Science.gov

Sample records for residential warm-air heating

  1. Chamberless residential warm air furnace design

    SciTech Connect

    Godfree, J.

    1996-07-01

    This brief paper is an introduction to the concept of designing residential warm air furnaces without combustion chambers. This is possible since some small burners do not require the thermal support of a combustion chamber to complete the combustion process.

  2. CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system. Quarterly report, January 22, 1987--April 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; McPeak, M.A.

    1987-05-01

    The objective of this project is the development of a coal water slurry burning residential furnace. A literature survey has been performed. Also, the preliminary testing of prototype components was carried out. Design criteria and specifications are discussed.

  3. CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System. Quarterly report, May 1, 1987--July 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1987-09-01

    Objective is the development of a reliable, efficient, compact and safe coal-water slurry burning residential furnace. The tasks of system analysis and of component analysis and design were completed, and the preliminary component design package was developed. Figs, table.

  4. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools.

    PubMed

    Burdett, Garry J; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml(-1)) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml(-1). Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

  5. Airborne Asbestos Exposures from Warm Air Heating Systems in Schools

    PubMed Central

    Burdett, Garry J.; Dewberry, Kirsty; Staff, James

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of airborne asbestos that can be released into classrooms of schools that have amosite-containing asbestos insulation board (AIB) in the ceiling plenum or other spaces, particularly where there is forced recirculation of air as part of a warm air heating system. Air samples were collected in three or more classrooms at each of three schools, two of which were of CLASP (Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme) system-built design, during periods when the schools were unoccupied. Two conditions were sampled: (i) the start-up and running of the heating systems with no disturbance (the background) and (ii) running of the heating systems during simulated disturbance. The simulated disturbance was designed to exceed the level of disturbance to the AIB that would routinely take place in an occupied classroom. A total of 60 or more direct impacts that vibrated and/or flexed the encapsulated or enclosed AIB materials were applied over the sampling period. The impacts were carried out at the start of the sampling and repeated at hourly intervals but did not break or damage the AIB. The target air volume for background samples was ~3000 l of air using a static sampler sited either below or ~1 m from the heater outlet. This would allow an analytical sensitivity (AS) of 0.0001 fibres per millilitre (f ml−1) to be achieved, which is 1000 times lower than the EU and UK workplace control limit of 0.1 f ml−1. Samples with lower volumes of air were also collected in case of overloading and for the shorter disturbance sampling times used at one site. The sampler filters were analysed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) to give a rapid determination of the overall concentration of visible fibres (all types) released and/or by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the concentration of asbestos fibres. Due to the low number of fibres, results were reported in terms of both the calculated

  6. Development of a high-efficiency, gas-fired, heat pipe, warm-air heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, S.; Becker, F.

    1985-01-01

    With the introduction by Borg-Warner of the Heatpipe Furnace, one of the major goals of this program was achieved. This milestone was reached after a 105,000 Btu/hr, 85 percent efficient manufacturing prototype heat pipe furnace was designed, fabricated, and tested by Thermo Electron. Other prototype units of different capacities were also designed. The prototypes underwent extensive field testing and in-house accelerated life-cycle testing, indicating that they were reliable, safe, and cost-competitive. Specific issues like freeze protection and oil contamination were addressed. Two different prototype ultrahigh-efficiency condensing furnaces were designed, fabricated and tested. One approach utilized a fluorocarbon-filled heat pipe as a secondary-stage heat exchanger; the other used a plate finned tube coil as the heat exchanger.

  7. Development of low cost components for residential heating technology. Final report, January 1990-October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, R.; Loria, B.

    1993-01-19

    A conceptual vent isolation device based on a venturi ejector design was evaluated for use on residential heating appliances. The design was tested on a forced warm air furnace of an upflow configuration and found to perform the required venting function, but only at air supply pressures which were in excess of design limitations. Over 60 different pieces of information for 108 warm air furnace models, 100 boiler models, and 54 direct heating equipment models were collected and assembled in three matrixes. The information relates to construction and performances details for each model reviewed.

  8. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system: Rankine air conditioner redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single family heating and cooling system is presented. The interim design and schedule status of the residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities were discussed. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  9. Air-cooled CWS warm air furnace. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.F.; Becker, F.E.

    1995-08-01

    Thermo Power Corporation, Tecogen Division, has developed coal water slurry (CWS) combustion technologies specifically tailored to meet the space heating needs of the residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. This furnace was extensively tested and met all the design and operating criteria of the development program, which included combustion efficiencies in excess of 99%, response to full load from a cold start in less than 5 minutes, and steady-state thermal efficiencies as high as 85%. While this furnace design is extremely versatile, versatility came at the expense of system complexity and cost. To provide a more cost effective CWS-based option for the residential market sector, Tecogen, developed a totally air-cooled CWS-fired residential warm air heating system. To minimize system cost and to take advantage of industry manufacturing practices and experience, a commercially available oil/gas solid fuel-fired central furnace, manufactured by Yukon Energy Corporation, was used as the platform for the CWS combustor and related equipment. A prototype furnace was designed, built, and tested in the laboratory to verify system integrity and operation. This unit was then shipped to the PETC to undergo demonstration operation and serve as a showcase of the CWS technology. An in-depth Owners Manual was prepared and delivered with the furnace. This Owners Manual, which is included as Appendix A of this report, includes installation instructions, operating procedures, wiring diagrams, and equipment bulletins on the major components. It also contains coal water slurry fuel specifications and typical system operating variables, including key temperatures, pressures, and flowrates.

  10. Solar preheater for residential heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The Solar Preheater for Residential Heat PUmps was designed to offset the weakest points in a heat pump system using solar energy. These weak points affect both energy efficiency and comfort, and are: (1) the heat pumps need to defrost its outside coils, and (2) its use of resistance coils when outside air is very cold. While a heat pump can claim close to 100% efficiency in its conversion of electricity to heat, these efficiencies drop way off under the above circumstances. Less dramatic energy savings should also occur during the heat pump's normal operation, since a heat pump takes available heat and condenses it to heat the house. It seems reasonable to say that if there is more heat in the outside air it will take less time to raise the temperature inside. The net effect should be similar to having the heat pump located several hundred miles south of the home it is heating. There are several ways to achieve solar augmentation of heat pump operation, but most are either too expensive, too difficult for do-it-yourselfers, or are not easily adaptable to existing units. The solar preheater for residential heat pumps gets around all the above restrictions.

  11. Residential solar-heating/cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Report documents progress of residential solar-heating and cooling system development program at 5-month mark of anticipated 17-month program. System design has been completed, and development and component testing has been initiated. Report includes diagrams, operation overview, optimization studies of subcomponents, and marketing plans for system.

  12. Advanced electric residential heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veyo, S. E.

    The heat pump concept developed uses the vapor compression refrigeration cycle with R22 as the working fluid. In order to achieve the target efficiency an improved reciprocating compressor with modulatable capacity was developed along with higher efficiency air movers, a breadboard microprocessor based control system and higher effectiveness heat exchangers. The relative proportions of the compressor, blower, fan, and heat exchangers are specified through system optimization to minimize annual ownership cost while constrained to provide comfort. The efficiency of this compressor is comparable to the best available while the ratio of minimum to maximum capacity can be selected as a parameter of optimization. The incremental cost of this compressor is estimated to be one third that of the compressor with two speed drive motor.

  13. Air leakage in residential solar heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingleton, J. G.; Cassel, D. E.; Overton, R. L.

    1981-02-01

    A series of computer simulations was performed to evaluate the effects of component air leakage on system thermal performance for a typical residential solar heating system, located in Madison, Wisconsin. Auxiliary energy required to supplement solar energy for space heating was determined using the TRNSYS computer program, for a range of air leakage rates at the solar collector and pebble bed storage unit. The effects of heat transfer and mass transfer between the solar equipment room and the heated building were investigated. The effect of reduced air infiltration into the building due to pressurized by the solar air heating system were determined. A simple method of estimating the effect of collector array air leakage on system thermal performance was evaluated, using the f CHART method.

  14. Oil heat venting technology residential heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Krajewski, R.F.; Celebi, Y.; Strasser, J.

    1991-05-01

    Tests were conducted on two oil-fired space heating appliances (a boiler and a furnace). Instead of using a chimney these appliances were configured to exhaust the combustion products through the side wall of the building (sidewall vent). The products of combustion were extracted mechanically (power-vent) from each of the appliances by using a fan (induced-draft fan) in the vent system. Measurements were made of the time required to clear the appliances of combustion products by running the vent fan after burner shutdown (postpurge). These measurements indicated that one minute of postpurge was sufficient to clear the combustion products. The required postpurge duration was longer when based upon controlling nozzle temperature rise after burner shutdown. This is due to heat soakback from the combustion chamber. In order to hold nozzle temperatures down, the required postpurge period was estimated to be about 3 minutes for the furnace and about 7 minutes for the boiler. Measurements were also made of the off-cycle energy losses due to postpurge duration. Furnaces are more severely impacted by postpurge losses than are boilers. In addition, tests were conducted on two boilers to determine the off-cycle losses due to an actual chimney system. A comparison of these results to those of the side-wall vent tests revealed the need for short postpurge durations to minimize losses. Calculations were made using the DOE test procedure and compared to the results of tests. Experimental results show that direct-vent systems perform as well as chimney-vent systems in terms of off-cycle losses. There is potential for an efficiency advantage for direct-vent over chimney-vent systems if postpurge requirements can be reduced. Initial efforts in developing a computer program for venting design and analysis are described. 7 refs., 39 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Economic aspects of possible residential heating conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkowicz, M.; Szul, A.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents methods of evaluation of energy and economy related effects of different actions aimed at conservation in residential buildings. It identifies also the method of selecting the most effective way of distribution funds assigned to weatherization as well as necessary improvements to be implemented within the heating node and the internal heating system of the building. The analysis of data gathered for four 11-stories high residential buildings of {open_quotes}Zeran{close_quotes} type being subject of the Conservation Demonstrative Project, included a differentiated scope of weatherization efforts and various actions aimed at system upgrading. Basing upon the discussion of the split of heat losses in a building as well as the established energy savings for numerous options of upgrading works, the main problem has been defined. It consists in optimal distribution of financial means for the discussed measures if the total amount of funds assigned for modifications is defined. The method based upon the principle of relative increments has been suggested. The economical and energy specifications of the building and its components, required for this method have also been elaborated. The application of this method allowed to define the suggested optimal scope of actions within the entire fund assigned for the comprehensive weatherization.

  16. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Odukomaiya, Adewale; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  17. Engineering economic assessment of residential wood heating in NY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We provide insight into the recent resurgence in residential wood heating in New York by: (i) examining the lifetime costs of outdoor wood hydronic heaters (OWHHs) and other whole-house residential wood heat devices,(ii) comparing these lifetime costs with those of competing tech...

  18. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2011-09-01

    This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

  19. AIR EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL HEATING: THE WOOD HEATING OPTION PUT INTO ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper compares the national scale (rather than local) air quality impacts of the various residential space heating options. Specifically, it compares the relative contribution of the space heating options to fine particulate emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and acid preci...

  20. Warm-air advection, air mass transformation and fog causes rapid ice melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjernström, Michael; Shupe, Matthew D.; Brooks, Ian M.; Persson, P. Ola G.; Prytherch, John; Salisbury, Dominic J.; Sedlar, Joseph; Achtert, Peggy; Brooks, Barbara J.; Johnston, Paul E.; Sotiropoulou, Georgia; Wolfe, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Direct observations during intense warm-air advection over the East Siberian Sea reveal a period of rapid sea-ice melt. A semistationary, high-pressure system north of the Bering Strait forced northward advection of warm, moist air from the continent. Air-mass transformation over melting sea ice formed a strong, surface-based temperature inversion in which dense fog formed. This induced a positive net longwave radiation at the surface while reducing net solar radiation only marginally; the inversion also resulted in downward turbulent heat flux. The sum of these processes enhanced the surface energy flux by an average of ~15 W m-2 for a week. Satellite images before and after the episode show sea-ice concentrations decreasing from > 90% to ~50% over a large area affected by the air-mass transformation. We argue that this rapid melt was triggered by the increased heat flux from the atmosphere due to the warm-air advection.

  1. TESTING OF REFRIGERANT MIXTURES IN RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of four possibilities for replacing Hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 (HCFC-22) with the non-ozone-depleting new refrigerants R-407D and R-407C in residential heat pumps. The first and simplest scenario was a retrofit with no hardware modific...

  2. Residential Heat and Air Conditioning. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    The program guide for residential heat and air conditioning courses in Florida identifies primary considerations for the organization, operation, and evaluation of a vocational education program. Following an occupational description for the job title for air-conditioning installer-servicer, window unit, and its Dictionary of Occupational Titles…

  3. Reducing residential energy growth with more efficient space heating equipment

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neal, D.L.; Hirst, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Several energy-saving designs changes in residential space heating systems were examined to determine their energy conservation potential and cost effectiveness. Changes in conventional and advanced systems (such as gas heat pumps) were considered. Energy savings as large as 26, 20, and 57% were estimated for design changes in conventional gas, oil, and electric space heating systems, respectively. These changes increased capital cost of the three systems by 27, 16, and 26%. For advanced gas and electric systems, energy savings up to 45 and 67%, respectively, were calculated. The design changes needed to produce these energy savings increased capital costs 80 and 35%. The energy use and cost relationships developed for the space heating systems were used as input to the ORNL residential energy use simulation model to evaluate the effect of space heating improvements on national energy use to the year 2000. With no efficiency improvements in equipment, space heating energy grew at 2.5% per year. When improved conventional and advanced systems were introduced in the market, heating energy growth was cut to 1.8% and 1.6% per year, respectively. In addition, if consumers were to minimize life cycle costs in pruchasing space heating equipment, space heating energy growth was projected to grow at 1.1% per year.

  4. Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.

    2009-12-01

    particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns

  5. The residential space heating problem in Lithuania

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakevicius, E.; Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

    1996-02-01

    This report gives preliminary data on housing in Lithuania. We focus on the actual housing structure now that much of the stock has been privatized-an action that carries with it uncertainty regarding who is responsible for heating energy use, who is responsible for conservation measures and retrofitting, and who benefits from these actions. The paper then discusses some of the measures undertaken by both property owners and by governmental agencies to ameliorate poor heating conditions. The report summarizes results from a number of recent studies of the potential for energy savings in heating Lithuanian multifamily buildings. In closing we recommend actions that should be taken soon to ensure that Lithuanian housing moves along a path to greater energy efficiency. Some signals as to where this path should go can be taken from European countries with similar climatic conditions.

  6. Residential solar-heating system - design brochure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Design brochure for commercially-available solar-heating system is valuable to architects, engineers, and designers. It contains information on system configuration, system sizing, and mechanical layout. Drawings and specifications of all components and typical installation details are included in appendix.

  7. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  8. Modeling operation mode of pellet boilers for residential heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrocelli, D.; Lezzi, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years the consumption of wood pellets as energy source for residential heating lias increased, not only as fuel for stoves, but also for small-scale residential boilers that, produce hot water used for both space heating and domestic hot water. Reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions (CO, dust., HC) is an obvious target of wood pellet boiler manufacturers, however they are also quite interested in producing low- maintenance appliances. The need of frequent maintenance turns in higher operating costs and inconvenience for the user, and in lower boiler efficiency and higher emissions also. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical model able to simulate the dynamic behavior of a pellet boiler. The model takes into account many features of real pellet boilers. Furthermore, with this model, it is possible to pay more attention to the influence of the boiler control strategy. Control strategy evaluation is based not only on pellet consumption and on total emissions, but also on critical operating conditions such as start-up and stop or prolonged operation at substantially reduced power level. Results are obtained for a residential heating system based on a wood pellet boiler coupled with a thermal energy storage. Results obtained so far show a weak dependence of performance in terms of fuel consumption and total emissions on control strategy, however some control strategies present some critical issues regarding maintenance frequency.

  9. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Heating Oil Price Model

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential heating oil price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  10. Performance control strategies for oil-fired residential heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.

    1990-07-01

    Results are reported of a study of control system options which can be used to improve the combustion performance of residential, oil-fired heating equipment. Two basic control modes were considered in this program. The first is service required'' signals in which an indication is provided when the flame quality or heat exchanger cleanliness have degraded to the point that a service call is required. The second control mode is excess-air trim'' in which the burner would essentially tune itself continuously for maximum efficiency. 35 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Maryvale Terrace: Geothermal residential district space heating and cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. H.; Goldstone, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    A preliminary study of the technical and economic feasibility of installing a geothermal district heating and cooling system is analyzed for the Maryvale Terrace residential subdevelopment in Phoenix, Arizona, consisting of 557 residential houses. The design heating load was estimated to be 16.77 million Btu/h and the design cooling load was estimated to be 14.65 million Btu/h. Average annual energy use for the development was estimated to be 5870 million Btu/y and 14,650 million Btu/y for heating and cooling, respectively. Competing fuels are natural gas for heating and electricity for cooling. A geothermal resource is assumed to exist beneath the site at a depth of 6000 feet. Five production wells producing 1000 qpm each of 2200 F geothermal fluid are required. Total estimated cost for installing the system is $5,079,300. First year system operations cost (including debt service) is $974,361. The average annual geothermal heating and cooling cost per home is estimated to be $1750 as compared to a conventional system annual cost of $1145.

  12. Residential heating and cooling loads and costs for the South

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, A. S.; Hyatt, T. D.

    1982-01-01

    This report examines typical residential heating and cooling loads for 24 southern cities and six other US cities. A 1536-square-foot house is examined, with concrete slab floor, frame construction, ventilated attic, and glazing area equivalent to 12% of the floor area. Five basic variations of this house were analyzed: two insulation levels with two compass orientations each, and a sun-tempered case. The building load calculations were based on a non-rigorous methodology typically used within the building community today. The estimated heating and cooling loads and the impact of insulation, orientation, and sun-tempering are illustrated with regional maps. Typical fuel costs and heating systems are also examined and shown to have a major role in determining whether the building design emphasis should be on heating or cooling.

  13. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This training course and a companion course titled "Design of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings," are designed to train home designers and builders in the fundamentals of solar hydronic and air systems for space heating and cooling and domestic hot water heating for residential buildings. Each course, organized in 22…

  14. Climatic indicators for estimating residential heating and cooling loads

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.J.; Ritschard, R.; Bull, J.; Chang, L.

    1986-11-01

    An extensive data base of residential energy use generated with the DOE-2.1A simulation code provides an opportunity for correlating building loads predicted by an hourly simulation model to commonly used climatic parameters such as heating and cooling degree-days, and to newer parameters such as insolation-days and latent enthalpy-days. The identification of reliable climatic parameters for estimating cooling loads and the incremental loads for individual building components, such as changing ceiling and wall R-values, infiltration rates or window areas is emphasized.

  15. Warm air sensation for assessment of block after spinal anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Shah, J; Ayorinde, B T; Rowbotham, D J; Buggy, D J

    2000-03-01

    We have evaluated a new method of assessing dermatomal sensory levels after regional anaesthesia based on warm sensation. Sensory levels were assessed in 30 patients after spinal anaesthesia using a respiratory gas humidifier, adapted to deliver a constant flow of warm air at 40 +/- 0.2 degrees C. This was compared with the cold sensation from ethyl chloride spray. The frequency distribution of the dermatomal differences showed 96.6% of the comparisons were between +1 and -1 dermatomes. The median difference in dermatomal levels between the two methods of assessment was 0 (interquartile range 0-1) (P = 0.65). We conclude that the warm air method compares favourably with ethyl chloride spray and both can be used interchangeably. PMID:10793604

  16. Cost Estimates of Electricity from a TPV Residential Heating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palfinger, Günther; Bitnar, Bernd; Durisch, Wilhelm; Mayor, Jean-Claude; Grützmacher, Detlev; Gobrecht, Jens

    2003-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system was built using a 12 to 20 kWth methane burner which should be integrated into a conventional residential heating system. The TPV system is cylindrical in shape and consists of a selective Yb2O3 emitter, a quartz glass tube to prevent the exhaust gases from heating the cells and a 0.2 m2 monocrystalline silicon solar cell module which is water cooled. The maximum system efficiency of 1.0 % was obtained at a thermal input power of 12 kWth. The electrical power suffices to run a residential heating system in the full power range (12 to 20 kWth) independently of the grid. The end user costs of the TPV components - emitter, glass tube, photocells and cell cooling circuit - were estimated considering 4 different TPV scenarios. The existing technique was compared with an improved system currently under development, which consists of a flexible photocell module that can be glued into the boiler housing and with systems with improved system efficiency (1.5 to 5 %) and geometry. Prices of the electricity from 2.5 to 22 EURcents/kWhel (excl. gas of about 3.5 EURcents/kWh), which corresponds to system costs of 340 to 3000 EUR/kWel,peak, were calculated. The price of electricity by TPV was compared with that of fuel cells and gas engines. While fuel cells are still expensive, gas engines have the disadvantage of maintenance, noise and bulkiness. TPV, in contrast, is a cost efficient alternative to produce heat and electricity, particularly in small peripheral units.

  17. Development of a Residential Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D; Hern, Shawn; McDowell, Tim; Munk, Jeffrey D; Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    A residential-size ground-source integrated heat pump (GSIHP) system has been developed and is currently being field tested. The system is a nominal 2-ton (7 kW) cooling capacity, variable-speed unit, which is multi-functional, e.g. space cooling, space heating, dedicated water heating, and simultaneous space cooling and water heating. High-efficiency brushless permanent-magnet (BPM) motors are used for the compressor, indoor blower, and pumps to obtain the highest component performance and system control flexibility. Laboratory test data were used to calibrate a vapor-compression simulation model (HPDM) for each of the four primary modes of operation. The model was used to optimize the internal control options and to simulate the selected internal control strategies, such as controlling to a constant air supply temperature in the space heating mode and a fixed water temperature rise in water heating modes. Equipment performance maps were generated for each operation mode as functions of all independent variables for use in TRNSYS annual energy simulations. These were performed for the GSIHP installed in a well-insulated 2600 ft2(242 m2) house and connected to a vertical ground loop heat exchanger(GLHE). We selected a 13 SEER (3.8 CSPF )/7.7 HSPF (2.3 HSPF, W/W) ASHP unit with 0.90 Energy Factor (EF) resistance water heater as the baseline for energy savings comparisons. The annual energy simulations were conducted over five US climate zones. In addition, appropriate ground loop sizes were determined for each location to meet 10-year minimum and maximum design entering water temperatures (EWTs) to the equipment. The prototype GSIHP system was predicted to use 52 to 59% less energy than the baseline system while meeting total annual space conditioning and water heating loads.

  18. Michigan residential heating oil and propane price survey: 1995--1996 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, C.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of residential No. 2 distillate fuel (home heating oil) and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) prices over the 1995--1996 heating season in Michigan. The Michigan`s Public Service Commission (MPSC) conducted the survey under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). This survey was funded in part by a grant from the DOE. From October 1995 through March 1996, the MPSC surveyed participating distributors by telephone for current residential retail home heating oil and propane prices. The MPSC transmitted the data via a computer modem to the EIA using the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). Survey results were published in aggregate on the MPSC World Wide Web site at http://ermisweb.state.mi.us/shopp. The page was updated with both residential and wholesale prices immediately following the transmission of the data to the EIA. The EIA constructed the survey using a sample of Michigan home heating oil and propane retailers. The sample accounts for different sales volumes, geographic location, and sources of primary supply.

  19. Maintenance and storage of fuel oil for residential heating systems: A guide for residential heating system maintenance personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Litzke, Wai-Lin

    1992-12-01

    The quality of No. 2 fuel affects the performance of the heating system and is an important parameter in the proper and efficient operation of an oil-burning system. The physical and chemical characteristics of the fuel can affect the flow, atomization and combustion processes, all of which help to define and limit the overall performance of the heating system. The use of chemical additives by fuel oil marketershas become more common as a method of improving the quality of the fuel, especially for handling and storage. Numerous types of additives are available, but reliable information on their effectiveness and proper use is limited. This makes selecting an additive difficult in many situations. Common types of problems that contribute to poor fuel quality and how they affect residential heating equipment are identified inof this booklet. It covers the key items that are needed in an effective fuel quality monitoring program, such as what to look for when evaluating the quality of fuel as it is received from a supplier, or how to assess fuel problems associated with poor storage conditions. References to standard procedures and brief descriptions of the procedures also are given. Approaches for correcting a fuel-related problem, including the potential uses of chemical additives are discussed. Different types of additives are described to help users understand the functions and limitations of chemical treatment. Tips on how to select andeffectively use additives also are included. Finally, the importance of preventative maintenance in any fuel monitoring program is emphasized.

  20. An engineering economic assessment of whole-house residential wood heating in New York

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wood devices are being selected increasingly for residential space heating by households in New York State. Motivations for their use include energy independence, mitigating climate change, stimulating local economic development, and reducing exposure to high and variable fuel c...

  1. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  2. Relevance of existing heat pump testing and rating method assumptions to residential gas engine heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Talbert, S.G.; Atterbury, W.G.; Klausing, T.A.; Jakob, F.E.

    1998-10-01

    ASHRAE Research Project 780 evaluated the relevance of existing heat pump testing and rating method assumptions to a method of test for residential gas engine-driven heat pumps (GEHP). The intrinsic cyclic behavior of GEHP systems suggests changing the heating cycling test from a 20% duty cycle to a 35% duty cycle. GEHP seasonal heating performance should be calculated for the design heating requirement (DHR) maximum and minimum loads to encompass the range of expected heating loads, reflecting that the GEHP can be sized for the heating load in predominantly heating climates. Oversizing for the cooling load will tend to improve the seasonal cooling performance while maintaining adequate humidity control. Using quadratic fits to interpolate performance in test procedures can produce erroneous results due to the characteristics of the formulas used. Changes to standards dealing with coil fouling, low outdoor temperature cutout, and size of temperature bins used in the performance calculations were judged not warranted because sensitivity analyses indicated that performance was not significantly affected by these parameters.

  3. Development of a low-cost heat storage furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Lentz, E. )

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the development of a low cost central electric heat storage furnace for residential use in the USA. The heat storage furnace design uses crushed trap rock, a basaltic rock found throughout the USA. Residential furnaces were built and successfully tested both under laboratory conditions and in residences from Minnesota to New England. Although the furnace was developed for residential space heating, applications for commercial and industrial heating are under consideration. Heat storage using off-peak electricity is used as a load management tool in several ways. The specific application considered in this paper is space heating with warm air. In this application, the furnace converts off-peak electric power to heat and stores it for space heating during non-peak periods on a daily cycle basis.

  4. 10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....72 Section 431.72 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR... do not have any differing physical or functional characteristics that affect energy efficiency. Test... efficiency, water consumption, or water efficiency. Commercial warm air furnace means a warm air furnace...

  5. 10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. 431.72 Section 431.72 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces § 431.72 Definitions...

  6. 10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. 431.72 Section 431.72 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces § 431.72 Definitions...

  7. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

  8. Comparative Calculation of Heat Exchange with the Ground in Residential Building Including Periodes of Heat Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszczuk, Anna; Kuczyński, Tadeusz; Wojciech, Magdalena; Ziembicki, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    The paper provides verification of 3D transient ground-coupled model to calculation of heat exchange between ground and typical one-storey, passive residential building. The model was performed with computer software WUFI®plus and carried out to estimate the indoor air temperatures during extending hot weather periods. For verifying the results of calculations performed by the WUFI®plus software, the most recent version of EnergyPlus software version was used. Comparison analysis of calculation results obtained with the two above mentioned calculation method was made for two scenarios of slab on ground constructions: without thermal insulation and with thermal insulation under the whole slab area. Comprehensive statistical analysis was done including time series analysis and descriptive statistics parameters.

  9. The development of a solar-powered residential heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Efforts to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of utilizing solar power for residential heating and cooling are described. These efforts were concentrated on the analysis, design, and test of a full-scale demonstration system which is currently under construction at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama. The basic solar heating and cooling system under development utilizes a flat plate solar energy collector, a large water tank for thermal energy storage, heat exchangers for space heating and water heating, and an absorption cycle air conditioner for space cooling.

  10. DOE Webinar - Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E. R.

    2010-12-14

    This presentation was given December 14, 2010, as part of DOE's Webinar series. The presentation discusses geothermal heat pump retrofits, technology options, and an overview of geothermal energy and geothermal heat pumps.

  11. Selected cost considerations for geothermal district heating in existing single-family residential areas

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, K.

    1996-06-01

    In the past, district heating (geothermal or conventionally fueled) has not been widely applied to the single-family residential sector. Low-heat load density is the commonly cited reason for this. Although it`s true that load density in these areas is much lower than for downtown business districts, other frequently overlooked factors may compensate for load density. In particular, costs for distribution system installation can be substantially lower in some residential areas due to a variety of factors. This reduced development cost may partially compensate for the reduced revenue resulting from low-load density. This report examines cost associated with the overall design of the system (direct or indirect system design), distribution piping installation, and customer branch lines. It concludes with a comparison of the costs for system development and the revenue from an example residential area.

  12. The "blob of death", or how warm air advection causes rapid ice melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjernström, Michael; Shupe, Matthew; Achtert, Peggy; Brooks, Barbara; Brooks, Ian; Johnston, Paul; Persson, Ola; Prytherch, John; Salisbury, Dominic; Sedlar, Joseph; Sotiropoulou, Georgia; Wolfe, Dan

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic Clouds in Summer Experiment (ACSE) program obtained measurements of surface energy fluxes, boundary-layer structure, cloud macro- and micro-physical structure, and upper-ocean thermal and salinity structure from pack-ice and open-water regions in the eastern Arctic from early July to early October 2014. ACSE was divided into two legs. The first took a route from Tromsö, Norway, to Barrow, Alaska, during late summer (early July to late August) mostly on the Siberian Shelf, while the second leg was from traversed back mostly north of the shelf during September and early October. This paper will present ACSE and show examples of some results. Energy fluxes at the surface determine the annual summer melt and autumn freeze-up of Arctic sea ice, but are strongly modulated by interactions between atmospheric, ocean, and sea-ice processes. ACSE summer measurements showed energy flux surpluses leading to significant surface melt, while late August and September measurements showed deficits, leading to freeze-up of sea ice and the ocean surface. A weeklong episode with intensive melt resulting from warm air advection from continental Russia will be presented and discussed. During this episode, temperatures up to 20 °C was observed aloft while near surface temperatures over the ice remained near melting. In the surface inversion dense fog formed that enhanced the downward longwave radiation. Together with a downward turbulent sensible heat flux this caused a rapid melt in this area.

  13. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brandemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  14. TRANSIENT AND STEADY STATE STUDY OF PURE AND MIXED REFRIGERANTS IN A RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the transient and steady state performance of a residential air-conditioning/heat pump (AC/HP) operating with different refrigerants. (NOTE: The project was motivated by environmental concerns related to...

  15. Technology for the development of high efficiency oil-fired residential heating equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locklin, D. W.; Hazard, H. R.

    1980-06-01

    The development of efficient residential oil burning equipment with capability for reliable, low capacity operation is assessed. Technical approaches with potential application to unconventional types of oil burners and to efficient heat exchangers, including those that operate partially in the mode of condensing moisture from the flue gases to regain the latent heat of vaporization are reviewed. The following concepts are recommended for further investigation in the development of efficient oil fired heating equipment: (1) modified high pressure atomizing systems; (2) alternative methods of atomization; (3) blue flame burners; (4) pulse combustion systems; and (5) condensing-type heat exchangers.

  16. Role of fuel upgrading for industry and residential heating

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.; Gentile, R.H.

    1995-12-01

    The Koppleman Series C Process is presently being used in pilot plant tests with Wyoming coal to upgrade the Powder River Basin coal containing 30 wt% moisture and having a heating value of 8100 Btu/lb to a product containing less than 1 wt% moisture and having a heating value of 12,200 Btu/lb. This process is described.

  17. Evaluation of Proposed Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2008-12-01

    climate, air pollution, land use, wildlife damage, and chemical waste. Cellulosic-E85 ranked lower than corn-E85 overall, primarily due to its potentially larger land footprint based on recent data and its higher upstream air pollution emissions than corn-E85. Whereas cellulosic-E85 may cause the greatest average human mortality, nuclear-BEVs cause the greatest upper-limit mortality risk due to the expansion of plutonium separation and uranium enrichment in nuclear energy facilities worldwide. Wind-BEVs and CSP-BEVs cause the least mortality. The footprint area of wind-BEVs is 2-6 orders of magnitude less than that of any other option. Because of their low footprint and pollution, wind-BEVs cause the least wildlife loss. The largest consumer of water is corn-E85. The smallest are wind-, tidal-, and wave-BEVs. In sum, use of wind, CSP, geothermal, tidal, PV, wave, and hydro to power electricity for BEVs and HFCVs and for general use in the residential, industrial, and commercial sectors will result in the most benefit among the options considered. The combination of these technologies should be advanced as a solution to global warming, air pollution, and energy security. Coal-CCS and nuclear offer less benefit, and the biofuel options provide little or no benefit and greater negative impacts.

  18. The development of a solar residential heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The MSFC solar heating and cooling facility was assembled to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of utilizing solar energy for heating and cooling buildings, to provide an engineering evaluation of the total system and the key subsystems, and to investigate areas of possible improvement in design and efficiency. The basic solar heating and cooling system utilizes a flat plate solar energy collector, a large water tank for thermal energy storage, heat exchangers for space heating, and an absorption cycle air conditioner for space cooling. A complete description of all systems is given. Development activities for this test system included assembly, checkout, operation, modification, and data analysis, all of which are discussed. Selected data analyses for the first 15 weeks of testing are included, findings associated with energy storage and the energy storage system are outlined, and conclusions resulting from test findings are provided. An evaluation of the data for summer operation indicates that the current system is capable of supplying an average of 50 percent of the thermal energy required to drive the air conditioner. Preliminary evaluation of data collected for operation in the heating mode during the winter indicates that nearly 100 percent of the thermal energy required for heating can be supplied by the system.

  19. Residential vertical geothermal heat pump system models: Calibration to data

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, J.W.; McDowell, T.P.; Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.; Pahud, D.; Hellstroem, G.A.J.

    1997-12-31

    A detailed component-based simulation model of a geothermal heat pump system has been calibrated to monitored data taken from a family housing unit located at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The simulation model represents the housing unit, geothermal heat pump, ground heat exchanger, thermostat, blower, and ground-loop pump. Each of these component models was tuned to better match the measured data from the site. These tuned models were then interconnected to form the system model. The system model was then exercised in order to demonstrate its capabilities.

  20. Residential Vertical Geothermal Heat Pump System Models: Calibration to Data:

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Jeff W.; McDowell, T. P.; Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick; Pahud, D.; Hellstrom, G.

    1997-06-01

    A detailed component-based simulation model of a geothermal heat pump system has been calibrated to monitored data taken from a family housing unit located at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The simulation model represents the housing unit, geothermal heat pump, ground heat exchanger, thermostat, blower, and ground-loop pump. Each of these component models was 'tuned' to better match the measured data from the site. These tuned models were then interconnect to form the system model. The system model was then exercised in order to demonatrate its capabilities.

  1. Residential solar-heating system uses pyramidal optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes reflective panels which optimize annual solar energy collection in attic installation. Subunits include collection, storage, distribution, and 4-mode control systems. Pyramid optical system heats single-family and multi-family dwellings.

  2. Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

    2011-07-31

    The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

  3. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Design of Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This is the second of two training courses designed to develop the capability of practitioners in the home building industry to design solar heating and cooling systems. The course is organized in 23 modules to separate selected topics and to facilitate learning. Although a compact schedule of one week is shown, a variety of formats can be…

  4. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  5. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  6. Characteristics of MSW and heat energy recovery between residential and commercial areas in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sora; Yoo, Kee-Young; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2011-03-01

    This paper analyzes the amount and characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) according to the inhabitant density of population and the business concentration in 25 districts in Seoul. Further, the heat energy recovery and avoided CO(2) emissions of four incineration plants located in residential and commercial areas in Seoul are examined. The amount of residential waste per capita tended to increase as the density of inhabitants decreased. The amount of commercial waste per capita tended to increase as the business concentration increased. The examination of the heat energy recovery characteristics indicated that the four incineration plants produced heat energy that depended on residential or commercial areas based on population and business. The most important result regarding avoided CO(2) emissions was that commercial areas with many office-type businesses had the most effective CO(2) emission savings by combusting 1 kg of waste. Assuming the full-scale operation of the four incineration plants, the amount of saved CO(2) emissions per year was 444 Gg CO(2) and 57,006 households in Seoul can be provided with heat energy equivalent to 542,711 Nm(3) of LNG. PMID:20933381

  7. An analysis of representative heating load lines for residential HSPF ratings

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C. Keith; Shen, Bo; Shrestha, Som S.

    2015-07-01

    This report describes an analysis to investigate representative heating loads for single-family detached homes using current EnergyPlus simulations (DOE 2014a). Hourly delivered load results are used to determine binned load lines using US Department of Energy (DOE) residential prototype building models (DOE 2014b) developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The selected residential single-family prototype buildings are based on the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC 2006) in the DOE climate regions. The resulting load lines are compared with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Standard 210/240 (AHRI 2008) minimum and maximum design heating requirement (DHR) load lines of the heating seasonal performance factor (HSPF) ratings procedure for each region. The results indicate that a heating load line closer to the maximum DHR load line, and with a lower zero load ambient temperature, is more representative of heating loads predicted for EnergyPlus prototype residential buildings than the minimum DHR load line presently used to determine HSPF ratings. An alternative heating load line equation was developed and compared to binned load lines obtained from the EnergyPlus simulation results. The effect on HSPF of the alternative heating load line was evaluated for single-speed and two-capacity heat pumps, and an average HSPF reduction of 16% was found. The alternative heating load line relationship is tied to the rated cooling capacity of the heat pump based on EnergyPlus autosizing, which is more representative of the house load characteristics than the rated heating capacity. The alternative heating load line equation was found to be independent of climate for the six DOE climate regions investigated, provided an adjustable zero load ambient temperature is used. For Region IV, the default DOE climate region used for HSPF ratings, the higher load line results in an ~28

  8. Changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area Urban Heat Environment with Residential Redevelopment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Je-Woo; Hong, Jinkyu

    2016-04-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the geographical extent of cities has increased around the world. In particular, following three decades of rapid regional economic growth, many Asian megacities have emerged and continue to expand. Short-term urban redevelopment is, therefore, inevitable. However, in this region the microclimatic impacts of urban redevelopment have not been extensively investigated using long-term in-situ observations. In this study, changes in surface sensible heat exchange, heat storage, and anthropogenic heat emissions due to urban residential redevelopment were quantified and analyzed based on a three-year micrometeorological record from the Seoul metropolitan area. The results show that following urban redevelopment of compact high-rise residential buildings, 1) the daily minimum air temperature near the ground surface increased by ˜0.6 K; 2) the ratio between surface sensible heat and net radiation increased by ˜ 9% (summer) to 31% (winter), anthropogenic heat emissions increased by 12 Wm‑2 (spring) to 26 Wm‑2 (summer), and daily maximum heat storage ranged by 35 Wm‑2 (spring) to 55 Wm‑2 (summer), and; 3) there was a transition of local circulation with changes in the surface properties of heat sources and roughness.

  9. Solar residential heating and cooling system development test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.; Melton, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    A solar heating and cooling system is described, which was installed in a simulated home at Marshall Space Flight Center. Performance data are provided for the checkout and initial operational phase for key subsystems and for the total system. Valuable information was obtained with regard to operation of a solar cooling system during the first summer of operation. Areas where improvements and modifications are required to optimize such a system are discussed.

  10. Cooling-load implications for residential passive-solar-heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.W.; McFarland, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described, along with the computer simulation model used for calculating cooling loads. A sample of interim results is also presented. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy requirement of a given building.

  11. A Worldwide Plan to Eliminate Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Instability With Wind, Water, and Sunlight (WWS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.; Delucchi, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy insecurity are three of the most significant problems facing the world today. This talk discusses a plan to solve the problems by powering 100% of the world's energy for all purposes, including electricity, transportation, industrial processes, and heating/cooling, with wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) within the next 20-40 years. It reviews and ranks major proposed energy solutions to global warming, air pollution mortality, and energy insecurity while considering other impacts of the proposed solutions, such as on water supply, land use, resource availability, reliability, wildlife, and catastrophic risk. It then evaluates a scenario for powering the world on the energy options determined to be the best while also considering materials, transmission infrastructure, costs, and politics. The study concludes that powering the world with WWS electric power technologies and a conversion from combustion to electricity and electrolytically-produced hydrogen is the cleanest and safest method of solving these problems. Due to the efficiency of electricity, such a conversion reduces world power demand by 30%. Methods of ensuring reliability of WWS electric power are available and will be demonstrated. We also conclude that neither liquid biofuels for transportation (including ethanol or biodiesel from any source), solid biofuels for home heating and cooking, biomass for electricity, conventional or fracked natural gas for electricity or transportation, nuclear power, nor coal with carbon capture (clean coal) are nearly so clean or safe as WWS technologies so are not recommended, either as bridge technologies or in the long term. Our plan calls for all new energy to be supplied by WWS-electricity-hydrogen resources no later than 2030 and all existing non-WWS infrastructure to be eliminated no later than 2050. We find that the plan is technically and economically feasible but politically challenging.

  12. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: design of systems, 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared primarily for use in conducting a practical training course on the design of solar heating and cooling systems for residential and small office buildings, but may also be useful as a general reference text. The content level is appropriate for persons with different and varied backgrounds, although it is assumed that readers possess a basic understanding of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems of conventional (non-solar) types. This edition is a revision of the manual with the same title, first printed and distributed by the US Government Printing Office in October 1977. The manual has been reorganized, new material has been added, and outdated information has been deleted. Only active solar systems are described. Liquid and air-heating solar systems for combined space and service water heating or service water heating are included. Furthermore, only systems with proven experience are discussed to any extent.

  13. 10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. 431.72 Section 431.72 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR...) characteristics that affect energy consumption, energy efficiency, water consumption, or water...

  14. 10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. 431.72 Section 431.72 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR...) characteristics that affect energy consumption, energy efficiency, water consumption, or water...

  15. Configuring a fuel cell based residential combined heat and power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Papadias, Dionissios D.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2013-11-01

    The design and performance of a fuel cell based residential combined heat and power (CHP) system operating on natural gas has been analyzed. The natural gas is first converted to a hydrogen-rich reformate in a steam reformer based fuel processor, and the hydrogen is then electrochemically oxidized in a low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell to generate electric power. The heat generated in the fuel cell and the available heat in the exhaust gas is recovered to meet residential needs for hot water and space heating. Two fuel processor configurations have been studied. One of the configurations was explored to quantify the effects of design and operating parameters, which include pressure, temperature, and steam-to-carbon ratio in the fuel processor, and fuel utilization in the fuel cell. The second configuration applied the lessons from the study of the first configuration to increase the CHP efficiency. Results from the two configurations allow a quantitative comparison of the design alternatives. The analyses showed that these systems can operate at electrical efficiencies of ∼46% and combined heat and power efficiencies of ∼90%.

  16. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  17. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  18. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  19. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  20. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces. 431.76 Section 431.76 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.76 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency...

  1. Warren Estates-Manzanita Estates Reno, Nevada residential geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, F.; McKay, G.; McKay, S.; Flynn, T.

    1995-12-31

    Warren Estates-Manzanita Estates is the largest privately-owned and operated residential geothermal district heating system in the State of Nevada. The system has operated for ten years and presently services 95 homes. Geothermal energy is used to heat homes, domestic water, spas, swimming pools, and greenhouses. Four homes have installed driveway deicing systems using geothermal energy. This paper briefly describes the geothermal resource, wells, system engineering, operation, applications, and economics. The accompanying posters illustrate the geothermal area, system design, and various applications. The resource is part of the Moana geothermal field, located in southwest Reno. Excluding the Warren-Manzanita Estates, the well-known Moana field supports nearly 300 geothermal wells that supply fluids to individual residences, several motels, a garden nursery, a few churches, and a municipal swimming pool. The Warren-Manzanita Estates is ideally suited for residential district space heating because the resource is shallow, moderate-temperature, and chemically benign. The primary reservoir rock is the Kate Peak andesite, a Tertiary volcanic lahar that has excellent permeability within the narrow fault zones that bisect the property. The Kate Peak formation is overlain by impermeable Tertiary lake sediments and alluvium. Two production wells, each about 240 m deep, are completed near the center of the residential development at the intersection of two fault zones. Geothermal fluids are pumped at a rate of 15 to 25 l/s (260-400 gpm) from one of two wells at a temperature of 95{degrees}C (202{degrees}F) to two flat-plate heat exchangers. The heat exchangers transfer energy from the geothermal fluids to a second fluid, much like a binary geothermal power plant.

  2. Advanced oil burner for residential heating -- development report

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.

    1995-07-01

    The development of advanced oil burner concepts has long been a part of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) oil heat research program. Generally, goals of this work include: increased system efficiency, reduced emissions of soot and NO{sub x}, and the practical extension of the firing rate range of current burners to lower input rates. The report describes the results of a project at BNL aimed at the development of air atomized burners. Two concepts are discussed. The first is an air atomizer which uses air supplied at pressures ranging from 10 to 20 psi and requiring the integration of an air compressor in the system. The second, more novel, approach involves the use of a low-pressure air atomizing nozzle which requires only 8-14 inches of water air pressure for fuel atomization. This second approach requires the use of a fan in the burner instead of a compressor although the fan pressure is higher than with conventional, pressure atomized retention head burners. In testing the first concept, high pressure air atomization, a conventional retention head burner was modified to accept the new nozzle. In addition, the burner head was modified to reduce the flow area to maintain roughly 1 inch of water pressure drop across the head at a firing rate of 0.25 gallons of oil per hour. The burner ignited easily and could be operated at low excess air levels without smoke. The major disadvantage of this burner approach is the need for the air compressor as part of the system. In evaluating options, a vane-type compressor was selected although the use of a compressor of this type will lead to increased burner maintenance requirements.

  3. Development and certification of the innovative pioneer oil burner for residential heating appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, B.

    1997-09-01

    The Pioneer burner represents another important milestone for the oil heat industry. It is the first practical burner design that is designated for use in small capacity heating appliances matching the needs of modern energy efficient home designs. Firing in the range of 0.3 GPH to 0.65 GPH (40,000-90,000 Btu/hr) it allows for new oil heating appliance designs to compete with the other major fuel choices in the small design load residential market. This market includes energy efficient single family houses, town-houses, condominiums, modular units, and mobile homes. The firing range also is wide enough to cover a large percentage of more conventional heating equipment and home designs as well. Having recently passed Underwriters Laboratory certification tests the burner in now being field tested in several homes and samples are being made available to interested boiler and furnace manufacturers for product development and application testing.

  4. Simulations of sizing and comfort improvements for residential forced-air heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, I.S.; Degenetais, G.; Siegel, J.A.

    2002-05-01

    the use of this tool to perform detailed residential HVAC system simulations. The simulations have been verified by comparison to measured results in several houses over a wide range of weather conditions and HVAC system performance. After the verification was completed, more than 350 cooling and 450 heating simulations were performed. These simulations covered a range of HVAC system performance parameters and California climate conditions (that range from hot dry deserts to cold mountain regions). The results of the simulations were used to show the large increases in HVAC system performance that can be attained by improving the HVAC duct distribution systems and by better sizing of residential HVAC equipment. The simulations demonstrated that improved systems can deliver improved heating or cooling to the conditioned space, maintain equal or better comfort while reducing peak demand and the installed equipment capacity (and therefore capital costs).

  5. Advanced heat-pipe heat exchanger and microprocessor-based modulating burner controls development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstein, A.; Cohen, B.; Feldman, S.; Spatz, M.; Smith, E.

    1986-03-01

    The development of a novel condensing heat exchanger, a modulating gas burner, and a zone-controlled residential warm-air heating system is described. The condensing heat exchanger uses ten thermosyphons which are manifolded at both the condenser and evaporator ends to achieve a compact low-cost design. Initial tests have demonstrated a + 92 percent steady-state efficiency for a conventional clamshell furnace operating with the thermosyphon heat exchanger located outside the furnace cabinet. A 100,000 -Btu/hr modulating burner has also been developed. Comprehensive study of the burner's operating characteristics has produced guidelines for the design and application of the device. Finally, the modulating burner has been incorporated into a zone-controlled heating system. In parallel with the development of the preceding heating system components, the performance of thermosyphons over a wide range of operating conditions is being explored with the objective of improving design procedures for incorporating these devices into heat exchangers.

  6. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04

    This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other benefits. Because it

  7. Development of a Variable-Speed Residential Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C Keith; Shen, Bo; Munk, Jeffrey D; Ally, Moonis Raza; Baxter, Van D

    2014-01-01

    A residential air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) is under development in partnership with a U.S. manufacturer. A nominal 10.6 kW (3-ton) cooling capacity variable-speed unit, the system provides both space conditioning and water heating. This multi-functional unit can provide domestic water heating (DWH) in either full condensing (FC) (dedicated water heating or simultaneous space cooling and water heating) or desuperheating (DS) operation modes. Laboratory test data were used to calibrate a vapor-compression simulation model for each mode of operation. The model was used to optimize the internal control options for efficiency while maintaining acceptable comfort conditions and refrigerant-side pressures and temperatures within allowable operating envelopes. Annual simulations were performed with the AS-IHP installed in a well-insulated house in five U.S. climate zones. The AS-IHP is predicted to use 45 to 60% less energy than a DOE minimum efficiency baseline system while meeting total annual space conditioning and water heating loads. Water heating energy use is lowered by 60 to 75% in cold to warmer climates, respectively. Plans are to field test the unit in Knoxville, TN.

  8. National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings. Project Date Summaries. Vol. I: Commercial and Residential Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    Three volumes present brief abstracts of projects funded by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and conducted under the National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings through July 1976. The overall federal program includes demonstrations of heating and/or combined cooling for residential and commercial buildings…

  9. Residential heating costs: a comparison of geothermal, solar and conventional resources

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomster, C.H.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.

    1980-08-01

    The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. These costs are very sensitive to location - being dependent on the local prices of conventional energy supplies, local solar insolation, cimate, and the proximity and temperature of potential geothermal resources. The sharp price increases in imported fuels during 1979 and the planned decontrol of domestic oil and natural gas prices have set the stage for geothermal and solar market penetration in the 1980's.

  10. Design, fabrication, testing, and delivery of a solar energy collector system for residential heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, T. H.; Borzoni, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    A low cost flat plate solar energy collector was designed for the heating and cooling of residential buildings. The system meets specified performance requirements, at the desired system operating levels, for a useful life of 15 to 20 years, at minimum cost and uses state-of-the-art materials and technology. The rationale for the design method was based on identifying possible material candidates for various collector components and then selecting the components which best meet the solar collector design requirements. The criteria used to eliminate certain materials were: performance and durability test results, cost analysis, and prior solar collector fabrication experience.

  11. Assessment of the solar heating and cooling in residential building demonstration program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, D. C.

    1980-08-01

    The Solar Heating and Cooling in Residential Building Demonstration of 1974 is assessed. The program's goals and the Government Accounting Office's (GAO) evaluation of the program's success are stated. The program is analyzed with regard to objectives, results, data, and the GAO's conclusions. The differing approaches of the GAO and the Department of Housing and Urban Development to the program are analyzed and compared, showing weaknesses in each. Conclusions on the relative success of the program are drawn, and recommendations are made regarding any future programs of this type.

  12. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  13. The development of a residential heating and cooling system using NASA derived technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, M. J.; Mcdanal, A. J.; Sims, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    A study to determine the technical and economic feasibility of a solar-powered space heating, air-conditioning, and hot water heating system for residential applications is presented. The basic system utilizes a flat-plate solar collector to process incident solar radiation, a thermal energy storage system to store the collected energy for use during night and heavily overcast periods, and an absorption cycle heat pump for actually heating and cooling the residence. In addition, heat from the energy storage system is used to provide domestic hot water. The analyses of the three major components of the system (the solar collector, the energy storage system, and the heat pump package) are discussed and results are presented. The total system analysis is discussed in detail, including the technical performance of the solar-powered system and a cost comparison between the solar-powered system and a conventional system. The projected applicability of the system to different regions of the nation is described.

  14. Characterization and assessment of selected solar thermal energy systems for residential and process heat applications

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alessio, Gregory J.; Blaustein, Robert P.

    1980-09-01

    The results of studies of seven solar thermal energy applications are presented. Five of these are residential applications: space heating-active liquid, space heating-active air, domestic hot water-active, space heating-passive, and space heating and cooling- active liquid. Denver, Colorado, was selected as a representative location for each of the above applications. The remaining two applications produce industrial process heat: a flat-plate collector system producing 50/sup 0/C to 100/sup 0/C hot water for a commercial laundry in Indianapolis, Indiana; and a concentrating collector system that could produce 100/sup 0/C to 300/sup 0/C process heat adequate to the needs of a pulp mill in Madison, Wisconsin. For each application, a representative system model and preliminary designs of major system elements were established. Then the following data were generated: annual useful energy produced, type and weight of the basic component materials, environmental residuals generated during system operation, and land and water requirements. These data were generalized for other TASE study purposes by expressing them as quantities per 10/sup 15/ Btu of useful energy. The system characteristics are discussed and the environmental impacts are evaluated. To allow the reader to estimate system performance at other geographic locations than those studied, insolation and other pertinent data are provided.

  15. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Scale Gas Engine Driven Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Heiba, Ahmad; Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub; Mahderekal, Dr. Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Building space cooling is, and until 2040 is expected to continue to be, the single largest use of electricity in the residential sector in the United States (EIA Energy Outlook 2015 .) Increases in electric-grid peak demand leads to higher electricity prices, system inefficiencies, power quality problems, and even failures. Thermally-activated systems, such as gas engine-driven heat pump (GHP), can reduce peak demand. This study describes the performance of a residential scale GHP. It was developed as part of a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) that was authorized by the Department of Energy (DOE) between OAK Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Southwest Gas. Results showed the GHP produced 16.5 kW (4.7 RT) of cooling capacity at 35 C (95 F) rating condition with gas coefficient of performance (COP) of 0.99. In heating, the GHP produced 20.2 kW (5.75 RT) with a gas COP of 1.33. The study also discusses other benefits and challenges facing the GHP technology such as cost, reliability, and noise.

  16. Performance criteria for solar heating and cooling systems in residential buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-09-01

    This performance criteria, developed for the Department of Housing and Urban Development, is a baseline document for criteria and standards for the design, development, technical evaluation, and procurement of solar heating and cooling systems for residential buildings in accordance with the requirements of Section 8 of Public Law 93-409, the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974. The document is intended to establish minimum levels of performance with regard to health and safety and the various aspects of technical performance. The criteria for health and safety put primary emphasis on compliance with existing codes and standards. The criteria on thermal and mechanical performance, durability/reliability and operation/servicing present performance requirements considered to be representative of acceptable levels.

  17. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  18. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  19. Characterisation of particulates and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wintertime wood-fired heating in residential areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Md. Aynul; Baumbach, Guenter; Brodbeck, Johannes; Struschka, Michael; Kuch, Bertram; Dreher, Werner; Scheffknecht, Guenter

    2011-12-01

    Wood as a renewable and worldwide available fuel is used for residential heating in small-scale firings during winter. This wood combustion can cause very high emissions of inhalable particles resulting in short and long-term health effects. The target of this study was to characterise particulate matter, emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their size distribution and to show that those emissions can be found in the ambient air of residential areas with wood-fired heating. Emission samples were collected from pellet stove and log wood boiler under different combustion conditions. Ambient PM 10 sampling was performed during two winter seasons at two rural residential areas near Stuttgart in Germany. Samples were extracted using toluene with ultrasonic bath and analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-one PAH compounds including nine carcinogenic ones were detected and quantified. It was found that emission concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs were higher during incomplete combustion compared to complete combustion. Significant amounts of ambient PAHs were found in the residential villages, where the contribution of carcinogenic PAHs was 44% of total PAHs in the ambient air during winter 2009. The morphology and elemental analysis of ambient particles were also investigated. The findings indicate a rising concern to reduce emissions from wood-fired heating during winter in residential areas and underline the importance of using good wood combustion technologies to improve the air quality.

  20. Foundation heat exchangers for residential ground source heat pump systems Numerical modeling and experimental validation

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Lu; Cullin, James; Spitler, Jeffery; Im, Piljae; Fisher, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    A new type of ground heat exchanger that utilizes the excavation often made for basements or foundations has been proposed as an alternative to conventional ground heat exchangers. This article describes a numerical model that can be used to size these foundation heat exchanger (FHX) systems. The numerical model is a two-dimensional finite-volume model that considers a wide variety of factors, such as soil freezing and evapotranspiration. The FHX numerical model is validated with one year of experimental data collected at an experimental house located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The model shows good agreement with the experimental data-heat pump entering fluid temperatures typically within 1 C (1.8 F) - with minor discrepancies due to approximations, such as constant moisture content throughout the year, uniform evapotranspiration over the seasons, and lack of ground shading in the model.

  1. Dual-Fuel Fluidized Bed Combustor Prototype for Residential Heating: Steady-State and Dynamic Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammarota, Antonio; Chirone, Riccardo; Miccio, Michele; Sollmene, Roberto; Urcluohr, Massimo

    Fluidized bed combustion of biogenic fuels can be recognized as an attractive option for an ecologically sustainable use of biofuels in residential applications. Nevertheless, biomass combustion in fluidized bed reactors presents some drawbacks that are mainly related to mixing/segregation of fuel particles/volatile matter during devolatilization inside the bed and in the freeboard or to bed agglomeration. A prototype of a 30-50 kWth fluidized bed boiler for residential heating has been designed to burn either a gaseous combustible or a solid biomass fuel or both fuels at the same time. The prototype has been equipped with a gas burner located in the wind-box to optimize the start-up stage of the boiler and with a fluidized bed characterized by a conical geometry ("Gulf Stream" circulation) to improve the mixing of the fuel particles during both devolatilization and char burn-out. The operation of the combustor adopting wood pellets as fuel has been investigated to evaluate their use in residential combustion applications. Steady-state thermally stable regimes of operation have been recognized analyzing both boiler temperatures and gaseous emissions. The optimization of the steady-state operation of the boiler in terms of gaseous emissions has been achieved by varying the nominal thermal power and air excess. An ad-hoc experimental campaign has been carried out to analyze the dynamic performance of the prototype as a response to changes of the demanded thermal power. On the basis of the experimental data, an interpretation of the dynamic behavior of the fluidized bed boiler has been proposed.

  2. IMPACTS OF REFRIGERANTLINE LENGTH ON SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IN RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS USING REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTION.

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS, J.W.

    2001-04-01

    The effects on system efficiency of excess refrigerant line length are calculated for an idealized residential heating and cooling system. By excess line length is meant refrigerant tubing in excess of the 25 R provided for in standard equipment efficiency test methods. The purpose of the calculation is to provide input for a proposed method for evaluating refrigerant distribution system efficiency. A refrigerant distribution system uses refrigerant (instead of ducts or pipes) to carry heat and/or cooling effect from the equipment to the spaces in the building in which it is used. Such systems would include so-called mini-splits as well as more conventional split systems that for one reason or another have the indoor and outdoor coils separated by more than 25 ft. This report performs first-order calculations of the effects on system efficiency, in both the heating and cooling modes, of pressure drops within the refrigerant lines and of heat transfer between the refrigerant lines and the space surrounding them.

  3. EMISSIONS ASSESSMENT OF CONVENTIONAL STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS. VOLUME I. GAS- AND OIL-FIRED RESIDENTIAL HEATING SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from gas- and oil-fired residential heating sources were assessed through a critical examination of existing emissions data, followed by the conduct of a phased measurement program to fill gaps in the emissions data base. Initially, five gas-fired and five oil-fired res...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A LOW-EMISSION OIL-FIRED RESIDENTIAL HOT WATER CONDENSING HEATING SYSTEM. VOLUME I: TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a test program measuring air and water emissions from a high-efficiency hot-water residential heating system of European design, utilizing a condensing flue gas system and a low emission burner. Criteria and noncriteria emissions, including trace eleme...

  5. Seasonal and Diurnal Air Pollution from Residential Cooking and Space Heating in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ellison; Archer-Nicholls, Scott; Ni, Kun; Lai, Alexandra M; Niu, Hongjiang; Secrest, Matthew H; Sauer, Sara M; Schauer, James J; Ezzati, Majid; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Yang, Xudong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2016-08-01

    Residential combustion of solid fuel is a major source of air pollution. In regions where space heating and cooking occur at the same time and using the same stoves and fuels, evaluating air-pollution patterns for household-energy-use scenarios with and without heating is essential to energy intervention design and estimation of its population health impacts as well as the development of residential emission inventories and air-quality models. We measured continuous and 48 h integrated indoor PM2.5 concentrations over 221 and 203 household-days and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations on a subset of those days (in summer and winter, respectively) in 204 households in the eastern Tibetan Plateau that burned biomass in traditional stoves and open fires. Using continuous indoor PM2.5 concentrations, we estimated mean daily hours of combustion activity, which increased from 5.4 h per day (95% CI: 5.0, 5.8) in summer to 8.9 h per day (95% CI: 8.1, 9.7) in winter, and effective air-exchange rates, which decreased from 18 ± 9 h(-1) in summer to 15 ± 7 h(-1) in winter. Indoor geometric-mean 48 h PM2.5 concentrations were over two times higher in winter (252 μg/m(3); 95% CI: 215, 295) than in summer (101 μg/m(3); 95%: 91, 112), whereas outdoor PM2.5 levels had little seasonal variability. PMID:27351357

  6. Impacts of global warming on residential heating and cooling degree-days in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Yana; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to decrease heating demand and increase cooling demand for buildings and affect outdoor thermal comfort. Here, we project changes in residential heating degree-days (HDD) and cooling degree-days (CDD) for the historical (1981–2010) and future (2080–2099) periods in the United States using median results from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations under the Representation Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. We project future HDD and CDD values by adding CMIP5 projected changes to values based on historical observations of US climate. The sum HDD + CDD is an indicator of locations that are thermally comfortable, with low heating and cooling demand. By the end of the century, station median HDD + CDD will be reduced in the contiguous US, decreasing in the North and increasing in the South. Under the unmitigated RCP8.5 scenario, by the end of this century, in terms of HDD and CDD values considered separately, future New York, NY, is anticipated to become more like present Oklahoma City, OK; Denver, CO, becomes more like Raleigh, NC, and Seattle, WA, becomes more like San Jose, CA. These results serve as an indicator of projected climate change and can help inform decision-making. PMID:26238673

  7. Impacts of global warming on residential heating and cooling degree-days in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, Yana; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-08-01

    Climate change is expected to decrease heating demand and increase cooling demand for buildings and affect outdoor thermal comfort. Here, we project changes in residential heating degree-days (HDD) and cooling degree-days (CDD) for the historical (1981-2010) and future (2080-2099) periods in the United States using median results from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations under the Representation Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. We project future HDD and CDD values by adding CMIP5 projected changes to values based on historical observations of US climate. The sum HDD + CDD is an indicator of locations that are thermally comfortable, with low heating and cooling demand. By the end of the century, station median HDD + CDD will be reduced in the contiguous US, decreasing in the North and increasing in the South. Under the unmitigated RCP8.5 scenario, by the end of this century, in terms of HDD and CDD values considered separately, future New York, NY, is anticipated to become more like present Oklahoma City, OK; Denver, CO, becomes more like Raleigh, NC, and Seattle, WA, becomes more like San Jose, CA. These results serve as an indicator of projected climate change and can help inform decision-making.

  8. Chimney-related energy losses in residential oil-fired heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Celebi, Y.; Krajewski, R. ); Batey, J. )

    1990-01-01

    Conventional venting systems for oil-fired residential heating equipment include the flue connector, a barometric damper, and the chimney. This arrangement is directly responsible for some of the system energy losses, including a part of the off-cycle heat loss and infiltration losses. The magnitude of these losses depends upon the location of the unit, the chimney constuction, and the characteristics of the barometric damper and the burner. In the work described in this paper, a study of the characteristics of burners and dampers was done to permit these energy losses to be estimated as a function of the installation details. The purpose is to determine the energy savings that might be realized from alternative venting methods. Flows through the heating unit and barometric damper flows have been calculated during the on- and off-cycle for a range of configurations as a function of outdoor temperature. Based on these flows, an example of the annual energy losses due to the venting system was calculated using a bin method for a boiler. Generally, the benefits of reducing barometric damper flows are to a great degree offset by increased off-cycle losses in the case of boilers.

  9. Field Test of High Efficiency Residential Buildings with Ground-source and Air-source Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the field performance of space conditioning and water heating equipment in four single-family residential structures with advanced thermal envelopes. Each structure features a different, advanced thermal envelope design: structural insulated panel (SIP); optimum value framing (OVF); insulation with embedded phase change materials (PCM) for thermal storage; and exterior insulation finish system (EIFS). Three of the homes feature ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and water heating while the fourth has a two-capacity air-source heat pump (ASHP) and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). Two of the GCHP-equipped homes feature horizontal ground heat exchange (GHX) loops that utillize the existing foundation and utility service trenches while the third features a vertical borehole with vertical u-tube GHX. All of the houses were operated under the same simulated occupancy conditions. Operational data on the house HVAC/Water heating (WH) systems are presented and factors influencing overall performance are summarized.

  10. Monitored performance of residential geothermal heat pumps in central Texas and Southern Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, W.N.

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes measured performance of residential geothermal heat pumps (GHP`s) that were installed in family housing units at Ft. Hood, Texas and at Selfridge Air National Guard base in Michigan. These units were built as part of a joint Department of Defense/Department of Energy program to evaluate the energy savings potential of GHP`s installed at military facilities. At the Ft. Hood site, the GHP performance was compared to conventional forced air electric air conditioning and natural gas heating. At Selfridge, the homes under test were originally equipped with electric baseboard heat and no air conditioning. Installation of the GHP systems at both sites was straightforward but more problems and costs were incurred at Selfridge because of the need to install ductwork in the homes. The GHP`s at both sites produced impressive energy savings. These savings approached 40% for most of the homes tested. The low cost of energy on these bases relative to the incremental cost of the GHP conversions precludes rapid payback of the GHP`s from energy savings alone. Estimates based on simple payback (no inflation and no interest on capital) indicated payback times from 15 to 20 years at both sites. These payback times may be reduced by considering the additional savings possible due to reduced maintenance costs. Results are summarized in terms of 15 minute, hourly, monthly, and annual performance parameters. The results indicate that all the systems were working properly but several design shortcomings were identified. Recommendations are made for improvements in future installations at both sites.

  11. Particles and gaseous emissions from realistic operation of residential wood pellet heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Win, Kaung Myat; Persson, Tomas; Bales, Chris

    2012-11-01

    Gaseous and particulate emissions from six residential wood pellet heating systems are determined at a realistic six day operation sequence. The study aims to investigate the total emissions from a realistic operation of the heating systems including start-up and stop phases. Five combined solar and pellet heating systems and one reference boiler without solar system with an integrated DHW preparation was tested in a laboratory at realistic operation conditions. The investigated emissions comprised carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), total organic carbon (TOC) and particulate matter (PM2.5). In this study, the emissions are presented as accumulated total emissions from the whole six days period and the emissions from start-up and stop phases are also presented separately to evaluate the influence of the emissions from these phases on the total emissions. Emission factors of the measured systems from the six day period are between 192 and 547 mg MJ-1 for the CO emissions, between 61 and 95 mg MJ-1 for the NO, between 6 and 45 mg MJ-1 for the TOC, between 31 and 116 mg MJ-1 for the particulate matter and between 2.1 × 1013 and 4 × 1013 for the number of particles. The emissions from the start-up and stop phases are significantly high for the CO (63-95 %) and the TOC (48-93 %). NO and particles emissions are shown to dominate during stationary operation. However, 30-40 % of the particle emissions arise from the start and stop periods. It is also shown that the average emissions of CO, TOC and particles under the realistic annual conditions were higher than the limit values of two eco labels.

  12. Effect of dry warm air on respiratory water loss in children with exercise-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Tabka, Z; Ben Jebria, A; Vergeret, J; Guenard, H

    1988-07-01

    The variation in respiratory water loss (RWL) over time, expressed as the mass of water vapor lost per liter (body temperature and pressure, saturated) of ventilation (MH2O), was investigated in two groups: (1) children with exercise-induced asthma; and (2) healthy children. Children were matched for age and sex and went without medication for at least 12 hours before each experiment. The children breathed dry warm air (TI = 28.4 degrees C +/- 0.3 degree C) for 15 minutes while bicycling at constant and moderate work load (50 W). The MH2O was measured by collecting and weighing the expired water vapor (1) at rest breathing in warm conditions of inspired gas (control values), (2) every five minutes during exercise while breathing dry warm air, and (3) four minutes after the end of exercise. Pulmonary function tests were performed before and six minutes after exercise. The results were abnormal only in children with exercise-induced asthma. During exercise, RWL significantly fell (compared to control value) at the tenth and 15th minute in both groups. Whereas normal subjects recovered their initial values for MH2O four minutes after stopping exercise, asthmatic children still had a reduction in respiratory water loss. During exercise, MH2O decreased a little more in healthy than in asthmatic children. The decrease in MH2O in both groups suggests that the means to fully humidify expired gas are overwhelmed by thermal stress. The lack of increase in MH2O in asthmatic children on stopping exercise suggests that the airway mucosa is unable to produce enough water vapor and is thus dehydrated and probably hyperosmotic. PMID:3383660

  13. Installation guidelines for solar heating system, single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating system installer guidelines are presented for each subsystem. This single family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: (1) liquid cooled flat plate collectors; (2) water storage tank; (3) passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; (4) electric hot water heater; (5) heat pump with electric backup; (6) solar hot water coil unit; (7) tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; (8) control system; and (9) air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance in the form of written descriptions, schematics, detail drawings, pictures, and manufacturer's component data.

  14. Installation guidelines for Solar Heating System, single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Heating System installer guidelines are provided for each subsystem and includes testing and filling the system. This single-family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: liquid cooled flat plate collectors; water storage tank; passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; electric hot water heater; heat pump with electric backup; solar hot water coil unit; tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; control system; and air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is also provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance. Information consists of written procedures, schematics, detail drawings, pictures and manufacturer's component data.

  15. Addressing Global Warming, Air Pollution, Energy Security, and Jobs with Roadmaps for Changing the All-Purpose Energy Infrastructure of the 50 United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Global warming, air pollution, and energy insecurity are three of the most significant problems facing the world today. This talk discusses the development of technical and economic plans to convert the energy infrastructure of each of the 50 United States to those powered by 100% wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) for all purposes, namely electricity, transportation, industry, and heating/cooling, after energy efficiency measures have been accounted for. The plans call for all new energy to be WWS by 2020, ~80% conversion of existing energy by 2030, and 100% by 2050 through aggressive policy measures and natural transition. Resource availability, footprint and spacing areas required, jobs created versus lost, energy costs, avoided costs from air pollution mortality and morbidity and climate damage, and methods of ensuring reliability of the grid are discussed. Please see http://web.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/WWS-50-USState-plans.html

  16. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged on the U.S. market, and they have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine the actual energy consumption of a HPWH in different U.S. regions, annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the United States. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  17. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  18. Influence of road traffic, residential heating and meteorological conditions on PM10 concentrations during air pollution critical episodes.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Crisci, Alfonso; Di Lonardo, Sara; Tartaglia, Mario; Vagnoli, Carolina; Zaldei, Alessandro; Gioli, Beniamino

    2015-12-01

    The importance of road traffic, residential heating and meteorological conditions as major drivers of urban PM10 concentrations during air pollution critical episodes has been assessed in the city of Florence (Italy) during the winter season. The most significant meteorological variables (wind speed and atmospheric stability) explained 80.5-85.5% of PM10 concentrations variance, while a marginal role was played by major emission sources such as residential heating (12.1%) and road traffic (5.7%). The persistence of low wind speeds and unstable atmospheric conditions was the leading factor controlling PM10 during critical episodes. A specific PM10 critical episode was analysed, following a snowstorm that caused a "natural" scenario of 2-day dramatic road traffic abatement (-43%), and a massive (up to +48%) and persistent (8 consecutive days) increase in residential heating use. Even with such a strong variability in local PM10 emissions, the role of meteorological conditions was prominent, revealing that short-term traffic restrictions are insufficient countermeasures to reduce the health impacts and risks of PM10 critical episodes, while efforts should be made to anticipate those measures by linking them with air quality and weather forecasts. PMID:26233744

  19. Solid oxide fuel cell systems for residential micro-combined heat and power in the UK: Key economic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkes, Adam; Leach, Matthew

    The ability of combined heat and power (CHP) to meet residential heat and power demands efficiently offers potentially significant financial and environmental advantages over centralised power generation and heat-provision through natural-gas fired boilers. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) can operate at high overall efficiencies (heat and power) of 80-90%, offering an improvement over centralised generation, which is often unable to utilise waste heat. This paper applies an equivalent annual cost (EAC) minimisation model to a residential solid oxide fuel cell CHP system to determine what the driving factors are behind investment in this technology. We explore the performance of a hypothetical SOFC system—representing expectations of near to medium term technology development—under present UK market conditions. We find that households with small to average energy demands do not benefit from installation of a SOFC micro-CHP system, but larger energy demands do benefit under these conditions. However, this result is sensitive to a number of factors including stack capital cost, energy import and export prices, and plant lifetime. The results for small and average dwellings are shown to reverse under an observed change in energy import prices, an increase in electricity export price, a decrease in stack capital costs, or an improvement in stack lifetime.

  20. Residential energy-tax-credit eligibility: a case study for the heat-pump water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S M; Cardell, N S

    1982-09-01

    Described are the methodology and results of an analysis to determine the eligibility of an energy-efficient item for the residential energy-tax credit. Although energy credits are granted only on a national basis, an attempt to determine the tax-credit eligibility for an item such as the heat-pump water heater (HPWH) analyzing national data is inappropriate. The tax-credit eligibility of the HPWH is evaluated for the ten federal regions to take into consideration the regional differences of: (1) HPWH annual efficiency, (2) existing water heater stocks by fuel type, (3) electricity, fuel oil, and natural-gas price variations, and (4) electric-utility oil and gas use for electricity generation. A computer model of consumer choice of HPWH selection as well as a computer code evaluating the economics of tax-credit eligibility on a regional basis were developed as analytical tools for this study. The analysis in this report demonstrates that the HPWH meets an important criteria for eligibility by the Treasury Department for an energy tax credit (nationally, the estimated dollar value of savings of oil and gas over the lifetime of those HPWH's sold during 1981 to 1985 due to the tax credit exceeds the revenue loss to the treasury). A natural-gas price-deregulation scenario is one of two fuel scenarios that are evaluated using the equipment choice and tax-credit models. These two cases show the amounts of oil and gas saved by additional HPWH units sold (due to the tax credit during 1981 to 1985 (range from 13.9 to 23.1 million barrels of oil equivalent over the lifetime of the equipment.

  1. Development of PCM wallboard for heating and cooling of residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Salyer, I.O.; Sircar, A.K.

    1989-03-01

    The goals of this project were to find, test, and develop an effective phase change material (PCM) for heating and cooling of residential buildings. Specifications for the PCM included thermal storage of at least 30 cal/gm, congruent melting and freezing, at 25{degrees}C, nontoxic, noncorrosive, nonhygroscopic, low-cost, and commercially available in quantity. The PCM must be able to be incorporated into ordinary building materials (plasterboard, concrete, floor tile) by processes adaptable to commercial manufacture. The goals of the original program have been substantially achieved by identifying a series of linear crystalline alkyl hydrocarbon PCM that are commercially available from petroleum refining (lower cost, lower {open_quotes}purity{close_quotes}), and from polymerization of ethylene (higher cost, higher {open_quotes}purity{close_quotes}). Four alternate processes have been developed whereby these PCM can be incorporated into plasterboard and concrete building materials. Two of the processes have been successfully demonstrated in the laboratories of the two largest U.S. manufacturers of plasterboard, and collaborative development leading toward commercialization is still ongoing. Problem areas remaining to be resolved include: establishing unequivocably the economic viability of the system, developing environmentally acceptable fire retarding procedures, scale up of the manufacturing processes and evaluating effects of long-term thermocycling. We are scaling up the immersion process to include imbibing and testing 4-ft x 8-ft plasterboard panels. Successful completion is expected to encourage a plasterboard manufacturer to commercialize the technology. Five U.S. patents have been issuedand U.S. and foreign patents are pending. One foreign license has been negotiated. Spin-offs of the technology likely to be commercialized soon in the U.S. include tableware, hot and cold medical wraps, and wraps to prevent the overnight freezing of citrus tree trunks.

  2. Installation guidelines for solar heating system, single-family residence at William O'Brien State Park, Stillwater, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The Solar Heating System installer guidelines are provided for each subsystem and testing and filling the system are included. This single-family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: liquid cooled flat plate collectors; water storage tank; passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; electric hot water heater; heat pump with electric backup; solar hot water coil unit; tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; control system; and air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is also provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance. Information consists of written procedures, schematics, detail drawings, pictures and manufacturer's component data.

  3. Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation; Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Fritzler, E.A.

    1980-05-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate-temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. The project resource assessment, based on a thorough review of existing data, indicates that a substantial resource likely exists in the Baca Grande region capable of supporting residential and light industrial activity. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The feasibility evaluation indicates the economics of the residential areas are dependent on the continued rate of housing construction. If essentially complete development could occur over a 30-year period, the economics are favorable as compared to existing alternatives. For the commercial area, the economics are good as compared to existing conventional energy sources. This is especially true as related to proposed greenhouse operations. The institutional and environmental analyses indicates that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

  4. Residential heating contribution to level of air pollutants (PAHs, major, trace, and rare earth elements): a moss bag case study.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Pergal, Miodrag; Janković, Milan; Goryainova, Zoya; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-12-01

    In areas with moderate to continental climates, emissions from residential heating system lead to the winter air pollution peaks. The EU legislation requires only the monitoring of airborne concentrations of particulate matter, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and B[a]P. Transition metals and rare earth elements (REEs) have also arisen questions about their detrimental health effects. In that sense, this study examined the level of extensive set of air pollutants: 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 41 major elements, trace elements, and REEs using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bag technique. During the winter of 2013/2014, the moss bags were exposed across Belgrade (Serbia) to study the influence of residential heating system to the overall air quality. The study was set as an extension to our previous survey during the summer, i.e., non-heating season. Markedly higher concentrations of all PAHs, Sb, Cu, V, Ni, and Zn were observed in the exposed moss in comparison to the initial values. The patterns of the moss REE concentrations normalized to North American Shale Composite and Post-Archean Australian Shales were identical across the study area but enhanced by anthropogenic activities. The results clearly demonstrate the seasonal variations in the moss enrichment of the air pollutants. Moreover, the results point out a need for monitoring of air quality during the whole year, and also of various pollutants, not only those regulated by the EU Directive. PMID:26213134

  5. Installation guidelines for solar heating system, single-family residence at William OBrien State Park, Stillwater, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-05-01

    Installation procedures for the single family residential solar heating system at the William O'Brien State Park, Stillwater, Minnesota, are presented. The system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: liquid cooled flat plate collectors; water storage tank; passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; electric hot water heater; heat pump with electric backup; solar hot water coil unit; tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; control system; and air-cooled heat purge unit. Installer guidelines are provided for each subsystem and includes testing and filling the system. Information is also given on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements and routine and schedule maintenance.

  6. Installation guidelines for solar heating system, single-family residence at William OBrien State Park, Stillwater, Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Installation procedures for the single family residential solar heating system at the William O'Brien State Park, Stillwater, Minnesota, are presented. The system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: liquid cooled flat plate collectors; water storage tank; passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; electric hot water heater; heat pump with electric backup; solar hot water coil unit; tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; control system; and air-cooled heat purge unit. Installer guidelines are provided for each subsystem and includes testing and filling the system. Information is also given on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements and routine and schedule maintenance.

  7. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Zogg, Robert; Young, Jim; Schmidt, Justin

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  8. The Pacific Northwest residential consumer: Perceptions and preferences of home heating fuels, major appliances, and appliance fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Harkreader, S.A.; Hattrup, M.P.

    1988-09-01

    In 1983 the Bonneville Power Administration contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct an analysis of the marketing environment for Bonneville's conservation activities. Since this baseline residential study, PNL has conducted two follow up market research projects: Phase 2 in 1985, and Phase 3, in 1988. In this report the respondents' perceptions, preferences, and fuel switching possibilities of fuels for home heating and major appliances are examined. To aid in effective target marketing, the report identifies market segments according to consumers' demographics, life-cycle, attitudes, and opinions.

  9. A microbiological evaluation of warm air hand driers with respect to hand hygiene and the washroom environment.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J H; Brown, K L; Toivenen, J; Holah, J T

    2000-12-01

    A finger rinse technique for counting micro-organisms on hands showed no significant difference in the level of recovered micro-organisms following hand drying using either warm air or paper towels. Contact plate results appeared to reflect the degree of dampness of hands after drying rather than the actual numbers of micro-organisms on the hands. In laboratory tests, a reduction in airborne count of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus of between 40 and 75% was achieved from 600 readings comparing inlets and outlets of warm air hand driers. In washroom trials, the number of airborne micro-organisms was reduced by between 30 and 75%. Air emitted from the outlet of the driers contained significantly fewer micro-organisms than air entering the driers. Drying of hands with hand driers was no more likely to generate airborne micro-organisms than drying with paper towels. Levels of micro-organisms on external surfaces of hand driers were not significantly different to those on other washroom surfaces. This work shows that warm air hand driers, of the type used in this study, are a hygienic method of drying hands and therefore appropriate for use in both the healthcare and food industry. PMID:11123464

  10. Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    SciTech Connect

    Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

  11. Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, W. S.; Loef, G. O. G.

    1981-03-01

    Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season is discussed. The systems comprised an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a nonfreezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. The system is compared with CSU Solar Houses I, II and III. The experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well insulated heat storage tank. Day time electric auxiliary heating is avoided by use of off peak electric heat storage.

  12. Tests confirm gas heat as monoxide source

    SciTech Connect

    Besch, E.

    1984-03-01

    Six tests were conducted to demonstrate the potential for natural gas or oil-fired forced warm air heating equipment to produce carbon monoxide emission when the combustion process is impeded by typical causes found in households. In the case of the gas-fired units, impeded combustion produced a smell of aldehyde and various levels of carbon monoxide emission; all within the level dangerous to health. It was concluded that oil-fired warm air systems do not pose a carbon monoxide danger but that natural gas warm air systems do pose a real danger and should be so identified.

  13. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  14. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  15. Dynamic Performance of a Residential Air-to-Air Heat Pump.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, George E.; Bean, John

    This publication is a study of the dynamic performance of a 5-ton air-to-air heat pump in a residence in Washington, D.C. The effect of part-load operation on the heat pump's cooling and heating coefficients of performance was determined. Discrepancies between measured performance and manufacturer-supplied performance data were found when the unit…

  16. Designing, selecting and installing a residential ground-source heat pump system

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Patrick; Liu, Xiaobing; Munk, Jeffrey D

    2010-01-01

    It's a compelling proposition: Use the near-constant-temperature heat underground to heat and cool your home and heat domestic water, slashing your energy bills. Yet despite studies demonstrating significant energy savings from ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems, their adoption has been hindered by high upfront costs. Fewer than 1% of US homes use a GSHP system. However, compared to a minimum-code-compliant conventional space-conditioning system, when properly designed and installed, a GSHP retrofit at current market prices offers simple payback of 4.3 years on national average, considering existing federal tax credits. Most people understand how air-source heat pumps work: they move heat from indoor air to outdoor air when cooling and from outdoor air to indoor air when heating. The ground-source heat pump operates on the same principle, except that it moves heat to or from the ground source instead of outdoor air. The ground source is usually a vertical or horiontal ground heat exchanger. Because the ground usually has a more favorable temperature than ambient air for the heating and cooling operation of the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, GSHP sysems can operate with much higher energy efficiencies than air-source heat pump systems when properly designed and installed. A GSHP system used in a residual building typically provides space conditioning and hot water and comprises three major components: a water-source heat pump unit designed to operate at a wider range of entering fluid temperatures (typically from 30 F to 110 F, or 1 C to 43 C) than a conventional water-source heat pump unit; a ground heat exchanger (GHX); and distribution systems to deliver hot water to the storage tank and heating or cooling to the conditioned rooms. In most residual GSHP systems, the circulation pumps and associated valves are integrated with the heat pump to circulate the heat-carrier fluid (water or aqueous antifreeze solution) through the heat pump and the GHX. A

  17. Design, development and testing of a solar-powered multi-family residential size prototype turbocompressor heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    1981-03-01

    A program described to design, fabricate, and conduct preliminary testing of a prototype solar-powered Rankine cycle turbocompressor heat pump module for a multi-family residential building is presented. A solar system designed to use the turbocompressor heat pump module including all of the subsystems required and the various system operating modes is described in Section I. Section II includes the preliminary design analyses conducted to select the heat pump module components and operating features, working fluid, configuration, size and performance goals, and estimated performance levels in the cooling and heating modes. Section III provides a detailed description of the other subsystems and components required for a complete solar installation. Using realistic performance and cost characteristics for all subsystems, the seasonal performance of the UTC heat pump is described in various US locations. In addition, the estimated energy savings and an assessment of the economic viability of the solar system is presented in Section III. The detailed design of the heat pump module and the arrangement of components and controls selected to conduct the laboratory performance tests are described in Section IV. Section V provides a description of the special laboratory test facility, including the subsystems to simulate the collectors and storage tanks for building load and ambient conditions and the instrumentation, monitoring, and data acquisition equipment. The test results and sample computer analyses and comparisons with predicted performance levels are presented in Section VI. Various appendices provide supplementary and background information concerning working fluid selection (A), configuration selection (B), capacity control concepts (C), building models (D), computer programs used to determine component and system performance and total system economics (E), and weather data (F).

  18. Instructor's Manual for Teaching and Practical Courses on Design of Systems and Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    Presented are guidelines for instructors of two courses in the design, installation, and operation of solar heating and cooling systems. These courses are: (1) Design of Systems, and (2) Sizing, Installation, and Operation of Systems. Limited in scope to active solar systems for residential buildings, these courses place primary emphasis upon…

  19. Quantifying the impact of residential heating on the urban air quality in a typical European coal combustion region.

    PubMed

    Junninen, Heikki; Mønster, Jacob; Rey, Maria; Cancelinha, Jose; Douglas, Kevin; Duane, Matthew; Forcina, Victtorio; Müller, Anne; Lagler, Fritz; Marelli, Luisa; Borowiak, Annette; Niedzialek, Joanna; Paradiz, Bostian; Mira-Salama, Daniel; Jimenez, Jose; Hansen, Ute; Astorga, Covadonga; Stanczyk, Krzysztof; Viana, Mar; Querol, Xavier; Duvall, Rachelle M; Norris, Gary A; Tsakovski, Stefan; Wåhlin, Peter; Horák, Jiri; Larsen, Bo R

    2009-10-15

    The present investigation, carried out as a case study in a typical major city situated in a European coal combustion region (Krakow, Poland), aims at quantifying the impact on the urban air quality of residential heating by coal combustion in comparison with other potential pollution sources such as power plants, industry, and traffic. Emissions were measured for 20 major sources, including small stoves and boilers, and the particulate matter (PM) was analyzed for 52 individual compounds together with outdoor and indoor PM10 collected during typical winter pollution episodes. The data were analyzed using chemical mass balance modeling (CMB) and constrained positive matrix factorization (CMF) yielding source apportionments for PM10, B(a)P, and other regulated air pollutants namely Cd, Ni, As, and Pb. The results are potentially very useful for planning abatement strategies in all areas of the world, where coal combustion in small appliances is significant. During the studied pollution episodes in Krakow, European air quality limits were exceeded with up to a factor 8 for PM10 and up to a factor 200 for B(a)P. The levels of these air pollutants were accompanied by high concentrations of azaarenes, known markers for inefficient coal combustion. The major culprit for the extreme pollution levels was demonstrated to be residential heating by coal combustion in small stoves and boilers (>50% for PM10 and >90% B(a)P), whereas road transport (<10% for PM10 and <3% for B(a)P), and industry (4-15% for PM10 and <6% for B(a)P) played a lesser role. The indoor PM10 and B(a)P concentrations were at high levels similar to those of outdoor concentrations and were found to have the same sources as outdoors. The inorganic secondary aerosol component of PM10 amounted to around 30%, which for a large part may be attributed to the industrial emission of the precursors SO2 and NOx. PMID:19921921

  20. The Racial/Ethnic Distribution of Heat Risk–Related Land Cover in Relation to Residential Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Cushing, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We examined the distribution of heat risk–related land cover (HRRLC) characteristics across racial/ethnic groups and degrees of residential segregation. Methods: Block group–level tree canopy and impervious surface estimates were derived from the 2001 National Land Cover Dataset for densely populated urban areas of the United States and Puerto Rico, and linked to demographic characteristics from the 2000 Census. Racial/ethnic groups in a given block group were considered to live in HRRLC if at least half their population experienced the absence of tree canopy and at least half of the ground was covered by impervious surface (roofs, driveways, sidewalks, roads). Residential segregation was characterized for metropolitan areas in the United States and Puerto Rico using the multigroup dissimilarity index. Results: After adjustment for ecoregion and precipitation, holding segregation level constant, non-Hispanic blacks were 52% more likely (95% CI: 37%, 69%), non-Hispanic Asians 32% more likely (95% CI: 18%, 47%), and Hispanics 21% more likely (95% CI: 8%, 35%) to live in HRRLC conditions compared with non-Hispanic whites. Within each racial/ethnic group, HRRLC conditions increased with increasing degrees of metropolitan area-level segregation. Further adjustment for home ownership and poverty did not substantially alter these results, but adjustment for population density and metropolitan area population attenuated the segregation effects, suggesting a mediating or confounding role. Conclusions: Land cover was associated with segregation within each racial/ethnic group, which may be explained partly by the concentration of racial/ethnic minorities into densely populated neighborhoods within larger, more segregated cities. In anticipation of greater frequency and duration of extreme heat events, climate change adaptation strategies, such as planting trees in urban areas, should explicitly incorporate an environmental justice framework that addresses

  1. Analysis of space heating and domestic hot water systems for energy-efficient residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Dennehy, G

    1983-04-01

    An analysis of the best ways of meeting the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) needs of new energy-efficient houses with very low requirements for space heat is provided. The DHW load is about equal to the space heating load in such houses in northern climates. The equipment options which should be considered are discussed, including new equipment recently introduced in the market. It is concluded that the first consideration in selecting systems for energy-efficient houses should be identification of the air moving needs of the house for heat distribution, heat storage, ventilation, and ventilative cooling. This is followed, in order, by selection of the most appropriate distribution system, the heating appliances and controls, and the preferred energy source, gas, oil, or electricity.

  2. Application and installation quality analysis of residential heat pump equipment in Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.F.; Johnson, B.W.

    1997-12-31

    Compliance of heat pump installations to Guidelines for Application and Installation of Heat Pump Systems by approved heating, ventilating, and airconditioning (HVAC) contractors has been observed for many years in most regions of the state of Alabama. Since 1964, various programs have been implemented to monitor dealer compliance with common sense criteria to ensure quality heat pump installations that provide for customer comfort, equipment reliability, and economy of operation. This paper discusses a historical overview of these programs. The primary focus is on the summary for programs implemented in 1995 and 1996 to observe and monitor field problems in application and installation of heat pump equipment. An electronically filed customer satisfaction survey form was the basis for the 1995 program. The 1996 program implemented a dealer complaint form to track customer complaints regarding the quality and performance of heat pump equipment installations.

  3. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Fang, X.; Wilson, E.

    2013-05-01

    Gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the US installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many preexisting models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work.

  4. Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery and Utilization from Residential Appliances and Fixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, John J; Christian, Jeff; Gehl, Anthony C

    2012-09-01

    Executive Summary In every home irrespective of its size, location, age, or efficiency, heat in the form of drainwater or dryer exhaust is wasted. Although from a waste stream, this energy has the potential for being captured, possibly stored, and then reused for preheating hot water or air thereby saving operating costs to the homeowner. In applications such as a shower and possibly a dryer, waste heat is produced at the same time as energy is used, so that a heat exchanger to capture the waste energy and return it to the supply is all that is needed. In other applications such as capturing the energy in drainwater from a tub, dishwasher, or washing machine, the availability of waste heat might not coincide with an immediate use for energy, and consequently a heat exchanger system with heat storage capacity (i.e. a regenerator) would be necessary. This study describes a two-house experimental evaluation of a system designed to capture waste heat from the shower, dishwasher clothes washer and dryer, and to use this waste heat to offset some of the hot water energy needs of the house. Although each house was unoccupied, they were fitted with equipment that would completely simulate the heat loads and behavior of human occupants including operating the appliances and fixtures on a demand schedule identical to Building American protocol (Hendron, 2009). The heat recovery system combined (1) a gravity-film heat exchanger (GFX) installed in a vertical section of drainline, (2) a heat exchanger for capturing dryer exhaust heat, (3) a preheat tank for storing the captured heat, and (4) a small recirculation pump and controls, so that the system could be operated anytime that waste heat from the shower, dishwasher, clothes washer and dryer, and in any combination was produced. The study found capturing energy from the dishwasher and clothes washer to be a challenge since those two appliances dump waste water over a short time interval. Controls based on the status of the

  5. Design and operation of a solar heating and cooling system for a residential size building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littles, J. W.; Humphries, W. R.; Cody, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The first year of operation of solar house is discussed. Selected design information, together with a brief system description is included. The house was equipped with an integrated solar heating and cooling system which uses fully automated state-of-the art. Evaluation of the data indicate that the solar house heating and cooling system is capable of supplying nearly 100 percent of the thermal energy required for heating and approximately 50 percent of the thermal energy required to operate the absorption cycle air conditioner.

  6. Design package for a complete residential solar space heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information necessary to evaluate the design of a solar space heating and hot water system is reported. System performance specifications, the design data brochure, the system description, and other information pertaining to the design are included.

  7. Review of Test Procedure for Determining HSPFs of Residential Variable-Speed Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C. Keith; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Shrestha, Som S.

    2015-08-01

    This report reviews the suitability of the existing Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) ratings and testing requirements for the current generation of variable-speed (VS) air-source heat pumps. Recent field test results indicate larger discrepancies between rated HSPF and field-observed HSPF for VS models than for single-speed models in the same houses. These findings suggest that the heating season test and ratings procedure should be revisited for VS heat pumps. The ratings and testing procedures are described in ANSI/AHRI 210/240 (2008) for single-speed, two-capacity, and variable-speed units. Analysis of manufacturer and independent test performance data on VS units reveals why the current VS testing/ratings procedure results in overly optimistic HSPF ratings for some VS units relative to other types of heat pumps. This is due to a combination of extrapolation of low speed test data beyond the originally anticipated ambient temperature operating range and the constraints of unit controls, which prevent low speed operation over the range of ambient temperatures assumed in the procedure for low speed. As a result, the HSPFs of such units are being overpredicted relative to those for single- and two-capacity designs. This overprediction has been found to be significantly reduced by use in the HSPF ratings procedure of an alternative higher-load heating load line, described in a companion report (Rice et al., 2015).

  8. Improving the Energy Performance of Multi-Unit Residential Buildings Using Air-Source Heat Pumps and Enclosed Balconies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touchie, Marianne

    Existing multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs) are important assets for urban regions such as Toronto, Canada. These buildings provide high-density housing and allow for the efficient provision of public services and utilities. However, MURB energy-use imposes a significant environmental burden. A preliminary part of the study presented here found that the median energy intensity of MURBs in Toronto is 300ekWh/m2 and that this energy-use accounts for 17% of residential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the City. To reduce this environmental burden, this work explores a novel energy retrofit strategy involving a suite-based air-source heat pump (ASHP) operating in an enclosed balcony space which serves as a thermal buffer zone (TBZ) to improve the cold-weather ASHP performance in a heating-dominated climate. More broadly, a methodology for assessing the impact of an energy retrofit measure is developed. First, energy-use and interior condition data were collected from a 1960s MURB over the course of one year. The subject building was found to have a higher-than-average energy intensity of 374ekWh/m2 and other operational issues including overheating of suites. These data were then used to calibrate an energy model so that the proposed retrofit strategy could be modeled. Next, the proposed retrofit strategy was tested in a mock apartment unit constructed in a climate-controlled chamber. The testing showed that the coefficient of performance of the ASHP could be improved by operating it in a TBZ with access to heat from solar gains. This finding was used to modify the subject building energy model which showed that applying the proposed retrofit could reduce the annual energy intensity and GHG emissions of the building by 39% and 45%, respectively. An estimate of the impact of applying this retrofit strategy to Toronto MURBs with energy intensities greater than the median results in a median sector energy intensity of 236ekWh/m 2.

  9. Impacts of residential heating intervention measures on air quality and progress towards targets in Christchurch and Timaru, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Angelique J.; Scarrott, Carl

    2011-06-01

    Elevated wintertime particulate concentrations in the New Zealand cities of Christchurch and Timaru are mostly attributed to the burning of wood and coal for residential heating. A carrot-and-stick approach was adopted for managing air quality in Christchurch, where strict intervention measures were introduced together with a residential heater replacement programme to encourage householders to change to cleaner forms of heating. A similar approach was only recently implemented for Timaru. This paper presents the results of a partial accountability analysis, where the impact of these measures on the target source, PM 10 emissions, and PM 10 concentrations are quantified. A statistical model was developed to estimate trends in the concentrations, which were tested for significance after accounting for meteorological effects, and to estimate the probability of meeting air quality targets. Results for Christchurch and Timaru are compared to illustrate the impacts of differing levels of intervention on air quality. In Christchurch, approximately 34,000 (76%) open fires and old solid fuel burners were replaced with cleaner heating technology from 2002 to 2009, and total open fires and solid fuel burner numbers decreased by 45%. Over the same time period, estimated PM 10 emissions reduced by 71% and PM 10 concentrations by 52% (maxima), 36% (winter mean), 26% (winter median) and 41% (meteorology-adjusted winter means). In Timaru, just 3000 (50%) open fires and old solid fuel burners were replaced from 2001 to 2008, with total open fire and solid fuel burner numbers reduced by 24%. PM 10 emissions declined by 32%, with low reductions in the PM 10 concentrations (maxima decreased by 7%, winter means by 11% and winter medians by 3%). These findings, supported by the results of the meteorology corrected trend analysis for Christchurch, strongly indicate that the combination of stringent intervention measures and financial incentives has led to substantial air quality

  10. Two-story residence with solar heating--Newman, Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report evaluates performance of warm-air collector system for 11 month period and provides operation and maintenance information. System consists of 14 warm air collectors, rock-storage bin, air handler, heat exchangers, hot-water preheat tank, associated controls, plumbing, and air ducting. Average building temperature was maintained at 72 F (22 C); solar equipment provided 47 percent of space-heating requirement.

  11. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, Jeff; Fang, Xia; Wilson, Eric

    2013-05-01

    In this study, gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the United States, installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many pre-existing models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work. In each case modeled, the whole house was simulated along with the water heater to capture any interactions between the water heater and the space conditioning equipment.

  12. Waking the sleeping giant: Introducing new heat exchanger technology into the residential air-conditioning marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Chapp, T.; Voss, M.; Stephens, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Air Conditioning Industry has made tremendous strides in improvements to the energy efficiency and reliability of its product offerings over the past 40 years. These improvement can be attributed to enhancements of components, optimization of the energy cycle, and modernized and refined manufacturing techniques. During this same period, energy consumption for space cooling has grown significantly. In January of 1992, the minimum efficiency requirement for central air conditioning equipment was raised to 10 SEER. This efficiency level is likely to increase further under the auspices of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA). A new type of heat exchanger was developed for air conditioning equipment by Modine Manufacturing Company in the early 1990's. Despite significant advantages in terms of energy efficiency, dehumidification, durability, and refrigerant charge there has been little interest expressed by the air conditioning industry. A cooperative effort between Modine, various utilities, and several state energy offices has been organized to test and demonstrate the viability of this heat exchanger design throughout the nation. This paper will review the fundamentals of heat exchanger design and document this simple, yet novel technology. These experiences involving equipment retrofits have been documented with respect to the performance potential of air conditioning system constructed with PF{trademark} Heat Exchangers (generically referred to as microchannel heat exchangers) from both an energy efficiency as well as a comfort perspective. The paper will also detail the current plan to introduce 16 to 24 systems into an extended field test throughout the US which commenced in the Fall of 1997.

  13. Residential Exposure to Nighttime Retained Heat in the El Paso, Texas, USA Desert Metroplex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, M. A.; Mohammed, M.; Pingitore, N. E.; Aldouri, R. K.; Benedict, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    The urban heat island is a well recognized and extensively studied phenomenon that has accelerating importance resulting from two trends associated with world-wide population growth: increasing urbanization and global warming. Urbanization, particularly when unplanned and haphazard, changes such thermal parameters as albedo, surface roughness, and heat capacities of surface materials. Rapid urbanization in the contiguous El Paso, Texas, USA - Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico bi-national metroplex has produced an urban heat island that is warmer than the surrounding Chihuahuan desert (temperature: 35-40 C summer; high elevation: 600-1675 m; rainfall: less than 250 mm annual). Despite the extensive literature on the urban heat island, little is known about urban nighttime land surface temperatures. We employed infrared satellite imaging to establish the variation of nighttime neighborhood surface temperatures across the city of El Paso, as well as all of El Paso County. The underlying purpose of our continuing investigation is to evaluate the geography of morbidity risk: are different neighborhoods at different risk of high nighttime temperatures. Those risks can include heat stress, and irritability and sleep deprivation, with possible resultant violence. Heat exposure at night is significant because residents are at home and 90% of El Pasoans do not have 'refrigerated' air conditioning, but instead have evaporative coolers, which are less expensive to own and operate, but are less effective since they raise the humidity of the partially cooled air. Our geographically weighted regression model showed that both day and nighttime land surface temperatures correlated with the normalized difference vegetation index, population density, and albedo. The association with the index and albedo was stronger during the daytime and with population density during the nighttime. Vegetation (negative) and population density (positive) were the dominant temperature drivers, with

  14. Field monitoring and evaluation of a residential gas-engine-driven heat pump: Volume 2, Heating season

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    The Federal Government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States; consumption approaches 1.5 quads/year of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} Btu) at a cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US Government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE national multiprogram laboratories that participate in the NTDP by providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied and evaluated under that program. This two-volume report describes a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology -- a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Sam Houston, a US Army base in San Antonio, Texas, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were York International, the heat pump manufacturer; Gas Research Institute (GRI), the technology developer; City Public Service of San Antonio, the local utility; American Gas Cooling Center (AGCC); Fort Sam Houston; and PNL.

  15. The development of a solar powered residential heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, M. J.; Mccormick, P. O.; Kruse, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    A solar energy collector design is disclosed that would be efficient for both energy transfer and fluid flow, based upon extensive parametric analyses. Thermal design requirements are generated for the energy storage systems which utilizes sensible heat storage in water. Properly size system components (including the collector and storage) and a practical, efficient total system configuration are determined by means of computer simulation of system performance.

  16. State of Maine residential heating oil survey: 1995--1996 season summary

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, B.

    1996-05-01

    In Maine the cash price is surveyed, as opposed to lthe retail or charge price, as it has been identified as the price most often paid by Maine consumers. As one can see from the chart in this report, the 1995-1996 cash prices for No. 2 heating oil can be characterized as having an upward trend and much more fluctuation than last years` relatively flat line. The 1995-96 heating season started at the closing price of the previous season and for the first few weeks prices were lower than most of the 1994-95 trendline. When the weather became cooler, however, prices were on a steady incline until well into the winter. Prices leveled off for most of the rest of the season with a dramatic surge on the last week of the survey. The average statewide cash price for No. 2 heating oil this year was .861 1 cents, approximately ten cents higher than the average for 1994-1995 which was .7661 cents per gallon. It has been the observation of the SPO that during most of the 1995-1996 season, Maine`s prices showed a direct correspondence with New England rack or wholesale prices. It appeared that they never fluctuated more than 3-4 cents from each other.

  17. Heating Systems Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.

    This instructional package is intended for use in training Air Force personnel enrolled in a program for apprentice heating systems specialists. Training includes instruction in fundamentals and pipefitting; basic electricity; controls, troubleshooting, and oil burners; solid and gas fuel burners and warm air distribution systems; hot water…

  18. State of Maine residential heating oil survey: 1994--1995 Season summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The 1994--95 heating season approached with more attention to petroleum products than experienced in some time. This year, however, the focus was on transportation fuels with the introduction of reformulated gasolines scheduled for the first of 1995. Last year transportation fuels had been in the spotlight in the Northeast as well, for the ills experienced with a new winter mix for diesel fuel. Would RFG have the same dubious entrance as diesel`s winter mix? Would RFG implementation work and what effect would the change in stocks have on the refineries? With worries related to transportation fuels being recognized, would there be reason for concern with heating fuels? As the new year approached, the refineries seemed to have no problem with supplies and RFG stocks were eased in about the second week of December. In Maine, the southern half of the state was effected by the gasoline substitution but seven of Maine`s sixteen counties were directed to follow the recommended criteria. Since the major population concentration lies in the southern three counties, concern was real. Attention paid to emission testing had come to a head in the fall, and RFG complaints were likely. There have been years when snow and cold arrived by Thanksgiving Day. In northern Maine, snow easily covers the ground before the SHOPP survey begins. The fall slipped by with no great shocks in the weather. December was more of the same, as the weather continued to favor the public. Normally the third week in January is considered the coldest time in the year, but not this year. By the end of January, two days were recorded as being more typical of winter. By March and the end of the survey season, one could only recognize that there were perhaps a few cold days this winter. Fuel prices fluctuated little through the entire heating season. There were no major problems to report and demand never placed pressure on dealers.

  19. The heat is on: Killing blacklegged ticks in residential washers and dryers to prevent tickborne diseases.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christina A; Hayes, Catherine M; Markowitz, Molly A; Flynn, Jacqueline J; Graham, Alan C; Delorey, Mark J; Mead, Paul S; Dolan, Marc C

    2016-07-01

    Reducing exposure to ticks can help prevent Lyme disease and other tickborne diseases. Although it is currently recommended to dry clothes on high heat for one hour to kill ticks on clothing after spending time outdoors, this recommendation is based on a single published study of tick survival under various washing conditions and a predetermined one-hour drying time. We conducted a series of tests to investigate the effects of temperature, humidity, and drying time on killing nymphal and adult blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis). Muslin bags containing 5 ticks each were washed then dried or dried only with six cotton towels during each drying cycle. All nymphal and adult ticks were killed when exposed to wash cycles when the water temperature reached ≥54°C (≥130°F); however, 50% of ticks survived hot water washes when the water temperature was <54°C. The majority (94%) of ticks survived warm washes [temperature range, 27-46°C (80-115°F)] and all ticks survived cold washes [15-27°C (59-80°F)]. When subsequently dried on high heat setting [54-85°C (129-185°F)], it took 50min to kill all ticks (95% confidence limit, 55min). Most significantly, we found that all adult and nymphal ticks died when placed directly in the dryer with dry towels and dried for 4min on high heat (95% confidence limit, 6min). We have identified effective, easily implemented methods to rid clothing of ticks after spending time outdoors. Placing clothing directly in a dryer and drying for a minimum of 6min on high heat will effectively kill ticks on clothing. If clothing is soiled and requires washing first, our results indicate clothing should be washed with water temperature ≥54°C (≥130°F) to kill ticks. When practiced with other tick-bite prevention methods, these techniques could further reduce the risk of acquiring tickborne diseases. PMID:27156138

  20. Proper use of sludge-control additives in residential heating oil systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tatnall, R.E.

    1995-04-01

    Discussed are various aspects of heating oil `sludge`: How it forms, typical problems it causes, how sludge-control additives work, what should be expected of them, and what happens in a contaminated system when such additives are used. Test results from laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that performance of commercially available additives varies greatly. The concept of `end-of-the-line` treatment is described and compared with bulk fuel treatment. A procedure is described whereby a retailer can test additives himself, and thus determine just what those additives will or will not do for his business. Finally, the economics of an effective treatment program are outlined.

  1. A Tool for Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) Based Design of Residential Air Source Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    A tool for the design of air source heat pumps (ASHP) based on their life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analysis is presented. The LCCP model includes direct and indirect emissions of the ASHP. The annual energy consumption of the ASHP is determined based on AHRI Standard 210/240. The tool can be used as an evaluation tool when the user inputs the required performance data based on the ASHP type selected. In addition, this tool has system design capability where the user inputs the design parameters of the different components of the heat pump and the tool runs the system simulation software to calculate the performance data. Additional features available in the tool include the capability to perform parametric analysis and sensitivity study on the system. The tool has 14 refrigerants, and 47 cities built-in with the option for the user to add more refrigerants, based on NIST REFPROP, and cities, using TMY-3 database. The underlying LCCP calculation framework is open source and can be easily customized for various applications. The tool can be used with any system simulation software, load calculation tool, and weather and emissions data type.

  2. Advanced phase change materials and systems for solar passive heating and cooling of residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Salyer, I.O.; Sircar, A.K.; Dantiki, S.

    1988-01-01

    During the last three years under the sponsorship of the DOE Solar Passive Division, the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) has investigated four phase change material (PCM) systems for utility in thermal energy storage for solar passive heating and cooling applications. From this research on the basis of cost, performance, containment, and environmental acceptability, we have selected as our current and most promising series of candidate phase change materials, C-15 to C-24 linear crystalline alkyl hydrocarbons. The major part of the research during this contract period was directed toward the following three objectives. Find, test, and develop low-cost effective phase change materials (PCM) that melt and freeze sharply in the comfort temperature range of 73--77{degree}F for use in solar passive heating and cooling of buildings. Define practical materials and processes for fire retarding plasterboard/PCM building products. Develop cost-effective methods for incorporating PCM into building construction materials (concrete, plasterboard, etc.) which will lead to the commercial manufacture and sale of PCM-containing products resulting in significant energy conservation.

  3. Hybrid heating systems optimization of residential environment to have thermal comfort conditions by numerical simulation.

    PubMed

    Jahantigh, Nabi; Keshavarz, Ali; Mirzaei, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine optimum hybrid heating systems parameters, such as temperature, surface area of a radiant heater and vent area to have thermal comfort conditions. DOE, Factorial design method is used to determine the optimum values for input parameters. A 3D model of a virtual standing thermal manikin with real dimensions is considered in this study. Continuity, momentum, energy, species equations for turbulent flow and physiological equation for thermal comfort are numerically solved to study heat, moisture and flow field. K - ɛRNG Model is used for turbulence modeling and DO method is used for radiation effects. Numerical results have a good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature. The effect of various combinations of inlet parameters on thermal comfort is considered. According to Pareto graph, some of these combinations that have significant effect on the thermal comfort require no more energy can be used as useful tools. A better symmetrical velocity distribution around the manikin is also presented in the hybrid system. PMID:26052442

  4. Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.A.; D.A. Springer

    2008-06-18

    The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third mode, the

  5. A comparison of fuel savings in the residential and commercial sectors generated by the installation of solar heating and cooling systems under three tax credit scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moden, R.

    An analysis of expected energy savings between 1977 and 1980 under three different solar tax credit scenarios is presented. The results were obtained through the solar heating and cooling of buildings (SHACOB) commercialization model. This simulation provides projected savings of conventional fuels through the installation of solar heating and cooling systems on buildings in the residential and commercial sectors. The three scenarios analyzed considered the tax credits contained in the Windfall Profits Tax of April 1980, the National Tax Act of November 1978, and a case where no tax credit is in effect.

  6. Modeling and testing of fractionation effects with refrigerant blends in an actual residential heat pump system

    SciTech Connect

    Biancardi, F.R.; Pandy, D.R.; Sienel, T.H.; Michels, H.H.

    1997-12-31

    The heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry is actively evaluating and testing hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant blends as a means of complying with current and impending national and international environmental regulations restricting the use and disposal of conventional chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants that contribute to the global ozone-depletion effects. While analyses and system performance tools have shown that HFC refrigerant blends offer certain performance, capacity, and operational advantages, there are significant possible service and operational issues that are raised by the use of blends. Many of these issues occur due to the fractionation of the blends. Therefore, the objective of this program was to conduct analyses and experimental tests aimed at understanding these issues, develop approaches or techniques to predict these effects, and convey to the industry safe and reliable approaches. As a result, analytical models verified by laboratory data have been developed that predict the fractionation effects of HFC refrigerant blends (1) when exposed to selected POE lubricants, (2) during the system charging process from large liquid containers, and (3) during system start-up, operation, and shutdown within various system components (where two-phase refrigerant exists) and during selected system and component leakage scenarios. Model predictions and experimental results are presented for HFC refrigerant blends containing R-32, R-134a, and R-125 and the data are generalized for various operating conditions and scenarios.

  7. Current status of fuel cell based combined heat and power systems for residential sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellamla, Harikishan R.; Staffell, Iain; Bujlo, Piotr; Pollet, Bruno G.; Pasupathi, Sivakumar

    2015-10-01

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is the sequential or simultaneous generation of multiple forms of useful energy, usually electrical and thermal, in a single and integrated system. Implementing CHP systems in the current energy sector may solve energy shortages, climate change and energy conservation issues. This review paper is divided into six sections: the first part defines and classifies the types of fuel cell used in CHP systems; the second part discusses the current status of fuel cell CHP (FC-CHP) around the world and highlights the benefits and drawbacks of CHP systems; the third part focuses on techniques for modelling CHP systems. The fourth section gives a thorough comparison and discussion of the two main fuel cell technologies used in FC-CHP (PEMFC and SOFC), characterising their technical performance and recent developments from the major manufacturers. The fifth section describes all the main components of FC-CHP systems and explains the issues connected with their practical application. The last part summarises the above, and reflects on micro FC-CHP system technology and its future prospects.

  8. Ultrafine particle removal by residential heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning filters.

    PubMed

    Stephens, B; Siegel, J A

    2013-12-01

    This work uses an in situ filter test method to measure the size-resolved removal efficiency of indoor-generated ultrafine particles (approximately 7-100 nm) for six new commercially available filters installed in a recirculating heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system in an unoccupied test house. The fibrous HVAC filters were previously rated by the manufacturers according to ASHRAE Standard 52.2 and ranged from shallow (2.5 cm) fiberglass panel filters (MERV 4) to deep-bed (12.7 cm) electrostatically charged synthetic media filters (MERV 16). Measured removal efficiency ranged from 0 to 10% for most ultrafine particles (UFP) sizes with the lowest rated filters (MERV 4 and 6) to 60-80% for most UFP sizes with the highest rated filter (MERV 16). The deeper bed filters generally achieved higher removal efficiencies than the panel filters, while maintaining a low pressure drop and higher airflow rate in the operating HVAC system. Assuming constant efficiency, a modeling effort using these measured values for new filters and other inputs from real buildings shows that MERV 13-16 filters could reduce the indoor proportion of outdoor UFPs (in the absence of indoor sources) by as much as a factor of 2-3 in a typical single-family residence relative to the lowest efficiency filters, depending in part on particle size. PMID:23590456

  9. Residential Solar Combined Heat and Power Generation using Solar Thermoelectric Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, B.; Wagner, M.; Kunkle, C.; Watson, P.; Williams, R.; Donohoe, R.; Ugarte, K.; Wilmoth, R.; Chong, M. Zachary; Lee, H.

    2015-06-01

    Recent reports on improved efficiencies of solar thermoelectric generation (STEG) systems have generated interest in STEGs as a competitive power generation system. In this paper, the design of a combined cooling and power utilizing concentrated solar power is discussed. Solar radiation is concentrated into a receiver connected to thermoelectric modules, which are used as a topping cycle to generate power and high grade heat necessary to run an absorption chiller. Modeling of the overall system is discussed with experimental data to validate modeling results. A numerical modeling approach is presented which considers temperature variation of the source and sink temperatures and is used to maximize combined efficiency. A system is built with a demonstrated combined efficiency of 32% in actual working conditions with power generation of 3.1 W. Modeling results fell within 3% of the experimental results verifying the approach. An optimization study is performed on the mirror concentration ration and number of modules for thermal load matching and is shown to improve power generation to 26.8 W.

  10. Quantification of emissions from domestic heating in residential areas of İzmir, Turkey and assessment of the impact on local/regional air-quality.

    PubMed

    Sari, Deniz; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2014-08-01

    Air pollution in cities is a major environmental problem principally in the developing countries. The quantification of emissions is a basic requirement to assess the human influence to the atmosphere. The air quality generally shows decreases with the major contribution residential emissions and meteorology in the winter season in the big cities. Poor meteorological conditions especially inversion events for the efficient mixing of air pollutants occurred during the winter months in İzmir. With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxides (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbon monoxide (CO) together with greenhouse gases which are carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) in İzmir for 2008-2009 winter season. The results showed that the most affected residential areas were central districts in the city center from domestic heating emissions due to meteorological condition and demographic reasons. Air quality modeling is a great tool for assisting policy makers how to decrease emissions and improve air quality. At the second part of the study, calculated emissions were modeled by using CALMET/CALPUFF dispersion modeling system and plotted in the form of air pollution maps by using geographical information system to determine the locations and estimate the effects of the new residential areas that will be established in the future in İzmir. PMID:24315026

  11. The Solutions Project: Educating the Public and Policy Makers About Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Three major global problems of our times are global warming, air pollution mortality and morbidity, and energy insecurity. Whereas, policy makers with the support of the public must implement solutions to these problems, it is scientists and engineers who are best equipped to evaluate technically sound, optimal, and efficient solutions. Yet, a disconnect exists between information provided by scientists and engineers and policies implemented. Part of the reason is that scientific information provided to policy makers and the public is swamped out by information provided by lobbyists and another part is the difficulty in providing information to the hundreds of millions of people who need it rather than to just a few thousand. What other ways are available, aside from issuing press releases on scientific papers, for scientists to disseminate information? Three growing methods are through social media, creative media, and storytelling. The Solutions Project is a non-profit non-governmental organization whose goal is to bring forth scientific information about 100% clean, renewable energy plans to the public, businesses, and policy makers using these and related tools. Through the use of social media, the development of engaging internet and video content, and storytelling, the group hopes to increase the dissemination of information for social good. This talk discusses the history and impacts to date of this group and its methods. Please see www.thesolutionsproject.org and 100.org for more information.

  12. Tolerability of Nasal Delivery of Humidified and Warmed Air at Different Temperatures: A Randomised Double-Blind Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bibby, Susan; Reddy, Sumeet; Cripps, Terrianne; McKinstry, Steve; Weatherall, Mark; Beasley, Richard; Pilcher, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Delivery of warmed, humidified air via nasal high flow therapy could potentially reduce replication of temperature-sensitive viruses in the upper respiratory tract. This study investigates whether nasal high flow therapy is well tolerated by healthy adults at 37°C and 41°C. Methods. In this randomised, double-blind, controlled crossover pilot trial, nasal high flow therapy was used to deliver humidified air at 35 L/min, at either 37°C or 41°C, for three one-hour sessions of use over one day. The alternative was delivered at least 14 days later. Ten healthy, nonsmoking adults were asked, via questionnaire after each day's use, whether they would use nasal high flow therapy while being unwell with a cold or flu if it was demonstrated to improve symptoms. Results. All participants completed both interventions. Eighty percent responded “yes” to future use of nasal high flow therapy, for both 37°C and 41°C. There was no significant change from baseline in saccharin times following either intervention or in the following morning. Conclusions. Delivering humidified air via nasal high flow therapy at both 37°C and 41°C is well tolerated by healthy adults. This supports investigation into the potential use of nasal high flow therapy as treatment in viral upper respiratory tract infections. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ACTRN12614000183684 (tolerability study of nasal delivery of humidified & warmed air). PMID:27127650

  13. Impacts of changing residential oil burner technology

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; McDonald, R.; Krajewski, R.; Celebi, Y.; Andrews, J.

    1992-05-01

    This paper presents trends in oil-fired residential heating appliance design that take advantage of recent research which promises significantly lower pollutant emissions, improved performance, and efficiency.

  14. RESULTS OF A PILOT FIELD STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CLEANING RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND THE IMPACT ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses and gives results of a pilot field study to evaluate the effectiveness of air duct cleaning (ADC) as a source removal technique in residential heating and air-conditioning (HAC) systems and its impact on airborne particle, fiber, and bioaerosol concentrations...

  15. An Analysis of Predicted vs. Monitored Space Heat Energy Use in 120 Homes : Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle II.

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, John G.; Young, Marvin; Washington State Energy Office.

    1991-10-01

    The SUNDAY thermal simulation program was used to predict space heat energy consumption for 120 energy efficient homes. The predicted data were found to explain 43.8 percent of the variation in monitored space heat consumption. Using a paired Student's to test, no statistically significant difference could be found between mean predicted space heat and monitored space heat for the entire sample of homes. The homes were grouped into seven classes, sub-samples by total heat loss coefficient. An intermediate class (UA = 300--350 Btu/{degrees}F) was found to significantly over-predict space heat by 25 percent. The same class was over-predicted by 16 percent in the analogous Cycle 1 research, but the sample size was smaller and this was not found to be statistically significant. Several variables that were not directly included as inputs to the simulation were examined with an analysis of covariance model for their ability to improve the simulation's prediction of space heat. The variables having the greatest effect were conditioned floor area, heating system type, and foundation type. The model was able to increase the coefficient of determination from 0.438 to 0.670; a 54 percent increase. While the SUNDAY simulation program to aggregate is able to predict space heat consumption, it should be noted that there is a considerable amount of variation in both the monitored space heat consumption and the SUNDAY predictions. The ability of the program to accurately model an individual house will be constrained by both the quality of input variables and the range of occupant behavior. These constraints apply to any building model.

  16. An Analysis of Predicted vs. Monitored Space Heat Energy Use in 120 Homes :Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle II.

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, John G.; Young, Marvin; Washington State Energy Office.

    1991-10-01

    The SUNDAY thermal simulation program was used to predict space heat energy consumption for 120 energy efficient homes. The predicted data were found to explain 43.8 percent of the variation in monitored space heat consumption. Using a paired Student`s to test, no statistically significant difference could be found between mean predicted space heat and monitored space heat for the entire sample of homes. The homes were grouped into seven classes, sub-samples by total heat loss coefficient. An intermediate class (UA = 300--350 Btu/{degrees}F) was found to significantly over-predict space heat by 25 percent. The same class was over-predicted by 16 percent in the analogous Cycle 1 research, but the sample size was smaller and this was not found to be statistically significant. Several variables that were not directly included as inputs to the simulation were examined with an analysis of covariance model for their ability to improve the simulation`s prediction of space heat. The variables having the greatest effect were conditioned floor area, heating system type, and foundation type. The model was able to increase the coefficient of determination from 0.438 to 0.670; a 54 percent increase. While the SUNDAY simulation program to aggregate is able to predict space heat consumption, it should be noted that there is a considerable amount of variation in both the monitored space heat consumption and the SUNDAY predictions. The ability of the program to accurately model an individual house will be constrained by both the quality of input variables and the range of occupant behavior. These constraints apply to any building model.

  17. Building Technologies Residential Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, Thomas J.

    2005-11-07

    Introduction A telephone survey of 1,025 residential occupants was administered in late October for the Building Technologies Program (BT) to gather information on residential occupant attitudes, behaviors, knowledge, and perceptions. The next section, Survey Results, provides an overview of the responses, with major implications and caveats. Additional information is provided in three appendices as follows: - Appendix A -- Summary Response: Provides summary tabular data for the 13 questions that, with subparts, comprise a total of 25 questions. - Appendix B -- Benchmark Data: Provides a benchmark by six categories to the 2001 Residential Energy Consumption Survey administered by EIA. These were ownership, heating fuel, geographic location, race, household size and income. - Appendix C -- Background on Survey Method: Provides the reader with an understanding of the survey process and interpretation of the results.

  18. Converting Residential Drawing Courses to Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetsch, David L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the process of metric conversion in residential drafting courses. Areas of concern are metric paper sizes; metric scale; plot, foundation, floor and electric plans; wall sections; elevations; and heat loss/ heat gain calculations. (SK)

  19. In vitro toxicological characterization of particulate emissions from residential biomass heating systems based on old and new technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalava, Pasi I.; Happo, Mikko S.; Kelz, Joachim; Brunner, Thomas; Hakulinen, Pasi; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Hukkanen, Annika; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Obernberger, Ingwald; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2012-04-01

    Residential wood combustion causes major effects on the air quality on a global scale. The ambient particulate levels are known to be responsible for severe adverse health effects that include e.g. cardio-respiratory illnesses and cancer related effects, even mortality. It is known that biomass combustion derived emissions are affected by combustion technology, fuel being used and user-related practices. There are also indications that the health related toxicological effects are influenced by these parameters. This study we evaluated toxicological effects of particulate emissions (PM1) from seven different residential wood combusting furnaces. Two appliances i.e. log wood boiler and stove represented old batch combustion technology, whereas stove and tiled stove were designated as new batch combustion as three modern automated boilers were a log wood boiler, a woodchip boiler and a pellet boiler. The PM1 samples from the furnaces were collected in an experimental setup with a Dekati® gravimetric impactor on PTFE filters with the samples being weighed and extracted from the substrates and prior to toxicological analyses. The toxicological analyses were conducted after a 24-hour exposure of the mouse RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line to four doses of emission particle samples and analysis of levels of the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα, chemokine MIP-2, cytotoxicity with three different methods (MTT, PI, cell cycle analysis) and genotoxicity with the comet assay. In the correlation analysis all the toxicological results were compared with the chemical composition of the samples. All the samples induced dose-dependent increases in the studied parameters. Combustion technology greatly affected the emissions and the concomitant toxicological responses. The modern automated boilers were usually the least potent inducers of most of the parameters while emissions from the old technology log wood boiler were the most potent. In correlation analysis, the PAH and other organic

  20. National Residential Efficiency Measures Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Residential Efficiency Measures Database is a publicly available, centralized resource of residential building retrofit measures and costs for the U.S. building industry. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy, NREL developed this tool to help users determine the most cost-effective retrofit measures for improving energy efficiency of existing homes. Software developers who require residential retrofit performance and cost data for applications that evaluate residential efficiency measures are the primary audience for this database. In addition, home performance contractors and manufacturers of residential materials and equipment may find this information useful. The database offers the following types of retrofit measures: 1) Appliances, 2) Domestic Hot Water, 3) Enclosure, 4) Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), 5) Lighting, 6) Miscellaneous.

  1. Further developments in the design of a free-piston Stirling engine heat pump for residential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, R.A.; Clinch, J.M.; Privon, G.T.

    1987-01-01

    During the past year (1986/1987), the development of an improved Stirling engine driver for the Free-Piston Stirling Engine Heat Pump (FPSE/HP) has led to a significant increase in heat pump performance. With the improved engine, named the MARK I, the FPSE/HP has achieved its two critical milestones of producing 3.0 refrigeration tons (RT) at the 35/sup 0/C (95/sup 0/F) ambient temperature conditions and an engine efficiency of 25%, as measured from the fuel input energy, based on the higher heating value of the natural gas and mechanical power developed by the engine. This paper describes the latest configuration of the FPSE/HP module and presents measured performance data. Performance has been measured over a broad range of ambient temperature conditions and engine operating parameters. The results obtained from this testing are presented.

  2. Further developments in the design of a free-piston Stirling engine heat pump for residential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, R.A.; Clinch, J.M.; Privon, G.

    1987-06-01

    During the past year (1986/1987), the development of an improved Stirling engine driver for the Free-Piston Stirling Engine Heat Pump (FPSE/HP) has led to a significant increase in heat pump performance. With the improved engine, the MARK I, the FPSE/HP has achieved its two critical milestones of producing 3.0 refrigeration tons (RT) at the 95 F (35/sup 0/C) ambient temperature conditions and an engine efficiency of 25%, as measured from the fuel input energy, based on the higher heating value of the natural gas and mechanical power developed by the engine. This paper describes the latest configuration of the FPSE/HP module and presents measured performance data. Performance has been measured over a broad range of ambient temperature conditions and engine operating parameters. The results obtained from this testing are presented.

  3. Residential and commercial space heating and cooling with possible greenhouse operation: Baca Grande development, San Luis Valley, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goering, S. W.; Garing, K. L.; Coury, G. E.; Fritzler, E. A.

    1980-05-01

    A feasibility study was performed to evaluate the potential of multipurpose applications of moderate temperature geothermal waters in the vicinity of the Baca Grande community development in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Engineering designs were developed for geothermal district heating systems for space heating and domestic hot water heating for residences, including a mobile home park, an existing motel, a greenhouse complex, and other small commercial uses such as aquaculture. In addition, a thorough institutional analysis of the study area was performed to highlight factors which might pose barriers to the ultimate commercial development of the resource. Finally, an environmental evaluation of the possible impacts of the proposed action was also performed. The institutional and environmental analyses indicate that no significant barriers to development are apparent.

  4. Sustainable Retrofit of Residential Roofs Using Metal Roofing Panels, Thin-Film Photovoltaic Laminates, and PCM Heat Sink Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Jan; Miller, William A; Childs, Phillip W; Biswas, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    During September-October 2009, research teams representing Metal Construction Association (the largest North American trade association representing metal building manufacturers, builders, and material suppliers), CertainTeed (one of the largest U.S. manufacturers of thermal insulation and building envelope materials), Unisolar (largest U.S. producer of amorphous silicone photo-voltaic (PV) laminates), Phase Change Energy (manufacturer of bio-based PCM), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) installed three experimental attics utilizing different roof retrofit strategies in the ORNL campus. The main goal of this project was experimental evaluation of a newly-developed sustainable re-roofing technology utilizing amorphous silicone PV laminates integrated with metal roof and PCM heat sink. The experimental attic with PV laminate was expected to work during the winter time as a passive solar collector with PCM storing solar heat, absorbed during the day, and increasing overall attic air temperature during the night.

  5. Energy and economic analysis of total energy systems for residential and commercial buildings. [utilizing waste heat recovery techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, W. L.; Bollenbacher, G.

    1974-01-01

    Energy and economic analyses were performed for an on-site power-plant with waste heat recovery. The results show that for any specific application there is a characteristic power conversion efficiency that minimizes fuel consumption, and that efficiencies greater than this do not significantly improve fuel consumption. This type of powerplant appears to be a reasonably attractive investment if higher fuel costs continue.

  6. Non-Space Heating Electrical Consumption in Manufactured Homes: Residential Construction Demonstration Project Cycle II : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Onisko, Stephen A.; Roos, Carolyn; Baylon, David

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes submeter data of the non-space heating electrical energy use in a sample of manufactured homes. These homes were built to Super Good Cents insulation standards in 1988 and 1989 under the auspices of RCDP Cycle 2 of the Bonneville Power Administration. They were designed to incorporate innovations in insulation and manufacturing techniques developed to encourage energy conservation in this important housing type. Domestic water heating (DWH) and other non-space heat energy consumption, however, were not generally affected by RCDP specifications. The purpose of this study is to establish a baseline for energy conservation in these areas and to present a method for estimating total energy saving benefits associated with these end uses. The information used in this summary was drawn from occupant-read submeters and manufacturersupplied specifications of building shell components, appliances and water heaters. Information was also drawn from a field review of ventilation systems and building characteristics. The occupant survey included a census of appliances and occupant behavior in these manufactured homes. A total of 150 manufactured homes were built under this program by eight manufacturers. An additional 35 homes were recruited as a control group. Of the original 185 houses, approximately 150 had some usable submeter data for domestic hot water and 126 had usable submeter data for all other nonheating consumption. These samples were used as the basis for all consumption analysis. The energy use characteristics of these manufactured homes were compared with that of a similar sample of RCDP site-built homes. In general, the manufactured homes were somewhat smaller and had fewer occupants than the site-built homes. The degree to which seasonal variations were present in non-space heat uses was reviewed.

  7. System design and performance prediction of a free-piston Stirling engine/magnetic coupling/compressor assembly in a gas residential heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Beale, W. T.

    Based on the previous evaluation of a magnetic coupling and the described system-design targets, a gas fired free piston Stirling engine/magnetic coupling/compressor (FPSE/MC/C) assembly as a power module for a residential heat pump application was designed and analyzed. A porous combustor/FPSE/magnetic coupling/variable gas control spring/reciprocating compressor assembly was the design selected. Based on the system characteristics, design efforts are described on the following issues: (1) design of a combustor allowing low pressure of natural gas supply; (2) the means to achieve engine power-load matching; (3) the method to maintain the assembly as a resonant system tuning over a wide range of operating conditions; (4) the design of an engine/coupling structure to minimize the magnet mass without sacrificing its mechanical properties; and (5) compressor load capacity modulation. The system analysis and the system performance, which is analytically predicted and described, indicate all the system design goals can be met leading to a strong recommendation for further development.

  8. Building America Case Study: Evaluation of Residential Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems, Illinois and New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented Emerging Technology Programs. With support from PARR, NYSERDA and other partners, the project documented system performance and installations in Chicago and New York. Combi systems were found to save nearly 200 therms in cold climates at efficiencies between about 80% and 94%. Combi systems using third-party air handler units specially designed for condensing combi system operation performed better than the packaged integrated combi systems available for the project. Moreover, combi systems tended to perform poorly when the tankless water heaters operating at high turn-down ratios. Field tests for this study exposed installation deficiencies due to contractor unfamiliarity with the products and the complexity of field engineering and system tweaking to achieve high efficiencies. Widespread contractor education must be a key component to market expansion of combi systems. Installed costs for combi systems need to come down about 5% to 10% to satisfy total resource calculations for utility-administered energy efficiency programs. Greater sales volumes and contractor familiarity can drive costs down. More research is needed to determine how well heating systems such as traditional furnace/water heater, combis, and heat pumps compare in similar as-installed scenarios, but under controlled conditions.

  9. Effects of Heating Season on Residential Indoor and Outdoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Black Carbon, and Particulate Matter in an Urban Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyung Hwa; Patel, Molini M.; Moors, Kathleen; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Garfinkel, Robin; Yan, Beizhan; Ross, James; Camann, David; Perera, Frederica P.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to air pollutants has been associated with adverse health effects. However, analyses of the effects of season and ambient parameters such as ozone have not been fully conducted. Residential indoor and outdoor air levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), black carbon (measured as absorption coefficient [Abs]), and fine particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM)2.5 were measured over two-weeks in a cohort of 5–6 year old children (n=334) living in New York City’s Northern Manhattan and the Bronx between October 2005 and April 2010. The objectives were to: 1) characterize seasonal changes in indoor and outdoor levels and indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of PAH (gas + particulate phase; dichotomized into Σ8PAHsemivolatile (MW 178–206), and Σ8PAHnonvolatile (MW 228–278)), Abs, and PM2.5; and 2) assess the relationship between PAH and ozone. Results showed that heating compared to nonheating season was associated with greater Σ8PAHnonvolatile (p<0.001) and Abs (p<0.05), and lower levels of Σ8PAHsemivolatile (p<0.001). In addition, the heating season was associated with lower I/O ratios of Σ8PAHnonvolatile and higher I/O ratios of Σ8PAHsemivolatile (p<0.001) compared to the nonheating season. In outdoor air, Σ8PAHnonvolatile was correlated negatively with community-wide ozone concentration (p<0.001). Seasonal changes in emission sources, air exchanges, meteorological conditions and photochemical/chemical degradation reactions are discussed in relationship to the observed seasonal trends. PMID:20938487

  10. Effects of heating season on residential indoor and outdoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon, and particulate matter in an urban birth cohort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyung Hwa; Patel, Molini M.; Moors, Kathleen; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Garfinkel, Robin; Yan, Beizhan; Ross, James; Camann, David; Perera, Frederica P.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2010-11-01

    Exposure to air pollutants has been associated with adverse health effects. However, analyses of the effects of season and ambient parameters such as ozone have not been fully conducted. Residential indoor and outdoor air levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), black carbon (measured as absorption coefficient [Abs]), and fine particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM) 2.5 were measured over two-weeks in a cohort of 5-6 year old children ( n = 334) living in New York City's Northern Manhattan and the Bronx between October 2005 and April 2010. The objectives were to: 1) characterize seasonal changes in indoor and outdoor levels and indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of PAH (gas + particulate phase; dichotomized into ∑ 8PAH semivolatile (MW 178-206), and ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile (MW 228-278)), Abs, and PM 2.5; and 2) assess the relationship between PAH and ozone. Results showed that heating compared to nonheating season was associated with greater ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile ( p < 0.001) and Abs ( p < 0.05), and lower levels of ∑ 8PAH semivolatile ( p < 0.001). In addition, the heating season was associated with lower I/O ratios of ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile and higher I/O ratios of ∑ 8PAH semivolatile ( p < 0.001) compared to the nonheating season. In outdoor air, ∑ 8PAH nonvolatile was correlated negatively with community-wide ozone concentration ( p < 0.001). Seasonal changes in emission sources, air exchanges, meteorological conditions and photochemical/chemical degradation reactions are discussed in relationship to the observed seasonal trends.

  11. Field monitoring and evaluation of a residential gas-engine-driven heat pump: Volume 1, Cooling season

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    The Federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States; consumption approaches 1.5 quads/year of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} Btu) at a cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)is one of four DOE national multiprogram laboratories that participate in the NTDP by providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied and evaluated under that program. This two-volume report describes a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology -- a gas-engine-driven heat pump. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Sam Houston, a US Army base in San Antonio, Texas, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were York International, the heat pump manufacturer, Gas Research Institute (GRI), the technology developer; City Public Service of San Antonio, the local utility; American Gas Cooling Center (AGCC); Fort Sam Houston; and PNL.

  12. SKELETAL DEVELOPMENT FOLLOWING HEAT EXPOSURE IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of gestation day (GD) 10 heat exposure in the rat were studied to determine the temperature-response relationship for the induction of skeletal and other defects. onscious pregnant rats were exposed to various temperatures in a warm air chamber. hose animals whose cor...

  13. Residential Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark

    The second in a series of three curriculum packages on wiring, these materials for a five-unit course were developed to prepare postsecondary students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. The five units are: (1) blueprint reading and load calculations; (2) rough-in; (3) service; (4) trim out and troubleshooting; and (5) load…

  14. Residential Plumbing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Leney

    This twenty-nine-unit residential plumbing curriculum contains teacher and student materlals based on the Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS) Plumbing Catalog of Performance Objectives, Performance Guides, and Tool and Equipment Lists. An introduction contains a V-TECS task listing showing the relationship between the…

  15. Heating and Ventilating III, 11-4. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Engineer School, Fort Belvoir, VA.

    This third course in a four-course series on heating and ventilating for the secondary/postsecondary level is one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The three lessons in the course cover these topics: (1) Warm-Air Heating, (2)…

  16. ANALYSIS OF RESIDENTIAL COAL STOVE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation, in cooperation with the State of Vermont's Agency of Environmental Conservation, of emissions generated by anthracite and bituminous coal used for residential heating. A residential coal stove was operated with both coals, while comparin...

  17. Photovoltaic Residential Applications Program Implementation Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Two major aspects of the workshop are presented: (1) presentations on the Photovoltaic program and the National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration program, and (2) discussions on the issues pertinent to the Residential Application program.

  18. REACH. Residential Electrical Wiring Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansley, Jimmy; Ennis, Mike

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of residential electrical wiring. The instructional units focus on grounded outlets, service entrance, and blueprint reading. Each unit follows a typical format…

  19. Heat Pipe Precools and Reheats Dehumidified Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koning, R. C.; Boggs, W. H.; Barnett, U. R.; Dinh, K.

    1986-01-01

    Precooling and reheating by heat pipe reduces operating costs of air-conditioning. Warm air returned from air-conditioned space and cooled air supplied are precooled and reheated, respectively, by each other through a heat pipe. Heat-pipe technology brought to bear on problem of conserving airconditioning energy in hot, humid environments. Any increase in the cost of equipment due to installation of heat-pipe heat exchangers expected to be recovered in energy savings during service period of 2 years or less.

  20. Evaluation of the District of Columbia Energy Office Residential Conservation Assistance Program for Natural Gas-Heated Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    McCold, Lance Neil; Schmoyer, Richard L

    2007-03-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), with assistance from the District of Columbia Energy Office (DCEO) performed an evaluation of part of the DCEO Residential Conservation Assistance Program (RCAP). The primary objective of the evaluation was to evaluate the effectiveness of the DCEO weatherization program. Because Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) funds are used primarily for weatherization of single-family homes and because evaluating the performance of multi-family residences would be more complex than the project budget would support, ORNL and DCEO focused the study on gas-heated single-family homes. DCEO provided treatment information and arranged for the gas utility to provide billing data for 100 treatment houses and 434 control houses. The Princeton Scorkeeping Method (PRISM) software package was used to normalize energy use for standard weather conditions. The houses of the initial treatment group of 100 houses received over 450 measures costing a little over $180,000, including labor and materials. The average cost per house was $1,811 and the median cost per house was $1,674. Window replacement was the most common measure and accounted for about 35% of total expenditures. Ceiling and floor insulation was installed in 61 houses and accounts for almost 22% of the expenditures. Twenty-seven houses received replacement doors at an average cost of $620 per house. Eight houses received furnace or boiler replacements at an average cost of about $3,000 per house. The control-adjusted average measured savings are about 20 therms/year. The 95% confidence interval is approximately +20 to +60 therms/year. The average pre-weatherization energy consumption of the houses was about 1,100 therm/year. Consequently, the adjusted average savings is approximately 2% ({+-}4%)-not significantly different than zero. Most RCAP expenditures appear to go to repairs. While some repairs may have energy benefits, measures

  1. Residential fuel quality

    SciTech Connect

    Santa, T.

    1997-09-01

    This report details progress made in improving the performance of No. 2 heating oil in residential applications. Previous research in this area is documented in papers published in the Brookhaven Oil Heat Technology Conference Proceedings in 1993, 1994 and 1996. By way of review we have investigated a number of variables in the search for improved fuel system performance. These include the effect of various additives designed to address stability, dispersion, biotics, corrosion and reaction with metals. We have also investigated delivery methods, filtration, piping arrangements and the influence of storage tank size and location. As a result of this work Santa Fuel Inc. in conjunction with Mobile Oil Corporation have identified an additive package which shows strong evidence of dramatically reducing the occurrence of fuel system failures in residential oil burners. In a broad market roll-out of the additized product we have experienced a 29% reduction in fuel related service calls when comparing the 5 months ending January 1997 to the same period ending January 1996.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Heating and Cooling Systems in Minnesota A comprehensive analysis on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cost-effectiveness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems compared to the conventional gas furnace and air conditioner system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mo

    Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) technologies for residential heating and cooling are often suggested as an effective means to curb energy consumption, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and lower homeowners' heating and cooling costs. As such, numerous federal, state and utility-based incentives, most often in the forms of financial incentives, installation rebates, and loan programs, have been made available for these technologies. While GSHP technology for space heating and cooling is well understood, with widespread implementation across the U.S., research specific to the environmental and economic performance of these systems in cold climates, such as Minnesota, is limited. In this study, a comparative environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted of typical residential HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems in Minnesota to investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for delivering 20 years of residential heating and cooling—maintaining indoor temperatures of 68°F (20°C) and 75°F (24°C) in Minnesota-specific heating and cooling seasons, respectively. Eight residential GSHP design scenarios (i.e. horizontal loop field, vertical loop field, high coefficient of performance, low coefficient of performance, hybrid natural gas heat back-up) and one conventional natural gas furnace and air conditioner system are assessed for GHG and life cycle economic costs. Life cycle GHG emissions were found to range between 1.09 × 105 kg CO2 eq. and 1.86 × 10 5 kg CO2 eq. Six of the eight GSHP technology scenarios had fewer carbon impacts than the conventional system. Only in cases of horizontal low-efficiency GSHP and hybrid, do results suggest increased GHGs. Life cycle costs and present value analyses suggest GSHP technologies can be cost competitive over their 20-year life, but that policy incentives may be required to reduce the high up-front capital costs of GSHPs and relatively long payback periods of more than 20 years. In addition

  3. Residential GSHPs: Efficiency With Short Payback Periods

    SciTech Connect

    Cooperman, Alissa; Dieckmann, John; Brodrick, James

    2012-04-30

    This article discusses ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for residential application as an alternative to conventional HVAC systems. A listing of current space heating energy sources are presented which are then followed by a technology overview as advances have made GSHPs more efficient. The article concludes with potential energy savings offered by GSHPs and a brief market overview.

  4. Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, W.S.; Loef, G.O.G.

    1981-03-01

    Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season was based on the use of systems comprising an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a non-freezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built-up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off-peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. Automatic system control and automatic data acquisition and computation are provided. This system is compared with others evaluated in CSU Solar Houses I, II and III, and with computer predictions based on mathematical models. Of the 69,513 MJ total energy requirement for space heating and hot water during a record cold winter, solar provided 33,281 MJ equivalent to 48 percent. Thirty percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 29 percent was delivered and used for heating and hot water. Of 33,320 MJ required for cooling and hot water during the summer, 79 percent or 26,202 MJ were supplied by solar. Thirty-five percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 26 percent was used for hot water and cooling in the summer. Although not as efficient as the Corning evacuated tube collector previously used, the Philips experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well-insulated heat storage tank. Day time (on-peak) electric auxiliary heating was completely avoided by use of off-peak electric heat storage. A well-designed and operated solar heating and cooling system provided 56 percent of the total energy requirements for heating, cooling, and hot water.

  5. Leasing Residential PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rutberg, Michael; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The article discusses the adoption, consequences and current market status of the leasing of residential photovoltaic systems. It addresses attributed energy savings and market potential of residential system leasing.

  6. Comparison of residential air-to-air heat pump and air-conditioner/gas furnace systems in 16 California climatic zones

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, J.M.; Lau, H.

    1987-06-01

    Heat pumps with coefficients of performance ranging from 2.5 to 3.1 and gas furnaces with thermal efficiencies of 75% to 90% are analyzed through DOE-2 computer simulations and life-cycle cost analyses. The annual heating performances and the life-cycle costs of air-to-air heat pump and air-conditioner/gas furnace systems operating in single-family detached residences located in 16 climatic zones defined by the California Energy Commission are compared. With standard performance equipment, heat pumps cost more in all zones except for China Lake and Sacramento, but with high performance equipment, heat pumps cost less in all zones except for Fresno and Mt. Shasta.

  7. Prototype residential solar-energy system-design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Compilation includes documents and drawings for complete solar-heating system. It discussed system installed in residential building at Veterns' Administration Hospital in Togus, Maine. System can be adapted to other buildings without changing design.

  8. Comparison of energy consumption and demand of earth-coupled heat pumps and electric resistance heaters in a residential multifamily application. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzuto, J.E.

    1992-12-01

    CES WAY, in cooperation with the management of Regency Park Apartments, initiated a program to explore the potential energy and demand savings associated with converting apartment buildings from electric resistance heating to earth-coupled heat pumps at Regency Park, a 550-unit apartment complex in Guilderland, NY, serviced by Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation. The demonstration involved monitoring and comparing electrical consumption (kWh) and demand (kW) in three apartments in three buildings. ECHPs were installed in the three apartments in one building. The six apartments in the other two buildings retained the original electric resistance heating and central air conditioning systems. CES WAY and Regency Park asked the Energy Authority to do the evaluation.

  9. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, David; Fulkerson, Dan, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains 18 units of instruction for a competency-based course in residential and light commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Introductory materials include a competency profile and an instructional/task analysis that correlates job training with related information for this course. Each instructional…

  10. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Dehumidifiers (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    Six residential vapor compression cycle dehumidifiers spanning the available range of capacities and efficiencies were tested in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems Laboratory. Each was tested under a wide range of indoor air conditions to facilitate the development of performance curves for use in whole-building simulation tools.

  11. Advanced heat-pipe heat exchanger and microprocessor-based modulating burner controls development. Final report, January 1985-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, A.; Cohen, B.; Feldman, S.; Marsala, J.; Spatz, M.

    1988-02-01

    The work presented in the report includes: (1) the development of a heat-pipe condensing heat exchanger; (2) the development of a nominal 100,000-Btu/hr modulating air/gas valve; (3) the experimental performance studies of water/copper thermosyphons; (4) the field operation of a six-zone warm-air heating system; (5) the adaptation of a conventional venturi-type burner to modulation; and (6) the results of a one-day workshop for manufacturers of HVAC equipment on heat-pipe heat exchangers. Several of the accomplishments of the project included: A unique air/gas valve was adapted to furnaces with heat-pipe and drum-type heat exchangers, providing these furnaces with over a 5-to-1 turndown capability. A six-zone warm-air heating system was tested for two winters with the modulating furnaces previously described. A data base for the application of copper/water thermosyphons was started. A ten-tube heat-pipe heat exchanger was incorporated into a conventional clam-shell furnace as its second-stage condensing heat exchanger with only a small increase in the furnace's dimensions.

  12. Exergy Analysis of a Two-Stage Ground Source Heat Pump with a Vertical Bore for Residential Space Conditioning under Simulated Occupancy

    SciTech Connect

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Baxter, Van D.; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2015-06-26

    This twelve-month field study analyzes the performance of a 7.56W (2.16- ton) water-to-air-ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) to satisfy domestic space conditioning loads in a 253 m2 house in a mixed-humid climate in the United States. The practical feasibility of using the ground as a source of renewable energy is clearly demonstrated. Better than 75% of the energy needed for space heating was extracted from the ground. The average monthly electricity consumption for space conditioning was only 40 kWh at summer and winter thermostat set points of 24.4°C and 21.7°C, respectively. The WA-GSHP shared the same 94.5 m vertical bore ground loop with a separate water-to-water ground-source heat pump (WW-GSHP) for meeting domestic hot water needs in the same house. Sources of systemic irreversibility, the main cause of lost work are identified using Exergy and energy analysis. Quantifying the sources of Exergy and energy losses is essential for further systemic improvements. The research findings suggest that the WA-GSHPs are a practical and viable technology to reduce primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 targets of using renewable energy resources.

  13. Exergy Analysis of a Two-Stage Ground Source Heat Pump with a Vertical Bore for Residential Space Conditioning under Simulated Occupancy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Baxter, Van D.; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2015-06-26

    This twelve-month field study analyzes the performance of a 7.56W (2.16- ton) water-to-air-ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) to satisfy domestic space conditioning loads in a 253 m2 house in a mixed-humid climate in the United States. The practical feasibility of using the ground as a source of renewable energy is clearly demonstrated. Better than 75% of the energy needed for space heating was extracted from the ground. The average monthly electricity consumption for space conditioning was only 40 kWh at summer and winter thermostat set points of 24.4°C and 21.7°C, respectively. The WA-GSHP shared the same 94.5 m vertical boremore » ground loop with a separate water-to-water ground-source heat pump (WW-GSHP) for meeting domestic hot water needs in the same house. Sources of systemic irreversibility, the main cause of lost work are identified using Exergy and energy analysis. Quantifying the sources of Exergy and energy losses is essential for further systemic improvements. The research findings suggest that the WA-GSHPs are a practical and viable technology to reduce primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 targets of using renewable energy resources.« less

  14. Residential Workers' Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, Alan, Ed.

    The packet of information is intended to help residential workers with disturbed children in the United Kingdom. The first section on theory contains two papers: "Which Children Come Into Residential Care?" (Robin Benians); and "Models of Treatment: Behavioral, Psychodynamic, Cognitive" (Daphne Lennox). The next section contains practical guidance…

  15. The 1986 residential occupant survey

    SciTech Connect

    Ivey, D.L.; Alley, P.K.

    1987-04-01

    In 1986, Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed the Residential Occupant Survey-Spring '86, which was implemented. The overall purpose of the study was to collect demographic, attitudinal, and behavioral data related to the use and conservation of electricity in dwellings participating in the Bonneville Power Administration's End-Use Load and Conservation Assessment Program (ELCAP). Information was collected on the respondents' perceptions of the energy efficiency of their dwelling, temperature the dwelling was kept when people were at home and awake during the last heating season, which rooms, if any, were not heated during the last heating season, number of times the dwelling was unoccupied for at least one week, number of times pets were let out of the dwelling per day, attitudes toward energy use and conservation and several socio-demographic variables such as age, sex, and total household income. The results of the data analyses showed age to be an important factor for reported indoor temperature and perceived energy efficiency of the dwelling. The results also showed that almost 60% of the ELCAP occupants do not heat one or more rooms during the heating season, and almost 45% of the ELCAP dwellings were unoccupied for at least one week during the reporting period. In terms of the reported allocation of household income for household energy expenses, the results showed that the reported dollar amount spent for the expenses remained relatively constant over income levels.

  16. Maintenance requirements in solar air heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lof, G.O.G.; Junk, J.P.

    1983-06-01

    The maintenance requirements of a well designed and constructed solar air-heating system are comparable to those of conventional, forced warm air heating systems. One of the major reasons for this low maintenance is the absence of problems associated with corrosion, freezing, boiling, and leakage often encountered in solar liquid systems. Experience shows that most problems are due to overly complex designs, control problems, faulty installation, and adjustment of the moving parts in the system. Operational histories show negligible requirements for maintenance of air collectors, pebble-bed heat-storage bins, and system ducts and connections. Good quality control in the manufacture and installation of airtight collectors, heat-storage bins, and interconnecting ductwork is essential, however. The paper includes a description of solar air-heating systems and their characteristics, an evaluation of the various maintenance requirements, and several case histories illustrating the handling of solar air system maintenance.

  17. TES for Residential Settings

    SciTech Connect

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-07-31

    The article discusses thermal energy storage approaches for residential buildings. This article addresses both brick bank storage and phase change material technologies. The energy savings and market potential of these thermal energy storage methods are reviewed as well.

  18. Residential photovoltaic system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    A project to develop Residential Photovoltaic Systems has begun at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory with the construction and testing of five Prototype Systems. All of these systems utilize a roof-mounted photovoltaic array and allow excess solar-generated electric energy to be fed back to the local utility grid, eliminating the need for on-site storage. Residential photovoltaic system design issues are discussed and specific features of the five Prototype Systems now under test are presented.

  19. Estimated United States Residential Energy Use in 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C A; Johnson, D M; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-12-12

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the residential sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 11,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of electricity and fuels were used throughout the United States residential sector in lighting, electronics, air conditioning, space heating, water heating, washing appliances, cooking appliances, refrigerators, and other appliances. The residential sector is powered mainly by electricity and natural gas. Other fuels used include petroleum products (fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas and kerosene), biomass (wood), and on-premises solar, wind, and geothermal energy. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the residential sector.

  20. MICRO-CHP System for Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Gerstmann

    2009-01-31

    This is the final report of progress under Phase I of a project to develop and commercialize a micro-CHP system for residential applications that provides electrical power, heating, and cooling for the home. This is the first phase of a three-phase effort in which the residential micro-CHP system will be designed (Phase I), developed and tested in the laboratory (Phase II); and further developed and field tested (Phase III). The project team consists of Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. (AMTI), responsible for system design and integration; Marathon Engine Systems, Inc. (MES), responsible for design of the engine-generator subsystem; AO Smith, responsible for design of the thermal storage and water heating subsystems; Trane, a business of American Standard Companies, responsible for design of the HVAC subsystem; and AirXchange, Inc., responsible for design of the mechanical ventilation and dehumidification subsystem.

  1. Field Monitoring Protocol: Mini-Split Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.; Fang, X.; Tomerlin, J.; Winkler, J.; Hancock, E.

    2011-03-01

    The report provides a detailed method for accurately measuring and monitoring performance of a residential Mini-Split Heat Pump. It will be used in high-performance retrofit applications, and as part of DOE's Building America residential research program.

  2. Residential energy use and conservation in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.

    1982-03-01

    A portrait is presented of residential energy use in the United States disaggregated by fuel and end-use for the period March 1978 to April 1979. The results are based on analysis of the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey, a major national survey of residential energy use. It is estimated that space heating accounted for 63% of total residential energy use, water heating 15%, cooking 5%, and other electric appliances 16%. It is also shown that, after accounting for climate and dwelling size, the average oil-heated dwelling uses 1.24 times as much energy for space heating as the average gas-heated dwelling and 2.91 times as much as the average electrically-heated dwelling, and the average gas-heated dwelling uses 2.34 times as much as the average electrically-heated dwelling. These differences are attributable to relative heating system efficiencies, differences in weatherization levels, and other factors. An assessment is made of the extent of energy conservation that occurred between 1970 and the period studied. The indicator for which the most reliable data are available, gas space heating per degree-day, showed a drop of 16.4%.

  3. Indiana Residential Child Care Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ann L.; Johnson, Marilee

    To compose a comprehensive description of the residential child care needs in Indiana, county agencies, county welfare departments, and probation departments were surveyed. Respondents were asked to identify the characteristics of children placed in Indiana residential facilities, in out-of-state residential care, and of those whom the agency was…

  4. Evaluating Residential Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millham, Spencer

    Drawing on the research experience of the Dartington Social Research Unit, this paper discusses methods and perspectives used in evaluating English residential institutions for children. Work of the Dartington Social Research Unit has involved evaluating aspects of a wide range of institutions, from elite boarding schools to children's homes and…

  5. Residential Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. Included in the guide are six instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using the unit components; academic and workplace skills classifications and…

  6. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    SciTech Connect

    German, a.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  7. GREEN RETROFITTING RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When compared with the rest of the world, the United States consumes a disproportionately large amount of energy and is a major source of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion. As much as two thirds of U.S. electricity production is consumed by residential and commerci...

  8. Residential Solar Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Dan

    This publication contains student and teacher instructional materials for a course in residential solar systems. The text is designed either as a basic solar course or as a supplement to extend student skills in areas such as architectural drafting, air conditioning and refrigeration, and plumbing. The materials are presented in four units…

  9. RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated the effectiveness, first costs and operational costs of various types of residential ventilation systems in three different climates in the U.S. The Agency, through its Energy Star Program, recommends that builders construct homes that are energy efficient ...

  10. Nonmetropolitan Residential Segregation Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Steve H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of 1980 and 1990 Censuses of Population and Housing for Texas found overall black-white and Anglo-Hispanic residential segregation declined substantially. Nonmetropolitan counties were more segregated than metropolitan counties in both years, but growing nonmetro places showed the greatest segregation declines. Analyses controlling for…

  11. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF RESIDENTIAL ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS THAT USE FUEL CELLS (TECHNICAL REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a comparison of residential energy supply systems using fuel cells. Twelve energy systems, able to provide residential heating and cooling using technologies projected to be available toward the end of this century, were designed conceptually. Only a f...

  12. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF RESIDENTIAL ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS THAT USE FUEL CELLS (EXECUTIVE SUMMARY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a comparison of residential energy supply systems using fuel cells. Twelve energy systems, able to provide residential heating and cooling using technologies projected to be available toward the end of this century, were designed conceptually. Only a f...

  13. Simplified Floor-Area-Based Energy-Moisture-Economic Model for Residential Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Luis A.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, 21% of all energy is used in residential buildings (40% of which is for heating and cooling homes). Promising improvements in residential building energy efficiency are underway such as the Building America Program and the Passive House Concept. The ability of improving energy efficiency in buildings is enhanced by building…

  14. The impact of residential combustion emissions on atmospheric aerosol, human health and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butt, E. W.; Rap, A.; Schmidt, A.; Scott, C. E.; Pringle, K. J.; Reddington, C. L.; Richards, N. A. D.; Woodhouse, M. T.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Yang, H.; Vakkari, V.; Stone, E. A.; Rupakheti, M.; Praveen, P. S.; van Zyl, P. G.; Beukes, J. P.; Josipovic, M.; Mitchell, E. J. S.; Sallu, S. M.; Forster, P. M.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2015-07-01

    Combustion of fuels in the residential sector for cooking and heating, results in the emission of aerosol and aerosol precursors impacting air quality, human health and climate. Residential emissions are dominated by the combustion of solid fuels. We use a global aerosol microphysics model to simulate the uncertainties in the impact of residential fuel combustion on atmospheric aerosol. The model underestimates black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations observed over Asia, Eastern Europe and Africa, with better prediction when carbonaceous emissions from the residential sector are doubled. Observed seasonal variability of BC and OC concentrations are better simulated when residential emissions include a seasonal cycle. The largest contributions of residential emissions to annual surface mean particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations are simulated for East Asia, South Asia and Eastern Europe. We use a concentration response function to estimate the health impact due to long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 from residential emissions. We estimate global annual excess adult (> 30 years of age) premature mortality of 308 000 (113 300-497 000, 5th to 95th percentile uncertainty range) for monthly varying residential emissions and 517 000 (192 000-827 000) when residential carbonaceous emissions are doubled. Mortality due to residential emissions is greatest in Asia, with China and India accounting for 50 % of simulated global excess mortality. Using an offline radiative transfer model we estimate that residential emissions exert a global annual mean direct radiative effect of between -66 and +21 mW m-2, with sensitivity to the residential emission flux and the assumed ratio of BC, OC and SO2 emissions. Residential emissions exert a global annual mean first aerosol indirect effect of between -52 and -16 mW m-2, which is sensitive to the assumed size distribution of carbonaceous emissions. Overall, our results demonstrate that reducing residential

  15. An inexpensive economical solar heating system for homes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, J. W.; Shinn, J. M., Jr.; Kirby, C. E.; Barringer, S. R.

    1976-01-01

    A low-cost solar home heating system to supplement existing warm-air heating systems is described. The report is written in three parts: (1) a brief background on solar heating, (2) experience with a demonstration system, and (3) information for the homeowner who wishes to construct such a system. Instructions are given for a solar heating installation in which the homeowner supplies all labor necessary to install off-the-shelf components estimated to cost $2,000. These components, which include solar collector, heat exchanger, water pump, storage tank, piping, and controls to make the system completely automatic, are available at local lumber yards, hardware stores, and plumbing supply stores, and are relatively simple to install. Manufacturers and prices of each component used and a rough cost analysis based on these prices are included. This report also gives performance data obtained from a demonstration system which was built and tested at the Langley Research Center.

  16. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  17. Detailed residential electric determination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    Data on residential loads has been collected from four residences in real time. The data, measured at 5-second intervals for 53 days of continuous operation, were statistically characterized. An algorithm was developed and incorporated into the modeling code SOLCEL. Performance simulations with SOLCEL using these data as well as previous data collected over longer time intervals indicate that no significant errors in system value are introduced through the use of long-term average data.

  18. RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY REVIEW - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories--cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry heat...

  19. Utilization management for residential programs.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Sean A; Styron, Thomas H; Carlson, Shelly; Hoge, Michael

    2004-07-01

    This paper reviews recent literature on utilization management (UM) in community-based supportive residential programs for people with behavioral disorders. Various approaches for facilitating placement and movement are discussed in the context of an effort to develop a residential UM process in New Haven, Connecticut. Recommendations are made for a residential UM process that may be applied to a range of service systems. It takes into account the methodological difficulties inherent in the development of generalizable decision tools. PMID:15478874

  20. Re-thinking residential mobility

    PubMed Central

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  1. Solar assisted heat pump on air collectors: A simulation tool

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiorgas, Michalis; Galatis, Kostas; Tsagouri, Manolis; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Botzios-Valaskakis, Aristotelis

    2010-01-15

    The heating system of the bioclimatic building of the Greek National Centre for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) comprises two heating plants: the first one includes an air source heat pump, Solar Air Collectors (SACs) and a heat distribution system (comprising a fan coil unit network); the second one is, mainly, a geothermal heat pump unit to cover the ground floor thermal needs. The SAC configuration as well as the fraction of the building heating load covered by the heating plant are assessed in two operation modes; the direct (hot air from the collectors is supplied directly to the heated space) and the indirect mode (warm air from the SAC or its mixture with ambient air is not supplied directly to the heated space but indirectly into the evaporator of the air source heat pump). The technique of the indirect mode of heating aims at maximizing the efficiency of the SAC, saving electrical power consumed by the compressor of the heat pump, and therefore, at optimizing the coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump due to the increased intake of ambient thermal energy by means of the SAC. Results are given for three research objectives: assessment of the heat pump efficiency whether in direct or indirect heating mode; Assessment of the overall heating plant efficiency on a daily or hourly basis; Assessment of the credibility of the suggested simulation model TSAGAIR by comparing its results with the TRNSYS ones. (author)

  2. Do residential air-conditioning rebates miss the mark?

    SciTech Connect

    Stickney, B.; Shepard, M.

    1994-12-31

    The rebates utilities provide for residential central air conditioners and heat pumps to encourage improved cooling efficiency may inadvertently reward higher peak demand in many cases. This problem could be avoided by using both efficiency and peak performance to determine eligibility for rebates. Such changes to incentive formulas would better align the utilities` DSM programs with the dual goals of improved efficiency and peak demand reduction. Improved peak performance would be especially advantageous for sunbelt utilities whose residential cooling load is highly coincident with the summer peak. Air conditioning has been called the utilities` ``load from hell,`` because it is intermittent, unpredictable, and is the largest contributor to summer peak demand, requiring massive investments in power generation and delivery capacity. It is no wonder then that more DSM programs are targeted at space cooling than at any other end use. Ironically, however, all of the residential rebate programs the authors examined for central air conditioners and heat pumps are based on the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), which provides a valuable measure of seasonal energy efficiency but is not a good indicator of peak demand. Residential central air conditioning incentive programs for eight major utilities are based exclusively on SEER and most ratchet up the incentive levels with increasing SEER. None include the measure for peak demand for residential cooling equipment, which is the so-called energy efficiency ratio, or EER.

  3. 76 FR 18105 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Central Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... voltage transformer used when testing coil-only residential central air conditioners and heat pumps, 75 FR... heat pumps, as required by 42 U.S.C. 6295(gg)(2)(A). 75 FR 31238-39. These proposals included testing... (parameter P2). 75 FR 31238-39. P1 and P2 are both expressed in units of watts. Since heat pumps are...

  4. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  5. Energy and IAQ Implications of Residential Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, William; Walker, Iain

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates the energy, humidity and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of residential ventilation cooling in all U.S. IECC climate zones. A computer modeling approach was adopted, using an advanced residential building simulation tool with airflow, energy and humidity models. An economizer (large supply fan) was simulated to provide ventilation cooling while outdoor air temperatures were lower than indoor air temperatures (typically at night). The simulations were performed for a full year using one-minute time steps to allow for scheduling of ventilation systems and to account for interactions between ventilation and heating/cooling systems.

  6. Residential Segregation and School Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Steven G.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that school districts' efforts to integrate schools have failed to ameliorate the racial isolation of black students. Finds that schools remain segregated primarily because of continued residential segregation and that school integration efforts have had little long-term effect on residential segregation. (CFR)

  7. The Dimensions of Residential Segregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Douglas S.; Denton, Nancy A.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates 20 potential indicators of residential segregation using census data on Hispanics, Blacks, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites in 60 U.S. metropolitan areas. Factor-analyzes the results to select a single best indicator for each of five dimensions of residential segregation. Contains 69 references and 22 statistical formulas. (SV)

  8. Optimizing Hydronic System Performance in Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.; Faakye, O.

    2013-10-01

    Even though new homes constructed with hydronic heat comprise only 3% of the market (US Census Bureau 2009), of the 115 million existing homes in the United States, almost 14 million of those homes (11%) are heated with steam or hot water systems according to 2009 US Census data. Therefore, improvements in hydronic system performance could result in significant energy savings in the US. When operating properly, the combination of a gas-fired condensing boiler with baseboard convectors and an indirect water heater is a viable option for high-efficiency residential space heating in cold climates. Based on previous research efforts, however, it is apparent that these types of systems are typically not designed and installed to achieve maximum efficiency. Furthermore, guidance on proper design and commissioning for heating contractors and energy consultants is hard to find and is not comprehensive. Through modeling and monitoring, CARB sought to determine the optimal combination(s) of components - pumps, high efficiency heat sources, plumbing configurations and controls - that result in the highest overall efficiency for a hydronic system when baseboard convectors are used as the heat emitter. The impact of variable-speed pumps on energy use and system performance was also investigated along with the effects of various control strategies and the introduction of thermal mass.

  9. Residential fuel choice in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Harkreader, S.A.

    1989-02-01

    In 1983, the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) issued Model Conservation Standards (MCS) designed to improve the efficiency of electrically heated buildings. Since then, the standards have been adopted by numerous local governments and utilities. The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has played an active role in marketing residential energy efficiency improvements through the Super Good Cents Program (SGCP) and encouraging the adoption and implementation of the MCS as local codes through the Early Adopter Program (EAP). Since the inception of the MCS, however, questions have arisen about the effect of the code and programs on the selection of heating fuels for new homes. Recently, Bonneville has proposed a gradual reduction in the incentive levels under these two programs prior to 1995 based on several assumptions about the market for MCS homes: builder costs will decline as builders gain experience building them; buyers will seek out MCS homes as their appreciation for their lower energy costs and greater comfort increases; and the resale market will increasingly reflect the greater quality of MCS homes. The growing availability of data from several jurisdictions where the MCS have been implemented has recently made it possible to begin assessing the effect of the MCS programs on residential fuel choice and evaluating assumptions underlying the programs and Bonneville's plans to revise them. This study is the first such assessment conducted for Bonneville.

  10. Measured Performance of Residential Dehumidifiers Under Cyclic Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2014-01-01

    Residential construction practices are progressing toward higher levels of energy efficiency. A proven strategy to save energy is to simultaneously increase building insulation levels and reduce outdoor air infiltration. Overall, this strategy results in a shift in the mix of latent and sensible space conditioning loads, requiring proportionally more moisture to be removed compared to standard homes. In this project, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed steady state performance maps to predict dehumidifier performance at a variety of indoor conditions. However, installed heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment rarely operates at steady state. Part load performance testing of residential dehumidifiers is not mandated by current test standards. Therefore, the team tested the part load performance of four residential dehumidifiers in NREL’s Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory . The part load efficiency of each dehumidifier was measured under 13 cycling scenarios, and combined with NREL field data to develop part load fraction (PLF) performance curves under realistic cycling scenarios.