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Sample records for reservorios venosos centrales

  1. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  2. Central Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Clouds and haze cover most of the Italian peninsula in this view of central Italy (41.5N, 14.0E) but the Bay of Naples region with Mt. Vesuvius and the island of Capri are clear. The Adriatic Sea in the background separates Italy from the cloud covered Balkans of eastern Europe and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the foreground lies between the Italian mainland and the off scene islands of Corsica and Sardinia. Several aircraft contrails can also be seen.

  3. Central sleep apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure (CPAP) , bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) or adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV). Some types of central sleep ... et al. The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based ...

  4. Central venous catheters - ports

    MedlinePlus

    Central venous catheter - subcutaneous; Port-a-Cath; InfusaPort; PasPort; Subclavian port; Medi - port; Central venous line - port ... catheter is attached to a device called a port that will be under your skin. The port ...

  5. Central Neuropathic Pain Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Watson, James C; Sandroni, Paola

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pain is common in patients with neurologic complications of a central nervous system insult such as stroke. The pain is most commonly musculoskeletal or related to obligatory overuse of neurologically unaffected limbs. However, neuropathic pain can result directly from the central nervous system injury. Impaired sensory discrimination can make it challenging to differentiate central neuropathic pain from other pain types or spasticity. Central neuropathic pain may also begin months to years after the injury, further obscuring recognition of its association with a past neurologic injury. This review focuses on unique clinical features that help distinguish central neuropathic pain. The most common clinical central pain syndromes-central poststroke pain, multiple sclerosis-related pain, and spinal cord injury-related pain-are reviewed in detail. Recent progress in understanding of the pathogenesis of central neuropathic pain is reviewed, and pharmacological, surgical, and neuromodulatory treatments of this notoriously difficult to treat pain syndrome are discussed. PMID:26944242

  6. Central line complications

    PubMed Central

    Kornbau, Craig; Lee, Kathryn C; Hughes, Gwendolyn D; Firstenberg, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Central venous access is a common procedure performed in many clinical settings for a variety of indications. Central lines are not without risk, and there are a multitude of complications that are associated with their placement. Complications can present in an immediate or delayed fashion and vary based on type of central venous access. Significant morbidity and mortality can result from complications related to central venous access. These complications can cause a significant healthcare burden in cost, hospital days, and patient quality of life. Advances in imaging, access technique, and medical devices have reduced and altered the types of complications encountered in clinical practice; but most complications still center around vascular injury, infection, and misplacement. Recognition and management of central line complications is important when caring for patients with vascular access, but prevention is the ultimate goal. This article discusses common and rare complications associated with central venous access, as well as techniques to recognize, manage, and prevent complications. PMID:26557487

  7. Oncoplastic central quadrantectomies

    PubMed Central

    Pasta, Vittorio; D’Orazi, Valerio; Merola, Raffaele; Frusone, Federico; Amabile, Maria Ida; Buè, Rosanna; Monti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Tumors localized in the central quadrant (centrally located breast tumors) have always represented a challenge for the surgeon because of the critical aesthetical matters related to the nipple-areola complex (NAC). Many years of experience with breast cancer patients treated by using various oncoplastic techniques, has allowed us to develop the modified hemibatwing for the treatment of central breast tumors, where the NAC is involved. Modified hemibatwing—along with the removal of the NAC—is a useful oncoplastic technique and it represents an ideal option for the treatment of central tumors because it assures oncological safety, a reduced surgical timetable and greater aesthetical results. PMID:27563564

  8. Central pontine myelinolysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... from one nerve to another. The most common cause of central pontine myelinolysis is a quick change in the body's sodium ... The nerve damage caused by central pontine myelinolysis is usually ... The disorder can cause serious long-term (chronic) disability.

  9. Central diffraction at ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lämsä, J. W.; Orava, R.

    2011-02-01

    The ALICE experiment is shown to be well suited for studies of exclusive final states from central diffractive reactions. The gluon-rich environment of the central system allows detailed QCD studies and searches for exotic meson states, such as glueballs, hybrids and new charmonium-like states. It would also provide a good testing ground for detailed studies of heavy quarkonia. Due to its central barrel performance, ALICE can accurately measure the low-mass central systems with good purity. The efficiency of the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) and the Forward Shower Counter (FSC) system for detecting rapidity gaps is shown to be adequate for the proposed studies. With this detector arrangement, valuable new data can be obtained by tagging central diffractive processes.

  10. Central nervous system

    MedlinePlus

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  11. Central ballast tanker design

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER Design. This design is intended to reduce the volume of oil spilled from tankers by giving the crew a tanker properly designed and equipped to allow large quantities of oil from ruptured tank(s) to flow safely to a fully-inerted central ballast tank. In addition to reducing the volume of oil spilled, the design also addresses many of the shortcomings of the DOUBLE HULL DESIGN which are increasingly becoming a concern. The following is a brief review of the development of the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER. The simple operational features, stability, low cost and ease of maintenance of the single hull tanker were important and can be retained with the CENTRAL BALLAST DESIGN.

  12. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk is higher if you: Are in the intensive care unit (ICU) Have a weakened immune system or serious ... unless you have washed your hands. Tell your nurse if your central line: Gets dirty Is coming ...

  13. Diabetes insipidus - central

    MedlinePlus

    ... insipidus is caused by a genetic problem. Symptoms Symptoms of central diabetes insipidus include: Increased urine production Excessive thirst Confusion and changes in alertness due to dehydration and higher than normal sodium level in the ...

  14. Higgs central exclusive production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudell, J. R.; Dechambre, A.; Hernández, O. F.

    2012-01-01

    Using the CHIDe model, we tune the calculation of central exclusive Higgs production to the recent CDF central exclusive dijet data, and predict the cross section for the exclusive production of Higgs boson at the LHC. In this model, due to different choices of the scale in the Sudakov form factor for dijet and Higgs production, it is always below 1 fb, and below 0.3 fb after experimental cuts.

  15. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Blattner, Collin; Polley, Dennis C.; Ferritto, Frank; Elston, Dirk M.

    2013-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is a common cause of progressive permanent apical alopecia. This unique form of alopecia includes entities previously know as “hot comb alopecia,” “follicular degeneration syndrome,” “pseudopelade” in African Americans and “central elliptical pseudopelade” in Caucasians. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and the condition occurs in all races. PMID:23440368

  16. Balanced Centrality of Networks.

    PubMed

    Debono, Mark; Lauri, Josef; Sciriha, Irene

    2014-01-01

    There is an age-old question in all branches of network analysis. What makes an actor in a network important, courted, or sought? Both Crossley and Bonacich contend that rather than its intrinsic wealth or value, an actor's status lies in the structures of its interactions with other actors. Since pairwise relation data in a network can be stored in a two-dimensional array or matrix, graph theory and linear algebra lend themselves as great tools to gauge the centrality (interpreted as importance, power, or popularity, depending on the purpose of the network) of each actor. We express known and new centralities in terms of only two matrices associated with the network. We show that derivations of these expressions can be handled exclusively through the main eigenvectors (not orthogonal to the all-one vector) associated with the adjacency matrix. We also propose a centrality vector (SWIPD) which is a linear combination of the square, walk, power, and degree centrality vectors with weightings of the various centralities depending on the purpose of the network. By comparing actors' scores for various weightings, a clear understanding of which actors are most central is obtained. Moreover, for threshold networks, the (SWIPD) measure turns out to be independent of the weightings. PMID:27437494

  17. Balanced Centrality of Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sciriha, Irene

    2014-01-01

    There is an age-old question in all branches of network analysis. What makes an actor in a network important, courted, or sought? Both Crossley and Bonacich contend that rather than its intrinsic wealth or value, an actor's status lies in the structures of its interactions with other actors. Since pairwise relation data in a network can be stored in a two-dimensional array or matrix, graph theory and linear algebra lend themselves as great tools to gauge the centrality (interpreted as importance, power, or popularity, depending on the purpose of the network) of each actor. We express known and new centralities in terms of only two matrices associated with the network. We show that derivations of these expressions can be handled exclusively through the main eigenvectors (not orthogonal to the all-one vector) associated with the adjacency matrix. We also propose a centrality vector (SWIPD) which is a linear combination of the square, walk, power, and degree centrality vectors with weightings of the various centralities depending on the purpose of the network. By comparing actors' scores for various weightings, a clear understanding of which actors are most central is obtained. Moreover, for threshold networks, the (SWIPD) measure turns out to be independent of the weightings.

  18. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  19. Hale Central Peak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    19 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the mountains that make up the central peak region of Hale Crater, located near 35.8oS, 36.5oW. Dark, smooth-surfaced sand dunes are seen to be climbing up the mountainous slopes. The central peak of a crater consists of rock brought up during the impact from below the crater floor. This autumn image is illuminated from the upper left and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  20. Central Administration. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke Univ., Durham, NC.

    Because the configuration of the central administration of Duke University has recently been modified, this report was prepared: (1) to describe the changes and rearrangements thus far introduced; (2) to propose desirable clarifications not yet provided; (3) to recommend certain additional changes where these may already appear to be needed; and…

  1. Centralizers of spin subalgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arizmendi, Gerardo; Herrera, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    We determine the centralizers of certain isomorphic copies of spin subalgebras spin(r) in so(dr m), where dr is the dimension of a real irreducible representation of Clr0, the even Clifford algebra determined by the positive definite inner product on Rr, where r, m ∈ N.

  2. Central Exclusive Dijet Production

    SciTech Connect

    Dechambre, A.; Cudell, J. R.; Ivanov, I. P.; Hernandez, O.

    2008-08-29

    The ingredients of central exclusive production cross section include large perturbative corrections and soft quantities that must be parametrized and fitted to data. In this talk, we summarize the results of a study of the uncertainties coming from these ingredients, in the case of exclusive dijet production.

  3. CENTRALIZATION OF CAMPUS CONTROLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    A COLLEGE CAMPUS HAVING A LARGE NUMBER OF SEPARATE BUILDINGS WITH ONE BASIC HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM IS AN IDEAL SITUATION FOR REALIZING GREAT BENEFITS FROM CENTRALIZED BUILDING CONTROL SYSTEMS. TYPICAL REQUIREMENTS AND ADVANTAGES OF SUCH SYSTEMS ARE DISCUSSED BRIEFLY AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE SYSTEM AT FOUR MAJOR UNIVERSITIES ARE GIVEN. THIS…

  4. [Central manifestations of dystrophinopathies].

    PubMed

    Cuisset, J-M; Rivier, F

    2015-12-01

    The dystrophin gene involved in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy is expressed in three main tissues resulting in clinical manifestations: skeletal muscle, heart and central nervous system. The 6 different existing dystrophins in the brain may play a role in the maturation and plasticity of neuronal synapses in particular by their functions in clustering and stabilization of different receptors at the post synaptic membrane. The possibility of an intellectual deficiency in Duchenne muscular dystrophy is known from the original description by Duchenne himself. Current data are in line with a constant cognitive impairment with a Gaussian curve shifted intellectual quotient (IQ) at -1 standard deviation from the standard population with an average IQ around 80. Clinical manifestations suggestive of a central nervous system involvement can affect all dystrophinopathies, including isolated central presentations without myopathic sign. The phenotypic spectrum appears broader and more subtle than non specific intellectual deficiency. The isolated or shared involvement of specific cognitive functions is possible (memory functions, executive functions, attention) with or without intellectual deficiency. Autism spectrum disorders are also among the encountered events. In clinical practice, it seems worth to ask for a measurement of serum creatine kinase (CK) in these different situations, keeping in mind that pure forms of central dystrophinopathies with a normal CK level have been recently reported. PMID:26773588

  5. Retiring the central executive.

    PubMed

    Logie, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    Reasoning, problem solving, comprehension, learning and retrieval, inhibition, switching, updating, or multitasking are often referred to as higher cognition, thought to require control processes or the use of a central executive. However, the concept of an executive controller begs the question of what is controlling the controller and so on, leading to an infinite hierarchy of executives or "homunculi". In what is now a QJEP citation classic, Baddeley [Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5-28] referred to the concept of a central executive in cognition as a "conceptual ragbag" that acted as a placeholder umbrella term for aspects of cognition that are complex, were poorly understood at the time, and most likely involve several different cognitive functions working in concert. He suggested that with systematic empirical research, advances in understanding might progress sufficiently to allow the executive concept to be "sacked". This article offers an overview of the 1996 article and of some subsequent systematic research and argues that after two decades of research, there is sufficient advance in understanding to suggest that executive control might arise from the interaction among multiple different functions in cognition that use different, but overlapping, brain networks. The article concludes that the central executive concept might now be offered a dignified retirement. PMID:26821744

  6. Central pontine myelinolysis

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, N. B. N.

    1981-01-01

    This appears to be the first report of a case of central pontine myelinolysis associated with chronic alcoholism and liver cirrhosis in the United Kingdom. The pathological features and theories of aetiology are briefly discussed. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7329883

  7. Channeling the Central Dogma.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Ronald L

    2014-05-21

    How do neurons and networks achieve their characteristic electrical activity, regulate this activity homeostatically, and yet show population variability in expression? In this issue of Neuron, O'Leary et al. (2014) address some of these thorny questions in this theoretical analysis that starts with the Central Dogma. PMID:24853932

  8. Central Dogma Goes Digital.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yihan; Elowitz, Michael B

    2016-03-17

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Tay and colleagues (Albayrak et al., 2016) describe a new technique to digitally quantify the numbers of protein and mRNA in the same mammalian cell, providing a new way to look at the central dogma of molecular biology. PMID:26990983

  9. Multicultural Central Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Eric D.

    This article addresses the multicultural aspect of Central Asia in response to the discussion on diversity in U.S. classrooms. Many areas of the world are more diverse than the U.S., and these areas experience successes and failures with many of the same issues the U.S. is currently struggling with. Comparing the U.S. diversity debate with similar…

  10. [CENTRAL ANTICHOLINERGIC... SYNDROME?].

    PubMed

    Danilov, M S; Lebedinskii, K M

    2015-01-01

    While reading special literature in diferent languages the authors noted surprising fact: the term and concept of "central anticholinergic syndrome" is well-known as common anaesthesia complication in German (abbr: ZAS) and partially Spanish sources, but in Russian, English or French literature is used only in toxicological context. Describing etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of the complication manifesting with comatose, agitated or shivering forms, the authors analyzing the reasons for such a noticeably diferent approaches to the situation reaching 10% of all the general anaesthesia cases. Probably, ZAS isn't nosologically clearly defined syndrome, but just adverse appearance of one of the fundamental general anaesthesia mechanisms? Anyway, the problem of central cholinergic activity suppression, excessive by its amplitude and/or duration, exists all over the world. German concept of ZAS allows the anaesthesiologist to resolve it on pathogenically generalized basis, while in other professional communities various symptomatic approaches seem to be more common. PMID:27025142

  11. Central Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Danny J.; Jordan, Amy S.; Merchia, Pankaj; Malhotra, Atul

    2008-01-01

    Central sleep apnea (CSA) is characterized by a lack of drive to breathe during sleep, resulting in repetitive periods of insufficient ventilation and compromised gas exchange. These nighttime breathing disturbances can lead to important comorbidity and increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. There are several manifestations of CSA, including high altitude-induced periodic breathing, idiopathic CSA, narcotic-induced central apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, and Cheyne-Stokes breathing. While unstable ventilatory control during sleep is the hallmark of CSA, the pathophysiology and the prevalence of the various forms of CSA vary greatly. This brief review summarizes the underlying physiology and modulating components influencing ventilatory control in CSA, describes the etiology of each of the various forms of CSA, and examines the key factors that may exacerbate apnea severity. The clinical implications of improved CSA pathophysiology knowledge and the potential for novel therapeutic treatment approaches are also discussed. PMID:17296668

  12. Central Mechanisms of Itch.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Earl; Akiyama, Tasuku

    2016-01-01

    This chapter summarizes recent findings regarding the central transmission of acute and chronic itch. Itch is transduced by cutaneous pruriceptors that transmit signals to neurons in the superficial spinal cord. Spinal itch-signaling circuits utilize several neuropeptides whose receptors represent novel targets to block itch transmission. Itch is relieved by scratching, which activates spinal interneurons to inhibit itch-transmitting neurons. Spinal itch transmission is also thought to be modulated by descending pathways. Itch is transmitted rostrally via ascending pathways to activate a variety of brain regions involved in sensory discrimination of affective and motor responses to itch. The pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic itch are poorly understood but likely involve sensitization of itch-signaling pathways and/or dysfunction of itch-inhibitory circuits. Improved understanding of central itch mechanisms has identified a number of novel targets for the development of antipruritic treatment strategies. PMID:27578065

  13. FNAL central email systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Pasetes, Ray; Hill, Kevin; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The FNAL Email System is the primary point of entry for email destined for an employee or user at Fermilab. This centrally supported system is designed for reliability and availability. It uses multiple layers of protection to help ensure that: (1) SPAM messages are tagged properly; (2) All mail is inspected for viruses; and (3) Valid mail gets delivered. This system employs numerous redundant subsystems to accomplish these tasks.

  14. Central sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Chowdhuri, Susmita; Badr, M Safwan

    2010-02-01

    Central sleep apnoea (CSA) is characterized by the cessation of breathing during sleep due to absent ventilatory drive and may be associated with symptoms of insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness or frequent arousals. Central apnoeas occur through two pathophysiologic patterns, either post- hyperventilation or post-hypoventilation. The prevalence of CSA is dependent on the population being studied, the predominant risk factors being elderly age group and co-morbid conditions.Data regarding the racial distribution of this disorder are very limited. CSA may be a clinical marker of underlying medical disorders, including cardiac or neurological disease, with resultant significant morbidity and mortality. Given that the underlying pathogenesis remains poorly understood, therapeutic options are currently limited to empiric treatment with PAP devices and rudimentary attempts at pharmacologic therapy with respiratory stimulant drugs and/or oxygen/carbon dioxide gas supplementation as well as treating the underlying cause. The long-term impact of CSA on health and mortality needs further clarification. Future research should be aimed at elucidating the physiologic determinants and consequences of central breathing instability in populations of different age groups, gender and racial descent, as a prerequisite to the development of novel therapeutic interventions in the different populations. PMID:20308740

  15. Central portion of north side (front), showing central entry stair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central portion of north side (front), showing central entry stair and "Puller Hall" sign - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Enlisted Men's Barracks & Mess Hall, Marine Barracks, Neville Way, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Peripherally inserted central catheter - insertion

    MedlinePlus

    ... central catheters and nontunneled central venous catheters. In: Mauro MA, Murphy KPJ, Thomson KR, et al., eds. ... Procedures . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007:chap 4. Mansour JC, Neiderhuber JE. Establishing and ...

  17. Central hypothyroidism in children.

    PubMed

    García, Marta; Fernández, Ana; Moreno, José C

    2014-01-01

    Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) is an underdiagnosed disorder poorly described in childhood and adolescence. Congenital defects in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) synthesis, secretion or bioactivity may lead to a state of 'regulatory' hypothyroidism expressed through aberrantly low or normal TSH levels and low thyroxine (T4), a hormonal pattern undetectable by TSH-based neonatal screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) implemented in most countries worldwide. CCH is more prevalent than previously thought, reaching 1 in 16,000 neonates in countries consistently identifying CCH through T4-based CH screening strategies. Neonatal detection and early treatment of CCH would prevent the risk of developing mental retardation secondary to late diagnosis of infantile hypothyroidism. CCH is frequently associated with other pituitary defects causing life-threatening situations (like e.g. adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency) which could benefit from the early detection of CCH, avoiding considerable morbidity and mortality. CCH is not easy to identify clinically, and therefore few children are investigated for the disorder. The current knowledge on the genetic bases of CCH is also scarce. At the hypothalamic level no gene defects causing CCH have yet been identified in humans, but pituitary (thyrotrope)-selective genes encoding the TSH-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor (TRHR), the TSH β-subunit (TSHB) and, recently, the immunoglobulin superfamily factor 1 (IGSF1) are genes involved in isolated central hypothyroidism. Moreover, central hypothyroidism is a complex condition where many regulatory signals are implicated and converge to finely modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. This review focuses on novel pathogenic mechanisms and their implications to understand human CCH and improve the identification and the therapeutic handling of this elusive disease in the pediatric age. PMID:25231446

  18. Central American resource studies

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This paper presents an overview of this work -- within these proceedings are papers that deal with specific aspects of each topic, and these will be duly noted. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Floods in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows flooding in central China on July 4, 2002. In the false-color image vegetation appears orange and water appears dark blue to black. Because of the cloud cover and the fact that some of the water is filled with sediment, the false-color image provides a clearer picture of where rivers have exceeded their banks and lakes have risen. The river in this image is the Yangtze River, and the large lake is the Poyang Hu. Credits: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  20. Flooding in Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of snowmelt and ice jams in late May and June of this year caused the Taz River (left) and the Yenisey River (right) in central Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 11, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Normally, the rivers would resemble thin black lines in MODIS imagery. In the false-color images sage green and rusty orange is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. Central American electrical interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    A technical cooperation grant of $2.25 million, designed to strengthen the capacity of Central American countries to operate their regional interconnected electrical system, was announced by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The grant, extended from the banks Fund for Special Operations, will help improve the capacity of the regions electric power companies to achieve economical, safe operation of the interconnected electric power systems. The funds will also be used to finance regional studies of the accords, procedures, regulations, and supervisory mechanisms for the system, as well as program development and data bases.

  2. Central ignition scenarios for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Redi, M.H.; Bateman, G.

    1986-03-01

    The possibility of obtaining ignition in TFTR by means of very centrally peaked density profiles is examined. It is shown that local central alpha heating can be made to exceed local central energy losses (''central ignition'') under global conditions for which Q greater than or equal to 1. Time dependent 1-D transport simulations show that the normal global ignition requirements are substantially relaxed for plasmas with peaked density profiles. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  3. Central pit craters on Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzate, Nathalia; Barlow, Nadine G.

    2011-02-01

    Central pit craters are common on Mars, Ganymede and Callisto, and thus are generally believed to require target volatiles in their formation. The purpose of this study is to identify the environmental conditions under which central pit craters form on Ganymede. We have conducted a study of 471 central pit craters with diameters between 5 and 150 km on Ganymede and compared the results to 1604 central pit craters on Mars (diameter range 5-160 km). Both floor and summit pits occur on Mars whereas floor pits dominate on Ganymede. Central peak craters are found in similar locations and diameter ranges as central pit craters on Mars and overlap in location and at diameters <60 km on Ganymede. Central pit craters show no regional variations on either Ganymede or Mars and are not concentrated on specific geologic units. Central pit craters show a range of preservation states, indicating that conditions favoring central pit formation have existed since crater-retaining surfaces have existed on Ganymede and Mars. Central pit craters on Ganymede are generally about three times larger than those on Mars, probably due to gravity scaling although target characteristics and resolution also may play a role. Central pits tend to be larger relative to their parent crater on Ganymede than on Mars, probably because of Ganymede's purer ice crust. A transition to different characteristics occurs in Ganymede's icy crust at depths of 4-7 km based on the larger pit-to-crater-diameter relationship for craters in the 70-130-km-diameter range and lack of central peaks in craters larger than 60-km-diameter. We use our results to constrain the proposed formation models for central pits on these two bodies. Our results are most consistent with the melt-drainage model for central pit formation.

  4. Future Flight Central

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA 'Future Flight Central,' the world's first full-scale virtual airport control tower, opened December 13, 1999 at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Constructed at a cost of $10 million, the two story facility was jointly funded by NASA and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The facility is designed to test ways to solve potential air and ground traffic problems at commercial airports under realistic airport conditions and configurations. The facility provides an opportunity for airlines and airports to mitigate passenger delays by fine tuning airport hub operations, gate management, ramp movement procedures, and various other airport improvements. Twelve rear projection screens provide a seamless 360 degree high- resolution view of the airport or other screens being depicted. The imaging system, powered by supercomputers, provides a realistic view of weather conditions, enviromental and seasonal effects and the movement of up to 200 active aircraft and ground vehicles.

  5. Brucellosis in Central America.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Edgardo

    2002-12-20

    Brucellosis is a disease of domestic animals and humans in Central America (CA). Bovine and swine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus and Brucella suis, respectively, have been identified in all CA countries, while ovine and caprine brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis has been detected in Guatemala. The prevalence of bovine brucellosis is estimated between 4 and 8%, with higher prevalence in dairy herds, with losses calculated at 25 million US dollars per year. National Control Programs based in calf vaccination and removal of the reactors have had little impact in the control of brucellosis in CA. In a region where experimentation with new vaccines is not affordable, unrestricted adult vaccination by the conjunctival route with S19 is recommended. This strategy is expected to reduce the prevalence and density of the bacteria to numbers where "clean" vaccination would be possible. Thereafter, serological identification and elimination of the reactors could be initiated under more favorable conditions of herd infection. PMID:12414131

  6. Flooding in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  7. Central solar energy receiver

    DOEpatents

    Drost, M. Kevin

    1983-01-01

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  8. Central America's shrinking forests.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    This news brief reports that 66% of deforestation in Central America has happened in the past 40 years, based on World Conservation Union (WCU) data. Deforestation is expected to continue. The population of Central America and Mexico grew by 28% between 1977 and 1987. Growth is decreasing but remains high at 2.5% in all countries of the region except Panama. 29 million was the regional population in 1990; the projection is for 63 million by 2025. Population is migrating to urban centers. Forests declined by 13% and croplands increased from 4% to 13% of total land area and pasture land from 2% to 37%. There was an increase in unproductive land from 145 to 24%, i.e., 50% of El Salvador's land had soil degradation as does 30% of Guatemala's. In addition to deforestation and soil degradation, there has been soil erosion leading to sedimentation buildup near dam sites and in rivers, which diminishes hydroelectric power capability. Silting also affects groundwater resources, which impact on a safe drinking water supply. Population growth results in increased demand for fuelwood, urban land, and agricultural land. New techniques practiced widely are needed in order to meet the region's needs or demands. Slowing population growth buys time for adjusting to the necessary changes needed for sustaining the region's population. WCU urges conservation organizations to raise awareness about the role population plays in environmental degradation, and to support efforts to reduce birth rates. Women's status needs to be improved through income-generating projects, for instance, and cooperation is needed between conservation groups and organizations involved with improving maternal and child health. PMID:12285833

  9. Central Nervous System Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Mahley, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    ApoE on high-density lipoproteins is primarily responsible for lipid transport and cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS). Normally produced mostly by astrocytes, apoE is also produced under neuropathologic conditions by neurons. ApoE on high-density lipoproteins is critical in redistributing cholesterol and phospholipids for membrane repair and remodeling. The 3 main structural isoforms differ in their effectiveness. Unlike apoE2 and apoE3, apoE4 has markedly altered CNS metabolism, is associated with Alzheimer disease and other neurodegenerative disorders, and is expressed at lower levels in brain and cerebrospinal fluid. ApoE4-expressing cultured astrocytes and neurons have reduced cholesterol and phospholipid secretion, decreased lipid-binding capacity, and increased intracellular degradation. Two structural features are responsible for apoE4 dysfunction: domain interaction, in which arginine-61 interacts ionically with glutamic acid-255, and a less stable conformation than apoE3 and apoE2. Blocking domain interaction by gene targeting (replacing arginine-61 with threonine) or by small-molecule structure correctors increases CNS apoE4 levels and lipid-binding capacity and decreases intracellular degradation. Small molecules (drugs) that disrupt domain interaction, so-called structure correctors, could prevent the apoE4-associated neuropathology by blocking the formation of neurotoxic fragments. Understanding how to modulate CNS cholesterol transport and metabolism is providing important insights into CNS health and disease. PMID:27174096

  10. Centralized industrial waste pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, L.H.; Cunningham, D.P.

    1991-11-01

    Four years ago, the Sanitary District of Washington County, Maryland asked the Economic Development Commission and the elected officials what if' the district researched the potential for a centralized industrial waste treatment facility for the county. The reason: about a dozen privately and publicly owned industrial parks cover almost 809 ha (2,000 ac) of Washington County. Most of them opened during the 1980s and all of them are within minutes of two superhighways. The county, which has 120,000 residents, is also home to 20 trucking companies and the main lines of CSX, Conrail, and Norfolk Southern, the largest railroads east of the Mississippi River. The county is home to Mack Trucks Engine and Transmissions facility, Rohr Industries (formally Fairchild Industries), Citicorp Credit Services, Rust-Oleum, Certain-teed PVC products, and many more. Because the county has a strong economic base, reasonable property taxes, and an exceptionally clean environment, the idea for an industrial pretreatment facility was met with enthusiasm from both parties and, therefore, the idea became a concept for planning in winter 1987-88. Plans for serving targeted industries and for isolating and controlling individual wastes discharges are discussed.

  11. Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zeeshan

    2015-01-01

    The central disorders of hypersomnolence are characterized by severe daytime sleepiness, which is present despite normal quality and timing of nocturnal sleep. Recent reclassification distinguishes three main subtypes: narcolepsy type 1, narcolepsy type 2, and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH), which are the focus of this review. Narcolepsy type 1 results from loss of hypothalamic hypocretin neurons, while the pathophysiology underlying narcolepsy type 2 and IH remains to be fully elucidated. Treatment of all three disorders focuses on the management of sleepiness, with additional treatment of cataplexy in those patients with narcolepsy type 1. Sleepiness can be treated with modafinil/armodafinil or sympathomimetic CNS stimulants, which have been shown to be beneficial in randomized controlled trials of narcolepsy and, quite recently, IH. In those patients with narcolepsy type 1, sodium oxybate is effective for the treatment of both sleepiness and cataplexy. Despite these treatments, there remains a subset of hypersomnolent patients with persistent sleepiness, in whom alternate therapies are needed. Emerging treatments for sleepiness include histamine H3 antagonists (eg, pitolisant) and possibly negative allosteric modulators of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor (eg, clarithromycin and flumazenil). PMID:26149554

  12. Central odontogenic fibroma

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Sanjay; Radhakrishna, Satish; Raj, Akshatha; Sawhney, Anshul

    2014-01-01

    Central odontogenic fibroma (COF), which has been categorized under the subheading of odontogenic tumors of ectomesenchyme, is such an uncommon neoplasm that much of its nature is left uncharted. COF is a rare tumor that accounts for 0.1% of all odontogenic tumors. Clinically, the lesion grows slowly and leads to cortical expansion. Radiologically, the lesion may be unilocular or multilocular. In some cases, it may be associated with root resorption or displacement. Histopathologically, the lesion is characterized by mature collagen fibers and numerous fibroblasts. A case of COF of the mandible in a male patient aged 49 years is described in this report. The patient showed no symptoms, no history of swelling discomfort or pain, and was unaware of the presence of the lesion. Orthopantomogram (OPG) showed generalized bone loss along with a unilocular radiolucent area, with a clear sclerotic lining and angular bone loss. Surgical enucleation of the lesion along with placement of osseo-graft, which is a bioresorbable demineralized bone matrix (DMBM), and platelet-rich fibrin was carried out in the defect site. Following surgery, patient was recalled for revaluation of the lesion; the surgical site showed good healing and an increase in bone height was seen. PMID:24872637

  13. [Central auditory prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Lenarz, T; Lim, H; Joseph, G; Reuter, G; Lenarz, M

    2009-06-01

    Deaf patients with severe sensory hearing loss can benefit from a cochlear implant (CI), which stimulates the auditory nerve fibers. However, patients who do not have an intact auditory nerve cannot benefit from a CI. The majority of these patients are neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients who developed neural deafness due to growth or surgical removal of a bilateral acoustic neuroma. The only current solution is the auditory brainstem implant (ABI), which stimulates the surface of the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. Although the ABI provides improvement in environmental awareness and lip-reading capabilities, only a few NF2 patients have achieved some limited open set speech perception. In the search for alternative procedures our research group in collaboration with Cochlear Ltd. (Australia) developed a human prototype auditory midbrain implant (AMI), which is designed to electrically stimulate the inferior colliculus (IC). The IC has the potential as a new target for an auditory prosthesis as it provides access to neural projections necessary for speech perception as well as a systematic map of spectral information. In this paper the present status of research and development in the field of central auditory prostheses is presented with respect to technology, surgical technique and hearing results as well as the background concepts of ABI and AMI. PMID:19517084

  14. [MANAGEMENT OF CENTRAL HYPERSOMNIAS].

    PubMed

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Lopez, Régis

    2016-06-01

    Central hypersomnias include narcolepsy type 1, type 2 and idiopathic hypersomnia with daytime sleepiness excessive in the foreground of the clinical symptoms. Despite major advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of the narcolepsy type 1 with a low level of hypocretin-1 in cerebrospinal fluid, its current management is only symptomatic. The current management is also only symptomatic for type 2 narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia with an unknown pathophysiology. Treatment options may vary from a single drug targeting several symptoms or several drugs treating a specific symptom. The treatment of daytime sleepiness is based on modafinil in first intention. Other psychostimulants such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and exceptionally dextro-amfetamine may be considered. In narcolepsy type 1, antidepressants such as inhibitors of the reuptake of serotonin and noradrenaline will be considered to improve cataplexy. Sodium oxybate is an effective treatment on sleepiness, cataplexy and bad night sleep in narcolepsy. The management for other symptoms or comorbidities should be considered it necessary such as hallucinations, sleep paralysis, the disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, cardiovascular disease and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Important therapeutic perspectives are to be expected concerning new psychostimulant and anticataplectiques, but mainly on immune-based therapies administered as early as possible after disease onset and on hypocretin replacement therapy for patients with severe symptoms. PMID:27538329

  15. Central pontine myelinolysis.

    PubMed

    Kiley, M A; King, M; Burns, R J

    1999-03-01

    Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) was initially associated with alcoholism. Subsequently other factors, including rapid reversal of hyponatraemia and extreme serum hypoosmolality associated with severe burns, have been identified as other important factors in its pathogenesis. Extra-pontine lesions have also been described. CPM may be found at autopsy, either having been overlooked during life or as an incidental finding. Its precise incidence is not known but the ability to diagnose it during life has been helped by modern neuroimaging, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain stem. In the past the prognosis for CPM was thought to be invariably fatal. It is clear now that with the greater general awareness of the disorder and the ability to diagnose it during life that some degree of recovery is possible. However, the number who do recover and the degree of recovery is not known. We report a 40-year-old man who developed CPM presenting with quadriparesis and inability to speak and swallow. There were risk factors for CPM and the diagnosis was confirmed by MRI scanning. He made a complete recovery although he remains ataxic. We are reporting this case as we believe it is important to make clinicians aware of the potential for recovery of CPM. While no specific treatment has been shown to influence the degree and rate of recovery of the demyelination, the fact that the quadriplegia and bulbar paralysis can recover fully is of considerable importance. In particular, it means that when the diagnosis is made, complete and vigorous nursing and medical care is warranted. PMID:18639140

  16. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  17. Central American Grandparents Raising Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Minkler, Meredith

    2007-01-01

    This study documents the prevalence and profile of Central American grandparents raising grandchildren in the United States of America. Using nationally representative data from the Census 2000 Supplementary Survey, Central American grandparent caregivers are compared with their noncare-giving peers. Results indicate that nationally an estimated…

  18. Central control of body temperature

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shaun F.

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  19. Controlling centrality in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Nicosia, V.; Criado, R.; Romance, M.; Russo, G.; Latora, V.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral centrality measures allow to identify influential individuals in social groups, to rank Web pages by popularity, and even to determine the impact of scientific researches. The centrality score of a node within a network crucially depends on the entire pattern of connections, so that the usual approach is to compute node centralities once the network structure is assigned. We face here with the inverse problem, that is, we study how to modify the centrality scores of the nodes by acting on the structure of a given network. We show that there exist particular subsets of nodes, called controlling sets, which can assign any prescribed set of centrality values to all the nodes of a graph, by cooperatively tuning the weights of their out-going links. We found that many large networks from the real world have surprisingly small controlling sets, containing even less than 5 – 10% of the nodes. PMID:22355732

  20. Central control of body temperature.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the behavioral and autonomic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response and behavioral states and in response to declining energy homeostasis. This review summarizes the central nervous system circuit mechanisms controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction regulating heat loss and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these thermoeffectors is regulated by parallel but distinct efferent pathways within the central nervous system that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The model for the neural circuit mechanism underlying central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation, for elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation, and for the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches to modulating body temperature and energy homeostasis. PMID:27239289

  1. North Central Thailand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This radar image shows the dramatic landscape in the Phang Hoei Range of north central Thailand, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) northeast of the city of Lom Sak. The plateau, shown in green to the left of center, is the area of Phu Kradung National Park. This plateau is a remnant of a once larger plateau, another portion of which is seen along the right side of the image. The plateaus have been dissected by water erosion over thousands of years. Forest areas appear green on the image; agricultural areas and settlements appear as red and blue. North is toward the lower right. The area shown is 38 by 50 kilometers (24 by 31 miles) and is centered at 16.96 degrees north latitude, 101.67 degrees east longitude. Colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar on October 3, 1994, when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR is a joint mission of the U.S./German and Italian space agencies.

    Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by

  2. Central Dynamics of Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyola, Eva; Baumgardt, H.

    2007-12-01

    Globular clusters have historically been classified into two groups due to their dynamical state. They are considered to be either pre-core-collapse or post-core-collapse systems. Clusters are considered as post-core-collapse when they show concentrated surface brightness profiles, with a steep central cusp; while pre-core collapse clusters are less concentrated and have flat central cores. Recent observational results show that some clusters have central surface brightness profiles with intermediate central slopes, showing shallow cusps. These observations could be explained by the presence of a single or a binary intermediate mass black hole in the center of the clusters. In this work, we create realistic synthetic images from the output of N-body models. The images attempt to mock the resolution and point spread function of the high resolution cameras on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The models are created with and without central black holes, where the no black hole models are allowed to reach core-collapse. We measure surface brightness profiles both from integrated light and from star counts. From the profiles, we obtain parameters such as central surface brightness slope, core radius, and half light radius. We also test how well a King model describes each profile. We find that the black hole models produce shallow cusps if the black hole is larger than a certain mass; while models without central black holes produce more concentrated profiles. This approach, allows to make a thorough comparison between observations and models.

  3. Re-centralized central chiller plant serves hospital

    SciTech Connect

    Seckman, T.C.

    1997-05-01

    Baptist Hospital in Nashville, Tenn., is a 759-bed complex consisting of 13 buildings. Space cooling for nine of these is provided by seven electric hermetic centrifugal chillers. Located in three buildings--Central, Kidd, and Emergency (ER), which houses the newest chiller plant--these machines have a combined chilled water generation capacity of 5,800 tons. The five oldest units use CFC-11. HCFC-123 is the refrigerant used in the ER machines. In 1995, a new phase of chiller operation was initiated when the three plants were tied together to create a re-centralized central chilled water plant. This was done when the 1,300-ton chiller was added to the ER plant. The ER plant will ultimately replace the two older plants. Linking the three together was done to provide greater reliability and operating flexibility during the years that the ER plant is incrementally enlarged and the older Central and Kidd chillers are selectively retired.

  4. Centralized digital control of accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Melen, R.E.

    1983-09-01

    In contrasting the title of this paper with a second paper to be presented at this conference entitled Distributed Digital Control of Accelerators, a potential reader might be led to believe that this paper will focus on systems whose computing intelligence is centered in one or more computers in a centralized location. Instead, this paper will describe the architectural evolution of SLAC's computer based accelerator control systems with respect to the distribution of their intelligence. However, the use of the word centralized in the title is appropriate because these systems are based on the use of centralized large and computationally powerful processors that are typically supported by networks of smaller distributed processors.

  5. IUE observations of central stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    IUE satellite data on sixty galactic planetary nebulae (PN) and three PNs in the Magellanic clouds are examined to establish a mass distribution among the central star types. An evolutionary lineage was determined for the observed central stars, based on UV magnitudes, demonstrating that central stars in optically thin nebulae have a narrow distribution around 0.58 solar mass, whereas stars in optically thick nebulae exhibited the highest masses of the sample, implying that highest mass stars in PN are the most difficult to detect. No definitive correlation was found between the mass of an object and its spectral type.

  6. The CMS central hadron calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.

    1998-11-01

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a brass absorber/scintillator sampling structure. We describe details of the mechanical and optical structure. We also discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Percutaneously inserted central catheter - infants

    MedlinePlus

    PICC - infants; PQC - infants; Pic line - infants; Per-Q cath - infants ... A percutaneously inserted central catheter (PICC) is a long, very thin, soft plastic tube that is put into a small blood vessel. This article addresses PICCs in ...

  8. Central-Office Real Estate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Priscilla

    2003-01-01

    Describes how to upgrade a school district's central-office facilities without incurring taxpayer enmity. Includes case studies from Harford County, Maryland; Orange and Broward Counties, Florida; South Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Mt. Baker, Washington; Chicago, Illinois; and Rochester, New Hampshire. (PKP)

  9. Central Fan Integrated Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-12

    This information sheet describes one example of a ventilation system design, a central fan integrated supply (CFIS) system, a mechanical ventilation and pollutant source control to ensure that there is reasonable indoor air quality inside the house.

  10. Central Newspaper to Observe Centennial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melingagio, John

    1986-01-01

    Reports on the efforts of a school newspaper staff to prove that the newspaper at Omaha Central High School is 100 years old and discusses the students' opinions of the paper throughout its history. (DF)

  11. Super Kitchen Centralizes Food Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1975

    1975-01-01

    To centralize food service within the entire Pittsburgh school district, a 90,000-square-foot food service preparation building contains cranes and monorails to move 500-pound capacity vats throughout the kitchen. (Author/MLF)

  12. Rehabilitation innovations in Central America.

    PubMed

    Couch, R H

    1993-01-01

    In an extensive qualitative research project sponsored by the Partners of the Americas (32 professional and lay people from Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Belize, the United States and the Dominican Republic) employment opportunities were examined for disabled youth in Central America. Despite economic and attitudinal barriers field researchers found innovations in financing, special education and rehabilitation programming, job development and job placement alternatives for those who live with disability in Central America. PMID:8486439

  13. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  14. Feature centrality: naming versus imagining.

    PubMed

    Sloman, S A; Ahn, W K

    1999-05-01

    Being white is central to whether we call an animal a "polar bear," but it is fairly peripheral to our concept of what a polar bear is. We propose that a feature is central to category naming in proportion to the feature's category validity--the probability of the feature, given the category. In contrast, a feature is conceptually central in a representation of the object to the extent that the feature is depended on by other features. Further, we propose that naming and conceptual centrality are more likely to disagree for features that hold at more specific levels (such as is white, which holds only for the specific category of polar bear) than for features that hold at intermediate levels of abstraction (such as has claws, which holds for all bears). In support of these hypotheses, we report evidence that increasing the abstractness of category features has a greater effect on judgments of conceptual centrality than on judgments of name centrality and that other category features depend more on intermediate-level category features than on specific ones. PMID:10355241

  15. Attribute centrality and imaginative thought.

    PubMed

    Ward, T B; Dodds, R A; Saunders, K N; Sifonis, C M

    2000-12-01

    Participants' representations of the concept human were examined to differentiate three types of associations between concepts and their component attributes: the capacity of concepts to cue attributes (attribute accessibility), the capacity of attributes to cue concepts (instance accessibility), and the extent to which attributes are thought of as central to concepts (attribute centrality). The findings provide information about the concept human itself and, more generally, about the functionally distinct roles those different attribute-concept associations play in guiding imaginative thought. College students listed attributes that differentiate humans from other animals, rated the centrality of those attributes, and listed animals that possess those attributes. Other students drew and described extraterrestrials that possessed some of the attributes that were found to vary across those listing and rating tasks. Rated centrality was the most important determinant of an attribute's impact on imaginative generation. When the imagined extraterrestrials were supposed to possess attributes that had been rated as central to humans (intelligence, emotional complexity, or opposable thumbs), participants projected more aspects of human form onto them than when the creatures were supposed to possess less central attributes or when attributes were unspecified. PMID:11219966

  16. Coverage centralities for temporal networks*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Yano, Yosuke; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    Structure of real networked systems, such as social relationship, can be modeled as temporal networks in which each edge appears only at the prescribed time. Understanding the structure of temporal networks requires quantifying the importance of a temporal vertex, which is a pair of vertex index and time. In this paper, we define two centrality measures of a temporal vertex based on the fastest temporal paths which use the temporal vertex. The definition is free from parameters and robust against the change in time scale on which we focus. In addition, we can efficiently compute these centrality values for all temporal vertices. Using the two centrality measures, we reveal that distributions of these centrality values of real-world temporal networks are heterogeneous. For various datasets, we also demonstrate that a majority of the highly central temporal vertices are located within a narrow time window around a particular time. In other words, there is a bottleneck time at which most information sent in the temporal network passes through a small number of temporal vertices, which suggests an important role of these temporal vertices in spreading phenomena. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Temporal Network Theory and Applications", edited by Petter Holme.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-60498-7

  17. Network centrality of metro systems.

    PubMed

    Derrible, Sybil

    2012-01-01

    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st) century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no "winner takes all") unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node), but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48). Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc.) to develop more sustainable cities. PMID:22792373

  18. Pathophysiology of central sleep apneas.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Adam B; Patil, Susheel P

    2016-05-01

    The transition from wake to sleep is accompanied by a host of physiologic changes, which result in major alterations in respiratory control and may result in sleep-related breathing disorders. The central sleep apneas are a group of sleep-related breathing disorders that are characterized by recurrent episodes of airflow reduction or cessation due to a temporary reduction or absence of central respiratory drive. The fundamental hallmark of central sleep apnea (CSA) disorders is the presence of ventilatory control instability; however, additional mechanisms play a role in one or more specific manifestations of CSA. CSA may manifest during conditions of eucapnia/hypocapnia or chronic hypercapnia, which is a useful clinical classification that lends understanding to the underlying pathophysiology and potential therapies. In this review, an overview of normal breathing physiology is provided, followed by a discussion of pathophysiologic mechanisms that promote CSA and the mechanisms that are specific to different manifestations of CSA. PMID:26782104

  19. Geothermal activities in Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Whetten, J.T.; Hanold, R.J.

    1985-09-11

    The Agency for International Development is funding a new program in energy and minerals for Central America. Geothermal energy is an important component. A country-wide geothermal assessment has started in Honduras, and other assessment activities are in progress or planned for Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama. Instrumentation for well logging has been provided to Costa Rica, and a self-contained logging truck will be made available for use throughout Central America. An important objective of this program is to involve the private sector in resource development. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  20. MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-12

    The MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station(MRDIS-CAS} is a software system for receiving, storing, and reviewing radiation data collected by the Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS}, a mobile radiation scanning system developed for use in foreign ports for the DOE Megaports Initiative. It is designed to run on one of the on board computers in the MRDIS cab. It will collect, store, and display data from the MRDIS without the need for wireless communications or centralized server technology. It is intended to be a lightweight replacement for a distributed Megaports communication system in ports where the necessary communications infrastructure does not exist for a full Megaports communications system.

  1. Illustrating the Central Limit Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Mimi

    2016-01-01

    Statistics is enjoying some well-deserved limelight across mathematics curricula of late. Some statistical concepts, however, are not especially intuitive, and students struggle to comprehend and apply them. As an AP Statistics teacher, the author appreciates the central limit theorem as a foundational concept that plays a crucial role in…

  2. Central Corneal Thickness in Children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the central corneal thickness (CCT) in healthy white, African-American, and Hispanic children from birth to 17 years of age. Design Prospective observational multicenter study. Central corneal thickness was measured with a hand-held contact pachymeter. Results Two thousand seventy-nine children were included in the study, with ages ranging from day of birth to 17 years. Included were 807 white, 494 Hispanic, and 474 African-American individuals, in addition to Asian, unknown and mixed race individuals. African-American children had thinner corneas on average than that of both white (p< .001) and Hispanic children (p< .001) by approximately 20 micrometers. Thicker median CCT was observed with each successive year of age from age 1 to 11 years, with year-to-year differences steadily decreasing and reaching a plateau after age 11 at 573 micrometers in white and Hispanic children and 551 micrometers in African-American children. For every 100 micrometers of thicker CCT measured, the intraocular pressure was 1.5 mmHg higher on average (p< 0.001). For every diopter of increased myopic refractive error (p< 0.001) CCT was 1 micrometer thinner on average. Conclusions Median CCT increases with age from 1 to 11 years with the greatest increase present in the youngest age groups. African-American children on average have thinner central corneas than white and Hispanic children, while white and Hispanic children demonstrate similar central corneal thickness. PMID:21911662

  3. Central New York's New Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for an Urban Future, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Conducted in late 2008 in partnership with the Greater Syracuse Chamber of Commerce and the Mohawk Valley Chamber of Commerce, this is the largest survey ever taken of Central New York businesses regarding the English language skills of the area workforce. The online survey was emailed to several hundred local businesses; 126 responses were…

  4. Central pain and dysesthesia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Berić, A

    1998-11-01

    This article presents recent observations about different recognized central pain syndromes (CPS) and discusses them in light of contemporary microelectrode and imaging findings. Different theories regarding the generation of CPS are reviewed, with an emphasis on difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. The author discourages destructive procedures for treatment of CPS, favoring, instead, reversible procedures such as stimulation techniques and drug delivery systems. PMID:9767069

  5. Investing in the Central Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Regis Anne

    2010-01-01

    Benchmarking against similar districts, ideally higher-performing ones, can be a valuable tool for determining the appropriate level of central-office investment. Unfortunately, reliable benchmarks on district spending in teaching and learning support are not readily available. This should not preclude districts from using this valuable method to…

  6. /S/ in Central American Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipski, John M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the behavior of the phoneme /s/ in Central American Spanish by comparing the speech patterns of residents of Guatemala City, San Salvador, Tegucigalpa, San Jose, and Managua. Considers the possible diachronic processes which could have given rise to the current configurations and the theoretical consequences implied by the…

  7. The Centrality of Ethical Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, Lisa C.; Harris, Jessica; Klenowski, Val; Smeed, Judy; Spina, Nerida

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The central argument in this paper is that ethical school leadership is imperative in a context of increasing performance-driven accountability. The purpose of this paper is to focus on school principals' perceptions of how they understand ethical leadership and how they lead the ethical use of data. Design/Methodology/Approach: This…

  8. Georgiaites: Tektites in Central Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albin, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    Information is provided about the origin, the features, and the availability of tektites which are odd and very rare types of transparent glass theorized to be from a common, yet unknown, origin. The basis for this article is the Howard collection of tektites found in a small region of central Georgia. (seven references) (JJK)

  9. The Centrality of Vocational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, John

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the concept of the "vocational" in contemporary educational discourses, and argues for the centrality of vocational aspects of learning in making meaning. The existing tensions are seen to lie between discourses that place the vocational at the bottom of a hierarchy of knowledge and value, and discourses concerning…

  10. Central Data/Decentralized Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gossett, Cathy L.; Neil, Elizabeth N.

    1987-01-01

    The study and implementation of an online facilities management system at Clemson University that was designed with distributed processing in mind is described. The system provides for centralized data, assignment of data responsibility, increased data accessibility, and audit trail. Security considerations and mini- and microapplications are…

  11. Readability of Central Florida Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstead, Phyllis M.

    A study analyzed the readability of seven central Florida newspapers (one of which is a college newspaper) and "USA Today.""Rightwriter," a grammar checker and readability computer program, was used to evaluate front page articles for each of the eight newspapers. The readability formulas invoked in the readability program included the…

  12. Central California Action Associates, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sortor, Maia, Comp.

    The overall goal of the Central California Action Associates Inc. (CCAA) program is to provide basic education and pre-vocational training so that migrant and seasonal adult farm workers will be able to upgrade their economic and social lives. Without increased educational attainment, the San Joaquin Valley farm workers face a grim future because…

  13. The CMS central hadron calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.; E892 Collaboration

    1996-12-31

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a copper absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe design choices that led us to this concept, details of the mechanical and optical structure, and test beam results. We discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  14. Central American geologic map project

    SciTech Connect

    Dengo, G.

    1986-07-01

    During the Northeast Quadrant Panel meeting of the Circum-Pacific Map Project held in Mexico City, February 1985, Central American panel members proposed and adopted plans for compiling a geologic map of Central America, probably at a scale of 1:500,000. A local group with participants from each country was organized and coordinated by Rolando Castillo, director, Central American School of Geology, University of Costa Rica, for the geologic aspects, and Fernando Rudin, director, Geographic Institute of Costa Rica, for the topographic base. In 1956, the US Geological Survey published a geologic map of the region at a scale of 1:1 million. Subsequent topographic and geologic mapping projects have provided a large amount of new data. The entire area is now covered by topographic maps at a scale of 1:50,000, and these maps have been used in several countries as a base for geologic mapping. Another regional map, the Metallogenic Map of Central America (scale = 1:2 million), was published in 1969 by the Central American Research Institute for Industry (ICAITI) with a generalized but updated geologic base map. Between 1969 and 1980, maps for each country were published by local institutions: Guatemala-Belize at 1:500,000, Honduras at 1:500,000, El Salvador at 1:100,000, Nicaragua at 1:1 million, Costa Rica at 1:200,000, and Panama at 1:1 million. This information, in addition to that of newly mapped areas, served as the base for the Central American part of the Geologic-Tectonic Map of the Caribbean Region (scale = 1:2.5 million), published by the US Geological Survey in 1980, and also fro the Northeast Quadrant Maps of the Circum-Pacific Region. The new project also involves bathymetric and geologic mapping of the Pacific and Caribbean margins of the Central American Isthmus. A substantial amount of new information of the Middle America Trench has been acquired through DSDP Legs 67 and 84.

  15. Network Centrality of Metro Systems

    PubMed Central

    Derrible, Sybil

    2012-01-01

    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world’s ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21st century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no “winner takes all”) unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node), but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48). Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc.) to develop more sustainable cities. PMID:22792373

  16. Is Central Asia really exsiccating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Surazakov, A. B.

    2008-12-01

    At the end of 20th and the beginning of 21st century central Asia oases suffered from serious drought caused lack of water for agriculture, economy growth and population increase. However, people of this region always experienced lack of water for irrigation and fought a war over the rights to control river streams. The drying up of central Asian rivers is not a new phenomenon according to the ancient manuscripts. Thus, lets see about what has happened with the past century climate and water resources of central Asia using the long-term observational data. We analyzed data from more than 200 meteorological stations and stream gauges over the central Asia in elevation range from 25 m. b.s.l. to 4,000 m. a.s.l. to understand the last 100 years variability in climate and water resources, examining changes in the extreme and mean monthly air temperatures, precipitation and river runoff. The evaluation of seasonal snow and glacier's covered areas between 1970th and 2007th in central Asia derived from AVHRR, MODIS, Hexagon KH-9, Landsat ETM and ASTER data exhibit 15% reduction of the seasonal snow covered area and 10.1% of the glacier area. It has been found that during last twenty years the duration of snowmelt, from the date of maximum snow cover to date of its disappearance, reduced by 30 days and in 2007 was equal to 138 days in the central Asian mountains. The decrease of seasonal snow cover is not a linear process. The further decrease may be accelerated due to increase of rainfall instead of snowfall in early spring months at high elevations, and consequently a lesser heat expenditure for the snowmelt. The growth in summer air temperatures, especially observable since the 1970th, accompanied by increase of evapotranspiration and precipitation, notably in summer and autumn, and at high elevations over 3,000 m, and at the western peripheral mountain ridges. Average difference in the means of annual air temperatures for the two thirty-year periods before and after

  17. A centralized audio presentation manager

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, A.L. III; Blattner, M.M.

    1994-05-16

    The centralized audio presentation manager addresses the problems which occur when multiple programs running simultaneously attempt to use the audio output of a computer system. Time dependence of sound means that certain auditory messages must be scheduled simultaneously, which can lead to perceptual problems due to psychoacoustic phenomena. Furthermore, the combination of speech and nonspeech audio is examined; each presents its own problems of perceptibility in an acoustic environment composed of multiple auditory streams. The centralized audio presentation manager receives abstract parameterized message requests from the currently running programs, and attempts to create and present a sonic representation in the most perceptible manner through the use of a theoretically and empirically designed rule set.

  18. A Randomized Central Limit Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    The Central Limit Theorem (CLT), one of the most elemental pillars of Probability Theory and Statistical Physics, asserts that: the universal probability law of large aggregates of independent and identically distributed random summands with zero mean and finite variance, scaled by the square root of the aggregate-size (√{n}), is Gaussian. The scaling scheme of the CLT is deterministic and uniform - scaling all aggregate-summands by the common and deterministic factor √{n}. This Letter considers scaling schemes which are stochastic and non-uniform, and presents a "Randomized Central Limit Theorem" (RCLT): we establish a class of random scaling schemes which yields universal probability laws of large aggregates of independent and identically distributed random summands. The RCLT universal probability laws, in turn, are the one-sided and the symmetric Lévy laws.

  19. Bedrock topography of central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The bedrock in Iowa (Hershey, 1969) generally is ovelain by deposits of glacial drift and alluvium. The drift, comprised of glacial till and glacial outwash, varies in thickness from less than 1 foot to more than 400 feet; the alluvium in central Iowa varies in thickness from less than 1 foot to about 60 feet. The configuration of the bedrock suface is the result of a complex system of ancient drainage courses which were developed during a long period of preglacial erosion and during shorter, but more intense, periods of interglacial erosion. This map, for a 10 county area in central Iowa, is the seventh of a series of 9 reports that will provide statewide coverage of the bedrock surface of Iowa. 

  20. MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-12

    The MRDIS Standalone Central Alarm Station(MRDIS-CAS} is a software system for receiving, storing, and reviewing radiation data collected by the Mobile Radiation Detection and Identification System (MRDIS}, a mobile radiation scanning system developed for use in foreign ports for the DOE Megaports Initiative. It is designed to run on one of the on board computers in the MRDIS cab. It will collect, store, and display data from the MRDIS without the need for wireless communicationsmore » or centralized server technology. It is intended to be a lightweight replacement for a distributed Megaports communication system in ports where the necessary communications infrastructure does not exist for a full Megaports communications system.« less

  1. Central exclusive production at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, Leszek; Guryn, Włodek; Turnau, Jacek

    2014-11-01

    The present status and future plans of the physics program of Central Exclusive Production (CEP) at RHIC are described. The measurements are based on the detection of the forward protons from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process in the Roman Pot system and of the recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process measured in the STAR experiment's Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The data described here were taken using polarized proton-proton collisions at √ {s} = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two-pion mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudorapidity |η| < 1, are presented. Near future plans to take data with the current system at center-of-mass energy √ {s} = 200 GeV and plans to upgrade the forward proton tagging system are presented. Also a possible addition of the RPs to the sPHENIX detector is discussed.

  2. Central exclusive production at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Adamczyk, Leszek; Guryn, Włodek; Turnau, Jacek

    2014-11-10

    The present status and future plans of the physics program of Central Exclusive Production (CEP) at RHIC are described. The measurements are based on the detection of the forward protons from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process in the Roman Pot system and of the recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process measured in the STAR experiment’s Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The data described here were taken using polarized proton-proton collisions at ps = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two pion and four pion invariant mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudo-rapidity | | < 1, are presented. Near future plans to take data with the current system at center-of-mass energy ps = 200 GeV and plans to upgrade the forward proton tagging sys- tem are presented. Also a possible addition of the Roman Pots to the sPHENIX detector is discussed.

  3. Celtic Sites of Central Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Gutiérrez, Manuel

    This chapter concerns the astronomy practiced by Celtic peoples in some parts of central Iberia, specifically the Vetton and Celtiberian peoples, inhabitants of the so-called Late Iron Age. The construction of some elements of religion or worship was perfectly determined by geometry, topography, and especially astronomy, because their spatial orientation occurs in locations of great interest for maintaining the local calendar. The maintenance of this calendar was probably the primary objective of some of the elements studied.

  4. Central auditory testing and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Welsh, L W; Welsh, J J; Healy, M P

    1980-06-01

    A group of dyslexic pupils with normal end organ function was studied by a central auditory battery to determine whether a hearing disability existed. The clinical features of dyslexia are presented with emphasis on the psychological developmental and functional disorders associated with this reading problem. The central battery of Willeford was selected as the test medium and the results of the 77 dyslexic students were compared to the normative data. The model proposed by Sparks, et al., is accepted as the mechanism for dichotic audition. Reference is made to the organic basis of reading disorders from lesion in the calcarine area to the angular gyrus. The competing sentence test, binaural fusion, rapidly alternating speech perception, and filtered speech are described in detail and are organic foundation for the study. The authors indentified a high rate of failure in this investigation. Over 50% of the dyslexic students failed two of the four tests, and each of the 77 failed at least one component. The most sensitive tests were binaural fusion and filtered speech with less variation from the norm in the remaining two components. The effect of maturation in central audition was measured in each of the four tests. The data suggest: 1. the scores are lower in the early ages in each test; 2. that rapidly alternating speech and competing sentences approach the normal range albeit somewhat delayed; and 3. that binaural fusion and filtered speech improve in score somewhat but rather moderately and never approach the normal range. Based upon the central auditory data and in conjunction with the anatomical pathways of vision, the authors suggest the site of lesion to be in the temporo-parietal cortex and the association fibers. PMID:7382713

  5. Central hypoventilation and brainstem dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Armangue, Thais; Macaya, Alfons; Vazquez, Elida; Jurado, Maria José; Roig-Quilis, Manuel

    2012-04-01

    We report on a newborn with congenital hypotonia, unilateral facial palsy, sucking and swallowing difficulties, velopalatine incoordination, and unilateral impairment of the auditory brainstem responses, attributable to brainstem dysgenesis. On follow-up, the child manifested developmental delay and central hypoventilation syndrome during sleep. The ventilation abnormality during sleep with insensitivity to hypercapnia, associated with unilateral facial paralysis, indicates a pontine lesion, including the parafacial respiratory group. PMID:22490775

  6. Tectonics of the central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, Arthur L.; Isacks, Bryan L.; Fielding, Eric J.; Fox, Andrew N.; Gubbels, Timothy L.

    1989-01-01

    Acquisition of nearly complete coverage of Thematic Mapper data for the central Andes between about 15 to 34 degrees S has stimulated a comprehensive and unprecedented study of the interaction of tectonics and climate in a young and actively developing major continental mountain belt. The current state of the synoptic mapping of key physiographic, tectonic, and climatic indicators of the dynamics of the mountain/climate system are briefly reviewed.

  7. Central Cascadia subduction zone creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalzle, Gina M.; McCaffrey, Robert; Creager, Kenneth C.

    2014-04-01

    Cascadia between 43°N and 46°N has reduced interseismic uplift observed in geodetic data and coseismic subsidence seen in multiple thrust earthquakes, suggesting elevated persistent fault creep in this section of the subduction zone. We estimate subduction thrust "decade-scale" locking and crustal block rotations from three-component continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) time series from 1997 to 2013, as well as 80 year tide gauge and leveling-derived uplift rates. Geodetic observations indicate coastal central Oregon is rising at a slower rate than coastal Washington, southern Oregon and northern California. Modeled locking distributions suggest a wide locking transition zone that extends inland under central Oregon. Paleoseismic records of multiple great earthquakes along Cascadia indicate less subsidence in central Oregon. The Cascade thrust under central Oregon may be partially creeping for at least 6500 years (the length of the paleoseismic record) reducing interseismic uplift and resulting in reduced coseismic subsidence. Large accretions of Eocene age basalt (Siletzia terrane) between 43°N and 46°N may be less permeable compared to surrounding terranes, potentially increasing pore fluid pressures along the fault interface resulting in a wide zone of persistent fault creep. In a separate inversion, three-component GPS time series from 1 July 2005 to 1 January 2011 are used to estimate upper plate deformation, locking between slow-slip events (SSEs), slip from 16 SSEs and an earthquake mechanism. Cumulative SSEs and tectonic tremor are weakest between 43°N and 46°N where partial fault creep is increased and Siletzia terrane is thick, suggesting that surrounding rock properties may influence the mode of slip.

  8. The CDF Central Analysis Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T.H.; Neubauer, M.; Sfiligoi, I.; Weems, L.; Wurthwein, F.; /UC, San Diego

    2004-01-01

    With Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron well underway, many computing challenges inherent to analyzing large volumes of data produced in particle physics research need to be met. We present the computing model within CDF designed to address the physics needs of the collaboration. Particular emphasis is placed on current development of a large O(1000) processor PC cluster at Fermilab serving as the Central Analysis Farm for CDF. Future plans leading toward distributed computing and GRID within CDF are also discussed.

  9. Central collisions of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Sun-yiu.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R D project was performed.

  10. Central Asia Active Fault Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd A.; Kakar, Najibullah

    2014-05-01

    The ongoing collision of the Indian subcontinent with Asia controls active tectonics and seismicity in Central Asia. This motion is accommodated by faults that have historically caused devastating earthquakes and continue to pose serious threats to the population at risk. Despite international and regional efforts to assess seismic hazards in Central Asia, little attention has been given to development of a comprehensive database for active faults in the region. To address this issue and to better understand the distribution and level of seismic hazard in Central Asia, we are developing a publically available database for active faults of Central Asia (including but not limited to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, northern Pakistan and western China) using ArcGIS. The database is designed to allow users to store, map and query important fault parameters such as fault location, displacement history, rate of movement, and other data relevant to seismic hazard studies including fault trench locations, geochronology constraints, and seismic studies. Data sources integrated into the database include previously published maps and scientific investigations as well as strain rate measurements and historic and recent seismicity. In addition, high resolution Quickbird, Spot, and Aster imagery are used for selected features to locate and measure offset of landforms associated with Quaternary faulting. These features are individually digitized and linked to attribute tables that provide a description for each feature. Preliminary observations include inconsistent and sometimes inaccurate information for faults documented in different studies. For example, the Darvaz-Karakul fault which roughly defines the western margin of the Pamir, has been mapped with differences in location of up to 12 kilometers. The sense of motion for this fault ranges from unknown to thrust and strike-slip in three different studies despite documented left-lateral displacements of Holocene and late

  11. Sustaining volcanism in Central Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulin, Alex

    Flux-induced melting in the mantle wedge acts as the driving mechanism of arc volcanism in subduction zone environments. The primary control on the geographical position of arc volcanic centers is the depth of the subducting plate beneath the overriding plate. Globally, the average depth to the subducting plate beneath volcanic arcs is estimated at ˜100km. Volcanoes of the Central Kamchatka Depression in Eastern Russia comprise the most active volcanic arc system in the world with the depth of the subducting Pacific plate beneath the arc estimated at 180-200km, greatly in excess of the global average. In my research I attempt to describe the special tectonic circumstances that explain the deviation of the subduction depth constraint on arc volcanism in Central Kamchatka. In my study I rely on geophysical and geochemical data and petrological modeling to propose a new geodynamic model to explain voluminous volcanic activity in Central Kamchatka. In the initial stage of the study I conducted a geophysical investigation using receiver function methodology to map and describe the contact of the subducting Juan de Fuca Plate in the well-instrumented Cascadia subduction zone. I calculated and compiled a database of receiver function profiles from stations along the extent of the Cascadia forearc and mapped a low velocity anisotropic zone proposed to be serpentinized material along the forearc axis. In the second stage of my study I applied a similar methodology to describe the sub-crustal structure of Central Kamchatka. Results of this effort suggested presence of a low-velocity zone in the upper mantle separate from the subducting Pacific plate. I proceeded to investigate the tectonic origin of this feature in the final stage of my dissertation work with the use of receiver function migration, geochemical analysis and petrological modeling. I was able to further constrain the position of the low velocity anomaly and derive geochemical and petrological evidence linking

  12. Genetics Home Reference: congenital central hypoventilation syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... central hypoventilation syndrome: PHOX2B genotype determines risk for sudden death. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008 Jan;43(1):77-86. ... Rand CM. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): kindred disorders of autonomic regulation. Respir ...

  13. Centralized Storm Information System (CSIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    A final progress report is presented on the Centralized Storm Information System (CSIS). The primary purpose of the CSIS is to demonstrate and evaluate real time interactive computerized data collection, interpretation and display techniques as applied to severe weather forecasting. CSIS objectives pertaining to improved severe storm forecasting and warning systems are outlined. The positive impact that CSIS has had on the National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) is discussed. The benefits of interactive processing systems on the forecasting ability of the NSSFC are described.

  14. Central Saudi Arabia, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This panoramic view of Central Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf (28.0N, 47.0E) dramatically illustrates the stark beauty of the deserts. Riyadh, the capital city, lies in the foreground, with the Persian Gulf in the middle and Iran in the background. The coastal oil terminals of Al Hufuf and Ad Dammam are also visible. Black smudges of soot from the oil fires set during the Gulf War can be seen on the sands to the north and south of Kuwait City.

  15. Proinflammation of Aging Central Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingyi; Monticone, Robert E.; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2014-01-01

    Arterial aging is a cornerstone of organismal aging. The central arterial wall structurally and functionally remodels under chronic proinflammatory stress over a lifetime. The low grade proinflammation that accompanies advancing age causes arterial wall thickening and stiffening. These structural and functional alterations are consequences of adverse molecular and cellular events, e.g., an increase in local angiotensin II signaling that induces an inflammatory phenotypic shift of endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Thus, interventions to restrict proinflammatory signaling are a rational approach to delay or prevent age-associated adverse arterial remodeling. PMID:25171100

  16. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    DOEpatents

    Satterfield, David L; Sexton, James C

    2013-10-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  17. Distributed trace using central performance counter memory

    DOEpatents

    Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.

    2013-01-22

    A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.

  18. 36 CFR 200.1 - Central organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central organization. 200.1 Section 200.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Organization § 200.1 Central organization. (a) Central office. The national office of the Forest Service,...

  19. 20 CFR 346.1 - Central register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Central register. 346.1 Section 346.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RAILROAD HIRING § 346.1 Central register. (a) The Board shall maintain a central register of...

  20. 20 CFR 346.1 - Central register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Central register. 346.1 Section 346.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RAILROAD HIRING § 346.1 Central register. (a) The Board shall maintain a central register of...

  1. Hazardous pesticides in Central America.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, C; Aragón, A; Castillo, L; Corriols, M; Chaverri, F; de la Cruz, E; Keifer, M; Monge, P; Partanen, T J; Ruepert, C; van Wendel de Joode, B

    2001-01-01

    Pesticides are an extensively documented occupational and environmental hazard in Central America. Yet, severe problems persist. Toxic pesticide use in the Region increased during 1985-1999. High exposure levels and ineffectiveness of personal protective equipment evidence the difficulties for risk reduction. Acute poisonings remain a severe problem. Delayed and/or long-lasting health effects include dermatoses, cancer, and genotoxic, neurotoxic, and respiratory effects. The use of hazardous pesticides persists through deficiencies in government-driven assessment and risk management; excessive focus on regional harmonization; short-term economic interests; strong links between industry and governments; aggressive marketing; weak trade unions; and failure of universities to reach decision makers. Regulation based on local data is lacking. An agreement of the Ministries of Health for restricting the most toxic pesticides in Central America has potential for progress. The most effective way to reduce risk is to greatly reduce pesticide use. Actions needed include development of multidisciplinary strategies for local studies on health and environmental impact of pesticides; development of sustainable nonchemical agricultural technologies; evaluation of interventions; extending and sharing of expertise within the Region; strengthening of unions and communities; and redefining the role of industry toward development of safer products, with responsible marketing and reliable information. PMID:11783858

  2. Precipitation chemistry in central Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Talbot, R. W.; Berresheim, H.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Rain samples from three sites in central Amazonia were collected over a period of 6 weeks during the 1987 wet season and analyzed for ionic species and dissolved organic carbon. A continuous record of precipitation chemistry and amount was obtained at two of these sites, which were free from local or regional pollution, for a time period of over 1 month. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of most species were found to be about a factor of 5 lower during the wet season compared with previous results from the dry season. Only sodium, potassium, and chloride showed similar concentrations in both seasons. When the seasonal difference in rainfall amount is taken into consideration, the deposition fluxes are only slightly lower for most species during the wet season than during the dry season, again with the exception of chloride, potassium, and sodium. Sodium and chloride are present in the same ratio as in sea salt; rapid advection of air masses of marine origin to the central Amazon Basin during the wet season may be responsible for the observed higher deposition flux of these species. Statistical analysis suggests that sulfate is, to a large extent, of marine (sea salt and biogenic) origin, but that long-range transport of combustion-derived aerosols also makes a significant contribution to sulfate and nitrate levels in Amazonian rain. Organic acid concentrations in rain were responsible for a large fraction of the observed precipitation acidity; their concentration was strongly influenced by gas/liquid interactions.

  3. Central exclusive production at RHIC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adamczyk, Leszek; Guryn, Włodek; Turnau, Jacek

    2014-11-10

    The present status and future plans of the physics program of Central Exclusive Production (CEP) at RHIC are described. The measurements are based on the detection of the forward protons from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process in the Roman Pot system and of the recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process measured in the STAR experiment’s Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The data described here were taken using polarized proton-proton collisions at ps = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two pion and four pion invariant mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudo-rapidity | |more » < 1, are presented. Near future plans to take data with the current system at center-of-mass energy ps = 200 GeV and plans to upgrade the forward proton tagging sys- tem are presented. Also a possible addition of the Roman Pots to the sPHENIX detector is discussed.« less

  4. Central East Pacific Flight Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Sridhar, Banavar; Kopardekar, Parimal; Cheng, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of the Federal Aviation Administration s Advanced Technology and Oceanic Procedures system at the Oakland Oceanic Center, a level of automation now exists in the oceanic environment to potentially begin accommodating increased user preferred routing requests. This paper presents the results of an initial feasibility assessment which examines the potential benefits of transitioning from the fixed Central East Pacific routes to user preferred routes. As a surrogate for the actual user-provided routing requests, a minimum-travel-time, wind-optimal dynamic programming algorithm was developed and utilized in this paper. After first describing the characteristics (e.g., origin airport, destination airport, vertical distribution and temporal distribution) of the westbound flights utilizing the Central East Pacific routes on Dec. 14-16 and 19-20, the results of both a flight-plan-based simulation and a wind-optimal-based simulation are presented. Whereas the lateral and longitudinal distribution of the aircraft trajectories in these two simulations varied dramatically, the number of simulated first-loss-of-separation events remained relatively constant. One area of concern that was uncovered in this initial analysis was a potential workload issue associated with the redistribution of traffic in the oceanic sectors due to thc prevailing wind patterns.

  5. Pathology of Central American refugees.

    PubMed

    Molesky, J

    1986-01-01

    Almost every city in the US has Central American refugees; Houston has 150,000 Salvadorans; San Francisco has 80,000-150,000; and Los Angeles has more than 250,000. There are over 1/2 million Salvadorans in the US, and the number of Guatemalans increases every year. Suffering many losses and burdened in a shadowed life, the refugee is angry, frustrated, and depressed. Mental health specialists in San Francisco observe how similar the refugees symptoms seem to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the psychological syndrome 1st described among Viet Nam veterans and disaster victims in the 1970s. An informal survey of 50 Salvadoran clients in an out-patient program at San Fernando Valley Community Mental Health in Southern California found that PTSD was prevalent in most cases, with 19% of the group reporting depression as a major symptom and 54% seriously ill enough to require medication. There seems to be a consensus among many mental health workers that one way out of PTSD is group work with fellow victims. When Central American refugees find themselves in an emotional crisis, there are few resources of mental health aid for them. Support groups help replicate the organic family support system that so many refugees left behind in their own countries. PMID:12341433

  6. Exploration potential of Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, W.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Because of governmental changes an entire region of Central Europe has received exploration scrutiny not possible during the past 40-50 years. This entire area - Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Albania, Poland, and East Germany - is tectonically related. Yugoslavia, although not under the same restrictions, is also considered in the same tectonic setting. Therefore, these countries can be expected to reflect some of the same stratigraphy, source rock, reservoir, trap and field types, and production history. Much of the region can be considered frontier while other parts mature. Production from all is about 55,000 T/D, 380,000 BO/D and 63.1 Bm{sup 3}/yr, 2,203 Bft{sup 3}/yr. Major source rocks have been identified as Tertiary-Oligocene, Miocene-Mesozoic, Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous. Carboniferous coal sequences are considered source for the Permian. The East European platform and Tethyian plates are the foundation of the Central Europe states. Plate collisions during the late Mesozoic and into the Tertiary affected the Carpathian, Balkans, Dinarides, and Helenide Mountain chains. Mesozoic and Tertiary foredeep deposits have been proven productive from normal-, thrust-, and wrench-faulted anticlinal structures. Paleozoic, Mesozoic erosional remnants, and Tertiary lacustrine and deltaic stratigraphic deposits are the major productive reservoirs in the Pannonian basin. Permian shelf and reefal deposits are found in such areas as the Permian Shelf in Eastern Germany and Poland. Reefal plays may be found in Bulgaria and Romania offshore.

  7. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27[degree]C, but never 31[degree]C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  8. Central vascular catheters and infections.

    PubMed

    Dioni, Elisabetta; Franceschini, Renata; Marzollo, Roberto; Oprandi, Daniela; Chirico, Gaetano

    2014-03-01

    Newborn infants in critical conditions require a permanent intra-venous line to allow for the administration of fluids, parenteral nutrition and drugs. The use of central venous catheters, however, is associated with an increased risk of infections, leading to prolongation of length of stay and higher hospitalization costs, particularly in extremely preterm infants. Dwell time is a significant factor for complications, with a predicted risk of catheter related infections of about 4 per 1000 catheter-days. To reduce the incidence of complications, several requirements must be met, including adequate staff and resources to provide education, training, and quality improvement programs, within a culture of communication and teamwork. Rigorous reporting schedule on line care and the implementation of unique bundle elements, the use of health care failure mode and effect analysis, the judicious use of antibiotics through an antimicrobial stewardship strategy, the application of specific antifungal prophylaxis are among the most effective interventions, while the addition of heparin to parenteral solution, or the use of antibiotic plus heparin lock therapy are under evaluation. Nursing assistance plays a fundamental role in managing central venous lines and in reducing or preventing the incidence of infection, by the application of several complex professional strategies. PMID:24709460

  9. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Smirnov, Alexandre

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  10. 76 FR 22746 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Wiregrass Central Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Wiregrass Central Railroad Company, Inc. Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC (WCR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Wiregrass Central Railroad Company,...

  11. Central pain: "new" syndromes and their evaluation.

    PubMed

    Berić, A

    1993-10-01

    Central pain syndrome is defined as pain associated with a lesion of the central nervous system. It has a low incidence but is frequently intractable and does not have effective treatment. The cause of central pain is speculative; however, the single common sensory abnormality in patients with central pain is interruption of spinothalamocortical nociceptive pathways. It appears that severe central nervous system lesions, with total destruction of ascending sensory systems, do not lead to a central pain syndrome; and that setting of mild, moderate, or severe disruption of the anterolateral ascending system with partial or complete preservation of the dorsal column/medial lemniscus functions is most frequently associated with central pain syndrome. Furthermore, even during remission, dysesthesias and pain could be triggered by additional afferent input to the large fiber/dorsal column/medial lemniscus system and, once established, they may not be abolished by additional deafferentation. PMID:8413354

  12. [Primary central nervous system vasculitis].

    PubMed

    Schuster, S; Magnus, T

    2015-12-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare disorder. However, it is often considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular or inflammatory CNS diseases. Diagnosis is challenging, as specific biomarkers are lacking and the clinical presentation can be variable. A definitive diagnosis can only be established by biopsy of the inflammatory changes in the vascular wall. Alternatively, the diagnosis of PACNS can also be based on the synopsis of clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings. Different subtypes of PACNS have been described in recent years, depending on the size of the affected vessels or histopathological patterns. Based on selective literature research in the database PubMed on the subject of CNS vasculitis, this article reviews the diagnostic characteristics and differential diagnosis of the condition. We suggest a diagnostic algorithm customized to the size of the affected vessels. Lastly, therapeutic options and the outcome of PACNS are briefly outlined. PMID:26589203

  13. Central myofibroma of the maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Paramjeet; Chowalta, Rajat; Lata, Jeevan

    2016-01-01

    Myofibroma is a rare benign localized or generalized proliferation of myofibroblastic tissue occurring mostly in infants or children. In the oral region, most lesions occur in the mandible, lip, buccal mucosa, and tongue; however, the lesions arising in the maxilla are very rare. Myofibroma has an aggressive clinical presentation and is often treated aggressively because of an inappropriate diagnosis. A unique feature of central myofibroma of the jaws is the potential for teeth and other odontogenic structures to be involved by tumor. We report a case of myofibroma arising in the left side of the maxilla of a 12-year-old girl and describe the differential diagnosis from other spindle cell lesions of neural and smooth muscle origin. We treated the case using surgical excision under general anesthesia. Immunohistochemical staining was done for establishing the diagnosis since histopathological diagnosis with conventional staining could not distinguish myofibroma from spindle cell tumors. PMID:27041905

  14. Central solar-energy receiver

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-10-27

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan is described. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  15. Wooden Calendars from Central Rhodopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, V.

    2008-10-01

    Four wooden calendars from the village of Polkovnik Serafimovo, Smolyan region, in the Central Rhodopes are presented here, and three of them - for the first time. The shape and size, the kind of the signs and structure of the calendar record bear the characteristic features of the rest of the Bulgarian wooden calendars. The short notches on the edges represent the days of the year in the Julian (solar) calendar. The special signs on the sides mark the fixed festivals of the Orthodox Church calendar and are also influenced by the local tradition. The type of the signs confirms that the wooden sticks belong to the group of calendars from the Central Rhodopes. According to the beginning date of the calendar record on the sticks, two of the calendars are of the April (May) or October (November) type which corresponds to the very popular economic division of the year in the folk calendar into two periods -- warm and cold. The other two sticks, which are very similar to each other, make an exception in this respect among the rest of the Bulgarian wooden calendars. The months are divided into four groups (seasons) on each of the four edges of the stick (only one calendar from Burgas region has the same structure). The most interesting thing about the two sticks is that this is the only case among all known Bulgarian calendars that the beginning of the calendar record coincides with the beginning of the civil year on 1st January (January type) like some wooden calendars from Western Europe. Nowadays it is getting harder and harder to find wooden calendars in Bulgaria and in the neighbouring Balkan countries. The thorough knowledge about them could be helpful in various scientific fields, e.g. history of religion, ethnology, history of astronomy and mathematics, as well as semiotics.

  16. Central payload video system (CPVS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doutreleau, Jean; Pedersen, F. H.; Serrano, J.

    1995-02-01

    The central payload video system, CPVS, is a highly flexible central video facility designed to perform processing on payload video as well as system video. Although developed under the Columbus program the CPVS can be easily integrated into any space station program such as Freedom and MIR. The CPVS is compatible with component video (Y,C) as well as with composite video (standard NTSC and PAL). The CPVS also supports non standard video high resolution (geometrical) and high frame rate (excellent time resolution) video. The CPVS is converting all received video into digital video. The standard formats are compatible with the world wide recognized standard, D1 (CCIR 601 and CCIR 656 compatible), and the non standard formats are compatible with an extrapolation of the D1 standard. The CPVS is able to process up to eight (8) simultaneous video channels. The CPVS is able to route any input to any or all processing elements using an internal switching and routing unit. The number and type of processing elements can be chosen according to every mission needs and new processing standards can be supported with little or no modification. The selected D1 standard ensures excellent video quality, and the fully redundant design of the CPVS ensures maximum availability of the system for the users. The selection of standard video formats and standard processing algorithms (compression) allows the use on ground of low-cost, off-the-shelf video equipment. The CPVS operation is based on tables which are generated on ground and loaded on board to be executed at a given on board time without the need of real time interaction.

  17. Central Gain Control in Tinnitus and Hyperacusis

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Benjamin D.; Rodrigues, Paulo V.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss induced by noise or ototoxic drug exposure reduces the neural activity transmitted from the cochlea to the central auditory system. Despite a reduced cochlear output, neural activity from more central auditory structures is paradoxically enhanced at suprathreshold intensities. This compensatory increase in the central auditory activity in response to the loss of sensory input is referred to as central gain enhancement. Enhanced central gain is hypothesized to be a potential mechanism that gives rise to hyperacusis and tinnitus, two debilitating auditory perceptual disorders that afflict millions of individuals. This review will examine the evidence for gain enhancement in the central auditory system in response to cochlear damage. Further, it will address the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this enhancement and discuss the contribution of central gain enhancement to tinnitus and hyperacusis. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms with distinct temporal and spectral profiles are likely to contribute to central gain enhancement. Dissecting the contributions of these different mechanisms at different levels of the central auditory system is essential for elucidating the role of central gain enhancement in tinnitus and hyperacusis and, most importantly, the development of novel treatments for these disorders. PMID:25386157

  18. Centrality in networks of urban streets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito; Porta, Sergio

    2006-03-01

    Centrality has revealed crucial for understanding the structural properties of complex relational networks. Centrality is also relevant for various spatial factors affecting human life and behaviors in cities. Here, we present a comprehensive study of centrality distributions over geographic networks of urban streets. Five different measures of centrality, namely degree, closeness, betweenness, straightness and information, are compared over 18 1-square-mile samples of different world cities. Samples are represented by primal geographic graphs, i.e., valued graphs defined by metric rather than topologic distance where intersections are turned into nodes and streets into edges. The spatial behavior of centrality indices over the networks is investigated graphically by means of color-coded maps. The results indicate that a spatial analysis, that we term multiple centrality assessment, grounded not on a single but on a set of different centrality indices, allows an extended comprehension of the city structure, nicely capturing the skeleton of most central routes and subareas that so much impacts on spatial cognition and on collective dynamical behaviors. Statistically, closeness, straightness and betweenness turn out to follow similar functional distribution in all cases, despite the extreme diversity of the considered cities. Conversely, information is found to be exponential in planned cities and to follow a power-law scaling in self-organized cities. Hierarchical clustering analysis, based either on the Gini coefficients of the centrality distributions, or on the correlation between different centrality measures, is able to characterize classes of cities.

  19. Central Diabetes Insipidus presenting with manic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Jasmine Kaur; Chalana, Harsh

    2011-09-01

    Central Diabetes Insipidus mostly presents with polydipsia and polyuria but may also present with confusion, psychosis, seizure or coma. We present a case of Central Diabetes Insipidus presenting with manic symptoms. A 21 year old Indian male had Central Diabetes Insipidus, which was confirmed by water deprivation test. He presented to our hospital with full blown manic symptoms meeting the ICD 10 criteria. He was managed with intranasal Desmopressin, water restriction and Olanzapine. In contrary to routine psychiatric patients which may present with psychogenic polydipsia or Central Diabetes Insipidus patients presenting in delirium or psychosis, our case presents a unique example of Central Diabetes Insipidus presenting with manic symptoms. It hints about a relationship between a common pathway for Central Diabetes Insipidus and mood disorders which needs further research. Diencephalon has already been the focus of attention for several researchers but no concrete evidence is available yet. PMID:23051126

  20. Properties of the Central American cold surge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguirk, James P.; Reding, Philip J.; Zhang, Yuxia

    1993-01-01

    The Central American cold surge (CACS) is a frontal incursion from the United States into Central America and resembles the East Asian cold surge. They occur more frequently than analyzed by NMC or by published results, based on our observations between 1979 and 1990. Climatology and structure are quantified, based on surface and upper air stations throughout Central America and satellite products from GOES visible and infrared sensors and SSM/I precipitable water and rain rate sensors.

  1. Central waste complex interim operational safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bendixsen, R.B.; Ames, R.R., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-20

    This Interim Operational Safety Requirements document supports the authorization basis for interim operations and identifies restrictions on interim operations for the disposal and storage of solid waste in the Central Waste Complex. The Central Waste Complex Interim Operational Safety Requirements provide the necessary controls on operations in the Central Waste Complex to ensure the radiological and hazardous material exposure will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, 1327 the public and the environment.

  2. Towards a centralized Grid Speedometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhunov, I.; Andreeva, J.; Fajardo, E.; Gutsche, O.; Luyckx, S.; Saiz, P.

    2014-06-01

    Given the distributed nature of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid and the way CPU resources are pledged and shared around the globe, Virtual Organizations (VOs) face the challenge of monitoring the use of these resources. For CMS and the operation of centralized workflows, the monitoring of how many production jobs are running and pending in the Glidein WMS production pools is very important. The Dashboard Site Status Board (SSB) provides a very flexible framework to collect, aggregate and visualize data. The CMS production monitoring team uses the SSB to define the metrics that have to be monitored and the alarms that have to be raised. During the integration of CMS production monitoring into the SSB, several enhancements to the core functionality of the SSB were required; They were implemented in a generic way, so that other VOs using the SSB can exploit them. Alongside these enhancements, there were a number of changes to the core of the SSB framework. This paper presents the details of the implementation and the advantages for current and future usage of the new features in SSB.

  3. Towards a centralized Grid Speedometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhunov, I.; Andreeva, J.; Fajardo, E.; Gutsche, O.; Luyckx, S.; Saiz, P.

    2014-01-01

    Given the distributed nature of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid and the way CPU resources are pledged and shared around the globe, Virtual Organizations (VOs) face the challenge of monitoring the use of these resources. For CMS and the operation of centralized workflows, the monitoring of how many production jobs are running and pending in the Glidein WMS production pools is very important. The Dashboard Site Status Board (SSB) provides a very flexible framework to collect, aggregate and visualize data. The CMS production monitoring team uses the SSB to define the metrics that have to be monitored and the alarms that have to be raised. During the integration of CMS production monitoring into the SSB, several enhancements to the core functionality of the SSB were required, They were implemented in a generic way, so that other VOs using the SSB can exploit them. Alongside these enhancements, there were a number of changes to the core of the SSB framework. This paper presents the details of the implementation and the advantages for current and future usage of the new features in SSB.

  4. Plague in Central Java, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J. E.; Hudson, B. W.; Turner, R. W.; Saroso, J. Sulianti; Cavanaugh, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    Plague in man occurred from 1968 to 1970 in mountain villages of the Boyolali Regency in Central Java. Infected fleas, infected rats, and seropositive rats were collected in villages with human plague cases. Subsequent isolations of Yersinia pestis and seropositive rodents, detected during investigations of rodent plague undertaken by the Government of Indonesia and the WHO, attested to the persistence of plague in the region from 1972 to 1974. Since 1968, the incidence of both rodent and human plague has been greatest from December to May at elevations over 1000 m. Isolations of Y. pestis were obtained from the fleas Xenopsylla cheopis and Stivalius cognatus and the rats Rattus rattus diardii and R. exulans ephippium. The major risk to man has been fleas infected with Y. pestis of unique electrophoretic phenotype. Infected fleas were collected most often in houses. Introduced in 1920, rodent plague had persisted in the Boyolali Regency for at least 54 years. The recent data support specific requirements for continued plague surveillance. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:6968252

  5. Reservoir evaporation in central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spahr, N.E.; Ruddy, B.C.

    1983-01-01

    Evaporation losses from seven reservoirs operated by the Denver Water Department in central Colorado were determined during various periods from 1974 to 1980. The reservoirs studies were Ralston, Cheesman, Antero, Williams Fork, Elevenmile Canyon, Dillon, and Gross. Energy-budget and mass-transfer methods were used to determine evaporation. Class-A pan data also were collected at each reservoir. The energy-budget method was the most accurate of the methods used to determine evaporation. At Ralston, Cheesman, Antero, and Williams Fork Reservoirs the energy-budget method was used to calibrate the mass-transfer coefficients. Calibrated coefficients already were available for Elevenmile Canyon, Dillon, and Gross Reservoirs. Using the calibrated coefficients, long-term mass-transfer evaporation rates were determined. Annual evaporation values were not determined because the instrumentation was not operated for the entire open-water season. Class-A pan data were used to determine pan coefficients for each season at each reservoir. The coefficients varied from season to season and between reservoirs, and the seasonal values ranged from 0.29 to 1.05. (USGS)

  6. Conductivity Anomalies in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neska, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a review of studies which, by applying the magnetotelluric, geomagnetic deep sounding, and magnetovariational sounding methods (the latter refers to usage of the horizontal magnetic tensor), investigate Central Europe for zones of enhanced electrical conductivity. The study areas comprise the region of the Trans-European Suture Zone (i.e. the south Baltic region and Poland), the North German Basin, the German and Czech Variscides, the Pannonian Basin (Hungary), and the Polish, Slovakian, Ukrainian, and Romanian Carpathians. This part of the world is well investigated in terms of data coverage and of the density of published studies, whereas the certainty that the results lead to comprehensive interpretations varies within the reviewed literature. A comparison of spatially coincident or adjacent studies reveals the important role that the data coverage of a distinct conductivity anomaly plays for the consistency of results. The encountered conductivity anomalies are understood as linked to basin sediments, asthenospheric upwelling, large differences in lithospheric age, and—this concerns most of them, which all concentrate in the middle crust—tectonic boundaries that developed during all mountain building phases that have taken place on the continent.

  7. Central-Monitor Software Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Aaron; Foster, Conrad

    2005-01-01

    One of the software modules of the emergency-vehicle traffic-light-preemption system of the two preceding articles performs numerous functions for the central monitoring subsystem. This module monitors the states of all units (vehicle transponders and intersection controllers): It provides real-time access to the phases of traffic and pedestrian lights, and maps the positions and states of all emergency vehicles. Most of this module is used for installation and configuration of units as they are added to the system. The module logs all activity in the system, thereby providing information that can be analyzed to minimize response times and optimize response strategies. The module can be used from any location within communication range of the system; with proper configuration, it can also be used via the Internet. It can be integrated into call-response centers, where it can be used for alerting emergency vehicles and managing their responses to specific incidents. A variety of utility subprograms provide access to any or all units for purposes of monitoring, testing, and modification. Included are "sniffer" utility subprograms that monitor incoming and outgoing data for accuracy and timeliness, and that quickly and autonomously shut off malfunctioning vehicle or intersection units.

  8. Maximal switchability of centralized networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakulenko, Sergei; Morozov, Ivan; Radulescu, Ovidiu

    2016-08-01

    We consider continuous time Hopfield-like recurrent networks as dynamical models for gene regulation and neural networks. We are interested in networks that contain n high-degree nodes preferably connected to a large number of N s weakly connected satellites, a property that we call n/N s -centrality. If the hub dynamics is slow, we obtain that the large time network dynamics is completely defined by the hub dynamics. Moreover, such networks are maximally flexible and switchable, in the sense that they can switch from a globally attractive rest state to any structurally stable dynamics when the response time of a special controller hub is changed. In particular, we show that a decrease of the controller hub response time can lead to a sharp variation in the network attractor structure: we can obtain a set of new local attractors, whose number can increase exponentially with N, the total number of nodes of the nework. These new attractors can be periodic or even chaotic. We provide an algorithm, which allows us to design networks with the desired switching properties, or to learn them from time series, by adjusting the interactions between hubs and satellites. Such switchable networks could be used as models for context dependent adaptation in functional genetics or as models for cognitive functions in neuroscience.

  9. A Central Theory of Biology

    PubMed Central

    Torday, John S.

    2015-01-01

    The history of physiologic cellular–molecular interrelationships can be traced all the way back to the unicellular state by following the pathway formed by lipids ubiquitously accommodating calcium homeostasis, and its consequent adaptive effects on oxygen uptake by cells, tissues and organs. As a result, a cohesive, mechanistically integrated view of physiology can be formulated by recognizing the continuum comprising conception, development, physiologic homeostasis and death mediated by soluble growth factor signaling. Seeing such seemingly disparate processes as embryogenesis, chronic disease and dying as the gain and subsequent loss of cell–cell signaling provides a novel perspective for physiology and medicine. It is emblematic of the self-organizing, self-referential nature of life, starting from its origins. Such organizing principles obviate the pitfalls of teleologic evolution, conversely providing a way of resolving such seeming dichotomies as holism and reductionism, genotype and phenotype, emergence and contingence, proximate and ultimate causation in evolution, cells and organisms. The proposed approach is scale-free and predictive, offering a Central Theory of Biology. PMID:25911556

  10. Eigenvector centrality of nodes in multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Solá, Luis; Romance, Miguel; Criado, Regino; Flores, Julio; García del Amo, Alejandro; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    We extend the concept of eigenvector centrality to multiplex networks, and introduce several alternative parameters that quantify the importance of nodes in a multi-layered networked system, including the definition of vectorial-type centralities. In addition, we rigorously show that, under reasonable conditions, such centrality measures exist and are unique. Computer experiments and simulations demonstrate that the proposed measures provide substantially different results when applied to the same multiplex structure, and highlight the non-trivial relationships between the different measures of centrality introduced. PMID:24089967

  11. Children in Central America: Victims of War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronstrom, Anitha

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the armed conflicts in Central America and their influence on civilian populations. Discusses the psychosocial consequences and therapeutic considerations of warfare, displacement and refuge for children. (RJC)

  12. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  13. Tethyan evolution of central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Sengor, A.M.C. )

    1990-05-01

    The study area extends from the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea in the west to the Helan Shan and Longmen Shan in the east and from about 40{degree}N parallel in the north to the neo-Tethyan sutures in the south, thus including what is called Middle Asia in the Soviet literature. In the region thus delineated lies the boundary between the largely late Paleozoic core of Asia (Altaids) and the Tethyside superorogenic complex. This boundary passes through continental objects that collided with nuclear Asia in the late Paleozoic to terminate its Altaid evolution. Subduction to the south of some of these had commenced before they collided (e.g., Tarim in the Kuen-Lun), in others later (e.g., South Ghissar area west of Pamirs). This subduction 1ed, in the late Paleozoic, to the opening of marginal basins, at least one of which may be partly extant (Tarim). Giant subduction accretion complexes of Paleozoic to earliest Triassic age dominate farther south in the basement of Turan (mainly in Turkmenian SSR) and in the Kuen-Lun/Nan Shan ranges. No discrete continental collisions or any continental basement in these regions could be unequivocally recognized contrary to most current interpretations. Magmatic arcs that developed along the southern margin of Asia in the late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic grew atop these subduction-accretion complexes and record a gradual southerly migration of magmatism through time. Subduction also dominated the northern margin of Gondwanaland between Iran and China in late Paleozoic time, although the record in Afghanistan and northwest Tibet is scrappy. It led to back-arc basin formation, which in Iran and Oman became neo-Tethys and, in at least parts of central Asia, the Waser-Mushan-Pshart/Banggong Co-Nu Jiang ocean. This ocean was probably connected with the Omani part of the neo-Tethys via the Sistan region.

  14. Historical Seismicity of Central Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, E.

    2013-05-01

    Central Panama lies in the Panama microplate, neighboring seismically active regions of Costa Rica and Colombia. This region, crossed by the Panama Canal, concentrates most of the population and economic activity of the Republic of Panama. Instrumental observation of earthquakes in Panama began on 1882 by the Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interocéanique de Panama and continued from 1904 to 1977 by the Panama Canal Company. From October 1997 to March 1998 the USGS deployed a temporary digital seismic network. Since 2003 this region is monitored by a digital seismic network operated by the Panama Canal Authority and I complemented by the broad band stations of the University of Panama seismic network. The seismicity in this region is very diffuse and the few events which are recorded have magnitudes less than 3.0. Historical archives and antique newspapers from Spain, Colombia, Panama and the United Sates have been searched looking for historical earthquake information which could provide a better estimate of the seismicity in this region. We find that Panama City has been shaken by two destructive earthquakes in historical times. One by a local fault (i.e. Pedro Miguel fault) on May 2, 1621 (I=Vlll MM), and a subduction event from the North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB) on September 7, 1882 (I=Vll MM). To test these findings two earthquakes scenarios were generated, using SELENA, for Panama City Old Quarter. Panama City was rebuilt on January 21, 1673, on a rocky point facing the Pacific Ocean after the sack by pirate Morgan on January 28, 1671. The pattern of damage to calicanto (unreinforced colonial masonry) and wood structures for a crustal local event are higher than those for an event from the NPDB and seem to confirm that the city has not been shaken by a major local event since May 2, 1621 and a subduction event since September 7, 1882

  15. South Central California Coastline and Channel Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This distant and very oblique image of the south Central California Coastline and Channel Islands (35.0N, 119.0W) offers a spectacular and scenic view of the southern west coast, the central San Joaquin Valley, the entire Sierra Nevada Range and across the southwest to the Rocky Mountains on the horizon.

  16. Centralization and Decentralization in American Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBoer, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the trend toward centralization in American education policy over the last century through a variety of lenses. The overall picture that emerges is one of a continuous tug-of-war, with national and local policymakers stumbling together toward incrementally more standardized and centralized policies. There is a center of power…

  17. Lymphatic Leak Complicating Central Venous Catheter Insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Barnacle, Alex M. Kleidon, Tricia M.

    2005-12-15

    Many of the risks associated with central venous access are well recognized. We report a case of inadvertent lymphatic disruption during the insertion of a tunneled central venous catheter in a patient with raised left and right atrial pressures and severe pulmonary hypertension, which led to significant hemodynamic instability. To our knowledge, this rare complication is previously unreported.

  18. Connecting Students, Creating Futures at Central Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosin, Julie; Erbes, Elizabeth; Britt, James; Good, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Des Moines is an urban community located in the heart of Iowa. Des Moines Public Schools serves 32,000 students in a system with 62 buildings, including Central Campus--a Regional Academy. Central Campus is housed in four buildings, including the main campus at 1800 Grand located on the western edge of downtown Des Moines. As a regional academy,…

  19. The Latino Experience in Central Falls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Central Falls is, by far, the poorest community in Rhode Island. More than 40 percent of the children under 18 live in poverty, and 40 percent of that group live in severe poverty. At Central Falls High School, low-income Latino students have fallen behind their white counterparts, with shockingly low graduation, poor literacy, and low…

  20. Voices from the Field: Central Office Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Ken

    2015-01-01

    School systems' central office administrators sometimes take paths that seem easiest, even when it is clear the paths will not lead to sustained positive results that are needed--particularly in terms of twice-exceptional (2e) students. To appropriately address the needs of 2e learners, we must ensure that central office administrative services…

  1. Raising the Bar in Central America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Monica

    2007-01-01

    Several years ago, students in Central America rarely leave their countries to find work elsewhere. Such is the case of Sebastian Pinto who felt that his degree would not mean much beyond Guatemala, his country. But now, universities in Central American have started to offer regionally accredited degrees that would allow students' credentials to…

  2. Central Falls' Kids First: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    Central Falls' Kids First, a 3-year initiative was designed to eradicate local childhood hunger through the expansion of federal child nutrition programs in Central Falls, a small, densely populated, ethnically diverse and low-income city in northeastern Rhode Island. A strong community partnership was created and included the office of the city's…

  3. Central Life Interests and Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Robert; And Others

    Data on central life interests (CLI) and five aspects of job satisfaction were obtained in a sample of bluecollar males and two samples of clerical females. Both a multiple discriminant analysis and a bivariate analysis were performed. The results of these analyses showed that central life interest was significantly related to the total set of job…

  4. 34 CFR 303.301 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....301 Central directory. (a) Each system must include a central directory of information about— (1... that provide assistance to children eligible under this part and their families. (b) The information... be available— (1) In each geographic region of the State, including rural areas; and (2) In...

  5. 34 CFR 303.301 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....301 Central directory. (a) Each system must include a central directory of information about— (1... that provide assistance to children eligible under this part and their families. (b) The information... be available— (1) In each geographic region of the State, including rural areas; and (2) In...

  6. Traveling Policies: Hijacked in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2005-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asian education reform discourses have become increasingly similar to distinctive Western policy discourses traveling globally across national boundaries. Tracing the trajectory of "traveling policies" in Central Asia, this article discusses the way Western education discourses have been hybridized…

  7. 34 CFR 303.117 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES State Eligibility for a Grant and Requirements for a Statewide System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.117 Central directory. Each system must include a central directory that is... includes accurate, up-to-date information about— (a) Public and private early intervention...

  8. 34 CFR 303.117 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES State Eligibility for a Grant and Requirements for a Statewide System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.117 Central directory. Each system must include a central directory that is... includes accurate, up-to-date information about— (a) Public and private early intervention...

  9. 34 CFR 303.117 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES State Eligibility for a Grant and Requirements for a Statewide System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.117 Central directory. Each system must include a central directory that is... includes accurate, up-to-date information about— (a) Public and private early intervention...

  10. 34 CFR 303.162 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES State Application for a Grant Components of A Statewide System-Application Requirements § 303.162 Central directory. Each application must include information and assurances demonstrating to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the State has developed a central directory of information that meets...

  11. 34 CFR 303.162 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES State Application for a Grant Components of A Statewide System-Application Requirements § 303.162 Central directory. Each application must include information and assurances demonstrating to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the State has developed a central directory of information that meets...

  12. Visualizing the Central Limit Theorem through Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggieri, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Central Limit Theorem is one of the most important concepts taught in an introductory statistics course, however, it may be the least understood by students. Sure, students can plug numbers into a formula and solve problems, but conceptually, do they really understand what the Central Limit Theorem is saying? This paper describes a simulation…

  13. Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2014-05-01

    For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases. PMID:24325540

  14. Central registry in psychiatry: A structured review

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jyoti; Ramakrishnan, TS; Das, R. C.; Srivastava, K.; Mehta, Suresh; Shashikumar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Central registry in psychiatry is being practiced in few countries and has been found useful in research and clinical management. Role of central registry has also expanded over the years. Materials and Methods: All accessible internet database Medline, Scopus, Embase were accessed from 1990 till date. Available data were systematically reviewed in structured manner and analyzed. Results: Central registry was found useful in epidemiological analysis, association studies, outcome studies, comorbidity studies, forensic issue, effective of medication, qualitative analysis etc., Conclusion: Central registry proves to be effective tool in quantitative and qualitative understanding of psychiatry practice. Findings of studies from central registry can be useful in modifying best practice and evidence based treatment in psychiatry. PMID:25535438

  15. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  16. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  17. Central oscillators responsible for sympathetic nerve discharge.

    PubMed

    Gebber, G L

    1980-08-01

    The current state of knowledge concerning central mechanisms responsible for the generation of background discharges in sympathetic nerves is examined. It is apparent from recent investigations that the classic concept of a randomly discharging and diffusely organized central network onto which rhythms (cardiac- and respiratory-related) are imposed by extrinsic inputs has not passed the test of time. Rather, brain stem as well as spinal networks that govern the discharges of sympathetic nerves are inherently capable of rhythm generation. Sympathetic nerve rhythms inherent to the central nervous system imply the existence of neuronal circuits that are capable of oscillatory activity. Central oscillators provide a mechanism for synchronization of the activity of populations of sympathetic neurons in the absence of periodic input from sources extrinsic to the central nervous system. Indeed, the thesis is developed that, rather than creating rhythms in sympathetic nerve discharge, the function of periodic input from extrinsic sources such as the baroreceptors is to entrain rhythms of central origin. Finally, the problems associated with the identification of neuronal types that comprise central oscillators which govern the discharges of sympathetic nerves are discussed. PMID:6996496

  18. XNAT Central: Open sourcing imaging research data.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Rick; Horton, William; Olsen, Timothy; McKay, Michael; Archie, Kevin A; Marcus, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    XNAT Central is a publicly accessible medical imaging data repository based on the XNAT open-source imaging informatics platform. It hosts a wide variety of research imaging data sets. The primary motivation for creating XNAT Central was to provide a central repository to host and provide access to a wide variety of neuroimaging data. In this capacity, XNAT Central hosts a number of data sets from research labs and investigative efforts from around the world, including the OASIS Brains imaging studies, the NUSDAST study of schizophrenia, and more. Over time, XNAT Central has expanded to include imaging data from many different fields of research, including oncology, orthopedics, cardiology, and animal studies, but continues to emphasize neuroimaging data. Through the use of XNAT's DICOM metadata extraction capabilities, XNAT Central provides a searchable repository of imaging data that can be referenced by groups, labs, or individuals working in many different areas of research. The future development of XNAT Central will be geared towards greater ease of use as a reference library of heterogeneous neuroimaging data and associated synthetic data. It will also become a tool for making data available supporting published research and academic articles. PMID:26143202

  19. Current and future centrally acting antitussives☆

    PubMed Central

    Bolser, Donald C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight some important issues regarding current centrally acting antitussive drugs as well as discuss the implications of these matters on the development of future cough suppressants. Drugs that act in the central nervous system to inhibit cough are termed centrally acting and this designation is based exclusively on evidence obtained from animal models. This classification can include drugs that act both at peripheral and central sites following systemic administration. These drugs are intended to reduce the frequency and/or intensity of coughing resulting from disorders of any etiology. There are a number of central cough suppressants identified by their efficacy in animal models and the most prominent of these are codeine and dextromethorphan. Although the exact neural elements on which these drugs act are currently unknown, they are thought to inhibit a functionally identified component of the central system for cough known as the gating mechanism. The efficacy of codeine and dextromethorphan in humans has recently been questioned. These drugs are less effective on cough induced by upper airway disorders than in pathological conditions involving the lower airways in humans. The reasons for this difference in antitussive sensitivity are not clear. We propose that sensory afferents from different regions of the airways actuate coughing in humans by antitussive sensitive and insensitive control elements in the central nervous system. This hypothesis is consistent with results from an animal model in which laryngeal and tracheobronchial cough had different sensitivities to codeine. Other factors that may be very important in the action of central antitussive drugs in humans include the role of sensations produced by a tussigenic stimulus as well as plasticity of central pathways in response to airway inflammation. Resolution of these issues in the human will be a challenging process, but one which will lay the foundation for the

  20. Genetics and diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Bichet, Daniel G

    2012-04-01

    Most of the central diabetes insipidus cases seen in general practice are acquired but the rare cases of hereditary autosomal dominant or recessive neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus have provided further cellular understanding of the mechanisms responsible for pre-hormone folding, maturation and release. Autosomal dominant central diabetes insipidus is secondary to the toxic accumulation of vasopressin mutants as fibrillar aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum of hypothalamic magnocellular neurons producing vasopressin. As well, Trpv1(-/-) and Trpv4(-/-) mice have shed new light on the perception of tonicity through the stretch receptors TRPVs expressed both in central and peripheral neurons. The genomic information provided by sequencing the AVP gene is key to the routine care of these patients and, as in other genetic diseases, reduces health costs and provides psychological benefits to patients and families. In addition, simple, inexpensive blood and urine measurements together with clinical characteristics and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could distinguish between central, nephrogenic and polydipsic cases. PMID:22520736

  1. Overview of Glutamatergic Dysregulation in Central Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Miladinovic, Tanya; Nashed, Mina G.; Singh, Gurmit

    2015-01-01

    As the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, glutamate plays a key role in many central pathologies, including gliomas, psychiatric, neurodevelopmental, and neurodegenerative disorders. Post-mortem and serological studies have implicated glutamatergic dysregulation in these pathologies, and pharmacological modulation of glutamate receptors and transporters has provided further validation for the involvement of glutamate. Furthermore, efforts from genetic, in vitro, and animal studies are actively elucidating the specific glutamatergic mechanisms that contribute to the aetiology of central pathologies. However, details regarding specific mechanisms remain sparse and progress in effectively modulating glutamate to alleviate symptoms or inhibit disease states has been relatively slow. In this report, we review what is currently known about glutamate signalling in central pathologies. We also discuss glutamate’s mediating role in comorbidities, specifically cancer-induced bone pain and depression. PMID:26569330

  2. 49 CFR 71.6 - Central zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... between the central and mountain time zones. The Chicago, Rock Island and Gulf Railway Company and the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway Company may use Tucumcari, New Mexico, as the point at which...

  3. 49 CFR 71.6 - Central zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... between the central and mountain time zones. The Chicago, Rock Island and Gulf Railway Company and the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway Company may use Tucumcari, New Mexico, as the point at which...

  4. Centralized Copying Saves Time and Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Describes how Deer Park School District, Long Island, New York, is saving money while boosting efficiency by centralizing its high-volume printing and duplicating operations. The new arrangement saves space, time, and expenses. (LMI)

  5. NCI Central Review Board Receives Accreditation

    Cancer.gov

    The Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs has awarded the NCI Central Institutional Review Board full accreditation. AAHRPP awards accreditation to organizations demonstrating the highest ethical standards in clinical res

  6. Solar central receiver systems comparative economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicker, P. J.

    1980-04-01

    Several major conceptual design studies of solar central receiver systems and components were completed in the last year. The results of these studies were used to compare the projected cost of electric power generation using central receiver systems with that of more conventional power generation. The cost estimate for a molten salt central receiver system is given. Levelized busbar energy cost is shown as a function of annual capacity factor indicating the fraction of the cost due to each of the subsystems. The estimated levelized busbar energy cost for a central receiver (70 to 90 mills per kilowatt hour) is compared with the levelized busbar energy cost for a new coal fired Rankine cycle plant. Sensitivities to the initial cost of coal and the delta fuel escalation are shown.

  7. Solar central receiver systems comparative economics

    SciTech Connect

    Eicker, P J

    1980-04-01

    Several major conceptual design studies of solar central receiver systems and components have been completed in the last year. The results of these studies are used to compare the projected cost of electric power generation using central receiver systems with that of more conventional power generation. The cost estimate for a molten salt central receiver system is given. Levelized busbar energy cost is shown as a function of annual capacity factor indicating the fraction of the cost due to each of the subsystems. The estimated levelized busbar energy cost for a central receiver (70 to 90 mills per kilowatt hour) is compared with the levelized busbar energy cost for a new coal fired Rankine cycle plant. Sensitivities to the initial cost of coal and the delta fuel escalation are shown. (WHK)

  8. Central auditory conduction time in the rat.

    PubMed

    Shaw, N A

    1990-01-01

    Central conduction time is the time for an afferent volley to traverse the central pathways of a sensory system. In the present study, central auditory conduction time (CACT) was calculated for the rat, the first such formal measurement in any animal. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) were recorded simultaneously with the primary response of the auditory cortex (P1). The latency of wave II of the BAEP, which arises in the cochlear nucleus, was subtracted from that of P1. This yielded a mean CACT of 6.6 ms. The results confirm a previous theoretical estimate that CACT in the rat is at least twice as long as central somatosensory conduction time. PMID:2311700

  9. Random walk centrality in interconnected multilayer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé-Ribalta, Albert; De Domenico, Manlio; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2016-06-01

    Real-world complex systems exhibit multiple levels of relationships. In many cases they require to be modeled as interconnected multilayer networks, characterizing interactions of several types simultaneously. It is of crucial importance in many fields, from economics to biology and from urban planning to social sciences, to identify the most (or the less) influent nodes in a network using centrality measures. However, defining the centrality of actors in interconnected complex networks is not trivial. In this paper, we rely on the tensorial formalism recently proposed to characterize and investigate this kind of complex topologies, and extend two well known random walk centrality measures, the random walk betweenness and closeness centrality, to interconnected multilayer networks. For each of the measures we provide analytical expressions that completely agree with numerically results.

  10. Francis Crick, DNA, and the Central Dogma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olby, Robert

    1970-01-01

    This essay describes how Francis Crick, ex-physicist, entered the field of biology and discovered the structure of DNA. Emphasis is upon the double helix, the sequence hypothesis, the central dogma, and the genetic code. (VW)

  11. New Neanurinae (Collembola: Neanuridae) from Central China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Ru; Wang, Wen-Bin; Jiang, Jigang

    2016-01-01

    Three new species, two of Vitronura and one of Lobellina of subfamily Neanurinae (Neanuridae, Collembola) from Central China are described. In addition a key for valid Lobellina species is included. PMID:27470797

  12. Central Station DHC Phase 1 feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, H.L.

    1992-03-01

    This project assisted a private real estate developer in technically assessing the feasibility of integrating a central DHC system into a proposed 72 acre area mixed-use Planned Development (Central Station) just south of the Chicago Central Business District (Loop). The technical assessment concluded that a district heating and cooling system for Central Station will be feasible, provided that a major anchor load can be connected to the system. The system conceived for the site employs a modular approach that adjusts production capacity to actual load growth. The design concept includes gas-fired boilers for heating, gas turbine driven chillers for base loading, electric motor driven chillers for peaking, steam turbines for peak power and back pressure operation, and chilled water storage. Energy will be supplied to the users in the form of steam or low temperature hot water for heating, and low temperature chilled water for cooling.

  13. Initial TMX central-cell ICRH experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A.W.; Coffield, F.E.; Falabella, S.; Griffin, D.; McVey, B.; Pickles, W.; Poulsen, P.; Simonen, T.C.; Yugo, J.

    1980-12-09

    Four topics are discussed in this report: the feasibility of applying ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in the TMX central cell, some applications of heating, the results of preliminary experiments, and plans for further ICRH experiments.

  14. The CMS central hadron calorimeter: Update

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.

    1998-06-01

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a brass absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe details of the mechanical and optical structure. We also discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  15. A handbook for solar central receiver design

    SciTech Connect

    Falcone, P.K.

    1986-12-01

    This Handbook describes central receiver technology for solar thermal power plants. It contains a description and assessment of the major components in a central receiver system configured for utility scale production of electricity using Rankine-cycle steam turbines. It also describes procedures to size and optimize a plant and discussed examples from recent system analyses. Information concerning site selection criteria, cost estimation, construction, and operation and maintenance is also included, which should enable readers to perform design analyses for specific applications.

  16. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates. PMID:26632483

  17. Central regions of keloids are severely ischaemic.

    PubMed

    Touchi, Ryoma; Ueda, Koichi; Kurokawa, Norifumi; Tsuji, Motomu

    2016-02-01

    We classified scars as keloids, hypertrophic scars and mature scars, and then examined the scars for differences in central and marginal vascularization. We found significant differences in localized hypoxia-induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and vascular density in keloids, but no localized differences in hypertrophic or mature scars. The central areas of keloids exhibited higher HIF-1α expression and lower vascular density than marginal areas, suggesting that the former are severely ischaemic. PMID:26794626

  18. Transient central diabetes insipidus following ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Muthukrishnan; Kumar, Sandeep; Ahmad, F M H

    2013-10-01

    Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI) following ischemic infarction of the brain has been described as a rare presentation. Posterior pituitary ischemia has also been postulated as a possible cause of idiopathic CDI. We encountered a young male with bilateral extensive ischemic infarction sustained at high altitude, who had transient polyuria due to central diabetes insipidus, requiring desmopressin therapy. DI completely resolved during the course of his neurological recovery. PMID:24251140

  19. [How to do: central vein catheterization].

    PubMed

    Allgäuer, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    The cannulation of a central vein is a standard acces to the vascular system of critically ill patients. It can be used for administration of medication and parenteral nutrition, haemodynamic monitoring as well as hemodialsis via Shaldon catheter.The technique of implantation of a central venous catheter is described step by step in this article. Moreover, advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques and puncture sites as well as indications and contraindications are critically discussed regarding the most recent literature. PMID:26939103

  20. Central diffractive resonance production at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Roberto; Jenkovszky, Laszlo; Schicker, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    Central production of resonances resulting from the scattering of Pomerons in the central rapidity region of proton-proton scattering is studied. Estimates for relevant cross sections are presented. L.J. gratefully acknowledges an EMMI visiting Professorship at the University of Heidelberg for completion of this work. He is grateful to the organizers of this meeting for their hospitality and support. His work was supported also by DOMUS, Hungarian Academy of Sciences

  1. Collection development at the NOAA Central Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quillen, Steve R.

    1994-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Central Library collection, approximately one million volumes, incorporates the holdings of its predecessor agencies. Within the library, the collections are filed separately, based on their source and/or classification schemes. The NOAA Central Library provides a variety of services to users, ranging from quick reference and interlibrary loan to in-depth research and online data bases.

  2. De-centralized and centralized control for realistic EMS Maglev systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moawad, Mohamed M. Aly M.

    A comparative study of de-centralized and centralized controllers when used with real EMS Maglev Systems is introduced. This comparison is divided into two parts. Part I is concerned with numerical simulation and experimental testing on a two ton six-magnet EMS Maglev vehicle. Levitation and lateral control with these controllers individually and when including flux feedback control in combination with these controllers to enhance stability are introduced. The centralized controller is better than the de-centralized one when the system is exposed to a lateral disturbing force such as wind gusts. The flux feedback control when combined with de-centralized or centralized controllers does improve the stability and is more resistant and robust with respect to the air gap variations. Part II is concerned with the study of Maglev vehicle-girder dynamic interaction system and the comparison between these two controllers on this typical system based on performance and ride quality achieved. Numerical simulations of the ODU EMS Maglev vehicle interacting with girder are conducted with these two different controllers. The de-centralized and centralized control for EMS Maglev systems that interact with a flexible girder provides similar ride quality. Centralized control with flux feedback could be the best controller for the ODU Maglev system when operating on girder. The centralized control will guarantee the suppression of the undesired lateral displacements; hence it will provide smoother ride quality. Flux feedback will suppress air gap variations due to the track discontinuities.

  3. Community centrality and social science research.

    PubMed

    Allman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have. PMID:26440071

  4. Visual processing in the central bee brain

    PubMed Central

    Paulk, Angelique C.; Dacks, Andrew M.; Phillips-Portillo, James; Fellous, Jean-Marc; Gronenberg, Wulfila

    2009-01-01

    Visual scenes comprise enormous amounts of information from which nervous systems extract behaviorally relevant cues. In most model systems, little is known about the transformation of visual information as it occurs along visual pathways. We examined how visual information is transformed physiologically as it is communicated from the eye to higher order brain centers using bumblebees, which are known for their visual capabilities. We recorded intracellularly in vivo from thirty neurons in the central bumblebee brain (the lateral protocerebrum) and compared these neurons to 132 neurons from more distal areas along the visual pathway, namely the medulla and the lobula. In these three brain regions (medulla, lobula and central brain), we examined correlations between the neurons’ branching patterns and their responses primarily to color, but also to motion stimuli. Visual neurons projecting to the anterior central brain were generally color sensitive, while neurons projecting to the posterior central brain were predominantly motion sensitive. The temporal response properties differed significantly between these areas, with an increase in spike time precision across trials and a decrease in average reliable spiking as visual information processing progressed from the periphery to the central brain. These data suggest that neurons along the visual pathway to the central brain are not only segregated with regard to the physical features of the stimuli (e.g. color and motion), but also differ in the way they encode stimuli, possibly to allow for efficient parallel processing to occur. PMID:19675233

  5. CENTRAL ROTATIONS OF MILKY WAY GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Rukdee, Surangkhana; Saglia, Roberto P.; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Thomas, Jens; Williams, Michael J.; Noyola, Eva; Opitsch, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Most Milky Way globular clusters (GCs) exhibit measurable flattening, even if on a very low level. Both cluster rotation and tidal fields are thought to cause this flattening. Nevertheless, rotation has only been confirmed in a handful of GCs, based mostly on individual radial velocities at large radii. We are conducting a survey of the central kinematics of Galactic GCs using the new Integral Field Unit instrument VIRUS-W. We detect rotation in all 11 GCs that we have observed so far, rendering it likely that a large majority of the Milky Way GCs rotate. We use published catalogs of GCs to derive central ellipticities and position angles. We show that in all cases where the central ellipticity permits an accurate measurement of the position angle, those angles are in excellent agreement with the kinematic position angles that we derive from the VIRUS-W velocity fields. We find an unexpected tight correlation between central rotation and outer ellipticity, indicating that rotation drives flattening for the objects in our sample. We also find a tight correlation between central rotation and published values for the central velocity dispersion, most likely due to rotation impacting the old dispersion measurements.

  6. Community centrality and social science research

    PubMed Central

    Allman, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have. PMID:26440071

  7. Health challenges in Kazakhstan and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Adambekov, Shalkar; Kaiyrlykyzy, Aiym; Igissinov, Nurbek; Linkov, Faina

    2016-01-01

    The Central Asian region, which encompasses Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, is an interesting geographic region with a rich history dating back to the Silk Road, Mongol conquests and expansion of the Russian Empire. However, from a public health viewpoint, the Central Asian region is under-investigated, and many public health challenges exist, as countries of Central Asia inherited the centralised medical systems practiced in the Soviet Union, and are currently undergoing rapid transitions. A large number of low and middle-income countries around the world, including countries of Central Asia, face a double burden of chronic and infectious disease. This essay focuses on the exploration of the most important public health challenges in the Central Asian region, including limited scientific productivity, the double burden of chronic and infectious disease, the need for healthcare reform and the reduction in care variation. Central Asia has a large number of medical schools, medical centres, and emerging research institutes that can be used to foster a change in medical and public health practice in the region. PMID:26254293

  8. Dynamics-based centrality for directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Naoki; Kori, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    Determining the relative importance of nodes in directed networks is important in, for example, ranking websites, publications, and sports teams, and for understanding signal flows in systems biology. A prevailing centrality measure in this respect is the PageRank. In this work, we focus on another class of centrality derived from the Laplacian of the network. We extend the Laplacian-based centrality, which has mainly been applied to strongly connected networks, to the case of general directed networks such that we can quantitatively compare arbitrary nodes. Toward this end, we adopt the idea used in the PageRank to introduce global connectivity between all the pairs of nodes with a certain strength. Numerical simulations are carried out on some networks. We also offer interpretations of the Laplacian-based centrality for general directed networks in terms of various dynamical and structural properties of networks. Importantly, the Laplacian-based centrality defined as the stationary density of the continuous-time random walk with random jumps is shown to be equivalent to the absorption probability of the random walk with sinks at each node but without random jumps. Similarly, the proposed centrality represents the importance of nodes in dynamics on the original network supplied with sinks but not with random jumps.

  9. Perturbation Centrality and Turbine: A Novel Centrality Measure Obtained Using a Versatile Network Dynamics Tool

    PubMed Central

    Szalay, Kristóf Z.; Csermely, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of network dynamics became a focal point to understand and predict changes of complex systems. Here we introduce Turbine, a generic framework enabling fast simulation of any algorithmically definable dynamics on very large networks. Using a perturbation transmission model inspired by communicating vessels, we define a novel centrality measure: perturbation centrality. Hubs and inter-modular nodes proved to be highly efficient in perturbation propagation. High perturbation centrality nodes of the Met-tRNA synthetase protein structure network were identified as amino acids involved in intra-protein communication by earlier studies. Changes in perturbation centralities of yeast interactome nodes upon various stresses well recapitulated the functional changes of stressed yeast cells. The novelty and usefulness of perturbation centrality was validated in several other model, biological and social networks. The Turbine software and the perturbation centrality measure may provide a large variety of novel options to assess signaling, drug action, environmental and social interventions. PMID:24205090

  10. 21 CFR 1305.24 - Central processing of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or more registered locations and maintains a central processing computer system in which orders are... order with all linked records on the central computer system. (b) A company that has central...

  11. 21 CFR 1305.24 - Central processing of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or more registered locations and maintains a central processing computer system in which orders are... order with all linked records on the central computer system. (b) A company that has central...

  12. 21 CFR 1305.24 - Central processing of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or more registered locations and maintains a central processing computer system in which orders are... order with all linked records on the central computer system. (b) A company that has central...

  13. 21 CFR 1305.24 - Central processing of orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or more registered locations and maintains a central processing computer system in which orders are... order with all linked records on the central computer system. (b) A company that has central...

  14. 12 CFR 234.4 - Standards for central securities depositories and central counterparties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... legal framework for each aspect of its activities in all relevant jurisdictions. (2) The central... counterparty provides market participants with sufficient information for them to identify and...

  15. 12 CFR 234.4 - Standards for central securities depositories and central counterparties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... legal framework for each aspect of its activities in all relevant jurisdictions. (2) The central... counterparty provides market participants with sufficient information for them to identify and...

  16. Central depression of nuclear charge density distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Chu Yanyun; Ren Zhongzhou; Wang Zaijun; Dong Tiekuang

    2010-08-15

    The center-depressed nuclear charge distributions are investigated with the parametrized distribution and the relativistic mean-field theory, and their corresponding charge form factors are worked out with the phase shift analysis method. The central depression of nuclear charge distribution of {sup 46}Ar and {sup 44}S is supported by the relativistic mean-field calculation. According to the calculation, the valence protons in {sup 46}Ar and {sup 44}S prefer to occupy the 1d{sub 3/2} state rather than the 2s{sub 1/2} state, which is different from that in the less neutron-rich argon and sulfur isotopes. As a result, the central proton densities of {sup 46}Ar and {sup 44}S are highly depressed, and so are their central charge densities. The charge form factors of some argon and sulfur isotopes are presented, and the minima of the charge form factors shift upward and inward when the central nuclear charge distributions are more depressed. Besides, the effect of the central depression on the charge form factors is studied with a parametrized distribution, when the root-mean-square charge radii remain constant.

  17. Central Neuropathic Pain in Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sujin; Zhao, Xing; Hatch, Maya; Chun, Sophia; Chang, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating medical condition affecting 1.2 million people in the United States. Central neuropathic pain is one of the most common medical complications of SCI. Current treatment options include opioids, antiepileptic agents such as gabapentin, antispastic agents such as baclofen or tizanidine, and tricyclic acid. Other options include complementary, nonpharmacological treatment such as exercise or acupuncture, interventional treatments, and psychological approaches. Although these treatment options exist, central neuropathic pain in patients with SCI is still extremely difficult to treat because of its complexity. To develop and provide more effective treatment options to these patients, proper assessment of and classification tools for central neuropathic pain, as well as a better understanding of the pathophysiology, are needed. A combination of approaches, from standard general pain assessments to medically specific questions unique to SCI pathophysiology, is essential for this population. A multidisciplinary approach to patient care, in addition with a better understanding of pathophysiology and diagnosis, will lead to improved management and treatment of patients with SCI displaying central neuropathic pain. Here we summarize the most recent classification tools, pathophysiology, and current treatment options for patients with SCI with central neuropathic pain. PMID:25750485

  18. 1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, LOOKING NORTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Central Heating Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  19. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations

    PubMed Central

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture. PMID:23115475

  20. Diagnosis and management of central hypersomnias

    PubMed Central

    Susta, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Central hypersomnias are diseases manifested in excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) not caused by disturbed nocturnal sleep or misaligned circadian rhythms. Central hypersomnias includes narcolepsy with and without cataplexy, recurrent hypersomnia, idiopathic hypersomnia, with and without long sleep time, behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome, hypersomnia and narcolepsy due to medical conditions, and finally hypersomnia induced by substance intake. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale is a subjective tool mostly used for EDS assessment, while the Multiple Sleep Latency Test serves as an objective diagnostic method for narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnias. As for symptomatic therapy of EDS, the central nervous system stimulants modafinil and methylphenidate seem to work well in most cases and in narcolepsy and Parkinson’s disease; sodium oxybate also has notable therapeutic value. PMID:22973425

  1. Sodium oxybate-induced central sleep apneas.

    PubMed

    Frase, Lukas; Schupp, Jonas; Sorichter, Stephan; Randelshofer, Wolfgang; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    Sodium oxybate (γ-hydroxybutyric acid, GHB) is a neurotransmitter in the human brain which exerts sedative effects and is used therapeutically in the treatment of narcolepsy. Current safety recommendations have been formulated for the use of GHB in patients with preexisting breathing disorders. We report the case of a 39-year-old female with narcolepsy and cataplexy revealing the de novo emergence of central sleep apneas in a Cheyne-Stokes pattern under constant treatment with GHB. After discontinuation of GHB, polysomnographic re-evaluation demonstrated the disappearance of central sleep apneas. To our knowledge, this is the first report of de novo central sleep apneas induced by GHB in a patient without pre-existing sleep-disordered breathing, suggesting that there is a need for further investigation and potentially an extension of the safety guidelines to patients without a pre-existing breathing disorder. PMID:23834969

  2. The Fermilab Central Computing Facility architectural model

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholls, J.

    1989-05-01

    The goal of the current Central Computing Upgrade at Fermilab is to create a computing environment that maximizes total productivity, particularly for high energy physics analysis. The Computing Department and the Next Computer Acquisition Committee decided upon a model which includes five components: an interactive front end, a Large-Scale Scientific Computer (LSSC, a mainframe computing engine), a microprocessor farm system, a file server, and workstations. With the exception of the file server, all segments of this model are currently in production: a VAX/VMS Cluster interactive front end, an Amdahl VM computing engine, ACP farms, and (primarily) VMS workstations. This presentation will discuss the implementation of the Fermilab Central Computing Facility Architectural Model. Implications for Code Management in such a heterogeneous environment, including issues such as modularity and centrality, will be considered. Special emphasis will be placed on connectivity and communications between the front-end, LSSC, and workstations, as practiced at Fermilab. 2 figs.

  3. Estimation for large non-centrality parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inácio, Sónia; Mexia, João; Fonseca, Miguel; Carvalho, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    We introduce the concept of estimability for models for which accurate estimators can be obtained for the respective parameters. The study was conducted for model with almost scalar matrix using the study of estimability after validation of these models. In the validation of these models we use F statistics with non centrality parameter τ =‖λ/‖2 σ2 when this parameter is sufficiently large we obtain good estimators for λ and α so there is estimability. Thus, we are interested in obtaining a lower bound for the non-centrality parameter. In this context we use for the statistical inference inducing pivot variables, see Ferreira et al. 2013, and asymptotic linearity, introduced by Mexia & Oliveira 2011, to derive confidence intervals for large non-centrality parameters (see Inácio et al. 2015). These results enable us to measure relevance of effects and interactions in multifactors models when we get highly statistically significant the values of F tests statistics.

  4. Health and health services in Central America.

    PubMed

    Garfield, R M; Rodriguez, P F

    1985-08-16

    Despite rapid economic growth since World War II, health conditions improved only slowly in most of Central America. This is a result of poor medical, social, and economic infrastructure, income maldistribution, and the poor utilization of health investments. The economic crisis of the 1980s and civil strife have further endangered health in the region. Life expectancy has fallen among men in El Salvador and civil strife has become the most common cause of death in Guatemala, Nicaragua, and El Salvador. Large-scale US assistance has done little to improve conditions, and refugees continue to pour into North America. It is estimated that there are more than a million refugees within Central America, while a million have fled to the United States. Costa Rica and Nicaragua are partial exceptions to this dismal health picture. An effective approach to the many health problems in Central America will require joint planning and cooperation among all countries in the region. PMID:4021026

  5. [Local, central and regional functions. Obsolete concepts?].

    PubMed

    Stene-Larsen, G; Bjørnstad, E; Bergesen, O; Nordhaug, B; Abildgaard, U

    1990-11-30

    As a consequence of the regionalization of the health services in Norway hospitals were given either local, central or regional responsibility. This system was intended to improve the availability of expertise and costly equipment, and at the same time reduce the growth of expenditures on health care. In the last few years, however, many of the smaller hospitals have improved their technical and medical skills to such an extent that this classification system has become less meaningful. Aker hospital in Oslo carries out local, central and regional functions. In a prospective study at this hospital we found that 88% of 980 consecutive medical admissions could be classified as local hospital admissions. Only 5% of the patients needed service at the central level, and 5% at the regional level. In our opinion it would suffice to have two types of hospital ("treatment levels"), standard hospitals and referral hospitals. PMID:2274952

  6. HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU CLEANUP COMPLETION STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMAN TB

    2011-01-14

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the {approx}200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were signed by

  7. Central hyperacusis with phonophobia in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Weber, H; Pfadenhauer, K; Stöhr, M; Rösler, A

    2002-12-01

    Hearing disorders are a well-described symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Unilateral or bilateral hyperacusis or deafness in patients with normal sound audiometry is often attributed to demyelinating lesions in the central auditory pathway. Less known in MS is a central phonophobia, whereby acoustic stimuli provoke unpleasant and painful paresthesia and lead to the corresponding avoidance behaviour. In our comparison collective, patient 1 described acute shooting pain attacks in his right cheek each time set off by the ringing of the telephone. Patient 2 complained of intensified, unbearable noise sensations when hearing nonlanguage acoustic stimuli. Patient 3 noticed hearing unpleasant echoes and disorders of the directional hearing. All patients had a clinical brainstem syndrome. ENT inspection, sound audiometry and stapedius reflex were normal. All three patients had pathologically changed auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) with indications of a brainstem lesion, and in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demyelinating lesions in the ipsilateral pons and in the central auditory pathway. The origin we presume in case 1 is an abnormal impulse conduction from the leminiscus lateralis to the central trigeminus pathway and, in the other cases, a disturbance in the central sensory modulation. All patients developed in the further course a clinically definite MS. Having excluded peripheral causes for a hyperacusis, such as, e.g., an idiopathic facial nerve palsy or myasthenia gravis, one should always consider the possibility of MS in a case of central phonophobia. Therapeutic possibilities include the giving of serotonin reuptake inhibitors or acoustic lenses for clearly definable disturbing frequencies. PMID:12474992

  8. Central Sensitization: A Generator of Pain Hypersensitivity by Central Neural Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Latremoliere, Alban; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2009-01-01

    Central sensitization represents an enhancement in the function of neurons and circuits in nociceptive pathways caused by increases in membrane excitability and synaptic efficacy as well as to reduced inhibition and is a manifestation of the remarkable plasticity of the somatosensory nervous system in response to activity, inflammation, and neural injury. The net effect of central sensitization is to recruit previously subthreshold synaptic inputs to nociceptive neurons, generating an increased or augmented action potential output: a state of facilitation, potentiation, augmentation, or amplification. Central sensitization is responsible for many of the temporal, spatial, and threshold changes in pain sensibility in acute and chronic clinical pain settings and exemplifies the fundamental contribution of the central nervous system to the generation of pain hypersensitivity. Because central sensitization results from changes in the properties of neurons in the central nervous system, the pain is no longer coupled, as acute nociceptive pain is, to the presence, intensity, or duration of noxious peripheral stimuli. Instead, central sensitization produces pain hypersensitivity by changing the sensory response elicited by normal inputs, including those that usually evoke innocuous sensations. Perspective In this article, we review the major triggers that initiate and maintain central sensitization in healthy individuals in response to nociceptor input and in patients with inflammatory and neuropathic pain, emphasizing the fundamental contribution and multiple mechanisms of synaptic plasticity caused by changes in the density, nature, and properties of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. PMID:19712899

  9. 75 FR 14436 - Ameren Corporation, Illinois Power Company, Central Illinois Light Company, Central Illinois...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Ameren Corporation, Illinois Power Company, Central Illinois Light Company, Central Illinois Public Service Company, Ameren Energy Resources Company, LLC, AmerenEnergy Resources Generating Company; Notice of Filing...

  10. District Central Office Leadership as Teaching: How Central Office Administrators Support Principals' Development as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Meredith I.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Research on educational leadership underscores the importance of principals operating as instructional leaders and intensive job-embedded supports for such work; this research also identifies central office staff as key support providers. However, it teaches little about what central office staff do when they provide such support and how…

  11. What Can We Learn from 15,000 Teachers in Central Europe and Central Asia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking Project" which has now sent more than 70 volunteer teacher educators into 20 countries across Central Europe and Central Asia to help teachers to try out methods that foster active learning and critical thinking. Discusses support for the project, teaching strategies introduced, and the…

  12. Anatomic considerations for central venous cannulation

    PubMed Central

    Bannon, Michael P; Heller, Stephanie F; Rivera, Mariela

    2011-01-01

    Central venous cannulation is a commonly performed procedure which facilitates resuscitation, nutritional support, and long-term vascular access. Mechanical complications most often occur during insertion and are intimately related to the anatomic relationship of the central veins. Working knowledge of surface and deep anatomy minimizes complications. Use of surface anatomic landmarks to orient the deep course of cannulating needle tracts appropriately comprises the crux of complication avoidance. The authors describe use of surface landmarks to facilitate safe placement of internal jugular, subclavian, and femoral venous catheters. The role of real-time sonography as a safety-enhancing adjunct is reviewed. PMID:22312225

  13. Central Adaptation following Brachial Plexus Injury.

    PubMed

    Simon, Neil G; Franz, Colin K; Gupta, Nalin; Alden, Tord; Kliot, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Brachial plexus trauma (BPT) often affects young patients and may result in lasting functional deficits. Standard care following BPT involves monitoring for clinical and electrophysiological evidence of muscle reinnervation, with surgical treatment decisions based on the presence or absence of spontaneous recovery. Data are emerging to suggest that central and peripheral adaptation may play a role in recovery following BPT. The present review highlights adaptive and maladaptive mechanisms of central and peripheral nervous system changes following BPT that may contribute to functional outcomes. Rehabilitation and other treatment strategies that harness or modulate these intrinsic adaptive mechanisms may improve functional outcomes following BPT. PMID:26409073

  14. Church Orientations in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laužikas, Rimvydas

    The objective of this case study is to discuss church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe. Due to its geographical situation, this region is a specific part of European cultural space: it is remote from the main cultural centers, it was the last to adopt Christianity, and it experienced intensive interactions with Byzantine culture. Therefore, we can assess church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe as a tradition affected by multicultural interactions and in which there is an interlacement of Catholicism from Western Europe, Byzantinism, local pagan faiths and, in part, the ideas of conception of geographical space of the Jews, Karaites, and Muslims.

  15. Peripheral and central mechanisms of stress resilience

    PubMed Central

    Pfau, Madeline L.; Russo, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    Viable new treatments for depression and anxiety have been slow to emerge, likely owing to the complex and incompletely understood etiology of these disorders. A budding area of research with great therapeutic promise involves the study of resilience, the adaptive maintenance of normal physiology and behavior despite exposure to marked psychological stress. This phenomenon, documented in both humans and animal models, involves coordinated biological mechanisms in numerous bodily systems, both peripheral and central. In this review, we provide an overview of resilience mechanisms throughout the body, discussing current research in animal models investigating the roles of the neuroendocrine, immune, and central nervous systems in behavioral resilience to stress. PMID:25506605

  16. A climatic guide for North Central Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.M.

    1991-06-01

    This guide provides some climatological data pertaining to central and north central Oklahoma. The information was derived from standard reference material to reflect what general surface meteorological characteristics exist in that region. It is intended to assist those individuals involved in the implementation of the first ARM site in that locale. A similar guide already exists for the region involved in Kansas entitled, ``One Regional ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluation``. The Oklahoma Kansas area was selected as the first site from the process reported in the ``Identification, Recommendation and Justification of Potential Locales for ARM Sites``.

  17. A climatic guide for North Central Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.M.

    1991-06-01

    This guide provides some climatological data pertaining to central and north central Oklahoma. The information was derived from standard reference material to reflect what general surface meteorological characteristics exist in that region. It is intended to assist those individuals involved in the implementation of the first ARM site in that locale. A similar guide already exists for the region involved in Kansas entitled, One Regional ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluation''. The Oklahoma Kansas area was selected as the first site from the process reported in the Identification, Recommendation and Justification of Potential Locales for ARM Sites''.

  18. Hydrology of Central Florida Lakes - A Primer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiffer, Donna M.

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Lakes are among the most valued natural resources of central Florida. The landscape of central Florida is riddled with lakeswhen viewed from the air, it almost seems there is more water than land. Florida has more naturally formed lakes than other southeastern States, where many lakes are created by building dams across streams. The abundance of lakes on the Florida peninsula is a result of the geology and geologic history of the State. An estimated 7,800 lakes in Florida are greater than 1 acre in surface area. Of these, 35 percent are located in just four counties (fig. 1): Lake, Orange, Osceola, and Polk (Hughes, 1974b). Lakes add to the aesthetic and commercial value of the area and are used by many residents and visitors for fishing, boating, swimming, and other types of outdoor recreation. Lakes also are used for other purposes such as irrigation, flood control, water supply, and navigation. Residents and visitors commonly ask questions such as Whyare there so many lakes here?, Why is my lake drying up (or flooding)?, or Is my lake spring-fed? These questions indicate that the basic hydrology of lakes and the interaction of lakes with ground water and surface water are not well understood by the general population. Because of the importance of lakes to residents of central Florida and the many questions and misconceptions about lakes, this primer was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District and the South Florida Water Management District. The USGS has been collecting hydrologic data in central Florida since the 1920s, obtaining valuable information that has been used to better understand the hydrology of the water resources of central Florida, including lakes. In addition to data collection, as of 1994, the USGS had published 66 reports and maps on central Florida lakes (Garcia and Hoy, 1995). The main purpose of this primer is to describe the hydrology of lakes in central

  19. Universities and Knowledge Production in Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses an East/West divide in Europe in university knowledge production. It argues that the communist and post-communist legacies in the four major Central European economies studied (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) matter substantially for educational and research systems. The differences in university…

  20. Best Minds Sought for Central Office, Startups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2009-01-01

    The central office isn't being overlooked in the movement to find and develop top talent for school districts. Although ways to recruit, groom, and keep top teachers and strong principals tend to dominate discussions of "human capital" needs in education, a handful of nonprofit organizations and foundations also see providing smart managers as…

  1. Speech and Theatre Education at Central College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Glenn

    1984-01-01

    Speech education in Arkansas's institutions of higher learning has a long and illustrious history. In l89l, the Arkansas Baptist Association opened Central College for women to students ranging from first grade through college. The curriculum was departmentalized into preparatory, high school, and collegiate levels with a shared faculty for all…

  2. Bilingual Story Times in North Central Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumiller, Marilyn

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the growth of the Spanish-speaking population served by the North Central Regional Library System (Washington) and the library's response which has included improving Spanish language collections, encouraging staff to learn Spanish, developing bilingual programs for children and families, improving publicity, and using translators. (LRW)

  3. Central College Data Book, 1989-90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Robin

    Designed to provide a statistical profile of Central College (CC) in Kansas, a two-year, residential, liberal arts and career-entry college affiliated with the Free Methodist Church of North America, this five-part fact book examines the mission and history, faculty, enrollment, academic program, and financial resources of the college. The first…

  4. 2011 floods of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    * Do floods contribute to the transport and fate of contaminants that affect human and ecosystem health? In an effort to help address these and other questions, USGS Professional Paper 1798 consists of independent but complementary chapters dealing with various scientific aspects of the 2011 floods in the Central United States.

  5. SUNY's Centralization: Normal Schools as Precedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, H. Warren; Corby, Betsey C.

    This report presents the historical background of New York State's normal school system, the system that predated the centralized organization of the State University of New York (SUNY) system. New York's first state normal school was established in Albany in 1844. Nineteen years later the state began to provide support for the normal school at…

  6. Central control element expands computer capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Redundant processing and multiprocessing modes can be obtained from one computer by using logic configuration. Configuration serves as central control element which can automatically alternate between high-capacity multiprocessing mode and high-reliability redundant mode using dynamic mode switching in real time.

  7. Central sensitization in humans: assessment and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    It is evident that chronic pain can modify the excitability of central nervous system which imposes a specific challenge for the management and for the development of new analgesics. The central manifestations can be difficult to quantify using standard clinical examination procedures, but quantitative sensory testing (QST) may help to quantify the degree and extend of the central reorganization and effect of pharmacological interventions. Furthermore, QST may help in optimizing the development programs for new drugs.Specific translational mechanistic QST tools have been developed to quantify different aspects of central sensitization in pain patients such as threshold ratios, provoked hyperalgesia/allodynia, temporal summation (wind-up like pain), after sensation, spatial summation, reflex receptive fields, descending pain modulation, offset analgesia, and referred pain areas. As most of the drug development programs in the area of pain management have not been very successful, the pharmaceutical industry has started to utilize the complementary knowledge obtained from QST profiling. Linking patients QST profile with drug efficacy profile may provide the fundamentals for developing individualized, targeted pain management programs in the future. Linking QST-assessed pain mechanisms with treatment outcome provides new valuable information in drug development and for optimizing the management regimes for chronic pain. PMID:25846615

  8. Texas State Library Centralized Processing Center. Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Library, Austin.

    This manual of the Centralized Processing Center (CPC) was published in 1966 by the Texas State Library as an introduction to, and explanation of, its services. The CPC is defined as a service center which receives requests for material from member libraries, then orders, receives, classifies, catalogs, prepares catalog and shelf list cards, and…

  9. Central and Incidental Learning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, John W.; Sabo, Ruth

    Earlier studies found that recall scores of information central to the task increased with age while incidental information recall scores remained constant. This study repeated the earlier ones modifying procedures of instructions, testing, and schedule of recall. Also, it tested the effect of labeling pictorial stimuli. The sample of 253 children…

  10. The Suffix "-oso" in Central American Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scavnicky, Gary Eugene A.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the lexical formative "-oso," which is added to nominal and verbal roots to form adjectives to denote possession of the quality contained in the primitive, in Central American Spanish. Concludes it is used with traditional Spanish denotations and has undergone various semantic shifts and is being applied to roots in a completely…

  11. SPIRONOLACTONE FOR NONRESOLVING CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Elodie; Beydoun, Talal; Rothschild, Pierre-Raphaël; Bergin, Ciara; Zhao, Min; Batista, Rui; Brandely, Marie-Laure; Couraud, Benedicte; Farman, Nicolette; Gaudric, Alain; Chast, François

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, for nonresolving central serous chorioretinopathy. Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study. Sixteen eyes of 16 patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and persistent subretinal fluid (SRF) for at least 3 months were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either spironolactone 50 mg or placebo once a day for 30 days, followed by a washout period of 1 week and then crossed over to either placebo or spironolactone for another 30 days. The primary outcome measure was the changes from baseline in SRF thickness at the apex of the serous retinal detachment. Secondary outcomes included subfoveal choroidal thickness and the ETDRS best-corrected visual acuity. Results: The mean duration of central serous chorioretinopathy before enrollment in study eyes was 10 ± 16.9 months. Crossover data analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in SRF in spironolactone treated eyes as compared with the same eyes under placebo (P = 0.04). Secondary analysis on the first period (Day 0–Day 30) showed a significant reduction in subfoveal choroidal thickness in treated eyes as compared with placebo (P = 0.02). No significant changes were observed in the best-corrected visual acuity. There were no complications related to treatment observed. Conclusion: In eyes with persistent SRF due to central serous chorioretinopathy, spironolactone significantly reduced both the SRF and the subfoveal choroidal thickness as compared with placebo. PMID:26017871

  12. Eye Movement Correlates of Acquired Central Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schattka, Kerstin I.; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has…

  13. Equity and Difference in Centralized Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macedo, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The paper focuses on the promise of equity that underlies centralized evaluation policies and its relation to difference, or in other words to the singularity of the subject. I defend that without taking the issue of difference into consideration, there is no education, and that the unique subject is what is aspired by education. The analyses rely…

  14. Central Mississippi River Basin LTAR site overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central Mississippi River Basin (CMRB) member of the Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network is representative of the southern Corn Belt, where subsoil clay content makes tile drainage challenging and make surface runoff and associated erosion problematic. Substantial research infrastru...

  15. Centrality measures for networks with community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Naveen; Singh, Anurag; Cherifi, Hocine

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the network structure, and finding out the influential nodes is a challenging issue in large networks. Identifying the most influential nodes in a network can be useful in many applications like immunization of nodes in case of epidemic spreading, during intentional attacks on complex networks. A lot of research is being done to devise centrality measures which could efficiently identify the most influential nodes in a network. There are two major approaches to this problem: On one hand, deterministic strategies that exploit knowledge about the overall network topology, while on the other end, random strategies are completely agnostic about the network structure. Centrality measures that can deal with a limited knowledge of the network structure are of prime importance. Indeed, in practice, information about the global structure of the overall network is rarely available or hard to acquire. Even if available, the structure of the network might be too large that it is too much computationally expensive to calculate global centrality measures. To that end, a centrality measure is proposed here that requires information only at the community level. Indeed, most of the real-world networks exhibit a community structure that can be exploited efficiently to discover the influential nodes. We performed a comparative evaluation of prominent global deterministic strategies together with stochastic strategies, an available and the proposed deterministic community-based strategy. Effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by performing experiments on synthetic and real-world networks with community structure in the case of immunization of nodes for epidemic control.

  16. Cognitive enhancement with central thalamic electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Shirvalkar, Prasad; Seth, Malika; Schiff, Nicholas D.; Herrera, Daniel G.

    2006-01-01

    Central thalamic electrical stimulation has been proposed as a method for remediation of acquired cognitive disability. Long-standing experimental and clinical observations indicate a key role for neurons within the central thalamus in maintaining the alert waking state and facilitating attended behaviors. Here, we show that continuous high frequency (100 Hz) electrical stimulation of the central thalamus generates widespread cortical activation of c-fos across all cortical layers and a selective pattern of regulation of zif268 within the supragranular, granular, and infragranular cortical laminae. Significant elevation of both immediate early genes also is seen in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Use of the same stimulation parameters is shown to facilitate untrained goal-directed seeking behavior and object recognition memory in rodents. An overall increase of exploratory motor behaviors and grooming activity also is observed, consistent with a global increase in arousal. Taken together, these studies indicate that electrical stimulation of the central thalamus may enhance cognitive performance through neocortical and hippocampal neuronal activation and specific regulation of gene expression. PMID:17065322

  17. Central Computational Facility CCF communications subsystem options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, K. B.

    1979-01-01

    A MITRE study which investigated the communication options available to support both the remaining Central Computational Facility (CCF) computer systems and the proposed U1108 replacements is presented. The facilities utilized to link the remote user terminals with the CCF were analyzed and guidelines to provide more efficient communications were established.

  18. Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albouy, J.; Godivier, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic are described including a map of Bouguer anomalies at 1/1,000,000 in two sections (eastern sheet, western sheet) and a map, in color, of Bouguer anomalies at 1/2,000,000. Instrumentation, data acquisition, calibration, and data correction procedures are discussed.

  19. The Centrality of Engagement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Bruns, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.; Furco, Andrew; Swanson, Louis

    2012-01-01

    The centrality of engagement is critical to the success of higher education in the future. Engagement is essential to most effectively achieving the overall purpose of the university, which is focused on the knowledge enterprise. Today's engagement is scholarly, is an aspect of learning and discovery, and enhances society and higher education.…

  20. The Centrality of Engagement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Bruns, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.; Furco, Andrew; Swanson, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The centrality of engagement is critical to the success of higher education in the future. Engagement is essential to most effectively achieving the overall purpose of the university, which is focused on the knowledge enterprise. Today's engagement is scholarly, is an aspect of learning and discovery, and enhances society and higher education.…

  1. Central Endoscopy Reading in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    PubMed

    Panés, Julián; Feagan, Brian G; Hussain, Fez; Levesque, Barrett G; Travis, Simon P

    2016-09-01

    Endoscopic assessment of the presence and severity of endoscopic lesions has become an essential part of clinical trials in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, for both patient eligibility and outcome measures. Variability in lesion interpretation between and within observers and the potential bias of local investigators in patient assessment have long been recognized. This variability can be reduced, although not completely removed, by independent evaluation of the examinations by experienced off-site (central) readers, properly trained in regard to lesion definition and identification, that should be removed from direct patient contact and blinded to any other clinical or study data. Adding endoscopic demonstration of active disease to eligibility criteria has the potential to reduce placebo response rates, whereas in outcome assessment it has the potential to provide a more precise estimation of the treatment effect, increasing the efficiency of the study. Central endoscopy reading is still at the beginning of its development, and the paradigms of central reading need refinement in terms of the number of readers, the process by which a final score is assigned, the selection and sequence of central readers, and the endoscopic indices of choice. PMID:27604978

  2. [Central venous lines in children: new trends].

    PubMed

    Desruennes, E

    2006-04-01

    Central venous catheterisation under two-dimensional ultrasound (US) guidance has been proved to be quicker and safer than the classical landmark method in both adults and children. In the literature US guidance with sterile dressing of the probe is the 'gold-standard'. Another way to use US is simple preoperative US location followed either by blind puncture, either by US guided puncture when difficulties are expected: small infants (<15 kg), small diameter or collapses of the vein, multiple unsuccessful attempts during blind technique. Ideal location of the tip of central venous catheters is no more controversial but can depend on age and weight. In 2002 a French agency (Afssaps) study showed that the risk of perforation and tamponade was especially high in small weight prematures with 27 gauge polyurethane catheters when tip was located in the cardiac cavities. In children and adults venous thrombosis and catheter malfunction are closely related to short catheters whose tip is above T3-T4. Excepted polyurethane catheters in small weight prematures, the best location of long-term central venous catheters tip is the superior vena cava-right auricle junction. At this time routine antithrombotic prophylaxis is not recommended for children with long-term central venous catheters. PMID:16414237

  3. Central Virginia Community College 1999 Fact Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Geoffrey

    The Fact Book is an annual publication of the Office of Research, Assessment and Planning at Central Virginia Community College (CVCC). It includes data and trends from 1994-1998 and is divided into six parts: (1) "The College" includes information on the College Board, institutional history, facilities, mission and goals, revenues and…

  4. Evolution in a centralized transfusion service.

    PubMed

    AuBuchon, James P; Linauts, Sandra; Vaughan, Mimi; Wagner, Jeffrey; Delaney, Meghan; Nester, Theresa

    2011-12-01

    The metropolitan Seattle area has utilized a centralized transfusion service model throughout the modern era of blood banking. This approach has used four laboratories to serve over 20 hospitals and clinics, providing greater capabilities for all at a lower consumption of resources than if each depended on its own laboratory and staff for these functions. In addition, this centralized model has facilitated wider use of the medical capabilities of the blood center's physicians, and a county-wide network of transfusion safety officers is now being developed to increase the impact of the blood center's transfusion expertise at the patient's bedside. Medical expectations and traffic have led the blood center to evolve the centralized model to include on-site laboratories at facilities with complex transfusion requirements (e.g., a children's hospital) and to implement in all the others a system of remote allocation. This new capability places a refrigerator stocked with uncrossmatched units in the hospital but retains control over the dispensing of these through the blood center's computer system; the correct unit can be electronically cross-matched and released on demand, obviating the need for transportation to the hospital and thus speeding transfusion. This centralized transfusion model has withstood the test of time and continues to evolve to meet new situations and ensure optimal patient care. PMID:22150685

  5. Central Police Dispatch: An Exemplary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, John J.

    The document presents a description of the Central Police Dispatch (PCD) system of Muskegon County, Michigan. The CPD, a civilian-staffed organization, is concerned with the regionalization of police services and improved police communications. The development of the CPD is traced from the Muskegon Interlocal Public Agency (1969-72) to the present…

  6. Testing the Predictions of the Central Capacity Sharing Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tombu, Michael; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The divergent predictions of 2 models of dual-task performance are investigated. The central bottleneck and central capacity sharing models argue that a central stage of information processing is capacity limited, whereas stages before and after are capacity free. The models disagree about the nature of this central capacity limitation. The…

  7. Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor Versus Agenesis of the Maxillary Central Incisor.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Fabrício Kitazono; Arid, Juliana; De Rossi, Andiara; Paula-Silva, Francisco W G; Nelson-Filho, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    A solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is rare and affected individuals may carry a potentially serious condition known as SMMCI syndrome. However, many of these cases do not receive proper attention because they are misdiagnosed as agenesis of the maxillary central incisor. The purpose of this manuscript is to report two cases of children with only one maxillary central incisor and draw diagnostic differences between the entities. A correct diagnosis is very important because if an SMMCI is confirmed, the patient should be referred for genetic counseling. PMID:27098718

  8. The central power source in active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptak, Roger; Stoner, Ronald

    Potential sources for the central power in AGN are examined. The continuum, emission line profiles, and time variability and broad emission line region for AGN are analyzed. The supermassive black hole hypothesis, the supermassive magnetized core model of Kundt (1978), and the model of Stoner and Ptak (1984) in which the supermassive stars maintain a kind of long-term quasi-stability, but accretion is balanced by mass loss and spherical bursts rather than in jets are considered. It is argued that the hypothesis that the supermassive blackholes are the central engines for AGN is based on theoretical principles; however, AGN emission line profiles and variability suggest a spherical geometry for the observed components of these engines. Also the supermassive black hole models do not account for all the AGN observations.

  9. Iowa Central Quality Fuel Testing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Heach, Don; Bidieman, Julaine

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project is to finalize the creation of an independent quality fuel testing laboratory on the campus of Iowa Central Community College in Fort Dodge, Iowa that shall provide the exploding biofuels industry a timely and cost-effective centrally located laboratory to complete all state and federal fuel and related tests that are required. The recipient shall work with various state regulatory agencies, biofuel companies and state and national industry associations to ensure that training and testing needs of their members and American consumers are met. The recipient shall work with the Iowa Department of Ag and Land Stewardship on the development of an Iowa Biofuel Quality Standard along with the Development of a standard that can be used throughout industry.

  10. Some Central Asian observatories for the WET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meistas, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Mt. Maidanak Observatory, one of several observatories in the former Soviet Central Asia, is located at an important longitude to fill in the gap in the WET (Whole Earth Telescope) network. The Lithuanian astronomical station on Mt. Maidanak was successfully tested in May 1992 for future WET campaigns. In the September 1992 campaign it provided some useful data for the WET. In February 1993 the observatory was nationalized by the Uzbekistan government, and almost all astronomical activities there have stopped. The future use of this observatory for the WET campaigns is uncertain, but there are some signs that the situation is improving. We have examined the possibility of using other Central Asian observatories for the WET. A contact was established with the Fesenkov Astronomical Institute in Alma-Ata, and in October 1993 WET observations were made at the Assy-Turgen Observatory in Kazakhstan.

  11. Centrally acting agents and visceral sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Fioramonti, J; Bueno, L

    2002-07-01

    The evidence relating to the site and mechanism of action of "centrally acting" agents which may affect visceral sensitivity is reviewed. Antidepressant drugs such as amitriptyline as well as the newer selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are thought to act at the level of the CNS. Opiates, including morphine as well as compounds such as trimebutine or fedotozine designed for therapeutic use in irritable bowel syndrome, are effective in reducing visceral nociception. Cytokines in the CNS are known to be involved in the modulation of pain and there is also evidence to suggest that centrally acting cytokines may play a role in the production of visceral hypersensitivity. Consequently, they may provide an interesting target for future research. PMID:12077076

  12. Central pontine myelinolysis: electrolytes and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, J V; Jude, E B

    2014-01-01

    Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), which is a component of the osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS), is a frequent neurological complication that follows rapid correction of hyponatraemia. However, there are other predisposing risk factors (chronic alcoholism, hypokalaemia) that perpetuate the development of ODS. We report a case of a 39-year-old woman with a history of chronic alcoholism who presented to us with progressive neurological deficits (paraparesis, paresthesias). She was initially detected to have coexisting hypokalaemia which was eventually rectified with potassium supplementation. However, she continued to experience progressive worsening of her neurological symptoms despite adequate potassium supplementation. Therefore, a neurological opinion was sought for and she was diagnosed with CPM based on a background of chronic alcoholism and malnutrition; an MRI of the brain showed a hyperintense signal in the central pontine region. Following the diagnosis of CPM, she was rehabilitated with occupational and physiotherapy. PMID:24682140

  13. Centralization vs. decentralization in medical school libraries.

    PubMed

    Crawford, H

    1966-07-01

    Does the medical school library in the United States operate more commonly under the university library or the medical school administration? University-connected medical school libraries were asked to indicate (a) the source of their budgets, whether from the central library or the medical school, and (b) the responsibility for their acquisitions and cataloging. Returns received from sixtyeight of the seventy eligible institutions showed decentralization to be much the most common: 71 percent of the libraries are funded by their medical schools; 79 percent are responsible for their own acquisitions and processing. The factor most often associated with centralization of both budget and operation is public ownership. Decentralization is associated with service to one or two rather than three or more professional schools. Location of the medical school in a different city from the university is highly favorable to autonomy. Other factors associated with these trends are discussed. PMID:5945568

  14. Improving the accuracy of central difference schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, Eli

    1988-01-01

    General difference approximations to the fluid dynamic equations require an artificial viscosity in order to converge to a steady state. This artificial viscosity serves two purposes. One is to suppress high frequency noise which is not damped by the central differences. The second purpose is to introduce an entropy-like condition so that shocks can be captured. These viscosities need a coefficient to measure the amount of viscosity to be added. In the standard scheme, a scalar coefficient is used based on the spectral radius of the Jacobian of the convective flux. However, this can add too much viscosity to the slower waves. Hence, it is suggested that a matrix viscosity be used. This gives an appropriate viscosity for each wave component. With this matrix valued coefficient, the central difference scheme becomes closer to upwind biased methods.

  15. Imaging the fetal central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    De Keersmaecker, B.; Claus, F.; De Catte, L.

    2011-01-01

    The low prevalence of fetal central nervous system anomalies results in a restricted level of exposure and limited experience for most of the obstetricians involved in prenatal ultrasound. Sonographic guidelines for screening the fetal brain in a systematic way will probably increase the detection rate and enhance a correct referral to a tertiary care center, offering the patient a multidisciplinary approach of the condition. This paper aims to elaborate on prenatal sonographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis and outcome of various central nervous system malformations. Detailed neurosonographic investigation has become available through high resolution vaginal ultrasound probes and the development of a variety of 3D ultrasound modalities e.g. ultrasound tomographic imaging. In addition, fetal MRI is particularly helpful in the detection of gyration and neurulation anomalies and disorders of the gray and white matter. PMID:24753859

  16. A study of Central Exclusive Production

    SciTech Connect

    Monk, James; /Manchester U.

    2008-09-01

    Central exclusive production of a system X in a collision between two hadrons h is defined as hh {yields} h + X + h with no other activity apart from the decay products of X. This thesis presents predictions for the production cross section of a CP violating supersymmetric Higgs boson and the radion of the Randall-Sundrum model. The ExHuME Monte Carlo generator was written to simulate central exclusive processes and is described and explored. A comparison to di-jet observations made by the D0 detector at the Tevatron, Fermilab between January and June 2004 is made and the distributions found support the predictions of ExHuME.

  17. Social suggestibility to central and peripheral misinformation.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Andrea L; Daneman, Meredyth

    2006-05-01

    This study used a laboratory-based paradigm to investigate social influences on participants' susceptibility to misleading suggestions. Participants viewed a video clip of an action sequence with one or more peers, and then were required to discuss the event with the co-witness or with the group of co-witnesses. During the discussion a confederate, posing as a peer, presented misinformation about central and peripheral features of the co-witnessed event. Results indicated that participants were more susceptible to misleading suggestions during one-on-one discussions than during group discussions. In addition, participants were susceptible to misleading suggestions about central features of the witnessed event, although to a lesser extent than they were susceptible to misleading suggestions about peripheral features. PMID:16766450

  18. Central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Andrei S; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2016-02-01

    High-level neurons processing complex, behaviorally relevant signals are sensitive to conjunctions of features. Characterizing the receptive fields of such neurons is difficult with standard statistical tools, however, and the principles governing their organization remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate multiple distinct receptive-field features in individual high-level auditory neurons in a songbird, European starling, in response to natural vocal signals (songs). We then show that receptive fields with similar characteristics can be reproduced by an unsupervised neural network trained to represent starling songs with a single learning rule that enforces sparseness and divisive normalization. We conclude that central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields that can arise through a combination of sparseness and normalization in neural circuits. Our results, along with descriptions of random, discontinuous receptive fields in the central olfactory neurons in mammals and insects, suggest general principles of neural computation across sensory systems and animal classes. PMID:26787894

  19. [Central pontine myelinolysis induced by hyperemesis gravidarum].

    PubMed

    Tonelli, J; Zurrú, M C; Castillo, J; Casado, P; Di Prizito, C; Gutfraind, E

    1999-01-01

    An 18-year-old woman in her first pregnancy with hyperemesis gravidarum, presented dehydration, without hyponatremia. She was confused with profound disorientation, apathy, and drowsiness. She presented upbeating nistagmus on upward gaze and gate ataxia recognised as Wernicke's encephalopathy. Laboratory tests demonstrated hypokalemia, hypernatremia and aminotransferase elevation. The serum osmolality was 319 mOsm/kg and the water deficiency 2.73 l. The patient developed weakness in the four limbs, with hypotonicity, absence of tendon reflexes and showed bilateral Babinski signs. A T2 weighted sagittal cranial-magnetic resonance imaging revealed a high signal within mid-pons suggesting central pontine myelinolysis. In this case we highlight the absence of hyponatremia. Furthermore, the central pontine myelinolysis was probably secondary to hypokalemia, hypernatremia and hyperosmolality. PMID:10413897

  20. Centralized and Decentralized Control for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Jin, Chunlian; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Kirkham, Harold

    2011-04-29

    Demand response has been recognized as an essential element of the smart grid. Frequency response, regulation and contingency reserve functions performed traditionally by generation resources are now starting to involve demand side resources. Additional benefits from demand response include peak reduction and load shifting, which will defer new infrastructure investment and improve generator operation efficiency. Technical approaches designed to realize these functionalities can be categorized into centralized control and decentralized control, depending on where the response decision is made. This paper discusses these two control philosophies and compares their relative advantages and disadvantages in terms of delay time, predictability, complexity, and reliability. A distribution system model with detailed household loads and controls is built to demonstrate the characteristics of the two approaches. The conclusion is that the promptness and reliability of decentralized control should be combined with the predictability and simplicity of centralized control to achieve the best performance of the smart grid.

  1. Spherical explosion with a central energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Miyu; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Tsuboki, Yoichiro

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel semi-analytic solution that describes the propagation of a spherical blast wave driven by a central energy source. The initial density profile has a power-law function of the distance from the center and the energy is injected only into the central region at a rate given by a power-law function of time. This solution is composed of three regions separated by the contact surface and the shock front. The innermost region is assumed to be uniform and the outside of the contact surface includes the shocked matter described by self-similar solutions. We analytically derive the applicable range of parameters of this solution from requirements needed to satisfy the boundary conditions. We perform numerical simulations for flows with various values of parameters, some of which reside out of the thus-derived applicable range, and compare the results with the semi-analytic solutions.

  2. Central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Andrei S.; Gentner, Timothy Q.

    2016-01-01

    High-level neurons processing complex, behaviorally relevant signals are sensitive to conjunctions of features. Characterizing the receptive fields of such neurons is difficult with standard statistical tools, however, and the principles governing their organization remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate multiple distinct receptive-field features in individual high-level auditory neurons in a songbird, European starling, in response to natural vocal signals (songs). We then show that receptive fields with similar characteristics can be reproduced by an unsupervised neural network trained to represent starling songs with a single learning rule that enforces sparseness and divisive normalization. We conclude that central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields that can arise through a combination of sparseness and normalization in neural circuits. Our results, along with descriptions of random, discontinuous receptive fields in the central olfactory neurons in mammals and insects, suggest general principles of neural computation across sensory systems and animal classes. PMID:26787894

  3. Variance predicts salience in central sensory processing.

    PubMed

    Hermundstad, Ann M; Briguglio, John J; Conte, Mary M; Victor, Jonathan D; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Tkačik, Gašper

    2014-01-01

    Information processing in the sensory periphery is shaped by natural stimulus statistics. In the periphery, a transmission bottleneck constrains performance; thus efficient coding implies that natural signal components with a predictably wider range should be compressed. In a different regime--when sampling limitations constrain performance--efficient coding implies that more resources should be allocated to informative features that are more variable. We propose that this regime is relevant for sensory cortex when it extracts complex features from limited numbers of sensory samples. To test this prediction, we use central visual processing as a model: we show that visual sensitivity for local multi-point spatial correlations, described by dozens of independently-measured parameters, can be quantitatively predicted from the structure of natural images. This suggests that efficient coding applies centrally, where it extends to higher-order sensory features and operates in a regime in which sensitivity increases with feature variability. PMID:25396297

  4. High-temperature solar central receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinrood, A. C.

    1981-07-01

    Designs and concepts for solar central receiver thermal power plants are reviewed. Concentrations of over 1,000 suns are now possible, and seven prototype plants, producing from 1-10 MWe, are close to completion, employing cavity and external receiver configurations. Heat transfer fluids are discussed, noting that the water/steam cycle is emerging as the dominant mode; liquid sodium is benefitting from extensive testing for nuclear power plants; molten salt provides thermal storage at $10-30/kWt-hr; high temperature gas systems (815 C) can be applied for gypsum board drying and NH3 production. Heliostats are all of a steel/glass configuration and require mass production to become economical. Thermal storage systems, applications for repowering in conjunction with conventional power plants, and cogeneration for electricity/process heat are examined, and power costs are projected to match those of coal if the central receiver construction costs can be halved.

  5. Symmetry reduction for central force problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLachlan, Robert I.; Modin, Klas; Verdier, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    We given an elementary illustration of symmetry reduction for central force problems, drawing phase portraits of the reduced dynamics as the intersection of Casimir and energy level sets in three dimensions. These systems form a classic example of symplectic reduction which can usefully be compared to the more commonly seen case of the free rigid body. Dedicated to the memory of Jerry Marsden, 1942–2010.

  6. Petroleum potential of central Columbia basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lingley, W.S. Jr.; Walsh, T.J.

    1987-08-01

    Ten deep wildcat wells have been drilled in the 75,000 mi/sup 2/ Columbia basin. These wells penetrated Miocene Columbia River Basalt up to 11,000 ft thick and Paleogene nonmarine siltstones, claystones, shales, coals, sandstones, and volcanogenic rocks exceeding 11,000 ft in aggregate thickness. Lithic and arkosic sandstones range from several inches to more than 60 ft in thickness, average 26 ft thick, and are variedly argillaceous. Mean log-derived sandstone porosity ranges from 18% at 6000 ft to 8% at 14,000 ft drilled-depth. Mean vitrinite reflectance ranges from 0.4 to 1.3 within the siliciclastic section. Numerous wet-gas shows were logged in three wells including a 3.1 MMCFGD flow on a 10/64-in. choke with 3,965 psi FTP recorded during a test of Shell's 1-9 Burlington Northern. The Rattlesnake Hills gas field in the south-central Columbia basin produced 1.3 bcf of methane from Columbia River Basalt before depletion in 1941. The east-central basin comprises a plain and the west-central basin includes the hilly Yakima foldbelt where topography mimics structure. The foldbelt includes several northwest and southwest-trending anticlines, most of which are asymmetric, verge to the north, range from 3 to 6 mi across strike, and are longer than 60 mi along trend. These anticlines have numerous faulted surface culminations. Assuming the Paleogene section is conformable with surficial structure, the estimated range of possible in-place gas under these culminations is 40 bcf to 1 tcf. Most of these culminations have not been tested. The potential of the east-central Columbia basin remains unknown.

  7. Computed tomography of the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Bentson, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to review the most pertinent articles published during the past year on the subject of computed tomography of the central nervous system. The chapter contains sections on pediatric computed tomography, and on the diagnostic use of CT in white matter disease, in infectious disease, for intracranial aneurysms, trauma, and intracranial tumors. Metrizamide flow studies and contrast enhancement are also examined. (KRM)

  8. Gravitational Study of the Central Nervous System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A series of experiments conducted at 1G are discussed with reference to the role of calcium ions in information processing by the central nervous system. A technique is described which allows thin sections of a mammalian hippocampus to be isolated while maintaining neural activity. Two experiments carried out in hypergravic fields are also addressed; one investigating altered stimulation in the auditory system, the other determining temperature regulation responses in hypergravic fields.

  9. The quantum human central neural system.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, Athanasios; Rekkas, John

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we present Excess Entropy Production for human aging system as the sum of their respective subsystems and electrophysiological status. Additionally, we support the hypothesis of human brain and central neural system quantumness and we strongly suggest the theoretical and philosophical status of human brain as one of the unknown natural Dirac magnetic monopoles placed in the center of a Riemann sphere. PMID:25416114

  10. Central giant cell granuloma of the maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Manish; Gupta, Monica; Singh, Sunder; Kaur, Rupinder

    2013-01-01

    Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG), formerly called giant cell reparative granuloma, is a non-neoplastic proliferative lesion of an unknown aetiology. It occurs most commonly in the mandible. The case reported here resembled a wide variety of conditions that led to a misdiagnosis both on clinical and radiographic examinations but was histopathologically diagnosed as CGCG. We managed this case by endoscopic excision and curettage via nasal route without producing external scar and avoiding damage to the un-erupted tooth. PMID:23475995

  11. CDF central preshower and crack detector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Artikov, A.; Boudagov, J.; Chokheli, D.; Drake, G.; Gallinaro, M.; Giunta, M.; Grudzinski, J.; Huston, J.; Iori, M.; Kim, D.; Kim, M.; /Dubna, JINR /Argonne /Rockefeller U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /Michigan State U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /CHEP, Taegu /Seoul Natl. U.

    2007-02-01

    The CDF Central Preshower and Crack Detector Upgrade consist of scintillator tiles with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, clear-fiber optical cables, and multi-anode photomultiplier readout. A description of the detector design, test results from R&D studies, and construction phase are reported. The upgrade was installed late in 2004, and a large amount of proton-antiproton collider data has been collected since then. Detector studies using those data are also discussed.

  12. Zygomycotic invasion of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tomoaki; Mineta, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Keigo; Ando, Masakatsu; Obata, Masahiko

    2010-06-01

    Zygomycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that affects the central nervous system (CNS). In this report, we present three cases of zygomycosis with CNS involvement. In two patients zygomycosis developed after neurosurgery, and in the third patient zygomycosis developed after bone marrow transplantation for leukemia. All patients developed persistent fever and neurological deficits. They presented with progressive cerebral infarction accompanied by hemorrhage. Intraoperative findings and histopathological examinations revealed that zygomycotic hyphae caused mycotic aneurysm, vasculitis, and venous occlusion. PMID:20585927

  13. Central Nevada Test Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Lyles; Jenny Chapman; John Healey; David Gillespie

    2006-09-30

    Water level measurements were performed and water samples collected from the Central Nevada Test Area model validation wells in September 2006. Hydraulic head measurements were compared to previous observations; the MV wells showed slight recovery from the drilling and testing operation in 2005. No radioisotopes exceeded limits set in the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan, and no significant trends were observed when compared to previous analyses.

  14. Tectonomagmatic Associations on the Central Andean Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva, S. L.; Viramonte, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Neogene evolution of the Central Andes is characterized by a strong association between plate convergence, mountain building and plateau formation, and magmatism. Plateau uplift by crustal shortening and thickening in the lower crust is broadly coincident with large scale silicic magmatism defined by the Neogene Central Andean ignimbrite province. Of particular interest here are the spatiotemporal correlations between silicic magmatism and tectonic evolution of the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Although magmatism is driven by the subduction-related flux from mantle to crust, the shift to "crustal" magmatism as indicated by elevated crustal isotopic indices after ~10Ma suggests a link between crustal thickening, plateau formation and silicic magmatism. In particular, elevated geotherms associated with crustal thickening and enhanced mantle flux associated with lithospheric delamination may have played a role in thermally preparing the Central Andean crust for enhanced silicic magma production during the extensive Neogene ignimbrite flare-up. Emplacement of these magmas in the upper crust throughout the Neogene may have fuelled a period of significant interaction between magmatism and tectonism on the plateau. With particular reference to the 21° to 24°S segment of the Central Andes, spatial and structural coincidence of calderas of the Altiplano Puna Volcanic Complex with the NW-SE striking Calama-Olacapata-El Toro fault zone suggests significant tectonomagmatic interaction. Location of calderas suggest that these regional faults focused magma intrusion and storage, while spatially and temporally correlated eruption pulses connote a tectonic control. Indeed, current thermomechanical models of magma chamber development and eruption triggering promote a role for external triggering of "perched" upper crustal magma chambers. This might have been achieved by melt-enhanced deformation, or alternatively, significant uplift (~1km) associated with the development of large

  15. Fragile isthmus under pressure. Central America.

    PubMed

    Ypsilantis, J

    1992-01-01

    In Costa Rica the 1300 hectares of rainforest that comprise La Selva Biological Station support more than 1.5 times the number of plant and animal species found in California. In Central America over 2/3 of all deforestation has occurred since 1950, and closed canopy forest has shrunk dramatically during the past 40 years. The population in Central America, plus Mexico, grew by around 28% during the period 1977-87. At the same time the surface of forests and woodlands decreased by 13%, to 26% of the total land area. Croplands grew by 4% during these 10 years, to 13% of the total land area, and pastures by 2% to 37%; and unproductive lands grew by 14% to 24% of total land area. 50% of land is seriously eroded or degraded in El Salvador and over 30% in Guatemala. Central America's population was 22 million in 1980, 29 million in 1990, and it is anticipated to reach 63 million by 2025. Central America's urban population reached 46% in the 1990s: over 13 million with continuing increases in the next few decades. The growing population's need for fuelwood and the demand for agricultural land pose the main threat to forests in the coming decades. Close to 90% of the energy used by households comes from fuelwood. In the Telire reserve in Costa Rica 366 Cabecars are not yet an environmental threat for the forest. The Peten area in Guatemala is inhabited by around 300,000 people whose destructive slash and burn practices pose a serious threat to the environment which is exacerbated by a high population growth rate of 5.5% a year. PMID:12317701

  16. JUNO Central Detector and its prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhimin

    2016-05-01

    JUNO is a multi-purpose underground liquid scintillator experiment; its R&D and civil construction all are in progress. During this July, 2015, JUNO collaboration selects the acrylic option as central detector (CD) scheme. The R&D progress of support point structure and acrylic panel of CD acrylic option all are in good shape. At the same time, a prototype detector of JUNO is designed and under construction, the goal is mainly to study different PMTs, background, electronics etc.

  17. The NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control System

    SciTech Connect

    G. Oliaro; J. Dong; K. Tindall; P. Sichta

    1999-12-17

    Earlier this year the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory achieved ''first plasma''. The Central Instrumentation and Control System was used to support plasma operations. Major elements of the system include the Process Control System, Plasma Control System, Network System, Data Acquisition System, and Synchronization System. This paper will focus on the Process Control System. Topics include the architecture, hardware interface, operator interface, data management, and system performance.

  18. Neuroimaging supports central pathology in familial dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Hilz, Max J; Berlin, Dena; Yau, Po Lai; Javier, David; Sweat, Victoria; Bruehl, Hannah; Convit, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a hereditary peripheral and central nervous system disorder with poorly defined central neuropathology. This prospective pilot study aimed to determine if MRI would provide objective parameters of central neuropathology. There were 14 study subjects, seven FD individuals (18.6 +/- 4.2 years, 3 female) and seven controls (19.1 +/- 5.8 years, 3 female). All subjects had standardized brain MRI evaluation including quantitative regional volume measurements, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessment of white matter (WM) microstructural integrity by calculation of fractional anisotropy (FA), and proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) to assess neuronal health. The FD patients had significantly decreased FA in optic radiation (p = 0.009) and middle cerebellar peduncle (p = 0.004). Voxel-wise analysis identified both GM and WM microstructural damage among FD subjects as there were nine clusters of WM FA reductions and 16 clusters of GM apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) elevations. Their WM proportion was significantly decreased (p = 0.003) as was the WM proportion in the frontal region (p = 0.007). (1)H MRS showed no significant abnormalities. The findings of WM abnormalities and decreased optic radiation and middle cerebellar peduncle FA in the FD study group, suggest compromised myelination and WM micro-structural integrity in FD brains. These neuroimaging results are consistent with clinical visual abnormalities and gait disturbance. Furthermore the frontal lobe atrophy is consistent with previously reported neuropsychological deficits. PMID:19705052

  19. Fibromyalgia: the prototypical central sensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boomershine, Chad S

    2015-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM), the most common central sensitivity syndrome (CSS) affecting over 5% of the population, is a disorder of chronic widespread pain accompanied by numerous other symptoms that causes significant functional impairment. The core FM symptom domains can be recalled using the FIBRO mnemonic and include Fatigue and Fog (cognitive dysfunction), Insomnia (difficulties with all aspects of sleep including initiation, maintenance and restorative), Blues (depression and anxiety), Rigidity (stiffness in muscles and joints) and Ow! (widespread pain and tenderness). While typically presenting in middle-aged women, FM can affect both sexes at any age. FM is a syndrome of abnormal central pain processing and increased central sensitivity caused by neurobiological changes that cause dysregulation of mechanisms that normally regulate pain sensation. There are currently three different methods for diagnosing FM; the 1990, 2010 and modified 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. While disabling, FM symptoms can be managed with a regimen of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments. Medication types with benefit in treating FM include anticonvulsants, antidepressants, anti-inflammatories, muscle relaxers, tramadol, and stimulants. Beneficial nonpharmacologic therapies include aerobic and resistance exercise, stretching, cognitive behavioral therapy, and education. Effective management requires formulation of an individualized regimen since patients differ widely in symptoms and treatments they find beneficial. Such an individualized regimen should be based on a systematic assessment of problematic symptoms conducted at baseline and each follow-up with treatments modified over time. While challenging, FM symptoms can be effectively managed and patients can lead full, productive lives. PMID:26088213

  20. Plants and the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Carlini, E A

    2003-06-01

    This review article draws the attention to the many species of plants possessing activity on the central nervous system (CNS). In fact, they cover the whole spectrum of central activity such as psychoanaleptic, psycholeptic and psychodysleptic effects, and several of these plants are currently used in therapeutics to treat human ailments. Among the psychoanaleptic (stimulant) plants, those utilized by human beings to reduce body weight [Ephedra spp. (Ma Huang), Paullinia spp. (guaraná), Catha edulis Forssk. (khat)] and plants used to improve general health conditions (plant adaptogens) were scrutinized. Many species of hallucinogenic (psychodysleptic) plants are used by humans throughout the world to achieve states of mind distortions; among those, a few have been used for therapeutic purposes, such as Cannabis sativa L., Tabernanthe iboga Baill. and the mixture of Psychotria viridis Ruiz and Pav. and Banisteriopsis caapi (Spruce ex Griseb.) C.V. Morton. Plants showing central psycholeptic activities, such as analgesic or anxiolytic actions (Passiflora incarnata L., Valeriana spp. and Piper methysticum G. Forst.), were also analysed.Finally, the use of crude or semipurified extracts of such plants instead of the active substances seemingly responsible for their therapeutic effect is discussed. PMID:12895668

  1. The central uplift of Ritchey crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ning; Bray, Veronica J.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Okubo, Chris H.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Tornabene, Livio L.

    2015-05-01

    Ritchey crater is a ∼79 km diameter complex crater near the boundary between Hesperian ridged plains and Noachian highland terrain on Mars (28.8°S, 309.0°E) that formed after the Noachian. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images of the central peak reveal fractured massive bedrock and megabreccia with large clasts. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectral analysis reveals low calcium pyroxene (LCP), olivine (OL), hydrated silicates (phyllosilicates) and a possible identification of plagioclase bedrock. We mapped the Ritchey crater central uplift into ten units, with 4 main groups from oldest and originally deepest to youngest: (1) megabreccia with large clasts rich in LCP and OL, and with alteration to phyllosilicates; (2) massive bedrock with bright and dark regions rich in LCP or OL, respectively; (3) LCP and OL-rich impactites draped over the central uplift; and (4) aeolian deposits. We interpret the primitive martian crust as igneous rocks rich in LCP, OL, and probably plagioclase, as previously observed in eastern Valles Marineris. We do not observe high-calcium pyroxene (HCP) rich bedrock as seen in Argyre or western Valles Marineris. The association of phyllosilicates with deep megabreccia could be from impact-induced alteration, either as a result of the Richey impact, or alteration of pre-existing impactites from Argyre basin and other large impacts that preceded the Ritchey impact, or both.

  2. The central uplift of Ritchey crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ding, Ning; Bray, Veronica J.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Okubo, Chris H.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Tornabene, Livio L.

    2015-01-01

    Ritchey crater is a ∼79 km diameter complex crater near the boundary between Hesperian ridged plains and Noachian highland terrain on Mars (28.8°S, 309.0°E) that formed after the Noachian. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images of the central peak reveal fractured massive bedrock and megabreccia with large clasts. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectral analysis reveals low calcium pyroxene (LCP), olivine (OL), hydrated silicates (phyllosilicates) and a possible identification of plagioclase bedrock. We mapped the Ritchey crater central uplift into ten units, with 4 main groups from oldest and originally deepest to youngest: (1) megabreccia with large clasts rich in LCP and OL, and with alteration to phyllosilicates; (2) massive bedrock with bright and dark regions rich in LCP or OL, respectively; (3) LCP and OL-rich impactites draped over the central uplift; and (4) aeolian deposits. We interpret the primitive martian crust as igneous rocks rich in LCP, OL, and probably plagioclase, as previously observed in eastern Valles Marineris. We do not observe high-calcium pyroxene (HCP) rich bedrock as seen in Argyre or western Valles Marineris. The association of phyllosilicates with deep megabreccia could be from impact-induced alteration, either as a result of the Richey impact, or alteration of pre-existing impactites from Argyre basin and other large impacts that preceded the Ritchey impact, or both.

  3. Central gating of fly optomotor response.

    PubMed

    Haag, Juergen; Wertz, Adrian; Borst, Alexander

    2010-11-16

    We study the integration of multisensory and central input at the level of an identified fly motoneuron, the ventral cervical nerve motoneuron (VCNM) cell, which controls head movements of the animal. We show that this neuron receives input from a central neuron signaling flight activity, from two identified wide-field motion-sensitive neurons, from the wind-sensitive Johnston organ on the antennae, and from the campaniform sensillae of the halteres. We find that visual motion alone leads to only subthreshold responses. Only when it is combined with flight activity or wind stimuli does the VCNM respond to visual motion by modulating its spike activity in a directionally selective way. This nonlinear enhancement of visual responsiveness in the VCNM by central activity is reflected at the behavioral level, when compensatory head movements are measured in response to visual motion. While head movements of flies have only a small amplitude when flies are at rest, the response amplitude is increased by a factor of 30-40 during flight. PMID:21045125

  4. HEALTH, VITAL GOALS, AND CENTRAL HUMAN CAPABILITIES

    PubMed Central

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or ‘central human capabilities and functionings’. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings—or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. PMID:22420910

  5. Temporal node centrality in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoungshick; Anderson, Ross

    2012-02-01

    Many networks are dynamic in that their topology changes rapidly—on the same time scale as the communications of interest between network nodes. Examples are the human contact networks involved in the transmission of disease, ad hoc radio networks between moving vehicles, and the transactions between principals in a market. While we have good models of static networks, so far these have been lacking for the dynamic case. In this paper we present a simple but powerful model, the time-ordered graph, which reduces a dynamic network to a static network with directed flows. This enables us to extend network properties such as vertex degree, closeness, and betweenness centrality metrics in a very natural way to the dynamic case. We then demonstrate how our model applies to a number of interesting edge cases, such as where the network connectivity depends on a small number of highly mobile vertices or edges, and show that our centrality definition allows us to track the evolution of connectivity. Finally we apply our model and techniques to two real-world dynamic graphs of human contact networks and then discuss the implication of temporal centrality metrics in the real world.

  6. LANDSAT imagery of the Central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komer, C. A.; Morgan, P.

    1986-01-01

    The central Andes of South America extend from approximately 14 deg. S to 28 deg. S as an unbroken chain of mountains and volcanoes over 2000 km long. It is here that the Nazca plate dives under the South American plate at angles varying from 10 deg to 30 deg. Very little is known about the volcanoes comprising this classic, subduction-type plate margin. A catalogue of the volcanoes in the central Andes is being prepared by Dr. P.W. Francis and Dr. C.A. Wood at the NASA Lunar and Planetary Institute. At present, more than 800 volcanoes of Cenozoic age have been recognized in the chain, with an estimated 75-80 major, active Quarternary volcanoes. Approximately one hundred 1536 x 1536 pixel color composite Optronics positives were produced from six full LANDSAT Thermatic Mapper scenes and three partial TM scenes. These positives cover a large portion of the central Andes. The positives were produced from LANDSAT data using the VAX imaging package, LIPS. The scenes were first transferred from magnetic tape to disk. The LIPS package was then used to select volcanically interesting areas which were then electronically enhanced. Finally, the selected areas were transferred back to tape and printed on the Optronics equipment. The pictures are color composites using LANDSAT TM bands 7,4, and 2 in the red, green, and blue filters, respectively.

  7. Recent landscape change in California's Central Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulard, C. E.; Wilson, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    Long term monitoring of land use and land cover in California's intensively farmed Central Valley reveals several key physical and socioeconomic factors driving landscape change. As part of the USGS Land Cover Trends Project, we analyzed modern land-use/land-cover change for the California Central Valley ecoregion between 2000 and 2010, monitoring annual change between 2005 and 2010, while creating two new change intervals (2000-2005 and 2005-2010) to update the existing 27-year, interval-based analysis. Between 2000 and 2010, agricultural lands fluctuated due to changes in water allocations and emerging drought conditions, or were lost permanently to development (240 square km). Land-use pressure from agriculture and development also led to a decline in grasslands and shrublands across the region (280 square km). Overall, 400 square km of new developed lands were added in the first decade of the 21st century. From 2007 to 2010, development only expanded by 50 square km, coinciding with defaults in the banking system, the onset of historic foreclosure crisis in California and the global economic downturn. Our annual LULC change estimates capture landscape-level change in response to regional policy changes, climate, and fluctuations (e.g., growth or decline) in the national and global economy. The resulting change data provide insights into the drivers of landscape change in the California Central Valley and the combination of two consistent mapping efforts represents the first continuous, 37-year endeavor of its kind.

  8. A Quaternary fault database for central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd Alan; Bendick, Rebecca; Stübner, Konstanze; Strube, Timo

    2016-02-01

    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic, and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments, and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault traces and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 123 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. All data are accessible for viewing and download via http://www.geo.uni-tuebingen.de/faults/. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  9. A Quaternary Fault Database for Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohadjer, S.; Ehlers, T. A.; Bendick, R.; Stübner, K.; Strube, T.

    2015-09-01

    Earthquakes represent the highest risk in terms of potential loss of lives and economic damage for Central Asian countries. Knowledge of fault location and behavior is essential in calculating and mapping seismic hazard. Previous efforts in compiling fault information for Central Asia have generated a large amount of data that are published in limited-access journals with no digital maps publicly available, or are limited in their description of important fault parameters such as slip rates. This study builds on previous work by improving access to fault information through a web-based interactive map and an online database with search capabilities that allow users to organize data by different fields. The data presented in this compilation include fault location, its geographic, seismic and structural characteristics, short descriptions, narrative comments and references to peer-reviewed publications. The interactive map displays 1196 fault segments and 34 000 earthquake locations on a shaded-relief map. The online database contains attributes for 122 faults mentioned in the literature, with Quaternary and geodetic slip rates reported for 38 and 26 faults respectively, and earthquake history reported for 39 faults. This work has implications for seismic hazard studies in Central Asia as it summarizes important fault parameters, and can reduce earthquake risk by enhancing public access to information. It also allows scientists and hazard assessment teams to identify structures and regions where data gaps exist and future investigations are needed.

  10. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Central Oklahoma Aquifer in central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkle, D.L.; Christenson, S.C.; Rea, Alan

    1997-01-01

    ARC/INFO export files The data sets in this report include digitized aquifer boundaries and maps of hydraulic conductivity, recharge, and ground-water level elevation contours for the Central Oklahoma aquifer in central Oklahoma. This area encompasses all or part of Cleveland, Lincoln, Logan, Oklahoma, Payne, and Pottawatomie Counties. The Central Oklahoma aquifer includes the alluvial and terrace deposits along major streams, the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations, and the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups. The Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace deposits consist of unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The Permian-age Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations consist of sandstone with interbedded siltstone and mudstone. The Permian-age Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups consist of sandstone, shale, and thin limestone. The Central Oklahoma aquifer underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma where the aquifer is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. Most of the usable ground water within the aquifer is from the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formations. Substantial quantities of usable ground water also are present in the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, and in alluvial and terrace deposits associated with the major streams. The aquifer boundaries, hydraulic conductivity and recharge values, and ground-water level elevation contours are from previously published reports.

  11. 55. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL CONTROL STATION, WITH A DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL CONTROL STATION, WITH A DETAIL VIEW OF THE CENTRAL CONTROL PANEL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 10, Guttenberg, Clayton County, IA

  12. 56. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL CONTROL STATION, WITH A DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL CONTROL STATION, WITH A DETAIL VIEW OF THE CENTRAL CONTROL PANEL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 10, Guttenberg, Clayton County, IA

  13. 54. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL CONTROL STATION, FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL CONTROL STATION, FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING CENTRAL CONTROL PANEL AND GENERATOR MOTOR, LOOKING SOUTH - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 10, Guttenberg, Clayton County, IA

  14. Interior overview of central room on the east side, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior overview of central room on the east side, view facing south - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Type "B" Casualty Dressing & Decontamination Station, Intersection of Eighth Street, Avenue E & Central Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Central Venous Access Catheters (CVAC) and Gastrostomy (Feeding) Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Central Venous Access Catheters (CVAC) and Gastrostomy (Feeding) Tubes People with ... without surgery by an interventional radiologist. Central Venous Access Catheters (CVAC) A CVAC is a tube that ...

  16. 9. 'Central of Georgia' sign painted on the underside of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 'Central of Georgia' sign painted on the underside of arch spanning West Boundary Street. - Central of Georgia Railway, 1860 Brick Arch Viaduct, Spanning West Boundary Street & Savannah-Ogeechee Canal, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  17. 17. Readiness Crew Building interior, lower level, central cross corridor, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Readiness Crew Building interior, lower level, central cross corridor, looking northeast from the central lower level tunnel entrance. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility S-6, 1300 Alert Road, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  18. 51. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL CONTROL STATION ON FIRST FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL CONTROL STATION ON FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING CENTRAL CONTROL PANEL AND GENERATOR MOTOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 9, Lynxville, Crawford County, WI

  19. 26. INTERIOR VIEW OF FERRY HOUSE, NORTH CENTRAL BUILDING, FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. INTERIOR VIEW OF FERRY HOUSE, NORTH CENTRAL BUILDING, FIRST LEVEL, LOOKING WEST, MAINTENANCE SHOP - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  20. 27. INTERIOR VIEW OF FERRY HOUSE, NORTH CENTRAL BUILDING, FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR VIEW OF FERRY HOUSE, NORTH CENTRAL BUILDING, FIRST LEVEL, LOOKING EAST, FERRYMEN'S QUARTERS - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  1. 36. VIEW OF PASSENGER WAITING ROOM, FERRY HOUSE, NORTH CENTRAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. VIEW OF PASSENGER WAITING ROOM, FERRY HOUSE, NORTH CENTRAL BUILDING, SECOND LEVEL, LOOKING EAST - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  2. 3. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR VIEW OF CENTRAL HEATING STATION, BUILDING 102, SHOWING FURNACES, LOOKING SOUTH. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Central Heating Station, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  3. Looking northwest at central boiler house, with 16" skelp mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northwest at central boiler house, with 16" skelp mill furnace building in foreground. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Central Boiler House, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  4. INTERIOR OF CENTRAL ROOM OF PAINT SHOP PORTION OF BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF CENTRAL ROOM OF PAINT SHOP PORTION OF BUILDING, FACING SOUTHEAST - Vancouver Barracks, Paint Shop and Central Heating Plant, East Fifth Street southeast of McLoughlin Road, Vancouver, Clark County, WA

  5. 29. INTERIOR VIEW OF FERRY MOUSE, SOUTH CENTRAL BUILDING, FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. INTERIOR VIEW OF FERRY MOUSE, SOUTH CENTRAL BUILDING, FIRST LEVEL, LOOKING WEST, FERRYMEN'S QUARTERS - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  6. 21. General oblique view of main central building mass looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. General oblique view of main central building mass looking to southeast, showing meeting of north and central building elements. - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

  7. Martian Sedimentary Basins and Central Mound Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, K. A.; Bell, J. F., III

    2014-12-01

    Central mounds on Mars are observed as sedimentary deposits within crater interiors, but the specific processes responsible for their formation and subsequent modification are still debated. The deposits are hypothesized to have been created by either subaerial or subaqueous processes through one of two general formation mechanisms. The prevailing hypothesis suggests that after their craters were formed, sediment filled the entire crater and was later eroded into the morphologies we observe today. Alternatively, the sediment could have been deposited as the features we observe today without any significant erosion contributing to their mound shape. We conducted a survey of central mounds that occur within craters larger than 25 km in diameter located between ± 60° latitude on Mars. We use mound locations, mound offsets within their host craters, and mound heights to address various mound formation hypotheses. The results of this survey support the hypothesis that mound sediment once filled the entire host crater and was later eroded into the features we observe today. We propose that large Martian impact craters act as simplistic sedimentary basins. These basins "catch" any sediment that is being transported through the region. Any geologic process that involves transport of material (airfall dust, explosive volcanism, impact ejecta, etc.) could have contributed to the growth of this sediment fill, although the dominant process could vary based on location. During this depositional phase, several processes (ice/frost, water, etc.) could have cemented the material; then, at some point, the environment changed from depositional to erosional, leading to the formation of isolated mounds of sediment within these craters. Our study reveals that most mounds are offset from the center of their host crater in the same direction as the regional winds. For example, the mounds in Arabia Terra are offset towards the western portion of their craters. This observation is

  8. Temperature Scale of Central Stars Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, Jeffry

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project was to gain new insight into both the true temperatures of the central stars of planetary nebulae and their evolutionary histories. The temperature scale of the hottest central stars of planetary nebulae is poorly known. The temperature diagnostics available at visible wavelengths are not useful for these very hot stars, or suffer from as-yet unresolved systematic uncertainties. However, the combination of FUSE FUV spectra and HST NUV spectra allows precise temperature determinations by utilizing ionization balances of C III, C IV and O V, O VI lines. The sample comprises hot hydrogen-rich central stars covering the hottest phase of post-AGB evolution (T_eff greater than 70,000K). The spectra were analyzed with fully metal line blanketed NLTE model atmospheres in order to determine T_eff, surface gravity, and chemical composition. In addition to the temperature scale, the spectra help address the question of metal abundances at the surface of these stars. Depending on the particular star, the metal abundances are either dominated by ongoing diffusion processes or they originate from dredge-up phases during previous AGB evolution. The sample was selected so as to include objects that were expected to exhibit both processes, in order to assess their relative importance and to gain insight into the evolutionary history of the stars. The objects that show qualitatively a metal abundance pattern which points at dredge-up phases, can be used to quantitatively check against abundance predictions of stellar evolution theory. The other objects, where gravitational diffusion and radiative acceleration determine the photospheric metal abundances, will be used to check our NLTE models which for the first time include diffusion processes self-consistently.

  9. Caribbean basin framework, 2: Northern Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Tyburski, S.A.; Gordon, M.B.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    There are four Jurassic to Recent basin-forming periods in northern Central America (honduras, Honduran Borderlands, Belize, Guatemala, northern Nicaragua): (1) Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous rifting and subsidence along normal faults in Honduras and Guatemala; rifts are suggested but are not well defined in Honduras by the distribution of clastic sediments and associated volcanic rocks. Rifting is attributed to the separation of Central America from the southern margin of the North American plate; (2) Cretaceous subsidence recorded by the development of a Cretaceous carbonate platform in Honduras, Guatemala, and Belize; subsidence is attributed to thermal subsidence of the rifted margins of the various blocks; (3) Late Cretaceous-Recent development of a volcanic arc along the western margin of Middle America and the northern margin of Honduras; (4) Late Cretaceous large-scale folding in Honduras, ophiolite obduction, and formation of a foredeep basin in Guatemala (Sepur trough); deformation is attributed to the collision between a north-facing arc in northern Honduras and the Nicaraguan Rise and the passive margin of Guatemala and Belize; and (5) Eocene to Recent strike-slip faulting along the present-day North American-Caribbean plate boundary in Guatemala, northern Honduras, and Belize. Strike-slip faults and basins form a California-type borderlands characterized by elongate basins that appear as half-grabens in profile. Counterclockwise rotation of the central honduras plateau, a thicker and topographically higher-than-average block within the plate boundary zone, is accommodated by rifting or strike-slip faults at its edges.

  10. Genetic affinities of central China populations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H Y; Wang, H W; Tan, S N; Chen, Y; Wang, W L; Tao, H X; Yin, Z C; Zou, Y H; Ouyang, S M; Ni, B

    2014-01-01

    Hunan locates in the south-central part of China, to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting. According to the historical records, the peopling of Hunan by modern human ancestors can ascend to 40 thousand years ago. Thus, to trace the ancient maternal components can offer further insight into the origin of south-central China. In this study, we investigated the mitochondrial DNA of 114 individuals from Hunan Province (including 34 Han, 40 Tujia and 40 Miao). Hypervariable regions I and II of the mtDNA control region were sequenced, and the relative diagnostic variations in coding region according to the updated worldwide phylogeny tree were selected and typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or direct sequencing. All individuals were classified into specific (sub)haplogroups. By comparison with the surrounding populations, southern China-prevalent haplogroups were detected with relative higher frequency in the Tujia and Miao ethnic populations, such as haplogroup B, with more than 20%, lacking in the Han population, which illustrated its southern origin characters. In addition, we also detected northern of East Asia prevalent haplogroups with a relative higher frequency in Tujia populations than in the Miao and Yao ethnic groups, implying a gene flow from Han populations. However, the language-clustering tendency was supported by our principal component analysis and further genetic estimation results. Han and ethnic groups in central China exhibited specific ancestors related to their closer language affinity, although there was extensively genetic admixture between Han and ethnic groups. PMID:24615027

  11. Angiotensin II during Experimentally Simulated Central Hypovolemia

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Theo Walther; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2016-01-01

    Central hypovolemia, defined as diminished blood volume in the heart and pulmonary vascular bed, is still an unresolved problem from a therapeutic point of view. The development of pharmaceutical agents targeted at specific angiotensin II receptors, such as the non-peptidergic AT2-receptor agonist compound 21, is yielding many opportunities to uncover more knowledge about angiotensin II receptor profiles and possible therapeutic use. Cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective therapeutic use of compound 21 have been suggested. However, there has not yet been a focus on the use of these agents in a hypovolemic setting. We argue that the latest debates on the effect of angiotensin II during hypovolemia might guide for future studies, investigating the effect of such agents during experimentally simulated central hypovolemia. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of angiotensin II during episodes of central hypovolemia. To examine this, we reviewed results from studies with three experimental models of simulated hypovolemia: head up tilt table test, lower body negative pressure, and hemorrhage of animals. A systemic literature search was made with the use of PubMed/MEDLINE for studies that measured variables of the renin–angiotensin system or its effect during simulated hypovolemia. Twelve articles, using one of the three models, were included and showed a possible organ-protective effect and an effect on the sympathetic system of angiotensin II during hypovolemia. The results support the possible organ-protective vasodilatory role for the AT2-receptor during hypovolemia on both the kidney and the splanchnic tissue. PMID:26973842

  12. Fires and Smoke in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This year's fire season in central Africa may have been the most severe ever. This true-color image also shows the location of fires (red dots) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, and Zambia. The image was taken by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA 's Terra spacecraft on August 23, 2000, and was produced using the MODIS Active Fire Detection product. NASA scientists studied these fires during the SAFARI 2000 field campaign. Image By Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Team

  13. Central Texas coast gas search bears fruit

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-03

    A group led by American Exploration Co., Houston, plans to drill 40 wells this year on its Yoakum Gorge property in Lavaca County, Tex., where it is completing acquisition of a 152 sq mile 3D seismic survey. The companies planned to spud the first wildcat to Eocene Lower Wilcox on the Central Texas Gulf Coast property in late February. They completed eight exploratory wells as commercial gas discoveries in late 1996 in Oligocene Frio, Miocene, and Eocene Yegua. The eight Frio and Yegua wells drilled during October--December 1996 had combined initial flow rates of 3.730 MMcfd of gas.

  14. Detectability levels for central induction transient soundings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitterman, David V.

    1989-01-01

    Using sounding curves based upon geologic models for a survey site, the latest measurement time for central induction transient soundings can be estimated for a given transmitter moment. Detectability limits are plotted on the apparent resistivity-time plots. Sounding points at earlier times than the limit are detectable, while those at later times are not. This procedure can be used during survey design to determine if features of the sounding necessary to the resolution of the geologic problem are detectable. Field measurements have shown that the method adequately predicts the latest measurement time.

  15. Central Waste Complex (CWC) Waste Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    ELLEFSON, M.D.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document the waste acceptance process, sampling methodologies, analytical techniques, and overall processes that are undertaken for waste accepted for storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC), which is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  16. INEL central alarm monitoring and assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Niper, E.D.

    1983-07-01

    This paper concerns the design and development of a centrally located security monitoring and assessment system for processing alarms at several remote facilities. The system provides both live and recorded CCTV assessment of alarmed areas. Computer controlled video disc recordings are made at the time the alarm is activated. Alarming areas are displayed on a color graphics monitor and an operator interacts through an overlying transparent touch panel. Computer-generated messages are also displayed to assist and inform the operator. A bidirectional, frequency-multiplexed cable system provides digital alarm information, video control commands, and several channels of video from each remote facility.

  17. INEL central alarm monitoring and assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Niper, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper concerns the design and development of a centrally located security monitoring and assessment system for processing alarms at several remote facilities. The system provides both live and recorded CCTV assessment of alarmed areas. Computer controlled video disc recordings are displayed on a color graphics monitor and an operator interacts through an overlying transparent touch panel. Computer generated messages are also displayed to assist and inform the operator. A bidirectional, frequency-multiplexed cable system provides digital alarm information, video control commands, and several channels of video from each remote facility.

  18. Vascularisation of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Tata, Mathew; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Fantin, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The developing central nervous system (CNS) is vascularised through the angiogenic invasion of blood vessels from a perineural vascular plexus, followed by continued sprouting and remodelling until a hierarchical vascular network is formed. Remarkably, vascularisation occurs without perturbing the intricate architecture of the neurogenic niches or the emerging neural networks. We discuss the mouse hindbrain, forebrain and retina as widely used models to study developmental angiogenesis in the mammalian CNS and provide an overview of key cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the vascularisation of these organs. PMID:26222953

  19. Screwworm eradication program in Central America.

    PubMed

    Galvin, T J; Wyss, J H

    1996-07-23

    The Screwworm Eradication Program has been extremely successful in its efforts to achieve its goal of eradication of screwworms through Central America and establishment of a permanent biological barrier in the eastern half of Panama. Following eradication of screwworms from Mexico in 1991, eradication was achieved in Belize in 1992, in Guatemala in 1993, and in El Salvador in 1994. Honduras has been free of screwworms since January 1995, and the number of cases in Nicaragua has dropped, as of April 1995, to about 4% of the average number of cases found during the period June-August 1993. PMID:8784505

  20. D0 central tracking chamber performance studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzuto, D.

    1991-12-01

    The performance of the completed DO central tracking chamber was studied using cosmic rays at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Also studied was a prototype tracking chamber identical in design to the completed DO tracking chamber. The prototype chamber was exposed to a collimated beam of 150 GeV pions at the Fermilab NWA test facility. Results indicate an R{Phi} tracking resolution compatible with the limitations imposed by physical considerations, excellent 2 track resolution, and a high track reconstruction efficiency along with a good rejection power against {gamma} {yields} e {sup +} e{sup {minus}} events.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging in central pontine myelinolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, P D; Miller, D; Gledhill, R F; Rossor, M N

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in two patients in whom a clinical diagnosis of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) had been made. MRI showed lesions in the pons in both cases about 2 years after the illness, at a time when the spastic quadriparesis and pseudobulbar palsy had recovered. The persisting abnormal signals in CPM are likely to be due to fibrillary gliosis. Persistence of lesions on MRI means that the diagnosis of CPM may be electively, after the acute illness has resolved. Images PMID:2732743

  2. Catastrophic primary central nervous system vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Salvarani, Carlo; Brown, Robert D; Morris, Jonathan M; Huston, John; Hunder, Gene G

    2014-01-01

    Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) is an uncommon condition that affects the brain and the spinal cord. It is heterogeneous in presenting characteristics and outcomes. We report a patient with a catastrophic rapidly progressive course refractory to intensive treatment with pulses of methylprednisolone and iv cyclophosphamide. The condition rapidly deteriorated and the patient died 6 weeks after presentation. Rapidly progressive PCNSV represents the worst end of the clinical spectrum of PCNSV. These patients are characterised by bilateral, multiple, large cerebral vessel lesions on angiograms and multiple bilateral cerebral infarctions. PMID:24854370

  3. Central Nervous System Complications of Oncologic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hoeffner, Ellen G

    2016-08-01

    Traditional and newer agents used to treat cancer can cause significant toxicity to the central nervous system. MRI of the brain and spine is the imaging modality of choice for patients with cancer who develop neurologic symptoms. It is important to be aware of the agents that can cause neurotoxicity and their associated imaging findings so that patients are properly diagnosed and treated. In some instances conventional MRI may not be able to differentiate posttreatment effects from disease progression. In these instances advanced imaging techniques may be helpful, although further research is still needed. PMID:27444003

  4. Gephyrin: a central GABAergic synapse organizer.

    PubMed

    Choii, Gayoung; Ko, Jaewon

    2015-01-01

    Gephyrin is a central element that anchors, clusters and stabilizes glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors at inhibitory synapses of the mammalian brain. It self-assembles into a hexagonal lattice and interacts with various inhibitory synaptic proteins. Intriguingly, the clustering of gephyrin, which is regulated by multiple posttranslational modifications, is critical for inhibitory synapse formation and function. In this review, we summarize the basic properties of gephyrin and describe recent findings regarding its roles in inhibitory synapse formation, function and plasticity. We will also discuss the implications for the pathophysiology of brain disorders and raise the remaining open questions in this field. PMID:25882190

  5. Histoplasmosis of the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, V; Wilkins, P; Badve, S; Coppen, M; Lucas, S; Hay, R; Schon, F

    1992-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum infection of the central nervous system is extremely rare in the United Kingdom partly because the organism is not endemic. However, because the organism can remain quiescent in the lungs or the adrenal glands for over 40 years before dissemination, it increasingly needs to be considered in unexplained neurological disease particularly in people who lived in endemic areas as children. In this paper a rapidly progressive fatal myelopathy in an English man brought up in India was shown at necropsy to be due to histoplasmosis. The neurological features of this infection are reviewed. Images PMID:1640242

  6. Pathology of the Trachea and Central Bronchi.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Girish S; Ocazionez, Daniel; Vargas, Daniel; Carter, Brett W; Wu, Carol C; Nachiappan, Arun C; Gupta, Pushpender; Restrepo, Carlos S

    2016-06-01

    A wide variety of disorders can affect the trachea and central bronchi. Computed tomography is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of tracheobronchial disease. Tracheobronchial abnormalities are sometimes incidentally detected on routine imaging or when imaging is performed for another reason. Abnormalities of the tracheobronchial tree, however, can be easily missed because they can be subtle. Furthermore, because symptoms in patients with tracheobronchial disorders often overlap symptoms of lung disease, radiologists may focus their attention on the lungs and overlook the tracheobronchial tree. In this article, we review a wide range of tracheobronchial diseases with emphasis on their computed tomographic appearances. PMID:27261343

  7. A climatology of Central American Gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papin, Philippe P.

    Central American gyres (CAGs) are large, low-level, cyclonic circulations that are observed over Central America during the tropical cyclone (TC) season. CAGs often occur in conjunction with TCs, and can result in torrential rainfall over portions of Central America, the Caribbean Islands, and eastern United States. The lack of prior research on CAGs, their apparent links to TC activity, and their association with high- impact weather motivates this study. To study CAG occurrence, an algorithm was developed to identify cyclonic circulations possessing similar characteristics to monsoon depressions (MDs) and monsoon gyres (MGs) in other ocean basins. This algorithm also includes a series of tests that distinguishes CAG events from large TCs and non-closed circulations. This algorithm was run between May-November 1980-2010 using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis 0.5o gridded dataset to produce the CAG climatology. 42 CAGs were classified (˜1.4 per season) with a bimodal distribution of occurrence favoring the early (May-Jun) and late (Sep-Nov) TC season. Stratification of CAG occurrence by the phase of the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) shows that over 75% of all CAGs develop in phases 8,1, and 2. A gyre-relative, time-lagged, CAG composite analysis is performed on CAG cases spanning from three days prior to two days after CAG formation. Positive low-level geopotential height anomalies are present in the east Pacific and Atlantic basins and are associated with anomalous low-level flow before the formation of the CAG. This results in increasing cyclonic vorticity near anomalously high precipitable water over Central America, a pattern that aids the generation of deep convection and the broad closed low-level cyclonic circulation that defines the CAG. CAGs are also split into two subsets using potential vorticity (PV) on the 350K isentropic surface. Tropical CAGs possess upper-tropospheric ridging associated with low

  8. Design of a photovoltaic central power station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    Photovoltaic central power station designs have been developed for both high-efficiency flat-panel arrays and two-axis tracking concentrator arrays. Both designs are based on a site adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The plants are 100 MW each, made of 5 MW subfields. The site specific designs allow detailed cost estimate for site preparation, installation, and engineering. These designs are summarized and cost estimates analyzed. Provided also are recommendations for future work to reduce system cost for each plant design.

  9. Central waste complex interim safety basis

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, F.G.

    1995-05-15

    This interim safety basis provides the necessary information to conclude that hazards at the Central Waste Complex are controlled and that current and planned activities at the CWC can be conducted safely. CWC is a multi-facility complex within the Solid Waste Management Complex that receives and stores most of the solid wastes generated and received at the Hanford Site. The solid wastes that will be handled at CWC include both currently stored and newly generated low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, contact-handled transuranic, and contact-handled TRU mixed waste.

  10. Centrally managed name resolution schemes for EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, D.; Bryan, D.; Watson, W.

    1997-12-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) uses a broadcast method to locate resources and controls distributed across control servers. There are many advantages offered by using a centrally managed name resolution method, in which resources are located using a repository. The suitability of DCE Directory Service as a name resolution method is explored, and results from a study involving DCE are discussed. An alternative nameserver method developed and in use at the Thomas Jefferson national Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) is described and results of integrating this new method with existing EPICS utilities presented. The various methods discussed in the paper are compared.

  11. Probing peripheral and central cholinergic system responses.

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, C A; Fourie, J; Herrmann, N; Lanctôt, K L; Birt, C; Yau, K K

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The pharmacological response to drugs that act on the cholinergic system of the iris has been used to predict deficits in central cholinergic functioning due to diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, yet correlations between central and peripheral responses have not been properly studied. This study assessed the effect of normal aging on (1) the tropicamide-induced increase in pupil diameter, and (2) the reversal of this effect with pilocarpine. Scopolamine was used as a positive control to detect age-dependent changes in central cholinergic functioning in the elderly. DESIGN: Randomized double-blind controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Ten healthy elderly (mean age 70) and 9 young (mean age 33) volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: Pupil diameter was monitored using a computerized infrared pupillometer over 4 hours. The study involved 4 sessions. In 1 session, tropicamide (20 microL, 0.01%) was administered to one eye and placebo to the other. In another session, tropicamide (20 microL, 0.01%) was administered to both eyes, followed 23 minutes later by the application of pilocarpine (20 microL, 0.1%) to one eye and placebo to the other. All eye drops were given in a randomized order. In 2 separate sessions, a single dose of scopolamine (0.5 mg, intravenously) or placebo was administered, and the effects on word recall were measured using the Buschke Selective Reminding Test over 2 hours. OUTCOME MEASURES: Pupil size at time points after administration of tropicamide and pilocarpine; scopolamine-induced impairment in word recall. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between elderly and young volunteers in pupillary response to tropicamide at any time point (p > 0.05). The elderly group had a significantly greater pilocarpine-induced net decrease in pupil size 85, 125, 165 and 215 minutes after administration, compared with the young group (p < 0.05). Compared with the young group, the elderly group had greater scopolamine-induced impairment in word recall 60, 90

  12. Central limit theorems under special relativity

    PubMed Central

    McKeague, Ian W.

    2015-01-01

    Several relativistic extensions of the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution have been proposed, but they do not explain observed lognormal tail-behavior in the flux distribution of various astrophysical sources. Motivated by this question, extensions of classical central limit theorems are developed under the conditions of special relativity. The results are related to CLTs on locally compact Lie groups developed by Wehn, Stroock and Varadhan, but in this special case the asymptotic distribution has an explicit form that is readily seen to exhibit lognormal tail behavior. PMID:25798020

  13. Radionuclides at Descartes in the central highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central highlands. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).

  14. Fully dynamical simulation of central nuclear collisions.

    PubMed

    van der Schee, Wilke; Romatschke, Paul; Pratt, Scott

    2013-11-27

    We present a fully dynamical simulation of central nuclear collisions around midrapidity at LHC energies. Unlike previous treatments, we simulate all phases of the collision, including the equilibration of the system. For the simulation, we use numerical relativity solutions to anti-de Sitter space/conformal field theory for the preequilibrium stage, viscous hydrodynamics for the plasma equilibrium stage, and kinetic theory for the low-density hadronic stage. Our preequilibrium stage provides initial conditions for hydrodynamics, resulting in sizable radial flow. The resulting light particle spectra reproduce the measurements from the ALICE experiment at all transverse momenta. PMID:24329444

  15. Neuroimaging in Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nabavizadeh, Seyed Ali; Vossough, Arastoo; Hajmomenian, Mehrdad; Assadsangabi, Reza; Mohan, Suyash

    2016-08-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare aggressive high-grade type of extranodal lymphoma. PCNSL can have a variable imaging appearance and can mimic other brain disorders such as encephalitis, demyelination, and stroke. In addition to PCNSL, the CNS can be secondarily involved by systemic lymphoma. Computed tomography and conventional MRI are the initial imaging modalities to evaluate these lesions. Recently, however, advanced MRI techniques are more often used in an effort to narrow the differential diagnosis and potentially inform diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. PMID:27443998

  16. Central auditory processing disorders: some cohorts studies.

    PubMed

    Demanez, L; Boniver, V; Dony-Closon, B; Lhonneux-Ledoux, F; Demanez, J P

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the use of a French-speaking battery for the assessment of a central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) in a variety of clinical populations: prematurely born children; 8 years old children who had otitis media with effusion in early infancy; children with learning problems and dyslexia; French-speaking children attending Dutch and English schools; adults with King-Kopetzky syndrome and elderly hearing aids users. Population characteristics of each of these groups are presented and discussed. PMID:14714946

  17. The management of central neurocytoma: radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Edward A; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L Dade

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has evolved into a mainstay in the primary and adjuvant management of most intracranial tumors. Central neurocytomas are rare, usually benign, intraventricular tumors that can be challenging to completely resect and often recur. Adjuvant therapy has been suggested for residual or recurrent tumors, especially in the setting of atypical neurocytomas. The limited data available suggest that SRS is a highly effective treatment approach for primary and adjuvant therapy, with tumor control rates of 80% to 90%. Due to its highly conformal and selective nature, SRS avoids the inconvenience and delayed toxicity of conventional radiation therapy. PMID:25432182

  18. Mold Infections of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Matthew; Rosengart, Axel; Schuetz, Audrey N.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    The recent outbreak of exserohilum rostratum meningitis linked to epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate has brought renewed attention to mold infections of the central nervous system (CNS).1 Although uncommon, these infections are often devastating and difficult to treat. This focused review of the epidemiologic aspects, clinical characteristics, and treatment of mold infections of the CNS covers a group of common pathogens: aspergillus, fusarium, and scedosporium species, molds in the order Mucorales, and dematiaceous molds. Infections caused by these pathogen groups have distinctive epidemiologic profiles, clinical manifestations, microbiologic characteristics, and therapeutic implications, all of which clinicians should understand. PMID:25006721

  19. Viral Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Phillip A.; McGavern, Dorian B.

    2015-01-01

    Virus-induced diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a significant burden to human health worldwide. The complexity of these diseases is influenced by the sheer number of different neurotropic viruses, the diverse routes of CNS entry, viral tropism, and the immune system. Using a combination of human pathological data and experimental animal models, we have begun to uncover many of the mechanisms that viruses use to enter the CNS and cause disease. This review highlights a selection of neurotropic viruses that infect the CNS and explores the means by which they induce neurological diseases such as meningitis, encephalitis, and myelitis. PMID:25681709

  20. Locating influential nodes via dynamics-sensitive centrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-02-01

    With great theoretical and practical significance, locating influential nodes of complex networks is a promising issue. In this paper, we present a dynamics-sensitive (DS) centrality by integrating topological features and dynamical properties. The DS centrality can be directly applied in locating influential spreaders. According to the empirical results on four real networks for both susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infected (SI) spreading models, the DS centrality is more accurate than degree, k-shell index and eigenvector centrality.

  1. Systematic Review of Central Post Stroke Pain: What Is Happening in the Central Nervous System?

    PubMed

    Akyuz, Gulseren; Kuru, Pinar

    2016-08-01

    Central poststroke pain (CPSP) is one of the most common central neuropathic pain syndromes seen after stroke. It is mainly related with vascular damage at certain brain territory and pain related to corresponding body areas. In the past, it was described as one of the definitive symptoms of thalamic lesion. However, recent findings suggest that it is not only seen after thalamic lesions but also seen after vascular lesions in any part of the central nervous system. Although there are certain hypotheses to explain physiopathologic mechanisms of CPSP, further evidence is needed. The majority of the cases are intractable and unresponsive to analgesic treatment. Electrical stimulation such as deep brain stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation seems to be effective in certain cases. In this systematic review, recent advancements related to CPSP mechanisms have been evaluated. Further investigations are needed in order to reveal the mystery of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of CPSP. PMID:27175563

  2. A new algorithm CNM-Centrality of detecting communities based on node centrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fang; Liu, Yuhua

    2016-03-01

    The discovery and analysis of community structure in complex networks is a hot issue in recent years. In this paper, based on the fast greedy clustering algorithm CNM with the thought of local search, the introduction of the idea of node centrality and the optimal division of the central nodes and their neighbor nodes into correct communities, a new algorithm CNM-Centrality of detecting communities in complex networks is proposed. In order to verify the accuracy and efficiency of this algorithm, the performance of this algorithm is tested on several representative real-world networks and a set of computer-generated networks by LFR-benchmark. The experimental results indicate that this algorithm can identify the communities accurately and efficiently. Furthermore, this algorithm can also acquire higher values of modularity and NMI than the CNM, Infomap, Walktrap algorithms do.

  3. 22 CFR 94.3 - Functions of the Central Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Functions of the Central Authority. 94.3 Section 94.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.3 Functions of the Central Authority. The U.S. Central Authority shall cooperate with...

  4. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  5. 47 CFR 52.15 - Central office code administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... numbering resource administration guidelines and Commission orders and regulations of 47 CFR chapter I. (e... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Central office code administration. 52.15... (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Administration § 52.15 Central office code administration. (a) Central Office...

  6. 75 FR 18231 - Central Utah Project Completion Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Central Utah Project Completion Act AGENCY: Department of the Interior, Office of the Assistant Secretary... conversion of Central Utah Project water from irrigation to municipal and industrial use and possible... of Central Utah Project (CUP) Bonneville Unit water, delivered to Wasatch County, Utah,...

  7. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section 535.433 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an...

  8. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section 535.433 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an...

  9. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section 535.433 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an...

  10. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section 535.433 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an...

  11. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section 535.433 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an...

  12. Central Falls High School: First Year Transformation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Amy; Whitney, Joye; Shah, Hardeek; Foley, Ellen; Dure, Elsa

    2011-01-01

    In January 2010, the Rhode Island Department of Education (RIDE) identified Central Falls High School (CFHS) as one of the state's persistently lowest-achieving schools. The Central Falls School District (CFSD) and the Central Falls Teachers Union (CFTU) considered the transformation model but could not come to an agreement initially around…

  13. 22 CFR 94.3 - Functions of the Central Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Functions of the Central Authority. 94.3 Section 94.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.3 Functions of the Central Authority. The U.S. Central Authority shall cooperate with...

  14. Geodynamics of Cenozoic deformation in central Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the tectonic stresses in central Asia based on an interpretation of satellite gravity data for mantle convection and supplemented with published fault plane solutions of earthquakes. Northwest-southeast to north-south compressional stresses exist in the Tien Shan region where reverse faulting dominates. The maximum compressive stress is oriented approximately northeast-southwest in the regions of Altai and southern Mongolia. Farther north, compressive stress gives way to tensional stress which causes normal faulting in the Baikal rift system. It is also shown that all of the tectonic stresses in the Tibetan plateau and Himalayan frontal thrust are related to the convection-generated stress patterns inferred from satellite gravity data. These results suggest that the complex crustal deformation in central Asia can be convincingly described by the deformation of the lithosphere on top of the up- and down-welling asthenospheric material beneath it. This observational fact may not only upset the simple view of the fluid crustal model of the Tibetan plateau, but also provide some useful constraints for the future development of deformation theory of continental crust.

  15. Elimination of Rhodnius prolixus in Central America

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Rhodnius prolixus is one of the main vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease. In Central America, it was first discovered in 1915 in El Salvador, from where it spread northwest to Guatemala and Mexico, and southeast to Nicaragua and Costa Rica, arriving also in Honduras in the late 1950s. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) by the antimalaria services of Costa Rica prevented its spread southwards, and similar IRS programmes appear to have eliminated it from El Salvador by the late 1970s. In 1997, by resolution of the Ministers of Health of the seven Central American countries, a multinational initiative against Chagas disease (IPCA) was launched with one of the specific objectives being the elimination of R. prolixus from the region. As a result, more and more infested areas were encountered, and progressively sprayed using an IRS strategy already deployed against Triatoma infestans in the southern cone countries of South America. In 2008, Guatemala became the first of these countries to be formally certified as free of Chagas disease transmission due to R. prolixus. The other infested countries have since been similarly certified, and none of these has reported the presence of R. prolixus since June 2010. Further surveillance is required, but current evidence suggests that R. prolixus may now been eliminated from throughout the mesoamerican region, with a corresponding decline in the incidence of T. cruzi infections. PMID:22357219

  16. Exploration in Ordovician of central Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.H.; Barratt, M.W.

    1985-12-01

    Deep wells in the central Michigan basin have provided sufficient data to define two new mappable formations - the Foster Formation and the Bruggers Formation. Recent conodont studies have corrected the age assignments of the strata containing these formations. Previously, the lower section (Foster) was classified as mostly Cambrian, and the upper unit (Bruggers) was identified as Early Ordovician. Conodont identifications indicate an Early and Middle Ordovician age for the Foster Formation and a Middle Ordovician age for the Bruggers Formation. The Michigan basin existed in embryonic form in the Late Cambrian, but the full outline of the present-day basin did not develop until Early Ordovician. Gas and condensate are produced from the Bruggers Formation as deep as 11,252 ft (3429 m). Geothermal investigations suggest that gas production is possible to the base of the Paleozoic section in the central basin (17,000 ft or 5181 m). Paleotemperatures were higher during the Paleozoic owing to 3000-4000 ft (914-1291 m) of additional sedimentary cover. Five wells are producing from the Bruggers Formation. All are deeper tests in anticlines producing from Devonian reservoirs discovered earlier. The structures are the result of vertical movements of basement fault blocks activated by regional stresses. 12 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Miteva, Mariya

    2016-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is the most common scarring alopecia among African American women. Data about epidemiology, etiology, genetic inheritance, and management are scarce and come from individual reports or small series. CCCA has been associated with hot combing and traumatic hair styling for years; however, studies fail to confirm it as the sole etiologic factor. It has been shown in a small series that CCCA can be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, with a partial penetrance and a strong modifying effect of hairstyling and sex. CCCA presents clinically as a central area of progressive irreversible hair loss that expands to the periphery. A patchy form has also been described. Dermoscopy is helpful to identify the optimal site for the biopsy, which establishes the diagnosis. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to discover the optimal management. At this point, patients are advised to avoid traction and chemical treatments; topical and intralesional steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and minoxidil can be helpful in halting the progression. PMID:27574457

  18. Arthroscopic Centralization of an Extruded Lateral Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Hideyuki; Muneta, Takeshi; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Horie, Masafumi; Nakamura, Tomomasa; Okawa, Atsushi; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Extrusion of the lateral meniscus has been reported after posterior root tear or radial tear, partial meniscectomy, and meniscoplasty of discoid meniscus. It has also been shown to be associated with the development of osteoarthritis. This technical note describes a new arthroscopic technique to centralize and stabilize the mid body of the lateral meniscus to restore and maintain the lateral meniscus function by repairing/preventing extrusion of the meniscus. A JuggerKnot Soft Anchor (Biomet, Warsaw, IN), loaded with a MaxBraid suture (Biomet), was placed on the lateral edge of the lateral tibial plateau, just anterior to the popliteal hiatus, through a midlateral portal. A Micro Suture Lasso Small Curve with Nitinol Wire Loop (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was used to pass 2 limbs of the MaxBraid suture through the meniscus at the margin between the meniscus and the capsule. Another anchor was inserted on the lateral edge of the lateral tibial plateau, 1 cm anterior to the first anchor, and the same procedure was repeated. The sutures were then tied by use of a self-locking sliding knot, achieving centralization and secure stabilization of the lateral meniscus. PMID:23766997

  19. Arthroscopic centralization of an extruded lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hideyuki; Muneta, Takeshi; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Horie, Masafumi; Nakamura, Tomomasa; Okawa, Atsushi; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2012-12-01

    Extrusion of the lateral meniscus has been reported after posterior root tear or radial tear, partial meniscectomy, and meniscoplasty of discoid meniscus. It has also been shown to be associated with the development of osteoarthritis. This technical note describes a new arthroscopic technique to centralize and stabilize the mid body of the lateral meniscus to restore and maintain the lateral meniscus function by repairing/preventing extrusion of the meniscus. A JuggerKnot Soft Anchor (Biomet, Warsaw, IN), loaded with a MaxBraid suture (Biomet), was placed on the lateral edge of the lateral tibial plateau, just anterior to the popliteal hiatus, through a midlateral portal. A Micro Suture Lasso Small Curve with Nitinol Wire Loop (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was used to pass 2 limbs of the MaxBraid suture through the meniscus at the margin between the meniscus and the capsule. Another anchor was inserted on the lateral edge of the lateral tibial plateau, 1 cm anterior to the first anchor, and the same procedure was repeated. The sutures were then tied by use of a self-locking sliding knot, achieving centralization and secure stabilization of the lateral meniscus. PMID:23766997

  20. Chagas disease: Central American initiative launched.

    PubMed

    1998-02-01

    An initiative to interrupt the transmission of Chagas disease in Central America was launched at a meeting held October 22-24, 1997, in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Sponsored by the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), the meeting was attended by government delegates from Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. The initiative was launched within the framework of Resolution 13 of the Meeting of Ministers of Health of the Central American Countries, held in Belize in September 1997. Detailed plans of activities were prepared for each country for the period 1998-2001, for approval by the various ministries of health, while operational, epidemiological, and entomological research priorities were also agreed upon. Research projects to help improve disease control will be sponsored by TDR. The first meeting of the Technical Intergovernment Commission established to meet annually to assess progress in control activities will occur in October 1998 in Guatemala. Vector and infection rate data are briefly presented on each country represented at the meeting. PMID:12348564

  1. Floods in Central Texas, December 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hejl, H.R., Jr.; Slade, Raymond M.; Jennings, Marshall E.

    1996-01-01

    Record-breaking peak discharges were recorded at eight U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations in central Texas during December 1991 (fig. 1), and substantial peak discharges also occurred at numerous other stations. Large peak discharges during December are unusual in central Texas. The rainfall causing the flooding began on December 18, with 6-day totals exceeding 10 inches (in.) in the area of heaviest rainfall.This report documents peak discharges and runoff volumes during December 1991. Recurrence intervals were determined for the peak discharges and runoff volumes for 1-, 3-, and 7-day periods. A recurrence interval references the approximate number of years during which a given peak discharge or runoff volumes is expected to be equaled or exceeded only once. A flood of a given recurrence interval is defined on the basis of peak discharge – for example, a 100-year flood is defined as the peak discharge that has a 1-percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.

  2. Variance predicts salience in central sensory processing

    PubMed Central

    Hermundstad, Ann M; Briguglio, John J; Conte, Mary M; Victor, Jonathan D; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Tkačik, Gašper

    2014-01-01

    Information processing in the sensory periphery is shaped by natural stimulus statistics. In the periphery, a transmission bottleneck constrains performance; thus efficient coding implies that natural signal components with a predictably wider range should be compressed. In a different regime—when sampling limitations constrain performance—efficient coding implies that more resources should be allocated to informative features that are more variable. We propose that this regime is relevant for sensory cortex when it extracts complex features from limited numbers of sensory samples. To test this prediction, we use central visual processing as a model: we show that visual sensitivity for local multi-point spatial correlations, described by dozens of independently-measured parameters, can be quantitatively predicted from the structure of natural images. This suggests that efficient coding applies centrally, where it extends to higher-order sensory features and operates in a regime in which sensitivity increases with feature variability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03722.001 PMID:25396297

  3. Central mechanisms II: pharmacology of brainstem pathways.

    PubMed

    Bolser, D C

    2009-01-01

    Following systemic administration, centrally acting antitussive drugs are generally assumed to act in the brainstem to inhibit cough. However, recent work in humans has raised the possibility of suprapontine sites of action for cough suppressants. For drugs that may act in the brainstem, the specific locations, types of neurones affected, and receptor specificities of the compounds represent important issues regarding their cough-suppressant actions. Two medullary areas that have received the most attention regarding the actions of antitussive drugs are the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) and the caudal ventrolateral respiratory column. Studies that have implicated these two medullary areas have employed both microinjection and in vitro recording methods to control the location of action of the antitussive drugs. Other brainstem regions contain neurones that participate in the production of cough and could represent potential sites of action of antitussive drugs. These regions include the raphe nuclei, pontine nuclei, and rostral ventrolateral medulla. Specific receptor subtypes have been associated with the suppression of cough at central sites, including 5-HT1A, opioid (mu, kappa, and delta), GABA-B, tachykinin neurokinin-1 (NK-1) and neurokinin-2, non-opioid (NOP-1), cannabinoid, dopaminergic, and sigma receptors. Aside from tachykinin NK-1 receptors in the NTS, relatively little is known regarding the receptor specificity of putative antitussive drugs in particular brainstem regions. Our understanding of the mechanisms of action of antitussive drugs would be significantly advanced by further work in this area. PMID:18825342

  4. Randomized central limit theorems: A unified theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The central limit theorems (CLTs) characterize the macroscopic statistical behavior of large ensembles of independent and identically distributed random variables. The CLTs assert that the universal probability laws governing ensembles’ aggregate statistics are either Gaussian or Lévy, and that the universal probability laws governing ensembles’ extreme statistics are Fréchet, Weibull, or Gumbel. The scaling schemes underlying the CLTs are deterministic—scaling all ensemble components by a common deterministic scale. However, there are “random environment” settings in which the underlying scaling schemes are stochastic—scaling the ensemble components by different random scales. Examples of such settings include Holtsmark’s law for gravitational fields and the Stretched Exponential law for relaxation times. In this paper we establish a unified theory of randomized central limit theorems (RCLTs)—in which the deterministic CLT scaling schemes are replaced with stochastic scaling schemes—and present “randomized counterparts” to the classic CLTs. The RCLT scaling schemes are shown to be governed by Poisson processes with power-law statistics, and the RCLTs are shown to universally yield the Lévy, Fréchet, and Weibull probability laws.

  5. The Central Andean rotation pattern: another look

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Myrl E.

    2004-06-01

    Crustal blocks in the Central Andes have experienced vertical-axis rotations through angles ranging up to 50° or more. Blocks located north of the abrupt change in tectonic and geographical trends at Arica, northern Chile (the Arica deflection) have been rotated counter-clockwise; blocks south of the deflection rotated clockwise. Rocks ranging in age from Late Miocene to mid-Jurassic are involved. The palaeomagnetic record of this rotation is referred to as the central Andean rotation pattern (CARP). In this paper the CARP is investigated using the techniques of palaeomagnetic shape analysis. From this analysis it appears that rotation began in the early Cenozoic, and probably continues at the present time. Cenozoic rotation appears to have occurred without significant northward or southward displacement. For earlier times, however, evidence of displacement is found; the sense of displacement apparently changed at Arica-northward north of the deflection and southward further south. This Mesozoic displacement of crustal material away from Arica appears to have taken place without accompanying rotation. No existing tectonic model for the CARP explains this two-part history. Several alternative models are suggested, perhaps the least unconvincing of which involve creation of the Arica deflection during the late Mesozoic by subduction of a spreading ridge, or perhaps an island arc or other crustal-thickness anomaly riding on the Nazca (or Phoenix) Plate.

  6. Recent advances in central congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Schoenmakers, Nadia; Alatzoglou, Kyriaki S; Chatterjee, V Krishna; Dattani, Mehul T

    2015-12-01

    Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) may occur in isolation, or more frequently in combination with additional pituitary hormone deficits with or without associated extrapituitary abnormalities. Although uncommon, it may be more prevalent than previously thought, affecting up to 1:16 000 neonates in the Netherlands. Since TSH is not elevated, CCH will evade diagnosis in primary, TSH-based, CH screening programs and delayed detection may result in neurodevelopmental delay due to untreated neonatal hypothyroidism. Alternatively, coexisting growth hormones or ACTH deficiency may pose additional risks, such as life threatening hypoglycaemia. Genetic ascertainment is possible in a minority of cases and reveals mutations in genes controlling the TSH biosynthetic pathway (TSHB, TRHR, IGSF1) in isolated TSH deficiency, or early (HESX1, LHX3, LHX4, SOX3, OTX2) or late (PROP1, POU1F1) pituitary transcription factors in combined hormone deficits. Since TSH cannot be used as an indicator of euthyroidism, adequacy of treatment can be difficult to monitor due to a paucity of alternative biomarkers. This review will summarize the normal physiology of pituitary development and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, then describe known genetic causes of isolated central hypothyroidism and combined pituitary hormone deficits associated with TSH deficiency. Difficulties in diagnosis and management of these conditions will then be discussed. PMID:26416826

  7. Badgastein spa—Austrian central Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zötl, J. G.

    1995-12-01

    The Badgastein spa shows almost all the special geological and hydrological features existing in the northeastern central Alps. Situated within the Tauern window, the open joint system enables the infiltration of surface water to great depths. There it becomes heated and loaded with radon and trace elements such as fluor. The water discharges as thermal water springs at the steep right flank of the cascade of the Gastein-Ache. This hydraulic process occurs during a span of 3600 3800 years. The springs are captured in galleries, and the largest discharge is in gallery IX (2518 m3/d-1). The spa became known worldwide in the 19th century by visiting aristocrats from Central and Eastern Europe. The most important event in the 20th century was the discovery of the heat joint in the Böckstein gallery. In 1940 an effort to reactivate gold mining in the Radhausberg near Böckstein south of Badgastein failed. However, the miners had the unexpected experience of being cured of rheumatism. A connection between the great depth and high temperature in the gallery was made by the discovery of the joint set with heat and radon emanation. In the medical stations of the Böckstein gallery treatment of polyarthritis has become especially successful.

  8. Clinical Assessment of Central Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Miyashita, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Central aortic blood pressure (CBP) is increasingly considered a better cardiovascular prognostic marker than conventional cuff brachial blood pressure. Because CBP cannot be directly measured noninvasively, it has to be estimated from peripheral pressure pulses. To assess estimated CBP appropriately, the accuracy and features of the estimation method should be considered. The aim of this review is to provide basic knowledge and information useful for interpreting and assessing estimated CBP from a methodological point of view. Precise peripheral pressure pulse recording has been enabled by the introduction of arterial applanation tonometry, for which the radial artery may be the optimal site. An automated tonometry device utilizing a sensor array is preferable in terms of reproducibility and objectivity. Calibration of a peripheral pressure waveform has unresolved problems for any estimation method, due to imperfect brachial sphygmomanometry. However, if central and peripheral pressure calibrations are equivalent, two major methods to estimate CBP—those based on generalized pressure transfer function or radial late systolic pressure—may be comparable in their accuracy of CBP parameter estimation. PMID:22866025

  9. Recent advances in central congenital hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Schoenmakers, Nadia; Alatzoglou, Kyriaki S; Chatterjee, V Krishna; Dattani, Mehul T

    2015-01-01

    Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) may occur in isolation, or more frequently in combination with additional pituitary hormone deficits with or without associated extrapituitary abnormalities. Although uncommon, it may be more prevalent than previously thought, affecting up to 1:16 000 neonates in the Netherlands. Since TSH is not elevated, CCH will evade diagnosis in primary, TSH-based, CH screening programs and delayed detection may result in neurodevelopmental delay due to untreated neonatal hypothyroidism. Alternatively, coexisting growth hormones or ACTH deficiency may pose additional risks, such as life threatening hypoglycaemia. Genetic ascertainment is possible in a minority of cases and reveals mutations in genes controlling the TSH biosynthetic pathway (TSHB, TRHR, IGSF1) in isolated TSH deficiency, or early (HESX1, LHX3, LHX4, SOX3, OTX2) or late (PROP1, POU1F1) pituitary transcription factors in combined hormone deficits. Since TSH cannot be used as an indicator of euthyroidism, adequacy of treatment can be difficult to monitor due to a paucity of alternative biomarkers. This review will summarize the normal physiology of pituitary development and the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis, then describe known genetic causes of isolated central hypothyroidism and combined pituitary hormone deficits associated with TSH deficiency. Difficulties in diagnosis and management of these conditions will then be discussed. PMID:26416826

  10. Unraveling the Central Proopiomelanocortin Neural Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Aaron J.; Hentges, Shane T.; Meshul, Charles K.; Low, Malcolm J.

    2013-01-01

    Central proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons form a potent anorexigenic network, but our understanding of the integration of this hypothalamic circuit throughout the central nervous system (CNS) remains incomplete. POMC neurons extend projections along the rostrocaudal axis of the brain, and can signal with both POMC-derived peptides and fast amino acid neurotransmitters. Although recent experimental advances in circuit-level manipulation have been applied to POMC neurons, many pivotal questions still remain: how and where do POMC neurons integrate metabolic information? Under what conditions do POMC neurons release bioactive molecules throughout the CNS? Are GABA and glutamate or neuropeptides released from POMC neurons more crucial for modulating feeding and metabolism? Resolving the exact stoichiometry of signals evoked from POMC neurons under different metabolic conditions therefore remains an ongoing endeavor. In this review, we analyze the anatomical atlas of this network juxtaposed to the physiological signaling of POMC neurons both in vitro and in vivo. We also consider novel genetic tools to further characterize the function of the POMC circuit in vivo. Our goal is to synthesize a global view of the POMC network, and to highlight gaps that require further research to expand our knowledge on how these neurons modulate energy balance. PMID:23440036

  11. A central black hole in M32

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tonry, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Observations are presented of the stellar rotation and velocity dispersion in M32. The projected rotation curve has an unresolved cusp at the center, with an amplitude of at least 60 km/s. The stellar velocity dispersion is constant at 56 + or - 5 km/s to a radius of 20 arcsec; a central bump in the observed dispersion is an artifact due to the rotation. The form of the rotation is such that isophotes have constant angular rotation velocity. The three-dimensional rotation field is modeled and the internal mean rotation of the stars around the center of M32 must reach at least 90 km/s at a radius of 2 pc. Hydrostatic equilibrium then requires 3-10 x 10 to the 6th solar masses of dark mass within the central parsec of M32. The possibility that M32 is undergoing core collapse and that this dark mass consists of dark stellar remnants is discussed, but ultimately rejected because the time scale for core collapse of M32 should be 2000 Hubble times. A more likely explanation of this dark mass, especially because of the presence of an X-ray point source at the center of M32, is a massive black hole.

  12. Breastfeeding practices in villages of central Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Banapurmath, C R; Nagaraj, M C; Banapurmath, S; Kesaree, N

    1996-06-01

    In Central Karnataka in India, a community-based study was conducted on 1050 mothers with infants younger than 24 months to examine breast feeding and infant feeding practices in rural areas. Only 3 infants (0.3%) were offered breastfeeding within 1 hour after delivery. By 72 hours post-delivery, 90.9% of infants had begun breast feeding. All infants had received prelacteal feeds. 28.6% of mothers discarded the colostrum. The exclusive breast feeding rate was 94% at 1 month, 83.5% at 2 months, 72.5% at 3 months, and 61.2% at 4 months. 97% of infants ever breast fed. Among infants younger than 1, 49.4% were bottle fed. Major reasons for introducing bottle feeding were not enough milk (58.1%), subsequent pregnancy (35.8%), and ill health of mother (20.7%). Among infants 6-10 months old, 57.3% had received timely supplementary feedings. 94.7% of mothers used home made weaning foods. 5.3% used commercial foods. These findings show that rural mothers in Central Karnataka delay initiation of breast feeding, reject the colostrum, and use prelacteal foods and that bottle feeding and commercial weaning foods have an influence on infant feeding practices in rural areas. PMID:8979608

  13. Centralized and interactive compression of multiview images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, Andriy; Dragotti, Pier Luigi; Velisavljević, Vladan

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we propose two multiview image compression methods. The basic concept of both schemes is the layer-based representation, in which the captured three-dimensional (3D) scene is partitioned into layers each related to a constant depth in the scene. The first algorithm is a centralized scheme where each layer is de-correlated using a separable multi-dimensional wavelet transform applied across the viewpoint and spatial dimensions. The transform is modified to efficiently deal with occlusions and disparity variations for different depths. Although the method achieves a high compression rate, the joint encoding approach requires the transmission of all data to the users. By contrast, in an interactive setting, the users request only a subset of the captured images, but in an unknown order a priori. We address this scenario in the second algorithm using Distributed Source Coding (DSC) principles which reduces the inter-view redundancy and facilitates random access at the image level. We demonstrate that the proposed centralized and interactive methods outperform H.264/MVC and JPEG 2000, respectively.

  14. Solar central receiver heliostat reflector assembly

    DOEpatents

    Horton, Richard H.; Zdeb, John J.

    1980-01-01

    A heliostat reflector assembly for a solar central receiver system comprises a light-weight, readily assemblable frame which supports a sheet of stretchable reflective material and includes mechanism for selectively applying tension to and positioning the sheet to stretch it to optical flatness. The frame is mounted on and supported by a pipe pedestal assembly that, in turn, is installed in the ground. The frame is controllably driven in a predetermined way by a light-weight drive system so as to be angularly adjustable in both elevation and azimuth to track the sun and efficiently continuously reflect the sun's rays to a focal zone, i.e. central receiver, which forms part of a solar energy utilization system, such as a solar energy fueled electrical power generation system. The frame may include a built-in system for testing for optical flatness of the reflector. The preferable geometric configuration of the reflector is octagonal; however, it may be other shapes, such as hexagonal, pentagonal or square. Several different embodiments of means for tensioning and positioning the reflector to achieve optical flatness are disclosed. The reflector assembly is based on the stretch frame concept which provides an extremely light-weight, simple, low-cost reflector assembly that may be driven for positioning and tracking by a light-weight, inexpensive drive system.

  15. Issues concerning centralized versus decentralized power deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Kenneth J.; Harty, Richard B.; Robin, James F.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a study of proposed lunar base architectures to identify issues concerning centralized and decentralized power system deployment options are presented. The power system consists of the energy producing system (power plant), the power conditioning components used to convert the generated power into the form desired for transmission, the transmission lines that conduct this power from the power sources to the loads, and the primary power conditioning hardware located at the user end. Three power system architectures, centralized, hybrid, and decentralized, were evaluated during the course of this study. Candidate power sources were characterized with respect to mass and radiator area. Two electrical models were created for each architecture to identify the preferred method of power transmission, dc or ac. Each model allowed the transmission voltage level to be varied at assess the impact on power system mass. The ac power system models also permitted the transmission line configurations and placements to determine the best conductor construction and installation location. Key parameters used to evaluate each configuration were power source and power conditioning component efficiencies, masses, and radiator areas; transmission line masses and operating temperatures; and total system mass.

  16. Episodic karstification, Edwards Plateau, central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kastning, E.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Edwards Plateau and Llano Basin of central Texas form one of the largest contiguous regions of karst in North America (>80,000 km/sup 2/). Solutional phenomena show that several major episodes of karstification are documentable from late Cambrian to Holocene. Relict landforms representing intervals of solutional activity correlate well with the accepted geomorphic chronology for central Texas. Secondary porosity are vertically controlled by lithology, topographic incision of streams, position of the potentiometric surface, and attitude of bedding. Areally, development of karst is strongly influenced by the extent, density, and orientation of fractures and by hydrodynamic characteristics such as points of recharge and discharge, degree of integration of groundwater flow paths, and hydraulic gradients. Early episodes of karstification correspond to intervals of subaerial exposure of carbonate rocks during marine regression or following regional uplift. Paleokarst is prevalent in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences. Infilled dolines and solution-collapse breccias have been exhumed by extensive regional denudation during the Cenozoic Era. Subaerial conditions during the middle Cretaceous account for infilled solutional cavities within lower Cretaceous carbonate beds. The most extensive karstification began with regional uplift in the early Miocene. Enhanced relief along the Balcones escarpment promoted incision of streams, lowering of water tables, steepened hydraulic gradients, and increases in discharge. Caves at various-elevations attest to sequential dissection of the plateau during the late Quaternary.

  17. Central Hypersensitivity in Chronic Hemiplegic Shoulder Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hoo, Jennifer Soo; Paul, Tracy; Chae, John; Wilson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the association of hemiplegic shoulder pain with central hypersensitivity through pressure-pain thresholds (PPT) at healthy, distant tissues. Design This study is a cross-sectional study. A total of 40 patients (n=20 hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP), n=20 stroke without HSP) were enrolled in this study. Pressure-pain thresholds were measured at the affected deltoid and contralateral deltoid and tibialis anterior using a handheld algometer. Differences in PPTs were analyzed by Wilcoxon Rank Sum test and with linear regression analysis controlling for gender, a known confounder of PPTs. Results Subjects with hemiplegic shoulder pain had lower local PPTs than stroke control subjects when comparing the painful to dominant shoulders and comparing the non-painful shoulder and tibialis anterior to the non-dominant side controls. Similarly, those with hemiplegic shoulder pain had lower PPTs when comparing to controls in contralesional-to-contralesional comparisons as well as ipsilesional-to-ipsilesional comparisons. Conclusions Subjects with hemiplegic shoulder pain have lower local and distal PPTs than subjects without hemiplegic shoulder pain. Our study suggests that chronic shoulder pain may be associated with widespread central hypersensitivity, which has been previously found to be associated with other chronic pain syndromes. This further understanding can then help develop better treatment options for those with this hemiplegic shoulder pain. PMID:23255268

  18. Protection of mammal diversity in Central America.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Clinton N; Giri, Chandra

    2008-08-01

    Central America is exceptionally rich in biodiversity, but varies widely in the attention its countries devote to conservation. Protected areas, widely considered the cornerstone of conservation, were not always created with the intent of conserving that biodiversity. We assessed how well the protected-area system of Central America includes the region's mammal diversity. This first required a refinement of existing range maps to reduce their extensive errors of commission (i.e., predicted presences in places where species do not occur). For this refinement, we used the ecological limits of each species to identify and remove unsuitable areas from the range. We then compared these maps with the locations of protected areas to measure the habitat protected for each of the region's 250 endemic mammals. The species most vulnerable to extinction-those with small ranges-were largely outside protected areas. Nevertheless, the most strictly protected areas tended toward areas with many small-ranged species. To improve the protection coverage of mammal diversity in the region, we identified a set of priority sites that would best complement the existing protected areas. Protecting these new sites would require a relatively small increase in the total area protected, but could greatly enhance mammal conservation. PMID:18616739

  19. Central Tibetan Meso-Tethyan oceanic plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai-Jun; Xia, Bin; Zhang, Yu-Xiu; Liu, Wei-Liang; Zeng, Lu; Li, Jian-Feng; Xu, Li-Feng

    2014-12-01

    We report the occurrences of the remnants of a Meso-Tethyan oceanic plateau, encompassing an area of ~ 2 × 105 km2 in central Tibet. The plateau remnants include large volumes of pillow basalt formed largely by emergent to subaerial eruption, minor ultramafic intrusives and cumulates, exotic blocks of limestone, radiolarian chert, graywacke, and shale. Isotopic and paleontological dating suggest two major plateau eruptive events at 193-173 Ma and at 128-104 Ma, respectively. The basalts are characterized by enrichment of incompatible elements and a wide range of Sr-Nd isotope composition (initial εNd from -3.71 to + 7.9, initial 87Sr/86Sr from 0.703927 to 0.707618). The trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic data suggest that these basalts are of affinity with those from the Kerguelen and Tethyan plumes, indicative of a plume mantle upwelling origin with involvement of continental material. The wholesale obduction of the Meso-Tethyan oceanic plateau, along with the dismembered normal oceanic crustal fragments, over the Tibetan continental crust could have given rise to perhaps 2 km elevation of central Tibet during the Late Cretaceous.

  20. Solar central receiver heliostat reflector assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, R.H.; Zdeb, J.J.

    1980-06-24

    A heliostat reflector assembly for a solar central receiver system comprises a light-weight, readily assemblable frame which supports a sheet of stretchable reflective material and includes mechanism for selectively applying tension to and positioning the sheet to stretch it to optical flatness. The frame is mounted on and supported by a pipe pedestal assembly that, in turn, is installed in the ground. The frame is controllably driven in a predetermined way by a light-weight drive system so as to be angularly adjustable in both elevation and azimuth to track the sun and efficiently continuously reflect the sun's rays to a focal zone, i.e., central receiver, which forms part of a solar energy utilization system, such as a solar energy fueled electrical power generation system. The frame may include a built-in system for testing for optical flatness of the reflector. The preferable geometric configuration of the reflector is octagonal; however, it may be other shapes, such as hexagonal, pentagonal or square. Several different embodiments of means for tensioning and positioning the reflector to achieve optical flatness are disclosed. The reflector assembly is based on the stretch frame concept which provides an extremely light-weight, simple, low-cost reflector assembly that may be driven for positioning and tracking by a light-weight, inexpensive drive system. 14 claims.

  1. Solar central receiver heliostat reflector assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, R.H.; Zdeb, J.J.

    1980-06-24

    A heliostat reflector assembly for a solar central receiver system comprises a light-weight, readily assemblable frame which supports a sheet of stretchable reflective material and includes a mechanism for selectively applying tension to and positioning the sheet to stretch it to optical flatness. The frame is mounted on and supported by a pipe pedestal assembly that, in turn, is installed in the ground. The frame is controllably driven in a predetermined way by a light-weight drive system so as to be angularly adjustable in both elevation and azimuth to track the sun and efficiently continuously reflect the sun's rays to a focal zone, i.e. central receiver, which forms part of a solar energy utilization system, such as a solar energy fueled electrical power generation system. The frame may include a built-in system for testing for optical flatness of the reflector. The preferable geometric configuration of the reflector is octagonal; however, it may be other shapes, such as hexagonal, pentagonal or square. Several different embodiments of means for tensioning and positioning the reflector to achieve optical flatness are disclosed. The reflector assembly is based on the stretch frame concept which provides an extremely light-weight, simple, low-cost reflector assembly that may be driven for positioning and tracking by a light-weight, inexpensive drive system. 14 figs.

  2. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX). Design document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The Earth`s climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27{degree}C, but never 31{degree}C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  3. NOx emissions from a Central California dairy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasson, Alam S.; Ogunjemiyo, Segun O.; Trabue, Steven; Ashkan, Shawn; Scoggin, Kenwood; Steele, Julie; Olea, Catalina; Middala, Srikar; Vu, Kennedy; Scruggs, Austen; Addala, Laxmi R.; Nana, Lucien

    2013-05-01

    Concentrations of NOx (NO + NO2) were monitored downwind from a Central California dairy facility during 2011 and 2012. NOx concentrations at the dairy were significantly higher than the background levels during August 2011 primarily due to the presence of elevated NO, but were indistinguishable from background concentrations during January and April 2012. A Gaussian plume model (AERMOD) and a Lagrangian back trajectory model (Wind Trax) were used to estimate the flux of NO from the dairy during August 2011 with the assumption that emissions were primarily from animal feed. NO emissions from silage were also directly measured from feed to provide additional insight into the sources. Isolation flux chamber measurements imply an NO flux from the feed of about 1.3 × 10-3 g m-2 h-1, but these relatively low fluxes are inconsistent with the elevated NO concentrations observed during August 2011. This implies that either the flux chamber method grossly underestimates the true NO emissions from feed, or that most of the ambient NO measured at the dairy is from other sources. Emissions from farm machinery may account for the NO concentrations observed. Animal feed thus appears to be a small contributor to NOx emissions within Central California.

  4. Unstaggered Central Schemes for Hyperbolic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touma, R.

    2009-09-01

    We develop an unstaggered central scheme for approximating the solution of general two-dimensional hyperbolic systems. In particular, we are interested in solving applied problems arising in hydrodynamics and astrophysics. In contrast with standard central schemes that evolve the numerical solution on two staggered grids at consecutive time steps, the method we propose evolves the numerical solution on a single grid, and avoids the resolution of the Riemann problems arising at the cell interfaces, thanks to a layer of ghost cells implicitly used. The numerical base scheme is used to solve shallow water equation problems and ideal magnetohydrodynamic problems. To satisfy the divergence-free constraint of the magnetic field in the numerical solution of ideal magnetohydrodynamic problems, we adapt Evans and Hawley's the constrained transport method to our unstaggered base scheme, and apply it to correct the magnetic field components at the end of each time step. The obtained results are in good agreement with corresponding ones appearing in the recent literature, thus confirming the efficiency and the potential of the proposed method.

  5. Regional Adaptation Strategies in Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Climate change presents a major challenge on international, national, and regional scale. It affects the scientific world as well as policymakers, representatives of economy, and the public. Consequently, the need for a dialogue between experts in climate change and the people affected is needed. However, structuring and communicating climate change information on the various scales is challenging and demands coordination. Within the Helmholtz community in Germany, four regional Helmholtz climate offices are founded. One of their major goals is to encourage the communication between science and public. Primarily, this is done by close cooperation to the Helmholtz research centers at which each climate office is hosted. Second, a continuous exchange is supported beyond the Helmholtz research centers towards universities and authorities at state and federal level. Each regional Helmholtz climate office represents regional aspects of climate related research based on the scientific expertise from the hosting Helmholtz research institutes. In the Climate Office for central Germany, Land use changes are among the most important factors of climate change driven environmental changes which have to be managed by the society in the next years. Since 1991 UFZ scientists research the causes and consequences of far-reaching environmental changes. The Climate Office offers information about climate change effects on the environmental compartments, land use strategies as well as regional strategies of adaptation. The three federal states in Central Germany (Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia) handle adaptation to climate change very differently. The presentation focusses on alikeness and differences in the adaptation process.

  6. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.). PMID:20111855

  7. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Miteva, Mariya

    2016-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is the most common scarring alopecia among African American women. Data about epidemiology, etiology, genetic inheritance, and management are scarce and come from individual reports or small series. CCCA has been associated with hot combing and traumatic hair styling for years; however, studies fail to confirm it as the sole etiologic factor. It has been shown in a small series that CCCA can be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, with a partial penetrance and a strong modifying effect of hairstyling and sex. CCCA presents clinically as a central area of progressive irreversible hair loss that expands to the periphery. A patchy form has also been described. Dermoscopy is helpful to identify the optimal site for the biopsy, which establishes the diagnosis. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to discover the optimal management. At this point, patients are advised to avoid traction and chemical treatments; topical and intralesional steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and minoxidil can be helpful in halting the progression. PMID:27574457

  8. Psychosocial Factors and Central Sensitivity Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Leah M.; Turk, Dennis C.

    2016-01-01

    Central sensitivity syndromes (CSSs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders (e.g., fibromyalgia [FM], irritable bowel syndrome [IBS], chronic headache, temporomandibular disorders [TMDs], pelvic pain syndromes) that share common symptoms, with persistent pain being the most prominent feature. Although the etiology and pathophysiology of CSSs are currently incompletely understood, central sensitization has emerged as one of the significant mechanisms. Given that there are currently no known cures for CSSs, people living with these disorders must learn to cope with and manage their symptoms throughout their lives. Medical interventions alone have not proven to be sufficient for helping people with CSSs manage their symptoms. A biopsychosocial perspective that considers the ways that biological, psychological, and social factors work independently and jointly to affect a person's experience is the most effective conceptualization and guide for effective treatment. In this article, we discuss several psychological and social features that may influence the experience of a person with CSS and their symptom management, regardless of their specific diagnosis. We highlight the longitudinal aspect of adjustment to illness, the distinction between psychosocial factors as causes of symptoms versus modifiers and perpetuators of symptoms, dispel the notion that all patients with the same diagnosis are a homogeneous group (the “patient-uniformity myth”), and acknowledge the importance of environmental and situational context on symptom management for individuals with any CSS. PMID:26088211

  9. Severe Central Sleep Apnea in Vici Syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Kersh, Karim; Jungbluth, Heinz; Gringras, Paul; Senthilvel, Egambaram

    2015-11-01

    Vici syndrome is a rare congenital multisystem disorder due to recessive mutations in the key autophagy regulator EPG5. Vici syndrome is characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, hypopigmentation, immunodeficiency, cataracts, and cardiomyopathy, with variable additional multisystem involvement. Here we report on a 5-year-old girl who presented with global developmental delay, seizures, callosal agenesis, cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss, hypopigmentation, and immunodeficiency with a low CD4 count and recurrent infections. EPG5 sequencing (prompted by suggestive clinical features) revealed a homozygous missense mutation, c.1007A>G (p.Gln336Arg). The patient was referred to our center for evaluation of nocturnal apnea. Overnight polysomnography showed severe central sleep apnea (CSA) with an overall apnea-hypopnea index of 100.5 events per hour of sleep (central apnea index of 97.5, mixed apnea index of 2, and obstructive hypopnea index of 1). The patient responded to bilevel positive airway pressure therapy with a backup rate with normalization of the apnea-hypopnea index and maintenance of oxygen saturation >90%. Despite successful control of the severe CSA, the patient was eventually started on nocturnal oxygen therapy due to excessive upper airway secretions and the high risk of possible aspiration with positive airway pressure therapy. This is the first report of EPG5-related Vici syndrome associated with CSA. We discuss the polysomnographic findings in our patient in the context of a brief literature review of the reported sleep abnormalities in Vici syndrome. PMID:26482670

  10. Fluorine, fluorite, and fluorspar in central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Fluorine (F) is a widespread element that was deposited in a variety of rocks, minerals, and geologic environments in central Colorado. It occurs as a trace element, as a major component of the mineral fluorite (CaFs), and as a major economic source of fluorine in fluorspar deposits, which are massive concentrations of fluorite. This study has compiled available geochemical analyses of rocks, both unmineralized and mineralized, to determine the distribution of fluorine in specific age-lithologic categories, ranging from 1.8-giga-annum (Ga) metamorphic rocks to modern soils, throughout central Colorado. It also draws upon field studies of fluorine-rich mineral deposits, including fluorspar deposits, to decipher the nearly two-billion-year-long geologic history of fluorine in the study area, with implications for mineral-resource evaluations and exploration. The resulting compilation provides an important inventory of the naturally occurring levels and sources of fluorine that ultimately weather, erode, and become part of surface waters that are used for domestic water supplies in densely populated areas along the Colorado Front Range. Most commonly, fluorine is a trace element in virtually all rocks in the region. In the 3,798 unmineralized rocks that were analyzed for fluorine in the study area, the average fluorine content was 1,550 parts per million (ppm). The median was 640 ppm, nearly identical to the average crustal abundance of 650 ppm, and some high-fluorine rocks in the Pikes Peak area skewed the average to a value much greater than the median. Most unmineralized age-lithologic rock suites, including Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, 1.7- and 1.4-Ga granitic batholiths, Cambrian igneous rocks, Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks, and Laramide and Tertiary igneous rocks, had median fluorine values of 400 to 740 ppm fluorine. In all suites, however, a small number of analyzed samples contained more than 1 percent (10,000 ppm) fluorine. The 1.1-Ga plutonic rocks

  11. Dynamics of the Central American Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieytez, Begonia; Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; José Machín, Francisco; José Gavidia, Francisco; Castro, Mi

    2014-05-01

    The Central American Pacific (CAP) is the area located in front of the Central America coast, within the Eastern Tropical Pacific region (ETP). The CAP dynamic is strongly influenced by the NE and SE trade winds, also this area is characterized by the presence of coastal wind jets at Gulf of Papagayo and Gulf of Panama, which are product of wind pulses blowing through the mountain gaps of the central cordillera, generating important eddies as the cyclonic eddy of Costa Rica Dome (CRD). Nevertheless, the implications of the topography of the continental margin of Central America in the determination of the dynamic processes in the area related to the action of winds and currents are still unknown. Between November and December 2010 (dry season), onboard the R/V Miguel Oliver, oceanographic parameters were measured in the CAP area, which despite its importance, has been poorly investigated until date. Available oceanographic information was processed in order to describe the dynamic along the Pacific coast of Central America, which is notable for its particularly strong stratification in the water column and the distribution of properties, as response to the presence of areas with high temperatures (above 28° C) and other areas with salinity minimum (less than 24). In this study was possible to distinguish three hydrographic zones: PM, south, in the adjacent region to Gulf of Panama, PY, in the center, in the adjacent region to Gulf of Papagayo, and FC, to the north, in the adjacent region to Gulf of Fonseca. The surface transformations of the water bodies, from south to north, observed in these zones could be indicting the presence of Costa Rica current. The prevailing wind system is the main force of variations in the surface distribution of the temperature in the area, and they are responsible of important structures as the anticyclonic eddy in front Gulf of Fonseca, eddies derived from the wind pulses of Gulf of Papagayo, and the relatively low temperatures in

  12. Central galaxies in different environments: Do they have similar properties?

    SciTech Connect

    Lacerna, I.; Avila-Reese, V.; Hernández-Toledo, H. M.; Rodríguez-Puebla, A.

    2014-06-10

    We perform an exhaustive comparison among central galaxies from Sloan Digital Sky Survey catalogs in different local environments at 0.01 ≤ z ≤ 0.08. The central galaxies are separated into two categories: group centrals (host halos containing satellites) and field centrals (host halos without satellites). From the latter, we select two subsamples: isolated centrals and bright field centrals, both with the same magnitude limit. The stellar mass (M {sub s}) distributions of the field and group central galaxies are different, which explains why in general the field central galaxies are mainly located in the blue cloud/star-forming regions, whereas the group central galaxies are strongly biased to the red sequence/passive regions. The isolated centrals occupy the same regions as the bright field centrals since both populations have similar M {sub s} distributions. At parity of M {sub s}, the color and specific star formation rate (sSFR) distributions of the samples are similar, especially between field and group centrals. Furthermore, we find that the stellar-to-halo mass (M {sub s}-M {sub h}) relation of isolated galaxies does not depend on the color, sSFR, and morphological type. For systems without satellites, the M {sub s}-M {sub h} relation steepens at high halo masses compared to group centrals, which is a consequence of assuming a one-to-one relation between group total stellar mass and halo mass. Under the same assumption, the scatter around the M {sub s}-M {sub h} relation of centrals with satellites increases with halo mass. Our results suggest that the mass growth of central galaxies is mostly driven by the halo mass, with environment and mergers playing a secondary role.

  13. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of the Central African Republic

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of the Central African Republic Pursuant to... requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Central African Republic and I hereby...

  14. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of the Central African Republic

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of the Central African Republic Pursuant to... the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to the Central African Republic and...

  15. Post-treatment lyme syndrome and central sensitization.

    PubMed

    Batheja, Shweta; Nields, Jenifer A; Landa, Alla; Fallon, Brian A

    2013-01-01

    Central sensitization is a process that links a variety of chronic pain disorders that are characterized by hypersensitivity to noxious stimuli and pain in response to non-noxious stimuli. Among these disorders, treatments that act centrally may have greater efficacy than treatments acting peripherally. Because many individuals with post-treatment Lyme syndrome (PTLS) have a similar symptom cluster, central sensitization may be a process mediating or exacerbating their sensory processing. This article reviews central sensitization, reports new data on sensory hyperarousal in PTLS, explores the potential role of central sensitization in symptom chronicity, and suggests new directions for neurophysiologic and treatment research. PMID:24026711

  16. Ordovician sponges from west-central and east-central Alaska and western Yukon Territory, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigby, J.K.; Blodgett, R.B.; Britt, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    Moderate collections of fossil sponges have been recovered over a several-year period from a few scattered localities in west-central and east-central Alaska, and from westernmost Yukon Territory of Canada. Two fragments of the demosponge agelasiid cliefdenellid, Cliefdenella alaskaensis Stock, 1981, and mostly small unidentifiable additional fragments were recovered from a limestone debris flow bed in the White Mountain area, McGrath A-4 Quadrangle in west-central Alaska. Fragments of the agelasiid actinomorph girtyocoeliids Girtyocoeliana epiporata (Rigby & Potter, 1986) and Girtyocoelia minima n. sp., plus a specimen of the vaceletid colospongiid Corymbospongia amplia Rigby, Karl, Blodgett & Baichtal, 2005, were collected from probable Ashgillian age beds in the Livengood B-5 Quadrangle in east-central Alaska. A more extensive suite of corymbospongiids, including Corymbospongia betella Rigby, Potter & Blodgett, 1988, C. mica Rigby & Potter, 1986, and C.(?) perforata Rigby & Potter, 1986, along with the vaceletiid colospongiids Pseudo-imperatoria minima? (Rigby & Potter, 1986), and Pseudoimperatoria media (Rigby & Potter, 1986), and with the heteractinid Nucha naucum? Pickett & Jell, 1983, were recovered from uppermost part of the Jones Ridge Limestone (Ashgillian), on the south flank of Jones Ridge, in the Sheep Mountain Quadrangle, in westernmost Yukon Territory, Canada. The fossil sponges from the McGrath A-4 and Livengood B-5 quadrangles were recovered from attached Siberian terranes, and those from the Sheep Mountain Quadrangle were recovered from an allochthonous Laurentian terrane in the Yukon Territory.

  17. Human Conservation in Central America, Summary of a Conference (Guatemala, Central America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is a resume consisting chiefly of extracts from papers that were presented at a conference on Human Conservation in Central America, held in Guatemala in 1965, as well as from discussions that took place during the conferences. With cooperation of numerous organizations and guidance from the Conservation Foundation, a discussion of…

  18. Central nervous control of energy and glucose balance: Focus on the central melanocortin system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have suggested that manipulations of the central melanocortin circuitry by pharmacological agents produce robust effects on the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings from genetic mouse models that have further established the physiologi...

  19. Community Resources Guide for Central Florida = Una Guia de Recursos en la Comunidad de Florida Central.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Linda, Comp.

    Designed to orient Hispanic refugees to the services that are available in Central Florida, this bilingual guide consists of a section of general information on living and working in the United States and a section devoted to various public and private agencies. Provided first are addresses and phone numbers of various government agencies:…

  20. A Central Brazil GT5 Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, L. V.; Assumpcao, M.; Caixeta, D.

    2013-05-01

    Ground-truth (GT) events, accurately located with a precision of 5 km (GT5 event) and associated travel times to regional stations are important in developing precise velocity models. The low Brazilian seismicity, with only three continental earthquakes of magnitude five in the last three decades, and the low number of seismic stations explain the difficulty to detect events at regional distances. In the world maps of GT events, Brazil appears almost empty. In Stable Continental Interiors, like Brazil, it is difficult to find an event fulfilling all the GT5 prerequisites, particularly in respect with the number of picked phases and azimuthal gaps. Recently PTS-CTBTO has organized meeting and workshops to encourage seismologists from South and Central America to cooperate with the work of identifying GT5 events in these countries, with a goal of developing a 3-dimentional velocity model for this part of the globe not covered yet like Europe and North America. As a result we studied a recent magnitude 5 event in Central Brazil detected by few regional stations. Aftershock studies with local stations, showed a fault 5 km long. Taking the mainshock epicenter as the center of fault the maximum error would be minimal, 2.5 km, assuming the events were located with zero uncertainty. The parameters depth and origin time source were precisely determined using correlations between waveforms of six events and stations corrections. The event magnitudes range from 3.5 to 5.0 (mainshock, taken as reference event) recorded by regional and local stations. Events recorded at local and regional stations were used to determine the regional station corrections. These events were located only with data from local stations, assigning to the regional stations P and S phases zero weight in order to determine residuals for each regional stations used. The stations corrections were taken as the average of the residuals at each station. Precise pickings of P and S phases for the mainshock

  1. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucia, Leporatti Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata) were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species), Marche (274) and Abruzzo (203). The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised). Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several plants deserve to be taken

  2. Petrologic diversity of Hrafnfjordur central volcano, northwest Iceland: Iceland's oldest central volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, B. T.

    2012-12-01

    Hrafnfjordur central volcano in northwest Iceland is exposed along the southern and western fjords of the Jokulfirdir, encompassing an area of ~400 km2. Field studies in 2004 and 2011 under the auspices of the Keck Geology Consortium investigated the southern and western portions of the Hrafnfjordur central volcano, mapping and sampling approximately 75% of the system. Hrafnfjordur central volcano has not been dated, but a basalt underlying tuff correlated to central volcano deposits yielded a whole-rock Ar/Ar plateau age of 14.20 +/- 0.33 (2σ) Ma (Jordan & Duncan, unpub. data). The dated lava is ~550 m below the tuff, and applying an accumulation rate of 1,600 m/m.y. (Kristjansson & Jonsson, 2007) produces an estimated age of ~13.9 Ma. This would make Hrafnfjordur the oldest central volcano exposed in Iceland. Mapping and sampling to this point have documented abundant andesite and dacite lavas, and several sequences of basalts and basaltic andesites. A notable feature of Hrafnfjordur central volcano is the absence of true rhyolites in the area mapped so far. A suite of dacites exposed in the fjord Hrafnfjordur exhibits a tight linear trend of decreasing Zr (1010-460 ppm) with increasing SiO2 (65.3-69.9 wt.%), indicating progressive zircon-involved fractionation. Elevated Zr/Nb of the parental dacite, relative to local basalts, precludes an origin by fractional crystallization from a basaltic parent, and thus its origin is interpreted to be crustal melting. A dacite exposed at Leirufjordur falls on the same trend and may correlate with those at Hrafnfjordur. Another trend of dacites and andesites sampled in both fjords is characterized by low Zr (160-200 ppm). This trend could represent magma mixing between basalt and a hypothetical highly evolved low-Zr high-silica rhyolite that either is not exposed or was never erupted. Most of the andesites and basaltic andesites plot on inflected trends consistent with an origin primarily by fractional crystallization from a

  3. Does central sensitization help explain idiopathic overactive bladder?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W Stuart; Dmochowski, Roger; Wein, Alan; Bruehl, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) can include dysfunction of sensory pathways of the peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in bladder hypersensitivity. Central sensitization describes an induced state of spinal hypersensitivity that is associated with a variety of chronic pain disorders that share many attributes with OAB, albeit without the presence of pain. As such, the concept of central sensitization might be relevant to understanding the mechanisms and clinical manifestations of OAB syndrome. An understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of central sensitization, and the evidence that supports a role of central sensitization in OAB, including the potential implications of mechanisms of central sensitization for the treatment of patients with OAB could provide a novel approach to the treatment of patients with this disease. Such an approach would be especially relevant to those patients with central sensitization-related comorbidities, and has the potential to improve the outcomes of these patients in particular. PMID:27245505

  4. Does central sensitization help explain idiopathic overactive bladder?

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, W. Stuart; Dmochowski, Roger; Wein, Alan; Bruehl, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) can include dysfunction of sensory pathways of the peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in bladder hypersensitivity. Central sensitization describes an induced state of spinal hypersensitivity that is associated with a variety of chronic pain disorders that share many attributes with OAB, albeit without the presence of pain. As such, the concept of central sensitization might be relevant to understanding the mechanisms and clinical manifestations of OAB syndrome. An understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of central sensitization, and the evidence that supports a role of central sensitization in OAB, including the potential implications of mechanisms of central sensitization for the treatment of patients with OAB could provide a novel approach to the treatment of patients with this disease. Such an approach would be especially relevant to those patients with central sensitization-related comorbidities, and has the potential to improve the outcomes of these patients in particular. PMID:27245505

  5. ITER CENTRAL SOLENOID COIL INSULATION QUALIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, N N; Mann, T L; Miller, J R; Freudenberg, K D; Reed, R P; Walsh, R P; McColskey, J D; Evans, D

    2009-06-11

    An insulation system for ITER Central Solenoid must have sufficiently high electrical and structural strength. Design efforts to bring stresses in the turn and layer insulation within allowables failed. It turned out to be impossible to eliminate high local tensile stresses in the winding pack. When high local stresses can not be designed out, the qualification procedure requires verification of the acceptable structural and electrical strength by testing. We built two 4 x 4 arrays of the conductor jacket with two options of the CS insulation and subjected the arrays to 1.2 million compressive cycles at 60 MPa and at 76 K. Such conditions simulated stresses in the CS insulation. We performed voltage withstand tests and after end of cycling we measured the breakdown voltages between in the arrays. After that we dissectioned the arrays and studied micro cracks in the insulation. We report details of the specimens preparation, test procedures and test results.

  6. Cognitive - Behavioral Therapy in Central Sensitivity Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Williams, David A

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a formal therapeutic approach that encourages selfmanagement of illnesses in accordance with the BioPsychoSocial model. CBT is composed of numerous skills grounded in known principles of behavioral and cognitive change. Each skill is designed to influence one of the facets associated with the perception of pain (i.e., sensory factors, emotional factors, or cognitive factors). Across the various Central Sensitivity Syndromes (CSS), CBT is thought to be beneficial to at least a portion of individuals afflicted. This paper provides a description of CBT, some recommendations for integrating CBT into clinical practice, and a brief review of the evidence supporting the use of CBT with various forms of CSS. PMID:26717953

  7. ITER central solenoid model coil impregnation optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutz, J. B.; Munshi, N. A.; Smith, K. B.

    The success of the vacuum-pressure impregnation of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor central solenoid is critical to success of the magnet system. Analysis of fluid flow through a fabric bed is extremely complicated, and complete analytical solutions are not available, but semiempirical methods can be adapted to model these flows. Several of these models were evaluated to predict the impregnation characteristics of a liquid resin through a mat of reinforcing glass fabric, and an experiment was performed to validate these models. The effects of applied pressure differential, glass fibre volume fraction, resin viscosity and impregnation time were examined analytically. From the results of this optimization, it is apparent that use of elevated processing temperature resin systems offer significant advantages in large scale impregnation due to their lower viscosity and longer working life, and they may be essential for large scale impregnations.

  8. Thematic mapper studies of central Andean volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    A series of false color composite images covering the volcanic cordillera was written. Each image is 45 km (1536 x 1536 pixels) and was constructed using bands 7, 4, and 2 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Approximately 100 images were prepared to date. A set of LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images was used in conjunction with the TM hardcopy to compile a computer data base of all volcanic structure in the Central Andean province. Over 500 individual structures were identified. About 75 major volcanoes were identified as active, or potentially active. A pilot study was begun combining Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data with TM for a test area in north Chile and Bolivia.

  9. Central limit behavior of deterministic dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirnakli, Ugur; Beck, Christian; Tsallis, Constantino

    2007-04-01

    We investigate the probability density of rescaled sums of iterates of deterministic dynamical systems, a problem relevant for many complex physical systems consisting of dependent random variables. A central limit theorem (CLT) is valid only if the dynamical system under consideration is sufficiently mixing. For the fully developed logistic map and a cubic map we analytically calculate the leading-order corrections to the CLT if only a finite number of iterates is added and rescaled, and find excellent agreement with numerical experiments. At the critical point of period doubling accumulation, a CLT is not valid anymore due to strong temporal correlations between the iterates. Nevertheless, we provide numerical evidence that in this case the probability density converges to a q -Gaussian, thus leading to a power-law generalization of the CLT. The above behavior is universal and independent of the order of the maximum of the map considered, i.e., relevant for large classes of critical dynamical systems.

  10. VIIP: Central Nervous System (CNS) Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vera, Jerry; Mulugeta, Lealem; Nelson, Emily; Raykin, Julia; Feola, Andrew; Gleason, Rudy; Samuels, Brian; Ethier, C. Ross; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Current long-duration missions to the International Space Station and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit expose astronauts to increased risk of Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. It has been hypothesized that the headward shift of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood in microgravity may cause significant elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), which in turn may then induce VIIP syndrome through interaction with various biomechanical pathways. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm this hypothesis. In this light, we are developing lumped-parameter models of fluid transport in the central nervous system (CNS) as a means to simulate the influence of microgravity on ICP. The CNS models will also be used in concert with the lumped parameter and finite element models of the eye described in the related IWS works submitted by Nelson et al., Feola et al. and Ethier et al.

  11. Central odontogenic fibroma of the maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Veeravarmal, V; Madhavan, R Nirmal; Nassar, M Mohamed; Amsaveni, R

    2013-01-01

    The central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a rare benign odontogenic mesenchymal tumor of jaw bones. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes two variants of COF namely: 1) Epithelial-rich type (WHO) and 2) epithelial-poor type (simple type). Rare variants like ossifying COF, COF associated with giant cell lesions, and amyloid have been documented. This article presents a case of an epithelial-rich variant of COF in a 24-year-old female. It presented as a bony swelling of the maxilla and appeared as a mixed lesion in radiographs. Histopathology showed a highly cellular fibrous connective tissue stroma with plump fibroblasts and long strands of odontogenic epithelium exhibiting mild eosinophilic to clear cytoplasm. Numerous cementum-like hematoxyphilic calcifications of various sizes akin to dentin or acellular cementum were observed. We believe that clinical and radiographic features of this case may add valuable knowledge to the already existing literature. PMID:24250106

  12. A central circuit of the mind.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John R; Fincham, Jon M; Qin, Yulin; Stocco, Andrea

    2008-04-01

    The methodologies of cognitive architectures and functional magnetic resonance imaging can mutually inform each other. For example, four modules of the ACT-R (adaptive control of thought - rational) cognitive architecture have been associated with four brain regions that are active in complex tasks. Activity in a lateral inferior prefrontal region reflects retrieval of information in a declarative module; activity in a posterior parietal region reflects changes to problem representations in an imaginal module; activity in the anterior cingulate cortex reflects the updates of control information in a goal module; and activity in the caudate nucleus reflects execution of productions in a procedural module. Differential patterns of activation in such central regions can reveal the time course of different components of complex cognition. PMID:18329948

  13. Photoplethysmographic measurements from central nervous system tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. P.; Kyriacou, P. A.; Chang, S. H.; Maney, K.; George, K. J.; Langford, R. M.

    2007-10-01

    A new system for measuring the oxygen saturation of blood within tissue has been developed, for a number of potential patient monitoring applications. This proof of concept project aims to address the unmet need of real-time measurement of oxygen saturation in the central nervous system (CNS) for patients recovering from neurosurgery or trauma, by developing a fibre optic signal acquisition system for internal placement through small apertures. The development and testing of a two-wavelength optical fibre reflectance photoplethysmography (PPG) system is described together with measurements in rats and preliminary results from a clinical trial of the system in patients undergoing neurosurgery. It was found that good quality red and near-infrared PPG signals could be consistently obtained from the rat spinal cord (n=6) and human cerebral cortex (n=4) using the fibre optic probe. These findings justify further development and clinical evaluation of this fibre optic system.

  14. ITER Central Solenoid Coil Insulation Qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Mann Jr, Thomas Latta; Miller, John L; Freudenberg, Kevin D; Reed, Richard P; Walsh, Robert P; McColskey, J D; Evans, D

    2010-01-01

    An insulation system for ITER Central Solenoid must have sufficiently high electrical and structural strength. Design efforts to bring stresses in the turn and layer insulation within allowables failed. It turned out to be impossible to eliminate high local tensile stresses in the winding pack. When high local stresses can not be designed out, the qualification procedure requires verification of the acceptable structural and electrical strength by testing. We built two 4x4 arrays of the conductor jacket with two options of the CS insulation and subjected the arrays to 1.2 million compressive cycles at 60 MPa and at 76 K. Such conditions simulated stresses in the CS insulation. We performed voltage withstand tests and after end of cycling we measured the breakdown voltages between in the arrays. After that we dissectioned the arrays and studied micro cracks in the insulation. We report details of the specimens preparation, test procedures and test results.

  15. Central nervous system toxicity of metallic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaoli; Chen, Aijie; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Jianfeng; Shao, Longquan; Wei, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are increasingly used for the therapy, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease- or drug-induced mechanisms in the human biological system. In view of their small size, after certain modifications, NMs have the capacity to bypass or cross the blood–brain barrier. Nanotechnology is particularly advantageous in the field of neurology. Examples may include the utilization of nanoparticle (NP)-based drug carriers to readily cross the blood–brain barrier to treat central nervous system (CNS) diseases, nanoscaffolds for axonal regeneration, nanoelectromechanical systems in neurological operations, and NPs in molecular imaging and CNS imaging. However, NPs can also be potentially hazardous to the CNS in terms of nano-neurotoxicity via several possible mechanisms, such as oxidative stress, autophagy, and lysosome dysfunction, and the activation of certain signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the dual effect of NMs on the CNS and the mechanisms involved. The limitations of the current research are also discussed. PMID:26170667

  16. The Paleozoic petroleum geology of central Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    McGillivray, J.G.; Husseini, M.I. )

    1991-08-01

    Recent exploratory drilling in central Saudi Arabia indicates that all the geological elements of a major petroleum basin are present in this province. Several Paleozoic siliciclastic sequences which were deposited along the stable Arabian margin of Gondwanaland constitute excellent reservoirs. The identified reservoir targets include the Cambrian-Ordovician Saq Formation, Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian glaciogenic clastics of the Sarah and Zarqa formations, and both fluvial and shallow marine sandstones of the Permian-Carboniferous Unayzah Formation. The source rock is a widespread organic-rich shale which was deposited during the regional deglaciation in the earliest Silurian. Migration occurred vertically along faults and/or updip from the regional Qusaiba shale subcrop through the reservoirs. Interbedded upper Permian shales and evaporites form the basal sequence of a major carbonate transgression and provide a capping seal. The traps are broad, low-relief, fault-generated structures which developed primarily during the Triassic.

  17. Central odontogenic fibroma of the maxilla.

    PubMed

    Veeravarmal, V; Madhavan, R Nirmal; Nassar, M Mohamed; Amsaveni, R

    2013-05-01

    The central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a rare benign odontogenic mesenchymal tumor of jaw bones. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes two variants of COF namely: 1) Epithelial-rich type (WHO) and 2) epithelial-poor type (simple type). Rare variants like ossifying COF, COF associated with giant cell lesions, and amyloid have been documented. This article presents a case of an epithelial-rich variant of COF in a 24-year-old female. It presented as a bony swelling of the maxilla and appeared as a mixed lesion in radiographs. Histopathology showed a highly cellular fibrous connective tissue stroma with plump fibroblasts and long strands of odontogenic epithelium exhibiting mild eosinophilic to clear cytoplasm. Numerous cementum-like hematoxyphilic calcifications of various sizes akin to dentin or acellular cementum were observed. We believe that clinical and radiographic features of this case may add valuable knowledge to the already existing literature. PMID:24250106

  18. Taro monoculture of central New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Morren, G.E.B. Jr.; Hyndman, D.C.

    1987-09-01

    An ancient, sustainable, and low risk Colocasia taro monoculture has persisted until modern times among the Mountain Ok peoples of central New Guinea. There is a monoculture-polyculture axis in the region with taro monocultures predominant in the rain forests of the mid-altitude fringe. The authors argue than when examined from the standpoint of ecosystem simplification, biological variability, and subsistence vulnerability, the taro monocultures exhibit many ecological and systemic properties commonly attributed to polycultures. Monoculture is not an exclusive category; specific cases must be placed in a broader context of the larger ecosystem and the options people have at their disposal. Reduction of the taro monoculture is occurring in response to modernization pressures.

  19. Planning applications in East Central Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannah, J. W. (Principal Investigator); Thomas, G. L.; Esparza, F.; Millard, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This is a study of applications of ERTS data to planning problems, especially as applicable to East Central Florida. The primary method has been computer analysis of digital data, with visual analysis of images serving to supplement the digital analysis. The principal method of analysis was supervised maximum likelihood classification, supplemented by density slicing and mapping of ratios of band intensities. Land-use maps have been prepared for several urban and non-urban sectors. Thematic maps have been found to be a useful form of the land-use maps. Change-monitoring has been found to be an appropriate and useful application. Mapping of marsh regions has been found effective and useful in this region. Local planners have participated in selecting training samples and in the checking and interpretation of results.

  20. Emerging infections of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Jennifer; McArthur, Justin

    2013-12-01

    Emerging infections affecting the central nervous system often present as encephalitis and can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis requires not only careful history taking, but also the application of newly developed diagnostic tests. These diseases frequently occur in outbreaks stemming from viruses that have mutated from an animal host and gained the ability to infect humans. With globalization, this can translate to the rapid emergence of infectious clusters or the establishment of endemicity in previously naïve locations. Since these infections are often vector borne and effective treatments are almost uniformly lacking, prevention is at least as important as prompt diagnosis and institution of supportive care. In this review, we focus on some of the recent literature addressing emerging and resurging viral encephalitides in the United States and around the world-specifically, West Nile virus, dengue, polio, and cycloviruses. We also discuss new, or "emerging," techniques for the precise and rapid diagnosis of encephalitides. PMID:24136412

  1. Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, D.S.; Sunderland, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The University of Massachusetts has recently started a two year effort to identify and design a significant Central Solar Heating Plant with Seasonal Storage (CSHPSS) in Massachusetts. The work is closely associated with the U.S. participation in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on CSHPSS. The University is working closely with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to assist in identifying State facilities as potential sites and to explore and secure State support which will be essential for product development after the design phase. Currently, the primary site is the University of Massachusetts, Amherst campus with particular interest in several large buildings which are funded for construction over the next 4-5 years. Seasonal thermal energy storage will utilize one of several geological formations.

  2. Bedrock topography of west-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, R.E.; Runkle, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Bedrock in Iowa (Hershey 1969) generally is overlain by deposits of glacial drift and alluvium. The drift, consisting of glacial till and glacial outwash, ranges in thickness from zero to more than 500 feet in western Iowa; the alluvium in stream valleys ranges in thickness from less than 1 to more than 70 feet. The configuration of the bedrock surface is the result of a long period of preglacial erosion and during shorter, but more intense, periods of interglacial erosion. This map, for a 12-county area in west-central Iowa, is the eighth of a series of nine reports that will provide statewide coverage of the bedrock topograhy of Iowa. 

  3. Advances in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Lauren B; Mohile, Nimish A

    2015-12-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is limited to the CNS. Although novel imaging techniques aid in discriminating lymphoma from other brain tumors, definitive diagnosis requires brain biopsy, vitreoretinal biopsy, or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Survival rates in clinical studies have improved over the past 20 years due to the addition of high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens to whole-brain radiotherapy. Long-term survival, however, is complicated by clinically devastating delayed neurotoxicity. Newer regimens are attempting to reduce or eliminate radiotherapy from first-line treatment with chemotherapy dose intensification. Significant advances have also been made in the fields of pathobiology and treatment, with more targeted treatments on the horizon. The rarity of the disease makes conducting of prospective clinical trials challenging, requiring collaborative efforts between institutions. This review highlights recent advances in the biology, detection, and treatment of PCNSL in immunocompetent patients. PMID:26475775

  4. Central nervous system phenotypes in craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    Aldridge, Kristina; Marsh, Jeffrey L; Govier, Daniel; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2002-01-01

    Though reduction in the number of cranial elements through loss of a suture is a recognized trend in vertebrate evolution, the premature closure of cranial sutures in humans, craniosynostosis, is considered a pathological condition. Previous research on craniosynostosis has focused primarily on the skeletal phenotype, but the intimate relationship between the developing central nervous system (CNS) and skull is well documented. We investigate the morphology of the CNS in patients with isolated craniosynostosis through an analysis of cortical and subcortical features using 3-D magnetic resonance images (MRI). Results show that a distinct CNS phenotype can be defined for specific diagnostic categories. Many differences in CNS morphology observed in the patient samples may be anticipated based on skeletal morphology, but others are not reflected in the skull. We propose a developmental approach to determining the cause of premature suture fusion, which includes investigation of the craniofacial complex as a system, rather than study of isolated tissues. PMID:12171474

  5. Central and peripheral circadian clocks in mammals.

    PubMed

    Mohawk, Jennifer A; Green, Carla B; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2012-01-01

    The circadian system of mammals is composed of a hierarchy of oscillators that function at the cellular, tissue, and systems levels. A common molecular mechanism underlies the cell-autonomous circadian oscillator throughout the body, yet this clock system is adapted to different functional contexts. In the central suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, a coupled population of neuronal circadian oscillators acts as a master pacemaker for the organism to drive rhythms in activity and rest, feeding, body temperature, and hormones. Coupling within the SCN network confers robustness to the SCN pacemaker, which in turn provides stability to the overall temporal architecture of the organism. Throughout the majority of the cells in the body, cell-autonomous circadian clocks are intimately enmeshed within metabolic pathways. Thus, an emerging view for the adaptive significance of circadian clocks is their fundamental role in orchestrating metabolism. PMID:22483041

  6. The Medina County, Ohio, central processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    White, K.M.

    1994-08-01

    Before deciding on the appropriate county recycling facility for their communities, waste management officials from Medina County, Ohio, spent three years researching their options. First and foremost, they wanted to generate a recycling amount that would at least double House Bill 592's requirements which calls for a 25% reduction in reliance on landfill space. After issuing a request for proposals, the county opted for a central processing facility (CPF)--which was designed, built, and is now operated by Norton Environmental (Independence, Ohio). Currently, the CPF extracts and processes recyclables, materials for refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and compostables from a mixed solid waste stream. After operating for just over one year, the facility, which is located in Seville, Ohio, is well on its way to achieving its goal of recovering two-thirds of the county's incoming mixed solid waste stream, and waste management officials there couldn't be happier with their selection.

  7. Expansion of industrial logging in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Nadine T; Stabach, Jared A; Grosch, Robert; Lin, Tiffany S; Goetz, Scott J

    2007-06-01

    Industrial logging has become the most extensive land use in Central Africa, with more than 600,000 square kilometers (30%) of forest currently under concession. With use of a time series of satellite imagery for the period from 1976 to 2003, we measured 51,916 kilometers of new logging roads. The density of roads across the forested region was 0.03 kilometer per square kilometer, but areas of Gabon and Equatorial Guinea had values over 0.09 kilometer per square kilometer. A new frontier of logging expansion was identified within the Democratic Republic of Congo, which contains 63% of the remaining forest of the region. Tree felling and skid trails increased disturbance in selectively logged areas. PMID:17556578

  8. Central Hyperadrenergic State After Lightning Strike

    PubMed Central

    Parsaik, Ajay K.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H.; Seime, Richard J.; Craft, Jennifer M.; Staab, Jeffrey P.; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe and review autonomic complications of lightning strike. Methods Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by lightning. Results A 24-year-old man was struck by lightning. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. Interpretation The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation were highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the lightning strike on the CNS or a secondary response is open to speculation. PMID:23761114

  9. Central pedicle reduction mammoplasty: a reliable technique

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Reduction mammoplasty is one of the most frequently performed procedures in plastic surgery for macromastia or gigantomastia. Recently it is also evolved for oncoplastic breast cancer surgery due to equivalent in terms of outcome for breast conserving surgery with radiotherapy versus mastectomy. Various techniques and modification has been made to achieve long lasting and aesthetically good result with minimal morbidity. Central (posterior) reduction mammoplasty is known for its versatile pedicle due to its good blood supply and innervation for maintaining of nipple sensation with unremarkably long term complication and proven in preservation of breastfeeding function. It is one of the good and reliable options to correct breast hypertrophy and ptosis. Various modifications were introduced by different authors to improve the technique and reduce scar formation which will give more satisfaction to patients. PMID:25083495

  10. Central pedicle reduction mammoplasty: a reliable technique.

    PubMed

    See, Mee-Hoong

    2014-02-01

    Reduction mammoplasty is one of the most frequently performed procedures in plastic surgery for macromastia or gigantomastia. Recently it is also evolved for oncoplastic breast cancer surgery due to equivalent in terms of outcome for breast conserving surgery with radiotherapy versus mastectomy. Various techniques and modification has been made to achieve long lasting and aesthetically good result with minimal morbidity. Central (posterior) reduction mammoplasty is known for its versatile pedicle due to its good blood supply and innervation for maintaining of nipple sensation with unremarkably long term complication and proven in preservation of breastfeeding function. It is one of the good and reliable options to correct breast hypertrophy and ptosis. Various modifications were introduced by different authors to improve the technique and reduce scar formation which will give more satisfaction to patients. PMID:25083495

  11. Prognosis of Central-Eastern Mediterranean waterspouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keul, Alexander G.; Sioutas, Michalis V.; Szilagyi, Wade

    The North American waterspout forecasting methodology by Szilagyi is applied on a sample of 110 waterspout events for the years 2002-2006 over the Central-Eastern Mediterranean (the Adriatic, Ionian and Aegean Sea). First, the geographical distribution and frequency of the phenomena are shown. Four synoptic types of waterspout-prone circulation patterns are considered. For the Adriatic cases, five thermodynamic indices (KI, TT, SWEAT, CAPE, BRN) are used as possible predictors. The testing of the Szilagyi Waterspout Nomogram and Index (SWI), developed for the Great Lakes region, was favorable for the Mediterranean case data, validating its use as a prognostic tool. Results were presented and discussed at the 4th European Conference on Severe Storms ECSS at Trieste. Meteorologists should standardize and evaluate waterspout prognostic tools and implement a visual interface to improve the service for relevant user groups.

  12. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Giesbrecht, Alan

    2015-03-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA) located in Butte County, Idaho at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell 1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell 2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell 3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5 acre land application site that utilizes a center pivot irrigation sprinkler system. The purpose of this current study is to update the analysis and conclusions of the December 2013 study. In this current study, the new seepage rate and influent flow rate data have been used to update the calculations, model, and analysis.

  13. The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; Alexandre, D.; Barnby, L. S.; Evans, D.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Lietava, R.; Pospíšil, J.; Villalobos Baillie, O.

    2016-03-01

    The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) at the CERN LHC has been upgraded for LHC Run 2, to improve the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) data-taking efficiency and to improve the physics performance of ALICE. There is a new additional CTP interaction record sent using a new second Detector Data Link (DDL), a 2 GB DDR3 memory and an extension of functionality for classes. The CTP switch has been incorporated directly onto the new LM0 board. A design proposal for an ALICE CTP upgrade for LHC Run 3 is also presented. Part of the development is a low latency high bandwidth interface whose purpose is to minimize an overall trigger latency.

  14. Noninvasive measurement of central venous pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, J. G.; Mastenbrook, S. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A technique for the noninvasive measurement of CVP in man was developed. The method involves monitoring venous velocity at a point in the periphery with a transcutaneous Doppler ultrasonic velocity meter while the patient performs a forced expiratory maneuver. The idea is the CVP is related to the value of pressure measured at the mouth which just stops the flow in the vein. Two improvements were made over the original procedure. First, the site of venous velocity measurement was shifted from a vein at the antecubital fossa (elbow) to the right external jugular vein in the neck. This allows for sensing more readily events occurring in the central veins. Secondly, and perhaps most significantly, a procedure for obtaining a curve of relative mean venous velocity vs mouth pressure was developed.

  15. Serotonin modulation of moth central olfactory neurons.

    PubMed

    Kloppenburg, Peter; Mercer, Alison R

    2008-01-01

    In the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) acting at the level of the antennal lobes contributes significantly to changing the moth's responsiveness to olfactory stimuli. 5HT targets K(+) conductances in the cells, increasing the excitability of central olfactory neurons and their responsiveness to olfactory cues. Effects of 5HT modulation are apparent not only at the single cell level, but also in the activity patterns of populations of neurons that convey olfactory information from antennal lobes to higher centers of the brain. Evidence suggests that 5HT-induced changes in activity within neural circuits of the antennal lobes might also drive structural plasticity, providing the basis for longer-term changes in antennal lobe function. PMID:18067443

  16. [Histopathology of central nervous system cavernomas].

    PubMed

    Mosnier, J-F; Brunon, J; Nuti, C

    2007-06-01

    Central nervous system cavernomas are vascular malformations, which occur in two circumstances: sporadic forms and familial autosomal dominant forms. The lesion consists of enlarged, closely packed vessels without interposition of brain parenchyma, surrounded by hemosiderin and gliosis, calcified in few cases. In 80% of sporadic forms the lesion is unique, multiple lesions are rare (median: 4). In familial forms the lesions are always multiple. Cavernomas are often associated with other vascular malformations, especially with venous developmental anomalies. The size of cavernomas is variable from 1 mm to several centimeters. About 70% of cases are supratentorial and 30% in the posterior fossa, particularly in the brain stem. Macroscopic and histopathological findings are typical and the diagnostic is generally easy. PMID:17498756

  17. Multivariable Harmonic Balance for Central Pattern Generators★

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Tetsuya

    2009-01-01

    The central pattern generator (CPG) is a nonlinear oscillator formed by a group of neurons, providing a fundamental control mechanism underlying rhythmic movements in animal locomotion. We consider a class of CPGs modeled by a set of interconnected identical neurons. Based on the idea of multivariable harmonic balance, we show how the oscillation profile is related to the connectivity matrix that specifies the architecture and strengths of the interconnections. Specifically, the frequency, amplitudes, and phases are essentially encoded in terms of a pair of eigenvalue and eigenvector. This basic principle is used to estimate the oscillation profile of a given CPG model. Moreover, a systematic method is proposed for designing a CPG-based nonlinear oscillator that achieves a prescribed oscillation profile. PMID:19956774

  18. Cavity radiation model for solar central receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Lipps, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    The Energy Laboratory of the University of Houston has developed a computer simulation program called CREAM (i.e., Cavity Radiations Exchange Analysis Model) for application to the solar central receiver system. The zone generating capability of CREAM has been used in several solar re-powering studies. CREAM contains a geometric configuration factor generator based on Nusselt's method. A formulation of Nusselt's method provides support for the FORTRAN subroutine NUSSELT. Numerical results from NUSSELT are compared to analytic values and values from Sparrow's method. Sparrow's method is based on a double contour integral and its reduction to a single integral which is approximated by Guassian methods. Nusselt's method is adequate for the intended engineering applications, but Sparrow's method is found to be an order of magnitude more efficient in many situations.

  19. Scaffolds for central nervous system tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jin; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Spector, Myron; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2012-03-01

    Traumatic injuries to the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS) lead to severe and permanent neurological deficits and to date there is no universally accepted treatment. Owing to the profound impact, extensive studies have been carried out aiming at reducing inflammatory responses and overcoming the inhibitory environment in the CNS after injury so as to enhance regeneration. Artificial scaffolds may provide a suitable environment for axonal regeneration and functional recovery, and are of particular importance in cases in which the injury has resulted in a cavitary defect. In this review we discuss development of scaffolds for CNS tissue engineering, focusing on mechanism of CNS injuries, various biomaterials that have been used in studies, and current strategies for designing and fabricating scaffolds.

  20. Auditory Training for Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    PubMed

    Weihing, Jeffrey; Chermak, Gail D; Musiek, Frank E

    2015-11-01

    Auditory training (AT) is an important component of rehabilitation for patients with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). The present article identifies and describes aspects of AT as they relate to applications in this population. A description of the types of auditory processes along with information on relevant AT protocols that can be used to address these specific deficits is included. Characteristics and principles of effective AT procedures also are detailed in light of research that reflects on their value. Finally, research investigating AT in populations who show CAPD or present with auditory complaints is reported. Although efficacy data in this area are still emerging, current findings support the use of AT for treatment of auditory difficulties. PMID:27587909

  1. Central pain: clinical and physiological characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    Bowsher, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the clinical and pathophysiological features of central pain due to damage to the CNS. METHODS--156 patients (mostly with ischaemic strokes, some with infarct after subarachnoid haemorrhage and other cerebral conditions; one with bulbar and others with spinal pathology) with central pain have been investigated clinically and varying numbers instrumentally with respect to quantitative somatosensory perception thresholds and autonomic function. RESULTS--Pain onset was immediate in a minority; and from a week or two up to six years in > 60%. For those with supraspinal ischaemic lesions, the median age of onset was 59; dominant and non-dominant sides were equally affected. Two thirds of the patients had allodynia, including a previously undescribed movement allodynia apparently triggered from group I afferents. Most patients exhibited autonomic instability in that their pain was increased by physical and emotional stress and alleviated by relaxation; cutaneous blood flow and sweating may also be affected. Pain occurred within a larger area of differential sensory deficit. The critical deficit seems to be for thermal and pinprick sensations, which were more pronounced in areas of greatest than in areas of least pain; whereas low threshold mechanoceptive functions, if affected, did not vary between areas of greatest and least pain. Skinfold pinch (tissue damage) pain thresholds were only slightly affected in supraspinal cases, but greatly increased in patients with spinal lesions; thermal (heat) pain did not show this dissociation. CONCLUSION--The pathogenetic hypothesis which seems best to fit the findings is that there is up regulation or down regulation of receptors for transmitters, possibly mainly noradrenergic, over time. PMID:8676164

  2. Central 22q11.2 deletions.

    PubMed

    Rump, Patrick; de Leeuw, Nicole; van Essen, Anthonie J; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, Corien C; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E; Swinkels, Mariëlle E M; Oostdijk, Wilma; Ruivenkamp, Claudia; Reardon, Willie; de Munnik, Sonja; Ruiter, Mariken; Frumkin, Ayala; Lev, Dorit; Evers, Christina; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Dijkhuizen, Trijnie; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M

    2014-11-01

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome is one of the most common microdeletion syndromes. Most patients have a deletion resulting from a recombination of low copy repeat blocks LCR22-A and LCR22-D. Loss of the TBX1 gene is considered the most important cause of the phenotype. A limited number of patients with smaller, overlapping deletions distal to the TBX1 locus have been described in the literature. In these patients, the CRKL gene is deleted. Haploinsufficiency of this gene has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. To distinguish these deletions (comprising the LCR22-B to LCR22-D region) from the more distal 22q11.2 deletions (located beyond LCR22-D), we propose the term "central 22q11.2 deletions". In the present study we report on 27 new patients with such a deletion. Together with information on previously published cases, we review the clinical findings of 52 patients. The prevalence of congenital heart anomalies and the frequency of de novo deletions in patients with a central deletion are substantially lower than in patients with a common or distal 22q11.2 deletion. Renal and urinary tract malformations, developmental delays, cognitive impairments and behavioral problems seem to be equally frequent as in patients with a common deletion. None of the patients had a cleft palate. Patients with a deletion that also encompassed the MAPK1 gene, located just distal to LCR22-D, have a different and more severe phenotype, characterized by a higher prevalence of congenital heart anomalies, growth restriction and microcephaly. Our results further elucidate genotype-phenotype correlations in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome spectrum. PMID:25123976

  3. A dynamical systems view of network centrality.

    PubMed

    Grindrod, Peter; Higham, Desmond J

    2014-05-01

    To gain insights about dynamic networks, the dominant paradigm is to study discrete snapshots, or timeslices, as the interactions evolve. Here, we develop and test a new mathematical framework where network evolution is handled over continuous time, giving an elegant dynamical systems representation for the important concept of node centrality. The resulting system allows us to track the relative influence of each individual. This new setting is natural in many digital applications, offering both conceptual and computational advantages. The novel differential equations approach is convenient for modelling and analysis of network evolution and gives rise to an interesting application of the matrix logarithm function. From a computational perspective, it avoids the awkward up-front compromises between accuracy, efficiency and redundancy required in the prevalent discrete-time setting. Instead, we can rely on state-of-the-art ODE software, where discretization takes place adaptively in response to the prevailing system dynamics. The new centrality system generalizes the widely used Katz measure, and allows us to identify and track, at any resolution, the most influential nodes in terms of broadcasting and receiving information through time-dependent links. In addition to the classical static network notion of attenuation across edges, the new ODE also allows for attenuation over time, as information becomes stale. This allows 'running measures' to be computed, so that networks can be monitored in real time over arbitrarily long intervals. With regard to computational efficiency, we explain why it is cheaper to track good receivers of information than good broadcasters. An important consequence is that the overall broadcast activity in the network can also be monitored efficiently. We use two synthetic examples to validate the relevance of the new measures. We then illustrate the ideas on a large-scale voice call network, where key features are discovered that are not

  4. Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hall, Roger K

    2006-01-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s) operating in utero about the 35th-38th day(s) from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F) at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor, in that the crown form is symmetric; it develops and erupts precisely in the midline of the maxillary dental arch in both primary and permanent dentitions. Congenital nasal malformation (choanal atresia, midnasal stenosis or congenital pyriform aperture stenosis) is positively associated with SMMCI. The presence of an SMMCI tooth can predict associated anomalies and in particular the serious anomaly holoprosencephaly. Common congenital anomalies associated with SMMCI are: severe to mild intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, cleft lip and/or palate and less frequently, microcephaly, hypopituitarism, hypotelorism, convergent strabismus, oesophageal and duodenal atresia, cervical hemivertebrae, cervical dermoid, hypothyroidism, scoliosis, absent kidney, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Short stature is present in half the children. Diagnosis should be made by eight months of age, but can be made at birth and even prenatally at 18-22 weeks from the routine mid-trimester ultrasound scan. Management depends upon the individual anomalies present. Choanal stenosis requires emergency surgical treatment. Short stature may require growth hormone therapy. SMMCI tooth itself is mainly an aesthetic problem, which is ideally managed by combined orthodontic, prosthodontic and oral surgical treatment; alternatively, it can be left untreated. PMID:16722608

  5. Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Roger K

    2006-01-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s) operating in utero about the 35th–38th day(s) from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F) at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor, in that the crown form is symmetric; it develops and erupts precisely in the midline of the maxillary dental arch in both primary and permanent dentitions. Congenital nasal malformation (choanal atresia, midnasal stenosis or congenital pyriform aperture stenosis) is positively associated with SMMCI. The presence of an SMMCI tooth can predict associated anomalies and in particular the serious anomaly holoprosencephaly. Common congenital anomalies associated with SMMCI are: severe to mild intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, cleft lip and/or palate and less frequently, microcephaly, hypopituitarism, hypotelorism, convergent strabismus, oesophageal and duodenal atresia, cervical hemivertebrae, cervical dermoid, hypothyroidism, scoliosis, absent kidney, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Short stature is present in half the children. Diagnosis should be made by eight months of age, but can be made at birth and even prenatally at 18–22 weeks from the routine mid-trimester ultrasound scan. Management depends upon the individual anomalies present. Choanal stenosis requires emergency surgical treatment. Short stature may require growth hormone therapy. SMMCI tooth itself is mainly an aesthetic problem, which is ideally managed by combined orthodontic, prosthodontic and oral surgical treatment; alternatively, it can be left untreated. PMID:16722608

  6. Silicon central pattern generators for cardiac diseases.

    PubMed

    Nogaret, Alain; O'Callaghan, Erin L; Lataro, Renata M; Salgado, Helio C; Meliza, C Daniel; Duncan, Edward; Abarbanel, Henry D I; Paton, Julian F R

    2015-02-15

    Cardiac rhythm management devices provide therapies for both arrhythmias and resynchronisation but not heart failure, which affects millions of patients worldwide. This paper reviews recent advances in biophysics and mathematical engineering that provide a novel technological platform for addressing heart disease and enabling beat-to-beat adaptation of cardiac pacing in response to physiological feedback. The technology consists of silicon hardware central pattern generators (hCPGs) that may be trained to emulate accurately the dynamical response of biological central pattern generators (bCPGs). We discuss the limitations of present CPGs and appraise the advantages of analog over digital circuits for application in bioelectronic medicine. To test the system, we have focused on the cardio-respiratory oscillators in the medulla oblongata that modulate heart rate in phase with respiration to induce respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). We describe here a novel, scalable hCPG comprising physiologically realistic (Hodgkin-Huxley type) neurones and synapses. Our hCPG comprises two neurones that antagonise each other to provide rhythmic motor drive to the vagus nerve to slow the heart. We show how recent advances in modelling allow the motor output to adapt to physiological feedback such as respiration. In rats, we report on the restoration of RSA using an hCPG that receives diaphragmatic electromyography input and use it to stimulate the vagus nerve at specific time points of the respiratory cycle to slow the heart rate. We have validated the adaptation of stimulation to alterations in respiratory rate. We demonstrate that the hCPG is tuneable in terms of the depth and timing of the RSA relative to respiratory phase. These pioneering studies will now permit an analysis of the physiological role of RSA as well as its any potential therapeutic use in cardiac disease. PMID:25433077

  7. The construction of a Central Netherlands temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Schrier, G.; van Ulden, A.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.

    2011-05-01

    The Central Netherlands Temperature (CNT) is a monthly daily mean temperature series constructed from homogenized time series from the centre of the Netherlands. The purpose of this series is to offer a homogeneous time series representative of a larger area in order to study large-scale temperature changes. It will also facilitate a comparison with climate models, which resolve similar scales. From 1906 onwards, temperature measurements in the Netherlands have been sufficiently standardized to construct a high-quality series. Long time series have been constructed by merging nearby stations and using the overlap to calibrate the differences. These long time series and a few time series of only a few decades in length have been subjected to a homogeneity analysis in which significant breaks and artificial trends have been corrected. Many of the detected breaks correspond to changes in the observations that are documented in the station metadata. This version of the CNT, to which we attach the version number 1.1, is constructed as the unweighted average of four stations (De Bilt, Winterswijk/Hupsel, Oudenbosch/Gilze-Rijen and Gemert/Volkel) with the stations Eindhoven and Deelen added from 1951 and 1958 onwards, respectively. The global gridded datasets used for detecting and attributing climate change are based on raw observational data. Although some homogeneity adjustments are made, these are not based on knowledge of local circumstances but only on statistical evidence. Despite this handicap, and the fact that these datasets use grid boxes that are far larger then the area associated with that of the Central Netherlands Temperature, the temperature interpolated to the CNT region shows a warming trend that is broadly consistent with the CNT trend in all of these datasets. The actual trends differ from the CNT trend up to 30 %, which highlights the need to base future global gridded temperature datasets on homogenized time series.

  8. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy.

    PubMed

    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always <0.34 and <0.57Bqkg(-1) respectively, (235)U, (228)Th and (232)Th were always <0.007Bqkg(-1). (137)Cs resulted <0.10Bqkg(-1) in all samples. The committed effective doses due to (210)Po from ingestion of honey for infants, children and adults account for 0.002-5.13% of the natural radiation exposure in Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products. PMID:26920304

  9. Molecular prey identification in Central European piscivores.

    PubMed

    Thalinger, Bettina; Oehm, Johannes; Mayr, Hannes; Obwexer, Armin; Zeisler, Christiane; Traugott, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Diet analysis is an important aspect when investigating the ecology of fish-eating animals and essential for assessing their functional role in food webs across aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The identification of fish remains in dietary samples, however, can be time-consuming and unsatisfying using conventional morphological analysis of prey remains. Here, we present a two-step multiplex PCR system, comprised of six assays, allowing for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of fish DNA in dietary samples. This approach encompasses 78 fish and lamprey species native to Central European freshwaters and enables the identification of 31 species, six genera, two families, two orders and two fish family clusters. All targeted taxa were successfully amplified from 25 template molecules, and each assay was specific when tested against a wide range of invertebrates and vertebrates inhabiting aquatic environments. The applicability of the multiplex PCR system was evaluated in a feeding trial, wherein it outperformed morphological prey analysis regarding species-specific prey identification in faeces of Eurasian otters. Additionally, a wide spectrum of fish species was detected in field-collected faecal samples and regurgitated pellets of Common Kingfishers and Great Cormorants, demonstrating the broad applicability of the approach. In conclusion, this multiplex PCR system provides an efficient, easy to use and cost-effective tool for assessing the trophic ecology of piscivores in Central Europe. Furthermore, the multiplex PCRs and the primers described therein will be applicable wherever DNA of the targeted fish species needs to be detected at high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26053612

  10. A Drying Trend in Central Equatorial Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diem, J.; Hartter, J.; Ryan, S. J.; Palace, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    There has been considerable uncertainty about changes in rainfall over central equatorial Africa over the past three decades due to a lack of reliable rainfall data in the region. This region contains the northern portion of the Albertine Rift, which is one of the world's hotspots for biodiversity, and within this region there is an exploding human population dependent on rainfed agriculture. Both the human population and conservation/preservation areas are becoming increasingly sensitive to changes in rainfall. There now exists an accurate, high-resolution, satellite based precipitation dataset, African Rainfall Climatology version 2 (ARC2), for the region that provides daily rainfall estimates from 1983 to the present. Here we show significant declines in monthly and annual rainfall in west-central Uganda, which exists in the far northeastern portion of the Rift, from 1983-2012. The decrease in annual rainfall was 110 mm per decade. Therefore, the current annual rainfall of approximately 1,200 mm is less than 80% of the annual rainfall three decades ago. The drying trend most likely extended westward into the Congo Basin. There were significant increasing (decreasing) trends in light-rainfall (heavy-rainfall) days over the period. Using results from previous studies, Indian Ocean warming and increasing carbonaceous aerosols from biomass burning in tropical Africa, are explored as potential causes of the drying trend. The aim of the study is not to find the fingerprint of local and regional anthropogenic forcings on the drying trend, but our results suggest that those forcings could be a leading cause of the drying trend.

  11. Central chemoreceptors and sympathetic vasomotor outflow

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Thiago S; Takakura, Ana C; Colombari, Eduardo; Guyenet, Patrice G

    2006-01-01

    The present study explores how elevations in brain PCO2 increase the sympathetic nerve discharge (SND). SND, phrenic nerve discharge (PND) and putative sympathoexcitatory vasomotor neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) were recorded in anaesthetized sino-aortic denervated and vagotomized rats. Hypercapnia (end-expiratory CO2 from 5% to 10%) increased SND (97 ± 6%) and the activity of RVLM neurons (67 ± 4%). Injection of kynurenic acid (Kyn, ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist) into RVLM or the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) eliminated or reduced PND, respectively, but did not change the effect of CO2 on SND. Bilateral injection of Kyn or muscimol into the rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG-pre-Bötzinger region, also called CVLM) eliminated PND while increasing the stimulatory effect of CO2 on SND. Muscimol injection into commissural part of the solitary tract nucleus (commNTS) had no effect on PND or SND activation by CO2. As expected, injection of Kyn into RVLM or muscimol into commNTS virtually blocked the effect of carotid body stimulation on SND in rats with intact carotid sinus nerves. In conclusion, CO2 increases SND by activating RVLM sympathoexcitatory neurons. The relevant central chemoreceptors are probably located within or close to RVLM and not in the NTS or in the rVRG-pre-Bötzinger/CVLM region. RVLM sympathoexcitatory neurons may be intrinsically pH-sensitive and/or receive excitatory synaptic inputs from RTN chemoreceptors. Activation of the central respiratory network reduces the overall sympathetic response to CO2, presumably by activating barosensitive CVLM neurons and inhibiting RTN chemoreceptors. PMID:16901945

  12. Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is in the Hot Creek Valley of south-central Nevada, approximately 70 miles northeast of Tonopah. The CNTA consists of three parcels totaling 2,560 acres. The parcels are spaced approximately 3 miles apart along a roughly north-south line. The total acreage is currently withdrawn from all forms of appropriation associated with mining laws and leasing. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), acquired the CNTA in the early 1960s to develop alternative sites to the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site) for underground nuclear testing. Three emplacement boreholes (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4) were drilled on the three parcels at the CNTA for underground nuclear testing. The initial underground nuclear test at CNTA, Faultless, was conducted in borehole UC-1 at a depth of 3,199 feet below ground surface on January 19, 1968. The yield of the Faultless test was estimated to be 0.2 to 1 megaton. Its purpose was to evaluate the environmental and structural effects that might be expected if subsequent, higher-yield underground nuclear tests were conducted in this vicinity. The test resulted in a down-dropped fault block visible at land surface. In addition, seismic results supported the indication that the site was not favorable for larger detonations. The nuclear detonation created a cavity with a radius of approximately 328 feet. The Faultless test did not release any radioactivity at the surface, and no additional tests were conducted at the CNTA.

  13. Soil indigenous knowledge in North Central Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Mapping and classifying soils is part of an important learning process to improve soil management practices, soil quality and increase productivity. In order to assess soil quality improvement related to an ongoing land reform in North-Central Namibia, the characteristics that determine soil quality in the local land use context were determined in this study. To do so, we collated the indigenous soil knowledge in North-Central Namibia where the Ovakwanyama cultivate pearl millet for centuries. Local soil groups are defined mostly based on their productivity potential, which varies depending on the rainfall pattern. The morphological criteria used by the farmers to differentiate the soil groups (colour, consistence) were supported by a conventional analysis of soil physical and chemical properties. Now, they can be used to develop a soil quality assessment toolbox adapted to the regional use. The characteristics of the tool box do not directly indicate soil quality, but refer to local soils groups. The quality of these groups is relatively homogenous at the local scale. Our results show that understanding of indigenous soil knowledge has great potential to improve soil quality assessment with regards to land use. The integration of this knowledge with the conventional soil analysis improves the local meaning of such a "scientific" assessment and thus facilitates dialog between farmers and agronomists, but also scientists working in different regions of the world, but in similar conditions. Overall, the integration of indigenous knowledge in international classification systems (e.g. WRB) as attempted in this study has thus a major potential to improve soil mapping in the local context.

  14. Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034

    SciTech Connect

    Zhunussova, Tamara; Sneve, Malgorzata; Liland, Astrid

    2012-07-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through the so

  15. Options for Braille Centralization. Study I--Implementation Study of Centralized Braille Book Storage and Distribution System. Part 1--Options for Braille Centralization. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ManTech Technical Services Corp., Fairfax, VA.

    This final report presents results of the first phase of an effort to develop in detail the resource requirements, operating procedures, and estimated costs for several centralized braille service options at the Library of Congress. Existing procedures and services were analyzed, and three models for centralized braille services were formulated.…

  16. Predicting Node Degree Centrality with the Node Prominence Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Dong, Yuxiao; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2014-11-01

    Centrality of a node measures its relative importance within a network. There are a number of applications of centrality, including inferring the influence or success of an individual in a social network, and the resulting social network dynamics. While we can compute the centrality of any node in a given network snapshot, a number of applications are also interested in knowing the potential importance of an individual in the future. However, current centrality is not necessarily an effective predictor of future centrality. While there are different measures of centrality, we focus on degree centrality in this paper. We develop a method that reconciles preferential attachment and triadic closure to capture a node's prominence profile. We show that the proposed node prominence profile method is an effective predictor of degree centrality. Notably, our analysis reveals that individuals in the early stage of evolution display a distinctive and robust signature in degree centrality trend, adequately predicted by their prominence profile. We evaluate our work across four real-world social networks. Our findings have important implications for the applications that require prediction of a node's future degree centrality, as well as the study of social network dynamics.

  17. Predicting Node Degree Centrality with the Node Prominence Profile

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Dong, Yuxiao; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2014-01-01

    Centrality of a node measures its relative importance within a network. There are a number of applications of centrality, including inferring the influence or success of an individual in a social network, and the resulting social network dynamics. While we can compute the centrality of any node in a given network snapshot, a number of applications are also interested in knowing the potential importance of an individual in the future. However, current centrality is not necessarily an effective predictor of future centrality. While there are different measures of centrality, we focus on degree centrality in this paper. We develop a method that reconciles preferential attachment and triadic closure to capture a node's prominence profile. We show that the proposed node prominence profile method is an effective predictor of degree centrality. Notably, our analysis reveals that individuals in the early stage of evolution display a distinctive and robust signature in degree centrality trend, adequately predicted by their prominence profile. We evaluate our work across four real-world social networks. Our findings have important implications for the applications that require prediction of a node's future degree centrality, as well as the study of social network dynamics. PMID:25429797

  18. Measures of node centrality in mobile social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhenxiang; Shi, Yan; Chen, Shanzhi

    2015-02-01

    Mobile social networks exploit human mobility and consequent device-to-device contact to opportunistically create data paths over time. While links in mobile social networks are time-varied and strongly impacted by human mobility, discovering influential nodes is one of the important issues for efficient information propagation in mobile social networks. Although traditional centrality definitions give metrics to identify the nodes with central positions in static binary networks, they cannot effectively identify the influential nodes for information propagation in mobile social networks. In this paper, we address the problems of discovering the influential nodes in mobile social networks. We first use the temporal evolution graph model which can more accurately capture the topology dynamics of the mobile social network over time. Based on the model, we explore human social relations and mobility patterns to redefine three common centrality metrics: degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality. We then employ empirical traces to evaluate the benefits of the proposed centrality metrics, and discuss the predictability of nodes' global centrality ranking by nodes' local centrality ranking. Results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed centrality metrics.

  19. Contrasting response of glacierized catchments in the Central Himalaya and the Central Andes to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragettli, Silvan; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Immerzeel, Walter

    2015-04-01

    The Andes of South America and the Himalaya in high-mountain Asia are two regions where advanced simulation models are of vital importance to anticipate the impacts of climate change on water resources. The two mountain systems hold the largest ice masses outside the polar regions. Major rivers originate here and downstream regions are densely populated. In the long run, glacier recession generates concerns about the sustainability of summer runoff. This study benefits from recent efforts of carefully planned short-term field experiments in two headwater catchments in the Central Andes of Chile and in the Central Himalaya in Nepal. The two study catchments contrast in terms of their climate and in the characteristics of their glaciers. A systematic approach is developed, built upon the available local data, to reduce the predictive uncertainty of a state-of-the-art glacio-hydrological model used for the projection of 21st century glacier changes and catchment runoff. The in-situ data are used for model development and step-wise, multivariate parameter calibration. Catchment runoff and remotely sensed MODIS and Landsat snow cover are used for model validation. The glacio-hydrological model simulates the water cycle with a high temporal (hourly time steps) and spatial (100 m grid cells) resolution and accounts for processes typical of both regions like glacier melt under debris cover or mass redistribution through avalanching. Future projections are based on the outputs of twelve stochastically downscaled global climate models for two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). This is one of the first truly intercomparative modeling studies at the catchment scale across mountain regions of the world to assess and compare future changes in glaciers and snow cover and associated impacts on streamflow production. Both catchments will experience significant glacier mass loss throughout the twenty-first century. However, the trajectories of simulated future runoff and

  20. Increase in Central Retinal Edema after Subthreshold Diode Micropulse Laser Treatment of Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gawęcki, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Subthreshold diode micropulse laser (SDM) treatment is believed to be safe method of treating clinical entities involving retinal edema. We present a case of serous edematous reaction of the retina to SDM treatment. Methods. Case report. Results. A patient with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) was treated with SDM Yellow multispot laser. Procedure had been preceded by careful titration of the laser power, which after achieving of the threshold parameter was decreased by 50%. The follow-up visit two days after treatment revealed significant central retinal edema and subretinal fluid. Fundus autofluorescence image showed thermal reaction from the RPE in the form of small spots of hyperfluorescence corresponding to the laser multispot pattern used for treatment. Retinal edema resolved after topical bromfenac and single intravitreal bevacizumab injection. Slight pigmentary reaction from the RPE persisted. Conclusion. In the treatment of CSCR, there is a need to significantly reduce threshold SDM power parameters or simply use very low power without titration. PMID:26180649

  1. Groundwater quality in central New York, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 14 production wells and 15 private wells in central New York from August through December 2012 in a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. The samples were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality in unconsolidated and bedrock aquifers in this area. Fifteen of the wells are finished in sand-and-gravel aquifers, and 14 are finished in bedrock aquifers. Six of the 29 wells were sampled in a previous central New York study, which was conducted in 2007. Water samples from the 2012 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, dissolved gases (argon, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, oxygen), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that the groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although for all of the wells sampled, at least one of the following constituents was detected at a concentration that exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards: color (2 samples), pH (7 samples), sodium (9 samples), chloride (2 samples), fluoride (2 samples), sulfate (2 samples), dissolved solids (8 samples), aluminum (4 samples), arsenic (1 sample), iron (9 samples), manganese (13 samples), radon-222 (13 samples), total coliform bacteria (6 samples), and heterotrophic bacteria (2 samples). Drinking-water standards for nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, and

  2. Tropical Cyclone Interactions Within Central American Gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papin, P. P.; Bosart, L. F.; Torn, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Central American gyres (CAGs) are broad (~1000 km diameter) low-level cyclonic circulations that organize over Central America during the tropical cyclone (TC) season. While CAGs have rarely been studied, prior work on similar circulations has been conducted on monsoon depressions (MDs) and monsoon gyres (MGs), which possess spatial scales of 1000 - 2500 km in the west Pacific basin. A key difference between MDs and MGs is related to the organization of vorticity around the low-level circulation. MDs possess a symmetrical vorticity pattern where vorticity accumulates near the circulation center over time, occasionally developing into a large TC. In contrast, MGs possess asymmetrical vorticity, organized in mesovorticies, which rotate cyclonically along the periphery of the MG circulation. Small tropical cyclones (TCs) occasionally develop from these mesovorticies. Interaction and development of TCs within CAGs are also common, as noted by a CAG identified during the 2010 PREDICT field project, which involved the interaction of TC Matthew and the development of TC Nicole within the larger CAG. This project is motivated by the lack of prior research on CAGs, as well as the complex scale interactions that occasionally occur between TCs and CAGs. This presentation focuses on the mutual interaction of vortices embedded in the larger-scale cyclonic flow comprising the CAG circulation. Case studies will be presented using a circulation framework to illustrate the relationship between different scale vorticity elements within the CAG. Some of these case studies resemble a MD-like evolution, where a large TC develops through the accumulation of symmetrical vorticity around the CAG (e.g. TC Opal 1995, TC Frances 1998). Other instances resemble a MG-like evolution, where smaller mesovorticies rotate around a common circulation center (e.g. TC Florence 1988). The circulation analysis framework aids in the diagnosis of interaction between different scale cyclonic vortices, and

  3. Classic to postclassic in highland central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dumond, D E; Muller, F

    1972-03-17

    The data and argument we have presented converge on three points. 1) With the decline and abandonment of Teotihuacan by the end of the Metepec phase (Teotihuacan IV), the valleys of Mexico and of Puebla-Tlax-cala witnessed the development of a ceramic culture that was represented, on the one hand, by obvious Teotihuacan derivations in presumably ritual ware and possible Teotihuacan derivations in simpler pottery of red-on-buff, and, on the other hand, by elements that seem to represent a resurgence of Preclassic characteristics. Whether the development is explained through a measure of outside influence or as a local phenomenon, the direct derivation of a substantial portion of the complex from Classic Teotihuacan is unmistakable. This transitional horizon predated the arrival of plumbate tradeware in highland central Mexico. 2) The transitional horizon coincided with (and no doubt was an integral part of) an alteration of Classic settlement patterns so drastic that it must bespeak political disruption. Nevertheless, there is no evidence that the Postclassic center of Tula represented a significant force in the highlands at that time. There is no evidence that the center of Cholula, which may even have been substantially abandoned during the previous period, was able to exert any force at this juncture; it appears more likely that Cholula was largely reoccupied after the abandonment of Teotihuacan. There is no direct evidence of domination by Xochicalco or any other known major foreign center, although some ceramic traits suggest that relatively minor influences may have emanated from Xochicalco; unfortunately, the state of research at that center does not permit a determination at this time. Thus the most reasonable view on the basis of present evidence is that the abandonment of Teotihuacan was not the direct result of the strength of another centralized power, although some outside populations may have been involved in a minor way. Whatever the proximate cause

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of central nervous system abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Angtuaco, E E; Angtuaco, T L; Angtuaco, E J

    1994-01-01

    Fetal anomalies have been the subject of innumerable publications both in the prenatal and neonatal literature. This has significantly increased in the last 10 years, mainly because of the advent of high-resolution ultrasound equipment and improvement of scanning techniques. In addition, guidelines issued by professional organizations involved in prenatal diagnosis have encouraged a more universal approach to the imaging and documentation of prenatal findings. The fetal central nervous system is the most frequently investigated organ system, mainly because of its easy accessibility and prominence even in the early stages of embryologic development. The biparietal diameter was the first fetal measurement to be widely used in determining gestational age. As investigators gained more experience, the appearance of ultrasound images achieved the resolution that allows direct comparisons with gross specimens and more recent sophisticated techniques of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Now endovaginal ultrasound can document early first trimester development and compare it to known embryologic landmarks. Interest in demonstrating the ultrasound counterpart of central nervous system structures in the early stages of development has resulted in a plethora of articles proving the unique ability of ultrasound in imaging the developing fetus. In view of all these developments, the beginning ultrasound specialist is faced with the challenge and responsibility not only of being familiar with the literature but also of the mastery of scanning techniques that allow accurate prenatal diagnosis. It is therefore helpful to review key developmental milestones in embryologic life and correlate them with the corresponding prenatal ultrasound appearance. In addition, the changing appearance of the developing fetus has created a need for a systematic approach in the evaluation of structures so routine protocols can be established. This has been the subject of other

  5. Fitness consequences of centrality in mutualistic individual-based networks

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, José M.; Perfectti, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The relationships among the members of a population can be visualized using individual networks, where each individual is a node connected to each other by means of links describing the interactions. The centrality of a given node captures its importance within the network. We hypothesize that in mutualistic networks, the centrality of a node should benefit its fitness. We test this idea studying eight individual-based networks originated from the interaction between Erysimum mediohispanicum and its flower visitors. In these networks, each plant was considered a node and was connected to conspecifics sharing flower visitors. Centrality indicates how well connected is a given E. mediohispanicum individual with the rest of the co-occurring conspecifics because of sharing flower visitors. The centrality was estimated by three network metrics: betweenness, closeness and degree. The complex relationship between centrality, phenotype and fitness was explored by structural equation modelling. We found that the centrality of a plant was related to its fitness, with plants occupying central positions having higher fitness than those occupying peripheral positions. The structural equation models (SEMs) indicated that the centrality effect on fitness was not merely an effect of the abundance of visits and the species richness of visitors. Centrality has an effect even when simultaneously accounting for these predictors. The SEMs also indicated that the centrality effect on fitness was because of the specific phenotype of each plant, with attractive plants occupying central positions in networks, in relation to the distribution of conspecific phenotypes. This finding suggests that centrality, owing to its dependence on social interactions, may be an appropriate surrogate for the interacting phenotype of individuals. PMID:22158957

  6. D Central Line Extraction of Fossil Oyster Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djuricic, A.; Puttonen, E.; Harzhauser, M.; Mandic, O.; Székely, B.; Pfeifer, N.

    2016-06-01

    Photogrammetry provides a powerful tool to digitally document protected, inaccessible, and rare fossils. This saves manpower in relation to current documentation practice and makes the fragile specimens more available for paleontological analysis and public education. In this study, high resolution orthophoto (0.5 mm) and digital surface models (1 mm) are used to define fossil boundaries that are then used as an input to automatically extract fossil length information via central lines. In general, central lines are widely used in geosciences as they ease observation, monitoring and evaluation of object dimensions. Here, the 3D central lines are used in a novel paleontological context to study fossilized oyster shells with photogrammetric and LiDAR-obtained 3D point cloud data. 3D central lines of 1121 Crassostrea gryphoides oysters of various shapes and sizes were computed in the study. Central line calculation included: i) Delaunay triangulation between the fossil shell boundary points and formation of the Voronoi diagram; ii) extraction of Voronoi vertices and construction of a connected graph tree from them; iii) reduction of the graph to the longest possible central line via Dijkstra's algorithm; iv) extension of longest central line to the shell boundary and smoothing by an adjustment of cubic spline curve; and v) integration of the central line into the corresponding 3D point cloud. The resulting longest path estimate for the 3D central line is a size parameter that can be applied in oyster shell age determination both in paleontological and biological applications. Our investigation evaluates ability and performance of the central line method to measure shell sizes accurately by comparing automatically extracted central lines with manually collected reference data used in paleontological analysis. Our results show that the automatically obtained central line length overestimated the manually collected reference by 1.5% in the test set, which is deemed

  7. Behavioral Hyperventilation and Central Sleep Apnea in Two Children

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Thomas P.; Tam-Williams, Jade; Schmandt, Margaret; Patel, Anand C.; Cleveland, Claudia; Coste, Ferdinand; Kemp, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral hyperventilation is a rarely recognized cause of central sleep apnea (CSA) among children. We report two pediatric patients who presented with prolonged central sleep apnea secondary to behavioral hyperventilation. One patient also had a prolonged corrected QT (QTC) interval resulting from hyperventilation. Citation: Johnston TP, Tam-Williams J, Schmandt M, Patel AC, Cleveland C, Coste F, Kemp JS. Behavioral hyperventilation and central sleep apnea in two children. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(4):487–489. PMID:26106657

  8. Central arterial pressure assessment with intensity POF sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Cátia; Gonçalves, Steve; Antunes, Paulo; Bastos, José M.; Pinto, João. L.; André, Paulo

    2015-09-01

    The central pressure monitoring is considered a new key factor in hypertension assessment and cardiovascular prevention. In this work, it is presented the central arterial systolic pressure assessment with an intensity based POF sensor. The device was tested in four subjects, and stable pulse waves were obtained, allowing the calculation of the central pressure for all the subjects. The results shown that the sensor performs reliably, being a simple and low-cost solution to the intended application.

  9. Environmental effects on the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Paulson, G W

    1977-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is designed to respond to the environment and is peculiarly vulnerable to many of the influences found in the environment. Utilizing an anatomical classification (cortex, cerebellum, peripheral nerves) major toxins and stresses are reviewed with selections from recent references. Selective vulnerability of certain areas to particular toxins is apparent at all levels of the CNS, although the amount of damage produced by any noxious agent depends on the age and genetic substrate of the subject. It is apparent that the effects of certain well known and long respected environmental toxins such as lead, mercury, etc., deserve continued surveillance. In addition, the overwhelming impact on the CNS of social damages such as trauma, alcohol, and tobacco cannot be ignored by environmentalists. The effect of the hospital and therapeutic environment has become apparent in view of increased awareness of iatrogenic disorders. The need for particular laboratory tests, for example, examination of CSF and nerve conduction toxicity studies, is suggested. Epidemics such as the recent solvent neuropathies suggest a need for continued animal studies that are chronic, as well as acute evaluations when predicting the potential toxic effects of industrial compounds. PMID:202447

  10. Central Nervous System Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Boulware, David R.; Marais, Suzaan; Scriven, James; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Meintjes, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (CNS-IRIS) develops in 9 %–47 % of persons with HIV infection and a CNS opportunistic infection who start antiretroviral therapy and is associated with a mortality rate of 13 %–75 %. These rates vary according to the causative pathogen. Common CNS-IRIS events occur in relation to Cryptococcus, tuberculosis (TB), and JC virus, but several other mycobacteria, fungi, and viruses have been associated with IRIS. IRIS symptoms often mimic the original infection, and diagnosis necessitates consideration of treatment failure, microbial resistance, and an additional neurological infection. These diagnostic challenges often delay IRIS diagnosis and treatment. Corticosteroids have been used to treat CNS-IRIS, with variable responses; the best supportive evidence exists for the treatment of TB-IRIS. Pathogenic mechanisms vary: Cryptococcal IRIS is characterized by a paucity of cerebrospinal inflammation prior to antiretroviral therapy, whereas higher levels of inflammatory markers at baseline predispose to TB meningitis IRIS. This review focuses on advances in the understanding of CNS-IRIS over the past 2 years. PMID:24173584

  11. Permutation centralizer algebras and multimatrix invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, Paolo; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a class of permutation centralizer algebras which underly the combinatorics of multimatrix gauge-invariant observables. One family of such noncommutative algebras is parametrized by two integers. Its Wedderburn-Artin decomposition explains the counting of restricted Schur operators, which were introduced in the physics literature to describe open strings attached to giant gravitons and were subsequently used to diagonalize the Gaussian inner product for gauge invariants of two-matrix models. The structure of the algebra, notably its dimension, its center and its maximally commuting subalgebra, is related to Littlewood-Richardson numbers for composing Young diagrams. It gives a precise characterization of the minimal set of charges needed to distinguish arbitrary matrix gauge invariants, which are related to enhanced symmetries in gauge theory. The algebra also gives a star product for matrix invariants. The center of the algebra allows efficient computation of a sector of multimatrix correlators. These generate the counting of a certain class of bicoloured ribbon graphs with arbitrary genus.

  12. Central control of thermogenesis in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Madden, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is an essential component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature in mammals and birds during the challenge of low environmental temperature and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. The primary sources of neurally regulated metabolic heat production are mitochondrial oxidation in brown adipose tissue, increases in heart rate and shivering in skeletal muscle. Thermogenesis is regulated in each of these tissues by parallel networks in the central nervous system, which respond to feedforward afferent signals from cutaneous and core body thermoreceptors and to feedback signals from brain thermosensitive neurons to activate the appropriate sympathetic and somatic efferents. This review summarizes the research leading to a model of the feedforward reflex pathway through which environmental cold stimulates thermogenesis and discusses the influence on this thermoregulatory network of the pyrogenic mediator, prostaglandin E2, to increase body temperature. The cold thermal afferent circuit from cutaneous thermal receptors ascends via second-order thermosensory neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord to activate neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus, which drive GABAergic interneurons in the preoptic area to inhibit warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons of the preoptic area. The resulting disinhibition of thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus and possibly of sympathetic and somatic premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the raphe pallidus, activates excitatory inputs to spinal sympathetic and somatic motor circuits to drive thermogenesis. PMID:18469069

  13. A ''LIGHT'', CENTRALLY CONCENTRATED MILKY WAY HALO?

    SciTech Connect

    Rashkov, Valery; Pillepich, Annalisa; Deason, Alis J.; Madau, Piero; Rockosi, Constance M.; Mayer, Lucio

    2013-08-20

    We discuss a novel approach to ''weighing'' the Milky Way (MW) dark matter halo, one that combines the latest samples of halo stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with state of the art numerical simulations of MW analogs. The fully cosmological runs employed in the present study include ''Eris'', one of the highest resolution hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of a M{sub vir} = 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} late-type spiral, and the dark-matter-only M{sub vir} = 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} ''Via Lactea II'' (VLII) simulation. Eris provides an excellent laboratory for creating mock SDSS samples of tracer halo stars, and we successfully compare their density, velocity anisotropy, and radial velocity dispersion profiles with the observational data. Most mock SDSS realizations show the same ''cold veil'' recently observed in the distant stellar halo of the MW, with tracers as cold as {sigma}{sub los} Almost-Equal-To 50 km s{sup -1} between 100 and 150 kpc. Controlled experiments based on the integration of the spherical Jeans equation as well as a particle tagging technique applied to VLII show that a ''heavy'' M{sub vir} Almost-Equal-To 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} realistic host produces a poor fit to the kinematic SDSS data. We argue that these results offer added evidence for a ''light'', centrally concentrated MW halo.

  14. Central neurotransmitter disturbances underlying developmental neurotoxicological effects.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, M; Swaab, D F

    1986-01-01

    Transmission of information among neurons is of a chemical nature. The activity of the neurotransmitter in the brain is regulated by the spontaneous activity of neurotransmitter cell body and the sensitivity of both pre- and post-synaptic receptors. Neurotransmitters are present at very early stages of brain development; they do not only mediate the behavioral-physiological responses of the immature animal, but have trophic effects on the maturation of target neurons as well. Many centrally acting drugs which are frequently used also during pregnancy for the treatment of depression, hypertension, epilepsy, asthma, insomnia, hyperkinetism and other neurological and psychiatric disorders act directly on brain neurotransmitters (in particular monoamines) and behavioral states. Chronic administration of drugs acting on monoamines (such as clonidine, imipramine, alpha-methyl-Dopa, reserpine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, diazepam) disturb the spontaneous activity and behavioral state dependency of the monoaminergic cells, influences neurotransmitter turnover and change the sensitivity of both pre- and post-synaptic receptors. Sensory deprivation during a critical period of development is known to produce permanent effect on the brain; e.g., monocular deprivation during a particular period of development in a kitten leads to a rewiring of the connectivity in the visual system in the adult cat. Disturbances in neurotransmitter activity during early life will induce a comparable reorganization of the chemical structure of the adult brain. PMID:2878401

  15. Microperimetry in patients with central serous retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Toonen, F; Remky, A; Janssen, V; Wolf, S; Reim, M

    1995-09-01

    In patients with acute central serous retinopathy (CSR), evaluation of visual acuity alone may not represent visual function. In patients with acute CSR, visual function may be disturbed by localized scotomas, distortion, and waviness. For the assessment of localized light sensitivity and stability of fixation, patients with CSR were evaluated by fundus perimetry with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO 101, Rodenstock Instruments). In all, 21 patients with acute CSR and 19 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Diagnosis of CSR was established by ophthalmoscopy and digital video fluorescein angiography. All patients and volunteers underwent static suprathreshold perimetry with the SLO. Light sensitivity was quantified by presenting stimuli with different light intensities (intensity, 0-27.9 dB above background; size, Goldmann III; wavelength, 633 nm) using an automatic staircase strategy. Stimuli were presented with simultaneous real-time monitoring of the retina. Fixation stability was quantified by measuring the area encompassing 75% of all points of fixation. Light sensitivity was 18-20 dB in affected areas, whereas in healthy eyes and outside the affected area, values of 22-24 dB were obtained. Fixation stability was significantly decreased in the affected eye as compared with normal eyes (33 +/- 12 versus 21 +/- 4 min of arc; P < 0.01). Static perimetry with an SLO is a useful technique for the assessment of localized light sensitivity and fixation stability in patients with macular disease. This technique could provide helpful information in the management of CSR. PMID:7496344

  16. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Mark R. Cole

    2013-12-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

  17. Groundwater hydrogeochemistry of Trikala municipality, central Greece.

    PubMed

    Skordas, Konstantinos; Papastergios, Georgios; Tziantziou, Lamprini; Neofitou, Nikolaos; Neofitou, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Sixty-four samples from the groundwater resources of Trikala municipality, central Greece, were collected during two periods (2006 and 2007) and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, specific electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids), major ions (Ca(2+), Cl(-), HCO(3)(-), K(+), Mg(2+), Na(+), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-)), and several potentially toxic elements (Al, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sc, Si, Sn, Sr, U, V, Y, Zn). European Council directives and USEPA guidelines were used to assess the water quality. The results indicate that all samples are fresh water, suitable for human consumption. All basic ions and physico-chemical parameters have average concentrations below their recommended optimum limits with the exception of electrical conductivity, for January 2007, and nitrate for October 2006 and January 2007 sampling periods. This exceedance is the result of dissolution of minerals such as calcite and dolomite that are present in the surrounding rocks and the application of fertilizers, respectively. Lead is the only element with an average value that exceeds the recommended EC guideline, while special attention should be paid to one borehole (T9) which has elevated NO(3)(-) values which may pose a risk to human health. PMID:22282351

  18. Time Perception Mechanisms at Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Rhailana; Ribeiro, Jéssica; Gupta, Daya S.; Machado, Dionis; Lopes-Júnior, Fernando; Magalhães, Francisco; Bastos, Victor Hugo; Rocha, Kaline; Marinho, Victor; Lima, Gildário; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Orsini, Marco; Pessoa, Bruno; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; Teixeira, Silmar

    2016-01-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks. PMID:27127597

  19. Hydrological trends in Congo basin (Central Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laraque, A.

    2015-12-01

    The last studies concerning some main Congo basin rivers allowed to subdivide their multi-annual flows into several homogeneous phases. As in West Africa, 1970 was the year of the major hydroclimatic event announcing a weaker flowing period. In the absence of long, reliable and available flow series in the whole Congo basin of 3,8 106km2 area, the present study concerns only the Congo River at Brazzaville/Kinshasa and two of the main tributaries of its right bank, Ubangui at Bangui and Sangha at Ouesso, with hydrologic data available from the first half of the 20th century. For Congo River, in comparison with its secular average, after an excess flow noted during the sixties, a significant drop of 10% occurs in the eighties. However, a return to normal conditions is recorded from 1995. For Ubangui and Sangha, the flows remain weaker since 1970. Within the bi-modal hydrological regimes of Sangha and Congo river, because they are equatorial, we also observe since many years a small decline of the secondary flood of april-june. This phenomenon was emphasized especially these last years and is founded in others rivers of Central Africa, where it reflects the variations of de rainfall patterns and the surfaces features. For the Congo basin, the situation is worrying because that affects the inland waterway transport. Moreover that wakes also the project of junction by a canal of the Congo and Chari basins for fighting against the hydrological decline of Lake Chad.

  20. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) Density in Central Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Daniel Gomes; Sollmann, Rahel; Ramalho, Emiliano Esterci; Ilha, Renata; Tan, Cedric K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) are presumed to be the most abundant of the wild cats throughout their distribution range and to play an important role in the dynamics of sympatric small-felid populations. However, ocelot ecological information is limited, particularly for the Amazon. We conducted three camera-trap surveys during three consecutive dry seasons to estimate ocelot density in Amanã Reserve, Central Amazonia, Brazil. We implemented a spatial capture-recapture (SCR) model that shared detection parameters among surveys. A total effort of 7020 camera-trap days resulted in 93 independent ocelot records. The estimate of ocelot density in Amanã Reserve (24.84 ± SE 6.27 ocelots per 100 km2) was lower than at other sites in the Amazon and also lower than that expected from a correlation of density with latitude and rainfall. We also discuss the importance of using common parameters for survey scenarios with low recapture rates. This is the first density estimate for ocelots in the Brazilian Amazon, which is an important stronghold for the species. PMID:27191598