing. As system size and technical complexity of the simulations continue to increase, design and implementation of simulation models for next generation large-scale architectures demand an interdisciplinary co-design. Here we report about recent advances of the TERRA-NEO project, which is part of the high visibility SPPEXA program, and a joint effort of four research groups in computer sciences, mathematics and geophysical application under the leadership of FAU Erlangen. TERRA-NEO develops algorithms for future HPC infrastructures, focusing on high computational efficiency and resilience in next generation mantle convection models. We present software that can resolve the Earth's mantle with up to 1012 grid points and scales efficiently to massively parallel hardware with more than 50,000 processors. We use our simulations to explore the dynamic regime of mantle convection assessing the impact of small scale processes on global mantle flow.

  5. Resolving the formation of modern Chladni figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuan, P. H.; Tung, J. C.; Liang, H. C.; Chiang, P. Y.; Huang, K. F.; Chen, Y. F.

    2015-09-01

    The resonant spectrum of a thin plate driven with a mechanical oscillator is precisely measured to distinguish modern Chladni figures (CFs) observed at the resonant frequencies from classical CFs observed at the non-resonant frequencies. Experimental results reveal that modern CFs generally display an important characteristic of avoided crossings of nodal lines, whereas the nodal lines of classical CFs form a regular grid. The formation of modern CFs and the resonant frequency spectrum are resolved with a theoretical model that characterizes the interaction between the plate and the driving source into the inhomogeneous Kirchhoff-Love equation. The derived formula for determining resonant frequencies is shown to be exactly identical to the meromorphic function given in singular billiards that deals with the coupling strength on the transition between integrable and chaotic features. The good agreement between experimental results and theoretical predictions verifies the significant role of the strong-coupling effect in the formation of modern CFs. More importantly, it is confirmed that the apparatus for generating modern CFs can be developed to serve as an expedient system for exploring the nodal domains of chaotic wave functions as well as the physics of the strong coupling with a point scatterer.

  6. Photon Science at Modern Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, John

    2009-12-01

    More than 50 large x-ray and UV light sources based on high-energy electron accelerators are in operation around the world, serving a scientific community numbering in the tens of thousands. These sources generate synchrotron radiation from accelerated electrons or positrons. The development of synchrotron light sources over the last 40 years has fueled an exponential increase in x-ray source brightness of more than 10 orders of magnitude. The next large advance in source potential is now underway, with the commissioning of the first x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) sources. Using high-energy electron linear accelerators, these facilities produce sub-picosecond pulses of hard x-rays with peak brightness more than 10 orders of magnitude greater than current synchrotron facilities. FEL x-ray facilities will soon be operational in the US, Japan, and Germany. Research at modern light sources makes use of a wide range of experimental techniques. Many experiments are designed to study the structure of matter at the atomic scale using elastic x-ray scattering. This technique has been particularly effective for determining the structures of biological molecules, such as proteins, viruses, and drugs. Inelastic x-ray scattering, or x-ray absorption followed by emission of electrons or photons, can give information about the electronic structures of atoms, which can be used to deduce local environment information such as atomic species, bonding state, geometry of neighboring atoms, or magnetic state. For some techniques involving x-ray emission from a sample, cryogenic detectors with energy resolution at the ˜10 eV level or better would be very helpful. Shifts in electron energy levels associated with bonding states and magnetic states are typically several eV, while the energy structure associated with Compton inelastic scattering is typically in the range of a few tens of eV. Current energy-resolving detectors used at synchrotron light sources are hampered by either poor

  7. Modern Computational Techniques for the HMMER Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the latest research and critical reviews on modern computing architectures, software and hardware accelerated algorithms for bioinformatics data analysis with an emphasis on one of the most important sequence analysis applications—hidden Markov models (HMM). We show the detailed performance comparison of sequence analysis tools on various computing platforms recently developed in the bioinformatics society. The characteristics of the sequence analysis, such as data and compute-intensive natures, make it very attractive to optimize and parallelize by using both traditional software approach and innovated hardware acceleration technologies. PMID:25937944

  8. School Physical Education in the Transition from Solid Modernity to Liquid Modernity: The Brazilian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracht, Valter; Gomes, Ivan Marcelo; de Almeida, Felipe Quintão

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of the contemporary transition from a solid modernity to a liquid modernity for school physical education, according to the metaphors adopted by the Polish sociologist and English resident Zygmunt Bauman. By leveraging Bauman's sociological theory, this article pursues two aims: (1) to examine how physical…

  9. Modern History of Hawaii: Instructional Materials/Resources for High School Modern History of Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinoshita, Jane

    This resource guide contains seven units of study on the modern history of Hawaii. The one-semester course for use at the high school level is a study of the historical development of modern Hawaii within the context of social, political, and economic growth and development of the state. An introductory unit attempts to anticipate future problems…

  10. Analytical description of the modern steam automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity of operating conditions upon performance of the modern steam automobile is discussed. The word modern has been used in the title to indicate that emphasis is upon miles per gallon rather than theoretical thermal efficiency. This has been accomplished by combining classical power analysis with the ideal Pressure-Volume diagram. Several parameters are derived which characterize performance capability of the modern steam car. The report illustrates that performance is dictated by the characteristics of the working medium, and the supply temperature. Performance is nearly independent of pressures above 800 psia. Analysis techniques were developed specifically for reciprocating steam engines suitable for automotive application. Specific performance charts have been constructed on the basis of water as a working medium. The conclusions and data interpretation are therefore limited within this scope.

  11. [Counselling with modern expressions of mystic pictures].

    PubMed

    Bögle, Robert Michael

    2004-10-01

    The picture-worlds of children in the 21th century are not only evoked anymore by fairytales of the Brothers Grimm, but also by modern audio-visual stories (in books, comics, mangas, swap cards, films, videos and computer games). In psychological counselling and psychotherapy of children and adolescents we like to use such picture-worlds, modern myths and metaphors, to tie up with the experiences of the children and to kick start corresponding processes of maturation. Consultants can not only use their own treasures of myths remembering their own childhood (reading), but should also be familiar with the modern picture-worlds common to children in order to develop images which are shared by both counsellor and child, and should be capable of understanding the meaning of the characters and their actions. Some narratives and forms will be presented here in relation to developmental psychology. PMID:15543710

  12. Infectious Disease Stigmas: Maladaptive in Modern Society.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel A; Hughes, David

    2014-04-01

    At multiple times in human history people have asked if there are good stigmas. Is there some useful function stigmas serve in the context of our evolutionary history; is stigma adaptive? This essay discusses stigmas as a group-selection strategy and the human context in which stigmas likely appeared. The next section explores how human patterns have changed in modern society and the consequences for infectious disease (ID) stigmas in the modern age. The concluding section suggests that while social-living species may be particularly apt to create and communicate ID stigmas and enact ID-related stigmatization, such stigma-related processes no longer function to protect human communities. Stigmas do not increase the ability of modern societies to survive infectious diseases, but in fact may be important drivers of problematic disease dynamics and act as catalysts for failures in protecting public health. PMID:25477728

  13. Defective modernization and health in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Simonelli, J M

    1987-01-01

    This paper uses data gathered in a semi-arid, mountain region of the border state of Sonora, Mexico to illustrate that modernization and the importation of urban ideas and values can influence health status in unexpected ways. It traces the historic process of modernization in a rural municipio, relating this to social promises and economic cycles in Mexico. Modernization is seen to encompass life standard improvements and access to medical care; extension of road and transportation systems; and the widespread availability of information and education, as well as lifestyle changes required to incorporate these 'urban' influences. Reviewing the link between climate and health in arid lands, the paper notes that such modernization can be a well-meaning intrusion upon a set of cultural and social practices which had proved adaptive in dealing with climatic extremes. Initial modernization produces impressive declines in mortality and morbidity, as illustrated in an analysis of mortality figures and causes in relation to age cohorts and decades for the years 1955-1984. However, reductions in epidermic-related infant mortality are shown to be offset by increases in deaths due to trauma, chronic conditions and endemic disease. An analysis of morbidity for the year 1983-84 indicates that continuing high rates of infectious disease are related to conditions which result from increasingly defective modernization. To maintain technology, including water, electrical, and sewage systems, continual capital expenditure on both the public and private level is required. The economic crisis in Mexico is reducing available funds at a time when the community has adjusted its traditional lifestyle to incorporate technological improvements. In light of this, it is likely that inroads against infectious disease will not just continue to be stalemated, but could actually be reversed. This finding has implications for towns and villages on both sides of the Mexican-American border. PMID

  14. International Research and Studies Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Research and Studies Program supports surveys, studies, and instructional materials development to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies, and other international fields. The purpose of the program is to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies and other…

  15. Schwinger effect at modern laser facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, D.; Gevorgyan, N. T.; Panferov, A. D.; Smolyansky, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental investigation of physical processes in strong fields of different nature (electromagnetic, gravitational, etc.) is one of the important directions of modern physics. Particular interest is devoted to the area of extremely strong fields, in which qualitatively new effects become important due to the restructuring of the physical vacuum which accompanies the creation of matter from the vacuum at modern laser facilities. Such kind of time-dependent strong field vacuum effects can be appropriately described within a kinetic theory approach as an effective instrument of theoretical investigations. A short review of recent achievements in the direction of the dynamical Schwinger effect is given in this contribution.

  16. The NASA modern technology rotors program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, M. E.; Cross, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Existing data bases regarding helicopters are based on work conducted on 'old-technology' rotor systems. The Modern Technology Rotors (MTR) Program is to provide extensive data bases on rotor systems using present and emerging technology. The MTR is concerned with modern, four-bladed, rotor systems presently being manufactured or under development. Aspects of MTR philosophy are considered along with instrumentation, the MTR test program, the BV 360 Rotor, and the UH-60 Black Hawk. The program phases include computer modelling, shake test, model-scale test, minimally instrumented flight test, extensively pressure-instrumented-blade flight test, and full-scale wind tunnel test.

  17. Multidimensional world, inflation, and modern acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Bronnikov, K. A.; Rubin, S. G.; Svadkovsky, I. V.

    2010-04-15

    Starting from pure multidimensional gravity with curvature-nonlinear terms but no matter fields in the initial action, we obtain a cosmological model with two effective scalar fields related to the size of two extra factor spaces. The model includes both an early inflationary stage and that of modern accelerated expansion and satisfies the observational data. There are no small parameters; the effective inflaton mass depends on the initial conditions which explain its small value as compared to the Planck mass. At the modern stage, the size of extra dimensions slowly increases, therefore this model predicts drastic changes in the physical laws of our Universe in the remote future.

  18. Fundamentals--Rudolf Virchow and modern medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Reese, D M

    1998-01-01

    The 19th century pathologist Rudolf Virchow was a physician, scientist, and revolutionary. The preeminent medical investigator of his day, Virchow remains best-known for his theory of cellular pathology, which laid the conceptual foundation for modern scientific medicine. Less appreciated are Virchow's numerous accomplishments in public health, anthropology, and European politics, including his quest for social justice and democracy in Imperial Germany. The study of Virchow's life and writings may provide contemporary physicians with a powerful role model as we grapple with the complexities of the modern medical enterprise. PMID:9735691

  19. Mathematical Biology Modules Based on Modern Molecular Biology and Modern Discrete Mathematics

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Robin; Hodge, Terrell; Enyedi, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We describe an ongoing collaborative curriculum materials development project between Sweet Briar College and Western Michigan University, with support from the National Science Foundation. We present a collection of modules under development that can be used in existing mathematics and biology courses, and we address a critical national need to introduce students to mathematical methods beyond the interface of biology with calculus. Based on ongoing research, and designed to use the project-based-learning approach, the modules highlight applications of modern discrete mathematics and algebraic statistics to pressing problems in molecular biology. For the majority of projects, calculus is not a required prerequisite and, due to the modest amount of mathematical background needed for some of the modules, the materials can be used for an early introduction to mathematical modeling. At the same time, most modules are connected with topics in linear and abstract algebra, algebraic geometry, and probability, and they can be used as meaningful applied introductions into the relevant advanced-level mathematics courses. Open-source software is used to facilitate the relevant computations. As a detailed example, we outline a module that focuses on Boolean models of the lac operon network. PMID:20810955

  20. Annals of Medicine and Surgery - A modern Journal for Modern Trainees.

    PubMed

    Edison, Eric; Camm, Christian Fielder

    2012-01-01

    At its core, the purpose of healthcare is simple: to maximise quality and quantity of life. To achieve this vision, doctors have assumed an array of roles across a number of domains beyond the one-to-one patient-doctor interaction. Such domains include; teaching, research, leadership, management and clinical governance to name but a few. These roles and the healthcare systems in which they operate, have evolved over time to meet demand from patients, the profession, government and regulators. Further evolution is needed as we move into the 21st century to deal with the "perfect storm" of expensive technological advances, economic challenges and epidemiological changes.(1) It is the trainees and students of today who will drive this progress in the future. Journals are a gateway to scientific progress and we believe there is a need for a journal to educate and develop the knowledge, skills and attitudes of trainees and students. Furthermore, over the past few years, the very nature of scientific journal publication has come under scrutiny.(2) Hence we seek to establish a modern journal that deals with the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. PMID:26257897

  1. Mathematical biology modules based on modern molecular biology and modern discrete mathematics.

    PubMed

    Robeva, Raina; Davies, Robin; Hodge, Terrell; Enyedi, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We describe an ongoing collaborative curriculum materials development project between Sweet Briar College and Western Michigan University, with support from the National Science Foundation. We present a collection of modules under development that can be used in existing mathematics and biology courses, and we address a critical national need to introduce students to mathematical methods beyond the interface of biology with calculus. Based on ongoing research, and designed to use the project-based-learning approach, the modules highlight applications of modern discrete mathematics and algebraic statistics to pressing problems in molecular biology. For the majority of projects, calculus is not a required prerequisite and, due to the modest amount of mathematical background needed for some of the modules, the materials can be used for an early introduction to mathematical modeling. At the same time, most modules are connected with topics in linear and abstract algebra, algebraic geometry, and probability, and they can be used as meaningful applied introductions into the relevant advanced-level mathematics courses. Open-source software is used to facilitate the relevant computations. As a detailed example, we outline a module that focuses on Boolean models of the lac operon network. PMID:20810955

  2. Magic Universe - The Oxford Guide to Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, Nigel

    2003-11-01

    As a prolific author, BBC commentator, and magazine editor, Nigel Calder has spent a lifetime spotting and explaining the big discoveries in all branches of science. In Magic Universe , he draws on his vast experience to offer readers a lively, far-reaching look at modern science in all its glory, shedding light on the latest ideas in physics, biology, chemistry, medicine, astronomy, and many other fields. What is truly magical about Magic Universe is Calder's incredible breadth. Migrating birds, light sensors in the human eye, black holes, antimatter, buckyballs and nanotubes--with exhilarating sweep, Calder can range from the strings of a piano to the superstrings of modern physics, from Pythagoras's theory of musical pitch to the most recent ideas about atoms and gravity and a ten-dimensional universe--all in one essay. The great virtue of this wide-ranging style--besides its liveliness and versatility--is that it allows Calder to illuminate how the modern sciences intermingle and cross-fertilize one another. Indeed, whether discussing astronauts or handedness or dinosaurs, Calder manages to tease out hidden connections between disparate fields of study. What is most wondrous about the "magic universe" is that one can begin with stellar dust and finish with life itself. Drawing on interviews with more than 200 researchers, from graduate students to Nobel prize-winners, Magic Universe takes us on a high-spirited tour through the halls of science, one that will enthrall everyone interested in science, whether a young researcher in a high-tech lab or an amateur buff sitting in the comfort of an armchair.

  3. Investigating the purpose of trigonometry in the modern sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, Joshua T.

    This dissertation reports the results of a qualitative research project that aimed to develop a research-based perspective on the purpose of trigonometry in the modern sciences. The investigation was guided by three objectives. First, the study sought to identify the purpose of trigonometry as described by educators and high school textbooks. Second, the research investigated the perspectives these sources held about definitions of the trigonometric functions. Third, the investigation examined the potential benefits and drawbacks of a line-segment definition of the trigonometric functions. The study followed a grounded theory methodology with data collection and analysis intertwined. Participants included faculty from two large Midwestern research universities, high school teachers, and authors of standards documents. Textbooks were drawn from introductory algebra, geometry, advanced algebra, precalculus, and calculus texts. Data collected included surveys, interviews, and textbook excerpts. Analysis used the constant comparative method (Corbin & Strauss, 2008; Glaser & Strauss, 2006/1967). Analysis resulted in the emergence of a grounded theory, the tensions of trigonometry, which described three interrelated themes within the data: definition, application, and role. Two ideas emerged that connected the tensions of trigonometry, the regions of interaction, which described the interplay between the three tensions, and the idealized dichotomy of trigonometry education, which outlined opposing perspectives on trigonometry: trigonometry for all and trigonometry for some. The grounded theory outlines a range of competing purposes for trigonometry in the modern sciences. It suggests that educators are engaged in a process of continual negotiation that results in the formation of a localized purpose of trigonometry. The benefits and drawbacks of different definitions are not based on mathematical sophistication, but are situational. Furthermore, the theory suggests that

  4. STORM WATER MANAGEMENT MODEL (SWMM) MODERNIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Water Supply and Water Resources Division in partnership with the consulting firm of CDM to redevelop and modernize the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). In the initial phase of this project EPA rewrote SWMM's computational engine usi...

  5. Poetry Appreciation: Thirteen Modern Poems Discussed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, T. R.

    Poetry analysis in this book focuses on the response of the reader to modern poetry so that he may be able to perceive form and life in what at first appear to be unrelated fragments, become accustomed to new rhythmic patterns, and enlarge his experience by reading poetry which reflects the contemporary world. Poems are "Dry Loaf" by Wallace…

  6. Interactive Modern Physics Worksheets Methodology and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podolak, Ken; Danforth, Jordyn

    2013-01-01

    There are a variety of teaching tools available for use in introductory modern physics classrooms. Determining which teaching tool students support can help the teacher structure classroom instruction to include more effective teaching tools. Student participants were surveyed at the end of four separate semesters after using different teaching…

  7. The Singing Rod (in the Modern Age)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasby, B.; O'Meara, J. M.; Williams, M.

    2014-01-01

    This is a classic classroom demonstration of resonance, nodes, anti-nodes, and standing waves that has been described elsewhere. The modern age twist that we are advocating is the coupling of this classic demo with free (or relatively inexpensive) sound analysis software, thereby allowing for quantitative analysis of resonance while experimenting…

  8. Language Testing in "The Modern Language Journal."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spolsky, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    Discusses coverage of language testing issues in the "Modern Language Journal" over the last 80 years. Suggests that overall the articles devoted to language testing show a valuable concern with the use rather than the form of language tests. (Author/VWL)

  9. Le Francais Moderne: Part I, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Moderne: Part 1" focus on the development of vocabulary and mastery of grammatical structures. The formation of the passe compose with "avoir," object pronouns, the present tense of regular "-ir" verbs, and the irregular verbs…

  10. Gender Competence of the Modern Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auhadeeva, Ludmila A.; Yarmakeev, Iskander E.; Aukhadeev, Aver E.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses improvements in education and modern teacher's gender training in terms of a competence-based approach as a basic strategy of general and vocational education development in Russia. The article substantiates the relevance of teachers' gender training and the necessity to use the gender approach in their professional…

  11. Modern First Ladies: Their Documentary Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nancy Kegan, Comp.; Ryan, Mary C., Comp.

    This collection of essays about the Presidential wives of the 20th century through Nancy Reagan. An exploration of the records of first ladies will elicit diverse insights about the historical impact of these women in their times. Interpretive theories that explain modern first ladies are still tentative and exploratory. The contention in the…

  12. Early modern experimentation on live animals.

    PubMed

    Bertoloni Meli, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the works by Aselli (De lactibus sive lacteis venis, 1627) on the milky veins and Harvey (1628, translated in 1993) on the motion of the heart and the circulation of the blood, the practice of vivisection witnessed a resurgence in the early modern period. I discuss some of the most notable cases in the century spanning from Aselli's work to the investigations of fluid pressure in plants and animals by Stephen Hales (Vegetable Staticks, 1727). Key figures in my study include Johannes Walaeus, Jean Pecquet, Marcello Malpighi, Reinier de Graaf, Richard Lower, Anton Nuck, and Anton de Heide. Although vivisection dates from antiquity, early modern experimenters expanded the range of practices and epistemic motivations associated with it, displaying considerable technical skills and methodological awareness about the problems associated with the animals being alive and the issue of generalizing results to humans. Many practitioners expressed great discomfort at the suffering of the animals; however, many remained convinced that their investigations were not only indispensable from an epistemic standpoint but also had potential medical applications. Early modern vivisection experiments were both extensive and sophisticated and cannot be ignored in the literature of early modern experimentation or of experimentation on living organisms across time. PMID:22684270

  13. John Herschel: Britain's first modern physical scientist.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, M. J.

    The author presents a sketch of the life and contributions to science of Sir John F. W. Herschel (1792 - 1871). One of the theses he develops is that John Herschel can meaningfully be described as Britain's first modern physical scientist. In addition to developing this thesis, the author makes some remarks about lesser known aspects of Herschel's life.

  14. The Medieval and Early Modern Data Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touwen, L. Jeroen

    1992-01-01

    Illustrates the use of computer data banks in history by examining the Medieval and Early Modern Data Bank (MEMDB) located at Rutgers University. States the database contains an expanding collection of historical monetary and price/wage data. Includes instructions, examples of search strategies, and an annotated bibliography. (CFR)

  15. Multimedia in Modern Language Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raya, Manuel Jimenez

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the professional development of primary modern language teachers through the use of new technologies. The paper explores principles upon which the development of a multimedia learning environment, FLiP (Foreign Languages in Primary), was constructed. Ways in which technology can support the principles of effective professional…

  16. Modern Arabic Prose Literature: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Gassick, Trevor

    This is the preliminary draft of a planned "Introduction to Modern Arabic Prose Literature," the completed text of which "would offer basic biographical and bibliographical impressions, rather than extensive treatments, of the major figures in Arabic prose in the 19th and 20th centuries, along with concise assessments of their ranges of interests…

  17. Modern Apprenticeships in English Professional Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Des; Olsson, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper will examine the two year modern apprenticeship undertaken by trainees in the English professional football industry. Design/methodology/approach: Representatives of seven clubs were interviewed in the summer of 2005; all of them were responsible for youth development in their club. These interviews were the first of what will…

  18. Preterit Loss in Early Modern Nuremberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwell, Angela Catania

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates "Prateritumschwund," one of the most salient developments in the Upper German dialect area during the Early Modern period. Drawing on a wide range of text types originating in Nuremberg and its surrounding areas from the 13th to the 17th centuries, this study tests various hypotheses put forward as alleged causes…

  19. Modern Languages in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James A.

    2011-01-01

    The article supplies an overview of UK modern languages education at school and university level. It attends particularly to trends over recent years, with regard both to numbers and to social elitism, and reflects on perceptions of language learning in the wider culture and the importance of gaining wider recognition of the value of languages…

  20. [Modern imaging of liver and pancreatic neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Mátéka, Ilona; Bikhazi, Ziad; Bartha, Éva; Palkó, András

    2015-03-01

    Modern imaging modalities play an outstanding role in the detection, characterization, staging, therapy planning, treatment outcome evaluation and follow-up of patients with liver and pancreatic neoplasms. Diagnostic performance and accuracy of the available modalities are continuously improving therefore, it is necessary to overview from time to time the diagnostic protocols and algorithms. PMID:25763911

  1. Challenges in Teaching Modern Manufacturing Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngaile, Gracious; Wang, Jyhwen; Gau, Jenn-Terng

    2015-01-01

    Teaching of manufacturing courses for undergraduate engineering students has become a challenge due to industrial globalisation coupled with influx of new innovations, technologies, customer-driven products. This paper discusses development of a modern manufacturing course taught concurrently in three institutions where students collaborate in…

  2. Escherichia Coli--Key to Modern Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregegere, Francois

    1982-01-01

    Mid-nineteenth century work by Mendel on plant hybrids and by Pasteur on fermentation gave birth by way of bacterial genetics to modern-day molecular biology. The bacterium Escherichia Coli has occupied a key position in genetic studies leading from early gene identification with DNA to current genetic engineering using recombinant DNA technology.…

  3. Sensing requirements for modern circuit board inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, D. M.; Zhang, G.-Ming; Braden, D. R.

    2007-07-01

    The rapid shrinking of feature size, complex 3D structures, and introduction of new materials challenges inspection, measurement and test platform technology for future packages. This paper outlines the sensing requirements for modern circuit board inspection. The limitations of current imaging techniques have been demonstrated. Solutions based on X-ray and acoustic imaging have been proposed to meet the challenges of future diagnostics.

  4. Modern Agriculture in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanegran, David A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the four sections of the Advanced Placement (AP) human geography course focusing on agriculture: (1) development and diffusion of agriculture; (2) major agricultural production regions; (3) rural land use and change; and (4) impacts of modern agricultural change. Includes references and a resource list. (CMK)

  5. Challenging Modernization: Remodelling the Education Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butt, Graham; Gunter, Helen

    2005-01-01

    This special edition enables an in-depth look at the process of modernization of education in England, in relation to other international developments. In particular we focus on the reform of teachers? work by examining the antecedence of the current policy of remodelling through three articles based on the Evaluation of the Department for…

  6. Syllabus for Use in Modern Chinese History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husum, Carol

    This syllabus, for use in a one semester course on the history of modern China, covers the period from the Manchu domination in 1644 to the present. The course is designed to create an interest in China, emphasizing the social and cultural aspects of history, as well as the political and economic dimensions. A narrative summary of course content…

  7. My Modern Experience Teaching a MOOC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    The author's Coursera course, "The Modern and the Postmodern," might have been labeled "course least likely to become a massive open online course (MOOC.)" In many ways, it is an old-fashioned "great books" course, and in the 20 years the author has been teaching it, it has always relied heavily on student interaction in the classroom. Last summer…

  8. The Spy Story as Modern Tragedy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, John R.

    1977-01-01

    Supplements the idea of the realistic spy story as reflector of modern problems with a theory of its meaning or a "metaphysics" of the genre. Available from: Thomas L. Erskine, Co-Editor; Literature/Film Quarterly, Salisbury State College, Salisbury, Maryland 21801, Subscription Rates: individuals, $6.00; students, $5.00; single copies, $2.00. (MH)

  9. Modern Apprenticeship: Filling the Skills Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David; Morgan, Mark

    1998-01-01

    "Modern Apprenticeships" for young British school leavers have a flexible timespan and funding from local Training and Enterprise Councils (TECs). Study of six TECs found that funds for the program varied widely and were minimal compared to other government programs; employers do not have resources to accommodate apprentices; and the plan is too…

  10. Synopses for Modern Secondary School Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Directorate for Scientific Affairs.

    The 1959 Royaumont seminar "New Thinking in School Mathematics," having agreed on the need for modernization, recommended that a second group of experts work out detailed synopses of the entire subject matter of secondary school mathematics. This book is the report of the second seminar and contains the Dubrovnik Program which stimulated much…

  11. The Philosophical Ground of Modern Socialist Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterhoudt, Robert G.

    1985-01-01

    Philosophical accounts of sport's sociopolitical purposes tend either to condemn or promote various political ideologies. This essay gives a synthetic interpretation of the philosophical groundwork of judgments about socialist sport in terms of Hegel's contributions to Marxist thought and the implications of Marxist thought for modern sporting…

  12. Redefining Democracy for the Modern State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahe, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    Draws distinctions between classical and modern concepts of democracy. Contrasts Pythagoras' dislike of factions with Madison's support for economic differentiation and religious toleration. Discusses Aristotle's and Noah Webster's ideas on addressing class tensions. Examines early U.S. theorists' suspicions of direct democracy and support for…

  13. Modern Chinese Punctuation and CSL Reading Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickel, Stan

    1988-01-01

    Provides a brief history of Chinese punctuation and detailed analysis of modern Chinese punctuation. Three tables show: 1) uniquely Chinese punctuation markers; 2) markers graphemically identical and functionally similar to Western markers; and 3) markers graphemically identical but functionally different from Western markers. Each punctuation…

  14. A Primer Demonstration of Some Modern Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VandenBosch, Dawn

    "Modern" statistics may generate more replicable characterizations of data because, at least in some respects the influence of more extreme and less representative scores are minimized. Explaining both trimmed and Winsorized (C. Winsor) statistics, this paper uses examples to show the effects concretely. Although the paper focuses on…

  15. The Reflexive Modernization of Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pick, David

    2004-01-01

    The profound changes occurring in Australian higher education are viewed here in the context of the social, cultural, political and economic effects of globalization. Particular attention is paid to providing a theoretical foundation for understanding these effects using the reflexive modernization perspective. Highlighted are some of the…

  16. Modernization Problems of Higher Education in Kyrgyzstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzhaparova, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses and presents some modernization problems of Kyrgyzstan's higher education. These problems are: (1) The low quality of the services of professional education that are offered; (2) In the republic as a whole, the qualitative makeup of the corps of instructors is clearly deteriorating; (3) The services of…

  17. Education and Schooling: From Modernity to Postmodernity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zufiaurre, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    The development of education and schooling in modern times emerged from the priorities of religion and politics in the sixteenth-century transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance and Reformation. Subsequently, liberal ideas about the maintenance and advancement of life on earth fostered a new dualism, between educational science and…

  18. The Ins and Outs of Modern Doors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the qualities and trends in modern metal doors for educational facilities that include fire protection and sound-control attributes. Important differences in door manufacturing methods and materials are addressed and sound-transmission class values, ratings, and rating descriptions are listed. (GR)

  19. [Modern Art, Educational Ideology, and Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Cathy A., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The "Bulletin of the Caucus on Social Theory and Art Education" is an annual publication, with each issue devoted to a unified theme. This issue (divided into four parts) offers thought-provoking articles on modern art, educational ideology and curriculum, elitism versus populism, socially oriented reviews of major art education textbooks, and…

  20. Foundations for a Post-Modern Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, William E., Jr.

    This paper suggests that present-day curriculum, based on Newtonian thought, has been rendered obsolete by the holistic and interactive "post-modern" world view based on quantum physics, nonlinear mathematics, general systems theory, and Ilya Prigogine's nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The Newtonian world view, which is linear and reductionist, is…

  1. The Teaching of Modern English Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ian A.

    1967-01-01

    The teacher of English prose is responsible for teaching students three skills: the ability to react with appropriate sensibility to prose literature, the ability to understand written prose, and the ability to write prose that can be understood. A study of the precision and demands of the best modern novelists (Joyce, Lawrence, Woolf, Faulkner,…

  2. Englishized Style Repertoire in Modern Japanese Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Reiko

    1992-01-01

    The roles played by English borrowings in modern Japanese literary works are examined. After a brief summary of previous studies, this paper describes the style repertoire and the kinds of stylistic effects produced in Japanese literature by English borrowings, such as attention attractors and in-group-identity markers. (23 references) (Author/LB)

  3. Teaching about Japan through Modern Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Loewenfeldt, Charles; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Suggests ways in which a firsthand knowledge about Japan can be brought into American secondary school classrooms through the study of various forms of modern literature. Each example of Japanese literature (short stories, novels, poetry, comics, etc.) is followed by questions for student discussion. (DB)

  4. A Dynamical Successor to Modernism and Postmodernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Don

    2008-01-01

    The author introduces an emerging worldview that could affect counseling concepts and methods greatly in the relatively near future. The worldview, dynamicalism, incorporates essential features of modernism and postmodernism. It also incorporates cutting-edge concepts from physics and philosophy. The synthesis of these ideas provides a conceptual…

  5. Teaching Modern Technique through Experiential Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salk, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    ````````Incorporation of an experiential anatomy component into the modern technique class educates students about the body in a way that permanently and positively impacts how they move. It is our responsibility as dance educators, whether at the elementary, secondary, or college level, to teach students how to care for their bodies and make…

  6. The Ethical Significance of Modern Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harries, Karsten

    1988-01-01

    Examines the effect that modern art has on society, investigating incidents of vandalism and public approval of those incidents. Discusses Plato's critique of the arts and artists, considering who should be entrusted with moral education. Concludes that a society that possesses the courage to face an unknown future will support a free art. (GEA)

  7. Al Roy: The First Modern Strength Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Terry

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a historical perspective through the story of Alvin Roy, the first modern strength coach. Roy went against the common belief in the 1950s that weight lifting made athletes slow and bulky. When the football coaches at Istrouma High School in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, allowed him to set up and supervise a weight-training program,…

  8. Radiologic Professionalism in Modern Health Care.

    PubMed

    Hryhorczuk, Anastasia L; Hanneman, Kate; Eisenberg, Ronald L; Meyer, Elaine C; Brown, Stephen D

    2015-10-01

    Modern radiology is at the forefront of technological progress in medicine, a position that often places unique challenges on its professional character. This article uses "Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter," a document published in 2002 and endorsed by several major radiology organizations, as a lens for exploring professional challenges in modern radiology. The three main tenets of the Charter emphasize patient welfare, patient autonomy, and the reduction of disparities in health care distribution. This article reviews the ways in which modern technology and financial structures potentially create stressors on professionalism in radiology, while highlighting the opportunities they provide for radiologists seeking to fulfill the professional goals articulated in the Charter. Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and voice recognition systems have transformed the speed of radiology and enhanced the ability of radiologists to improve patient care but also have brought new tensions to the workplace. Although teleradiology may improve global access to radiologists, it may also promote the commoditization of radiology, which diminishes the professional stature of radiologists. Social media and patient portals provide radiologists with new forums for interacting with the public and patients, potentially promoting patient welfare. However, patient privacy and autonomy are important considerations. Finally, modern financial structures provide radiologists with both entrepreneurial opportunities as well as the temptation for unprofessional conduct. Each of these advances carries the potential for professional growth while testing the professional stature of radiology. By considering the risks and benefits of emerging technologies in the modern radiology world, radiologists can chart an ethical and professional future path. PMID:26466185

  9. EDITORIAL: Modern applications of trapped ions Modern applications of trapped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoop, Martina; Hilico, Laurent; Eschner, Jürgen

    2009-08-01

    Ion traps are fantastic tools to explore the world of electrons, atomic and molecular ions, or charged clusters, in the classical as well as in the quantum regime. Extremely long storage times allow probing even of single particles with very high precision. The mass selectivity of the trapping devices is exploited in many experiments, in particular for mass metrology. An overwhelming part of the experiments and ideas rely on the very high level of parameter control which is offered by the ion trap. Manipulation of individual ions and engineering of well defined quantum states are the fundamental techniques to take the experiments beyond existing frontiers and to unprecedented precision. This special issue presents state-of-the-art theory and experiments in a variety of tutorials, reviews and research papers. More than half of these contributions form a follow-up to the first workshop on Modern Applications of Trapped Ions held in Les Houches, France, in May 2008. A great number of topics is covered in atomic and molecular physics, with ion traps as a common tool. The variety of approaches is meant to make this digest a helpful resource to the whole ion trapping community. Among the contributions, four major - while still overlapping - domains can be identified. Novel ion trap design is the motor of future developments and applications. Spectacular progress has been made in the domain of quantum information processing, such as the realization of planar traps, which opens the way to large-scale quantum computation. In this issue, this enthralling subject is introduced by a tutorial and two review articles, completed by contributions on different experimental realizations. Precision measurements belong to a more traditional domain which nevertheless evolves at the forefront of research: metrology of frequencies and fundamental constants, measurements of g-factors or high-precision mass measurements are the foundations of atomic and molecular physics. The creation and

  10. Neuroethics: a modern context for ethics in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Illes, Judy; Bird, Stephanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Neuroethics, a recently modernized field at the intersection of bioethics and neuroscience, is founded on centuries of discussion of the ethical issues associated with mind and behavior. Broadly defined, neuroethics is concerned with ethical, legal and social policy implications of neuroscience, and with aspects of neuroscience research itself. Advances in neuroscience increasingly challenge long-held views of the self and the individual's relationship to society. Neuroscience also has led to innovations in clinical medicine that have not only therapeutic but also non-therapeutic dimensions that extend well beyond previously charted boundaries. The exponential increase in cross-disciplinary research, the commercialization of cognitive neuroscience, the impetus for training in ethics, and the increased attention being paid to public understanding of science all illuminate the important role of neuroethics in neuroscience. PMID:16859760

  11. New Approaches for Characterizing Sensor and Other Modern Complex Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Donald R.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Ford, Joseph J.; Hu, Jian Z.; Lea, Alan S.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Sears, Jesse A.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2009-05-18

    Advances in understanding of sensor and other modern complex materials are often enabled by new research tools. This paper highlights three capability development themes used to identify new research tools to be provided to users of the U. S. Department of Energy’s Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory. These capability development directions address the importance of dynamic measurements in realistic environments, the need for increased resolution in three dimensional analyses as well as the importance of linking theory and experiment. Capability development involves expanding the range of operation for a number of important techniques, developing and applying new capabilities, and advancing methods of data processing. Examples of current developments are provided including those related to magnetic resonance, x-ray diffraction, application of a focused beam capability to fuel cell aging, and near real time analysis of XPS spectra.

  12. Predesign study for a modern 4-bladed rotor for RSRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of providing a modern four-bladed rotor for flight research testing on a rotor system aircraft was evaluated. The capabilities of a state of the art rotor system and the contributions of key design parameters to these capabilities were investigated. Three candidate rotors were examined: the UH-60A BLACK HAWK rotor with and without root extenders and the H-3 composite blade rotor. It was concluded that the technical/cost objectives could best be accomplished using the basic BLACK HAWK rotor (i.e. without root extenders). Further, the availability of three existing sets of blade tip of varying design, together with a demonstrated capability for altering airfoil geometry should provide early research information on important design variables at reduced cost.

  13. [SMMP] A modern package for simulation of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenmenger, Frank; Hansmann, Ulrich H. E.; Hayryan, Shura; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2001-08-01

    A Fortran package is presented which provides useful routines for molecular simulation of proteins within the standard geometry model. Highly efficient algorithms for the calculation of energy and its derivatives are implemented. A set of energy minimization routines and modern Monte Carlo algorithms are added. Three different parameter sets are used to calculate the internal energy: ECEPP/2 potential, ECEPP/3 and the FLEX potential. The solvation energy of the protein can be calculated using the solvent accessible area method. The program is fast and may be successfully exploited even on a single PC. The code is free and open, and can be easily modified. Hence, the package allows researchers and students in a simple and inexpensive way to become familiar with protein simulation techniques, and is especially suitable for lecturers teaching molecular simulation. Yet, when exploited on advanced computers or PC clusters, it is a powerful tool and also valuable for advanced researchers.

  14. Neuroethics: a modern context for ethics in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Illes, Judy; Bird, Stephanie J

    2006-09-01

    Neuroethics, a recently modernized field at the intersection of bioethics and neuroscience, is founded on centuries of discussion of the ethical issues associated with mind and behavior. Broadly defined, neuroethics is concerned with ethical, legal and social policy implications of neuroscience, and with aspects of neuroscience research itself. Advances in neuroscience increasingly challenge long-held views of the self and the individual's relationship to society. Neuroscience also has led to innovations in clinical medicine that have not only therapeutic but also non-therapeutic dimensions that extend well beyond previously charted boundaries. The exponential increase in cross-disciplinary research, the commercialization of cognitive neuroscience, the impetus for training in ethics, and the increased attention being paid to public understanding of science all illuminate the important role of neuroethics in neuroscience. PMID:16859760

  15. Medieval and early modern theories of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, R

    1979-04-01

    Historians of medieval and early modern psychiatry have utilized limited source materials in their research. They have focused on printed works, particularly formal treatises by celebrated authors, and neglected manuscript collections. The resulting histories depict early European psychiatric thought as dominated by demonology. Examination of the archives of an early English legal incompetency jurisdiction flatly contradicts this picture. Starting in the 13th century, the English government conducted mental status examinations of psychiatrically disabled individuals, using commonsense, naturalistic criteria of impairment; private, supervised guardians were appointed for such persons. Furthermore, etiological theories entertained by royal officials and laymen relied on physiological and psychological notions of psychiatric illness. These findings raise serious questions about conventional accounts of this period and underline the need for more research using original manuscripts. PMID:371576

  16. PREFACE: Modern Archaeoastronomy: From Material Culture to Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    The Royal Astronomical Society National Astronomy Meeting (NAM) 2014 was hosted by the Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation (ICG) at the University of Portsmouth. It was held from June 23-26 2014 and was sponsored by the RAS, STFC, SEPnet and Winton Capital. As part of this meeting a session stream titled Modern Archaeoastronomy: From Material Culture to Cosmology took place on Monday 23rd proposed and organized by Brian Sheen (Roseland Observatory) and Daniel Brown (Nottingham Trent University). It consisted of an illustration of the many aspects of archaeoastronomy or cultural-astronomy as it has developed and embraced areas such as anthropology, public engagement and sociology. Anita Heward (Press Officer NAM) stated that 'sessions on the history of astronomy have been a feature of many NAM programmes over the years, but NAM 2014 was the first to include a dedicated session on archaeoastronomy.' It was motivated from past decades where our understanding of astronomy of our ancestors has become more strongly based on factual data. As such it allowed researchers to identify possible traces of astronomical knowledge in archaeological remains and artefacts. Archaeoastronomy is an ideal example of the advancement in this area as well as the power of interdisciplinary work that in recent times has started to interpret these findings through cultural, anthropological and educational research. This session will offer an opportunity to present a multitude of different approaches of analyzing the perception and origins of astronomy in ancient and modern cultures, and also bring together young researchers and students in the field to present their research to a wider community.

  17. 'Small change of the universal': beyond modernity?

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Sarat

    2010-09-01

    The paper is a sounding of Ulrich Beck's and Edgar Grande's conceptual map of the varieties of second modernity - Western and Non-Western, European and beyond - that makes up today's world. Their mapping is examined in the light of two, striking analytical perspectives associated with Ulrich Beck: everyday 'cosmopolitization' and his call for a methodological cosmopolitanism. A line of inquiry explores whether contemporary modernities are essentially expressions of a single, underlying modernization drive or whether they are utterly disparate entities. The implications of treating them as 'variants and variations' are unpacked with reference to musical models and how they generate difference. The probe into methodological cosmopolitanism touches on 'de-provincialization' that is somewhat at odds with the postcolonial project of 'provincializing' Europe. It looks at the attempt to go beyond 'nation-bound' sociological dualisms in determining the appropriate 'unit of analysis' for our ever-morphing current reality. Does this imply engaging with 'singularity'- with a mode of conceptualization that sidesteps the universal/particular couple and related either/or thinking? References to the making of the 'first modernity' under unequal centre/periphery relations of colonial power are aired for possible lessons in mappings of the second. Ulrich Beck's 'impure, really-existing cosmopolitanism'- in contrast to its speculative counterpart derived from the realm of pure ideas - springs from humdrum global economic and political links and institutions that span out across, above and beyond the 'container of the national space'. With the inadvertent cosmopolitical impact of the migrations it amounts in practice to a functioning 'cosmopolitan realpolitik'. Is there room for it to develop or will it stall as a mere front for national, tribal-territorial interests - going the way of 'multiculturalism and diversity' that seem increasingly to serve as governmental ideologies for

  18. The Name of the Rose: A Path to Discuss the Birth of Modern Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Andreia; Braga, Marco

    2014-03-01

    Various science education researchers believe that science tuition should include some discussion about how science has developed over time. Therefore, deliberations about the nature of science should be integrated in the science curriculum. Many researchers argue that teaching the history of science is a good way to place the nature of science in science classes. This paper contributes to this debate and argues the importance of having young students study the birth of modern science. Such study could allow students to understand that some of the issues about the nature of science arose in the seventeenth century with the birth of modern science. To achieve this purpose, it is important to discuss the different factors that immersed the birth of modern science. To accomplish this goal, the novel The Name of the Rose by Umberto Eco may be used. Beyond introducing issues surrounding the nature of science, this strategy could help overcome the separation between the arts and humanities in education.

  19. [The emergence of Korean modern hospitals: hospitals in the late period of Chosun Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Cho, Woo Hyun; Park, Chong Yon; Park, Chun Sun

    2002-06-01

    Hospitals are confronting in the transforming or reforming period to cope with the rapid social and environmental changes worldwide. By the researches in the history of Korean health, we could understand the context of the introduction of Western medicine and institutions to Korea. However there have been few studies on the historical review of hospitals in relations to their roles in the modern medicine. This article is to review the issues around the rise of modern hospitals in Korean history of health affairs. The introduction of Western medicine in Korea was on the road with the establishment of Kwanghyewon, the Royal Hospital, which was possible due to favorable conditions under the Korean socio-political background for the emerging and accepting the entirely new medical system. And also the emergence of modern and transformed the Korean traditional health system from the fundamentals through the corruption of the old dynasty to nowadays. Most national health affairs including medical services, prevention of diseases, health promotion, and the training of health personnels have performed along with the development of modern hospitals, which have the roots in the period after the end of 19th century. Thus the Korean history of health care around the end of 19th century and beginning of 20th century could be defined as a period of emergence of modern hospitals. The hospitals also have played core roles in establishing the Korean modern health system and culture. Compared to the cases of Western countries, Korean modern hospitals were emerged with the exogenous factors in the turbulence of political and cultural changes in the world system. In sum, Korean modern hospitals in the period of late Chosun have the great meaning in that they are the beginning point to shape the current Korean health care system and the driving forces or carriers of this new system. PMID:12619632

  20. Law machines: scale models, forensic materiality and the making of modern patent law.

    PubMed

    Pottage, Alain

    2011-10-01

    Early US patent law was machine made. Before the Patent Office took on the function of examining patent applications in 1836, questions of novelty and priority were determined in court, within the forum of the infringement action. And at all levels of litigation, from the circuit courts up to the Supreme Court, working models were the media through which doctrine, evidence and argument were made legible, communicated and interpreted. A model could be set on a table, pointed at, picked up, rotated or upended so as to display a point of interest to a particular audience within the courtroom, and, crucially, set in motion to reveal the 'mode of operation' of a machine. The immediate object of demonstration was to distinguish the intangible invention from its tangible embodiment, but models also'machined' patent law itself. Demonstrations of patent claims with models articulated and resolved a set of conceptual tensions that still make the definition and apprehension of the invention difficult, even today, but they resolved these tensions in the register of materiality, performativity and visibility, rather than the register of conceptuality. The story of models tells us something about how inventions emerge and subsist within the context of patent litigation and patent doctrine, and it offers a starting point for renewed reflection on the question of how technology becomes property. PMID:22164718

  1. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T1/2(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino ( < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino ( < 1.3 . 10-5) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to at the level of ˜ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  2. Scaling laws and the modern city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isalgue, Antonio; Coch, Helena; Serra, Rafael

    2007-08-01

    The inter-relations and the complexity of modern urban spaces are difficult to analyse in a way that allows improving living conditions or help to ascertain optimal decisions for saving energy or improving sustainability. Carefully designed decisions and guidelines might produce unexpected results because of particularities, or complex sets of reactions from residents or economic counterparts. Complexity tends to increase with size, such as when, for instance, services tend to concentrate in large agglomerations, and transportation needs take on critical importance. Complex systems such as living organisms are known to follow approximate relationships as scaling laws between the variables that describe them. Some of these kinds of relationships are tested in relation to modern developed urban spaces, in which it is possible to find a reasonable continuity with the types of scales seen in living organisms, and some preliminary conclusions are drawn.

  3. Modern control centers and computer networking

    SciTech Connect

    Dy-Liacco, T.E.

    1994-10-01

    The automation of power system operation is generally achieved with the implementation of two control centers, one for the operation of the generation-transmission system and the other for the operation of the distribution system. These control centers are referred to, respectively, as the energy management system (EMS) and the distribution management system (DMS). The EMS may consist of several control centers in a hierarchy. The DMS may be made up of several independent distribution control centers. This article features the fundamental design aspects of modern EMS and DMS control centers (computer networks, distributed processing, and distributed databases), the linking of computer networks, and the communications that support such internetworking. The extension of such networking beyond the confines of system operation to other corporate networks is now made practical by the maturing concepts of client-server architectures and by the availability of modern communication technologies.

  4. Astronomy, Community, and Modern Calendar Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campion, N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper will look at Avon Tyrrell House, a “calendar house” dating from 1891 and an example of nineteenth-century astronomical architecture in England. The paper will suggest that “calendar buildings” may represent a genre of modern astronomical architecture which has, so far, not been studied, were designed to create stronger communities precisely because of their astronomical connections, and indicates scope for further investigation. The paper will contextualize the modern “calendar building” within the tradition of constructing cities and sacred sites as reflections or embodiments of the sky. By creating spaces which were connected to the celestial bodies, it was possible to create human communities which were linked to celestial ones, encouraging social stability and harmony. Such ideas underpinned traditions of the foundation of cities from China, through India, the Middle East, and Mesoamerica.

  5. Facial ontogeny in Neanderthals and modern humans

    PubMed Central

    Bastir, Markus; O'Higgins, Paul; Rosas, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    One hundred and fifty years after the discovery of Neanderthals, it is held that this morphologically and genetically distinct human species does not differ from modern Homo sapiens in its craniofacial ontogenetic trajectory after the early post-natal period. This is striking given the evident morphological differences between these species, since it implies that all of the major differences are established by the early post-natal period and carried into adulthood through identical trajectories, despite the extent to which mechanical and spatial factors are thought to influence craniofacial ontogeny. Here, we present statistical and morphological analyses demonstrating that the spatio-temporal processes responsible for craniofacial ontogenetic transformations differ. The findings emphasize that pre-natal as well as post-natal ontogeny are both important in establishing the cranial morphological differences between adult Neanderthals and modern humans. PMID:17311777

  6. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A. S.

    2015-10-28

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T{sub 1/2}(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino (〈m{sub ν}〉 < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino (〈g{sub ee}〉 < 1.3 · 10{sup −5}) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to 〈m{sub ν}〉 at the level of ∼ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  7. Constructive and functional modernization of EAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Moldovan, P.

    2015-06-01

    This article presents the main constructive and functional modernization of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF). Schwabe is the creator of UHP (Ultra High Power) EAF. We present in this article the optimal use of EAF power and time aspects. These two main factors determine the increase in the productivity of the Electric Arc Furnace. Electric arc furnace operation can be based on either the short arc (with high intensity and low voltage) or long arc version (with low intensity and high voltage). Introduction of vault walls and water cooled has resulted in major reductions in the consumption of refractory bricks from electric arc furnace. Another important technological evolution inserted in the process of elaboration of steel in electric arc furnace is lowering the temperature of the exhaust. Using a system of intensive oxygen insufflation during melting can get many technological advantages. Another constructive and functional modernization is EAF inflatable sealing device for retention of slug.

  8. Artificial agents, good care, and modernity.

    PubMed

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2015-08-01

    When is it ethically acceptable to use artificial agents in health care? This article articulates some criteria for good care and then discusses whether machines as artificial agents that take over care tasks meet these criteria. Particular attention is paid to intuitions about the meaning of 'care', 'agency', and 'taking over', but also to the care process as a labour process in a modern organizational and financial-economic context. It is argued that while there is in principle no objection to using machines in medicine and health care, the idea of them functioning and appearing as 'artificial agents' is problematic and attends us to problems in human care which were already present before visions of machine care entered the stage. It is recommended that the discussion about care machines be connected to a broader discussion about the impact of technology on human relations in the context of modernity. PMID:26002636

  9. The modern feedlot for finishing cattle.

    PubMed

    Wagner, John J; Archibeque, Shawn L; Feuz, Dillon M

    2014-02-01

    The modern beef feedlot has evolved into a complex system that is very dependent upon technology. Modern feedlots are organized into departments, often including the office, cattle, yard, feed milling, and feed departments, that allow for improvements in production efficiency through the specialization of management and labor. Regardless of size, feedlots must succeed at the following tasks: cattle procurement, cattle receiving, cattle processing, daily cattle observations, health treatments, cattle marketing, feed procurement, feed commodity receiving, feed commodity storage, diet formulation, diet delivery, bunk management, and environmental management. Apart from cattle ownership, feedlots create most of their gross income from feed sales, yardage, inventory gain on flaked grain, and combinations of these sources. The future of the industry is filled with economic and political challenges, including high grain prices owing to competition from the ethanol industry, environmental regulations, excess feedlot capacity, and a diminishing labor pool owing to declining rural populations. PMID:25384155

  10. Modern NMR spectroscopy: a guide for chemists

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, J.K.M.; Hunter, B.K.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the authors of Modern NMR Spectroscopy is to bridge the communication gap between the chemist and the spectroscopist. The approach is nonmathematical, descriptive, and pictorial. To illustrate the ideas introduced in the text, the authors provide original spectra obtained specially for this purpose. Examples include spectroscopy of protons, carbon, and less receptive nuclei of interest to inorganic chemists. The authors succeed in making high-resolution NMR spectroscopy comprehensible for the average student or chemist.

  11. Modernization of the Cassini Ground System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razo, Gus; Fujii, Tammy J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini Spacecraft and its ground system have been operational for over 16 years. Modernization presents several challenges due to the personnel, processes, and tools already invested and embedded into the current ground system structure. Every mission's ground system has its own unique complexities and challenges, involving various organizational units. As any mission from its inception to its execution, schedules are always tight. This forces GDS engineers to implement a working ground system that is not necessarily fully optimized. Ground system challenges increase as technology evolves and cyber threats become more sophisticated. Cassini's main challenges were due to its ground system existing before many security requirements were levied on the multi-mission tools and networks. This caused a domino effect on Cassini GDS tools that relied on outdated technological features. In the aerospace industry reliable and established technology is preferred over innovative yet less proven technology. Loss of data for a spacecraft mission can be catastrophic; therefore, there is a reluctance to make changes and updates to the ground system. Nevertheless, all missions and associated teams face the need to modernize their processes and tools. Systems development methods from well-known system analysis and design principles can be applied to many missions' ground systems. Modernization should always be considered, but should be done in such a way that it does not affect flexibility nor interfere with established practices. Cassini has accomplished a secure and efficient ground data system through periodic updates. The obstacles faced while performing the modernization of the Cassini ground system will be outlined, as well as the advantages and challenges that were encountered.

  12. Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

  13. New views on immunopotentiators in modern vaccines.

    PubMed

    Schijns, Virgil Ejc; Brewer, James M

    2008-09-01

    The third conference on immunopotentiators in modern vaccines was held in Montego Bay, Jamaica, and attracted delegates from all around the world. This meeting is devoted to the lively field of vaccine immunopotentiator systems, aimed at facilitation of better responses to vaccine antigens. The half-moon resort was a very congenial venue and proved ideal for interactive scientific discussions throughout the meeting. Selected highlights of the meeting will be discussed. PMID:18767938

  14. Paul Monroe and Education of Modern China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Hongyu; Chen, Jingrong

    2007-01-01

    Monroe was a well-known American world-wide educator in the first half of the 20th century. He came to China more than ten times to investigate Chinese education, deliver academic lectures, and conduct cultural exchanges from the 1920s to the 1940s. He made a great contribution to Sino-American cultural and educational exchanges in Modern China.…

  15. The spread of modern humans in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hoffecker, John F.

    2009-01-01

    The earliest credible evidence of Homo sapiens in Europe is an archaeological proxy in the form of several artifact assemblages (Bohunician) found in South-Central and possibly Eastern Europe, dating to ≤48,000 calibrated radiocarbon years before present (cal BP). They are similar to assemblages probably made by modern humans in the Levant (Emiran) at an earlier date and apparently represent a population movement into the Balkans during a warm climate interval [Greenland Interstadial 12 (GI 12)]. A second population movement may be represented by a diverse set of artifact assemblages (sometimes termed Proto-Aurignacian) found in the Balkans, parts of Southwest Europe, and probably in Eastern Europe, and dating to several brief interstadials (GI 11–GI 9) that preceded the beginning of cold Heinrich Event 4 (HE4) (≈40,000 cal BP). They are similar to contemporaneous assemblages made by modern humans in the Levant (Ahmarian). The earliest known human skeletal remains in Europe that may be unequivocally assigned to H. sapiens (Peçstera cu Oase, Romania) date to this time period (≈42,000 cal BP) but are not associated with artifacts. After the Campanian Ignimbrite volcanic eruption (40,000 cal BP) and the beginning of HE4, artifact assemblages assigned to the classic Aurignacian, an industry associated with modern human skeletal remains that seems to have developed in Europe, spread throughout the continent. PMID:19571003

  16. Aristotle's ethical theory & modern health care.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, S K

    1996-01-01

    The Greek physician of antiquity - Hippocrates (460-356 B.C.) is called the Father of Modern Medicine and the Hippocratic Oath to which doctors of modern medicine traditionally and formally express their allegiance, forms the basic foundation of medical ethics. The tradition of Western ethical philosophy began with the ancient Greeks. From Socrates (469-399 B.C.) and his immediate successors, Plato (427-347 B.C.) and Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), there is a clear line of continuity, through Hellenistic period (from the death of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.) to the end of Ptolemic dynasty (30 B.C.) and the Roman annexation of Egypt - broadly post-Aristotelian and medieval thought to the present day. But the society has qualitatively and quantitatively changed since the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Society, today, is just a collection of discrete individuals, each with his or her own purposes and interests. Hence it has become almost imperative to apply the principle of autonomy to issues in the ethics of health care. The aim of this short essay is, therefore, an attempt to explore the relevance, if any, of Aristotelian ethical theory to the modern health care. PMID:11619400

  17. Boiler house modernization through shared savings program

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Throughout Poland as well as the rest of Eastern Europe, communities and industries rely on small heat only boilers to provide district and process heat. Together these two sectors produce about 85,000 MW from boilers in the 2 to 35 MW size range. The bulk of these units were installed prior to 1992 and must be completely overhauled to meet the emission regulations which will be coming into effect on January 1, 1998. Since the only practical fuel is coal in most cases, these boilers must be either retrofit with emission control technology or be replaced entirely. The question that arises is how to accomplish this given the current tight control of capital in Poland and other East European countries. A solution that we have for this problem is shared savings. These boilers are typically operating with a quiet low efficiency as compared to western standards and with excessive manual labor. Installing modernization equipment to improve the efficiency and to automate the process provides savings. ECOGY provides the funds for the modernization to improve the efficiency, add automation and install emission control equipment. The savings that are generated during the operation of the modernized boiler system are split between the client company and ECOGY for a number of years and then the system is turned over in entirety to the client. Depending on the operating capacity, the shared savings agreement will usually span 6 to 10 years.

  18. Modern Optical Tests of Special Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Achim

    2008-05-01

    ``The speed of light is finite and does not depend on the motion of either source or observer''. This is the fundamental statement underlying Albert Einstein's theory of Special Relativity. First formulated early in the 20th century, this theory now is one of the cornerstones of our scientific understanding of the world and tightly woven into the fabric of modern physical theories. Due to this outstanding role, it always has been of prime importance to experimentally verify the validity of the underlying theory. Today, further incentive for such tests is provided by new theoretical attempts -- such as string theory or loop quantum gravity -- aiming at unifying the forces of nature, which indeed suggest small violations of Lorentz-Invariance. This talk will discuss modern tests based on optical methods, which are especially well suited for the task at hand. A specific example is a modern version of the classic Michelson-Morley experiment testing the isotropy of light propagation, where the measurement is performed by monitoring the resonance frequency of an optical resonator continuously rotating on a precision turntable. This currently allows a sensitivity at the δc / c = 10-17 level for a direction dependent variation of the speed of light, with the potential for improvements in precision by up to three orders of magnitude in the near future.

  19. Modern control design for flexible wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Alan Duane

    Control can improve energy capture and reduce dynamic loads in wind turbines. In the 1970s and 1980s wind turbines used classical control designs to regulate power and speed. The methods used, however, were not always successful. These systems often had bandwidths large enough to destabilize low-damped flexible modes leading to high dynamic load fatigue failures. Modern turbines are larger, mounted on taller towers, and are more dynamically active than their predecessors. Control systems to regulate turbine power and maintain stable closed-loop behavior in the presence of turbulent wind inflow will be critical for these designs. New advanced control approaches and paradigms must account for low-damped flexible modes in order to reduce structural dynamic loading and achieve the 20--25 year operational life required of today's machines. This thesis applies modern state-space control design methods to a two-bladed teetering hub upwind machine located at the National Wind Technology Center. The design objective is to regulate turbine speed and enhance damping in several low-damped flexible modes of the turbine. Starting with simple control algorithms based on linear models, complexity is added incrementally until the desired performance is firmly established. The controls approach is based on the Disturbance Accommodating Control (DAC) method and provides accountability for wind-speed fluctuations. First, controls are designed using the single control input rotor collective pitch to stabilize the 1st drive-train torsion as well as the tower 1st fore-aft bending modes. Generator torque is then incorporated as an additional control input. This reduces some of the demand placed on the rotor collective pitch control system and enhances 1st drive train torsion mode damping. Individual blade pitch control is then used to attenuate wind disturbances having spatial variation over the rotor and effectively reduces blade flap deflections due to wind shear. Finally, results from

  20. The Relationship between the Embedded Instruction Approach and Modern Citizenship Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chen-Fong

    2014-01-01

    Since 2011, universities in Taiwan have being pursuing a new direction in education--embedding citizenship in professional courses to help students achieve professional competencies and modern citizenship competency. By applying both quantitative research and case analysis, the study presents 2 conclusions. First, student ethical literacy reached…

  1. Rediscovering Post-modern Perspectives in IT: Deconstructing Voithofer and Foley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, David L.

    2002-01-01

    Responds to a reaction (issue 50 number 1 p5) to the author's original paper, "Toward a Post-Modern Agenda in Instructional Technology" (2000). Contributes to the dialogue about culture and learning in instructional technology (IT). Reviews opportunities. Suggests philosophical implications for IT, derived from the author's own research on…

  2. Case Study Investigation of a Videoconferencing Experiment in Primary Schools, Teaching Modern Foreign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Alan; Hunt, Marilyn; Barnes, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The "MustLearnIT" European-funded research project with partners in Greece, Poland, Cyprus, Finland and the UK aimed to investigate ways of teaching and learning modern foreign languages (MFL) to early learners in small/remote primary schools where there were no specialist MFL teachers. This was to be carried out through new technologies such as…

  3. Reconceptualization of the Diffusion Process: An Application of Selected Principles from Modern Systems Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Wayne

    A description of the communication behaviors in high innovation societies depends on the application of selected principles from modern systems theory. The first is the principle of equifinality which explains the activities of open systems. If the researcher views society as an open system, he frees himself from the client approach since society…

  4. The Perceived Value of Videoconferencing with Primary Pupils Learning to Speak a Modern Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Young modern language (ML) learners' heightened, yet temporary, phonological sensitivity suggests an aptitude for spoken communication with peer native target language (TL) speakers. Opportunities for this can be achieved through videoconferencing (VC). As researcher and specialist teacher at a primary school in England, I undertook a study of VC…

  5. Understanding the Impacts of the Medicare Modernization Act: Concerns of Congressional Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Keith J.; Coburn, Andrew F.; MacKinney, Clinton; McBride, Timothy D.; Slifkin, Rebecca T.; Wakefield, Mary K.

    2005-01-01

    Sweeping changes to the Medicare program embodied in the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA), including a new prescription drug benefit, changes in payment policies, and reform of the Medicare managed-care program, have major implications for rural health care. The most efficient mechanism for research to…

  6. Advances in Modern Botnet Understanding and the Accurate Enumeration of Infected Hosts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunnery, Christopher Edward

    2011-01-01

    Botnets remain a potent threat due to evolving modern architectures, inadequate remediation methods, and inaccurate measurement techniques. In response, this research exposes the architectures and operations of two advanced botnets, techniques to enumerate infected hosts, and pursues the scientific refinement of infected-host enumeration data by…

  7. The beginnings of modern astronomy at the University of St Andrews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, Alan H.

    2014-03-01

    Although the University of St Andrews is much older, teaching of and research in modern astronomy began there little more than sixty years ago. Their inception was strongly associated with one man, Erwin Finlay-Freundlich. Some account is given here of his work in St Andrews and the influence he had on younger generations.

  8. Civil Society, State, and Institutions for Young Children in Modern Japan: The Initial Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uno, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Research on the history of children and childhood in modern Japan (1868-1945) reveals that issues related to civil society, state, and the establishment of institutions for young children can be explored beyond the transatlantic world. In this essay, after briefly surveying historiography, a few basic terms, and earlier patterns of state and…

  9. The Experience of a Modern Dance Group: Arousal, Motivation, and Self-Rated Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, John H.; Fujiyama, Hakuei; Wilson, George V.; Nakamori, Kayo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend the findings obtained in previous reversal theory based dance research by investigating dancers' perceptions of their own arousal levels and performance and their motivational states when performing. A group of modern dancers (n = 21), performing at a dance competition, acted as volunteer…

  10. Master IDIFO for In-Service Teacher Training in Modern Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Marisa; Santi, Lorenzo

    2008-05-01

    Within the context of a national project aimed to promote actions against disaffection for scientific studies in Italy, a Master in Didactic Innovation in Physics and Orientation was designed, as a result of researches carried out in this field by PERG of 9 Universities of Italy and aimed at the in-service training of teachers on modern physics.

  11. 75 FR 996 - Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 Section 1013: Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... Modernization Act of 2003 Section 1013: Request for Nominations--The Effective Health Care Stakeholder Group... nominations for the Effective Health Care Stakeholder Group. SUMMARY: The DHHS Agency for Healthcare Research... members of the Stakeholder Group to support the work of the Effective Health Care Program,...

  12. Response of obsolete and modern cotton genotypes to varying plant densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) producers are interested in reduced seeding rates due to increasing seed costs. It is not clear whether diverse cotton genotype respond differently to reduced plant densities. This research evaluated the performance of obsolete and modern cotton genotypes grown under...

  13. Modernization Theory and Changes over Time in the Reproduction of Socioeconomic Inequalities in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary N.

    2009-01-01

    Modernization theory argues that, as societies industrialize and further develop, the influence of social background and other ascribed characteristics on educational and socioeconomic outcomes declines, while achievement in the education system becomes more important. The purpose of this research is to investigate propositions derived from…

  14. Are modern biological invasions an unprecedented form of global change?

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Anthony

    2007-04-01

    The uniqueness of the current, global mass invasion by nonindigenous species has been challenged recently by researchers who argue that modern rates and consequences of nonindigenous species establishment are comparable to episodes in the geological past. Although there is a fossil record of species invasions occurring in waves after geographic barriers had been lifted, such episodic events differ markedly from human-assisted invasions in spatial and temporal scales and in the number and diversity of organisms involved in long-distance dispersal. Today, every region of the planet is simultaneously affected and modern rates of invasion are several orders of magnitude higher than prehistoric rates. In terms of its rate and geographical extent, its potential for synergistic disruption and the scope of its evolutionary consequences, the current mass invasion event is without precedent and should be regarded as a unique form of global change. Prehistoric examples of biotic interchanges are nonetheless instructive and can increase our understanding of species-area effects, evolutionary effects, biotic resistance to invasion, and the impacts of novel functional groups introduced to naïve biotas. Nevertheless, they provide only limited insight into the synergistic effects of invasions and other environmental stressors, the effect of frequent introductions of large numbers of propagules, and global homogenization, all of which characterize the current mass invasion event. PMID:17391183

  15. Modern Gravitational Lens Cosmology for Introductory Physics and Astronomy Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huwe, Paul; Field, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Recent and exciting discoveries in astronomy and cosmology have inspired many high school students to learn about these fields. A particularly fascinating consequence of general relativity at the forefront of modern cosmology research is gravitational lensing, the bending of light rays that pass near massive objects. Gravitational lensing enables high-precision mapping of dark matter distributions in galaxies and galaxy clusters, provides insight into large-scale cosmic structure of the universe, aids in the search for exo-planets, and may offer valuable insight toward understanding the evolution of dark energy. In this article we describe a gravitational lensing lab and associated lecture/discussion material that was highly successful, according to student feedback. The gravitational lens unit was developed as part of a two-week summer enrichment class for junior and senior high school students. With minor modifications, this lab can be used within a traditional classroom looking to incorporate topics of modern physics (such as in a unit on optics).

  16. The history of modern psychiatry in India, 1858-1947.

    PubMed

    Mills, J

    2001-12-01

    This article presents an introduction to the history of Indian psychiatry. It suggests that this history can be divided into four main periods, 1795 to 1857, 1858 to 1914, 1914 to 1947 and 1947 to the present day. The focus of the piece is on the periods 1858-1914 and 1914-1947, as it traces the main trends and developments of the colonial era and argues that the foundations of modern psychiatry in India were laid down in the period of British rule. A brief consideration of the post-Independence period suggests that the patterns established in the years of British rule have continued to influence the psychiatric system of modern India. Research for these conclusions is based on extensive archival work in Indian mental health institutions and in Indian records offices, as well as work conducted at the National Library of Scotland in Edinburgh and at the India Office Library, the Wellcome Institute Library and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. PMID:11951867

  17. High-Speed Visualisation of Combustion in Modern Gasoline Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, W.; Nauwerck, A.; Han, K.-M.; Pfeil, J.; Velji, A.; Spicher, U.

    2006-07-01

    Today research and development in the field of gasoline engines have to face a double challenge: on the one hand, fuel consumption has to be reduced, while on the other hand, ever more stringent emission standards have to be fulfilled. The development of engines with its complexity of in-cylinder processes requires modern development tools to exploit the full potential in order to reduce fuel consumption. Especially optical, non-intrusive measurement techniques will help to get a better understanding of the processes. With the presented high-speed visualisation system the electromagnetic radiation from combustion in the UV range is collected by an endoscope and transmitted to a visualisation system by 10, 000 optical fibres. The signal is projected to 1, 920 photomultipliers, which convert the optical into electric signals with a maximum temporal resolution of 200 kHz. This paper shows the systematic application of flame diagnostics in modern combustion systems. For this purpose, a single-cylinder SI engine has been modified for a spray guided combustion strategy as well as for HCCI. The characteristics of flame propagation in both combustion modes were recorded and correlated with thermodynamic analyses. In case of the spray guided GDI engine, high pressure fuel injection was applied and evaluated.

  18. Modern Medicine: Towards Prevention, Cure, Well-being and Longevity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajai R

    2010-01-01

    Modern medicine has done much in the fields of infectious diseases and emergencies to aid cure. In most other fields, it is mostly control that it aims for, which is another name for palliation. Pharmacology, psychopharmacology included, is mostly directed towards such control and palliation too. The thrust, both of clinicians and research, must now turn decisively towards prevention and cure. Also, longevity with well-being is modern medicine's other big challenge. Advances in vaccines for hypertension, diabetes, cancers etc, deserve attention; as also, the role of meditation, yoga, spirituality etc in preventing disease at various levels. Studies on longevity, life style changes and healthy centenarians deserve special scrutiny to find what aids longevity with wellbeing. A close look at complementary and alternative medicine is needed to find any suitable models they may have, cutting aside their big talk and/or hostility towards mainstream medical care. Medicine is a manifestation of the human eros, and should not become a means of its thanatos. It must realise its true potential, so that eros prevails, and thanatos prevails only ultimately, not prematurely. PMID:21327168

  19. Performance-optimized clinical IMRT planning on modern CPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegenhein, Peter; Kamerling, Cornelis Ph; Bangert, Mark; Kunkel, Julian; Oelfke, Uwe

    2013-06-01

    Intensity modulated treatment plan optimization is a computationally expensive task. The feasibility of advanced applications in intensity modulated radiation therapy as every day treatment planning, frequent re-planning for adaptive radiation therapy and large-scale planning research severely depends on the runtime of the plan optimization implementation. Modern computational systems are built as parallel architectures to yield high performance. The use of GPUs, as one class of parallel systems, has become very popular in the field of medical physics. In contrast we utilize the multi-core central processing unit (CPU), which is the heart of every modern computer and does not have to be purchased additionally. In this work we present an ultra-fast, high precision implementation of the inverse plan optimization problem using a quasi-Newton method on pre-calculated dose influence data sets. We redefined the classical optimization algorithm to achieve a minimal runtime and high scalability on CPUs. Using the proposed methods in this work, a total plan optimization process can be carried out in only a few seconds on a low-cost CPU-based desktop computer at clinical resolution and quality. We have shown that our implementation uses the CPU hardware resources efficiently with runtimes comparable to GPU implementations, at lower costs.

  20. Population theory and practice in China's four modernizations.

    PubMed

    Wang, N; Yang, K

    1983-01-01

    population growth measures condusive to economic development in sparsely-populated areas. 7) Delegates identify 3 periods in China's population theory, moving from total rejection to some possible acceptance of Malthusianism. Finally, delegates affirm the need to combine theory with practice and strengthen investigation and research work to achieve modernization. PMID:12313978

  1. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  2. 7 CFR 1751.106 - Modernization Plan; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., educational, and medical services. (3) The plan must encourage and improve computer networks and information... modernizing the telecommunications network of the Telecommunications Providers covered by the Modernization... that the design of the network provided by Telecommunications Providers allow for the...

  3. 7 CFR 1751.106 - Modernization Plan; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., educational, and medical services. (3) The plan must encourage and improve computer networks and information... modernizing the telecommunications network of the Telecommunications Providers covered by the Modernization... that the design of the network provided by Telecommunications Providers allow for the...

  4. 7 CFR 1751.106 - Modernization Plan; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., educational, and medical services. (3) The plan must encourage and improve computer networks and information... modernizing the telecommunications network of the Telecommunications Providers covered by the Modernization... that the design of the network provided by Telecommunications Providers allow for the...

  5. 7 CFR 1751.106 - Modernization Plan; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., educational, and medical services. (3) The plan must encourage and improve computer networks and information... modernizing the telecommunications network of the Telecommunications Providers covered by the Modernization... that the design of the network provided by Telecommunications Providers allow for the...

  6. 7 CFR 1751.106 - Modernization Plan; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., educational, and medical services. (3) The plan must encourage and improve computer networks and information... modernizing the telecommunications network of the Telecommunications Providers covered by the Modernization... that the design of the network provided by Telecommunications Providers allow for the...

  7. 8. VIEW EAST, CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS CAMP PARSONS GARAGE, MODERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW EAST, CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS CAMP PARSONS GARAGE, MODERN SHED, CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS CAMP PARSONS BLACKSMITH SHOP, AND MODERN SHED. - Parsons Nursery, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  8. Constructing a philosophy of chiropractic: evolving worldviews and modern foundation☆

    PubMed Central

    Senzon, Simon A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to trace the foundations of DD Palmer's sense of self and philosophy of chiropractic to its sources in modern Western philosophy as well as current metatheories about modernity. Discussion DD Palmer's sense of self was indicative of a modern self. A modern self is characterized as a self that developed after the Western Enlightenment and must come to terms with the insights of modernity such as Cartesian dualism, Spinoza's substance, Rousseau's expressivism, and Kant's critiques. It is argued that Palmer's philosophy can be viewed as part of the this tradition alongside his involvement in the 19th century American metaphysical religious culture, which was itself a response to these challenges of the modern self of modernity. Conclusion Palmer's development of chiropractic and its philosophy was a reaction to the challenges and promises of modernity. PMID:22693479

  9. Negotiating the Gay Male Stereotype in Ballet and Modern Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polasek, Katherine M.; Roper, Emily A.

    2011-01-01

    Dance, ballet and modern in particular, is culturally defined as a feminine activity in the United States. The purpose of the present study was to examine the experiences of professional male modern and ballet dancers in the United States. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 current professional ballet and modern dancers. We examined…

  10. Toward a Post-Modern Agenda in Instructional Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the concept of post-modernism and relates it to the field of instructional technology. Topics include structuralism; semiotics; poststructuralism; deconstruction; knowledge and power; critical theory; self-concept; post-modern assumptions; and potential contributions of post-modern concepts in instructional technology. (Contains 80…

  11. The Modern Religious Language of Education: Rousseau's "Emile"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterwalder, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    The Republican education, its concepts, theories, and form of discourse belong to the shared European heritage of the pre-modern Age. The pedagogy of humanism and its effects on the early Modern Age are represented by Republicanism. Even if Republicanism found a political continuation in liberalism and democratism of the Modern Age, the same…

  12. Mission Impossible: Turning Students on to Modern Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Heather

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the reasons why students resist learning about modern art within humanities courses. Provides strategies for encouraging students to appreciate and critique modern art, such as using comic strips to illuminate beliefs about modern art, studying the theory and practice of a particular artist, or utilizing group critiques of an artwork.…

  13. 5. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CLUB MODERNE LOUNGE SHOWING EXAMPLES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CLUB MODERNE LOUNGE SHOWING EXAMPLES OF THE LEATHER COVERED BOOTHS INSTALLED IN 19486. FACADE OF THE CLUB MODERNE, SHOWING THE ORIGINAL CURVED CORNER PROFILE AND TRI-COLOR CARRERE GLASS FACADE. - Anaconda Historic District, Club Moderne, 801 East Park Avenue, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  14. [Application of modern imformation technology in study of traditional Chinese medicine presciptions].

    PubMed

    Long, Wei; Liu, Pei-xun; Gao, Jing

    2007-07-01

    With the imformation technology getting a great progress in recent years, the modem imformation technology is extensively employed in the study of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescriptions. In this article a summary is given, which includes applications of modern imformation technology in the study of TCM presciptions. It focus on the introduction of the databse technology, data-mining technology and chemometrics, and brief virtual screening technology, experimental design, innovation design, study of complexity and bioinformatics technology, all of which deployed in the study of TCM presciptions, so as to enligten researchers on modernized study of TCM prescription and its development in the future. PMID:17879720

  15. Active and intelligent packaging systems for a modern society.

    PubMed

    Realini, Carolina E; Marcos, Begonya

    2014-11-01

    Active and intelligent packaging systems are continuously evolving in response to growing challenges from a modern society. This article reviews: (1) the different categories of active and intelligent packaging concepts and currently available commercial applications, (2) latest packaging research trends and innovations, and (3) the growth perspectives of the active and intelligent packaging market. Active packaging aiming at extending shelf life or improving safety while maintaining quality is progressing towards the incorporation of natural active agents into more sustainable packaging materials. Intelligent packaging systems which monitor the condition of the packed food or its environment are progressing towards more cost-effective, convenient and integrated systems to provide innovative packaging solutions. Market growth is expected for active packaging with leading shares for moisture absorbers, oxygen scavengers, microwave susceptors and antimicrobial packaging. The market for intelligent packaging is also promising with strong gains for time-temperature indicator labels and advancements in the integration of intelligent concepts into packaging materials. PMID:25034453

  16. Mad About Modern Physics: Braintwisters, Paradoxes, and Curiosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Franklin; Jargodzki, Christopher

    2004-12-01

    More mind-bending fun in physics The sequel to the popular Mad About Physics, Mad About Modern Physics promises endless hours of entertaining, challenging fun. With detailed answers to hundreds of questions ("Are fluorescent lights dangerous to your health?", "What is a fuel cell?"), the book is also a treasure trove of fun science trivia. Featuring diagrams and illustrations throughout, this fascinating physics compendium will educate and captivate students, teachers, and science buffs alike. FRANKLIN POTTER, Ph.D., is a retired physicist from the University of California at Irvine. He continues to conduct research in elementary particle physics and cosmology, as well as consult in physics education. CHRISTOPHER JARGODZKI, Ph.D., is Professor of Physics at Central Missouri State University. He is also founder and director of Center for Cooperative Phenomena. He was born and raised in Poland, and received his Ph.D. in quantum field theory from the University of California at Irvine.

  17. Modern cosmology: Interactive computer simulations that use recent observational surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldenhauer, Jacob; Engelhardt, Larry; Stone, Keenan M.; Shuler, Ezekiel

    2013-06-01

    We present a collection of new, open-source computational tools for numerically modeling recent large-scale observational data sets using modern cosmology theory. These tools allow both students and researchers to constrain the parameter values in competitive cosmological models, thereby discovering both the accelerated expansion of the universe and its composition (e.g., dark matter and dark energy). These programs have several features to help the non-cosmologist build an understanding of cosmological models and their relation to observational data, including a built-in collection of several real observational data sets. The current list of built-in observations includes several recent supernovae Type-Ia surveys, baryon acoustic oscillations, the cosmic microwave background radiation, gamma-ray bursts, and measurements of the Hubble parameter. In this article, we discuss specific results for testing cosmological models using these observational data.

  18. [SYNDROME OF DIABETIC FOOT: MODERN APPROACHES OF COMPLEX TREATMENT].

    PubMed

    Galimov, O V; Khanov, V O; Saifullin, R R; Valieva, G R; Okroyan, V P

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of treatment of 201 patients with neuroischemic form of diabetic foot syndrome. The research included 158 women and 43 men of the middle age of 62.5 ± 11.2 years. The complex approach was applied in treatment including medicamentous treatment, revasculization of extremity, an application of modern combined collagenous coating and foot relieving using silicone insoles and orthopedic footwear. The endovascular and open reconstructive operations were performed in order to obtain the revasculization of extremity. Given complex approach allowed reducing the terms of hospital stay, the rate of ulcerous defects recurrences and relapses of ischemia of lower extremities during one year after endovascular interventions. PMID:26983262

  19. A modern, documented human skeletal collection from Greece.

    PubMed

    Eliopoulos, C; Lagia, A; Manolis, S

    2007-01-01

    The University of Athens Human Skeletal Reference Collection has been created recently and consists of 225 skeletons. The Athens Collection is housed at the Department of Animal and Human Physiology, at the University of Athens, Greece. Documentation that includes age, sex, occupation, and cause of death exists for almost all of the remains in the collection. The remains belong to individuals who lived mainly in the second half of the twentieth century and come from cemeteries in the area of Athens. The demographic composition of the collection, and a description of the documentary and supporting data are presented. This recently established modern collection is of high value for palaeopathologists, skeletal biologists and forensic anthropologists. The importance of such collections for teaching and research is discussed. PMID:17574249

  20. Modern technology calls for a modern approach to classification of epileptic seizures and the epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Lüders, Hans O; Amina, Shahram; Baumgartner, Christopher; Benbadis, Selim; Bermeo-Ovalle, Adriana; Devereaux, Michael; Diehl, Beate; Edwards, Jonathan; Baca-Vaca, Guadalupe Fernandez; Hamer, Hajo; Ikeda, Akio; Kaiboriboon, Kitti; Kellinghaus, Christoph; Koubeissi, Mohamad; Lardizabal, David; Lhatoo, Samden; Lüders, Jürgen; Mani, Jayanti; Mayor, Luis Carlos; Miller, Jonathan; Noachtar, Soheyl; Pestana, Elia; Rosenow, Felix; Sakamoto, Americo; Shahid, Asim; Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Syed, Tanvir; Tanner, Adriana; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2012-03-01

    In the last 10-15 years the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology has been presenting proposals to modernize the current ILAE Classification of Epileptic Seizures and Epilepsies. These proposals were discussed extensively in a series of articles published recently in Epilepsia and Epilepsy Currents. There is almost universal consensus that the availability of new diagnostic techniques as also of a modern understanding of epilepsy calls for a complete revision of the Classification of Epileptic Seizures and Epilepsies. Unfortunately, however, the Commission is still not prepared to take a bold step ahead and completely revisit our approach to classification of epileptic seizures and epilepsies. In this manuscript we critically analyze the current proposals of the Commission and make suggestions for a classification system that reflects modern diagnostic techniques and our current understanding of epilepsy. PMID:22332669

  1. Testing modern human out-of-Africa dispersal models and implications for modern human origins.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Centeno, Hugo; Hubbe, Mark; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; Stringer, Chris; Harvati, Katerina

    2015-10-01

    The modern human expansion process out of Africa has important implications for understanding the genetic and phenotypic structure of extant populations. While intensely debated, the primary hypotheses focus on either a single dispersal or multiple dispersals out of the continent. Here, we use the human fossil record from Africa and the Levant, as well as an exceptionally large dataset of Holocene human crania sampled from Asia, to model ancestor-descendant relationships along hypothetical dispersal routes. We test the spatial and temporal predictions of competing out-of-Africa models by assessing the correlation of geographical distances between populations and measures of population differentiation derived from quantitative cranial phenotype data. Our results support a model in which extant Australo-Melanesians are descendants of an initial dispersal out of Africa by early anatomically modern humans, while all other populations are descendants of a later migration wave. Our results have implications for understanding the complexity of modern human origins and diversity. PMID:26164107

  2. Welding High Strength Modern Line Pipe Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodall, Graeme Robertson

    The effect of modern mechanized girth welding on high strength line pipe has been investigated. The single cycle grain coarsened heat affected zone in three grade 690 line pipe steels and a grade 550 steel has been simulated using a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator. The continuous cooling transformation diagrams applicable to the grain coarsened heat affected zone resulting from a range of heat inputs applicable to modern mechanized welding have been established by dilatometry and metallography. The coarse grained heat affected zone was found to transform to lath martensite, bainite, and granular bainite depending on the cooling rate. The impact toughness of the steels was measured using Charpy impact toughness and compared to the toughness of the grain coarsened heat affected zone corresponding to a welding thermal cycle. The ductile to brittle transition temperature was found to be lowest for the steel with the highest hardenability. The toughness resulting from three different thermal cycles including a novel interrupted intercritically reheated grain coarsened (NTR ICR GC HAZ) that can result from dual torch welding at fast travel speed and close torch spacing have been investigated. All of the thermally HAZ regions showed reduced toughness that was attributed to bainitic microstructure and large effective grain sizes. Continuous cooling transformation diagrams for five weld metal chemistries applicable to mechanized pulsed gas metal arc welding of modern high strength pipe steel (SMYS>550 MPa) have been constructed. Welds at heat inputs of 1.5 kJmm-1 and 0.5 kJmm-1 have been created for simulation and analysis. Dilatometric analysis was performed on weld metal specimens cut from single pass 1.5 kJmm-1 as deposited beads. The resulting microstructures were found to range from martensite to polygonal ferrite. There is excellent agreement between the simulated and as deposited weld metal regions. Toughness testing indicates improved energy absorption at -20

  3. Physical Activity and Modernization among Bolivian Amerindians

    PubMed Central

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V.; Kaplan, Hillard; Cummings, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity. Methods and Findings A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR), the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL) of 2.02–2.15 and 1.73–1.85, respectively. Little time was spent “sedentary”, whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity. Conclusions Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by

  4. Modern Data Center Services Supporting Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varner, J. D.; Cartwright, J.; McLean, S. J.; Boucher, J.; Neufeld, D.; LaRocque, J.; Fischman, D.; McQuinn, E.; Fugett, C.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) World Data Center for Geophysics and Marine Geology provides scientific stewardship, products and services for geophysical data, including bathymetry, gravity, magnetics, seismic reflection, data derived from sediment and rock samples, as well as historical natural hazards data (tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanoes). Although NGDC has long made many of its datasets available through map and other web services, it has now developed a second generation of services to improve the discovery and access to data. These new services use off-the-shelf commercial and open source software, and take advantage of modern JavaScript and web application frameworks. Services are accessible using both RESTful and SOAP queries as well as Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard protocols such as WMS, WFS, WCS, and KML. These new map services (implemented using ESRI ArcGIS Server) are finer-grained than their predecessors, feature improved cartography, and offer dramatic speed improvements through the use of map caches. Using standards-based interfaces allows customers to incorporate the services without having to coordinate with the provider. Providing fine-grained services increases flexibility for customers building custom applications. The Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping program and Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning program are two examples of national initiatives that require common data inventories from multiple sources and benefit from these modern data services. NGDC is also consuming its own services, providing a set of new browser-based mapping applications which allow the user to quickly visualize and search for data. One example is a new interactive mapping application to search and display information about historical natural hazards. NGDC continues to increase the amount of its data holdings that are accessible and is augmenting the capabilities with modern web

  5. [Stalking--a modern manifestation of erotomania?].

    PubMed

    Knecht, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Stalking is the technical term for the systematic, excessive and sometimes offensive molestation in order to seek personal contact with a target person, mostly of the contrary sex. This phenomenon seems to have increased recently and concerns above all celebrities of several kinds. In some cases, stalking behavior can culminate in acts of violence. However, the pathological fixation onto an often unattainable person is not a modern phenomenon, since it was studied and described under the term erotomania in former centuries. The author presents and discusses the case of a young man, who displayed his stalking behavior exclusively by telephone calls. PMID:12635485

  6. Exhaustion and the Pathologization of Modernity.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, Anna Katharina

    2016-09-01

    This essay analyses six case studies of theories of exhaustion-related conditions from the early eighteenth century to the present day. It explores the ways in which George Cheyne, George Beard, Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Sigmund Freud, Alain Ehrenberg and Jonathan Crary use medical ideas about exhaustion as a starting point for more wide-ranging cultural critiques related to specific social and technological transformations. In these accounts, physical and psychological symptoms are associated with particular external developments, which are thus not just construed as pathology-generators but also pathologized. The essay challenges some of the persistently repeated claims about exhaustion and its unhappy relationship with modernity. PMID:25096856

  7. Electron irradiation of modern solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Miyahira, T. F.

    1977-01-01

    A number of modern solar cell types representing 1976 technology (as well as some older types) were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons (and a limited number with 2 MeV electrons and 10 MeV protons). After irradiation, the cells were annealed, with I-V curves measured under AMO at 30 C. The purpose was to provide data to be incorporated in the revision of the solar cell radiation handbook. Cell resistivities ranged from 2 to 20 ohm-cm, and cell thickness from 0.05 to 0.46 mm. Cell types examined were conventional, shallow junction, back surface field (BSF), textured, and textured with BSF.

  8. Percolation Theory and Modern Hydraulic Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, J. Q.; Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    During the past few years, we have been developing a percolation model for fracking. This model provides a powerful tool for understanding the growth and properties of the complex fracture networks generated during a modern high volume hydraulic fracture stimulations of tight shale reservoirs. The model can also be used to understand the interaction between the growing fracture network and natural reservoir features such as joint sets and faults. Additionally, the model produces a power-law distribution of bursts which can easily be compared to observed microseismicity.

  9. The three modern faces of mercury.

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, Thomas W

    2002-01-01

    The three modern "faces" of mercury are our perceptions of risk from the exposure of billions of people to methyl mercury in fish, mercury vapor from amalgam tooth fillings, and ethyl mercury in the form of thimerosal added as an antiseptic to widely used vaccines. In this article I review human exposure to and the toxicology of each of these three species of mercury. Mechanisms of action are discussed where possible. Key gaps in our current knowledge are identified from the points of view both of risk assessment and of mechanisms of action. PMID:11834460

  10. PHILOSOPHICAL PRESUPPOSITIONS OF AYURVEDA AND MODERN MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of Ayurveda rests on the concepts of matter, vital principle, mind, and pure consciousness. It is a holistic theory of medicine, which aims at restoration of physical and mental health, and spiritual well-being in a sick person, so that he may self-actualize himself, and eventually, realize his nature as pure consciousness. Modern Western medicine tries to reduce consciousness, and vital principle to biochemical entities. It is a value-neutral science, and considers the aim of therapy as removal of pathological symptoms. Its theoretical position is weak. Interface between medical and value science is urgently needed. PMID:22557392

  11. An evaluation of the transferability of Munsell's colour notation methodology to modern inkjet printing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olen, Melissa; Geisow, Adrian; Parraman, Carinna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the transferability of the Munsell system to modern inkjet colorants and printing technology following a similar approach to his original methods. While extensive research and development has gone into establishing methods for measuring and modelling the modern colour gamut, this study seeks to reintegrate the psychophysical and artistic principles used in Munsell's early colour studies with digital print. Contemporary inkjet printing, with ink sets containing a greater number of primary colorants, are significantly higher in chroma compared to the limited colorants available at the time of Munsell's original work. Following Munsell's design and implementation, our experiments replicate the use of Clerk-Maxwell's spinning disks in order to examine the effects of colour mixing with these expanded colour capacities, and to determine hue distribution and placement. This work revisits Munsell's project in light of known issues, and formulates questions about how we can reintegrate Munsell's approach for colour description and mixing into modern colour science, understanding, and potential application.

  12. Modern Art as Public Care: Alzheimer's and the Aesthetics of Universal Personhood.

    PubMed

    Selberg, Scott

    2015-12-01

    This article is based on ethnographic research of the New York Museum of Modern Art's influential Alzheimer's access program, Meet Me at MoMA. The program belongs to an increasingly popular model of psychosocial treatment that promotes art as potentially therapeutic or beneficial to people experiencing symptoms of dementia as well as to their caregivers. Participant observation of the sessions and a series of interviews with museum staff and educators reveal broader assumptions about the relationship between modern art, dementia, and personhood. These assumptions indicate a museological investment in the capacity and perceived interiority of all participants. Ultimately, the program authorizes a narrative of universal personhood that harmonizes with the museum's longstanding focus on temporal and aesthetic modernism. PMID:25727196

  13. Origin of Clothing Lice Indicates Early Clothing Use by Anatomically Modern Humans in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Toups, Melissa A.; Kitchen, Andrew; Light, Jessica E.; Reed, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Clothing use is an important modern behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 3 Ma, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since clothing lice evolved from head louse ancestors once humans adopted clothing, dating the emergence of clothing lice may provide more specific estimates of the origin of clothing use. Here, we use a Bayesian coalescent modeling approach to estimate that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at least by 83,000 and possibly as early as 170,000 years ago. Our analysis suggests that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically modern humans in Africa and reinforces a broad trend of modern human developments in Africa during the Middle to Late Pleistocene. PMID:20823373

  14. [Modern instrumentation for the studies of isoflavones].

    PubMed

    Vacek, J; Klejdus, B; Lojková, L; Kubán, V

    2008-04-01

    Isoflavones belong to the natural substances exhibiting a number of physiological effects in living organisms. The substances are synthesized in plant tissues as protective agents against biotic stress (i.e. bacterial infection). Isoflavones are also an important dietary constituent in human nutrition. The review discusses modern trends in the studies of isoflavones in plant materials and foodstuffs and procedures for chemical analyses of isoflavones in human body fluids and plant tissues. Highly effective extraction and purification techniques, i.e. solid-phase extraction (SFE), accelerated-solvent extraction (ASE), and Soxhlet extraction, are presented. Latest procedures in chromatographic separation of isoflavones that apply different types of stationary phases are described. Immunochemical analysis, electrochemical sensing of isoflavones, spectrometric and other analytical techniques and their applications are also mentioned. Special attention is focused on a highly selective and sensitive technique of mass spectrometry and its application for identification of isoflavones and their glucosides in plants. Studies of interactions of isoflavones with cell receptors and a number of biologically active substances such as DNA and proteins are described. The reason for the presentation of the review was not to give a full overview of the presented topics but mainly to show modern and the most recent methods in the studies of isoflavones. PMID:18578418

  15. Plato's TIMAIOσ (TIMAEUS) and Modern Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machleidt, Ruprecht

    2005-04-01

    It is generally known that the question, ``What are the smallest particles (elementary particles) that all matter is made from?'', was posed already in the antiquity. The Greek natural philosophers Leucippus and Democritus were the first to suggest that all matter was made from atoms. Therefore, most people perceive them as the ancient fathers of elementary particle physics. It will be the purpose of my contribution to point out that this perception is wrong. Modern particle physics is not just a primitive atomism. More important than the materialistic particles are the underlying symmetries (e. g., SU(3) and SU(6)). A similar idea was first advanced by Plato in his dialog TIMAIOσ (Latin translation: TIMAEUS): Geometric symmetries generate the materialistic particles from a few even more elementary items. Plato's vision is amazingly close to the ideas of modern particle physics. This fact, which is unfortunately little known, has been pointed out repeatedly by Heisenberg (see, e. g., Werner Heisenberg, Across the Frontiers, Harper & Row, New York, 1974).

  16. Introducing Nightlight: A New, Modern FITS Viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muna, Demitri

    2016-01-01

    The field of astronomy distinguishes itself in having standardized on a single file format for the majority of data it produces. Visualization of FITS data, however, has not kept up with modern software design, user interfaces, or user interaction; the simple task of inspecting a file's structure or retrieving a particular value requires writing code. While the file format has its shortcomings, a significant reason many astronomers dislike FITS is not due to the organization of the bytes on disk, but rather the ease of use in accessing or visualizing them. Nightlight is a new desktop application whose aim is to bring a modern interface to FITS files with the polish and design people expect from applications like iTunes. By making it a native Macintosh application, one is able to leverage cutting edge frameworks not available in cross-platform environments that enable GPU acceleration, multithreading, interactive touch interfaces, real-time image processing, desktop metadata indexing, and more. Nightlight is designed to provide a common platform on top of which data or survey specific visualization needs can be built. The initial public release of Nightlight will soon be available; for more information visit http://www.nightlightapp.io.

  17. A phylogenetic blueprint for a modern whale.

    PubMed

    Gatesy, John; Geisler, Jonathan H; Chang, Joseph; Buell, Carl; Berta, Annalisa; Meredith, Robert W; Springer, Mark S; McGowen, Michael R

    2013-02-01

    The emergence of Cetacea in the Paleogene represents one of the most profound macroevolutionary transitions within Mammalia. The move from a terrestrial habitat to a committed aquatic lifestyle engendered wholesale changes in anatomy, physiology, and behavior. The results of this remarkable transformation are extant whales that include the largest, biggest brained, fastest swimming, loudest, deepest diving mammals, some of which can detect prey with a sophisticated echolocation system (Odontoceti - toothed whales), and others that batch feed using racks of baleen (Mysticeti - baleen whales). A broad-scale reconstruction of the evolutionary remodeling that culminated in extant cetaceans has not yet been based on integration of genomic and paleontological information. Here, we first place Cetacea relative to extant mammalian diversity, and assess the distribution of support among molecular datasets for relationships within Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates, including Cetacea). We then merge trees derived from three large concatenations of molecular and fossil data to yield a composite hypothesis that encompasses many critical events in the evolutionary history of Cetacea. By combining diverse evidence, we infer a phylogenetic blueprint that outlines the stepwise evolutionary development of modern whales. This hypothesis represents a starting point for more detailed, comprehensive phylogenetic reconstructions in the future, and also highlights the synergistic interaction between modern (genomic) and traditional (morphological+paleontological) approaches that ultimately must be exploited to provide a rich understanding of evolutionary history across the entire tree of Life. PMID:23103570

  18. Modern analytical chemistry in the contemporary world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šíma, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Students not familiar with chemistry tend to misinterpret analytical chemistry as some kind of the sorcery where analytical chemists working as modern wizards handle magical black boxes able to provide fascinating results. However, this approach is evidently improper and misleading. Therefore, the position of modern analytical chemistry among sciences and in the contemporary world is discussed. Its interdisciplinary character and the necessity of the collaboration between analytical chemists and other experts in order to effectively solve the actual problems of the human society and the environment are emphasized. The importance of the analytical method validation in order to obtain the accurate and precise results is highlighted. The invalid results are not only useless; they can often be even fatal (e.g., in clinical laboratories). The curriculum of analytical chemistry at schools and universities is discussed. It is referred to be much broader than traditional equilibrium chemistry coupled with a simple description of individual analytical methods. Actually, the schooling of analytical chemistry should closely connect theory and practice.

  19. On modern demographic transition in China.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    The theory of demographic transition traditionally indicates 3 historical stages. The limitations of the theory are: 1)studies are confined to phenomenal descriptions which means that China is exempt, 2) it focuses too much on productive forces and ignores the factor of the relation between production and other non-economic factors. There is more to transition theories than birth rate, death rate of natural increase. In 1971 China began the process of modern demographic transition with a death rate of 0.7% and a drop in the birth rate. In 1976 China began the 2nd stage where birth rates doubled which made China a unique case because it fell outside the conventional model. The primary factor for this was the change in the fertility rate. The effects of population policy on fertility will be less if economic development and cultural development do not keep pace. The fact that rural people were reluctant to accept the population policy was a strong factor. The 2nd rise is attributed to the "flexible minor policies". This 2nd rise will be a significant factor in future population development. The key to modern demographic transition in China is to lower the birth rate by: 1) developing economic policies that will increase the quality of social and economic backgrounds, 2) the interference of the policy in demographic transition should follow the medium principle, 3) communication and education should be increased to help people set up the value of less births, better births. PMID:12284673

  20. [The modern patient in conditions of globalization].

    PubMed

    Jiliyayeva, Ye P

    2013-01-01

    The article makes an attempt to detect main characteristics of status of modern patient on the basis of analysis of Russian and international materials. Nowadays, patient plays an active role both in process of receiving medical care and in issues of health policy and public health. The patient has many rights and modes to defend them. At the national and international levels, many organizations of patients exist and their authority and impact only increase. The globalization effects on structure of patients, because it brought facilitation of trans-borders travel and resulted in development of medical tourism and increase of migration. The structure of patients becomes more various in its national and ethnic belonging, cultural and language characteristics. This trend generated new requirements to training of medical personnel and functioning of health services. The globalization also enhances social economic inequity between patients and hence complicates accessibility of high quality medical care to population. The main traits of modern patient are to be studied and analyzed on all levels with purpose to develop an important basis for successful planning, reformation and development of public health. PMID:24649603