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1

[Residual cardiovascular risk markers].  

PubMed

The European definition of biomarker is presented; it is a measurable factor, which reflects a physiological or pathological process in human body. There are also mentioned transferred meanings of the term marker used in different fields of medicine. The importance, categorization and calculation of global cardiovascular (CV) risk are explained in patients in primary prevention of CV disease (SCORE risk chart). Residual CV risk persists in patients in primary or secondary prevention of CV diseases treated according to current guidelines, even if their risk factors (blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, glucose level) have achieved the recommended values. This residual risk was done by non-LDL dyslipidemia especially, so called atherogenic dyslipidemia (Residual Risk Reduction Initiative definition). Investigators of preventive EUROASPIRE studies assessed, that 5-year mortality from CV diseases was in a positive association with glucose level, smoking and total cholesterol. In our recent analysis, we have described among the Czech samples of EUROASPIRE studies I-IV, that BMI and prevalence of diabetes increase during the last 16 years very steeply. Patients with stable coronary heart diseases in combination with diabetes have had higher prevalence of residual risk markers (atherogenic dyslipidemia, atherogenic index of plasma described by M. Dobiasova and hypertriglyceridemic waist) than patients without diabetes. Except of prescription of statins, ACE inhibitors, antiaggregative or anticoagulative drugs was increasing, the residual CV risk was not changing during the followed period of 16 years. PMID:25600039

Rosolová, Hana; Nussbaumerová, Barbora

2014-11-01

2

Lipoprotein(a): A Promising Marker for Residual Cardiovascular Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are still the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, although optimal medical therapy has been prescribed for primary and secondary preventions. Residual cardiovascular risk for some population groups is still considerably high although target low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) level has been achieved. During the past few decades, compelling pieces of evidence from clinical trials and meta-analyses consistently illustrate that lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a significant risk factor for atherosclerosis and CVD due to its proatherogenic and prothrombotic features. However, the lack of effective medication for Lp(a) reduction significantly hampers randomized, prospective, and controlled trials conducting. Based on previous findings, for patients with LDL-C in normal range, Lp(a) may be a useful marker for identifying and evaluating the residual cardiovascular risk, and aggressively lowering LDL-C level than current guidelines' recommendation may be reasonable for patients with particularly high Lp(a) level. PMID:24249942

Cai, Anping; Li, Liwen; Zhang, Ying; Mo, Yujin; Mai, Weiyi; Zhou, Yingling

2013-01-01

3

Residual Antibiotics in Decontaminated Human Cardiovascular Tissues Intended for Transplantation and Risk of Falsely Negative Microbiological Analyses  

PubMed Central

We investigated the presence of antibiotics in cryopreserved cardiovascular tissues and cryopreservation media, after tissue decontamination with antibiotic cocktails, and the impact of antibiotic residues on standard tissue bank microbiological analyses. Sixteen cardiovascular tissues were decontaminated with bank-prepared cocktails and cryopreserved by two different tissue banks according to their standard operating procedures. Before and after decontamination, samples underwent microbiological analysis by standard tissue bank methods. Cryopreserved samples were tested again with and without the removal of antibiotic residues using a RESEP tube, after thawing. Presence of antibiotics in tissue homogenates and processing liquids was determined by a modified agar diffusion test. All cryopreserved tissue homogenates and cryopreservation media induced important inhibition zones on both Staphylococcus aureus- and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-seeded plates, immediately after thawing and at the end of the sterility test. The RESEP tube treatment markedly reduced or totally eliminated the antimicrobial activity of tested tissues and media. Based on standard tissue bank analysis, 50% of tissues were found positive for bacteria and/or fungi, before decontamination and 2 out of 16 tested samples (13%) still contained microorganisms after decontamination. After thawing, none of the 16 cryopreserved samples resulted positive with direct inoculum method. When the same samples were tested after removal of antibiotic residues, 8 out of 16 (50%) were contaminated. Antibiotic residues present in tissue allografts and processing liquids after decontamination may mask microbial contamination during microbiological analysis performed with standard tissue bank methods, thus resulting in false negatives. PMID:25397402

Gatto, Claudio; Manara, Sabrina; Dainese, Luca; Polvani, Gianluca; Tóthová, Jana D'Amato

2014-01-01

4

Cardiovascular risk screening for women.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death of both men and women in Canada and the United States. The medical and societal emphasis on the occurrence of cardiovascular disease in men has resulted in an inclination to minimize its existence and severity in women. The purpose of this article is to assist clinical nurse specialists in cardiovascular risk-screening of women by providing a review of cardiovascular risk factors specific to women. Current knowledge about lipids, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, menopause, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, stress, and multiple roles are discussed. The clinical presentation for women and the clinical implications are presented. Lastly, implications for future research are described. PMID:9060255

Hamel, L; Oberle, K

1996-11-01

5

Testosterone and cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular (CV) disease is one of the most common causes of death in the western populations and, nowadays, its incidence is increasing even in the developing countries; although CV disease affects both sexes, it is more frequent in males in whom it shortens the average life expectancy. In this regard, this difference has been wrongly attributed for many years to the negative effects of testosterone (T); however, nowadays, a large amount of evidence suggests that this hormone may have protective effects on the CV system and that, indeed, the low levels of T could be associated with an increased CV risk and with an augmentation of morbidity and mortality in males. Such an aspect gains great relevance in light of the consideration that T decrease, besides occurring as a consequence of rare pathological conditions, can often take place with natural aging, causing a state of "male menopause", also called late-onset hypogonadism. In this review, we aimed to summarize the present state of the art concerning the association between T deficit and CV disease by analyzing the protective role of T on CV system and the relationship of this hormonal lack with metabolic syndrome, CV morbidity and mortality, and with the CV complications, such as ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke, that frequently occur in T deficiency. PMID:23475207

Tirabassi, Giacomo; Gioia, Angelo; Giovannini, Lara; Boscaro, Marco; Corona, Giovanni; Carpi, Angelo; Maggi, Mario; Balercia, Giancarlo

2013-04-01

6

Cardiovascular Risk in the Cambodian Community  

E-print Network

.....................................................................................13 ii. Factors Associated With Cardiovascular Disease............................................13Cardiovascular Risk in the Cambodian Community Formative Research from Lowell, Massachusetts U ...........................................................14 v. Perceptions of Heart Disease

Bandettini, Peter A.

7

Cardiovascular Risk in the Filipino Community  

E-print Network

.....................................................................................12 ii. Factors Associated With Cardiovascular Disease............................................12Cardiovascular Risk in the Filipino Community Formative Research from Daly City and San Francisco ...........................................................13 v. Perceptions of Heart Disease

Bandettini, Peter A.

8

Cardiovascular Risk in the Vietnamese Community  

E-print Network

.....................................................................................15 ii. Factors Associated With Cardiovascular Disease............................................16Cardiovascular Risk in the Vietnamese Community Formative Research from Houston, Texas U ...........................................................17 v. Perceptions of Heart Disease

Bandettini, Peter A.

9

Residential environments and cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

The article begins with a discussion of the rationale for studying the relationship between residential environments and cardiovascular health. Existing empirical research relating residential environments to cardiovascular outcomes and risk factors is summarized. The research areas discussed include neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and cardiovascular disease, the effects of residential environments on physical activity, and the effects of residential environments on diet. Other mechanisms through which residential environments may affect cardiovascular health are also briefly noted. Key challenges in investigating the relationship between residential environments and health are discussed. These challenges include characterizing environments (including definition and geographic scale as well as conceptualization and measurement of relevant features), the limitations of observational studies, and the need to evaluate the health impact of interventions or "naturally" occurring changes in local environments. The need for interdisciplinary work is emphasized. PMID:14709706

Diez Roux, Ana V

2003-12-01

10

Posttraumatic Stress and Cardiovascular Disease Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing literature indicates that posttraumatic stress is associated with cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Research on specific CVD risk factors and their prevalence in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may improve understanding of CVD development in this population. The primary purpose of the present article is to outline the evidence relating posttraumatic stress to CVD risk, with an emphasis

Jeffrey L. Kibler

2009-01-01

11

Lowering triglycerides to modify cardiovascular risk: will icosapent deliver?  

PubMed Central

Despite the clinical benefits of lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, many patients continue to experience cardiovascular events. This residual risk suggests that additional risk factors require aggressive modification to result in more effective prevention of cardiovascular disease. Hypertriglyceridemia has presented a considerable challenge with regard to understanding its role in the promotion of cardiovascular risk. Increasing evidence has established a clear causal role for elevated triglyceride levels in vascular risk. As a result, there is increasing interest in the development of specific therapeutic strategies that directly target hypertriglyceridemia. This has seen a resurgence in the use of omega-3 fatty acids for the therapeutic lowering of triglyceride levels. The role of these agents and other emerging strategies to reduce triglyceride levels in order to decrease vascular risk are reviewed.

Scherer, Daniel J; Nicholls, Stephen J

2015-01-01

12

Biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in women.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease and stroke, is the leading cause of death among U.S. women and men. Established cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and elevated total cholesterol, and risk prediction models based on such factors, perform well but do not perfectly predict future risk of CVD. Thus, there has been much recent interest among cardiovascular researchers in identifying novel biomarkers to aid in risk prediction. Such markers include alternative lipids, B-type natriuretic peptides, high-sensitivity troponin, coronary artery calcium, and genetic markers. This article reviews the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, risk prediction tools, and selected novel biomarkers and other exposures in predicting risk of developing CVD in women. The predictive role of novel cardiovascular biomarkers for women in primary prevention settings requires additional study, as does the diagnostic and prognostic utility of cardiac troponins for acute coronary syndromes in clinical settings. Sex differences in the clinical expression and physiology of metabolic syndrome may have implications for cardiovascular outcomes. Consideration of exposures that are unique to, or more prevalent in, women may also help to refine cardiovascular risk estimates in this group. PMID:25487190

Manson, JoAnn E; Bassuk, Shari S

2015-03-01

13

Cardiovascular risk and psoriasis: beyond the traditional risk factors.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease resulting in plaques of the skin. Similar to atherosclerosis, inflammation is integral to the initiation and propagation of plaque development. Mounting evidence has emerged demonstrating that psoriasis not only is associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, but also is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Systemic therapies for moderate to severe psoriasis can increase the cardiovascular risk. Despite the evidence that psoriasis is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, current guidelines only address managing traditional risk factors. An interdisciplinary approach is needed to find the necessary steps beyond classic risk reduction and detection of early cardiovascular disease in patients with psoriasis, as well as to develop a cardiovascular disease preventive regimen. PMID:24161194

Coumbe, Ann G; Pritzker, Marc R; Duprez, Daniel A

2014-01-01

14

Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Organ Transplantation  

E-print Network

-operative CVD event risk prediction in a growing population of high-risk patients in order to improve future applications focused on decision analysis and cost- effectiveness models centered on cardiac riskCardiovascular Risk Assessment in Organ Transplantation Donald M. Lloyd-Jones, MD ScM FACC FAHA

15

Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue  

PubMed Central

Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century. PMID:23515212

Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogério S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves

2013-01-01

16

Lipoprotein Metabolism Indicators Improve Cardiovascular Risk Prediction  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to investigate whether lipoprotein metabolism indicators can improve cardiovascular risk prediction and therapy management. Methods and Results We calculated lipoprotein metabolism indicators for 1981 subjects (145 cases, 1836 controls) from the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort in which NMR lipoprotein profiles were measured. We applied a statistical learning algorithm using a support vector machine to select conventional risk factors and lipoprotein metabolism indicators that contributed to predicting risk for general cardiovascular disease. Risk prediction was quantified by the change in the Area-Under-the-ROC-Curve (?AUC) and by risk reclassification (Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI) and Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI)). Two VLDL lipoprotein metabolism indicators (VLDLE and VLDLH) improved cardiovascular risk prediction. We added these indicators to a multivariate model with the best performing conventional risk markers. Our method significantly improved both CVD prediction and risk reclassification. Conclusions Two calculated VLDL metabolism indicators significantly improved cardiovascular risk prediction. These indicators may help to reduce prescription of unnecessary cholesterol-lowering medication, reducing costs and possible side-effects. For clinical application, further validation is required. PMID:24667559

van Schalkwijk, Daniël B.; de Graaf, Albert A.; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; Parnell, Laurence D.; van der Werff-van der Vat, Bianca J. C.; van Ommen, Ben; van der Greef, Jan; Ordovás, José M.

2014-01-01

17

Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to inves...

18

NUTRIGENETICS, PLASMA LIPIDS AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) result from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. The evidence supports that gene-environment interactions modulate plasma lipid concentrations and potentially CVD risk. The findings from studies examining gene-diet interactions and lipid metab...

19

Timely assessment of cardiovascular risk after preeclampsia.  

PubMed

Evaluation of: Cusimano MC, Pudwell J, Roddy M, Chan-Kyung JC, Smith GN. The maternal health clinic: an initiative for cardiovascular identification in women with pregnancy-related complications. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 438, e1 (2014). Cardiovascular risk management, for men and women alike, is a preventative means to detect individuals' running an elevated risk of myocardial disorders, stroke and metabolic syndrome. Because age is an important factor in the risk assessment, especially young women almost always are classified in the low-risk category and therefore do not qualify for preventive treatment. A history of preeclampsia identifies women who have underlying cardiovascular risk factors. Approximately 6-8% of all pregnancies are complicated by hypertensive disorders, about 2% ends in preeclampsia. For that very reason, the Maternal Health Clinic at Kingston General Hospital in Kingston, Canada, was established to provide postpartum cardiovascular risk counseling or follow-up for women with the pregnancy-related complications. The outcomes were significant: 17% of the young target population with an average age of 33 years met criteria of metabolic syndrome and 85% revealed elevated lifetime cardiovascular disease risk. These figures are to be compared with control results of women with uncomplicated pregnancies: 7% metabolic syndrome and 46% non-optimal risk. It is concluded that the clinic may serve as a prolific and effective primary prevention strategy. PMID:25482481

Verbeek, André L M; Verbeek, Anna J M

2014-11-01

20

Emergent Biomarkers of Residual Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Low HDL-c and/or High Triglycerides and Average LDL-c Concentrations: Focus on HDL Subpopulations, Oxidized LDL, Adiponectin, and Uric Acid  

PubMed Central

This study intended to determine the impact of HDL-c and/or TGs levels on patients with average LDL-c concentration, focusing on lipidic, oxidative, inflammatory, and angiogenic profiles. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors (n = 169) were divided into 4 subgroups, combining normal and low HDL-c with normal and high TGs patients. The following data was analyzed: BP, BMI, waist circumference and serum glucose, Total-c, TGs, LDL-c, oxidized-LDL, total HDL-c and HDL subpopulations, paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, hsCRP, uric acid, TNF-?, adiponectin, VEGF, and iCAM1. The two populations with increased TGs levels, regardless of the normal or low HDL-c, presented obesity and higher waist circumference, Total-c, LDL-c, Ox-LDL, and uric acid. Adiponectin concentration was significantly lower and VEGF was higher in the population with cumulative low values of HDL-c and high values of TGs, while HDL quality was reduced in the populations with impaired values of HDL-c and/or TGs, viewed by reduced large and increased small HDL subfractions. In conclusion, in a population with cardiovascular risk factors, low HDL-c and/or high TGs concentrations seem to be associated with a poor cardiometabolic profile, despite average LDL-c levels. This condition, often called residual risk, is better evidenced by using both traditional and nontraditional CV biomarkers, including large and small HDL subfractions, Ox-LDL, adiponectin, VEGF, and uric acid. PMID:24319364

Mascarenhas-Melo, Filipa; Sereno, José; Freitas, Isabel; Isabel-Mendonça, Maria; Pinto, Rui; Teixeira, Frederico

2013-01-01

21

Residual macrovascular risk in 2013: what have we learned?  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease poses a major challenge for the 21st century, exacerbated by the pandemics of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. While best standards of care, including high-dose statins, can ameliorate the risk of vascular complications, patients remain at high risk of cardiovascular events. The Residual Risk Reduction Initiative (R3i) has previously highlighted atherogenic dyslipidaemia, defined as the imbalance between proatherogenic triglyceride-rich apolipoprotein B-containing-lipoproteins and antiatherogenic apolipoprotein A-I-lipoproteins (as in high-density lipoprotein, HDL), as an important modifiable contributor to lipid-related residual cardiovascular risk, especially in insulin-resistant conditions. As part of its mission to improve awareness and clinical management of atherogenic dyslipidaemia, the R3i has identified three key priorities for action: i) to improve recognition of atherogenic dyslipidaemia in patients at high cardiometabolic risk with or without diabetes; ii) to improve implementation and adherence to guideline-based therapies; and iii) to improve therapeutic strategies for managing atherogenic dyslipidaemia. The R3i believes that monitoring of non-HDL cholesterol provides a simple, practical tool for treatment decisions regarding the management of lipid-related residual cardiovascular risk. Addition of a fibrate, niacin (North and South America), omega-3 fatty acids or ezetimibe are all options for combination with a statin to further reduce non-HDL cholesterol, although lacking in hard evidence for cardiovascular outcome benefits. Several emerging treatments may offer promise. These include the next generation peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor? agonists, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors and monoclonal antibody therapy targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. However, long-term outcomes and safety data are clearly needed. In conclusion, the R3i believes that ongoing trials with these novel treatments may help to define the optimal management of atherogenic dyslipidaemia to reduce the clinical and socioeconomic burden of residual cardiovascular risk. PMID:24460800

2014-01-01

22

Hypertriglyceridemia as a Cardiovascular Risk Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the relation between plasma triglyceride levels and the risk of incident cardiovascular disease, the semiquantitative techniques of meta-analysis were applied to 17 population-based prospective studies of triglyceride and cardiovascular disease. Sixteen of these studies represented 2,445 events among 46,413 Caucasian men followed for an average period of 8.4 years, and 5 studies represented 439 events among 10,864 Caucasian

Melissa A Austin; John E Hokanson; Karen L Edwards

1998-01-01

23

Sleep disturbance and cardiovascular risk in adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background: Evidence suggests that inadequate or disturbed sleep is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in adults. There are limited data on sleep quality and associated cardiovascular risk in children. Methods: We obtained data on adolescents from the 2009/10 cycle of the Healthy Heart Schools’ Program, a population-based cross-sectional study in the Niagara region of Ontario. Participants underwent measurements of cardiometabolic risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), lipid profile and blood pressure, and they completed questionnaires measuring sleeping habits and nutritional status. We assessed sleep disturbance using the sleep disturbance score derived from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. We explored associations between sleeping habits and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Among 4104 adolescents (51% male), the mean hours of sleep per night (± standard deviation) were 7.9 ± 1.1 on weeknights and 9.4 ± 1.6 on weekends. In total, 19% of participants reported their sleep quality as fairly bad or very bad on weeknights and 10% reported it as fairly bad or very bad on weekends. In the multivariable regression models, a higher sleep disturbance score was associated with increased odds of being at high cardiovascular risk (highest v. lowest tertile odds ratio [OR] 1.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16–1.77], p < 0.001), increased odds of hypertension (highest v. lowest tertile OR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02–2.05], p = 0.05) and increased odds of elevated non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (highest v. lowest tertile OR 1.28 [95% CI 1.00–1.64], p = 0.05). The mean duration of sleep was not associated with these outcomes. Interpretation: In healthy adolescents, sleep disturbance is associated with cardiovascular risk factor abnormalities. Intervention strategies to optimize sleep hygiene early in life may be important for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23027917

Narang, Indra; Manlhiot, Cedric; Davies-Shaw, Jolie; Gibson, Don; Chahal, Nita; Stearne, Karen; Fisher, Amanda; Dobbin, Stafford; McCrindle, Brian W.

2012-01-01

24

[Psoriasis as metabolic and cardiovascular risk factor].  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory and proliferative disease which has a tendency to recur. Metabolic disturbances occur more often in patients with psoriasis in comparison to the general population. Due to the systemic inflammation and metabolic disturbances in psoriasis the risk of cardiovascular diseases is significantly higher. The data on higher cardiovascular risk which accompanies psoriasis suggest that every patient with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis should be screened for metabolic disturbances. Patients with psoriasis should be under special care of general practitioner in order to prevent, diagnose and treat metabolic disturbances early. PMID:25252450

Tupikowska, Ma?gorzata; Zdrojowy-Welna, Aleksandra; Maj, Joanna

2014-08-01

25

Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors: Targeting high-risk individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular risk factors have traditionally been divided into 2 categories: modifiable risk factors (smoking, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and diabetes), and nonmodifiable risk factors (age, gender, and hereditary factors). However, more recent data indicate clustering of several metabolic and familial factors that are often related to each other. A pattern of lipoprotein abnormalities characterized by increased

Jacques Genest; Jeffrey S. Cohn

1995-01-01

26

Nutrigenetics, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular risk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) results from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. The evidence supports that gene-environment interactions modulate plasma lipid concentrations and potentially CVD risk. Several genes (eg, apolipoprotein A-I and A-IV, apolipoprotein E, and he...

27

Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient’s risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine health-related behavior. Doctors tend to not use cardiovascular (CV) risk calculators and underestimate the absolute CV risk of their patients. Patients show optimistic bias when considering their own risk and consistently underestimate it. Poor patient health literacy and numeracy must be considered when thinking about this problem. Patients must possess a reasonably high level of understanding of numerical processes when doctors discuss risk, a level that is not possessed by large numbers of the population. In order to overcome this barrier, doctors need to utilize various tools including the appropriate use of visual aids to accurately communicate risk with their patients. Any intervention has been shown to be better than nothing in improving health understanding. The simple process of repeatedly conveying risk information to a patient has been shown to improve accuracy of risk perception. Doctors need to take responsibility for the accurate assessment and effective communication of CV risk in their patients in order to improve patient uptake of cardioprotective lifestyle choices and preventive medications. PMID:22312218

Webster, Ruth; Heeley, Emma

2010-01-01

28

[Control of cardiovascular risk in the elderly].  

PubMed

The population aged 65 years or more is set to increase in the next few years, especially in Spain and elsewhere in Europe. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide as well as in Spain. Most studies on vascular risk factors (VRF) have been performed in younger persons, usually aged less than 70 years and without associated pathologic conditions. Patients with pluripathologies are those with multiple chronic diseases and advanced age (a mean of 78 years) in whom the most significant diseases are cardiovascular, with several VRF, leading to high mortality. Strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality in this age group are required. PMID:21458642

Ruiz Cantero, A

2011-03-01

29

Cardiovascular Risk in Women With PCOS  

PubMed Central

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), or Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is a common endocrine disorder defined by two of the three following features: i) oligoovulation or anovulation, ii) clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism, or iii) polycystic ovaries, once the related endocrinological and gynaecological disorders have been excluded. PCOS does not exclusively involve the reproductive apparatus , it has a complex number of systemic relevancy symptoms. It leads to Metabolic Syndrome, with severe consequences on the cardiovascular apparatus. Many clinical studies have underlined the connection between PCOS and the cardiovascular risk profile of such female patients, due to a lipid/glucose altered metabolism, hypertension, systemic inflammatory condition (assessable by markers such as VES, TNF-alfa, citokines and C-reactive protein (hsPCR) levels), and vascular injuries. Considering the early onset of the disease, PCOS could be considered as a real cardiovascular risk factor which affects the quality of life seriously. The current review aimed to point out the main connections between PCOS and cardiovascular risk factors according to the latest findings coming from literature data analysis, and try to depict the great influences that such a common disease can have on the patients’ health integrity. PMID:23843832

Scicchitano, Pietro; Dentamaro, Ilaria; Carbonara, Rosa; Bulzis, Gabriella; Dachille, Annamaria; Caputo, Paola; Riccardi, Roberta; Locorotondo, Manuela; Mandurino, Cosimo; Matteo Ciccone, Marco

2012-01-01

30

Hypertriglyceridemia and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Elevated triglyceride (TG) levels are prevalent among the US population, often occurring in persons who are overweight or obese, or who have type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. Meta-analysis indicates that elevated TG levels may be a significant independent risk factor for coronary heart dise...

31

[Anxiety as an independent cardiovascular risk].  

PubMed

Anxiety itself, and anxiety disorders in particular, seem to represent an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases as important as obesity, hypertension, sendentary lifestyle or hyperlipidemia. Anxiety-related noradrenaline and HPA overactivity, excessive sympathetic nervous system activation, and the permanently elevated level of several neuropeptides and cytokines result in hypertension and arrhythmias, endothel lesions, detrimental hemodynamic changes and platelet overactivation facilitating thrombosis. Patients with severe and sustained anxiety usually have additional adverse health behaviors which further aggravate the hazards. Epidemiological studies agree in finding markedly increased incidence of myocardial infarct, coronary heart disease or other cardiovascular conditions, often with earlier age of onset, faster progression and higher letality, in anxiety disorder patients. Better recognition and adequate treatment of anxiety disorders may therefore contribute to curbing the excessive--and typically early-onset--cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Hungary. PMID:16841559

Csaba, Bánki M

2006-03-01

32

Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are highly prone to cardiovascular disease for a number of reasons. At the time of starting renal replacement treatment, their cardiovascular condition is already severely compromised, suggesting that cardiovascular risk factors begin to operate very early in the progression of CKD. Moreover, those patients reaching end-stage renal disease without cardiovascular abnormalities have a high

Francesco Locatelli; Pietro Pozzoni; Francesca Tentori; Lucia Del Vecchio

2003-01-01

33

Cardiovascular Risk After Bariatric Surgery For Obesity  

PubMed Central

Obese patients have an increased prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors which improve with bariatric surgery, but whether bariatric surgery reduces long-term CV events remains ill-defined. We conducted a systematic literature review and applied CV risk models in a validation cohort previously published. A standardized MEDLINE search using terms associated with obesity, bariatric surgery, and CV risk factors identified 6 test studies. Our validation cohort consisted of a population-based, historical cohort of 197 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients and 163 control patients, identified through the Rochester Epidemiology Project. We applied Framingham (FRS) and Prospective Cardiovascular Munster Heart Study (PROCAM) risk scores to calculate 10-year CV risk. In our validation cohort, absolute 10-year FRS for CV events was lower at follow-up in the bariatric surgery group (7.0 to 3.5%;p<0.001) compared to controls (7.1 to 6.5%;p=0.13), with an inter-group absolute difference in risk reduction of 3% (p<0.001). PROCAM risk in the bariatric surgery group decreased from 4.1 to 2.0% (p<0.001), whereas the control group exhibited only a modest decrease (4.4 to 3.8%;p=0.08). Using mean data from the validation study, the trend and directionality in risk was similar in the Roux-en-Y group. The test studies confirmed directionality of CV risk with estimated relative risk reductions for bariatric surgery patients ranging from 18–79% using FRS compared to 8–62% using PROCAM. In conclusion, bariatric surgery predicts long-term decreases in CV risk in obese patients. PMID:18805125

Batsis, JohnA.; Sarr, Michael G.; Collazo-Clavell, Maria L.; Thomas, Randal J.; Romero-Corral, Abel; Somers, Virend K.; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

2009-01-01

34

HIV therapy, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with HIV infection have metabolic abnormalities that resemble metabolic syndrome (hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density\\u000a lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin resistance), which is known to predict increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).\\u000a However, there is not one underlying cause for these abnormalities and they are not linked to each other. Rather, individual\\u000a abnormalities can be affected by the host response to HIV

Vivian Pao; Grace A. Lee; Carl Grunfeld

2008-01-01

35

Lifetime cardiovascular risk of childhood obesity.  

PubMed

An increase in the incidence and an earlier onset of coronary artery disease is expected because of the increased prevalence of childhood obesity. Comorbidities of obesity, such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance syndrome, hypertension, associated nutritional deficiencies, and a sedentary lifestyle or associated lifestyle factors such as tobacco smoke exposure, are likely to account for this increase because these are all independent risk factors for accelerated atherosclerosis. Because clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease does not manifest in obese children, assessment of the subclinical markers of atherosclerosis may help in the evaluation of the progression of atherosclerosis, in further stratification of risk, and in monitoring the effects of intervention. Furthermore, because multiple risk factors with poorly understood interplay might be present in obese children, assessment of the vasculature directly, and perhaps the assignment of a "vascular age," may be a useful method to quantify the "end organ" effect of exposure to these various risks. Obese children may show favorable changes in their behaviors that result in an improvement in clinically measurable risk factors with various clinic-based and behavior modification therapies, but the vascular benefits of such interventions need to be studied further. Broad social, cultural, legislative, and policy changes that support healthy lifestyles within families and communities need to be implemented to decrease the prevalence of childhood obesity and its cardiovascular consequences in communities. The effect of risk factor modification on the vasculature will continue to be a resource for the direction of evidence-based therapy in obese children. PMID:20335556

Raghuveer, Geetha

2010-05-01

36

Association of Fibrinogen With Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Disease in the Framingham Offspring Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Fibrinogen has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and associated with traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Also, the role of elevated fibrinogen in thrombosis suggests that it may be on the causal pathway for certain risk factors to exert their effect. These associations remain incompletely characterized. Moreover, the optimal fibrinogen assay for risk stratification is uncertain. Methods

James J. Stec; Halit Silbershatz; Geoffrey H. Tofler; Travis H. Matheney; Patrice Sutherland; Izabela Lipinska; Joseph M. Massaro; Peter F. W. Wilson; James E. Muller; Ralph B. D'Agostino Sr

2010-01-01

37

Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

2010-01-01

38

Age at onset of major depression and adulthood cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

Childhood-onset compared to adulthood-onset of major depression is associated with increased rates of serious cardiovascular events, independently of cardiovascular risk factors. This could be explained by a longer duration of exposure to depression. Cardiovascular disease risk should be systematically assessed in individuals with long duration of major depression. PMID:25595335

Franco, Silvia; Hoertel, Nicolas; Peyre, Hugo; Rodríguez-Fernández, Jorge Mario; Limosin, Frédéric; Blanco, Carlos

2015-02-28

39

Does treatment of psoriasis reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease?  

PubMed

Psoriasis is an inflammatory disease associated with multiple comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors. Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular death. It has been proposed that overlapping mechanisms of systemic inflammation contribute to the link between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease. Some psoriasis treatments decrease systemic inflammation, but the effect of psoriasis treatments on heart disease is unknown. In this review of 23 original research publications, we present preliminary evidence that some psoriasis therapies improve cardiovascular biomarkers and the incidence of cardiovascular risk. Phototherapy may reduce some inflammatory cytokines, but there is little evidence for a decreased risk of CVD outcomes. Both methotrexate and tumour necrosis factor-? inhibitors improve cardiovascular inflammatory biomarkers and improve CVD outcomes. Short-term data on interleukin-12/23 inhibitors are varied, but most data suggest there is not an increase in cardiovascular events. PMID:24420963

Churton, Sarah; Brown, Liza; Shin, Thuzar M; Korman, Neil J

2014-02-01

40

New risk markers for cardiovascular prevention.  

PubMed

The importance of total cardiovascular (CV) risk estimation before management decisions are taken is well established. Models have been developed that allow physicians to stratify the asymptomatic population in subgroups at low, moderate, high, and very high total CV risk. Most models are based on classical CV risk factors: age, gender, smoking, blood pressure, and lipid levels. The impact of additional risk factors is discussed here, looking separately at the predictive increments of novel biomarkers and of indicators of subclinical atherosclerotic disease. The contribution of biomarkers to the total CV risk estimation is generally modest, and their usage should be limited to subjects at intermediate total CV risk. Detection of subclinical vascular damage may improve total CV risk estimation in asymptomatic subjects who are close to a threshold that could affect management decisions and in whom the chances of re-classification in a different risk category are great. There is, however, an urgent need for trials in which the value of using total CV risk estimation models is tested. PMID:24881768

De Backer, Guy G

2014-08-01

41

Waist-to-Height Ratio and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Elderly Individuals at High Cardiovascular Risk  

PubMed Central

Introduction Several anthropometric measurements have been associated with cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular risk conditions, such as hypertension or metabolic syndrome. Waist-to-height-ratio has been proposed as a useful tool for assessing abdominal obesity, correcting other measurements for the height of the individual. We compared the ability of several anthropometric measurements to predict the presence of type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia or metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods In our cross-sectional analyses we included 7447 Spanish individuals at high cardiovascular risk, men aged 55–80 years and women aged 60–80 years, from the PREDIMED study. Logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the odds ratio of presenting each cardiovascular risk factor according to various anthropometric measures. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) were used to compare the predictive ability of these measurements. Results In this relatively homogeneous cohort with 48.6% of type-2 diabetic individuals, the great majority of the studied anthropometric parameters were significantly and positively associated with the cardiovascular risk factors. No association was found between BMI and body weight and diabetes mellitus. The AUCs for the waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference were significantly higher than the AUCs for BMI or weight for type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Conversely, BMI was the strongest predictor of hypertension. Conclusions We concluded that measures of abdominal obesity showed higher discriminative ability for diabetes mellitus, high fasting plasma glucose, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome than BMI or weight in a large cohort of elderly Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. No significant differences were found between the predictive abilities of waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference on the metabolic disease. PMID:22905246

Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramon; Covas, María-Isabel; Arós, Fernando; Wärnberg, Julia; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Babio, Nancy; Díaz-López, Andrés; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

2012-01-01

42

Unfavorable cardiovascular risk profiles in untreated and treated psoriasis patients.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk profile. The systemic inflammation present in psoriasis, various systemic treatments for psoriasis and an increased prevalence of unhealthy life style factors may all contribute to this unfavorable risk profile. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of what is known about these risk factors in psoriasis, the way they influence the cardiovascular risk of psoriasis patients, and what can be done to reduce this risk. Genetic studies demonstrate that psoriasis and cardiovascular disease share common pathogenic features in which, for example inflammatory cytokines like TNF-alpha and IL-1 play an important role. The chronic inflammation in psoriasis has an unfavorable effect on the cardiovascular risk profile. Multiple cardiovascular risk factors seem to be influenced; the blood pressure, oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, endothelial cell dysfunction, homocysteine levels and blood platelet adhesion. Moreover, classic cardiovascular risk factors like smoking and obesity that have an increased prevalence among patients with psoriasis, indirectly also worsen the cardiovascular risk profile by stimulating the psoriasis activity. Systemic treatments in psoriasis reduce the cardiovascular risk by diminishing the inflammation, but it should be taken into account that most therapies also have adverse cardiovascular effects like dyslipidemia, hyperhomocysteinemia and hypertension. As a consequence preventive measures may be indicated at least during long-term treatments. Prospective research is warranted to accurately estimate the increased cardiovascular risk in psoriasis, to determine the underlying processes and to consider preventive measures according to the absolute risk of cardiovascular disease. The present overview provides data to advice health care providers to pay more attention to the cardiovascular risk profile in psoriasis patients. PMID:16942772

Wakkee, M; Thio, H B; Prens, E P; Sijbrands, E J G; Neumann, H A M

2007-01-01

43

[Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases].  

PubMed

Psoriasis is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease that affects 2-3% of the population and shares pathophysiologic mechanisms and risk factors with cardiovascular diseases. Studies have suggested psoriasis as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Danish guidelines on cardiovascular risk factor modification in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis have recently been published. We provide a short review of the current evidence and the Danish guidelines. PMID:22640784

Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Skov, Lone; Hansen, Peter Riis

2012-05-21

44

Evaluation of residue drum storage safety risks  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to determine if any potential safety problems exist in the residue drum backlog at the Rocky Flats Plant. Plutonium residues stored in 55-gallon drums were packaged for short-term storage until the residues could be processed for plutonium recovery. These residues have now been determined by the Department of Energy to be waste materials, and the residues will remain in storage until plans for disposal of the material can be developed. The packaging configurations which were safe for short-term storage may not be safe for long-term storage. Interviews with Rocky Flats personnel involved with packaging the residues reveal that more than one packaging configuration was used for some of the residues. A tabulation of packaging configurations was developed based on the information obtained from the interviews. A number of potential safety problems were identified during this study, including hydrogen generation from some residues and residue packaging materials, contamination containment loss, metal residue packaging container corrosion, and pyrophoric plutonium compound formation. Risk factors were developed for evaluating the risk potential of the various residue categories, and the residues in storage at Rocky Flats were ranked by risk potential. Preliminary drum head space gas sampling studies have demonstrated the potential for formation of flammable hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in some residue drums.

Conner, W.V.

1994-06-17

45

Health Insurance and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Background Compared to those with health insurance, the uninsured receive less care for chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes and they experience higher mortality. Methods We investigated the relations of health insurance status to prevalence, treatment, and control of major cardiovascular disease risk factors, hypertension and elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, among Framingham Heart Study (FHS) participants in sex-specific age-adjusted analyses. Participants who attended either the seventh Offspring cohort examination cycle (1998–2001) or the first Third Generation cohort examination cycle (2002–2005) were studied. Results Among 6098 participants, 3.8% were uninsured at the time of the FHS clinic examination and participants’ ages ranged from 19 to 64 years. The prevalence of hypertension and elevated LDL cholesterol was similar for the insured and uninsured, however the proportion of those who obtained treatment and achieved control of these risk factors was lower among the uninsured. Uninsured men and women were less likely to be treated for hypertension with odds ratios for treatment of 0.19 (95% CI 0.07–0.56) for men and 0.31 (95% CI 0.12–0.79) for women. Among men, the uninsured were less likely to receive treatment or achieve control of elevated LDL cholesterol than the insured, with odds ratios of 0.12 (95% CI 0.04–0.38) for treatment and 0.17 (95% CI 0.05–0.56) for control. Conclusions The treatment and control of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia are lower among uninsured adults. Increasing the proportion of insured individuals may be a means to improve the treatment and control of cardiovascular disease risk factors and reduce health disparities. PMID:20670729

Brooks, Erica L.; Preis, Sarah Rosner; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Murabito, Joanne M.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Sorlie, Paul; Levy, Daniel

2010-01-01

46

Inflammation enhances cardiovascular risk and mortality in hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammation enhances cardiovascular risk and mortality in hemodialysis patients.BackgroundAtherosclerosis, a major problem in patients on chronic hemodialysis, has been characterized as an inflammatory disease. C-reactive protein (CRP), the prototypical acute phase protein in humans, is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in the general population. We hypothesize that several of the classic, as well as nontraditional, cardiovascular risk factors may respond

JOSEF ZIMMERMANN; SILKE HERRLINGER; ANTJE PRUY; THOMAS METZGER; CHRISTOPH WANNER

1999-01-01

47

Ezetimibe, cardiovascular risk and atherogenic dyslipidaemia  

PubMed Central

Ezetimibe is a selective cholesterol absorption inhibitor with an excellent side-effect profile, able to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by 15-25% from baseline in monotherapy and on top of statins and fibrates. Yet, it seems that ezetimibe produces quantitative rather than qualitative changes in LDL, with small net effects on atherogenic dyslipidaemia. This is supported by findings from the Ezetimibe and Simvastatin in Hypercholesterolemia Enhances Atherosclerosis Regression (ENHANCE) study on atherosclerosis progression, where the addition of ezetimibe to simvastatin in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia did not affect the mean change in carotid intima-media thickness, although a significant reduction in LDL cholesterol levels was observed. The Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study has further shown that combination treatment with simvastatin significantly reduced LDL cholesterol levels in patients with aortic stenosis, but did not affect the primary end point of aortic valve and cardiovascular events, although a significant reduction in the risk of ischaemic events was reported. Formal cardiovascular outcome trials are underway and these will provide additional insights into the long-term effects of ezetimibe on clinical events as well as on atherogenic dyslipidaemia, beyond LDL cholesterol levels. PMID:22291726

Rizzo, Manfredi; Battista Rini, Giovam

2011-01-01

48

Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Scores Applied to NASA's Astronant Corps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an effort to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction, this analysis evaluates and compares the applicability of multiple CVD risk scores to the NASA Astronaut Corps which is extremely healthy at selection.

Jain, I.; Charvat, J. M.; VanBaalen, M.; Lee, L.; Wear, M. L.

2014-01-01

49

Vitamin D metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this review is to focus on the association of vitamin D and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women. Methods: Review of the relevant literature and results from recent clinical studies as well as critical analysis of published results concerning the association of vitamin D and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women obtained from both a PubMed

Faustino R. Pérez-López

2009-01-01

50

Special Diabetes Program for Indians: Retention in Cardiovascular Risk Reduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined the associations between participant and site characteristics and retention in a multisite cardiovascular disease risk reduction project. Design and Methods: Data were derived from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart Demonstration Project, an intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk among American…

Manson, Spero M.; Jiang, Luohua; Zhang, Lijing; Beals, Janette; Acton, Kelly J.; Roubideaux, Yvette

2011-01-01

51

Reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in maintenance dialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in maintenance dialysis patients. Conventional risk factors of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the general population such as body mass, serum cholesterol, and blood pressure are also found to relate to outcome in maintenance dialysis patients, but often in an opposite direction. Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension appear to be protective features that are associated

Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh; Gladys Block; Michael H. Humphreys; Joel D. Kopple

2003-01-01

52

PHYLLOQUINONE INTAKE AND RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN MEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dietary patterns high in fruits and vegetables have been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases. The association between phylloquinone intake, derived mainly from green vegetables, and risk of cardiovascular diseases [total and fatal coronary heart disease (CHD), non-fatal myocardial ...

53

Adaptive Patient Education Framework Featuring Personalized Cardiovascular Risk Management  

E-print Network

Adaptive Patient Education Framework Featuring Personalized Cardiovascular Risk Management Interventions Selena Davis and Syed Sibte Raza Abidi Health Informatics Laboratory, Faculty of Computer Science of cardiovascular risk. We present a web-based adaptive hypermedia system to create and deliver the personalized

Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

54

Management of cardiovascular disease risk in chronic inflammatory disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with chronic inflammatory disorders are at increased risk of developing premature cardiovascular disease. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the effects of inflammatory pathways on the vasculature, clear guidelines on the management of traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in patients with systemic autoimmunity are lacking. Thus, rigorous studies assessing the individual contributions of the various treatments used

Mariana J. Kaplan

2009-01-01

55

Temporal Shifts in Cardiovascular Risk Factor Distribution  

PubMed Central

Background Complementary strategies to shift risk factor population distributions and target high-risk individuals are required to reduce the burden of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Purpose To examine secular changes in glucose and CVD risk factors over 20 years during an individual and population-based CVD prevention program in Västerbotten County, Sweden. Methods Population-based health promotion intervention was conducted and annual invitation for individuals turning 40, 50, and 60 years to attend a health assessment, including an oral glucose tolerance test, biochemical measures, and a questionnaire. Data were collected between 1991 and 2010, analyzed in 2012 and available for 120,929 individuals. Linear regression modeling examined age-adjusted differences in CVD risk factor means over time. Data were direct-age-standardized to compare disease prevalence. Results Between 1991–1995 and 2006–2010, mean age-adjusted cholesterol (men=?0.53, 95% CI=?0.55, ?0.50 mmol/L; women=?0.48, 95% CI=?0.50, ?0.45 mmol/L) and systolic blood pressure declined (men=?3.06, 95% CI=?3.43, ?2.70 mm Hg; women=?5.27, 95% CI=?5.64, ?4.90 mm Hg), with corresponding decreases in the age-standardized prevalence of hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Mean age-adjusted 2-hour plasma glucose (men=0.19, 95% CI=0.15, 0.23 mmol/L; women=0.08, 95% CI=0.04, 0.11 mmol/L) and BMI increased (men=1.12, 95% CI=1.04, 1.21; women=0.65, 95% CI=0.55, 0.75), with increases in the age-standardized prevalence of diabetes and obesity. Conclusions These data demonstrate the potential of combined individual- and population-based approaches to CVD risk factor control and highlight the need for additional strategies addressing hyperglycemia and obesity. PMID:24439344

Long, Gráinne H.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Norberg, Margareta; Wennberg, Patrik; Lindahl, Bernt; Rolandsson, Olov; Griffin, Simon J.; Weinehall, Lars

2014-01-01

56

Comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriasis*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease and its pathogenesis involves an interaction between genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. Recent studies have suggested that the chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis may predispose to an association with other inflammatory diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVES To describe the demographic, clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of a sample of psoriasis patients; to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities in this group of patients; and to identify the cardiovascular risk profile using the Framingham risk score. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study involving the assessment of 190 patients. Participants underwent history and physical examination. They also completed a specific questionnaire about epidemiological data, past medical history, and comorbidities. The cardiovascular risk profile was calculated using the Framingham risk score. RESULTS Patients' mean age was 51.5 ± 14 years, and the predominant clinical presentation was plaque psoriasis (78.4%). We found an increased prevalence of systemic hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Increased waist circumference was also found in addition to a considerable prevalence of depression, smoking, and regular alcohol intake. Patients' cardiovascular risk was high according to the Framingham risk score, and 47.2% of patients had moderate or high risk of fatal and non-fatal coronary events in 10 years. CONCLUSIONS Patients had high prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities, and high cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham risk score. Further epidemiological studies are needed in Brazil for validation of our results. PMID:25184912

Baeta, Isabela Guimarães Ribeiro; Bittencourt, Flávia Vasques; Gontijo, Bernardo; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

2014-01-01

57

Emerging risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: Indian context  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is globally considered as the leading cause of death with 80% of CVD related deaths being reported from low and middle income countries like India. The relatively early onset age of CVD in India in comparison to Western countries also implies that most productive ages of the patient's life are lost fighting the disease. Conventional cardiovascular risk is attributed to lifestyle changes and altered metabolic activity. This forms the basis of a 10-year risk prediction score inspired by the Framingham study. Since South Asians display considerable heterogeneity in risk factors as compared to developed countries, there is a need to identify risk factors which would not only help in primary prevention but also prevent their recurrence. We reviewed published data on novel risk factors and their potential to identify cardiovascular risk at an early stage, with special emphasis on the Indian population. Emerging risk factors were reviewed to identify their potential to prevent CVD progression independently as well as in association with other cardiovascular risk factors. The most commonly studied emerging cardiovascular risk factors included coronary artery calcium score, lipoprotein (a), apolipoproteins, homocysteine, thrombosis markers like fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, carotid intima-media thickness, genotypic variations, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, C-reactive protein, platelets, and birth weight levels. Nonetheless, more studies on large sample size can ascertain the utility of these risk factors in estimation and analysis of cardiovascular risk especially in the Indian context. PMID:24083161

Gupta, Sushil; Gudapati, Ramesh; Gaurav, Kumar; Bhise, Manoj

2013-01-01

58

Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.  

PubMed

The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

2008-12-01

59

Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with chronic kidney disease have a higher burden of cardiovascular disease, which increases in a dose-dependent fashion with worsening kidney function. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including advanced age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia, have an important role in the progression of cardiovascular disease in patients who have a reduced glomerular filtration rate, especially in those with mild-to-moderate kidney disease.

Sarina van der Zee; Usman Baber; Sammy Elmariah; Jonathan Winston; Valentin Fuster

2009-01-01

60

Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

2005-06-23

61

Independent associations of physical activity and cardiovascular fitness with cardiovascular risk in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Uncertainty still exists whether physical activity (PA) and cardiovascular fitness (CF) contribute separately to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This study examined the associations of PA and CF on individual as well as clustered CVD risk factors.Design Cross-sectional.Methods Seven hundred and eighty-one men and 890 women, aged 20–65 years, from two random population-based samples of Swedish women and men were

Elin Ekblom-Bak; Mai-Lis Hellénius; Örjan Ekblom; Lars-Magnus Engström; Björn Ekblom

2010-01-01

62

Hypertension, concurrent cardiovascular risk factors and mortality: the Singapore Cardiovascular Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current hypertension (HTN) guidelines recommend the assessment of other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in individuals with HTN for further management. Few studies in Asian populations have been published to identify the outcome of individuals with HTN and other CVD risk factors. This study aims to assess the effect of HTN alone, and in combination with other CVD risk

J Lee; S Ma; D Heng; S K Chew; K Hughes; E S Tai

2008-01-01

63

Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Vascular Function, and Cardiovascular Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Cardiovascular risk factors contribute to atherogenesis by inducing endothelial-cell injury and dysfunction. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cells derived from bone marrow have a role in ongoing endothelial repair and that impaired mobilization or depletion of these cells contributes to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease progression. methods We measured the number of colony-forming units of endothelial progenitor cells in

Jonathan M. Hill; Gloria Zalos; Julian P. J. Halcox; William H. Schenke; Myron A. Waclawiw; Arshed A. Quyyumi; Toren Finkel

2009-01-01

64

Cigarette smoking and cardiovascular risk factors among Aboriginal Canadian youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Aboriginal populations in North America are exhibit- ing an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and as- sociated traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk fac- tors, trends believed to be due to the influence of Western lifestyle habits. Because these influences are present at an early age, we sought to study the patterns of one such habit, cigarette smoking, among Aboriginal

Ravi Retnakaran; Anthony J. G. Hanley; Philip W. Connelly; Stewart B. Harris; Bernard Zinman

2005-01-01

65

RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: HALOGENATED SOLVENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Halogenated Solvent Degreasing Facilities. These assessments utilize existing models and d...

66

Cardiovascular Risk in Psoriatic Arthritis – a Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The present study aims to estimate long term cardiovascular risk in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients and to identify clinical and/or laboratory features which influence this risk. Outcomes: The PsA group included 44 males and 59 females (p = 0.167) with an average age of 52 years (23-80). SCORE was significantly correlated with age of onset, BMI, triglycerides, FPG. Among these patients, males, smokers, those with axial involvement, with IHT, with AHT and those not treated with glucocorticoids had a significantly higher SCORE. The subgroup of 56 PsA women, age-matched with 56 normal women, had a significantly higher SCORE, even after controlling for covariates. Conclusions: Cardiovascular risk of PsA patients estimated on SCORE charts correlates with metabolic clinical and laboratory features and is associated with classical cardiovascular risk factors. The axial involvement in PsA is associated with a higher cardiovascular risk when compared to non-axial PsA. Women with PsA have a higher cardiovascular risk than normal women, which sustains the opinion that PsA may be considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:25553121

POPESCU, Claudiu; PINTILIE, Ana Maria; BOJINCA, Violeta; BALANESCU, Andra; IONESCU, Ruxandra

2014-01-01

67

Opening a New Lipid “Apo-thecary”: Incorporating Apolipoproteins as Potential Risk Factors and Treatment Targets to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk  

PubMed Central

Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) represent the cornerstone of drug therapy to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and cardiovascular risk. However, even optimal statin management of LDL cholesterol leaves many patients with residual cardiovascular risk, in part because statins are more effective in reducing LDL cholesterol than apolipoprotein B (Apo B). Apo B may be a better marker of atherogenic risk than LDL cholesterol because Apo B measures the total number of all atherogenic particles (total atherosclerotic burden), including LDL, very low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein, remnant lipoproteins, and lipoprotein(a). To determine whether Apo B is a better indicator of baseline cardiovascular risk and residual risk after lipid therapy compared with LDL cholesterol, a MEDLINE search of the literature published in English from January 1, 1975, through December 1, 2010, was conducted. On the basis of data from most population studies, elevated Apo B was more strongly associated with incident coronary heart disease than similarly elevated LDL cholesterol. Apo B was also a superior benchmark (vs LDL cholesterol) of statins' cardioprotective efficacy in both primary-prevention and secondary-prevention trials. To minimize cardiovascular risk among persons with hypercholesterolemia or dyslipidemia, the best available evidence suggests that intensive therapy with statins should be initiated to achieve the lowest possible Apo B level (with adequate drug toleration) and then other therapies (eg, niacin, bile acid resins, ezetimibe) added to potentiate these Apo B–lowering effects. In future consensus lipid-lowering treatment guidelines, Apo B should be considered as an index of residual risk, a potential parameter of treatment efficacy, and a treatment target to minimize risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:21803958

Jacobson, Terry A.

2011-01-01

68

Pesticide Residues and Bees – A Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees. PMID:24718419

Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi

2014-01-01

69

Generating Personalised Cardiovascular Risk Management Educational Interventions Linking  

E-print Network

72 Generating Personalised Cardiovascular Risk Management Educational Interventions Linking SCORE and Behaviour Change Selena Davis, Syed Abidi, Jafna Cox* Health Informatics Laboratory, Faculty of Computer Science, and *Departments of Medicine and of Community Health and Epidemiology, QEII Health Sciences

Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

70

Heart Rate Variability Dynamics for the Prognosis of Cardiovascular Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical, spectral, multi-resolution and non-linear methods were applied to heart rate variability (HRV) series linked with classification schemes for the prognosis of cardiovascular risk. A total of 90 HRV records were analyzed: 45 from healthy subjects and 45 from cardiovascular risk patients. A total of 52 features from all the analysis methods were evaluated using standard two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS-test).

Juan F. Ramirez-Villegas; Eric Lam-Espinosa; David F. Ramirez-Moreno; Paulo C. Calvo-Echeverry; Wilfredo Agredo-Rodriguez; Kelvin Wong

2011-01-01

71

Therapy Insight: managing cardiovascular risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic low-grade inflammation was recognized during the past decade as an important risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis and, more recently, for the development of heart failure. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality from ischemic cardiovascular events and heart failure. Epidemiologic and clinical studies indicate that RA is an independent risk factor

Jon T Giles; Wendy Post; Roger S Blumenthal; Joan M Bathon

2006-01-01

72

New Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Their Use for an Accurate Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Hypertensive Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To analyze the predictive value of new cardiovascular (CV) risk factors for CV risk assessment in the adult Romanian hypertensive (HT) population. Methods: Hypertensive adults aged between 40-65 years of age, identified in national representative SEPHAR II survey were evaluated by anthropometric, BP and arterial stiffness measurements: aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao), aortic augmentation index (AIXao), revers time (RT) and central systolic blood pressure (SBPao), 12 lead ECGs and laboratory workup. Values above the 4th quartile of mean SBP' standard deviation (s.d.) defined increased BP variability. Log(TG/HDL-cholesterol) defined atherogenic index of plasma (AIP). Serum uric acid levels above 5.70 mg/dl for women and 7.0 mg/dl for males defined hyperuricemia (HUA). CV risk was assessed based on SCORE chart for high CV risk countries. Binary logistic regression using a stepwise likelihood ratio method (adjustments for major confounders and colliniarity analysis) was used in order to validate predictors of high and very high CV risk class. Results: The mean SBP value of the study group was 148.46±19.61 mmHg. Over forty percent of hypertensives had a high and very high CV risk. Predictors of high/very high CV risk category validated by regression analysis were: increased visit-to-visit BP variability (OR: 2.49; 95%CI: 1.67-3.73), PWVao (OR: 1.12; 95%CI: 1.02-1.22), RT (OR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.93-0.98), SBPao (OR: 1.01; 95%CI: 1.01-1.03) and AIP (OR: 7.08; 95%CI: 3.91-12.82). Conclusion: The results of our study suggests that the new CV risk factors such as increased BP variability, arterial stiffness indices and AIP are useful tools for a more accurate identification of hypertensives patients at high and very high CV risk. PMID:25705267

TAUTU, Oana-Florentina; DARABONT, Roxana; ONCIUL, Sebastian; DEACONU, Alexandru; COMANESCU, Ioana; ANDREI, Radu Dan; DRAGOESCU, Bogdan; CINTEZA, Mircea; DOROBANTU, Maria

2014-01-01

73

Cardiovascular Risk and Statin Use in the United States  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Statins reduce the risk of mortality and coronary artery disease in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Using nationally representative data, we examined the relationships between statin use and cardiovascular risk, diagnosis of hyperlipidemia, and other risk factors. METHODS We analyzed data from the 2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationally representative survey of the US civilian noninstitutionalized population. The study sample had a total of 16,712 individuals aged 30 to 79 years. Those who reported filling at least 2 statin prescriptions were classified as statin users. We created multiple logistic regression models for statin use as the dependent variable, with cardiovascular risk factors and sociodemographic factors as independent variables. RESULTS Overall, 58.2% (95% CI, 54.6%–61.7%) of individuals with coronary artery disease and 52.0% (95% CI, 49.4%–54.6%) of individuals with diabetes aged older than 40 years were statin users. After adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and sociodemographic factors, the probability of being on a statin was significantly higher among individuals with both hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease, at 0.44 (95% CI, 0.40–0.48), or hyperlipidemia only, at 0.32 (95% CI, 0.30–0.33), than among those with coronary artery disease only, at 0.11 (95% CI, 0.07–0.15). A similar pattern was seen in people with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS In this nationally representative sample, many people at high risk for cardiovascular events, including those with coronary artery disease, diabetes, or both, were not receiving statins despite evidence that these agents reduce adverse events. This undertreatment appears to be related to placing too much emphasis on hyperlipidemia and not enough on cardiovascular risk. Recently released guidelines from the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association offer an opportunity to improve statin use by focusing on cardiovascular risk instead of lipid levels. PMID:24821892

Johansen, Michael Edward; Green, Lee A.; Sen, Ananda; Kircher, Sheetal; Richardson, Caroline R.

2014-01-01

74

Geographical variation of cardiovascular risk factors in Malaysia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe differences in cardiovascular risk factor prevalences and clustering patterns among the states and federal territories of Malaysia. Risk factors considered were abdominal obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and smoking. Using data from the third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NMHS III) in 2006, we estimated the states and federal territories risk factor prevalences and clustering patterns to map the cardiovascular burden distribution in Malaysia. There was a clear geographical variation in the distribution of the individual risk factors as well as in its clustering with remarkable impact seen in Peninsular Malaysia. Perlis, Kedah and Kelantan were the most affected states overall. PMID:22582546

Nuur Amalina, A G; Jamaiyah, H; Selvarajah, S

2012-02-01

75

Novel cardiovascular risk markers in women with ischaemic heart disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Abstract The incidence of coronary heart disease in premenopausal women is lower than in men because of their hormonal protection. Angina pectoris occurs in women about 10 years later than in men. However, mortality from ischaemic heart disease remains higher in women than in men. Current studies are focusing on novel cardiovascular risk biomarkers because it seems that traditional cardiovascular risk factors and their assessment scores underestimate the risk in females. Increased plasma levels of these newly established biomarkers of risk have been found to worsen endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, both of which play a key role in the pathogenesis of microvascular angina, which is very common in women. These novel cardiovascular risk markers can be classified into three categories: inflammatory markers, markers of haemostasis, and other biomarkers. PMID:25000444

Pop, Dana; D?dârlat, Alexandra; Zdrenghea, D

2014-01-01

76

Incidence of cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation and cardiovascular risk scores: study protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of death after renal transplantation. Not only conventional CVD risk factors, but also transplant-specific risk factors can influence the development of CVD in kidney transplant recipients. The main objective of this study will be to determine the incidence of post-transplant CVD after renal transplantation and related factors. A secondary objective will be

Salvador Pita-Fernández; Sonia Pértega-Díaz; Francisco Valdés-Cañedo; Rocío Seijo-Bestilleiro; Teresa Seoane-Pillado; Constantino Fernández-Rivera; Angel Alonso-Hernández; Dolores Lorenzo-Aguiar; Beatriz López-Calviño; Andres López-Muñiz

2011-01-01

77

Integrative Treatments to Reduce Risk for Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Recognizing the contribution and interrelatedness of lipoprotein risk factors is critical to prioritizing treatment strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction. Lipoprotein factors still dominate risk for developing cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction. Some emerging risk factors such as C-reactive protein are gaining acceptance due to recent prospective clinical trials demonstrating clinical benefit in reducing these markers. Other emerging risk factors, including lipoprotein particle size, remain to be validated. In this second article of a 2-part series, we will begin with a review of formal risk assessment, discussing the contribution of multiple “risky” and “healthy” components that play a part in overall cardiovascular health. Following risk assessment, we will discuss evidence-based integrative therapies that can be used to modify any risky lipoprotein and inflammatory patient profiles, including medications, functional foods, supplements, and lifestyle approaches. The focus is on low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein. Understanding the interrelatedness of lipoprotein risk factors, and finding efficient methods of treating multiple risk factors simultaneously, will not only improve the long-term health of patients but will also save on the expenditure of healthcare dollars for unnecessary testing and ineffective treatments. Integrative practitioners who understand the contribution of lifestyle factors, and who have numerous effective treatment options at their disposal, are well positioned to counsel patients on cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:21461347

Bradley, Ryan; Oberg, Erica

2010-01-01

78

Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Health Knowledge among Freshman College Students with a Family History of Cardiovascular Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the cardiovascular health knowledge, perception of risk factors, and health behavior of 69 freshmen with a family history of cardiovascular disease with 154 freshmen without this history. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

Tamragouri, Ravikiran N.; And Others

1986-01-01

79

Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.  

PubMed

Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ?45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (?22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

2014-12-01

80

Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital  

PubMed Central

Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ?45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (?22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

2014-01-01

81

Assessment of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients: a comparison of commonly used risk scoring programs  

PubMed Central

Several calculation modalities are used today for cardiovascular risk assessment. Cardiovascular risk assessment should be performed in all hypertensive patients. Risk assessment methods being based on the population in which the patient lives and the inclusion of factors such as ethnicity variations, socioeconomic status, and medication use will contribute to improvements in risk assessments. The results should be shared with the patient, and modifiable risk factors must be effectively treated. PMID:25019017

Ulusoy, ?ükrü

2013-01-01

82

Cardiovascular risk and the use of oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

The use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) is associated with approximately 2-fold and over 4-fold increased relative risks of arterial and venous thromboembolic events, respectively. The highest risk of venous thromboembolism occurs in the first year of use (OR: 4.17) and is reduced to 2.76 over baseline risk after 4 years of therapy. The risk of myocardial infarction does not correlate to the length of therapy and disappears after treatment termination. Most of women, using COCs, have low absolute cardiovascular risks and benefits outweigh the risk associated with this method of birth control. However, in some cases, COCs may be contraindicated due to excessively increased cardiovascular risks. Current users of COCs, older than 35 years, appear to show an estimated 2.5-fold and 10-fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism in comparison to younger than 35 years COCs non-users and users, respectively. COCs users, who are current smokers, have 10-fold increased risk of myocardial infarction, whereas the risk of stroke increases nearly 3-fold. The presence of poorly controlled hypertension is associated with approximately 3-fold increased risks of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, while the risk of haemorrhagic stroke rises 15-fold. In women suffering from hypertension, discontinuation of COCs may improve blood pressure control. Women, who had their blood pressure measured before COCs use, have 2-2.5-fold decreased risk of myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke. In women with multiple cardiovascular risk factors the use of progestogen-only contraceptives (POCs) should be considered. POC therapy is associated with substantially less risk of cardiovascular events than COCs. PMID:24464000

Kaminski, Pawel; Szpotanska-Sikorska, Monika; Wielgos, Miroslaw

2013-01-01

83

Somatotype and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between cardiovascular risk factors and Heath- Carter anthropometric somatotype components were considered in 642 healthy adults free from overt disease: 68 males and 177 females, 30-39 years, and 233 males and 224 females, 40-49 years of age. Risk factors included systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP), fasting glycemia (GLYC), triglycerides (TG), plasma cholesterol (CHOL), the high density lipo-

Robert M. Malina; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Thomas M. K. Song; Germain Theriault; Claude Bouchard

1997-01-01

84

Unfavorable cardiovascular risk profiles in untreated and treated psoriasis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk profile. The systemic inflammation present in psoriasis, various systemic treatments for psoriasis and an increased prevalence of unhealthy life style factors may all contribute to this unfavorable risk profile. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of what is known about these

M. Wakkee; H. B. Thio; E. P. Prens; E. J. G. Sijbrands; H. A. M. Neumann

2007-01-01

85

Cardiovascular Risk In Adult Kidney Transplant Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 140,000 patients are living with a functioning kidney transplant in the United States. Although kidney transplantation confers relatively longer survival com- pared with any of the dialysis modalities, the life expectancy of kidney transplant recip- ients (KTRs) remains lower than that of the age- and sex-matched general population. 1 Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the single leading cause of

Reza Abdi; Jessamyn Bagley; Joseph V. Bonventre; Barry M. Brenner; Charles B. Carpenter; Anil K. Chandraker; David M. Charytan; Kenneth B. Christopher; Gary C. Curhan; Bradley M. Denker; John P. Forman; Markus H. Frank; M. D. Won; Kook Han; Dirk M. Hentschel; Li-Li Hsiao; Stephen Hsu; Benjamin D. Humphreys; John J. Iacomini; Takaharu Ichimura; Julie Lin; M. P. H. Colm; C. Magee; M. P. H. Edgar; L. Milford; David B. Mount; Nader Najafian; Shona Pendse; Martin R. Pollak; Stephen T. Reeders; Mohamed H. Sayegh; Julian L. Seifter; Jagesh V. Shah; Alice M. Sheridan; Ajay K. Singh; Theodore I. Steinman; Eric N. Taylor; Kathryn Tinckam; John K. Tucker; Wolfgang C. Winkelmayer; D. Xueli Yuan; D. Kambiz Zandi-Nejad; Jing Zhou

86

Cardiovascular risk in pediatric-onset rheumatological diseases  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are becoming major health concerns for adults with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The enhanced atherogenesis in this patient population is promoted by the exposure to traditional risk factors as well as nontraditional cardiovascular insults, such as corticosteroid therapy, chronic inflammation and autoantibodies. Despite definite differences between many adult-onset and pediatric-onset rheumatologic diseases, it is extremely likely that atherosclerosis will become the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this pediatric patient population. Because cardiovascular events are rare at this young age, surrogate measures of atherosclerosis must be used. The three major noninvasive vascular measures of early atherosclerosis - namely, flow-mediated dilatation, carotid intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity - can be performed easily on children. Few studies have explored the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and even fewer have used the surrogate vascular measures to document signs of early atherosclerosis in children with pediatric-onset rheumatic diseases. The objective of this review is to provide an overview on cardiovascular risk and early atherosclerosis in pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and juvenile dermatomyositis patients, and to review cardiovascular preventive strategies that should be considered in this population. PMID:23731870

2013-01-01

87

Weight gain and cardiovascular risk after organ transplantation.  

PubMed

Organ transplantation has become a common and effective approach to the management of patients with organ failure. The improvement in long-term survival has resulted in the emergence of cardiovascular disease as the primary cause of death in renal transplant patients and a significant complication in other organ recipients. A number of factors explain this trend, including a high incidence of hypertension, posttransplant diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and obesity-risk factors that are mediated by direct effects of immunosuppressive medications. Weight gain posttransplant affects approximately 50% of patients and represents a significant problem because of the potential synergism between obesity and immunosuppressive medication-induced effects on cardiovascular disease risk factor development. This review discusses the incidence and implications of cardiovascular disease risk factors in organ transplant recipients, strategies for clinical management, and future research directions. PMID:11334060

Baum, C L

2001-01-01

88

Cardiovascular risk factors and events in women with androgen excess.  

PubMed

Androgen excess (AE) was approximated to be present in 7 % of the adult population of women. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent among them, followed by idiopathic hirsutism (IH), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans (HAIRAN) syndrome, and androgen-secreting neoplasms (ASNs). Increased cardiovascular risk was implicated in women with AE. Serum testosterone independently increases risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and correlates even with indices of subclinical atherosclerosis in various populations of postmenopausal women. Hyperandrogenism in PCOS is closely related to the aggravation of abdominal obesity, and together with insulin resistance forming the metabolic core for the development of CVD. However, phenotypic variability of PCOS generates significant influence on the cardiometabolic risks. Numerous risk factors in PCOS lead to 5-7 times higher risk for CVD and over 2-fold higher risk for coronary heart disease and stroke. However, issue on the cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women with hyperandrogenic history is still challenging. There is a significant overlapping in the CVD characteristics of women with PCOS and variants of CAH. Relevant clinical data on the prevalence and cardiometabolic risk and events in women with IH, HAIRAN syndrome or ASNs are scarce. The effects of various oral contraceptives (OCs) and antiandrogenic compounds on metabolic profile are varying, and could be related to the selected populations and different therapy regiments mainly conducted in women with PCOS. It is assumed relation of OCs containing antiandrogenic progestins to the increased risk of cardiovascular and thromboembolic events. PMID:25432327

Macut, D; Anti?, I B; Bjeki?-Macut, J

2014-11-29

89

Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative. PMID:21976880

Prasad, Duggirala Sivaram; Kabir, Zubair; Dash, Ashok Kumar; Das, Bhagabati Charan

2011-01-01

90

What is the role of non-invasive measurements of atherosclerosis in individual cardiovascular risk prediction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary prevention of CVD (cardiovascular disease) is mainly based on the assessment of individual cardiovascular risk factors. However, often, only the most important (conventional) cardiovascular risk factors are determined, and every level of risk factor exposure is associated with a substantial variation in the amount of atherosclerosis. Measuring the effect of risk factor exposure over time directly in the vessel

2007-01-01

91

Cardiovascular risk in Mozambique: who should be treated for hypertension?  

PubMed Central

Aim To estimate the proportion of Mozambicans eligible for pharmacological treatment for hypertension, according to single risk factor and total cardiovascular risk approaches. Methods A representative sample of Mozambicans aged 40–64 years (n = 1116) was evaluated according to the WHO STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance (STEPS). We measured blood pressure (BP) and 12-h fasting blood glucose levels and collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, and use of antidiabetic and antihypertensive drugs. We estimated the 10-year risk of a fatal or nonfatal major cardiovascular event (WHO/lnternational Society of Hypertension risk prediction charts), and computed the proportion of untreated participants eligible for pharmacological treatment for hypertension, according to BP values alone and accounting also for the total cardiovascular risk (WHO guidelines for assessment and management of cardiovascular diseases). Results Among the Mozambicans aged 40–64 years and not taking antihypertensive drugs, less than 4% were classified as having cardiovascular risk at least 20% whereas the prevalence of SBP/DBP at least 140/90 mmHg was nearly 40%. A total of 19.8% of 40–64-year-olds would be eligible for pharmacological treatment of hypertension according to the WHO guidelines, all of whom had SBP/DBP at least 160/100 mmHg. Conclusion Among the Mozambicans aged 40–64 years not taking antihypertensive drugs and having SBP/DBP at least 140/90 mmHg, only half were eligible for pharmacological treatment according to the WHO guidelines. Taking the latter into account, when defining strategies to control hypertension at a population level, may allow a more efficient use of the scarce resources available in developing settings. PMID:24220589

Damasceno, Albertino; Padrão, Patricia; Silva-Matos, Carla; Prista, António; Azevedo, Ana; Lunet, Nuno

2014-01-01

92

Cardiovascular health informatics: risk screening and intervention.  

PubMed

Despite enormous efforts to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the past, it remains the leading cause of death in most countries worldwide. Around two-thirds of these deaths are due to acute events, which frequently occur suddenly and are often fatal before medical care can be given. New strategies for screening and early intervening CVD, in addition to the conventional methods, are therefore needed in order to provide personalized and pervasive healthcare. In this special issue, selected emerging technologies in health informatics for screening and intervening CVDs are reported. These papers include reviews or original contributions on 1) new potential genetic biomarkers for screening CVD outcomes and high-throughput techniques for mining genomic data; 2) new imaging techniques for obtaining faster and higher resolution images of cardiovascular imaging biomarkers such as the cardiac chambers and atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries, as well as possible automatic segmentation, identification, or fusion algorithms; 3) new physiological biomarkers and novel wearable and home healthcare technologies for monitoring them in daily lives; 4) new personalized prediction models of plaque formation and progression or CVD outcomes; and 5) quantifiable indices and wearable systems to measure them for early intervention of CVD through lifestyle changes. It is hoped that the proposed technologies and systems covered in this special issue can result in improved CVD management and treatment at the point of need, offering a better quality of life to the patient. PMID:22997187

Hartley, Craig J; Naghavi, Morteza; Parodi, Oberdan; Pattichis, Constantinos S; Poon, Carmen C Y; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

2012-09-01

93

Cardiovascular Risk Surveillance to Develop a Nationwide Health Promotion Strategy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The Grenada Heart Project aims to study the clinical, biological, and psychosocial determinants of the cardiovascular health in Grenada in order to develop and implement a nationwide cardiovascular health promotion program. METHODS We recruited 2,827 adults randomly selected from the national electronic voter list. The main outcome measures were self-reported cardiovascular disease and behavioral risk factors, anthropometric measures, blood pressure, point-of-care testing for glucose and lipids, and ankle-brachial index. Risk factors were also compared with the U.S. National Health and Nutritional Survey data. RESULTS Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors were: overweight and obesity—57.7% of the population, physical inactivity—23.4%, diabetes—13.3%, hypertension—29.7%, hypercholesterolemia—8.6%, and smoking—7%. Subjects who were physically active had a significantly lower 10-year Framingham risk score (p < 0.001). Compared with the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Survey data, Grenadian women had higher rates of adiposity, diabetes, hypertension, and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, whereas Grenadian men had a higher rate of diabetes, a similar rate of hypertension, and lower rates of the other risk factors. Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease was 7.6%; stroke and coronary heart disease were equally prevalent at ~2%. CONCLUSION This randomly selected adult sample in Grenada reveals prevalence rates of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes significantly exceeding those seen in the United States. The contrasting, paradoxically low levels of prevalent cardiovascular disease support the concept that Grenada is experiencing an obesity-related “risk transition.” These data form the basis for the implementation of a pilot intervention program based on the Institute of Medicine recommendations and may serve as a model for other low- and middle-income countries. PMID:25691303

Bansilal, Sameer; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Woodward, Mark; Iyengar, Rupa; Hunn, Marilyn; Lewis, Marcelle; Francis, Lesley; Charney, Alexander; Graves, Claire; Farkouh, Michael E.; Fuster, Valentin

2015-01-01

94

Exercise and Acute Cardiovascular Events: Placing the Risks into Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitual physical activity reduces coronary heart disease events, but vig- orous activity can also acutely and transiently increase the risk of sudden cardiac death and acute myocardial infarction in susceptible persons. This scientific statement discusses the potential cardiovascular complications of exercise, their pathological substrate, and their incidence and suggests strategies to reduce these complications. Exercise-associated acute cardiac events generally occur

Paul D. Thompson; Barry A. Franklin; Gary J. Balady; Steven N. Blair; Domenico Corrado; N. A. Mark Estes III; Janet E. Fulton; Neil F. Gordon; William L. Haskell; Mark S. Link; Barry J. Maron; Murray A. Mittleman; Antonio Pelliccia; Nanette K. Wenger; Stefan N. Willich; Fernando Costa

95

Issues of fish consumption for cardiovascular disease risk reduction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overv...

96

Accumulating Brisk Walking for Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk, and Psychological Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as effective…

Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne

2002-01-01

97

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Black College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined cardiovascular risk factors in Black first-year college students (N=238). Students completed surveys about blood pressure, cholesterol level, smoking, and physical activity. Results found low rates of high blood pressure, low awareness of cholesterol levels, and low numbers of students who smoked. Females had lower physical…

Kelley, George A.; Lowing, Larry

1997-01-01

98

Cardiovascular risk factors in the former communist countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

MONICA Project findings provide a unique opportunity to compare cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor levels in a large number of populations living in different political systems. 15 European communist populations had significantly higher age-standardized mortality for age groups 35–64 years from all causes, from CVD and stroke than 25 democratic MONICA populations. The prevalence of systolic and diastolic hypertension in

Emil Ginter

1995-01-01

99

Job strain and autonomic indices of cardiovascular disease risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Despite the epidemiological evidence linking job strain to cardiovascular disease, more insight is needed into the etiologic mechanisms. This, in turn, would help to more precisely identify risk. Methods We measured Job Strain using the Job Content Questionnaire, 8\\/day diary reports, and nationally standardized occupational code linkage, as well as autonomic regulation utilizing heart rate variability including spectral-derived components

Sean M. Collins; Robert A. Karasek; Kevin Costas

2005-01-01

100

Genetic Influences on Blood Lipids and Cardiovascular Risk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Changes in diet are likely to modulate cardiovascular disease risk, but after decades of active research and heated discussion the question still remains: what is the optimal diet to achieve this elusive goal? A well-known phenomenon in nutrition research and practice is the dramatic variability in ...

101

Dietary Risk Factors and Their Modification in Cardiovascular Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diet sodium intake for hypertension and dietary fat and cholesterol for hypercholesterolemia, exacerbation of these conditions by obesity, and intervention strategies for their modification. Describes clinical strategies for modifying diet: education, skills…

Jeffery, Robert W.

1988-01-01

102

Parenting styles, peer influences, and adolescent cardiovascular disease risk factors  

E-print Network

studies assessing the causal factors of obesity and cardiovascular disease focused on diet, activity, genetics or other risk events. predominant cardiac risk factors that have been well researched and documented in the literature include hypertension...) of nutrients for healthy people (30, 31). Nearly three decades ago researchers in the 1973-1974 Bogalusa Heart Study reported that the macronutrient content of adolescent diets was approximately 13'r'o of energy from protein, 49'l0 of energy from...

Tramm, Amy Bishop

2000-01-01

103

Importance of Heart Rate in Determining Cardiovascular Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

A body of evidence indicates that subjects with tachycardia are more likely to develop hypertension (1–3) and atherosclerosis in future years (4–6). However, the connection between heart rate and cardiovascular risk has long been neglected on the grounds that tachycardia\\u000a is often associated with the traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as hypertension or metabolic abnormalities\\u000a (7). A high heart

Paolo Palatini

104

Depression: a shared risk factor for cardiovascular and Alzheimer disease.  

PubMed

Depression has been linked to cardiovascular disease and cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer disease, but the exact nature of the relationship is poorly understood. Although depression seems to progress little after the onset of Alzheimer disease, depression in earlier life increases the risk of dementia and cognitive impairment many years in the future. Depression is also associated with reduced vascular function and is a poorly recognized but significant risk factor for stroke. PMID:21972330

Wint, Dylan

2011-08-01

105

Calcium supplements and cardiovascular risk: 5 years on  

PubMed Central

Calcium supplements have been widely used by older men and women. However, in little more than a decade, authoritative recommendations have changed from encouraging the widespread use of calcium supplements to stating that they should not be used for primary prevention of fractures. This substantial shift in recommendations has occurred as a result of accumulated evidence of marginal antifracture efficacy, and important adverse effects from large randomized controlled trials of calcium or coadministered calcium and vitamin D supplements. In this review, we discuss this evidence, with a particular focus on increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements, which we first described 5 years ago. Calcium supplements with or without vitamin D marginally reduce total fractures but do not prevent hip fractures in community-dwelling individuals. They also cause kidney stones, acute gastrointestinal events, and increase the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Any benefit of calcium supplements on preventing fracture is outweighed by increased cardiovascular events. While there is little evidence to suggest that dietary calcium intake is associated with cardiovascular risk, there is also little evidence that it is associated with fracture risk. Therefore, for the majority of people, dietary calcium intake does not require close scrutiny. Because of the unfavorable risk/benefit profile, widespread prescribing of calcium supplements to prevent fractures should be abandoned. Patients at high risk of fracture should be encouraged to take agents with proven efficacy in preventing vertebral and nonvertebral fractures. PMID:25114781

Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R.

2013-01-01

106

Method and apparatus for assessing cardiovascular risk  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method for assessing risk of an adverse clinical event includes detecting a physiologic signal in the subject and determining from the physiologic signal a sequence of intervals corresponding to time intervals between heart beats. The long-time structure of fluctuations in the intervals over a time period of more than fifteen minutes is analyzed to assess risk of an adverse clinical event. In a preferred embodiment, the physiologic signal is an electrocardiogram and the time period is at least fifteen minutes. A preferred method for analyzing the long-time structure variability in the intervals includes computing the power spectrum and fitting the power spectrum to a power law dependence on frequency over a selected frequency range such as 10.sup.-4 to 10.sup.-2 Hz. Characteristics of the long-time structure fluctuations in the intervals is used to assess risk of an adverse clinical event.

Albrecht, Paul (Inventor); Bigger, J. Thomas (Inventor); Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

107

Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned

Barbara Sassen; Gerjo Kok; Herman Schaalma; Henri Kiers; Luc Vanhees

2010-01-01

108

Relationship of socioeconomic status with cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle in a Mediterranean population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Background: Socioeconomic status greatly affects cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle. Aim of the study To analyse the relationship between socioeconomic status and both cardiovascular risk factors and behavioural variables. Aim of the study: To analyse the relationship between socioeconomic status and both cardiovascular risk factors and behavioural variables. Methods: The present random sample of 838 men and 910 women

Helmut Schröder; Izabella Rohlfs; EvaMaria Schmelz; Jaume Marrugat

2004-01-01

109

Marine Carotenoids and Cardiovascular Risk Markers  

PubMed Central

Marine carotenoids are important bioactive compounds with physiological activities related to prevention of degenerative diseases found principally in plants, with potential antioxidant biological properties deriving from their chemical structure and interaction with biological membranes. They are substances with very special and remarkable properties that no other groups of substances possess and that form the basis of their many, varied functions and actions in all kinds of living organisms. The potential beneficial effects of marine carotenoids have been studied particularly in astaxanthin and fucoxanthin as they are the major marine carotenoids. Both these two carotenoids show strong antioxidant activity attributed to quenching singlet oxygen and scavenging free radicals. The potential role of these carotenoids as dietary anti-oxidants has been suggested to be one of the main mechanisms for their preventive effects against cancer and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this short review is to examine the published studies concerning the use of the two marine carotenoids, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21822408

Riccioni, Graziano; D’Orazio, Nicolantonio; Franceschelli, Sara; Speranza, Lorenza

2011-01-01

110

Risk of cardiovascular disease in inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Abundant scientific evidence supporting an association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and venous thromboembolic events, caused by an IBD related hypercoagulability, is acknowledged and thromboprophylactic treatment strategies are now implemented in the management of IBD patients. In contrary, the risk of arterial thromboembolic disease, as ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular events, and mesenteric ischemia in patients with IBD remains uncertain and the magnitude of a potentially increased risk is continuously debated, with ambiguous risk estimates among studies. The evident role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis forms the basis of a biological plausible link; the chronic systemic inflammation in IBD patients increases the risk of atherosclerosis and thereby the risk of thrombotic events. Further, studies have shown that the burden of traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia is lower in IBD populations, thus further strengthen the role of non-traditional risk factors, as chronic inflammation in the linking of the two disease entities. Likewise, mortality from cardiovascular disease in IBD remains questioned. The aim of the current review is to give an up-date on the existing evidence of the possible association between IBD and cardiovascular disease and to discuss traditional and non-traditional risk factors. PMID:25133036

Andersen, Nynne Nyboe; Jess, Tine

2014-01-01

111

A review of cardiovascular risk factors in US military personnel.  

PubMed

As the civilian population exhibits increasing trends in major cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in younger age groups, the US military is observing similar trends. These worrisome developments are seen even in young adulthood. Despite the need for a fit, combat-ready force, increases in CV risk are increasingly evident in the military population. This review provides an overview of coronary artery disease in the young and the prevalence of risk factors in the military population. With increases in current military operations in an acutely stressful environment, the role of stress and the manifestation of CV disease are also examined. PMID:18596497

McGraw, Leigh K; Turner, Barbara S; Stotts, Nancy A; Dracup, Kathleen A

2008-01-01

112

Hypertension, concurrent cardiovascular risk factors and mortality: the Singapore Cardiovascular Cohort Study.  

PubMed

The current hypertension (HTN) guidelines recommend the assessment of other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in individuals with HTN for further management. Few studies in Asian populations have been published to identify the outcome of individuals with HTN and other CVD risk factors. This study aims to assess the effect of HTN alone, and in combination with other CVD risk factors on all-cause and CVD mortality. Three cross-sectional studies carried out in Singapore (baseline 1982--1995) consisting of 5830 persons were grouped by the absence or presence of HTN and CVD risk factors. They were followed-up (mean 14.1 years) by linkage with the National Death Register. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to obtain adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for risk of mortality. HTN individuals with either <2 CVD risk factors (adjusted HR 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.8) or > or =2 CVD risk factors (adjusted HR 2.3; 95% CI 1.9-3.0) were at increased risk of all-cause mortality compared to normotensive individuals. The findings were similar for CVD mortality. HTN individuals who also smoked or had diabetes were at highest risk of all-cause mortality, whereas those with elevated total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoked or diabetes had the highest risk for CVD mortality. These findings show that in HTN individuals it is important to assess the presence of other CVD risk factors and manage accordingly. PMID:18337755

Lee, J; Ma, S; Heng, D; Chew, Sk; Hughes, K; Tai, Es

2008-07-01

113

Genetic Profiling for Risk Reduction in Human Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease is a major health concern affecting over 80,000,000 people in the U.S. alone. Heart failure, cardiomyopathy, heart rhythm disorders, atherosclerosis and aneurysm formation have significant heritable contribution. Supported by familial aggregation and twin studies, these cardiovascular diseases are influenced by genetic variation. Family-based linkage studies and population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have each identified genes and variants important for the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The advent of next generation sequencing has ushered in a new era in the genetic diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, and this is especially evident when considering cardiomyopathy, a leading cause of heart failure. Cardiomyopathy is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by morphologically abnormal heart with abnormal function. Genetic testing for cardiomyopathy employs gene panels, and these panels assess more than 50 genes simultaneously. Despite the large size of these panels, the sensitivity for detecting the primary genetic defect is still only approximately 50%. Recently, there has been a shift towards applying broader exome and/or genome sequencing to interrogate more of the genome to provide a genetic diagnosis for cardiomyopathy. Genetic mutations in cardiomyopathy offer the capacity to predict clinical outcome, including arrhythmia risk, and genetic diagnosis often provides an early window in which to institute therapy. This discussion is an overview as to how genomic data is shaping the current understanding and treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24705294

Puckelwartz, Megan J.; McNally, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

114

Prevalence of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Using Three Risk Equations in Nigerians Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Background: Reports from middle- and high-income countries suggest that the improved health outcome from highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWHIV) is being mitigated by increase in deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aims: This study was to determine the prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and the 10-year cardiovascular risk using three risk equations in PLWHIV with no overt vascular disease. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 265 PLWHIV. We classified the subjects as having low, moderate or high cardiovascular risk using the Framingham, World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) and Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) equations. Results: The mean age of the cohort was 38.7 ± 8.7 years; 179 (67.5%) were females and 214 (80.8%) were on HAART. The prevalent traditional CVRFs in our cohort were low physical activity (66%), low HDL-C (49.1%), hypercholesterolaemia (33.6%), BMI ? 25 kg/m2 (32.8%) and elevated LDL-C (28.3%). The prevalence of smoking was very low (1.9%). The prevalence of moderate to high 10-year coronary risk was 11.7, 12.8, and 12.8% according to the Framingham, WHO/ISH and SCORE risk equations, respectively. Conclusion: Most of our patients had low overall cardiovascular risk according to the three risk equations. PMID:24404550

Edward, Ayodele Olugbenga; Oladayo, Akinboro Adeolu; Omolola, Akinyemi Suliat; Adetiloye, Adepeju Akinlawon; Adedayo, Popoola Adetoun

2013-01-01

115

Visceral fat cell lipolysis and cardiovascular risk factors in obesity.  

PubMed

Visceral fat accumulation relates to cardiovascular risk factors, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated the role of visceral adipocyte triglyceride breakdown (lipolysis) for several risk factors of cardiovascular disease. In 73 obese women, fat mass and distribution, blood pressure, blood samples for cardiometabolic risk factors, and whole-body insulin sensitivity were determined. A subcutaneous and a visceral fat biopsy were taken. Fat cell glycerol release after stimulation with a major lipolytic hormone, noradrenaline, was measured. In simple regression analysis, visceral fat cell lipolysis, but not subcutaneous adipocyte lipolysis was related to components of the metabolic syndrome. Moreover, subjects in the highest quartile of catecholamine-induced visceral lipolysis had higher levels of systolic blood pressure, estimated liver fat, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B and lower whole-body insulin sensitivity than those in the lowest quartile (p=0.0004-0.048). Among subjects with the metabolic syndrome, visceral fat cell lipolysis was 40% higher than in the remaining subjects (p=0.0052). Catecholamine-activated lipolysis in visceral but not subcutaneous fat cells is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in obesity. PMID:22009377

Andersson, D P; Löfgren, P; Thorell, A; Arner, P; Hoffstedt, J

2011-10-01

116

Dietary lignans: physiology and potential for cardiovascular disease risk reduction  

PubMed Central

We reviewed lignan physiology and lignan intervention and epidemiological studies to determine if they decreased the risks of cardiovascular disease in Western populations. Five intervention studies using flaxseed lignan supplements indicated beneficial associations with C-reactive protein and a meta-analysis, which included these studies, also suggested a lowering effect on plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Three intervention studies using sesamin supplements indicated possible lipid and blood pressure lowering associations. Eleven human observational epidemiological studies examined dietary intakes of lignans in relation to cardiovascular disease risk. Five showed decreased risk with either increasing dietary intakes of lignans or increased levels of serum enterolactone (an enterolignan used as a biomarker of lignan intake), five studies were of borderline significance, and one was null. The associations between lignans and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease are promising, but are yet not well established, perhaps due to low lignan intakes in habitual Western diets. At the higher doses used in intervention studies, associations were more evident. PMID:20883417

Peterson, Julia; Dwyer, Johanna; Adlercreutz, Herman; Scalbert, Augustin; Jacques, Paul; McCullough, Marjorie L

2010-01-01

117

Lipoprotein(a) hyperlipidemia as cardiovascular risk factor: pathophysiological aspects.  

PubMed

Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a modified LDL particle with an additional apolipoprotein [apo(a)] protein covalently attached by a thioester bond. Multiple isoforms of apo(a) exist that are genetically determined by differences in the number of Kringle-IV type-2 repeats encoded by the LPA gene. Elevated plasma Lp(a) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease.The phenotypic diversity of familial Lp(a) hyperlipidemia [Lp(a)-HLP] and familial hypercholesterolemia [FH], as defined risks with genetic background, and their frequent co-incidence with additional cardiovascular risk factors require a critical revision of the current diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations established for isolated familial Lp(a)-HLP or FH in combination with elevated Lp(a) levels.Lp(a) assays still suffer from poor standardization, comparability and particle variation. Further evaluation of the current biomarkers and establishment of novel comorbidity biomarkers are necessary for extended risk assessment of cardiovascular disease in FH or Lp(a)-HLP and to better understand the pathophysiology and to improve patient stratification of the Lp(a) syndrome complex.Lp(a) promotes vascular remodeling, increased lesion progression and intima media thickening through induction of M1-macrophages, antiangiogenic effects (e.g. vasa vasorum) with secretion of the antiangiogenic chemokine CXCL10 (IP10) and CXCR3 mediated activation of Th1- and NK-cells.In addition inhibition of serine proteases causing disturbances of thrombosis/ hemostasis/ fibrinolysis, TGFb-activation and acute phase response (e.g. CRP, anti-PL antibodies) are major features of Lp(a) pathology. Anti-PL antibodies (EO6 epitope) also bind to oxidized Lp(a).Lipoprotein apheresis is used to reduce circulating lipoproteins in patients with severe FH and/or Lp(a)-HLP, particularly with multiple cardiovascular risks who are intolerant or insufficiently responsive to lipid-lowering drugs. PMID:25708587

Schmitz, Gerd; Orsó, Evelyn

2015-04-01

118

Does Pomegranate intake attenuate cardiovascular risk factors in hemodialysis patients?  

PubMed Central

Background Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality among hemodialysis (HD) patients. It has been attributed, among other causes, to hypertension and dyslipidemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a year-long consumption of Pomegranate juice (PJ), on two traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors: hypertension and lipid profile, as well as on cardiovascular events. Methods 101 HD patients were randomized to receive 100 cc of PJ (0.7 mM polyphenols) or matching placebo juice, three times a week for one year. The primary endpoints were traditional CV risk factors; blood pressure and lipid profile. Systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure, plasma levels of triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol were monitored quarterly during the study year. Secondary endpoint was incidence of cardiovascular events. Results PJ consumption yielded a significant time response improvement in systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, triglycerides and HDL level; an improvement that was not observed in the placebo intake group. These beneficial outcomes were more pronounced among patients with hypertension, high level of triglycerides and low levels of HDL. Conclusion Regular PJ consumption by HD patients reduced systolic blood pressure and improved lipid profile. These favorable changes may reduce the accelerated atherosclerosis and high incidence of CVD among HD patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov registry, Identifier number: NCT00727519 PMID:24593225

2014-01-01

119

Chronic Hyperuricemia, Uric Acid Deposit and Cardiovascular Risk  

PubMed Central

Hyperuricemia is commonly associated with traditional risk factors such as dysglicemia, dyslipidemia, central obesity and abnormal blood pressure, i.e. the metabolic syndrome. Concordantly, recent studies have revived the controversy over the role of circulating uric acid, hyperuricemia, and gout as an independent prognostic factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this regard, different studies also evaluated the possible role of xanthine inhibitors in inducing blood pressure reduction, increment in flow-mediated dilation, and improved cardiovascular prognosis in various patient settings. The vast majority of these studies have been conducted with either allopurinol or its active metabolite oxypurinol, i.e. two purine-like non-selective inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. More recently, the role of uric acid as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the possible protective role exerted by reduction of hyperuricemia to normal level have been evaluated by the use of febuxostat, a selective, non purine-like xanthine oxidase inhibitor. In this review, we will report current evidence on hyperuricemia in cardiovascular disease. The value of uric acid as a biomarker and as a potential therapeutic target for tailored old and novel “cardiometabolic” treatments will be also discussed. PMID:23173592

Grassi, Davide; Ferri, Livia; Desideri, Giovambattista; Giosia, Paolo Di; Cheli, Paola; Pinto, Rita Del; Properzi, Giuliana; Ferri, Claudio

2013-01-01

120

Framingham cardiovascular risk in patients with obesity and periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is a chronic inflammatory condition that has been associated to a risk factor for the development of periodontitis and cardiovascular disease; however, the relationship still needs to be clarified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk in obese patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 obese patients were evaluated for anthropometric data (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, body fat), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, glycemia and periodontal parameters (visible plaque index (VPI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal probing depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL)). Results: Patients were divided into two groups according to the periodontal characteristics found: Group O-PD: Obese patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 45), 22 men and 23 women; and Group O-sPD: Obese patients without chronic periodontitis (n = 42), 17 men and 25 women. Patients had a BMI mean of 35.2 (±5.1) kg/m2 . Group O-PD showed a similarity between the genders regarding age, SBP, DBP, cholesterol, HDL, GBI, VPI, PPD ?4 mm and CAL ?4 mm. O-PD women showed greater glycemia level and smoking occurrence, but O-PD men presented a 13% - risk over of developing coronary artery disease in 10 years than O-PD women, 9% - risk over than O-sPD men and 15% - risk over than O-sPD women, by the Framingham Score. Conclusions: It was concluded that obesity and periodontal disease are cardiovascular risk factors and that the two associated inflammatory conditions potentially increases the risk for heart diseases. PMID:24744538

Pires, Juliana Rico; dos Santos, Isac Pinheiro; de Camargo, Lilian Flosi; Zuza, Elizangela Partata; de Toledo, Benedicto Egbert Corrêa; Monteiro, Sally Cristina Moutinho

2014-01-01

121

Endothelial Dysfunction: Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Therapy, and Outcome  

PubMed Central

Endothelial dysfunction is a well established response to cardiovascular risk factors and precedes the development of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction is involved in lesion formation by the promotion of both the early and late mechanisms of atherosclerosis including up-regulation of adhesion molecules, increased chemokine secretion and leukocyte adherence, increased cell permeability, enhanced low-density lipoprotein oxidation, platelet activation, cytokine elaboration, and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Endothelial dysfunction is a term that covers diminished production/availability of nitric oxide and/or an imbalance in the relative contribution of endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors. Also, when cardiovascular risk factors are treated the endothelial dysfunction is reversed and it is an independent predictor of cardiac events. We review the literature concerning endothelial dysfunction in regard to its pathogenesis, treatment, and outcome. PMID:17319104

Hadi, Hadi AR; Carr, Cornelia S; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

2005-01-01

122

Cardiovascular protection for all individuals at high risk: evidence-based best practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with cardiovascular risk factors are largely undertreated, for many reasons. Vulnerable individuals may not be aware\\u000a of the risks they are facing or an individual’s risk of cardiovascular disease may be underestimated, particularly among those\\u000a at high risk. Furthermore, in individuals identified as being at high total cardiovascular risk, the full spectrum of therapeutic\\u000a options may not be implemented

George Bakris; Michael Böhm; Gilles Dagenais; Hans-Christoph Diener; Toshiro Fujita; Philip Gorelick; Sverre Erik Kjeldsen; Markku Laakso; Giuseppe Mancia; Bertram Pitt; Arya Sharma; Peter Sleight; Koon Teo; Thomas Unger; Michael Weber; Bryan Williams; Faiez Zannad

2008-01-01

123

Change in cardiovascular risk factors in France, 1985–1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

The change in the main cardiovascular risk factors in France was assessed using the MONICA population surveys conducted in the Urban Community of Lille, Bas-Rhin and Haute-Garonne. Trends in obesity, tobacco smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and self-reported diabetes were established for the first (1985–1988) and the last (1995–1997) survey. The results indicate that the prevalence of overweight and obesity remained stable

P. Marques-Vidal; J.-B. Ruidavets; P. Amouyel; P. Ducimetière; D. Arveiler; M. Montaye; B. Haas; A. Bingham; J. Ferrières

2004-01-01

124

Cardiovascular Risk Factors for People with Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to document the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among people with chronic mental illness.Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 234 outpatients attending a community mental health clinic in the North-western Health Care Network in Melbourne, Australia. Prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, hypertension, salt intake, exercise and history

Sandra Davidson; Fiona Judd; Damien Jolley; Barbara Hocking; Sandra Thompson; Brendan Hyland

2001-01-01

125

Effects of cocoa flavanols on risk factors for cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic investigations support the hypothesis that regular consumption of flavonoid-containing foods can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). While flavonoids are ubiquitous in plants, cocoa can be particularly rich in a sub-class of flavonoids known as flavanols. A number of human dietary intervention trials with flavanol-containing cocoa products have demonstrated improvements in endothelial and platelet function, as well as

John W Erdman Jr; LeaAnn Carson; Catherine Kwik-Uribe; Ellen M

126

Prevalence of stroke\\/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke\\/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol,

M. Bodo; K. Sipos; G. Thuroczy; G. Panczel; L. Ilias; P. Szonyi; T. Nebella; A. Banyasz; Z. Nagy

2010-01-01

127

Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction Models: Evaluation Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper uses a real world anaesthesia time-series monitoring data in the prediction of cardiovascular disease risk in a\\u000a manner similar to exercise electrocardiography. Models derived using the entire anaesthesia population and subgroups based\\u000a on pre-anaesthesia likelihood of complications are compared in an attempt to ascertain which model performance measures are\\u000a best suited to populations with differing pre-test probability of

Richi Nayak; Ellen Pitt

2011-01-01

128

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is prevalent in people with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Evidence\\u000a is now accumulating that NAFLD is associated with obesity and diabetes and may serve as a predictor of cardiovascular disease.\\u000a Although at present, treatment of the individual risk factors pertinent to NAFLD is advocated, novel therapies are emerging\\u000a that may target steatosis

Roger K. Schindhelm; Michaela Diamant; Robert J. Heine

2007-01-01

129

Relationship between Neck Length, Sleep, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Background Neck circumference, as a predicator of obesity, is a well-known risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular diseases. However, little research exists on neck length associated with these factors. This study explored the association of neck length with sleep and cardiovascular risk factors by measuring midline neck length (MNL) and lateral neck length (LNL). Methods We examined 240 patients aged 30 to 75 years who visited a health check-up center between January 2012 and July 2012. Patients with depressive disorder or sleep disturbance were excluded from this study. MNL from the upper margin of the hyoid bone to the jugular notch and LNL from the mandibular angle to the mid-portion of the ipsilateral clavicle were measured twice and were adjusted by height to determine their relationship with sleep and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Results Habitual snorers had shorter LNL height ratios (P = 0.011), MNL height ratios in men (P = 0.062), and MNL height ratios in women (P = 0.052). Those snoring bad enough to annoy others had shorter MNL height ratios in men (P = 0.083) and women (P = 0.035). Men with objective sleep apnea had longer distances from the mandible to the hyoid bone to the mandible (P = 0.057). Men with metabolic syndrome had significantly shorter LNL height ratios (P = 0.021), and women with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome had shorter MNL height ratios (P < 0.05). Conclusion This study shows that a short neck by measuring the MNL is probably associated with snoring. In addition, MNL is related to cardiovascular disease risk factors in women. PMID:25780512

Han, Tae Seung; Kim, Su Min; Yang, Hyun Ju; Lee, Bum Soon; Park, Soon Yeob; Lee, Won Joon

2015-01-01

130

Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, other cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiovascular disease in Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in North West Europe: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The prevalence of diabetes, other cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality varies between immigrant groups in Western societies, but epidemiological data on these topics are scarce for Turks and Moroccan immigrant living in North West Europe.Methods. Medline and Embase were systematically searched for studies containing data on the prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiovascular morbidity

P. J. M. Uitewaal; D. R. Manna; M. A. Bruijnzeels; A. W. Hoes; S. Thomas

2004-01-01

131

Life satisfaction and cardiovascular disease risk in Poland  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death. Life satisfaction is a predictor of morbidity and mortality, irrespectively of objective measures of health status. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between life satisfaction (LS) and cardiovascular disease risk (CVD) assessed with the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in Polish adults. Material and methods Past, present and projected LS were estimated. The FRS reflecting 10-year CVD risk was calculated from health indices and lifestyle parameters. Relationships between LS and FRS were tested by two-way analysis of variance in 489 men and 591 women, 40–50 years of age. Results Subjects with a reduction in LS over time had a higher FRS compared to peers with an improvement in LS. The relationship between current LS and FRS had a J-shape in men; FRS was lowest in men with an LS of 5–7 (average LS), slightly higher in men with an LS of 8–10 (highest LS), and highest in men with an LS of 1–4 (lowest LS). Among women, there was an inverse linear relationship between LS and FRS: the higher the LS, the lower FRS. There was a strong linear relationship between predicted LS and CVD risk. Highest risk was evident in subjects with low LS in whom low LS was predicted over the next five years. Conclusions Low LS (dissatisfaction) thus has a long-term negative effect on CVD risk in Polish adults of both sexes. PMID:24049521

Szklarska, Alicja; Lipowicz, Anna; Jankowska, Ewa Anita; Kozie?, S?awomir

2013-01-01

132

Risk of cardiovascular disease? A qualitative study of risk interpretation among patients with high cholesterol  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown the importance of paying attention to lay peoples’ interpretations of risk of disease, in order to explain health-related behavior. However, risk interpretations interplay with social context in complex ways. The objective was to explore how asymptomatic patients with high cholesterol interpret risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods Fourteen patients with high cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease were interviewed, and patterns across patient accounts were identified and analysed from an ethnographic approach. Results Information from the general practitioner about high cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease was reinterpreted in everyday social life. The risk associated with fatty foods was weighed against the pleasures of social and cultural events in which this type of food was common and cherished. A positive mindset was applied as a strategy to lower the risk of having high cholesterol, but knowledge about risk was viewed as a cause of anxiety and self-absorption, and this anxiety made the body susceptible to disease, hampering the chances for healthy life. Conclusion Interpretations of high cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease are embedded in social relations and everyday life concerns. This should be addressed in general practice in preference-sensitive cases about risk-reducing medication. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01187056 PMID:24040920

2013-01-01

133

Cannabis Use: Signal of Increasing Risk of Serious Cardiovascular Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabis is known to be associated with neuropsychiatric problems, but less is known about complications affecting other specified body systems. We report and analyze 35 recent remarkable cardiovascular complications following cannabis use. Methods and Results In France, serious cases of abuse and dependence in response to the use of psychoactive substances must be reported to the national system of the French Addictovigilance Network. We identified all spontaneous reports of cardiovascular complications related to cannabis use collected by the French Addictovigilance Network from 2006 to 2010. We described the clinical characteristics of these cases and their evolution: 1.8% of all cannabis?related reports (35/1979) were cardiovascular complications, with patients being mostly men (85.7%) and of an average age of 34.3 years. There were 22 cardiac complications (20 acute coronary syndromes), 10 peripheral complications (lower limb or juvenile arteriopathies and Buerger?like diseases), and 3 cerebral complications (acute cerebral angiopathy, transient cortical blindness, and spasm of cerebral artery). In 9 cases, the event led to patient death. Conclusions Increased reporting of cardiovascular complications related to cannabis and their extreme seriousness (with a death rate of 25.6%) indicate cannabis as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease in young adults, in line with previous findings. Given that cannabis is perceived to be harmless by the general public and that legalization of its use is debated, data concerning its danger must be widely disseminated. Practitioners should be aware that cannabis may be a potential triggering factor for cardiovascular complications in young people. PMID:24760961

Jouanjus, Emilie; Lapeyre?Mestre, Maryse; Micallef, Joelle

2014-01-01

134

Predictive Utility of the Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile for Cognitive Function: Evidence from the Whitehall II Study  

E-print Network

1 Predictive Utility of the Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile for Cognitive of potentially relevant cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction, coronary insufficiency, angina, and peripheral artery disease. We used the recently developed Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease Risk

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

135

Investigation on Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Using Physiological Parameters  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Early prediction of CVD is urgently important for timely prevention and treatment. Incorporation or modification of new risk factors that have an additional independent prognostic value of existing prediction models is widely used for improving the performance of the prediction models. This paper is to investigate the physiological parameters that are used as risk factors for the prediction of cardiovascular events, as well as summarizing the current status on the medical devices for physiological tests and discuss the potential implications for promoting CVD prevention and treatment in the future. The results show that measures extracted from blood pressure, electrocardiogram, arterial stiffness, ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI), and blood glucose carry valuable information for the prediction of both long-term and near-term cardiovascular risk. However, the predictive values should be further validated by more comprehensive measures. Meanwhile, advancing unobtrusive technologies and wireless communication technologies allow on-site detection of the physiological information remotely in an out-of-hospital setting in real-time. In addition with computer modeling technologies and information fusion. It may allow for personalized, quantitative, and real-time assessment of sudden CVD events. PMID:24489599

Lin, Wan-Hua; Zhang, Heye; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

2013-01-01

136

Prevalence of stroke/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.

Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.

2010-04-01

137

Glycated Hemoglobin, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Risk in Nondiabetic Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Fasting glucose is the standard measure used to diagnose diabetes in the United States. Recently, glycated hemoglobin was also recommended for this purpose. Methods We compared the prognostic value of glycated hemoglobin and fasting glucose for identifying adults at risk for diabetes or cardiovascular disease. We measured glycated hemoglobin in whole-blood samples from 11,092 black or white adults who did not have a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease and who attended the second visit (occurring in the 1990–1992 period) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Results The glycated hemoglobin value at baseline was associated with newly diagnosed diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes. For glycated hemoglobin values of less than 5.0%, 5.0 to less than 5.5%, 5.5 to less than 6.0%, 6.0 to less than 6.5%, and 6.5% or greater, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) for diagnosed diabetes were 0.52 (0.40 to 0.69), 1.00 (reference), 1.86 (1.67 to 2.08), 4.48 (3.92 to 5.13), and 16.47 (14.22 to 19.08), respectively. For coronary heart disease, the hazard ratios were 0.96 (0.74 to 1.24), 1.00 (reference), 1.23 (1.07 to 1.41), 1.78 (1.48 to 2.15), and 1.95 (1.53 to 2.48), respectively. The hazard ratios for stroke were similar. In contrast, glycated hemoglobin and death from any cause were found to have a J-shaped association curve. All these associations remained significant after adjustment for the baseline fasting glucose level. The association between the fasting glucose levels and the risk of cardiovascular disease or death from any cause was not significant in models with adjustment for all covariates as well as glycated hemoglobin. For coronary heart disease, measures of risk discrimination showed significant improvement when glycated hemoglobin was added to models including fasting glucose. Conclusions In this community-based population of nondiabetic adults, glycated hemoglobin was similarly associated with a risk of diabetes and more strongly associated with risks of cardiovascular disease and death from any cause as compared with fasting glucose. These data add to the evidence supporting the use of glycated hemoglobin as a diagnostic test for diabetes. PMID:20200384

Selvin, Elizabeth; Steffes, Michael W.; Zhu, Hong; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Wagenknecht, Lynne; Pankow, James; Coresh, Josef; Brancati, Frederick L.

2010-01-01

138

Critical appraisal of inflammatory markers in cardiovascular risk stratification.  

PubMed

Despite great progress in prevention strategies, pharmacotherapy and interventional treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD), cardiovascular events still constitute the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the modern world. Traditional risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity, dyslipidemia, and positive family history account for the occurrence of the majority of these events, but not all of them. Adequate risk assessment remains the most challenging in individuals classified into low or intermediate risk categories. Inflammation plays a key role in the initiation and promotion of atherosclerosis and may lead to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) by the induction of plaque instability. For this reason, numerous inflammatory markers have been extensively investigated as potential candidates for the enhancement of cardiovascular risk assessment. This review aims to critically assess the clinical utility of well-established (C-reactive protein [CRP] and fibrinogen), newer (lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 [Lp-PLA2] and myeloperoxidase [MPO]) and novel (growth differentiation factor-15 [GDF-15]) inflammatory markers which, reflect different pathophysiological pathways underlying CAD. Although according to the traditional approach all discussed inflammatory markers were shown to be associated with the risk of future cardiovascular events in individuals with and without CAD, their clear clinical utility remains not fully elucidated. Current recommendations of numerous scientific societies predominantly advocate routine assessment of CRP in healthy people with intermediate cardiovascular risk. However, these recommendations substantially vary in their strength among particular societies. These discrepancies have a multifactorial background, including: (i) the strong prognostic value of CRP supported by solid scientific evidence and proven to be comparable in magnitude with that of total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or hypertension, (ii) favourable analytical characteristics of commercially available CRP assays, (iii) lack of CRP specificity and causal relationship between CRP concentration and cardiovascular risk, and (iv) CRP dependence on other classical risk factors. Of major importance, CRP measurement in healthy men ?50 years of age or healthy women ?60 years of age with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <130?mg/dL may be helpful in the selection of patients for statin therapy. Additionally, evaluation of CRP and fibrinogen or Lp-PLA2 may be considered to facilitate risk stratification in ACS patients and in healthy individuals with intermediate cardiovascular risk, respectively. Nevertheless, the clinical utility of CRP requires further investigation in a broad spectrum of CAD patients, while other promising inflammatory markers, particularly GDF-15 and Lp-PLA2, should be tested in individuals both with and without established CAD. Further studies should also focus on novel performance metrics such as measures of discrimination, calibration and reclassification, in order to better address the clinical utility of investigated biomarkers and to avoid misleadingly optimistic results. It also has to be emphasized that, due to the multifactorial pathogenesis of CAD, detailed risk stratification remains a complex process also involving, beyond assessment of inflammatory biomarkers, the patient's clinical characteristics, results of imaging examinations, electrocardiographic findings and other laboratory parameters (e.g. lipid profile, indices of renal function, markers of left ventricular overload and fibrosis, and biomarkers of myocardial necrosis, preferably cardiac troponins). PMID:24918900

Krintus, Magdalena; Kozinski, Marek; Kubica, Jacek; Sypniewska, Grazyna

2014-10-01

139

Level of kidney function as a risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Level of kidney function as a risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes in the elderly.BackgroundThere is a high prevalence of both reduced kidney function as well as cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the elderly. We evaluated whether the level of kidney function is an independent risk factor for CVD outcomes in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a cohort of subjects whose age

Guruprasad Manjunath; Hocine Tighiouart; Josef Coresh; Bonnie Macleod; Deeb N. Salem; John L. Griffith; Andrew S. Levey; Mark J. Sarnak

2003-01-01

140

[Civilization stress, cardiovascular risk, evidence-based medicine, guidelines].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases have the pole-position on the list of morbidity and mortality statistics. Despite the great advances have been made in management of cardiovascular diseases, prevalence of these disorders increases worldwide, and even younger and younger ages are threatened. This phenomenon is strongly related to obesity and type 2 diabetes pandemic, which shows an unequivocal association with expansion of modernized life-style. The pathomechanism proposed to have central role is the chronic stress induced by civilized life-conduct. The authors criticizes the everyday practice suggested for management of cardiovascular diseases, focusing on normalization of cardiovascular risk factors, instead of fighting against the primary cause ie. chronic stress. There is growing evidence, that achieving the target values defined in guide-lines will not necessarily result in improvement of patient related clinical outcomes. The statistical approach generally practiced in randomized clinical trials is primarily striving for the drug-sale, instead of discovering novel pathophysiological relations. Pharmaceutical industry having decisive role in research and patient-care is mainly interested in profit-sharing, therefore patients' interest can not be optimally realized, and costs are unnecessarily augmented. Separation of patient-, and business-oriented medical care is an ethical question of fundamental importance. PMID:19403433

Simon, Kornél

2009-05-10

141

Cardiovascular risk in operators under radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the long-term effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on the cardiovascular system. Two groups of exposed operators (49 broadcasting (BC) station and 61 TV station operators) and a control group of 110 radiorelay station operators, matched by sex and age, with similar job characteristics except for the radiofrequency EMR were studied. The EMR exposure was assessed and the time-weighted average (TWA) was calculated. The cardiovascular risk factors arterial pressure, lipid profile, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, smoking, and family history of cardiovascular disease were followed. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly higher in the two exposed groups. It was found that the radiofrequency EMR exposure was associated with greater chance of becoming hypertensive and dyslipidemic. The stepwise multiple regression equations showed that the SBP and TWA predicted the high TC and high LDL-C, while the TC, age and abdominal obesity were predictors for high SBP and DBP. In conclusion, our data show that the radiofrequency EMR contributes to adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. PMID:16503299

Vangelova, Katia; Deyanov, Christo; Israel, Mishel

2006-03-01

142

High-Oleic Ground Beef and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Men and Postmenopausal Women  

E-print Network

About half of all deaths in developed countries are caused by cardiovascular disease. It is well known that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk can be influenced by diet, but optimal dietary content of fatty acids continues to be debated. The effect...

Ghahramany, Ghazal

2012-07-16

143

Kidney Disease as a Risk Factor for Development of Cardiovascular Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a scientific statement on kidney disease as a risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease from the American Heart Association Councils on Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research, Clinical Cardiology, and Epidemiology and Prevention.

2008-06-25

144

Does Exposure to Low or Moderate Levels of Arsenic Increase the Risk for Cardiovascular Disease?  

MedlinePLUS

Does Exposure to Low or Moderate Levels of Arsenic Increase the Risk for Cardiovascular Disease? The full ... titled “Association Between Exposure to Low to Moderate Arsenic Levels and Incident Cardiovascular Disease. A Prospective Cohort ...

145

Left Ventricular Dysfunction as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular and Non-Cardiovascular Hospitalizations in African-Americans  

PubMed Central

Background A substantial portion of the public health burden of heart failure is due to hospitalizations, many of which are for causes other than cardiovascular disease. We assessed whether left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction was associated with increased risk of both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular hospitalizations in a community sample of African-Americans. Methods African-American participants from the Jackson, MS site of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study who underwent echocardiography were followed for twelve years. Hospitalization rates among individuals with and without LV systolic dysfunction were compared using negative binomial regression. Results Among 2416 participants with echocardiograms, LV systolic dysfunction was found in 61 (2.5%). Participants with LV dysfunction experienced 366 hospitalizations, a rate of 1.27 per person-year, compared to 0.25 per person-year among individuals without LV dysfunction. The incidence rate ratio adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, and other risk factors was 3.11 (95% CI 2.22–4.35). The adjusted rate ratios were 4.76 (95% CI 2.90–7.20) for cardiovascular and 2.67 (95% CI 1.82–3.90) for non-cardiovascular diagnoses, with similar findings in the subset of individuals with asymptomatic LV dysfunction. The percent attributable risks for hospitalizations were 87% and 74% for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes (79% and 63% after adjustment). Conclusions African-American individuals with LV dysfunction are at an increased risk of hospitalization due to a wide range of causes with non-cardiovascular hospitalizations accounting for nearly half the increased risk. To the extent that estimates of risk focus on cardiovascular morbidity, they may underestimate the true health burden of LV dysfunction. PMID:20826258

Blecker, Saul; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Fox, Ervin; Russell, Stuart D.; Miller, Edgar R.; Taylor, Herman; Brancati, Frederick; Coresh, Josef

2010-01-01

146

CYCLOOXYGENASE POLYMORPHISMS AND RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS: THE ATHEROSCLEROSIS RISK IN COMMUNITIES (ARIC) STUDY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cyclooxygenase-derived prostaglandins modulate cardiovascular disease risk. We genotyped 2212 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants (1,023 incident coronary heart disease (CHD) cases; 270 incident ischemic stroke cases; 919 non-cases) with available DNA for polymorphisms in PTGS1 an...

147

Metabolic Abnormalities and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children with Myositis  

PubMed Central

Objective We studied children with myositis to characterize their metabolic abnormalities and risk factors for future cardiovascular disease. Methods Seventeen patients with severe juvenile myositis, primarily referred because of refractory disease, were assessed using standardized disease activity and damage measures. Body mass index (BMI), fasting insulin and lipids, 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and cytokine levels were obtained. Results The majority (71%) had blood pressures > 75th percentile, 23.5% had hypertension, and BMI was > 85th percentile in 47%. Metabolic abnormalities were also frequent: 41.2% had an elevated fasting insulin level, 47.1% had hypertriglyceridemia and 25% met criteria for the metabolic syndrome. While insulin resistance was common (based on homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), and glucose: insulin (G:I) ratio), insulin secretion appeared to be unaffected. Thigh muscle damage assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) significantly correlated with fasting insulin, glucose and G:I ratio. Glucose indices also correlated with the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2 and IL-12 and inversely with anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1RA and IL-10. Conclusions In this referral cohort of children with severe juvenile myositis, metabolic abnormalities and predictors of cardiovascular disease were common, suggesting an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease. Indicators of insulin resistance correlated with muscle damage on MRI and pro-inflammatory cytokines and inversely with anti-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:19643439

Coyle, Kathleen; Rother, Kristina I.; Weise, Martina; Ahmed, Alaa; Miller, Frederick W; Rider, Lisa G.

2010-01-01

148

Effects of Muscular Strength on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Prognosis  

PubMed Central

Physical fitness is one of the strongest predictors of individual future health status. Together with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscular strength (MusS) has been increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis and prevention of chronic disease. We review the most recent literature on the effect of MusS in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with special interest in elucidating its specific benefits beyond those from CRF and body composition. MusS has shown an independent protective effect on all-cause and cancer mortality in healthy middle-aged men, as well as in men with hypertension (HTN) and patients with heart failure. It has also been inversely associated with age-related weight and adiposity gains, risk of HTN, and prevalence and incidence of the metabolic syndrome. In children and adolescents, higher levels of muscular fitness have been inversely associated with insulin resistance, clustered cardiometabolic risk and inflammatory proteins. Generally, the influence of muscular fitness was weakened but remained protective after considering CRF. Also interestingly, higher levels of muscular fitness seems to some extent counteract the adverse cardiovascular profile of overweight and obese individuals. As many of the investigations have been conducted with non-Hispanic white men, it is important to examine how race/ethnicity and gender may affect these relationships. To conclude, most important effects of resistance training (RT) are also summarized, to better understand how higher levels of muscular fitness may result in a better cardiovascular prognosis and survival. PMID:22885613

Artero, Enrique G.; Lee, Duck-chul; Lavie, Carl J.; España-Romero, Vanesa; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Blair, Steven N.

2012-01-01

149

Relation between Body Iron Status and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background: There is conflicting evidence regarding the relationship between iron stores and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The present study aimed to investigate the association between body iron indices and some cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: In a case–control study conducted in the south of Shiraz, Iran, we determined ferritin, iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), metabolic risk factors, C-reactive protein (CRP), and anthropometric measurements in 100 men aged 45 years and higher with newly diagnosed CVD and 100 adjusted controls without evidence for CVD. Results: The mean of low density lipoprotein (LDL-c), CRP, and ferritin concentrations were significantly higher in cases than controls, and high density lipoprotein (HDL-c) was significantly lower in cases than controls. Pearson correlation coefficient between CRP and the other risk factors in case group showed that only ferritin, serum iron, waist circumference, and LDL-c significantly correlated with CRP (r = 0.32 with P < 0.001, r = 0.29 with P < 0.05, r = 0.41 with P < 0.01, and r = 0.36 with P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: This study indicated an association between a positive balance of body iron and CVD. Hence, caution should be exercised in administration of iron supplements to patients with CVD and in consumption of food rich in iron by them. PMID:24049617

Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Shidfar, Farzad; Zamani, Atefeh

2013-01-01

150

Are there genetic paths common to obesity, cardiovascular disease outcomes, and cardiovascular risk factors?  

PubMed

Clustering of obesity, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular disease risk factors is observed in epidemiological studies and clinical settings. Twin and family studies have provided some supporting evidence for the clustering hypothesis. Loci nearest a lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showing genome-wide significant associations with coronary artery disease, body mass index, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, lipids, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected for pathway and network analyses. Eighty-seven autosomal regions (181 SNPs), mapping to 56 genes, were found to be pleiotropic. Most pleiotropic regions contained genes associated with coronary artery disease and plasma lipids, whereas some exhibited coaggregation between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We observed enrichment for liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) and farnesoid X receptor/RXR nuclear receptor signaling among pleiotropic genes and for signatures of coronary artery disease and hepatic steatosis. In the search for functionally interacting networks, we found that 43 pleiotropic genes were interacting in a network with an additional 24 linker genes. ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data were queried for distribution of pleiotropic SNPs among regulatory elements and coding sequence variations. Of the 181 SNPs, 136 were annotated to ? 1 regulatory feature. An enrichment analysis found over-representation of enhancers and DNAse hypersensitive regions when compared against all SNPs of the 1000 Genomes pilot project. In summary, there are genomic regions exerting pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors, although only a few included obesity. Further studies are needed to resolve the clustering in terms of DNA variants, genes, pathways, and actionable targets. PMID:25722444

Rankinen, Tuomo; Sarzynski, Mark A; Ghosh, Sujoy; Bouchard, Claude

2015-02-27

151

[Cardiovascular risk factors in an Arab and Hispanic working population].  

PubMed

318 records of male workers, 169 Spanish and 149 Arab were retrospectively studied in 1987 at the "Gabinete de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo" (Council for Safety and Hygiene in the Workplace) in Ceuta in order to prove the hypothesis that 2 different ethnic groups living in the same geographic area have a non-equal distribution of cardiovascular risk factors. The Spanish group showed a higher prevalence in blood hypertension, diabetes, glucose intolerance, obesity and alcohol intake, compared to the Arab group. Smoking and high levels of seric cholesterol were similar in both groups, however, medium levels of seric cholesterol were lower in the Arab group. Family histories of cardiovascular disease were very rare in the latter mentioned group. These observations suggested a major predisposition to ischemic cardiopathy in the Spanish group. PMID:1932489

Valdivielso, P; García, A; de Rus, I; Avila, J M; Andrade, R; Escolar, J L; González, P

1991-07-01

152

Coffee components and cardiovascular risk: beneficial and detrimental effects.  

PubMed

Coffee consists of several biological active compounds, such as caffeine, diterpenes, chlorogenic acids, and melanoidins, which may affect human health. The intake of each compound depends on the variety of coffee species, roasting degree, type of brewing method and serving size. The bioavailability and the distribution of each compound and its metabolites also contribute to coffee mechanisms of action. The health benefits of coffee consumption regarding cardiovascular system and metabolism mostly depend on its antioxidant compounds. In contrast, diterpenes and caffeine may produce harmful effects by raising lipid fraction and affecting endothelial function, respectively. Studying the mechanism of action of coffee components may help understanding weather coffee's impact on health is beneficial or hazardous. In this article, we reviewed the available information about coffee compounds and their mechanism of action. Furthermore, benefits and risks for cardiovascular system associated with coffee consumption will be discussed. PMID:25046596

Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

2014-12-01

153

Assessment of high cardiovascular risk profiles for the clinician.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. General Framingham Risk Profile (GFRP) and World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) charts were used to assess CV risk in DM in Oman. The GFRP identified more patients with medium-risk DM; GFRP and WHO/ISH identified essentially equal numbers at very high risk. These were then used to evaluate statin usage in Oman, including economics. Google lists innumerable tools from organizations, hospitals, practitioners, magazines, societies, clinics, and medical associations. The GFRP and WHO/ISH calculations provided useful DM assessment of populations in Oman. Other major risk models are Adult Treatment Panel III, based on Framingham, and Reynolds Risk Score; the latter incorporates other factors such as family history, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hemoglobin A(1c) (in DM). These models are useful in assessing specific populations. Individual practitioners with limited time may just evaluate patients as low, medium, and high CV risk based on general knowledge and then treat. PMID:23299171

Whayne, Thomas F

2013-07-01

154

Testosterone therapy and cardiovascular risk: advances and controversies.  

PubMed

Two recent studies raised new concerns regarding cardiovascular (CV) risks with testosterone (T) therapy. This article reviews those studies as well as the extensive literature on T and CV risks. A MEDLINE search was performed for the years 1940 to August 2014 using the following key words: testosterone, androgens, human, male, cardiovascular, stroke, cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, heart attack, death, and mortality. The weight and direction of evidence was evaluated and level of evidence (LOE) assigned. Only 4 articles were identified that suggested increased CV risks with T prescriptions: 2 retrospective analyses with serious methodological limitations, 1 placebo-controlled trial with few major adverse cardiac events, and 1 meta-analysis that included questionable studies and events. In contrast, several dozen studies have reported a beneficial effect of normal T levels on CV risks and mortality. Mortality and incident coronary artery disease are inversely associated with serum T concentrations (LOE IIa), as is severity of coronary artery disease (LOE IIa). Testosterone therapy is associated with reduced obesity, fat mass, and waist circumference (LOE Ib) and also improves glycemic control (LOE IIa). Mortality was reduced with T therapy in 2 retrospective studies. Several RCTs in men with coronary artery disease or heart failure reported improved function in men who received T compared with placebo. The largest meta-analysis to date revealed no increase in CV risks in men who received T and reduced CV risk among those with metabolic disease. In summary, there is no convincing evidence of increased CV risks with T therapy. On the contrary, there appears to be a strong beneficial relationship between normal T and CV health that has not yet been widely appreciated. PMID:25636998

Morgentaler, Abraham; Miner, Martin M; Caliber, Monica; Guay, Andre T; Khera, Mohit; Traish, Abdulmaged M

2015-02-01

155

Excess cardiovascular risk in diabetic women: a case for intensive treatment.  

PubMed

Diabetes is a common and rapidly growing disease that affects more than 380 million people worldwide and is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease with differential effects on women compared to men. While the general population of women, particularly young women, has more favourable cardiovascular risk profiles than men, this protective effect has been shown to be lost or even reversed in diabetic women. Several studies have demonstrated a significant diabetes-associated excess risk of cardiovascular disease in women. Sex-specific differences in risk factors associated with diabetes and their management may be responsible for the relative excess cardiovascular risk in women with diabetes. Diabetic women need intensive treatment in order to optimize management of cardiovascular risk factors. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the excess cardiovascular risk in diabetic women in order to tailor prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:25903071

Recarti, C; Sep, S J S; Stehouwer, C D A; Unger, T

2015-06-01

156

Cardiovascular risk factors, change in risk factors over 7 years, and the risk of clinical diabetes mellitus type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a large longitudinal study, we examined the relationships between cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, blood pressure, smoking, and physical activity), and change in these risk factors over a 7-year period, and the risk of clinical diabetes mellitus type 2. There were 73 verified new cases of clinical diabetes mellitus type 2 (diagnosed between 1987 and 1995) and 9,982 controls

Bjarne K Jacobsen; Kaare H Bønaa; Inger Njølstad

2002-01-01

157

Prehypertension: A Warning Sign of Future Cardiovascular Risk  

PubMed Central

Since the report from the national high blood pressure (BP) education program working group on BP in children and adolescents and the introduction of a new description called prehypertension many data have been provided on its rate of progression to hypertension, its prevalence and association with other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and its therapy. Making a diagnosis of prehypertension in a child or adolescent identifies an individual at increased risk for early-onset CV disease who requires specific treatment. Thus, routine BP measurement is highly recommended at every health-care encounter beginning at 3 years of age. This review will present updated data on prehypertension in children and adolescents to increase awareness of health-care providers to the seriousness of this condition. Optimal BP measurement techniques as well as the evaluation and management of prehypertension will be discussed and preventive strategies to reduce the CV risk will be presented. PMID:24791190

Assadi, Farahnak

2014-01-01

158

Biomarkers for cardiovascular risk assessment in autoimmune diseases.  

PubMed

Autoimmune diseases, such as antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis, are characterized by a high prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD), which constitutes the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among such patients. Although such effects are partly explained by a higher prevalence of traditional CV risk factors, many studies indicate that such factors do not fully explain the enhanced CV risk in these patients. In addition, risk stratification algorithms based upon traditional CV risk factors are not as predictive in autoimmune diseases as in the general population. For these reasons, the timely and accurate assessment of CV risk in these high-risk populations still remains an unmet clinical need. An enhanced contribution of different inflammatory components of the immune response, as well as autoimmune elements (e.g. autoantibodies, autoantigens, and cellular response), has been proposed to underlie the incremental CV risk observed in these populations. Recent advances in proteomic tools have contributed to the discovery of proteins involved in CVDs, including some that may be suitable to be used as biological markers. In this review we summarize the main markers in the field of CVDs associated with autoimmunity, as well as the recent advances in proteomic technology and their application for biomarker discovery in autoimmune disease. PMID:25523513

Teixeira, Priscila Camillo; Ferber, Philippe; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Cutler, Paul

2015-02-01

159

Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Chronic Kidney Disease—FGF23: A Key Molecule in the Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk of mortality, mainly from cardiovascular disease. Moreover, abnormal mineral and bone metabolism, the so-called CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD), occurs from early stages of CKD. This CKD-MBD presents a strong cardiovascular risk for CKD patients. Discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has altered our understanding of CKD-MBD and has revealed more complex cross-talk and endocrine feedback loops between the kidney, parathyroid gland, intestines, and bone. During the past decade, reports of clinical studies have described the association between FGF23 and cardiovascular risks, left ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular calcification. Recent translational reports have described the existence of FGF23-Klotho axis in the vasculature and the causative effect of FGF23 on cardiovascular disease. These findings suggest FGF23 as a promising target for novel therapeutic approaches to improve clinical outcomes of CKD patients. PMID:24678415

Jimbo, Rika

2014-01-01

160

Sex Differences in Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease: The PERU MIGRANT Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionAlthough men and women have similar risk factors for cardiovascular disease, many social behaviors in developing countries differ by sex. Rural-to-urban migrants have different cardiovascular risk profiles than rural or urban dwellers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sex differences with specific cardiovascular risk factors in rural-to-urban migrants.Methods and ResultsWe used the rural-to-urban migrant group of the

Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz; Catherine Pastorius Benziger; Robert H. Gilman; Liam Smeeth; J. Jaime Miranda

2012-01-01

161

C-reactive protein as a cardiovascular risk factor: more than an epiphenomenon ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) may constitute an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. How CRP as a risk factor is involved in cardiovascular disease is still unclear. Methods and Results—By reviewing available studies, we discuss explanations for the associations between CRP and cardiovascular disease. CRP levels within the upper quartile\\/quintile of the normal range constitute an increased risk

Wim K. Lagrand; Cees A. Visser; Willem T. Hermens; Hans W. M. Niessen; Freek W. A. Verheugt; Gert-Jan Wolbink; C. Erik Hack

1999-01-01

162

Long-term risk of cardiovascular disease in 10-year survivors of breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Radiotherapy for breast cancer as delivered in the 1970s has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but recent studies of associations with modern regimens have been inconclusive. Few data on long-term cardiovascular disease risk according to specific radiation fields are available, and interaction with known cardiovascular risk factors has not been examined. Methods: The studied treatment-specific incidence

M. J. Hooning; A. Botma; B. M. P. Aleman; M. H. A. Baaijens; H. Bartelink; J. G. M. Klijn; C. W. Taylor; Leeuwen van F. E

2007-01-01

163

British Regional Heart Study: cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged men in 24 towns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The British Regional Heart Study seeks to define risk factors for cardiovascular disease, to examine their interrelationships, and to explain the geographic variations in cardiovascular disease in Britain. A clinical survey of men aged 40-59 in 24 British towns was carried out and preliminary data from the survey analysed. On a town basis cardiovascular mortality was associated with mean systolic

A G Shaper; S J Pocock; M Walker; N M Cohen; C J Wale; A G Thomson

1981-01-01

164

Cardiovascular disease and periodontitis: an update on the associations and risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases have been recognized. Material and Methods: New literature since the last European Workshop on Periodontology has been reviewed. Results: The lack of reliable epidemiological data on disease prevalence makes an assessment of the associations and risks between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases difficult. Two recent meta-analysis reports have identified associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular

Gösta Rutger Persson; Rigmor Elisabeth Persson

2008-01-01

165

Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors as Predictors of Cardiovascular Events in the U.S. Astronaut Corps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Risk prediction equations from the Framingham Heart Study are commonly used to predict the absolute risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) related death. Predicting CHD-related events in the U.S. astronaut corps presents a monumental challenge, both because astronauts tend to live healthier lifestyles and because of the unique cardiovascular stressors associated with being trained for and participating in space flight. Traditional risk factors may not hold enough predictive power to provide a useful indicator of CHD risk in this unique population. It is important to be able to identify individuals who are at higher risk for CHD-related events so that appropriate preventive care can be provided. This is of special importance when planning long duration missions since the ability to provide advanced cardiac care and perform medical evacuation is limited. The medical regimen of the astronauts follows a strict set of clinical practice guidelines in an effort to ensure the best care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the Framingham risk score (FRS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein levels, blood pressure, and resting pulse as predictors of CHD-related death and MI in the astronaut corps, using Cox regression. Of these factors, only two, LDL and pulse at selection, were predictive of CHD events (HR(95% CI)=1.12 (1.00-1.25) and HR(95% CI)=1.70 (1.05-2.75) for every 5-unit increase in LDL and pulse, respectively). Since traditional CHD risk factors may lack the specificity to predict such outcomes in astronauts, the development of a new predictive model, using additional measures such as electron-beam computed tomography and carotid intima-media thickness ultrasound, is planned for the future.

Halm, M. K.; Clark, A.; Wear, M. L.; Murray, J. D.; Polk, J. D.; Amirian, E.

2009-01-01

166

Cardiovascular Imaging for Assessing Cardiovascular Risk in Asymptomatic Men Versus Women  

PubMed Central

Background Coronary artery calcium (CAC), carotid intima-media thickness, and left ventricular (LV) mass and geometry offer the potential to characterize incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in clinically asymptomatic individuals. The objective of the study was to compare these cardiovascular imaging measures for their overall and sex-specific ability to predict CVD. Methods and Results The study sample consisted of 4965 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants (48% men; mean age, 62±10 years). They were free of CVD at baseline and were followed for a median of 5.8 years. There were 297 CVD events, including 187 coronary heart disease (CHD) events, 65 strokes, and 91 heart failure (HF) events. CAC was most strongly associated with CHD (hazard ratio [HR], 2.3 per 1 SD; 95% CI, 1.9 to 2.8) and all CVD events (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.5 to 1.9). Most strongly associated with stroke were LV mass (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.7) and LV mass/volume ratio (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.6). LV mass showed the strongest association with HF (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.6 to 2.1). There were no significant interactions for imaging measures with sex and ethnicity for any CVD outcome. Compared with traditional risk factors alone, overall risk prediction (C statistic) for future CHD, HF, and all CVD was significantly improved by adding CAC, LV mass, and CAC, respectively (all P<0.05). Conclusions There was no evidence that imaging measures differed in association with incident CVD by sex. CAC was most strongly associated with CHD and CVD; LV mass and LV concentric remodeling best predicted stroke; and LV mass best predicted HF. PMID:21068189

Jain, Aditya; McClelland, Robyn L.; Polak, Joseph F.; Shea, Steven; Burke, Gregory L.; Bild, Diane E.; Watson, Karol E.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Liu, Kiang; Post, Wendy S.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Lima, João A.C.; Bluemke, David A.

2011-01-01

167

Prevalence of obesity and associated cardiovascular risk: the DARIOS study  

PubMed Central

Background To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Spanish population as measured with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) and to determine the associated cardiovascular risk factors. Methods Pooled analysis with individual data from 11 studies conducted in the first decade of the 21st century. Participants aged 35–74 years were asked about the history of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Height, weight, WC, blood pressure, glycaemia, total cholesterol, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary risk were measured. The prevalence of overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2), general obesity (BMI ?30 kg/m2), suboptimal WC (? 80 cm and?cardiovascular risk factors were significantly associated with abnormal increased values of BMI, WC and WHtR. Hypertension showed the strongest association with overweight [OR?=?1.99 (95% confidence interval 1.81-2.21) and OR?=?2.10 (1.91-2.31)]; suboptimal WC [OR?=?1.78 (1.60-1.97) and OR?=?1.45 (1.26-1.66)], with general obesity [OR?=?4.50 (4.02-5.04), and OR?=?5.20 (4.70-5.75)] and with WHtR ?0.5 [OR?=?2.94 (2.52-3.43), and OR?=?3.02 (2.66-3.42)] in men and women respectively, besides abdominal obesity in men only [OR?=?3.51 (3.18-3.88)]. Diabetes showed the strongest association with abdominal obesity in women [OR?=?3,86 (3,09-4,89). Conclusions The prevalence of obesity in Spain was high. Overweight, suboptimal WC, general, abdominal obesity and WHtR ?0.5 was significantly associated with diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and coronary risk. The use of lower cut-off points for both BMI and particularly WC and could help to better identify the population at risk and therefore achieve more effective preventive measures. PMID:23738609

2013-01-01

168

Gestational diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk after pregnancy.  

PubMed

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects many women in pregnancy and is enhanced by epidemic conditions of obesity, increasing age at the time of the first pregnancy, stressful life conditions, a sedentary lifestyle with less physical activity and unhealthy nutrition with highly processed, high-calorie food intake. GDM does not affect the mother and offspring in pregnancy alone, as there is compelling evidence of the long-term effects of the hyperglycemic state in pregnancy postpartum. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome are more common in GDM women, and even the offspring of GDM women are reported to have higher obesity rates and a higher risk for noncommunicable diseases. Early prevention of risk factors seems to be key to overcoming the vicious cycle of cardiometabolic disease onset. PMID:24328601

Harreiter, Jürgen; Dovjak, Gregor; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

2014-01-01

169

Whole Body Bone Tissue and Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis share an age-independent bidirectional correlation. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represents a risk factor for both conditions. Objectives. The study aims to evaluate the connection between the estimated cardiovascular risk (CVR) and the loss of bone tissue in RA patients. Methods. The study has a prospective cross-sectional design and it includes female in-patients with RA or without autoimmune diseases; bone tissue was measured using whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (wbDXA); CVR was estimated using SCORE charts and PROCAM applications. Results. There were 75?RA women and 66 normal women of similar age. The wbDXA bone indices correlate significantly, negatively, and age-independently with the estimated CVR. The whole body bone percent (wbBP) was a significant predictor of estimated CVR, explaining 26% of SCORE variation along with low density lipoprotein (P < 0.001) and 49.7% of PROCAM variation along with glycemia and menopause duration (P < 0.001). Although obese patients had less bone relative to body composition (wbBP), in terms of quantity their bone content was significantly higher than that of nonobese patients. Conclusions. Female patients with RA and female patients with cardiovascular morbidity have a lower whole body bone percent. Obese female individuals have higher whole body bone mass than nonobese patients. PMID:24808969

Popescu, Claudiu; Bojinc?, Violeta; Opri?, Daniela

2014-01-01

170

Special Diabetes Program for Indians: Retention in Cardiovascular Risk Reduction  

PubMed Central

Purpose:?This study examined the associations between participant and site characteristics and retention in a multisite cardiovascular disease risk reduction project.?Design and Methods:?Data were derived from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart Demonstration Project, an intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk among American Indians and Alaska Natives with diabetes. In 2006, a total of 1,072 participants from 30 participating sites completed baseline questionnaires measuring demographics and sociobehavioral factors. They also underwent a medical examination at baseline and were reassessed annually after baseline. A Provider Annual Questionnaire was administered to staff members of each grantee site at the end of each year to assess site characteristics. Generalized estimating equation models were used to evaluate the relationships between participant and site characteristics and retention 1 year after baseline.?Results:?Among enrolled participants, 792 (74%) completed their first annual assessment. Participants who completed the first annual assessment tended to be older and had, at baseline, higher body mass index and higher level of physical activity. Site characteristics associated with retention included average age of staff, proportion of female staff members, and percentage of staff members having completed graduate or professional school.?Implications:?Understanding successful retention must reach beyond individual characteristics of participants to include features of the settings that house the interventions. PMID:21565816

Manson, Spero M.; Jiang, Luohua; Zhang, Lijing; Beals, Janette; Acton, Kelly J.; Roubideaux, Yvette

2011-01-01

171

Lipoprotein (a) and cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCES: This systematic review included studies from 2001 to 2011, a ten-year time period. Epidemiological studies with children and/or adolescents published in English, Portuguese or Spanish and fully available online were included. The searches were performed in Science Direct, PubMed/Medline, BVS (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde) and Cochrane Library databases, using the following combination of key-words: "lipoprotein a" and "cardiovascular diseases" and "obesity". DATA SYNTHESIS: Overall, 672 studies were obtained but only seven were included. Some studies assessed the family history for CVD. In all of them, Lp(a) levels were increased in patients with family history for CVD. There was also a positive correlation between Lp(a) and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B levels, suggesting an association between Lp(a) levels and the lipid profile. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence that CVD may originate in childhood and adolescence leads to the need for investigating the risk factors during this period in order to propose earlier and possibly more effective interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:24473960

Palmeira, Ástrid Camêlo; Leal, Adriana Amorim de F.; Ramos, Nathaly de Medeiros N.; de Alencar F., José; Simões, Mônica Oliveira da S.; Medeiros, Carla Campos M.

2013-01-01

172

CPAP and measures of cardiovascular risk in males with OSAS.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) has been associated with hypertension, stroke and myocardial ischaemia in epidemiological and observational studies. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for OSAS, but the impact of this intervention on established risk factors for cardiovascular disease remains incompletely understood. A total of 102 males with moderate-to-severe OSAS were randomised to therapeutic (n = 51) or subtherapeutic (n = 51) CPAP treatment for 4 weeks to investigate the effects of active treatment on 24-h urinary catecholamine excretion, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), arterial stiffness (augmentation index) and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). After 4 weeks of therapeutic CPAP, significant reductions were seen in urine normetanephrine excretion (from mean+/-sd 179.7+/-80.1 to 132.7+/-46.5 micromol x mol(-1) creatinine) and augmentation index (from 14.5+/-11.3 to 9.1+/-13.8%) compared with the subtherapeutic control group. Furthermore, therapeutic CPAP significantly improved BRS (from 7.1+/-3.3 to 8.8+/-4.2 ms x mmHg(-1)) and reduced mean arterial ABP by 2.6+/-5.4 mmHg. In conclusion, treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea with continuous positive airway pressure may lower cardiovascular risk by reducing sympathetic nerve activity, ambulatory blood pressure and arterial stiffness and by increasing sensitivity of the arterial baroreflex. PMID:18653654

Kohler, M; Pepperell, J C T; Casadei, B; Craig, S; Crosthwaite, N; Stradling, J R; Davies, R J O

2008-12-01

173

Early identification of cardiovascular risk using genomics and proteomics  

PubMed Central

Coronary heart disease (CHD) will soon become the leading cause of death and morbidity in the world. Early detection and treatment of CHD is thus imperative to improve global health. Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries is a complex multifactorial disease process involving multiple pathways that can be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. With the recent advances in genomics and proteomics, many new risk factors with small-to-moderate effects are likely to be identified. Additionally, individualized risk stratification and targeted therapy may become feasible; each individual could potentially be assessed with a panel of tests for genomic and proteomic markers and, on the basis of the individual’s composite risk profile, preventive and therapeutic steps could then be undertaken. With a multimarker approach, it may also be possible to identify alterations in pathways involved in atherogenesis, rather than focus on individual risk factors. In this article, we use the specific example of atherosclerosis to discuss the role of genomics and proteomics in cardiovascular risk assessment. PMID:20440292

Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Cooper, Leslie T.

2010-01-01

174

Acrolein Exposure Is Associated With Increased Cardiovascular Disease Risk  

PubMed Central

Background Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde present in high amounts in coal, wood, paper, and tobacco smoke. It is also generated endogenously by lipid peroxidation and the oxidation of amino acids by myeloperoxidase. In animals, acrolein exposure is associated with the suppression of circulating progenitor cells and increases in thrombosis and atherogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acrolein exposure in humans is also associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Methods and Results Acrolein exposure was assessed in 211 participants of the Louisville Healthy Heart Study with moderate to high (CVD) risk by measuring the urinary levels of the major acrolein metabolite—3?hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3?HPMA). Generalized linear models were used to assess the association between acrolein exposure and parameters of CVD risk, and adjusted for potential demographic confounders. Urinary 3?HPMA levels were higher in smokers than nonsmokers and were positively correlated with urinary cotinine levels. Urinary 3?HPMA levels were inversely related to levels of both early (AC133+) and late (AC133?) circulating angiogenic cells. In smokers as well as nonsmokers, 3?HPMA levels were positively associated with both increased levels of platelet–leukocyte aggregates and the Framingham Risk Score. No association was observed between 3?HPMA and plasma fibrinogen. Levels of C?reactive protein were associated with 3?HPMA levels in nonsmokers only. Conclusions Regardless of its source, acrolein exposure is associated with platelet activation and suppression of circulating angiogenic cell levels, as well as increased CVD risk. PMID:25099132

DeJarnett, Natasha; Conklin, Daniel J.; Riggs, Daniel W.; Myers, John A.; O'Toole, Timothy E.; Hamzeh, Ihab; Wagner, Stephen; Chugh, Atul; Ramos, Kenneth S.; Srivastava, Sanjay; Higdon, Deirdre; Tollerud, David J.; DeFilippis, Andrew; Becher, Carrie; Wyatt, Brad; McCracken, James; Abplanalp, Wes; Rai, Shesh N.; Ciszewski, Tiffany; Xie, Zhengzhi; Yeager, Ray; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Bhatnagar, Aruni

2014-01-01

175

Changes in diet, cardiovascular risk factors and modelled cardiovascular risk following diagnosis of diabetes: 1-year results from the ADDITION-Cambridge trial cohort  

PubMed Central

Aims To describe change in self-reported diet and plasma vitamin C, and to examine associations between change in diet and cardiovascular disease risk factors and modelled 10-year cardiovascular disease risk in the year following diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes. Methods Eight hundred and sixty-seven individuals with screen-detected diabetes underwent assessment of self-reported diet, plasma vitamin C, cardiovascular disease risk factors and modelled cardiovascular disease risk at baseline and 1 year (n = 736) in the ADDITION-Cambridge trial. Multivariable linear regression was used to quantify the association between change in diet and cardiovascular disease risk at 1 year, adjusting for change in physical activity and cardio-protective medication. Results Participants reported significant reductions in energy, fat and sodium intake, and increases in fruit, vegetable and fibre intake over 1 year. The reduction in energy was equivalent to an average-sized chocolate bar; the increase in fruit was equal to one plum per day. There was a small increase in plasma vitamin C levels. Increases in fruit intake and plasma vitamin C were associated with small reductions in anthropometric and metabolic risk factors. Increased vegetable intake was associated with an increase in BMI and waist circumference. Reductions in fat, energy and sodium intake were associated with reduction in HbA1c, waist circumference and total cholesterol/modelled cardiovascular disease risk, respectively. Conclusions Improvements in dietary behaviour in this screen-detected population were associated with small reductions in cardiovascular disease risk, independently of change in cardio-protective medication and physical activity. Dietary change may have a role to play in the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk following diagnosis of diabetes. PMID:24102972

Savory, L A; Griffin, S J; Williams, K M; Prevost, A T; Kinmonth, A-L; Wareham, N J; Simmons, R K

2014-01-01

176

Circadian Role in Daily Pattern of Cardiovascular Risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous epidemiological studies demonstrate that sudden cardiac death, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke have a 24-hour daily pattern with a broad peak between 9-11am. Such a daily pattern in cardiovascular risk could be attributable to external factors, such as the daily behavior patterns, including sleep-wake cycles and activity levels, or internal factors, such as the endogenous circadian pacemaker. Findings of significant alternations in the temporal organization and nonlinear properties of heartbeat fluctuations with disease and with sleep-wake transitions raise the intriguing possibility that changes in the mechanism of control associated with behavioral sleep-wake transition may be responsible for the increased cardiac instability observed in particular circadian phases. Alternatively, we hypothesize that there is a circadian clock, independent of the sleep-wake cycle, which affects the cardiac dynamics leading to increased cardiovascular risk. We analyzed continuous recordings from healthy subjects during 7 cycles of forced desynchrony routine wherein subjects' sleep-wake cycles are adjusted to 28 hours so that their behaviors occur across all circadian phases. Heartbeat data were divided into one-hour segments. For each segment, we estimated the correlations and the nonlinear properties of the heartbeat fluctuations at the corresponding circadian phase. Since the sleep and wake contributions are equally weighted in our experiment, a change of the properties of the heartbeat dynamics with circadian phase suggest a circadian rhythm. We show significant circadian-mediated alterations in the correlation and nonlinear properties of the heartbeat resembling those observed in patients with heart failure. Remarkably, these dynamical alterations are centered at 60 degrees circadian phase, coinciding with the 9-11am window of cardiac risk.

Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Hu, Kun; Chen, Zhi; Hilton, Michael F.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Shea, Steven A.

2004-03-01

177

Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with cardiovascular risk factors.  

PubMed

The aim was to study the associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with single and clustered cardiovascular risk factors. Muscular endurance, maximal strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference were measured in 686 young men (25±5 years). Cardiovascular risk factors (plasma glucose, serum high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure) were determined. The risk factors were transformed to z-scores and the mean of values formed clustered cardiovascular risk factor. Muscular endurance was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol, glucose and blood pressure (?=-0.09 to -?0.23, p<0.05), and positively with s-HDL cholesterol (?=0.17, p<0.001) independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Muscular endurance was negatively associated with the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness (?=-0.26, p<0.05), whereas maximal strength was not associated with any of the cardiovascular risk factors or the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Furthermore, cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol and the clustered cardiovascular risk factor (?=-0.14 to -?0.24, p<0.005), as well as positively with s-HDL cholesterol (?=0.11, p<0.05) independent of muscular fitness. This cross-sectional study demonstrated that in young men muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory fitness were independently associated with the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, whereas maximal strength was not. PMID:24022567

Vaara, J P; Fogelholm, M; Vasankari, T; Santtila, M; Häkkinen, K; Kyröläinen, H

2014-04-01

178

Divergent Associations of Antecedent- and Response-Focused Emotion Regulation Strategies with Midlife Cardiovascular Disease Risk  

PubMed Central

Background It is not known whether various forms of emotion regulation are differentially related to cardiovascular disease risk. Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess whether antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation would have divergent associations with likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease. Methods Two emotion regulation strategies were examined: reappraisal (antecedent-focused) and suppression (response-focused). Cardiovascular disease risk was assessed with a validated Framingham algorithm that estimates the likelihood of developing CVD in 10 years. Associations were assessed among 373 adults via multiple linear regression. Pathways and gender-specific associations were also considered. Results One standard deviation increases in reappraisal and suppression were associated with 5.9 % lower and 10.0 % higher 10-year cardiovascular disease risk, respectively, in adjusted analyses. Conclusions Divergent associations of antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation with cardiovascular disease risk were observed. Effective emotion regulation may promote cardiovascular health. PMID:24570218

Loucks, Eric B.; Buka, Stephen L.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

2014-01-01

179

Issues of Fish Consumption for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction  

PubMed Central

Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overview of the issues affecting this shortfall of intake. Herein we describe the relationship between fish intake and CVD risk reduction as well as the other nutritional contributions of fish to the diet. Currently recommended intake levels are described and estimates of fish consumption at a food disappearance and individual level are reported. Risk and benefit factors influencing the choice to consume fish are outlined. The multiple factors influencing fish availability from global capture and aquaculture are described as are other pertinent issues of fish nutrition, production, sustainability, and consumption patterns. This review highlights some of the work that needs to be carried out to meet the demand for fish and to positively affect intake levels to meet fish intake recommendations for CVD risk reduction. PMID:23538940

Raatz, Susan K.; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Jahns, Lisa; Picklo, Matthew J.

2013-01-01

180

Phytoestrogen intake and cardiovascular risk markers in Bangladeshi postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Menopause is the transitional event of female life creating a considerable degree of clinical and psychological as well as social problem and it is known to affect the risk markers of cardiovascular diseases. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was though to be a cornerstone in the management of menopause, but evidences accumulated in the recent past have raised serious questions regarding its safety and usability. In this context, phytoestrogens are getting increasingly more attention for therapeutic (as an alternate of HRT) and dietary interventions. Menopause is a special problem for women in developing countries and intake of phytoestrogens can be highly useful also from the economic point of views. The nutraceuticals of specific vitamins, minerals and especially phytoestrogens supplementations are a vital component of the strategy to reduce health problem. The present study was aimed to assess the association of phytoestrogens and risk markers of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. A total of 111 postmenopausal subjects [age, (years, M±SD) 52±5.35] were studied. The dietary intake of phytoestrogens by study subjects was calculated by a specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Serum fasting homocysteine was measured by AxSYM system. Serum glucose was estimated by glucose-oxidase method. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-C were estimated by enzymatic-colorimetric method LDL-C was estimated by the Friedewald's formula. The intake of total phytoestrogens, isoflavones and lignans (mean±SD, mg/day) were 7.65±3.33, 0.32±0.16, 7.32±3.28 respectively in postmenopausal women. The intake of diadzein, genistein, formononetin, biochanin A (mean±SD, mg/day) were 0.085±0.035, 0.168±0.101, 0.074±0.052 and 0.001±0.0008 respectively. The intake of matairesinol and secoisolaiciresinol (SILR) (mean±SD, mg/day) were 0.022±0.006 and 7.30±3.28 respectively. The total phytoestrogens (r=-0.19, p=0.03) and SILR, one specific type of lignans (r=-0.19, p=0.04) consumption in this study were inversely significantly associated with serum glucose level. The dietary formononetin, one specific type of isoflavones was negatively significantly associated with LDL-cholesterol (r=-0.18, p=0.04). There was no significant relationship found between phytoestrogen intake and serum homocysteine level (r=-0.11, p=0.23). Phytoestrogens containing food intake should be encouraged for reducing risk markers of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. PMID:21522091

Saleh, F; Afnan, F; Ara, F; Yasmin, S; Nahar, K; Khatun, F; Ali, L

2011-04-01

181

Dairy food intake is positively associated with cardiovascular health: findings from Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.  

PubMed

Conflicting findings have been reported about dairy food consumption and risk for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, few studies have examined dairy food intake in relation to cardiovascular health and the incorporation of lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity. This study examined whether dairy food consumption was associated with cardiovascular health, recently defined by the American Heart Association. Data were analyzed from 1352 participants from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg survey. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to measure intakes of milk, yogurt, cheese, dairy desserts, ice cream, and butter. Seven cardiovascular health metrics were assessed: smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose. A total cardiovascular health score (CHS) was determined by summing the total number of health metrics at ideal levels. It was hypothesized that greater dairy food consumption (both low fat and whole fat) would be associated with better global cardiovascular health, as indicated by a higher CHS. Total dairy food intake was positively associated with the CHS. Higher intakes of whole fat milk, yogurt, and cheese were associated with better cardiovascular health. Even when controlling for demographic and dietary variables, those who consumed at least 5 servings per week of these dairy products had a significantly higher CHS than those who consumed these products less frequently. Higher total whole fat dairy food intake was also associated with other positive health behaviors, including being a nonsmoker, consuming the suggested dietary intakes of recommended foods, and having a normal body mass index. Increased dairy food consumption was associated with better cardiovascular health. PMID:25476191

Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

2014-12-01

182

Kennedy space center cardiovascular disease risk reduction program evaluation  

PubMed Central

This program evaluation examined the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Reduction Program which aims to identify CVD risk factors and reduce these risk factors through health education phone counseling. High risk participants (those having two or more elevated lipid values) are identified from monthly voluntary CVD screenings and counseled. Phone counseling consists of reviewing lab values with the participant, discussing dietary fat intake frequency using an intake questionnaire, and promoting the increase in exercise frequency. The participants are followed-up at two-months and five-months for relevant metrics including blood pressure, weight, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, dietary fat intake, and exercise frequency. Data for three years of the KSC CVD Program included 366 participants, average age of 49 years, 75% male, and 25% female. For those with complete two and five month follow-up data, significant baseline to two-month follow-up comparisons included decreases in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.03); diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.002); total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and dietary fat intake (all three at p < 0.0001) as well as a significant increase in exercise frequency (p = 0.04). Significant baseline to five-month follow-up comparisons included decreases in triglycerides (p = 0.05); and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and dietary intake (all three at p < 0.0001). These program evaluation results indicate that providing brief phone health education counseling and information at the worksite to high risk CVD participants may impact CVD risk factors. PMID:18561517

Calderon, Kristine S; Smallwood, Charles; Tipton, David A

2008-01-01

183

Cardiovascular event-free survival after adjuvant radiation therapy in breast cancer patients stratified by cardiovascular risk  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of a cardiovascular event or death associated with modern radiation in a population of elderly female breast cancer patients with varying baseline cardiovascular risk. The data used for this analysis are from the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER)-Medicare database. The retrospective cohort study included women aged 66 years and older with stage 0–III breast cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2005. Women were grouped as low, intermediate, or high cardiovascular risk based on the presence of certain clinical diagnoses. The risk for the combined outcome of a hospitalization for a cardiovascular event or death within 6 months and 24 months of diagnosis was estimated using a multivariable Cox model. The median follow-up time was 24 months. Among the 91,612 women with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage 0–III breast cancer: 39,555 (43.2%) were treated with radiation therapy and 52,057 (56.8%) were not. The receipt of radiation therapy in the first 6 months was associated with a statistically significant increased risk for the combined outcome in women categorized as high risk (HR = 1.510; 95% CI, 1.396–1.634) or intermediate risk (HR = 1.415; 95% CI, 1.188–1.686) but not low risk (HR = 1.027; 95% CI, 0.798–1.321). Women with a prior medical history of cardiovascular disease treated with radiation therapy are at increased risk for an event and should be monitored for at least 6 months following treatment with radiation therapy. PMID:25044867

Onwudiwe, Nneka C; Kwok, Young; Onukwugha, Eberechukwu; Sorkin, John D; Zuckerman, Ilene H; Shaya, Fadia T; Daniel Mullins, C

2014-01-01

184

Lipoprotein apheresis reduces biomarkers of plaque destabilization and cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is believed to exert anti-atherosclerotic effects beyond LDL-cholesterol reduction. We investigated 22 patients undergoing regular LA on a weekly basis (group A) before (AP) and after LA procedure (EP), 15 healthy individuals (group B), and 22 hyperlipoproteinemic patients with concomitant cardiovascular end organ damage treated without LA therapy (group C). Biomarkers of endothelial inflammation (hsCRP), plaque destabilization, and rupture (sVCAM, MMP-9, PAPP-A, ADMA) were quantified. Intergroup comparison revealed a statistically significant lower MMP-9 level in group A (AP and EP) compared with group C (P?cardiovascular risk after a single LA treatment. PMID:24281903

Strauchmann, Julia; Wallbach, Manuel; Bramlage, Carsten; Puls, Miriam; Konstantinides, Stavros; Mueller, Gerhard A; Koziolek, Michael J

2014-10-01

185

Gender Differences in Genetic Risk Profiles for Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence, complications and burden differ markedly between women and men. Although there is variation in the distribution of lifestyle factors between the genders, they do not fully explain the differences in CVD incidence and suggest the existence of gender-specific genetic risk factors. We aimed to estimate whether the genetic risk profiles of coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic stroke and the composite end-point of CVD differ between the genders. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied in two Finnish population cohorts, using the case-cohort design the association between common variation in 46 candidate genes and CHD, ischemic stroke, CVD, and CVD-related quantitative risk factors. We analyzed men and women jointly and also conducted genotype-gender interaction analysis. Several allelic variants conferred disease risk for men and women jointly, including rs1801020 in coagulation factor XII (HR?=?1.31 (1.08–1.60) for CVD, uncorrected p?=?0.006 multiplicative model). Variant rs11673407 in the fucosyltransferase 3 gene was strongly associated with waist/hip ratio (uncorrected p?=?0.00005) in joint analysis. In interaction analysis we found statistical evidence of variant-gender interaction conferring risk of CHD and CVD: rs3742264 in the carboxypeptidase B2 gene, p(interaction)?=?0.009 for CHD, and rs2774279 in the upstream stimulatory factor 1 gene, p(interaction)?=?0.007 for CHD and CVD, showed strong association in women but not in men, while rs2069840 in interleukin 6 gene, p(interaction)?=?0.004 for CVD, showed strong association in men but not in women (uncorrected p-values). Also, two variants in the selenoprotein S gene conferred risk for ischemic stroke in women, p(interaction)?=?0.003 and 0.007. Importantly, we identified a larger number of gender-specific effects for women than for men. Conclusions/Significance A false discovery rate analysis suggests that we may expect half of the reported findings for combined gender analysis to be true positives, while at least third of the reported genotype-gender interaction results are true positives. The asymmetry in positive findings between the genders could imply that genetic risk loci for CVD are more readily detectable in women, while for men they are more confounded by environmental/lifestyle risk factors. The possible differences in genetic risk profiles between the genders should be addressed in more detail in genetic studies of CVD, and more focus on female CVD risk is also warranted in genome-wide association studies. PMID:18974842

Silander, Kaisa; Saarela, Olli; Ripatti, Samuli; Auro, Kirsi; Karvanen, Juha; Kulathinal, Sangita; Niemelä, Matti; Ellonen, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki; Jousilahti, Pekka; Saarela, Janna; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Evans, Alun; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Peltonen, Leena

2008-01-01

186

Prospective Relationship of Change in Ideal Cardiovascular Health Status and Arterial Stiffness: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study  

PubMed Central

Background In 2010, the American Heart Association defined ideal cardiovascular health as the simultaneous presence of 4 favorable health behaviors (nonsmoking, ideal body mass index, physical activity at goal, and dietary pattern that promotes cardiovascular health) and 3 favorable health factors (ideal levels of total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose). The association between a change in ideal cardiovascular health status and pulse wave velocity, a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease, has not been reported. Methods and Results The study cohort consisted of 1143 white adults from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who were followed for 21 years since baseline (1986). This cohort was divided in 2 subgroups: 803 participants (aged 9 to 18 years at baseline) to study the health status change from childhood to adulthood and 340 participants (aged 21 to 24 years at baseline) to study health status change from young adulthood to middle age. The change in the ideal cardiovascular health index was inversely associated with pulse wave velocity (adjusted for age, sex, and heart rate), every 1?point increase corresponded to a 0.09?m/s (P<0.001) decrease in pulse wave velocity in both groups. This association remained significant in subgroups based on the ideal cardiovascular health index at baseline. Conclusions The change in ideal cardiovascular health status, both from childhood to adulthood and from young adulthood to middle age, was an independent predictor of adult pulse wave velocity. Our results support the concept of ideal cardiovascular health as a useful tool for primordial prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24614756

Aatola, Heikki; Hutri?Kähönen, Nina; Juonala, Markus; Laitinen, Tomi T.; Pahkala, Katja; Mikkilä, Vera; Telama, Risto; Koivistoinen, Teemu; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Kähönen, Mika

2014-01-01

187

Fatness, Fitness, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

EISENMANN, J. C., G. J. WELK, M. IHMELS, and J. DOLLMAN. Fatness, Fitness, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 39, No. 8, pp. 1251-1256, 2007. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors across four cross-tabulated groups of cardiorespiratory fitness and body fatness in

JOEY C. EISENMANN; GREGORY J. WELK; MICHELLE IHMELS; JAMES DOLLMAN

2007-01-01

188

Stressors Influencing Middle Eastern Women's Perceptions of the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Focus Group Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand Australia-dwelling Middle Eastern women's lack of service utilization in cardiovascular health, we undertook a study to investigate their understandings and meanings of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors. Eight focus groups were conducted in community settings with Turkish, Persian, and Arab women. We found that the women understated their risk of CVD, faced many barriers in

Leila Gholizadeh; Michelle DiGiacomo; Yenna Salamonson; Patricia M. Davidson

2011-01-01

189

Reclassification of European patients' cardiovascular risk using the updated Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation algorithm.  

PubMed

Data from the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Usual Daily Practice (EURIKA; ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT00882336) was used to assess the proportions of patients aged 50-65 years free of diabetes and not receiving lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) considered to be at low (<1%), intermediate (1% to <5%) and high (?5%) 10-year risk of cardiovascular mortality according to the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) algorithm and the updated algorithm that considers patients' total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels as independent variables (SCORE-HDL). Of 2321 patients analysed, 19.3%, 60.7% and 20.0% were considered to be at low, intermediate and high cardiovascular risk respectively according to SCORE, and 25.7%, 57.2% and 17.1% respectively according to SCORE-HDL. Thus, there was an overall trend towards reclassification from higher to lower risk categories when SCORE-HDL was compared with SCORE. PMID:24092875

Halcox, Julian P; Tubach, Florence; Sazova, Ogün; Sweet, Stephen; Medina, Jesús

2015-02-01

190

The emerging characterization of lysine residue deacetylation on the modulation of mitochondrial function and cardiovascular biology  

PubMed Central

There is emerging recognition of a novel fuel and redox sensing regulatory program that controls cellular adaptation via non-histone protein lysine-residue acetyl post-translation modifications. This program functions in tissues with high energy demand and oxidative capacity and is highly enriched in the heart. Deacetylation is regulated by NAD+-dependent activation of the sirtuin family of proteins while acetyltransferase modifications are controlled by less clearly delineated acetyltransferases. Subcellular localization specific protein targets of lysine-acetyl modification have been identified in the nucleus, cytoplasm and mitochondria. Despite distinct subcellular localizations, these modifications appear, in large part, to modify mitochondrial properties including respiration, energy production, apoptosis and anti-oxidant defenses. These mitochondrial regulatory programs are important in cardiovascular biology, although how protein acetyl modifications effects cardiovascular pathophysiology has not been extensively explored. This review will introduce the role of non-histone protein lysine-residue acetyl modifications, discuss their regulation and biochemistry and present the direct and indirect data implicating their involvement in the heart and vasculature. PMID:19850949

Lu, Zhongping; Scott, Iain; Webster, Bradley R.; Sack, Michael N.

2009-01-01

191

Cardiovascular risk assessment scores for people with diabetes: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Multivariate cardiovascular risk scores\\u000a have been used in many countries to identify individuals who are at high risk of CVD. These risk scores include those originally\\u000a developed in individuals with diabetes and those developed in a general population. This article reviews the published evidence\\u000a for the performance

P. Chamnan; R. K. Simmons; S. J. Sharp; S. J. Griffin; N. J. Wareham

2009-01-01

192

Impact of Health Counselling on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Middle Aged Men: Influence of Socioeconomic Status  

PubMed Central

Background The inverse association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular disease is well documented. We examined whether the impact of health counselling on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged men differed according to socioeconomic status. Methods We used data from a community based study assessing the risk for cardiovascular disease among middle-aged men in Helsinki, Finland. Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors were measured and cardiovascular disease risk was assessed by a modified risk tool used in the North Karelia project (CVD Risk Score). Those men with increased risk for cardiovascular disease at their baseline visit in 2006 received lifestyle counselling. After two years these high-risk men were invited to a follow-up visit. The same measurements and risk assessments were repeated. Results Based on the CVD Risk Score there were significant differences between the groups at baseline (p?=?0.001) and at follow-up (p<0.001) with the highest scores in the lowest educational group. There were no significant differences in traditional cardiovascular risk factors according to educational attainment between groups either at baseline or at follow-up. Baseline lifestyle characteristics differed between the groups regarding use of soft fat (p?=?0.019). All groups responded positively to lifestyle counselling. Conclusions The present study showed that lifestyle counselling is feasible in high-risk middle-aged men and lifestyle intervention works in all educational groups. Interestingly the traditional risk factors did not show improvement, but the risk score improved. From a practical point of view our findings stress the importance of using risk score calculators in health counselling instead of looking at individual cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:24551198

Siren, Reijo; Eriksson, Johan G.; Peltonen, Markku; Vanhanen, Hannu

2014-01-01

193

Cardiovascular risk factor treatment targets and renal complications in high risk vascular patients: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background To determine if recommended treatment targets, as specified in clinical practice guidelines for the management of cardiovascular disease, reduces the risk of renal complications in high risk patient populations. Methods This was a cohort study. Participants in Utrecht, The Netherlands either at risk of, or had cardiovascular disease were recruited. Cardiovascular treatment targets were achievement of control in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and low-density cholesterol, and treatment of albuminuria. Outcome measures were time to development of end stage renal failure or symptomatic renal atherosclerotic disease requiring intervention. Results The cohort consisted of 7,208 participants; 1,759 diabetics and 4,859 with clinically manifest vascular disease. The median age was 57 years and 67% were male. Overall, 29% of the cohort achieved the treatment target for systolic blood pressure, 39% for diastolic blood pressure, 28% for total cholesterol, 31% for LDL cholesterol and 78% for albuminuria. The incidence rate for end stage renal failure and renal atherosclerotic disease reduced linearly with each additional treatment target achieved (p value less than 0.001). Achievement of any two treatment targets reduced the risk of renal complications, hazard ratio 0.46 (95% CI 0.26-0.82). For patients with clinically manifest vascular disease and diabetes, the hazard ratios were 0.56 (95% CI 0.28 - 1.12) and 0.28 (95%CI 0.10 - 0.79) respectively. Conclusion Clinical guidelines for cardiovascular disease management do reduce risk of renal complications in high risk patients. Benefits are seen with attainment of any two treatment targets. PMID:21729268

2011-01-01

194

Cardiovascular Prevention in a High Risk Sport, Ice Hockey: Applications in Wider Sports Physical Therapy Practice  

PubMed Central

Although acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death are relatively rare occurrences in athletics, cardiovascular accidents do occur. This manuscript presents information on the cardiovascular risks in athletics. In addition, information is provided on screening for cardiovascular risk – including history taking, chart review, physical examination – and the appropriate guidelines on the treatment of athletes found to be at risk. For the purpose of this article, the sport of ice hockey is used to illustrate the subject matter and highlight the behaviors in sport that carry cardiovascular risk. Physical therapists have ethical and legal responsibility to undertake the necessary screening procedures to recognize and respond to any signs of cardiovascular risk in their clients. PMID:21522221

2006-01-01

195

Ethical issues in cardiovascular risk management: Patients need nurses' support.  

PubMed

Involving patients in decisions on primary prevention can be questioned from an ethical perspective, due to a tension between health promotion activities and patient autonomy. A nurse-led intervention for prevention of cardiovascular diseases, including counselling (risk communication, and elements of shared decision-making and motivational interviewing) and supportive tools such as a decision aid, was implemented in primary care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nurse-led intervention from an ethical perspective by exploring in detail the experiences of patients with the intervention, and their views on the role of both the nurse and patient. The study had a qualitative design. 18 patients who had received the intervention participated. Data were gathered by in-depth interviews. The interviews were analysed using directed content analysis. The findings revealed that patients perceived the consultations not as an infringement on their autonomy, but as supportive to risk reduction efforts they tried but found hard to realise. They specifically emphasised the role of the nurse, and appreciated the nurse's realistic advice, encouragement, and help in understanding. Patients' views on and experiences with risk management are in line with notions of relational autonomy, caring cooperation and communicative action found in the literature. We conclude that patients define the relationship with the nurse as shared work in the process of developing a healthier lifestyle. PMID:24258253

Loon, Marije S Koelewijn-van; van Dijk-de Vries, Anneke; van der Weijden, Trudy; Elwyn, Glyn; Widdershoven, Guy Am

2013-11-19

196

Modifiable Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Indigenous Populations  

PubMed Central

Objective. To identify modifiable cardio-metabolic and lifestyle risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians/Torres Strait Islanders), New Zealand (M?ori), and the United States (American Indians and Alaska Natives) that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized, and synthesized. Results. Compared to their non-indigenous counterparts, indigenous populations exhibit lower life expectancies and a greater prevalence of CVD. All indigenous populations have higher rates of obesity and diabetes, hypertension is greater for M?ori and Aboriginal Australians, and high cholesterol is greater only among American Indians/Alaska Natives. In turn, all indigenous groups exhibit higher rates of smoking and dangerous alcohol behaviour as well as consuming less fruits and vegetables. Aboriginal Australians and American Indians/Alaska Natives also exhibit greater rates of sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Indigenous groups from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have a lower life expectancy then their respective non-indigenous counterparts. A higher prevalence of CVD is a major driving force behind this discrepancy. A cluster of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors precede CVD, which, in turn, is linked to modifiable lifestyle risk factors. PMID:24649368

Lucero, Adam A.; Lambrick, Danielle M.; Faulkner, James A.; Tarrant, Michael A.; Poudevigne, Melanie; Williams, Michelle A.; Stoner, Lee

2014-01-01

197

Clinical use of antidepressant therapy and associated cardiovascular risk  

PubMed Central

A number of different psychotropic agents have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and these relationships have been difficult to interpret due to the presence of confounding factors. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the potential for certain antidepressants to cause QT prolongation, which is a predisposing factor for arrhythmia. However, the optimum means of determining QT remains contentious due to discrepancies between methods that may be readily applied in a clinical setting versus more detailed techniques during regulatory assessment. A number of different pharmacological mechanisms might explain the occurrence of adverse cardiac effects, and these differ according to the type of antidepressant agent. Emerging data indicate that citalopram exhibits a dose-effect relationship for QT prolongation. Whereas cardiotoxicity is readily apparent in the context of intentional antidepressant overdose, the occurrence of cardiac effects as a result of therapeutic administration is less certain. Pre-existing cardiac disease and other factors that independently predispose to arrhythmia are important considerations. Therefore, clinical judgment is needed to evaluate the overall risk or benefit of a particular antidepressant in any patient. Close monitoring should be considered for those at greatest risk of QT prolongation and arrhythmia. PMID:22936860

Waring, W Stephen

2012-01-01

198

Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Native Hawaiians  

PubMed Central

Objective Diabetes is an increasing health problem among Native Hawaiians. Diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death among Native Hawaiians. In this article, the prevalence of diabetes is reported and associations with CVD risk factors are examined. Design and Methods Cross-section of 862 Native Hawaiians, ages 19–88. Physical exam included anthropometric measures, blood pressure, glucose and lipid measures, and personal interview. Results Age-adjusted prevalences of diabetes (25.1% in men vs. 22.6% in women) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (47.8% vs. 39.3%) increased with age and were higher in men. Fasting glucose was higher in diabetic men than women (209 mg/dL vs. 179, p = .0117). BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were higher in diabetic participants (all p < .01), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower (p < .005). Conclusions Diabetes prevalence in Native Hawaiians is high. The high proportion with IFG and the increase in CVD risk factors with diabetes suggest that community-based programs are needed to focus on diabetes and diabetes-related CVD. PMID:19653416

Aluli, N. Emmett; Jones, Kristina L.; Reyes, Phillip W.; Brady, S. Kalani; Tsark, JoAnn U.; Howard, Barbara V.

2015-01-01

199

Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Markers of Cardiovascular Risk  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the developed world has increased at an alarming rate over the last few decades. GDM has been shown to be associated with postpartum diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. A history of previous GDM (pGDM), associated or not with any of these metabolic abnormalities, can increase the risk of developing not only type 2 diabetes mellitus but also cardiovascular disease (CVD) independent of a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes later in life. In this paper we discuss the relationship among inflammatory markers, metabolic abnormalities, and vascular dysfunction in women with pGDM. We also review the current knowledge on metabolic modifications occurring in normal pregnancy and the link between alterations of a normal metabolic state with the long-term maternal complications that may result in increased CVD risk. Our review of studies on pGDM prompts us to recommend that these women be considered a population at risk for later CVD events, which however could be avoided via the use of specially designed follow-up programs in the future. PMID:22518122

Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Augoulea, Areti; Iliodromiti, Zoe; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Sifakis, Stavros; Creatsas, George

2012-01-01

200

Exercise and cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension.  

PubMed

Evidence for the benefits of regular exercise is irrefutable and increasing physical activity levels should be a major goal at all levels of health care. People with hypertension are less physically active than those without hypertension and there is strong evidence supporting the blood pressure-lowering ability of regular exercise, especially in hypertensive individuals. This narrative review discusses evidence relating to exercise and cardiovascular (CV) risk in people with hypertension. Comparisons between aerobic, dynamic resistance, and static resistance exercise have been made along with the merit of different exercise volumes. High-intensity interval training and isometric resistance training appear to have strong CV protective effects, but with limited data in hypertensive people, more work is needed in this area. Screening recommendations, exercise prescriptions, and special considerations are provided as a guide to decrease CV risk among hypertensive people who exercise or wish to begin. It is recommended that hypertensive individuals should aim to perform moderate intensity aerobic exercise activity for at least 30 minutes on most (preferably all) days of the week in addition to resistance exercises on 2-3 days/week. Professionals with expertise in exercise prescription may provide additional benefit to patients with high CV risk or in whom more intense exercise training is planned. Despite lay and media perceptions, CV events associated with exercise are rare and the benefits of regular exercise far outweigh the risks. In summary, current evidence supports the assertion of exercise being a cornerstone therapy in reducing CV risk and in the prevention, treatment, and control of hypertension. PMID:25305061

Sharman, James E; La Gerche, Andre; Coombes, Jeff S

2015-02-01

201

The Increased Cardiovascular Risk in Patients Affected by Autoimmune Diseases: Review of the Various Manifestations  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases are among major health concerns in developed countries, and both represent a significant source of morbidity, mortality and economic costs. Despite they are thought to affect subjects at different ages, most of the deaths of patients affected by autoimmune diseases are represented by cardiovascular deaths. Several manifestations of cardiovascular diseases can be observed in patients with autoimmune diseases, such as endothelial dysfunction, accelerated atherosclerosis and an increase in the rate of acute coronary syndromes. Thus, people with autoimmune diseases have an increased cardiovascular risk and a worse outcome in the case of cardiovascular events. In this review, we will describe the correlations between the two spectra of diseases.

Durante, Alessandro; Bronzato, Sofia

2015-01-01

202

[Cardiovascular risk factors on the Framingham Risk Score among hypertensive patients attended by family health teams].  

PubMed

The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) is used to stratify cardiovascular risk. This study sought to identify the prevalence of risk factors used in the FRS and the use of drugs that reduce cardiovascular risk among hypertensive patients attended by the Family Health Strategy (FHS). It is cross-sectional study, which evaluated a random sample of hypertensive patients in the FHS in northern Minas Gerais. Data were collected through interviews and from medical records. 505 hypertensive patients were evaluated in 9 municipalities of the region, with a predominance of women; 325 (64.4%), mean age of 66.4 years. In 90% of hypertensive patients there was at least one associated risk factor. The grouping of three or more factors occurred in 79 (15.7%) patients. Dyslipidemia was found in 188 (37.2%), diabetes in 101 (20%) and smoking in 36 (7.1%). The use of anti-hypertensive drugs was observed in 481 (95.2%) patients. The use of other cardioprotective drugs was higher among patients with 3 or more risk factors: 45.6% used antiplatelet and 27.8% used lipid-lowering drugs. The prevalence of risk factors from the FRS in the population studied was quite high and the use of cardioprotective drugs was seen to be restricted. Strategies to increase the use of FRS may improve the management of hypertension in the FHS. PMID:24897474

Pimenta, Henderson Barbosa; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

2014-06-01

203

Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy and herbal medicines: the risk of drug interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of herbal medicines among patients under cardiovascular pharmacotherapy is widespread. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature to determine the possible interactions between herbal medicines and cardiovascular drugs. The Medline database was searched for clinical articles published between January 1996 and February 2003. Forty-three case reports and eight clinical trials were identified. Warfarin was the most common cardiovascular

Angelo A. Izzo; Giulia Di Carlo; Francesca Borrelli; Edzard Ernst

2005-01-01

204

[Association of gamma glutamyltransferase, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk].  

PubMed

Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) has been used as a marker of alcohol induced liver disease. Recent epidemiology and pathology studies have suggested its independent role in the pathogenesis and clinical evolution of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) promoting atherosclerosis through an oxidative process leading, within the atherosclerotic plaque, to LDL oxidation, metalloproteinase activation, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Besides it is known that GGT levels rise even in the normal range, with obesity and hepatic steatosis occurs, it is thought, which originates insulin resistance (IR). Being sure that IR is important in the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD, both very prevalent in Portugal, the authors considered as relevant to study the association of GGT with markers of multiple metabolic derangements: insulin-resistance (hyperinsulinemia, hyperglicemia, IR-HOMA = 3), obesity and dyslipidemia. So, a Portuguese sample population, consisted of 123 subjects (52 male and 71 female) was organized. As results were observed: elevation of GGT serum levels with the increasing risk of every marker and the same happened with metabolic syndrome and its components; compared with non obese the group of obese subjects exhibited elevated prevalence of risk factors, though in non obese subjects the percentages of insulin-resistance and dyslipidemias were high (hypercholesterolemia in both sexes, hypertriglyceridemia and low concentrations of HDL-c in men); association of serum GGT levels with every risk factor and metabolic syndrome. Though, as the association with the insulin-resistance state was particularly strong, it is thought that a high prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was present in the studied population. As serum determination of GGT activity is a low-cost, highly sensitive, accurate and frequently used laboratory test and there is association of this enzyme with the most important risk factors of diabetes type 2 and CVD, its serum levels should be considered as a marker of insulin-resistance when NAFLD is supposed to be present or there is obesity. PMID:20687985

Martins, Maria Carmo; Faleiro, Luís Lima; Afonso, Beatriz; Fonseca, Aidil

2010-01-01

205

Effects of tea and coffee on cardiovascular disease risk.  

PubMed

Tea and coffee have been associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), both positively and negatively. Epidemiological data suggest that black and green tea may reduce the risk of both coronary heart disease and stroke by between 10 and 20%. Experimental and clinical trial data generally indicate either neutral or beneficial effects on risk factors and pathways linked to the development of CVD. Controversy still exists regarding the effects of coffee, where there have been concerns regarding associations with hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and myocardial infarction. However, long term moderate intake of coffee is not associated with detrimental effects in healthy individuals and may even protect against the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The detrimental effects of coffee may be associated with the acute pressor effects, most likely due to caffeine at high daily intakes, and lipids from boiled coffee can contribute to raised serum cholesterol. Genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in uptake, metabolism and excretion of tea and coffee compounds are also associated with differential biological effects. Potential mechanisms by which tea and coffee phytochemicals can exert effects for CVD protection include the regulation of vascular tone through effects on endothelial function, improved glucose metabolism, increased reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of foam cell formation, inhibition of oxidative stress, immunomodulation and effects on platelet function (adhesion and activation, aggregation and clotting). The phytochemical compounds in tea and coffee and their metabolites are suggested to influence protective endogenous pathways by modulation of gene-expression. It is not known exactly which compounds are responsible for the suggestive protective effects of tea and coffee. Although many biologically active compounds have been identified with known biological effects, tea and coffee contain many unidentified compounds with potential bioactivity. PMID:22456725

Bøhn, Siv K; Ward, Natalie C; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D

2012-06-01

206

Management of cardiovascular risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: evidence and expert opinion  

PubMed Central

The risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is increased in rheumatoid arthritis. The classical cardiovascular risk factors, including smoking, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, obesity and physical inactivity do not appear to explain the excess cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis, although they do contribute, albeit in a different way or to a lesser extent, to rheumatoid arthritis in comparison with the general population. A very important link between rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular disease is inflammation as it plays a key role in all stages of atherosclerosis: from endothelial dysfunction to plaque rupture and thrombosis. It also has an influence on and accentuates some traditional cardiovascular risk factors, such as dyslipidaemia, obesity and insulin resistance. To date, the exact pathophysiologic mechanism by which this relation between cardiovascular disease and rheumatoid arthritis can be explained is not completely clear. Cardiovascular risk management in rheumatoid arthritis is mandatory. Unfortunately, the way this should be done remains a point of discussion. In this review issues regarding cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis and its management will be addressed, according to evidence presented in the latest studies and our own experience-based opinion. PMID:23904862

van den Oever, Inge A.M.; van Sijl, Alper M.

2013-01-01

207

Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Have all risk factors the same strength?  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that occurs when the body cannot produce enough or effectively use of insulin. Compared with individuals without diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a considerably higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease. Most of this excess risk is it associated with an augmented prevalence of well-known risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity in these patients. However the improved cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients can not be attributed solely to the higher prevalence of traditional risk factors. Therefore other non-traditional risk factors may be important in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular disease is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects due to a complex combination of various traditional and non-traditional risk factors that have an important role to play in the beginning and the evolution of atherosclerosis over its long natural history from endothelial function to clinical events. Many of these risk factors could be common history for both diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, reinforcing the postulate that both disorders come independently from "common soil". The objective of this review is to highlight the weight of traditional and non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the setting of type 2 diabetes mellitus and discuss their position in the pathogenesis of the excess cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity in these patients. PMID:25126392

Martín-Timón, Iciar; Sevillano-Collantes, Cristina; Segura-Galindo, Amparo; Del Cañizo-Gómez, Francisco Javier

2014-08-15

208

Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Have all risk factors the same strength?  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that occurs when the body cannot produce enough or effectively use of insulin. Compared with individuals without diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a considerably higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease. Most of this excess risk is it associated with an augmented prevalence of well-known risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity in these patients. However the improved cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients can not be attributed solely to the higher prevalence of traditional risk factors. Therefore other non-traditional risk factors may be important in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular disease is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects due to a complex combination of various traditional and non-traditional risk factors that have an important role to play in the beginning and the evolution of atherosclerosis over its long natural history from endothelial function to clinical events. Many of these risk factors could be common history for both diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, reinforcing the postulate that both disorders come independently from “common soil”. The objective of this review is to highlight the weight of traditional and non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the setting of type 2 diabetes mellitus and discuss their position in the pathogenesis of the excess cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity in these patients. PMID:25126392

Martín-Timón, Iciar; Sevillano-Collantes, Cristina; Segura-Galindo, Amparo; del Cañizo-Gómez, Francisco Javier

2014-01-01

209

Significant interactions between traditional risk factors affect cardiovascular risk prediction in healthy general population.  

PubMed

Abstract Aims. The aim was to carry out a systematic screening of interactions between the traditional risk factors and to evaluate which interactions are truly relevant for estimation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Methods. Cox regression was used in a meta-analysis of five independent, population-based health examination surveys (the National FINRISK Study). End-points were 10-year incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic stroke (IS), and CVD in a population free of cardiovascular disease (n = 35,460). Results. In addition to expected age interactions, systolic blood pressure was found to be a markedly stronger risk factor for CVD (and for CHD) among subjects with normal BMI (BMI < 25: HR 1.42 [1.30-1.55] for one SD increase in systolic blood pressure) when compared to obese subjects (BMI > 30: HR 1.10 [1.01-1.19]) (P < 0.001 for interaction) and among subjects with highest high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (33% tertile: HR 1.43 [1.29-1.58]) when compared to subjects with low HDL (lowest 33% tertile: HR 1.20 [1.13-1.28]) (P < 0.001 for interaction). Interactions improved risk prediction of CVD (cross-validated continuous net reclassification improvement [NRI] 49.4% with 95% CI 44.7%-54.1%, P < 0.0001 and clinical NRI 4.7%, with 95% CI 2.8%-6.5%, P < 0.0001). The C-statistic improved from 0.8438 to 0.8455 (P = 0.010). No significant interaction was associated with the risk of IS. Conclusions. There are significant effect modifications between major risk factors, and accounting for them leads to significantly more accurate estimation of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25405541

Hernesniemi, Jussi A; Tynkkynen, Juho; Havulinna, Aki S; Oksala, Niku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Salomaa, Veikko

2015-02-01

210

Central Versus Peripheral Cardiovascular Risk in Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS; i.e., three of five of the following risk factors (RFs): elevated blood pressure, waist circumference, triglycerides, blood glucose, or reduced HDL) are thought to be prone to serious cardiovascular disease and there is debate as to whether the disease begins in the peripheral vasculature or centrally. This study investigates hemodynamics, cardiac function/morphology, and mechanical properties of the central (heart, carotid artery) or peripheral [total peripheral resistance (TPR), forearm vascular bed] vasculature in individuals without (1–2 RFs: n?=?28), or with (?3 RFs: n?=?46) MetS. After adjustments for statin and blood pressure medication use, those with MetS had lower mitral valve E/A ratios (<3 RFs: 1.24?±?0.07; ?3 RFs: 1.01?±?0.04; P?=?0.025), and higher TPR index (<3 RFs: 48?±?2?mmHg/L/min/m2; ?3 RFs: 53?±?2?mmHg/L/min/m2; P?=?0.04). There were no differences in heart size, carotid artery measurements, cardiovagal baroreflex, pulse-wave velocity, stroke volume index, or cardiac output index due to MetS after adjustments for statin and blood pressure medication use. The use of statins was associated with increased inertia in the brachial vascular bed, increased HbA1c and decreased LDL cholesterol. The independent use of anti-hypertensive medication was associated with decreased predicted VO2max, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, interventricular septum thickness, calculated left ventricle mass, left ventricle posterior wall thickness, and left ventricle pre-ejection period, but increased carotid stiffness, HDL cholesterol, and heart rate. These data imply that both a central cardiac effect and a peripheral effect of vascular resistance are expressed in MetS. These data also indicate that variance in between-group responses due to pharmacological treatments are important factors to consider in studying cardiovascular changes in these individuals. PMID:22375126

Edgell, H.; Petrella, R. J.; Hodges, G. J.; Shoemaker, J. K.

2012-01-01

211

The Quest for the Optimal Assessment of Global Cardiovascular Risk: Are Traditional Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome Partners in Crime?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global risk calculators such as the Framingham risk score generally take into account traditional risk factors such as age, sex, blood pressure, smoking status, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and the presence of diabetes which are recommended to be used in clinical practice to estimate patients’ cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Over the last decades, the prevalence of obesity

Benoit J. Arsenault; Philippe Pibarot; Jean-Pierre Després

2009-01-01

212

Bisphosphonates and Risk of Cardiovascular Events: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Some evidence suggests that bisphosphonates may reduce atherosclerosis, while concerns have been raised about atrial fibrillation. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effects of bisphosphonates on total adverse cardiovascular (CV) events, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and CV death in adults with or at risk for low bone mass. Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE through July 2014 identified 58 randomized controlled trials with longer than 6 months in duration that reported CV events. Absolute risks and the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effects odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of total CV events, atrial fibrillation, MI, stroke, and CV death were estimated. Subgroup analyses by follow-up duration, population characteristics, bisphosphonate types, and route were performed. Results Absolute risks over 25–36 months in bisphosphonate-treated versus control patients were 6.5% versus 6.2% for total CV events; 1.4% versus 1.5% for atrial fibrillation; 1.0% versus 1.2% for MI; 1.6% versus 1.9% for stroke; and 1.5% versus 1.4% for CV death. Bisphosphonate treatment up to 36 months did not have any significant effects on total CV events (14 trials; ORs [95% CI]: 0.98 [0.84–1.14]; I2 = 0.0%), atrial fibrillation (41 trials; 1.08 [0.92–1.25]; I2 = 0.0%), MI (10 trials; 0.96 [0.69–1.34]; I2 = 0.0%), stroke (10 trials; 0.99 [0.82–1.19]; I2 = 5.8%), and CV death (14 trials; 0.88 [0.72–1.07]; I2 = 0.0%) with little between-study heterogeneity. The risk of atrial fibrillation appears to be modestly elevated for zoledronic acid (6 trials; 1.24 [0.96–1.61]; I2 = 0.0%), not for oral bisphosphonates (26 trials; 1.02 [0.83–1.24]; I2 = 0.0%). The CV effects did not vary by subgroups or study quality. Conclusions Bisphosphonates do not have beneficial or harmful effects on atherosclerotic CV events, but zoledronic acid may modestly increase the risk of atrial fibrillation. Given the large reduction in fractures with bisphosphonates, changes in osteoporosis treatment decision due to CV risk are not justified. PMID:25884398

Kim, Dae Hyun; Rogers, James R.; Fulchino, Lisa A.; Kim, Caroline A.; Solomon, Daniel H.; Kim, Seoyoung C.

2015-01-01

213

Prevalence and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors in outpatients with atherothrombosis in the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo characterise the risk-factor profile and treatment gaps among patients with, or at risk for, cardiovascular disease in the Middle East.DesignSecondary analysis of a prospective observational study.SettingInternational multicentre study (Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health).PatientsStable outpatients with established cardiovascular disease or at least three risk factors for atherothrombosis. The present analysis was based on 840 patients from the Middle East.InterventionObservational

Alawi A Alsheikh-Ali; Wael A Al-Mahmeed; Avi Porath; Ismail Khalil; Hisham Mahmoud; Deepak L Bhatt; P Gabriel Steg

2011-01-01

214

Pesticide residues and bees--a risk assessment.  

PubMed

Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees. PMID:24718419

Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi

2014-01-01

215

Association of body mass index and aerobic physical fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in children?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify the association between both, body mass index and aerobic fitness, with cardiovascular disease risk factors in children. Methods: Cross-sectional study, carried out in Itaúna-MG, in 2010, with 290 school children ranging from 6 to 10 years-old of both sexes, randomly selected. Children from schools located in the countryside and those with medical restrctions for physical activity were not included. Blood sample was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, stature and weight were evaluated in accordance with international standards. The following were considered as cardiovascular risk factors: high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and insulin levels, and low HDL. The statistical analysis included the Spearman's coefficient and the logistic regression, with cardiovascular risk factors as dependent variables. Results: Significant correlations were found, in both sexes, among body mass index and aerobic fitness with most of the cardiovascular risk factors. Children of both sexes with body mass index in the fourth quartile demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, girls with aerobic fitness in the first quartile also demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion: The significant associations and the increased chances of having cardiovascular risk factors in children with less aerobic fitness and higher levels of body mass index justify the use of these variables for health monitoring in Pediatrics. PMID:25479851

Gonçalves, Reginaldo; Szmuchrowski, Leszek Antony; Damasceno, Vinícius Oliveira; de Medeiros, Marcelo Lemos; Couto, Bruno Pena; Lamounier, Joel Alves

2014-01-01

216

Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence and Risk Factors of Persons with Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the recent literature on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence, CVD-related mortality, physiological CVD risk factors, and behavioral CVD risk factors in adults with mental retardation (MR). The literature on the potential influences of modifiable behavioral CVD risk factors and the physiological CVD risk factors are also…

Draheim, Christopher C.

2006-01-01

217

Influence of immune activation and inflammatory response on cardiovascular risk associated with the human immunodeficiency virus  

PubMed Central

Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased cardiovascular risk. Although initially this increased risk was attributed to metabolic alterations associated with antiretroviral treatment, in recent years, the attention has been focused on the HIV disease itself. Inflammation, immune system activation, and endothelial dysfunction facilitated by HIV infection have been identified as key factors in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In this review, we describe the epidemiology and pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in patients with HIV infection and summarize the latest knowledge on the relationship between traditional and novel inflammatory, immune activation, and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers on the cardiovascular risk associated with HIV infection. PMID:25609975

Beltrán, Luis M; Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Amaro-Villalobos, Juan Manuel; Egido, Jesús; García-Puig, Juan; Moreno, Juan Antonio

2015-01-01

218

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous large epidemiological studies reporting on the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and\\u000a cardiovascular diseases mainly focussed on prevalent diseases rather than on the incidence of newly diagnosed cardiovascular\\u000a outcomes. We used the UK-based General Practice Research Database (GPRD) to assess the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular\\u000a diseases in COPD patients aged 40–79 between 1995 and 2005, and

Cornelia Schneider; Ulrich Bothner; Susan S. Jick; Christoph R. Meier

2010-01-01

219

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Models and Longitudinal Changes in Cognition: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease and its risk factors have consistently been associated with poor cognitive function and incident dementia. Whether cardiovascular disease prediction models, developed to predict an individual's risk of future cardiovascular disease or stroke, are also informative for predicting risk of cognitive decline and dementia is not known. Objective The objective of this systematic review was to compare cohort studies examining the association between cardiovascular disease risk models and longitudinal changes in cognitive function or risk of incident cognitive impairment or dementia. Materials and Methods Medline, PsychINFO, and Embase were searched from inception to March 28, 2014. From 3,413 records initially screened, 21 were included. Results The association between numerous different cardiovascular disease risk models and cognitive outcomes has been tested, including Framingham and non-Framingham risk models. Five studies examined dementia as an outcome; fourteen studies examined cognitive decline or incident cognitive impairment as an outcome; and two studies examined both dementia and cognitive changes as outcomes. In all studies, higher cardiovascular disease risk scores were associated with cognitive changes or risk of dementia. Only four studies reported model prognostic performance indices, such as Area Under the Curve (AUC), for predicting incident dementia or cognitive impairment and these studies all examined non-Framingham Risk models (AUC range: 0.74 to 0.78). Conclusions Cardiovascular risk prediction models are associated with cognitive changes over time and risk of dementia. Such models are easily obtainable in clinical and research settings and may be useful for identifying individuals at high risk of future cognitive decline and dementia. PMID:25478916

Harrison, Stephanie L.; Ding, Jie; Tang, Eugene Y. H.; Siervo, Mario; Robinson, Louise; Jagger, Carol; Stephan, Blossom C. M.

2014-01-01

220

Depression and cardiovascular disease: an update on how course of illness may influence risk.  

PubMed

Depression constitutes a novel and independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which despite extensive support in the literature has been underappreciated. While much of the evidence for depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease is based on studies following myocardial infarction, the elevated vascular risk conveyed by depression is not confined to periods following acute coronary syndromes. For that matter, the risk appears across mood disorders with evidence for even greater risk in bipolar disorder. This review summarizes the literature linking depressive disorders to cardiovascular mortality with a focus on how the course of illness of mood disorders may influence this risk. Mood disorders may influence risk over decades of illness in a dose-response to symptom burden, or the persistence of affective symptomatology. This may be mediated through changes in the activity of the autonomic nervous system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and inflammatory cytokines. Whether treatment of depression can mitigate this risk is not established although there are suggestions to support this contention, which could be better studied with more effective treatments of depression and larger standardized samples. Directions for future study of mechanisms and treatment are discussed. Regardless of causal mechanisms, persons with depressive disorders and other risk factors for vascular disease represent a neglected, high-risk group for cardiovascular events. In addition to the appropriate treatment for depression, screening and optimized management of traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases is necessary. PMID:25163592

Fiedorowicz, Jess G

2014-10-01

221

Social networks of health care providers and patients in cardiovascular risk management: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, preventive and clinical interventions for cardiovascular risk management have been implemented widely in primary care in the Netherlands. Although this has enhanced quality and outcomes of cardiovascular risk management, further improvement remains possible. In the planned observational study, we aim to examine the role of social networks of healthcare providers and patients in quality and outcomes of cardiovascular risk management. Methods/Design In a longitudinal observational study, data on social networks of approximately 300 primary care providers from 30 general practices and 900 cardiovascular patients will be collected twice, with a six month interval, using a mix of measures. Social networks are documented with specifically designed questionnaires for patients, relatives, and healthcare professionals. For each included patient, we will extract from medical records to gather data on clinical processes and cardiovascular risk predictors. Data on self-management and psychosocial outcomes of patients will be collected using questionnaires for patients. The analysis focuses on identifying network characteristics, which are associated with (changes in) cardiovascular risk management or self-management. Discussion This research will provide insight into the role of social networks of patients and providers in cardiovascular risk management in primary practice. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR4069. PMID:24942555

2014-01-01

222

Indications for and utilization of angiotensin receptor II blockers in patients at high cardiovascular risk  

PubMed Central

The worldwide burden of cardiovascular disease is growing. In addition to lifestyle changes, pharmacologic agents that can modify cardiovascular disease processes have the potential to reduce cardiovascular events. Antihypertensive agents are widely used to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events partly beyond that of blood pressure-lowering. In particular, the angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), which antagonize the vasoconstrictive and proinflammatory/pro-proliferative effects of angiotensin II, have been shown to be cardio vascularly protective and well tolerated. Although the eight currently available ARBs are all indicated for the treatment of hypertension, they have partly different pharmacology, and their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties differ. ARB trials for reduction of cardiovascular risk can be broadly categorized into those in patients with/without hypertension and additional risk factors, in patients with evidence of cardiovascular disease, and in patients with severe cardiovascular disease, such as heart failure. These differences have led to their indications in different populations. For hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, losartan was approved to have an indication for stroke prevention, while for most patients at high-risk for cardiovascular events, telmisartan is an appropriate therapy because it has a cardiovascular preventive indication. Other ARBs are indicated for narrowly defined high-risk patients, such as those with hypertension or heart failure. Although in one analysis a possible link between ARBs and increased risks of cancer has surfaced, several meta-analyses, using the most comprehensive data available, have found no link between any ARB, or the class as a whole, and cancer. Most recently, the US Food and Drug Administration completed a review of the potential risk of cancer and concluded that treatment with an ARB medication does not increase the risk of developing cancer. This review discusses the clinical evidence supporting the different indications for each of the ARBs and the outstanding safety of this drug class. PMID:22102784

Farsang, Csaba

2011-01-01

223

Individualised multifactorial lifestyle intervention trial for high-risk cardiovascular patients in primary care.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The multiprofessional teams in Finnish health centres are well placed to carry out interventions aimed at the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of an individually tailored multifactorial lifestyle intervention in primary care for individuals at high risk for cardiovascular disease. DESIGN OF STUDY: A randomised controlled trial was conducted over 24 months with interim assessments at six and 12 months. SETTING: A health centre in Finland with a patient population of 11,000. METHOD: One hundred and fifty adults aged 18 to 65 years old with existing cardiovascular disease or multiple risk factors were randomised to active multiprofessional risk factor intervention or to standard care. The main outcome measure was a change in cardiovascular risk-factor score. Secondary outcomes were changes in blood pressure, weight, body-mass index, serum cholesterol, blood glucose, smoking cessation, and exercise habits. RESULTS: The cardiovascular risk score decreased by 28% in the intervention group (23% in the control group), body weight decreased by 3.7% (2%) and total cholesterol decreased by 10.8% (6.5%), while time engaged in exercise increased by 39% (43%). Differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiovascular risk levels of high-risk individuals decreased in both intervention and control groups. Primary care prevention should be targeted to high-risk persons. Long-term follow-up studies are needed. PMID:11458482

Ketola, E; Mäkelä, M; Klockars, M

2001-01-01

224

Nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a reduced lifespan, and a substantial proportion of these individuals die from cardiovascular disease. Although a large percentage of patients with CKD have traditional cardiac risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension and abnormalities in cholesterol, interventions to address these factors—which have significantly decreased cardiovascular mortality in the general population—have not shown such benefit

Jessica Kendrick; Michel B Chonchol

2008-01-01

225

Cardiovascular Risk Associated With Celecoxib in a Clinical Trial for Colorectal Adenoma Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors have come under scrutiny because of re- ports suggesting an increased cardiovascular risk associated with their use. Experimen- tal research suggesting that these drugs may contribute to a prothrombotic state pro- vides support for this concern. methods We reviewed all potentially serious cardiovascular events among 2035 patients with a history of colorectal neoplasia who were

Scott D. Solomon; John J. V. McMurray; Marc A. Pfeffer

2005-01-01

226

Inflammation and Infection Do Not Promote Arterial Aging and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among  

E-print Network

Inflammation and Infection Do Not Promote Arterial Aging and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors adiposity and robust physical fitness. Inflammation has been implicated in all stages of arterial aging, Vasunilashorn S, et al. (2009) Inflammation and Infection Do Not Promote Arterial Aging and Cardiovascular

Gurven, Michael

227

Describing an Academic and Nonprofit Organization Partnership to Educate At-Risk Adolescents about Cardiovascular Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is emerging evidence to suggest community-based interventions can change community-wide behaviors and attitudes toward cardiovascular health. This article describes a partnership between an academic institution and a community nonprofit organization to develop and implement a cardiovascular health promotion program targeting at risk high…

Palazzo, Steven J.; Skager, Cherie; Kraiger, Anneliese

2014-01-01

228

The Influence of a Vegetarian Diet on Haemostatic Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Africans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary habits have been implicated in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels and decreased fibrinolytic activity have been identified as major independent cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, we compared the blood pressure, plasma fibrinogen concentration, and fibrinolytic activity of 40 nonvegetarians (NON-VEGs) with 36 vegetarians (8 VEGs and 28 SEMI-VEGs). The latter group consisted of students

A. A Famodu; O Osilesi; Y. O Makinde; O. A Osonuga; T. A Fakoya; E. O Ogunyemi; I. E Egbenehkhuere

1999-01-01

229

Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity as a Marker of Cardiovascular Risk in Hypertensive Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large artery damage is a major contributory factor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of patients with hypertension. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), a classic evaluation of arterial distensibility, has never been ascertained as a cardiovascular risk marker. To determine the factors influencing aortic PWV and the potential predictor role of this measurement, we studied a cohort of 710 patients with essential

Jacques Blacher; Roland Asmar; Saliha Djane; Gerard M. London; Michel E. Safar

230

Multiple Risk Assessment of Cardiovascular Surgery in Chronic Renal Failure Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Chronic renal failure is a major risk factor in cardiovascular surgery. We evaluated results of cardio- vascular surgery in chronic renal failure patients (s- creatinine > 200 mol\\/L or established dialysis) at our center from 1990 to 2000. Methods. One hundred and six chronic renal failure patients underwent cardiovascular surgery (56 coronary artery bypass operations, 25 valve replacements with

Bartlomiej Witczak; Anders Hartmann; Jan L. Svennevig

2005-01-01

231

Effects of thyroid hormones on major cardiovascular risk in acute coronary syndromes  

E-print Network

P1 Effects of thyroid hormones on major cardiovascular risk in acute coronary syndromes A Bayrak1 In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between thyroid hormone abnormalities and major cardiac death and major cardiovascular events. The relationship between thyroid hormone levels and acute

232

The psychosocial impact of mass screening for cardiovascular risk factors.  

PubMed

In Leek, a small town in the north of the Netherlands, 428 men aged between 30-33 years were invited to take part in a screening test for cardiovascular risk factors. Questionnaires were sent to the 267 men who had participated in the screening test as well as to the 161 non-participants, in order to gain an insight into the participatory behaviour and the experience of those involved. The non-participants gave a diversity of motives for not taking part but did not admit to anxiety about finding abnormal results. More than half of the participants who replied (51%, n = 107) were found to have an 'abnormality'--that is they scored on one or more of cigarette smoking, overweight, hypertension, hyperlipoproteinaemia, albuminuna or glucosuria. The supplementary information provided on nutrition and smoking caused a large proportion of them to claim they had changed to a more healthy life-style after the screening test. Those who were under the impression that they had led healthy lives but were still found to have an 'abnormality' were often very astonished and sometimes worried about the result. The men without 'abnormalities' did not lead significantly healthier lives than the rest in terms of exercise, smoking, diet and so on; for them the result might have a 'certificate of health' effect justifying their not always healthy behaviour. PMID:3692036

Tymstra, T; Bieleman, B

1987-12-01

233

Cardiovascular Risks Associated with Low Dose Ionizing Particle Radiation  

PubMed Central

Previous epidemiologic data demonstrate that cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality may occur decades after ionizing radiation exposure. With increased use of proton and carbon ion radiotherapy and concerns about space radiation exposures to astronauts on future long-duration exploration-type missions, the long-term effects and risks of low-dose charged particle irradiation on the CV system must be better appreciated. Here we report on the long-term effects of whole-body proton (1H; 0.5 Gy, 1 GeV) and iron ion (56Fe; 0.15 Gy, 1GeV/nucleon) irradiation with and without an acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) event in mice. We show that cardiac function of proton-irradiated mice initially improves at 1 month but declines by 10 months post-irradiation. In AMI-induced mice, prior proton irradiation improved cardiac function restoration and enhanced cardiac remodeling. This was associated with increased pro-survival gene expression in cardiac tissues. In contrast, cardiac function was significantly declined in 56Fe ion-irradiated mice at 1 and 3 months but recovered at 10 months. In addition, 56Fe ion-irradiation led to poorer cardiac function and more adverse remodeling in AMI-induced mice, and was associated with decreased angiogenesis and pro-survival factors in cardiac tissues at any time point examined up to 10 months. This is the first study reporting CV effects following low dose proton and iron ion irradiation during normal aging and post-AMI. Understanding the biological effects of charged particle radiation qualities on the CV system is necessary both for the mitigation of space exploration CV risks and for understanding of long-term CV effects following charged particle radiotherapy. PMID:25337914

Yan, Xinhua; Sasi, Sharath P.; Gee, Hannah; Lee, JuYong; Yang, Yongyao; Mehrzad, Raman; Onufrak, Jillian; Song, Jin; Enderling, Heiko; Agarwal, Akhil; Rahimi, Layla; Morgan, James; Wilson, Paul F.; Carrozza, Joseph; Walsh, Kenneth; Kishore, Raj; Goukassian, David A.

2014-01-01

234

Cardiovascular risks associated with low dose ionizing particle radiation.  

PubMed

Previous epidemiologic data demonstrate that cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality may occur decades after ionizing radiation exposure. With increased use of proton and carbon ion radiotherapy and concerns about space radiation exposures to astronauts on future long-duration exploration-type missions, the long-term effects and risks of low-dose charged particle irradiation on the CV system must be better appreciated. Here we report on the long-term effects of whole-body proton ((1)H; 0.5 Gy, 1 GeV) and iron ion ((56)Fe; 0.15 Gy, 1GeV/nucleon) irradiation with and without an acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) event in mice. We show that cardiac function of proton-irradiated mice initially improves at 1 month but declines by 10 months post-irradiation. In AMI-induced mice, prior proton irradiation improved cardiac function restoration and enhanced cardiac remodeling. This was associated with increased pro-survival gene expression in cardiac tissues. In contrast, cardiac function was significantly declined in (56)Fe ion-irradiated mice at 1 and 3 months but recovered at 10 months. In addition, (56)Fe ion-irradiation led to poorer cardiac function and more adverse remodeling in AMI-induced mice, and was associated with decreased angiogenesis and pro-survival factors in cardiac tissues at any time point examined up to 10 months. This is the first study reporting CV effects following low dose proton and iron ion irradiation during normal aging and post-AMI. Understanding the biological effects of charged particle radiation qualities on the CV system is necessary both for the mitigation of space exploration CV risks and for understanding of long-term CV effects following charged particle radiotherapy. PMID:25337914

Yan, Xinhua; Sasi, Sharath P; Gee, Hannah; Lee, JuYong; Yang, Yongyao; Mehrzad, Raman; Onufrak, Jillian; Song, Jin; Enderling, Heiko; Agarwal, Akhil; Rahimi, Layla; Morgan, James; Wilson, Paul F; Carrozza, Joseph; Walsh, Kenneth; Kishore, Raj; Goukassian, David A

2014-01-01

235

Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases: The Risk Factor in African Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity is relevant not only in developed nations but also recently, in developing countries of Africa. Given that obesity is associated with morbidity and mortality from several health conditions including cardiovascular diseases this has attracted growing concern. In addition, scientific evidence is accumulating regarding the links between diet, obesity and the prevalence of cardiovascular

Folake Samuel; Tola Atinmo

236

Low levels of cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart disease in a UK Chinese population.   

E-print Network

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart disease in Chinese and Europid adults. DESIGN: Population based, cross sectional survey. SETTING: Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 1991-93. SUBJECTS: Altogether 380...

Harland, J O; Unwin, Nigel; Bhopal, Raj; White, M; Watson, B; Laker, M; Alberti, K G

1997-01-01

237

Longitudinal Genome-Wide Association of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in the Bogalusa Heart Study  

E-print Network

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have pinpointed many loci associated with CVD risk factors in adults. It is unclear, however, if these loci ...

Peltonen, Leena

238

Cardiovascular risk reductions associated with aggressive lifestyle modification and cardiac rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPatients who have been treated for coronary heart disease can enroll in traditional cardiac rehabilitation, the Ornish Program, or no rehabilitation at all. No study has compared the impact of each on cardiovascular disease risk (CVD) factors.

Steven G Aldana; William R Whitmer; Roger Greenlaw; Andrew L Avins; Audrey Salberg; Megan Barnhurst; Gilbert Fellingham; Lee Lipsenthal

2003-01-01

239

Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle ... fatty deposits called plaque build up in the arteries, especially those in the legs. Over time, the ...

240

71 FR 67148 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: Circulating Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Risk in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: Circulating Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Risk in the NHLBI's Framingham Heart Study AGENCY: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH, HHS....

2006-11-20

241

A critical appraisal of the use of Internet for calculating cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to retrieve and evaluate the quality of the Internet sites providing information on cardiovascular risk. We searched web pages related to risk prediction using six search engines. Sites proposing a cardiovascular risk prediction were selected for evaluation. The quality of each site was checked against criteria testing the validity, type and potential usefulness of information for physicians or patients. Search engines retrieved about 50 10(6) web pages. Eight sites were included. Only 2 of them provided calculation of cardiovascular risk based on Framingham equation. The others proposed algorithms, guidelines, or general information on cardiovascular health. Most sites lacked details to ensure quality of information. Present search engines are inefficient to retrieve precise and valid information. Facing the inflation of medical information, a systematic approach to validate the quality of a site is mandatory. Application of Evidence Based Medicine concepts gives a solution for evaluation of internet-based medical information. PMID:10566465

Gillois, P.; Colombet, I.; Dréau, H.; Degoulet, P.; Chatellier, G.

1999-01-01

242

Importance of cardiovascular disease risk management in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is commonly accompanied by other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, CVD is the most common cause of death in people with T2DM. It is therefore of critical importance to minimize the risk of macrovascular complications by carefully managing modifiable CVD risk factors in patients with T2DM. Therapeutic strategies should include lifestyle and pharmacological interventions targeting hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and prothrombotic factors. This article discusses the impact of modifying these CVD risk factors in the context of T2DM; the clinical evidence is summarized, and current guidelines are also discussed. The cardiovascular benefits of smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure are well established. For aspirin therapy, any cardiovascular benefits must be balanced against the associated bleeding risk, with current evidence supporting this strategy only in certain patients who are at increased CVD risk. Although overweight, obesity, and hyperglycemia are clearly associated with increased cardiovascular risk, the effect of their modification on this risk is less well defined by available clinical trial evidence. However, for glucose-lowering drugs, further evidence is expected from several ongoing cardiovascular outcome trials. Taken together, the evidence highlights the value of early intervention and targeting multiple risk factors with both lifestyle and pharmacological strategies to give the best chance of reducing macrovascular complications in the long term. PMID:24920930

Lorber, Daniel

2014-01-01

243

Cardiovascular risk factors in economically disadvantaged women: a study of prevalence and awareness.  

PubMed Central

This study examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among low-income women and assessed the level of awareness and attitudes about these risk factors in the community. A survey instrument was developed and administered by a single researcher to a convenience sample of women in health clinics and nonclinical community settings. These settings included: an academic clinic, community clinics, women's shelters, free meal sites, community centers, public housing units, and private homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Two hundred two women were selected without regard to age or race. The mean number of cardiovascular risk factors per subject was 2.6 (SD 1.4). Each of eight established cardiovascular risk factors was identified by 4% to 34% of subjects. Among those women with a specific risk factor, only 0% to 45% reported that they were at increased risk due to the presence of that factor. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among low-income women is substantial. Knowledge and understanding of these risk factors is suboptimal, particularly among women personally affected by risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:9770952

Poduri, A.; Grisso, J. A.

1998-01-01

244

Cardiovascular risk factors in economically disadvantaged women: a study of prevalence and awareness.  

PubMed

This study examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among low-income women and assessed the level of awareness and attitudes about these risk factors in the community. A survey instrument was developed and administered by a single researcher to a convenience sample of women in health clinics and nonclinical community settings. These settings included: an academic clinic, community clinics, women's shelters, free meal sites, community centers, public housing units, and private homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Two hundred two women were selected without regard to age or race. The mean number of cardiovascular risk factors per subject was 2.6 (SD 1.4). Each of eight established cardiovascular risk factors was identified by 4% to 34% of subjects. Among those women with a specific risk factor, only 0% to 45% reported that they were at increased risk due to the presence of that factor. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among low-income women is substantial. Knowledge and understanding of these risk factors is suboptimal, particularly among women personally affected by risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:9770952

Poduri, A; Grisso, J A

1998-09-01

245

Individual social class, area-based deprivation, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and mortality: the Renfrew and Paisley Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of individual and area-based socioeconomic indicators with cardiovascular disease risk factors and mortality. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: The towns of Renfrew and Paisley in the west of Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 6961 men and 7991 women included in a population-based cardiovascular disease screening study between 1972 and 1976. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiorespiratory

G. D. Smith; C. Hart; G. Watt; D. Hole; V. Hawthorne

1998-01-01

246

Differences in cardiovascular risk factors in rural, urban and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo assess differences in cardiovascular risk profiles among rural-to-urban migrants and non-migrant groups.MethodsCross-sectional study in Ayacucho and Lima, Peru. Participants were: rural (n=201); rural-to-urban migrants (n=589); and urban (n=199). Cardiovascular risk factors were assessed according to migrant status (migrants vs non-migrants), age at first migration, length of residency in an urban area and lifetime exposure to an urban area.ResultsFor most

J Jaime Miranda; Robert H Gilman; Liam Smeeth

2011-01-01

247

Endothelial function in HIV-infected patients with low or mild cardiovascular risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected patients is associated with metabolic side effects, which could cause an increased cardiovascular risk in these patients. Non-invasive study of endothelial function by brachial artery ultrasound can detect subclinical atherosclerosis. Several studies have assessed endothelial function in HIV-infected patients with associated cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine

Juan JoseRõ ´; Ines Suarez; Garcõ ´ a; Jorge Gomez Cerezo; Pilar Moreno Anaya; Pilar Garcõ ´; Juan Gonzalez Garcõ ´ a; JoseRamon Arribas Lopez; Francisco Javier Barbado Hernandez; Juan JoseVazquez Rodrõ ´ guez

2006-01-01

248

Relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and carotid elasticity in healthy young adults: the bogalusa heart study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decreased arterial elasticity, indicating abnormal vascular function, has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in middle and older-age individuals. This study was designed to explore the rela-tionships between carotid artery function and cardiovascular risk factors in young, healthy adults. A sample of 516 subjects aged 25–37 years (mean age 32 years, 71% white, 39% male) who participated in

Elaine M. Urbina; Lyn Kieltyka; Sathanur Srinivasan; Rong Tang; Gene Bond; Gerald S. Berenson

2003-01-01

249

Low-carbohydrate diets, obesity, and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the increased prevalence of obesity in the United States (and its associated cardiovascular risk) despite reduced fat\\u000a intake, there has been increasing interest in the effect of low-carbohydrate diets on obesity. Recent prospective trials have\\u000a demonstrated equivalent weight loss on low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diets, but with significantly different effects on\\u000a metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Low-carbohydrate diets have

Frederick F. Samaha; Gary D. Foster; Angela P. Makris

2007-01-01

250

Exercise, fitness, and cardiovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article highlights research supporting the concept that increased physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness attenuate\\u000a risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. Increased activity and fitness also attenuate\\u000a risk of developing cardiovascular disease in persons who have type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. Although controversial,\\u000a relationships between physical activity\\/physical fitness and type 2 diabetes\\/metabolic syndrome

Glen E. Duncan; RCEP SM

2006-01-01

251

Physical Activity and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Events: Inflammatory and Metabolic Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAMER, M., and E. STAMATAKIS. Physical Activity and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Events: Inflammatory and Metabolic Mechanisms. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 41, No. 6, pp. 1206-1211, 2009. Purpose: The biological mechanisms through which physical activity lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are incompletely understood. We examined the extent to which inflammatory\\/hemostatic factors (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen), metabolic factors

MARK HAMER; EMMANUEL STAMATAKIS

2009-01-01

252

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Chronic Kidney Disease: Traditional, Nontraditional, and Uremia-related Threats  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and there is\\u000a an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic strategies to reduce this excessive risk. In the context of uremia, this has been\\u000a problematic, as the extremely high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk seems to be the result of a complex interplay between\\u000a a vast

Juan J. Carrero; Peter Stenvinkel

253

Behavioral interventions for the treatment of obesity in women with or at risk for cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than one-third of women in the United States are obese. This fact is of particular concern given that obesity contributes\\u000a to increased risk of several diseases that affect women, including cardiovascular disease. Even modest weight loss, however,\\u000a can prevent and improve cardiovascular risk factors in obese women. Behavioral interventions for the treatment of obesity\\u000a that aim to produce weight

Dale S. Bond; Rena R. Wing

2009-01-01

254

Determining cardiovascular disease risk in elementary school children: Developing a healthy heart score  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least 50% of children have one or more cardiovascular dis- ease (CVD) risk factor. We aimed to 1) determine the preva- lence of CVD risk factors in a sample of Canadian children, and 2) create a Healthy Heart Score that could be used in a school setting, to identify children with a greater number and severity of CVD risk

Kate E. Reed; Darren E. R. Warburton; Heather A. McKay

255

Is Nondiabetic Hyperglycemia a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease? A Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although hyperglycemia increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in diabetic patients, the risk associated with blood glucose levels in the nondia- betic range remains unsettled. Methods: We identified 38 reports in which CVD inci- dence or mortality was an end point, blood glucose lev- els were measured prospectively, and the relative risk (RR) and information necessary to calculate

Emily B. Levitan; Yiqing Song; Earl S. Ford; Simin Liu

2004-01-01

256

Audit of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Supported Adults with Intellectual Disability Attending an Ageing Clinic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Little is known about the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). As many CVD risk factors are treatable by lifestyle changes, confirmation of the risk factor profile for older adults with ID could substantially impact upon preventive health practices for this group. Method:…

Wallace, Robyn A.; Schluter, Philip

2008-01-01

257

Screening for Future Cardiovascular Disease Using Age Alone Compared with Multiple Risk Factors and Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRisk factors such as blood pressure and serum cholesterol are used, with age, in screening for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The value of using these risk factors with age compared with using age alone is not known. We compared screening for future CVD events using age alone with screening using age and multiple risk factors based on regular Framingham

Nicholas J. Wald; Mark Simmonds; Joan K. Morris; Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai

2011-01-01

258

Family life and cardiovascular risk: Implications for the prevention of chronic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

While individual life style has been related to increased risk for cardiovascular disease, as well as other chronic diseases, little attempt has been made to explore the influence of family life style upon risk factor development. This review examines findings from behavioral and epidemiological studies which suggest a relationship between family environmental factors and levels of risk characteristics. Concepts provided

Maurine H Venters

1986-01-01

259

Occupational differences, cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle habits in South Eastern rural Australia  

PubMed Central

Background In rural and remote Australia, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates are higher than metropolitan rates. This study analysed cardiovascular and other chronic disease risk factors and related health behaviours by occupational status, to determine whether agricultural workers have higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk than other rural workers. Methods Cross-sectional surveys in three rural regions of South Eastern Australia (2004-2006). A stratified random sample of 1001 men and women aged 25-74 from electoral rolls were categorised by occupation into agricultural workers (men?=?214, women?=?79), technicians (men?=?123), managers (men?=?148, women?=?272) and ‘home duties’ (women?=?165). Data were collected from self-administered questionnaire, physical measurements and laboratory tests. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk were assessed by Framingham 5 years risk calculation. Results Amongst men, agricultural workers had higher occupational physical activity levels, healthier more traditional diet, lower alcohol consumption, lower fasting plasma glucose, the lowest proportion of daily smokers and lower age-adjusted 5 year CVD and CHD risk scores. Amongst women, managers were younger with higher HDL cholesterol, lower systolic blood pressure, less hypertension, lower waist circumference, less self-reported diabetes and better 5 year CVD and CHD risk scores. Agricultural workers did not have higher cardiovascular disease risk than other occupational groups. Conclusions Previous studies have suggested that farmers have higher risks of cardiovascular disease but this is because the risk has been compared with non-rural populations. In this study, the comparison has been made with other rural occupations. Cardiovascular risk reduction programs are justified for all. Programs tailored only for agricultural workers are unwarranted. PMID:24266886

2013-01-01

260

Height and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities and Cardiovascular Health Studies  

PubMed Central

Purpose Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an important cause of mortality in the adult population. Height has been associated with cardiac hypertrophy and an increased risk of arrhythmias, but also with decreased risk of coronary heart disease, suggesting a complex association with SCD. Methods We examined the association of adult height with the risk of physician-adjudicated SCD in two large population-based cohorts: the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Results Over an average follow-up time of 11.7 years in CHS, there were 199 (3.6%) cases of SCD among 5,556 participants. In ARIC, over 12.6 years, there were 227 (1.5%) cases of SCD among 15,633 participants. In both cohorts, there was a trend towards decreased SCD with taller height. In fixed effects meta-analysis, the pooled hazard ratio per 10 cm of height was 0.84 (95%CI 0.73, 0.98, p=0.03). The association of increased height with lower risk of SCD was slightly attenuated after inclusion of risk factors associated with height, such as hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. The association appeared stronger among men than women in both cohorts. Conclusion In two population-based prospective cohorts of different ages, greater height was associated with lower risk of SCD. PMID:24360853

Rosenberg, Michael A.; Lopez, Faye L.; B?žková, Petra; Adabag, SelcukPhD; Chen, Lin Y.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Kronmal, Richard A.; Siscovick, David S.; Alonso, Alvaro; Buxton, Alfred; Folsom, Aaron R.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

2014-01-01

261

Relationship between Sarcopenic Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk as Estimated by the Framingham Risk Score.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to assess the association between sarcopenic obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Korean adults (n=3,320; ?40 yr) who participated in the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2010. The appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight was calculated for each participant; participants with values <1 standard deviation below the mean reference value (i.e., aged 20-39 yr) were considered sarcopenic. Subjects were further classified into 4 groups according to their obesity (i.e., body mass index ?25 kg/m(2)) and sarcopenic status. Individuals' 10-yr CVD risk was determined using the Framingham risk model. The sarcopenic obese group had more participants (43.8% men, 14.6% women) with a high risk of CVD (?20%). The sarcopenic obese group was associated with an increased 10-yr CVD risk than the non-sarcopenic, non-obese group (odds ratio [OR], 2.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53-4.06, P<0.001 in men; OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.02-3.41, P=0.041 in women). Sarcopenic non-obese and non-sarcopenic obese subjects were not associated with an increased 10-yr CVD risk. Sarcopenic obesity, but not non-sarcopenic obesity, was closely associated with an increased CVD risk in Korean adults. PMID:25729248

Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Cho, Jung Jin; Park, Yong Soon

2015-03-01

262

The low-carbohydrate diet and cardiovascular risk factors: Evidence from epidemiologic studies  

PubMed Central

Aims Obesity is an important public health issue because of its high prevalence and concomitant increase in risk of cardiovascular diseases. Low carbohydrate diets are popular for weight loss and weight management but are not recommended in leading guidelines due to the perception that increases in dietary fat intake may lead to an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. To clarify the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss on cardiovascular disease risk factors as compared to a low fat diet for weight loss, we systematically reviewed data from randomized controlled clinical trials and large observational studies. Data synthesis We searched the MEDLINE database (Jan 1966–Nov 2013) to identify studies that examined a low-carbohydrate diet as compared to a low-fat diet for weight loss or the improvement of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Conclusions Recent randomized controlled trials document that low-carbohydrate diets not only decrease body weight but also improve cardiovascular risk factors. In light of this evidence from randomized controlled trials, dietary guidelines should be re-visited advocating a healthy low carbohydrate dietary pattern as an alternative dietary strategy for the prevention of obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:24613757

Hu, T.; Bazzano, L. A.

2015-01-01

263

A Novel Model of Cardiovascular Risk Based on Kidney Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Although creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is associated with cardiovascular events, threshold values for optimum discrimination are unclear. We aimed to identify serum creatinine and eGFR thresholds of maximum sensitivity and specificity (MaxSn+Sp) for a composite outcome of coronary heart disease, stroke, and death. Methods: Classification tree methodology defined the hierarchical rank of serum creatinine, eGFR, and cardiovascular

Robert N. Foley; Allan J. Collins

2011-01-01

264

Arterial function in youth: window into cardiovascular risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Non-invasive measures of arterial function, such as intima-media thickness (IMT), endothelial function, and arterial stiffness are associated with and are prognostic of cardiovascular events in adults. Post-mortem evidence, however, has established that the atherosclerotic process starts in childhood. Furthermore, cardiovascular morbidities in childhood disrupt arterial health and may lead to adverse outcomes in adulthood. Thus, it is important to

Bo Fernhall; Stamatis Agiovlasitis

2008-01-01

265

Approach to dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy, and cardiovascular risk in patients with HIV infection.  

PubMed

There is a significant prevalence (20%-80% depending on the population and the study) of lipid disorders and other cardiovascular risk factors in people living with HIV infection. This review focuses on HIV and HIV treatment-associated metabolic and cardiovascular concerns, including dyslipidemias, lipodystrophy syndromes, endothelial dysfunctions, and associated metabolic events such as insulin resistance. Emerging hypotheses of the underlying pathophysiology of these issues, with impact on selection of specific antiretroviral treatment (ART) strategies, therapy, and preventive approaches to decreasing cardiovascular risk and other problems associated with these syndromes are discussed. Screening for cardiovascular risk as part of the decision of starting antiretroviral therapy, and during care of patients with HIV regardless of ART therapy status, is suggested with particular areas of focus. Statins, other hyperlipidemic therapies, treatment for specific problems arising due to lipodystrophy, and implications on ART selection to avoid drug interactions and adverse effects are also discussed. PMID:21181310

Troll, J Gregory

2011-02-01

266

Novel Measures of Heart Rate Variability Predict Cardiovascular Mortality in Older Adults Independent of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Novel HRV Predicts CV Mortality in the Elderly Background It is unknown whether abnormal heart rate turbulence (HRT) and abnormal fractal properties of heart rate variability identify older adults at increased risk of cardiovascular death (CVdth). Methods Data from 1,172 community-dwelling adults, ages 72 ± 5 (65–93) years, who participated in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a study of risk factors for CV disease in people ?65 years. HRT and the short-term fractal scaling exponent (DFA1) derived from 24-hour Holter recordings. HRT categorized as: normal (turbulence slope [TS] and turbulence onset [TO] normal) or abnormal (TS and/or TO abnormal). DFA1 categorized as low (?1) or high (>1). Cox regression analyses stratified by Framingham Risk Score (FRS) strata (low = <10, mid = 10–20, and high >20) and adjusted for prevalent clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and quartiles of ventricular premature beat counts (VPCs). Results CVdths (N = 172) occurred over a median follow-up of 12.3 years. Within each FRS stratum, low DFA1+abnormal HRT predicted risk of CVdth (RR=7.7 for low FRS; 3.6, mid FRS; 2.8, high FRS). Among high FRS stratum participants, low DFA1 alone also predicted CVdth (RR = 2.0). VPCs in the highest quartile predicted CVdth, but only in the high FRS group. Clinical CV disease predicted CVdth at each FRS stratum (RR = 2.9, low; 2.6, mid; and 1.9, high). Diabetes predicted CVdth in the highest FRS group only (RR = 2.2). Conclusions The combination of low DFA1 + abnormal HRT is a strong risk factor for CVdth among older adults even after adjustment for conventional CVD risk measures and the presence of CVD. PMID:18631274

STEIN, PHYLLIS K.; BARZILAY, JOSHUA I.; CHAVES, PAULO H.M.; MISTRETTA, STEPHANIE Q.; DOMITROVICH, PETER P.; GOTTDIENER, JOHN S.; RICH, MICHAEL W.; KLEIGER, ROBERT E.

2013-01-01

267

Habitual Sleep Duration and Predicted 10?Year Cardiovascular Risk Using the Pooled Cohort Risk Equations Among US Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The association between sleep duration and predicted cardiovascular risk has been poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to examine the association between self?reported sleep duration and predicted 10?year cardiovascular risk among US adults. Methods and Results Data from 7690 men and nonpregnant women who were aged 40 to 79 years, who were free of self?reported heart disease and stroke, and who participated in a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005 to 2012 were analyzed. Sleep duration was self?reported. Predicted 10?year cardiovascular risk was calculated using the pooled cohort equations. Among the included participants, 13.1% reported sleeping ?5 hours, 24.4% reported sleeping 6 hours, 31.9% reported sleeping 7 hours, 25.2% reported sleeping 8 hours, 4.0% reported sleeping 9 hours, and 1.3% reported sleeping ?10 hours. After adjustment for covariates, geometric mean–predicted 10?year cardiovascular risk was 4.0%, 3.6%, 3.4%, 3.5%, 3.7%, and 3.7% among participants who reported sleeping ?5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and ?10 hours per night, respectively (PWald chi?square<0.001). The age?adjusted percentages of predicted cardiovascular risk ?20% for the 6 intervals of sleep duration were 14.5%, 11.9%, 11.0%, 11.4%, 11.8%, and 16.3% (PWald chi?square=0.022). After maximal adjustment, however, sleep duration was not significantly associated with cardiovascular risk ?20% (PWald chi?square=0.698). Conclusions Mean?predicted 10?year cardiovascular risk was lowest among adults who reported sleeping 7 hours per night and increased as participants reported sleeping fewer and more hours. PMID:25468656

Ford, Earl S.

2014-01-01

268

Cardiovascular risk assessment in low-resource settings: a consensus document of the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Hypertension and Cardiovascular Risk in Low Resource Settings  

PubMed Central

The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 confirms ischemic heart disease and stroke as the leading cause of death and that hypertension is the main associated risk factor worldwide. How best to respond to the rising prevalence of hypertension in resource-deprived settings is a topic of ongoing public-health debate and discussion. In low-income and middle-income countries, socioeconomic inequality and cultural factors play a role both in the development of risk factors and in the access to care. In Europe, cultural barriers and poor communication between health systems and migrants may limit migrants from receiving appropriate prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. To use more efficiently resources available and to make treatment cost-effective at the patient level, cardiovascular risk approach is now recommended. In 2011, The European Society of Hypertension established a Working Group on ‘Hypertension and Cardiovascular risk in low resource settings’, which brought together cardiologists, diabetologists, nephrologists, clinical trialists, epidemiologists, economists, and other stakeholders to review current strategies for cardiovascular risk assessment in population studies in low-income and middle-income countries, their limitations, possible improvements, and future interests in screening programs. This report summarizes current evidence and presents highlights of unmet needs. PMID:24577410

Modesti, Pietro A.; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Agyemang, Charles; Basu, Sanjay; Benetos, Athanase; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Ceriello, Antonio; Del Prato, Stefano; Kalyesubula, Robert; O’Brien, Eoin; Kilama, Michael O.; Perlini, Stefano; Picano, Eugenio; Reboldi, Gianpaolo; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Stuckler, David; Twagirumukiza, Marc; Van Bortel, Luc M.; Watfa, Ghassan; Zhao, Dong; Parati, Gianfranco

2014-01-01

269

Cardiovascular risk assessment in low-resource settings: a consensus document of the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Hypertension and Cardiovascular Risk in Low Resource Settings.  

PubMed

The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 confirms ischemic heart disease and stroke as the leading cause of death and that hypertension is the main associated risk factor worldwide. How best to respond to the rising prevalence of hypertension in resource-deprived settings is a topic of ongoing public-health debate and discussion. In low-income and middle-income countries, socioeconomic inequality and cultural factors play a role both in the development of risk factors and in the access to care. In Europe, cultural barriers and poor communication between health systems and migrants may limit migrants from receiving appropriate prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. To use more efficiently resources available and to make treatment cost-effective at the patient level, cardiovascular risk approach is now recommended. In 2011, The European Society of Hypertension established a Working Group on 'Hypertension and Cardiovascular risk in low resource settings', which brought together cardiologists, diabetologists, nephrologists, clinical trialists, epidemiologists, economists, and other stakeholders to review current strategies for cardiovascular risk assessment in population studies in low-income and middle-income countries, their limitations, possible improvements, and future interests in screening programs. This report summarizes current evidence and presents highlights of unmet needs. PMID:24577410

Modesti, Pietro A; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Agyemang, Charles; Basu, Sanjay; Benetos, Athanase; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Ceriello, Antonio; Del Prato, Stefano; Kalyesubula, Robert; O'Brien, Eoin; Kilama, Michael O; Perlini, Stefano; Picano, Eugenio; Reboldi, Gianpaolo; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Stuckler, David; Twagirumukiza, Marc; Van Bortel, Luc M; Watfa, Ghassan; Zhao, Dong; Parati, Gianfranco

2014-05-01

270

Magnesium Modifies the Cardiovascular Mortality Risk Associated with Hyperphosphatemia in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background In vitro studies have shown inhibitory effects of magnesium (Mg) on phosphate-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells, raising the possibility that maintaining a high Mg level may be useful for reducing cardiovascular risks of patients with hyperphosphatemia. We examined how serum Mg levels affect the association between serum phosphate levels and the risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted using database of the Renal Data Registry of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy in 2009. We identified 142,069 patients receiving in-center hemodialysis whose baseline serum Mg and phosphate levels were available. Study outcomes were one-year cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Serum Mg levels were categorized into three groups (lower, <2.7 mg/dL; intermediate, ?2.7, <3.1 mg/dL; and higher, ?3.1 mg/dL). Results During follow-up, 11,401 deaths occurred, out of which 4,751 (41.7%) were ascribed to cardiovascular disease. In multivariable analyses, an increase in serum phosphate levels elevated the risk of cardiovascular mortality in the lower- and intermediate-Mg groups, whereas no significant risk increment was observed in the higher-Mg group. Moreover, among patients with serum phosphate levels of ?6.0 mg/dL, the cardiovascular mortality risk significantly decreased with increasing serum Mg levels (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] of the lower-, intermediate-, and higher-Mg groups were 1.00 (reference), 0.81 [0.66–0.99], and 0.74 [0.56–0.97], respectively.). An interaction between Mg and phosphate on the risk of cardiovascular mortality was statistically significant (P?=?0.03). Conclusion Serum Mg levels significantly modified the mortality risk associated with hyperphosphatemia in patients undergoing hemodialysis. PMID:25545498

Sakaguchi, Yusuke; Fujii, Naohiko; Shoji, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Terumasa; Rakugi, Hiromi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Isaka, Yoshitaka

2014-01-01

271

Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. Results The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with a lower body mass index and milk desserts were associated with a lower waist circumference. No snack patterns were associated with other CVRF studied. Conclusions Overall, several snacking patterns were associated with better diet quality than those consuming no snacks. Yet, the majority of the snacking patterns were not associated with CVRF. Education is needed to improve snacking patterns in terms of nutrients to limit in the diet along with more nutrient-dense foods to be included in snacks. PMID:24754905

2014-01-01

272

Dietary fibre intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate dietary fibre intake and any potential dose-response association with coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease. Design Systematic review of available literature and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies using random effects models. Data sources The Cochrane Library, Medline, Medline in-process, Embase, CAB Abstracts, ISI Web of Science, BIOSIS, and hand searching. Eligibility criteria for studies Prospective studies reporting associations between fibre intake and coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease, with a minimum follow-up of three years and published in English between 1 January 1990 and 6 August 2013. Results 22 cohort study publications met inclusion criteria and reported total dietary fibre intake, fibre subtypes, or fibre from food sources and primary events of cardiovascular disease or coronary heart disease. Total dietary fibre intake was inversely associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (risk ratio 0.91 per 7 g/day (95% confidence intervals 0.88 to 0.94)) and coronary heart disease (0.91 (0.87 to 0.94)). There was evidence of some heterogeneity between pooled studies for cardiovascular disease (I2=45% (0% to 74%)) and coronary heart disease (I2=33% (0% to 66%)). Insoluble fibre and fibre from cereal and vegetable sources were inversely associated with risk of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease. Fruit fibre intake was inversely associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Greater dietary fibre intake is associated with a lower risk of both cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease. Findings are aligned with general recommendations to increase fibre intake. The differing strengths of association by fibre type or source highlight the need for a better understanding of the mode of action of fibre components. PMID:24355537

2013-01-01

273

Somatotype of the individuals with lower extremity amputation and its association with cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

Anthropometric somatotyping is one of the methods to describe the shape of the human body, which shows some associations with an individual's health and disease condition, especially with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Individuals with lower extremity amputation (LEA) are known to be more vulnerable to the cardiovascular risk. The objectives of the present study are to report the somatotype of the individuals having lower extremity amputation, to study the possible variation in somatotype between two groups of amputated individuals, and to study the association between cardiovascular disease risk factor and somatotype components among individuals with locomotor disability. 102 adult male individuals with unilateral lower-extremity amputation residing in Calcutta and adjoining areas were investigated. The anthropometric data for somatotyping and data on cardiovascular risk traits (such as body mass index, blood pressure measurements, blood lipids) have been collected. The somatotyping technique of Carter & Heath (1990) has been followed. The result shows high mean values of endomorphy and mesomorphy components and a low mean value of the ectomorphy component among the amputated individuals having cardiovascular risks. The results of both discriminant analysis and logistic regression analysis show a significant relationship between somatotype components and CVD risk among the individuals with LEA. The findings of the present study support the findings of similar studies conducted on the normal population. Diagnosis of CVD risk condition through somatotyping can be utilized in prevention/treatment management for the individuals with LEA. PMID:18435209

Mozumdar, Arupendra; Roy, Subrata K

2008-03-01

274

Association between Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Risk in Chinese Youth Independent of Age and Pubertal Stage  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of habit formation with substantial tracking of lifestyle and cardiovascular risk into adulthood. There are various guidelines on recommended levels of physical activity in youth of school-age. Despite the epidemic of obesity and diabetes in China, there is a paucity of data in this regard in Chinese youth. We examined the association of self-reported level of physical activity and cardiovascular risk in Hong Kong Chinese youth of school-age. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2007-8 in a school setting with 2119 Hong Kong Chinese youth aged 6-20 years. Physical activity level was assessed using a validated questionnaire, CUHK-PARCY (The Chinese University of Hong Kong: Physical Activity Rating for Children and Youth). A summary risk score comprising of waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipids was constructed to quantify cardiovascular risk. Results In this cohort, 21.5% reported high level of physical activity with boys being more active than girls (32.1% versus 14.1%, p < 0.001). Regression analysis showed physical activity level, sex and pubertal stage were independently associated with cardiovascular risk score. Conclusion Self-reported level of physical activity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese youth after adjusting for sex and pubertal stage. PMID:20525239

2010-01-01

275

The increased cardiovascular risk in patients affected by autoimmune diseases: review of the various manifestations.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases are among major health concerns in developed countries, and both represent a significant source of morbidity, mortality and economic costs. Despite they are thought to affect subjects at different ages, most of the deaths of patients affected by autoimmune diseases are represented by cardiovascular deaths. Several manifestations of cardiovascular diseases can be observed in patients with autoimmune diseases, such as endothelial dysfunction, accelerated atherosclerosis and an increase in the rate of acute coronary syndromes. Thus, people with autoimmune diseases have an increased cardiovascular risk and a worse outcome in the case of cardiovascular events. In this review, we will describe the correlations between the two spectra of diseases. PMID:25883699

Durante, Alessandro; Bronzato, Sofia

2015-06-01

276

Challenges and Opportunities for Extracting Cardiovascular Risk Biomarkers from Imaging Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complications attributed to cardiovascular diseases (CDV) are the leading cause of death worldwide. In the United States, sudden heart attack remains the number one cause of death and accounts for the majority of the 280 billion burden of cardiovascular diseases. In spite of the advancements in cardiovascular imaging techniques, the rate of deaths due to unpredicted heart attack remains high. Thus, novel computational tools are of critical need, in order to mine quantitative parameters from the imaging data for early detection of persons with a high likelihood of developing a heart attack in the near future (vulnerable patients). In this paper, we present our progress in the research of computational methods for the extraction of cardiovascular risk biomarkers from cardiovascular imaging data. In particular, we focus on the methods developed for the analysis of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) data.

Kakadiaris, I. A.; Mendizabal-Ruiz, E. G.; Kurkure, U.; Naghavi, M.

277

A Nurse-Based Pilot Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Primary Care Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a nurse-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor reduction program among patients at a primary care outpatient clinic. Study Design: Preintervention and postintervention longitu- dinal, prospective pilot study to evaluate patients' achievement of CVD risk factor reduction. Patients and Methods: A total of 436 patients at a primary care clinic in suburban Minneapolis, Minnesota, were

Carol P. McPherson; Karen K. Swenson; Donald A. Pine; Linda Leimer

2002-01-01

278

A Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program for American Indians with Metabolic Syndrome: The Balance Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Balance Study is a randomized controlled trial designed to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in 200 American Indian (AI) participants with metabolic syndrome who reside in southwestern Oklahoma. Major risk factors targeted include weight, diet, and physical activity. Participants are assigned randomly to one of two groups, a guided or a…

Lee, Elisa T.; Jobe, Jared B.; Yeh, Jeunliang; Ali, Tauqeer; Rhoades, Everett R.; Knehans, Allen W.; Willis, Diane J.; Johnson, Melanie R.; Zhang, Ying; Poolaw, Bryce; Rogers, Billy

2012-01-01

279

Level of kidney function as a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular outcomes in the community  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe goal of this study was to determine whether the level of kidney function is an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) outcomes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a prospective cohort study of subjects aged 45 to 64 years.

Guruprasad Manjunath; Hocine Tighiouart; Hassan Ibrahim; Bonnie MacLeod; Deeb N Salem; John L Griffith; Josef Coresh; Andrew S Levey; Mark J Sarnak

2003-01-01

280

Cardiovascular risk analysis by means of pulse morphology and clustering methodologies.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was the development of a clustering methodology to deal with arterial pressure waveform (APW) parameters to be used in the cardiovascular risk assessment. One hundred sixteen subjects were monitored and divided into two groups. The first one (23 hypertensive subjects) was analyzed using APW and biochemical parameters, while the remaining 93 healthy subjects were only evaluated through APW parameters. The expectation maximization (EM) and k-means algorithms were used in the cluster analysis, and the risk scores (the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) project, the Assessing cardiovascular risk using Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (ASSIGN) and the PROspective Cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM)), commonly used in clinical practice were selected to the cluster risk validation. The result from the clustering risk analysis showed a very significant correlation with ASSIGN (r=0.582, p<0.01) and a significant correlation with FRS (r=0.458, p<0.05). The results from the comparison of both groups also allowed to identify the cluster with higher cardiovascular risk in the healthy group. These results give new insights to explore this methodology in future scoring trials. PMID:25023535

Almeida, Vânia G; Borba, J; Pereira, H Catarina; Pereira, Tânia; Correia, Carlos; Pêgo, Mariano; Cardoso, João

2014-11-01

281

Development of a cardiovascular risk score for use in low- and middle-income countries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Summary measures of cardiovascular risk have long been used in public health, but few include nutritional predictors despite extensive evidence linking diet and heart disease. Study objectives were to develop and validate a novel risk score in a case-control study of myocardial infarction (MI) condu...

282

Dietary carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Framingham Offspring Cohort  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Evidence from observational studies has suggested that carbohydrate quality rather than absolute intake is associated with greater risk of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between carbohydrate intake and glycemic index and several cardiovascular disease risk f...

283

Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular risk, and the link to insulin resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus frequently have coexistent dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity, and are at risk for microvascular and macrovascular disease complications such as myocardial infarction, stroke, retinopathy, and microalbuminuria. To optimize cardiovascular health outcomes for patients with type 2 diabetes, strategies to reduce the risks of microvascular and macrovascular disease are needed in clinical practice.Objective: This article

Mark W. Stolar; Robert J. Chilton

2003-01-01

284

Effect of Rosiglitazone on the Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Death from Cardiovascular Causes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosiglitazone was associated with a significant increase in the risk of myocardial infarction and with an increase in the risk of death from cardiovascular causes that had borderline significance. Our study was limited by a lack of access to original source data, which would have enabled time-to-event analysis. Despite these limita- tions, patients and providers should consider the potential for

Steven E. Nissen; Kathy Wolski

2007-01-01

285

Potential of emerging immunosuppressive strategies to improve the posttransplant cardiovascular risk profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently used immunosuppressants exacerbate cardiovascular risk. However, attempts to limit the use of these agents increase the risk of allograft rejection. Immunosuppressants targeting signal 2 and signal 3 lymphocyte activation pathways are under clinical development. Clinical data from trials of the Janus family protein tyrosine kinase-3 inhibitor tasocitinib and the costimulation blocker belatacept are presented. Additional pipeline agents are described.

Arjang Djamali; Carolynn E Pietrangeli; Robert D Gordon; Christophe Legendre

2010-01-01

286

Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among older Puerto Rican adults living in Massachusetts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There remains limited research on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Puerto Rican adults. We compared lifestyle and CVD risk factors in Puerto Rican men and women with normal fasting glucose (NFG), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or type 2 diabetes (T2D), and investigated achievement of Am...

287

Identification of ACOX2 as a shared genetic risk factor for preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preeclampsia (PE) is a serious complication of pregnancy, which is highly correlated with later life cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many risk factors are common for both diseases, but the contribution of shared genes remains to be determined. In this study, we used an integrative strategy to assess lipid traits as risk factors for PE and CVD by whole genome transcriptional profiling

Åsa Johansson; Joanne E Curran; Matthew P Johnson; Katy A Freed; Mona H Fenstad; Line Bjørge; Irina P Eide; Melanie A Carless; David L Rainwater; Harald HH Goring; Rigmor Austgulen; Eric K Moses; John Blangero; Å Johansson

2011-01-01

288

Menthol cigarettes and the cardiovascular risks of people living with HIV.  

PubMed

The possibility that menthol cigarettes add to the deleterious cardiovascular effects of smoking has been barely discussed. Although cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are at the forefront of medical concerns of people living with HIV (PLWH), an important, yet unknown, issue for clinicians and public health authorities is whether use of menthol-flavored cigarettes heightens CVD risk factors. Our study aims to assess traditional (10-year risk using the Framingham Risk Model) and nontraditional CVD risk factors and to contrast the effects of menthol-flavored versus non-menthol-flavored cigarettes on these risk factors. Compared to controls, menthol smokers were twice as likely to have hypertension. Users of menthol-flavored cigarettes had higher body mass index values, and increased risk of abdominal obesity. Multivariate analyses indicated that menthol smokers doubled the odds of having moderate to high CVD risk. This finding is highly significant given the widespread use of menthol-flavored cigarettes, particularly among women, minorities, and PLWH. PMID:24581861

Míguez-Burbano, María José; Vargas, Mayra; Quiros, Clery; Lewis, John E; Espinoza, Luis; Deshratan, Asthana

2014-01-01

289

Job strain and cardiovascular risk factors among members of the Danish parliament.  

PubMed

Sudden cardiovascular events among well-known politicians attract much attention--from the mass media and from the public. No previous studies have assessed the job strain profile and level of known cardiovascular risk factors among parliamentary politicians. The study was carried out within the frameworks of the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Some 102 members of the Danish parliament (70 men and 32 women) agreed to participate, giving a response rate of 55%. Three sex- and age-matched participants were drawn for each politician from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. In addition to the completion of large questionnaires on health and working conditions, all participants had a thorough examination, including measurements of height and weight and blood pressure and the drawing of a venous blood sample for the determination of serum lipids, ApolipoproteinA1 and ApolipoproteinB and fibrinogen. Job strain factors and established cardiovascular risk factors were the main outcome factors. Politicians reported much higher job demands, but also much more influence on their job than others. Politicians smoked less, consumed more wine, had higher levels of ApolipoproteinA1, and were taller. With respect to other major cardiovascular risk factors, serum lipids, blood pressure and physical activity, there was no difference between politicians and controls. Politicians had greater job demands, but also more control over their job than others, indicating that the job strain phenomenon should not increase their risk of cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular risk factors, job related or conventional, which were unevenly distributed between politicians and controls all favoured politicians. In conclusion, politicians had a more beneficial cardiovascular risk factor profile than a matched random sample from a comparable background population. PMID:9604470

Gyntelberg, F; Suadicani, P; Jensen, G; Schnohr, P; Netterstrøm, B; Kristensen, T S; Hein, H O; Appleyard, M

1998-01-01

290

Sortilin, Encoded by the Cardiovascular Risk Gene SORT1, and Its Suggested Functions in Cardiovascular Disease.  

PubMed

Several genome-wide association studies have linked novel loci to a wide range of cardiovascular phenotypes including low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, early onset myocardial infarction, coronary artery calcification, coronary artery stenosis, and abdominal aorta aneurysm. Especially, one locus, namely, 1p13.3, has attracted much attention. This locus harbors four candidate genes, CELSR2, PSRC1, MYBPHL, and SORT1. SORT1 encodes sortilin, a type I sorting receptor that has recently been implicated in LDL-cholesterol metabolism, VLDL secretion, PCSK9 secretion, and development of atherosclerotic lesions. Furthermore, sortilin also seems to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis, by mechanisms not directly involving LDL-cholesterol, but possibly resulting from the attenuated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL6 and TNF?, which accompanies lack of sortilin in immune cells. Sortilin seems to play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease and have functions beyond regulating LDL-cholesterol. PMID:25702058

Kjolby, Mads; Nielsen, Morten Schallburg; Petersen, Claus Munck

2015-04-01

291

Impact of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Medical Expenditure: Evidence From Epidemiological Studies Analysing Data on Health Checkups and Medical Insurance  

PubMed Central

Concerns have increasingly been raised about the medical economic burden in Japan, of which approximately 20% is attributable to cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Because the management of risk factors is essential for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, it is important to understand the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and medical expenditure in the Japanese population. However, only a few Japanese epidemiological studies analysing data on health checkups and medical insurance have provided evidence on this topic. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors, including obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, may incur medical expenditures through treatment of the risk factors themselves and through procedures for associated diseases that usually require hospitalization and sometimes result in death. Untreated risk factors may cause medical expenditure surges, mainly due to long-term hospitalization, more often than risk factors preventively treated by medication. On an individual patient level, medical expenditures increase with the number of concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. For single risk factors, personal medical expenditure may increase with the severity of that factor. However, on a population level, the medical economic burden attributable to cardiovascular risk factors results largely from a single, particularly prevalent risk factor, especially from mildly-to-moderately abnormal levels of the factor. Therefore, cardiovascular risk factors require management on the basis of both a cost-effective strategy of treating high-risk patients and a population strategy for reducing both the ill health and medical economic burdens that result from cardiovascular disease. PMID:25070209

Nakamura, Koshi

2014-01-01

292

Rheumatoid arthritis versus diabetes as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a cross-sectional study, the CARRÉ Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased cardiovascular risk, but the magnitude of this risk is not known precisely. A study was undertaken to investigate the associations between RA and type 2 diabetes (DM2), a well-established cardiovascular risk factor, on the one hand, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) on the other.Methods:The prevalence of CVD (coronary, cerebral and peripheral arterial disease)

V P van Halm; M. J. L. Peters; A. E. Voskuijl; M. Boers; W. F. Lems; M. Visser; C. D. A. Stehouwer; A. M. W. Spijkerman; J. M. Dekker; G Nijpels; R. J. Heine; L. M. Bouter; Y. M. Smulders; B. A. C. Dijkmans; M. T. Nurmohamed

2009-01-01

293

Disease severity and therapy as predictors of cardiovascular risk in psoriasis: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies suggest an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in psoriasis, but the relative contributions of traditional risk factors and markers of disease severity are unclear. We examined the effect of psoriasis disease characteristics on cardiovascular risk after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Methods Study populations included (a) case-cohort sample of 771 patients nested within a population-based psoriasis incidence cohort, and (b) cohort of 1905 patients with incident and prevalent psoriasis patients. Both cohorts were followed up to ascertain disease and treatment characteristics, traditional cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular outcomes. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to identify predictors of cardiovascular outcomes. Results After adjusting for traditional risk factors, increasing number of psoriasis affected body sites at disease onset (HR 1.53 per additional site, 95% CI: 1.20, 1.95) was significantly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular outcomes. Phototherapy (HR 3.76, 95% CI: 2.45, 5.77) and systemic therapy (HR 2.17, 95% CI: 1.50, 3.13) were associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes in univariate analyses, but these relatively strong associations disappeared after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Increasing number of psoriasis affected body sites may be a severity indicator in psoriasis and is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Due to low number of patients exposed to systemic therapy, this study had limited power to examine the effect of treatment on cardiovascular risk. Strong associations with phototherapy and systemic therapy suggest that the cardiovascular risk in psoriasis is confined to patients with severe disease. PMID:22339785

Maradit-Kremers, Hilal; Icen, Murat; Ernste, Floranne C.; Dierkhising, Ross A.; McEvoy, Marian T.

2012-01-01

294

Job strain (demands and control model) as a predictor of cardiovascular risk factors among petrochemical personnel  

PubMed Central

Background: One of the practical models for the assessment of stressful working conditions due to job strain is job demand and control model, which explains how physical and psychological adverse consequences, including cardiovascular risk factors can be established due to high work demands (the amount of workload, in addition to time limitations to complete that work) and low control of the worker on his/her work (lack of decision making) in the workplace. The aim of this study was to investigate how certain cardiovascular risk factors (including body mass index [BMI], heart rate, blood pressure, cholesterol and smoking) and the job demand and job control are related to each other. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 500 workers of the petrochemical industry in south of Iran, 2009. The study population was selected using simple random statistical method. They completed job demand and control questionnaire. The cardiovascular risk factors data was extracted from the workers hygiene profiles. Chi-square (?2) test and hypothesis test (?) were used to assess the possible relationship between different quantified variables, individual demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: The results of this study revealed that a significant relationship can be found between job demand control model and cardiovascular risk factors. Chi-square test result for the heart rate showed the highest (?2 = 145.078) relationship, the corresponding results for smoking and BMI were ?2 = 85.652 and ?2 = 30.941, respectively. Subsequently, hypothesis testing results for cholesterol and hypertension was 0.469 and 0.684, respectively. Discussion: Job strain is likely to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular risk factors among male staff in a petrochemical company in Iran. The parameters illustrated in the Job demands and control model can act as acceptable predictors for the probability of job stress occurrence followed by showing a high trend of CVD risk factors. PMID:25861661

Habibi, Ehsanollah; Poorabdian, Siamak; Shakerian, Mahnaz

2015-01-01

295

Asymmetrical Dimethylarginine Independently Predicts Total and Cardiovascular Mortality in Individuals with Angiographic Coronary Artery Disease (The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) is increased in conditions associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis. We investigated the use of ADMA to predict total and cardiovascular mortality in patients scheduled for coronary angiography. Methods: In 2543 persons with and 695 without coro- nary artery disease (CAD) identified by angiography we measured ADMA and recorded total and cardiovascular mortality during a median

Andreas Meinitzer; Ursula Seelhorst; Britta Wellnitz; Gabriele Halwachs-Baumann; Bernhard O. Boehm; Bernhard R. Winkelmann; Winfried Marz

296

Plant-based dietary patterns in the control of obesity and cardiovascular risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity and cardiovascular disease are uncommon in people consuming plant-based diets. In contrast, overweight and obesity\\u000a are surging in US children and adults, increasing their risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Plant-based diets are\\u000a primarily comprised of whole plant foods that are rich in fiber and several beneficial phytochemicals and low to moderate\\u000a in fat. Plant-based dietary patterns have been

Antonella Dewell; Dean Ornish

2007-01-01

297

Vegetarian Dietary Patterns as a Means to Achieve Reduction in Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are uncommon in people consuming vegetarian and vegan diets. Vegetarian and vegan\\u000a dietary patterns tend to result in lower body weight and better nutritional profiles than conventional healthy eating patterns\\u000a and have been shown to be an effective tool for management of cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk. The consistency of\\u000a observed beneficial outcomes with

Amy Joy Lanou; Barbara Svenson

2010-01-01

298

What are the basic self-monitoring components for cardiovascular risk management?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Self-monitoring is increasingly recommended as a method of managing cardiovascular disease. However, the design, implementation and reproducibility of the self-monitoring interventions appear to vary considerably. We examined the interventions included in systematic reviews of self-monitoring for four clinical problems that increase cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: We searched Medline and Cochrane databases for systematic reviews of self-monitoring for: heart failure,

Alison M Ward; Carl Heneghan; Rafael Perera; Dan Lasserson; David Nunan; David Mant; Paul Glasziou

2010-01-01

299

Long-Term Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in 10Year Survivors of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results After a median follow-up of 18 years, 942 cardiovascular events were observed (standardized incidence ratio = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22 to 1.38; corresponding to 62.9 excess cases per 10 000 patient-years). Breast irradiation only was not associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, radiotherapy to either the left or right side of the internal mammary

Maartje J. Hooning; Akke Botma; Berthe M. P. Aleman; Margreet H. A. Baaijens; Harry Bartelink; Jan G. M. Klijn; Carolyn W. Taylor; Flora E. van Leeuwen

300

Inequalities in cardiovascular disease mortality: the role of behavioural, physiological and social risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWhile the relationship between socio-economic disadvantage and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established, the role that traditional cardiovascular risk factors play in this association remains unclear. The authors examined the association between education attainment and CVD mortality and the extent to which behavioural, social and physiological factors explained this relationship.MethodsAdults (n=38 355) aged 40–69 years living in Melbourne, Australia were

Alison Beauchamp; Anna Peeters; Rory Wolfe; Gavin Turrell; Linton R Harriss; Graham G Giles; Dallas R English; John McNeil; Dianna Magliano; Stephen Harrap; Danny Liew; David Hunt; Andrew Tonkin

2009-01-01

301

Periodontal disease and risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease in U.S. male physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESWe sought to prospectively assess whether self-reported periodontal disease is associated with subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease in a large population of male physicians.BACKGROUNDPeriodontal disease, the result of a complex interplay of bacterial infection and chronic inflammation, has been suggested to be a predictor of cardiovascular disease.METHODSPhysicians’ Health Study I was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of aspirin and beta-carotene

Charles H Hennekens

2001-01-01

302

Antiphospholipid antibodies lead to increased risk in cardiovascular surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Antiphospholipid (APL) antibodies are a heterogenous group of antibodies that have been associated with an increase in bleeding complications and a marked increase in thrombotic events, both of which result in significant patient morbidity and mortality.Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of patients identified to be positive for APL via a university thrombosis registry who had cardiovascular surgery between

Rocco G. Ciocca; John Choi; Alan M. Graham

1995-01-01

303

Diabetes, prediabetes, and cardiovascular risk: Shifting the paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the prevalence of diabetes continues to increase worldwide, diabetes-related macrovascular morbidity and mortality are becoming major health care problems. Epidemiologic evidence suggests this relationship begins early in the progression from normal glucose tolerance to frank diabetes. This report reviews this epidemiologic evidence linking early stages of glucose dysregulation with cardiovascular disease and discusses the results of major clinical trials

Prakash C. Deedwania; Vivian A. Fonseca

2005-01-01

304

Vitamin D Deficiency and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vitamin D receptors have a broad tissue distribution that includes vascular smooth muscle, endothelium, and cardiomyocytes. A growing body of evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may adversely affect the cardiovascular system, but few prospective data exist. This study examined the relation...

305

Remediation of TENORM residues: risk communication in practice.  

PubMed

Despite several decades of studies on the risk assessment and risk perception of ionising radiation, risk management of radioactive materials remains a challenging issue. This is also true for wastes containing technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials. The present work focuses on the underlying reasons for communication problems between experts and affected members of the public. Exploring the case of a German remediation site with residual radioactive contamination in a residential area, the experts' as well as the residents' perspectives were studied by conducting qualitative interviews. Our results indicate a variety of reasons for communication problems on different levels of risk management and risk communication: the regulatory, the communicative and the moral levels. In the observed case, four salient causes for problems in risk communication and risk management emerged: the mismatch in understanding the residents' values, the issue of risk communication in an unforeseen situation, the problem of the regulatory gap between radiation protection and soil protection in regard to legacies with naturally occurring radioactive material in Germany, and the challenge of communicating a highly complex scientific issue to non-scientists. Moreover, one (at least partial) solution could be seen: the introduction of an external mediator. The results indicate that coordination of different health and environment protection disciplines-in this case radiation protection relating to soil protection-is possible and urgently needed. The opportunity to put, at least natural, radioactive material in line with other conventional industrial materials should be taken. PMID:24983208

König, C; Drögemüller, C; Riebe, B; Walther, C

2014-09-01

306

Increased microvascular vasodilation and cardiovascular risk following a pre-eclamptic pregnancy.  

PubMed

Women who develop pre-eclampsia are at high-risk for premature cardiovascular disease and death. The aim of this study was to assess microvascular function and cardiovascular risk in the early postpartum period for women who did/did not have a pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia. Peripheral microvascular function was assessed in women in the third trimester of uncomplicated pregnancies, with re-evaluation at 2 and 6 months postpartum. The effect of pre-eclampsia on postpartum microvascular function was assessed 2 and 6 months after delivery. Never-pregnant, naturally cycling women served for comparison. Cutaneous microvascular reactivity to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, delivered locally by iontophoresis, was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. 30-year and lifetime risk estimates for cardiovascular disease were established. Acetylcholine-mediated vasodilation was enhanced by normotensive pregnancy, and declined to nonpregnant levels by 6 months postpartum. Acetylcholine-mediated vasodilation remained high in pre-eclamptic subjects from 2 to 6 months postpartum compared to normotensive and never-pregnant controls. Pre-eclamptic subjects exhibited elevated 30-year and lifetime risk at 6 months postpartum. This study provides in vivo evidence of microvascular and cardiovascular risk implications of pre-eclampsia as early as 6 months postpartum, and suggests that the development of pre-eclampsia may be used to identify women at risk and eligible for risk screening and intervention. PMID:25428950

Murphy, Malia S Q; Vignarajah, Meera; Smith, Graeme N

2014-11-01

307

Cardiovascular and economic outcomes after initiation of atorvastatin versus simvastatin in an employed population stratified by cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

The relative effects of atorvastatin and simvastatin among higher- and lower-risk patients are not well characterized. This study compared cardiovascular (CV) risk and direct and indirect costs among higher- and lower-risk employees initiating atorvastatin vs. simvastatin. Using a large employer claims database (1999-2006), employees were stratified as 1) high-risk employees with prior CV events, diabetes, or renal disorders; and 2) low- to intermediate-risk employees without these conditions. Propensity score matching was used, and 2-year outcomes were compared between matched cohorts. Indirect costs included disability payments and medically related absenteeism. Drug costs were imputed with recent prices to account for availability of generic simvastatin. Among 4167 matched pairs of high-risk employees, atorvastatin use was associated with a numerically lower risk of CV events (17.6 versus 18.4%, P = 0.37), higher direct medical costs ($17,590 versus $17,377, P = 0.002), numerically lower indirect costs ($4830 versus $4989, P = 0.29), and higher total costs by $54 ($22,420 versus $22,366, P = 0.034). The majority of high-risk employees (62%) received low initial statin doses (atorvastatin = 10 mg or simvastatin = 20 mg). Among 9326 matched pairs of low- to intermediate-risk employees, atorvastatin use was associated with a lower risk of CV events (3.1% versus 3.7%, P = 0.030), lower direct medical costs ($8400 versus $8436, P < 0.001), numerically lower indirect costs ($2781 versus $2807; P = 0.12), and lower total costs by $61 ($11,181 versus $11,243, P < 0.001). These results suggest that formulary policies reserving atorvastatin for higher-risk patients may not be cost-saving from the employer perspective. PMID:20802306

Simpson, Ross J; Signorovitch, James; Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Ivanova, Jasmina; Birnbaum, Howard; Kuznik, Andreas

2011-11-01

308

Is global cardiovascular risk considered in current practice? Treatment and control of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes according to patients’ risk level  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the pharmacological treatment and the control of major modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in everyday practice according to the patients’ cardiovascular risk level. Methods In a cross-sectional study general practitioners (GPs) had to identify a random sample of their patients with cardiovascular risk factors or diseases and collect essential data on the pharmacological treatment and control of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes according to the patients’ cardiovascular risk level and history of cardiovascular disease. Participants were subjects of both sexes, aged 40–80 years, with at least one known cardiovascular risk factor or a history of cardiovascular diseases. Results From June to December 2000, 162 Italian GPs enrolled 3120 of their patients (2470 hypertensives, 1373 hyperlipidemics, and 604 diabetics). Despite the positive association between the perceived level of global cardiovascular risk and lipid-lowering drug prescriptions in hyperlipidemic subjects (from 26% for lowest risk to 56% for highest risk p < 0.0001) or the prescription of combination therapy in hypertensives (from 41% to 70%, p < 0.0001) and diabetics (from 24% to 43%, p = 0.057), control was still inadequate in 48% of diabetics, 77% of hypertensives, and 85% of hyperlipidemics, with no increase in patients at highest risk. Trends for treatment and control were similar in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions Even in high-risk patients, despite a tendency towards more intensive treatment, pharmacological therapy is still under used and the degree of control of blood pressure, cholesterol level and diabetes is largely unsatisfactory. PMID:17323606

Roccatagliata, Daria; Avanzini, Fausto; Monesi, Lara; Caimi, Vittorio; Lauri, Davide; Longoni, Paolo; Marchioli, Roberto; Tombesi, Massimo; Tognoni, Gianni; Roncaglioni, Maria Carla

2006-01-01

309

Do prescription stimulants increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events?: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background There is increasing concern that prescription stimulants may be associated with adverse cardiovascular events such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Public health concerns are amplified by increasing use of prescription stimulants among adults. Methods The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the evidence of an association between prescription stimulant use and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Google Scholar searches were conducted using key words related to these topics (MESH): ADHD; Adults; Amphetamine; Amphetamines; Arrhythmias, Cardiac; Cardiovascular Diseases; Cardiovascular System; Central Nervous Stimulants; Cerebrovascular; Cohort Studies; Case–control Studies; Death; Death, Sudden, Cardiac; Dextroamphetamine; Drug Toxicity; Methamphetamine; Methylphenidate; Myocardial Infarction; Stimulant; Stroke; Safety. Eligible studies were population-based studies of children, adolescents, or adults using prescription stimulant use as the independent variable and a hard cardiovascular outcome as the dependent variable. Results Ten population-based observational studies which evaluated prescription stimulant use with cardiovascular outcomes were reviewed. Six out of seven studies in children and adolescents did not show an association between stimulant use and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In contrast, two out of three studies in adults found an association. Conclusions Findings of an association between prescription stimulant use and adverse cardiovascular outcomes are mixed. Studies of children and adolescents suggest that statistical power is limited in available study populations, and the absolute risk of an event is low. More suggestive of a safety signal, studies of adults found an increased risk for transient ischemic attack and sudden death/ventricular arrhythmia. Interpretation was limited due to differences in population, cardiovascular outcome selection/ascertainment, and methodology. Accounting for confounding and selection biases in these studies is of particular concern. Future studies should address this and other methodological issues. PMID:22682429

2012-01-01

310

Simulating the Impact of Improved Cardiovascular Risk Interventions on Clinical and Economic Outcomes in Russia  

PubMed Central

Objectives Russia faces a high burden of cardiovascular disease. Prevalence of all cardiovascular risk factors, especially hypertension, is high. Elevated blood pressure is generally poorly controlled and medication usage is suboptimal. With a disease-model simulation, we forecast how various treatment programs aimed at increasing blood pressure control would affect cardiovascular outcomes. In addition, we investigated what additional benefit adding lipid control and smoking cessation to blood pressure control would generate in terms of reduced cardiovascular events. Finally, we estimated the direct health care costs saved by treating fewer cardiovascular events. Methods The Archimedes Model, a detailed computer model of human physiology, disease progression, and health care delivery was adapted to the Russian setting. Intervention scenarios of achieving systolic blood pressure control rates (defined as systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg) of 40% and 60% were simulated by modifying adherence rates of an antihypertensive medication combination and compared with current care (23.9% blood pressure control rate). Outcomes of major adverse cardiovascular events; cerebrovascular event (stroke), myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death over a 10-year time horizon were reported. Direct health care costs of strokes and myocardial infarctions were derived from official Russian statistics and tariff lists. Results To achieve systolic blood pressure control rates of 40% and 60%, adherence rates to the antihypertensive treatment program were 29.4% and 65.9%. Cardiovascular death relative risk reductions were 13.2%, and 29.6%, respectively. For the current estimated 43,855,000-person Russian hypertensive population, each control-rate scenario resulted in an absolute reduction of 1.0 million and 2.4 million cardiovascular deaths, and a reduction of 1.2 million and 2.7 million stroke/myocardial infarction diagnoses, respectively. Averted direct costs from current care levels ($7.6 billion [in United States dollars]) were $1.1 billion and $2.6 billion, respectively. PMID:25141122

Shum, Kenny; Alperin, Peter; Shalnova, Svetlana; Boytsov, Sergey; Kontsevaya, Anna; Vigdorchik, Alexey; Guetz, Adam; Eriksson, Jennifer; Hughes, David

2014-01-01

311

Blood pressure variability, cardiovascular risk, and risk for renal disease progression.  

PubMed

The adverse cardiovascular consequences of high blood pressure (BP) not only depend on absolute BP values, but also on BP variability (BPV). Evidence has been provided that independently of mean BP levels, BP variations in the short- and long-term are associated with the development, progression and severity of cardiac, vascular and renal organ damage, and with an increased risk of CV events and mortality. Alterations in BPV have also been shown to be predictive of the development and progression of renal damage, which is of relevance if considering that impaired renal function in a hypertensive patient constitutes a very potent predictor of future CV events and mortality even in treated subjects. This review will address whether antihypertensive treatment should target alterations in BPV, in addition to reducing absolute BP levels, in order to achieve the highest CV and renal protection in hypertensive and renal patients. PMID:22903810

Parati, Gianfranco; Ochoa, Juan E; Bilo, Grzegorz

2012-10-01

312

Retrospective assessment of the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among homeless individuals with schizophrenia in Shanghai  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular diseases are increasingly important in China, but the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the indigent mentally ill are unknown. Aim Assess the prevalence of four key risk factors for cardiovascular disease -- hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and smoking – among homeless patients with schizophrenia and identify factors associated with the presence of these risk factors. Methods We reviewed medical charts of 181 homeless and 181 non-homeless patients with schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder admitted to the Shanghai Jiading Mental Health Center between May 2007 and April 2013. Demographic characteristics and risk factors of cardiovascular events were compared between the two groups. Logistic regression models identified the factors that were associated with the presence of one or more of the four risk factors. Results The prevalence of hypertension and hyperlipidemia were 19 to 20% in both males and females in the two groups; these rates are similar to those reported in the general population. The prevalence of hyperglycemia ranged from 11 to 15% among males and females in the two groups. Smoking was highly prevalent in male patients (82% in homeless males and 78% in non-homeless males) but, like in China generally, much less prevalent in female patients (7% in homeless females and 5% in non-homeless females). The logistic regression analysis found that male gender, older age, and urban (vs. rural) residence were independently associated with the presence of one or more of the four cardiovascular risk factors. Homelessness was not associated with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion This study is the first known report on cardiovascular risk factors among homeless mentally ill in China. The study did not assess several important factors (such as the type, dose and duration of use of antipsychotic medication) but it was, nevertheless, able to show that, unlike in high-income countries, homelessness is not related to elevated risk of cardiovascular disease in Chinese individuals with mental illnesses. Prospective studies with the growing number of homeless individuals in China will be needed to get a clearer picture of the best ways to provide them with the health care services they need. PMID:25114489

CHEN, Qing; WAN, Min; BAN, Chunxia; GAO, Yafang

2014-01-01

313

TRC150094 attenuates progression of nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes in obese ZSF1 rats  

PubMed Central

Chronic overnutrition and consequential visceral obesity is associated with a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Moreover, individuals who have a triad of hypertension, dysglycemia, and elevated triglycerides along with reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol have a greater residual cardiovascular risk even after factoring for the traditional risk factors such as age, smoking, diabetes, and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In our previous study we demonstrated that TRC150094, when administered to rats receiving a high-fat diet, stimulated mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and reduced visceral adiposity, opening an interesting perspective for a possible clinical application. In the present study, oral administration of TRC150094 to obese Zucker spontaneously hypertensive fatty rats (obese ZSF1) improved glucose tolerance and glycemic profile as well as attenuated a rise in blood pressure. Obese ZSF1 rats treated with TRC150094 also showed reduced hepatic steatosis, reduced progression of nephropathy, and improved skeletal muscle function. At the cellular level, TRC150094 induced a significant increase in mitochondrial respiration as well as an increased FAO in liver and skeletal muscle, ultimately resulting in reduced hepatic as well as total body fat accumulation, as evaluated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. If reproduced in humans, these results could confirm that TRC150094 may represent an attractive therapeutic agent to counteract multiple residual cardiovascular risk components. PMID:21448317

Zambad, Shitalkumar P; Munshi, Siralee; Dubey, Amita; Gupta, Ram; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando; Gupta, Ramesh C; Chauthaiwale, Vijay; Dutt, Chaitanya

2011-01-01

314

Cardiovascular and lifestyle risk factors in lumbar radicular pain or clinically defined sciatica: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lumbar radicular pain is a fairly common health problem, yet its risk factors are far from clear. There are no published systematic\\u000a reviews on associations between cardiovascular or lifestyle risk factors and lumbar radicular pain or sciatica. The aim of\\u000a this systematic literature review was to assess associations between these risk factors and lumbar radicular pain or sciatica.\\u000a We conducted

Rahman Shiri; Jaro Karppinen; Päivi Leino-Arjas; Svetlana Solovieva; Helena Varonen; Eija Kalso; Olavi Ukkola; Eira Viikari-Juntura

2007-01-01

315

Brachial artery diameter is related to cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous reports showed inconsistent results about the potential role of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in cardiovascular(CV) risk prediction. Few data are available about the role of nitroglycerin-mediated dilatation (NMD), but recently, brachial artery diameter(BAD) appeared to have predictive value in CV risk prediction.We determined the relation of FMD, BAD and NMD with known CV risk factors and intima-media thickness (IMT),

S. Holewijn; M. den Heijer; D. W. Swinkels; A. F. H. Stalenhoef; J. de Graaf

2009-01-01

316

Does calcium intake affect cardiovascular risk factors and/or events?  

PubMed Central

Dietary intervention is an important approach in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Over the last decade, some studies have suggested that a calcium-rich diet could help to control body weight, with anti-obesity effects. The potential mechanism underlying the impact of calcium on body fat has been investigated, but it is not fully understood. Recent evidence has also suggested that a calcium-rich diet could have beneficial effects on other cardiovascular risk factors, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension and inflammatory states. In a series of studies, it was observed that a high intake of milk and/or dairy products (the main sources of dietary calcium) is associated with a reduction in the relative risk of cardiovascular disease. However, a few studies suggest that supplemental calcium (mainly calcium carbonate or citrate) may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This review will discuss the available evidence regarding the relationship between calcium intake (dietary and supplemental) and different cardiovascular risk factors and/or events. PMID:22892932

Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe

2012-01-01

317

Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Characterization of Atherosclerotic Disease Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over 80 million people in the United States exhibit one or more forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and atherosclerotic\\u000a CVD (mainly coronary heart disease and stroke) is, by far, the leading cause of death among men and women. More women die\\u000a from CVD in the United States each year than men. Atherosclerotic CVD has become a worldwide pandemic. While CVD

Kevin C. Maki; Martyn R. Rubin

318

Ethnicity and cardiovascular risk factors among Asian Americans residing in Michigan.  

PubMed

Asian Americans are at least 4% of the US population, but there are very few studies about the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among this group. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans in the United States. Limited research that studied cardiovascular risks among Asian Americans were available, therefore, more information is urgently needed. Cross-sectional surveys and blood tests were conducted at community-based health fairs in southeastern Michigan. A total of 388 Asian participants provided data for this analysis. The results showed that four Asian groups differ in the level of specific risk factors; in particular, the most urgent hypertension and cholesterol problems were found among Chinese and Filipino participants, while the risk of diabetes may be highest among the Hmong participants. The results from the multivariate analysis showed that after controlling for demographic and medical care-related factors in the model, ethnicity is still a significant predictor that contributed to the differences in CVD risks. The results show that cardiovascular and diabetes risks are high in the Asian American populations studied. Attention needs to be paid to the extent and nature of ethnic-specific health problems because each culture's health-related habits and beliefs affect their entry into preventive care so that strategies can be designed and implemented to effectively reduce and ultimately eliminate health disparities. PMID:21380579

Wu, Tsu-Yin; Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Wang, Jing; Yao, Lan; Oakley, Deborah

2011-10-01

319

Cardiovascular risk factors associated with insulin resistance: effects of oral antidiabetic agents.  

PubMed

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a greater risk of cardiovascular disease than nondiabetic individuals. These patients are often insulin resistant and have an associated clustering of risk factors that contribute to cardiovascular disease. The risk factors include dyslipidemia, hypertension, altered hemostasis, and chronic inflammation. A primary objective in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus is normalization of blood glucose levels; however, some of the oral drugs used to control blood glucose levels have significant effects on these risk factors. In this article, we review the current data involving the modification of these cardiovascular risk factors by the biguanide (metformin), the thiazolidinediones (troglitazone, rosiglitazone, and pioglitazone), the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (miglitol, acarbose), and the insulin secretagogs (glyburide [glibenclamide], glipizide, chlorpropamide, tolbutamide, tolazamide, glimepiride, repaglinide, and nateglinide). Generally, the thiazolidinediones improve hemostasis and endothelial function and reduce blood pressure, while having variable effects on dyslipidemia. Metformin improves dyslipidemia and altered hemostasis and decreases plasma C-reactive protein levels with little or no effect on blood pressure. Data on the effects of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and insulin secretagogs are sparse; however, these drugs appear to have little or no effect on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:15901207

Granberry, Mark C; Fonseca, Vivian A

2005-01-01

320

A computer tool for cardiovascular risk estimation according to Framingham and SCORE equations.  

PubMed

Background? Currently, we have different scales to estimate the cardiovascular risk of one individual. The most commonly used in clinical practice are the Framingham method and the SCORE project. Both are based on mathematical models that take into account the presence and intensity of various risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Aims and objectives? The aim of our study was to develop a measurement system that allows unifying criteria of both models. Thus, we will be able to estimate the cardiovascular risk globally in a cohort of patients instead of individually. Methods? The study included a representative subgroup of 50 patients treated at in the Endocrinology Service of Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada, below 30 years or above 75 years. The equations used in the present study were in strict compliance with the original publications. The reliability and validity of results were tested, comparing them with results obtained using calculation programs developed, available on-line. The degree of similarity was determined by means of the Dice index and the distance between our values and those of the other programs were compared by using the expression: Da-b ?=???(a?-?b)(2) Results? The results of the present study demonstrated our application to be reliable and valid for cardiovascular risk assessment. Our observations also demonstrated differences in the criteria applied to create cardiovascular risk calculation tools. This may have repercussions on clinical decisions for some patients, suggesting a need to compare and standardize these criteria, ensuring that programs developed for this calculation correctly manage the different risk categories considered. Conclusion? The present study validates a computer tool developed for the simultaneous calculation of cardiovascular disease probability by applying Framingham-Anderson and Framingham-Wilson methods, the Spanish adaptations of Regicor and Dorica, and the SCORE project. PMID:22340364

Ramírez-Rodrigo, Jesús; Moreno-Vázquez, José Antonio; Ruiz-Villaverde, Alberto; Sánchez-Caravaca, María Ángeles; Lopez de la Torre-Casares, Martín; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen

2013-04-01

321

Risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is common and a major cause of mortality. Studies on cardiovascular morbidity are abundant, whereas mortality studies focusing on cardiovascular outcomes are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate causes of death and baseline predictors of overall (OM), non-vascular (N-VM), and specifically cardiovascular (CVM) mortality in SLE, and to evaluate systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE). Methods 208 SLE patients were included 1995-1999 and followed up after 12 years. Clinical evaluation, CVD risk factors, and biomarkers were recorded at inclusion. Death certificates and autopsy protocols were collected. Causes of death were divided into CVM (ischemic vascular and general atherosclerotic diseases), N-VM and death due to pulmonary hypertension. Predictors of mortality were investigated using multivariable Cox regression. SCORE and standardized mortality ratio (SMR) were calculated. Results During follow-up 42 patients died at mean age of 62 years. SMR 2.4 (CI 1.7-3.0). 48% of deaths were caused by CVM. SCORE underestimated CVM but not to a significant level. Age, high cystatin C levels and established arterial disease were the strongest predictors for all- cause mortality. After adjusting for these in multivariable analyses, only smoking among traditional risk factors, and high soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), anti-beta2 glycoprotein-1 (abeta2GP1) and any antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) among biomarkers, remained predictive of CVM. Conclusion With the exception of smoking, traditional risk factors do not capture the main underlying risk factors for CVM in SLE. Rather, cystatin C levels, inflammatory and endothelial markers, and antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) differentiate patients with favorable versus severe cardiovascular prognosis. Our results suggest that these new biomarkers are useful in evaluating the future risk of cardiovascular mortality in SLE patients. PMID:22390680

2012-01-01

322

Comparison of 24-hour cardiovascular and autonomic function in paraplegia, tetraplegia, and control groups: Implications for cardiovascular risk  

PubMed Central

Background Fluctuations in 24-hour cardiovascular hemodynamics, specifically heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), are thought to reflect autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) represent a model of ANS dysfunction, which may affect 24-hour hemodynamics and predispose these individuals to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Objective To determine 24-hour cardiovascular and ANS function among individuals with tetraplegia (n = 20; TETRA: C4–C8), high paraplegia (n = 10; HP: T2–T5), low paraplegia (n = 9; LP: T7–T12), and non-SCI controls (n = 10). Twenty-four-hour ANS function was assessed by time domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV); the standard deviation of the 5-minute average R–R intervals (SDANN; milliseconds/ms), and the root-mean square of the standard deviation of the R–R intervals (rMSSD; ms). Subjects wore 24-hour ambulatory monitors to record HR, HRV, and BP. Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significantly lower 24-hour BP in the tetraplegic group; however, BP did not differ between the HP, LP, and control groups. Mixed ANOVA suggested significantly elevated 24-hour HR in the HP and LP groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.05); daytime HR was higher in both paraplegic groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.01) and nighttime HR was significantly elevated in the LP group compared to the TETRA and control groups (P < 0.01). Twenty-four-hour SDANN was significantly increased in the HP group compared to the LP and TETRA groups (P < 0.05) and rMSSD was significantly lower in the LP compared to the other three groups (P < 0.05). Elevated 24-hour HR in persons with paraplegia, in concert with altered HRV dynamics, may impart significant adverse cardiovascular consequences, which are currently unappreciated. PMID:21903013

Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Radulovic, M.; Handrakis, John P.; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; Jensen, A. Marley; Kirshblum, Steve; Bauman, William A.; Wecht, Jill Maria

2011-01-01

323

Overview of saxagliptin efficacy and safety in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Most individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus have or will develop multiple independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease, particularly coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and treating these patients is challenging. The risk of hypoglycemia, weight gain, or fluid retention with some diabetes medications should be considered when developing a treatment plan for individuals with a history of CAD or at risk for CAD. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are oral antihyperglycemic agents that inhibit the breakdown of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, resulting in increased glucose-dependent insulin secretion and suppression of glucagon secretion. Saxagliptin is a potent and selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor that improves glycemic control and is generally well tolerated when used as monotherapy and as add-on therapy to other antihyperglycemic medications. This review summarizes findings from recently published post hoc analyses of saxagliptin clinical trials that have been conducted in patients with and without a history of cardiovascular disease and in patients with and without various risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results show that saxagliptin was generally well tolerated and consistently improved glycemic control, as assessed by reductions from baseline in glycated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose concentration, and postprandial glucose concentration, regardless of the presence or absence of baseline cardiovascular disease, hypertension, statin use, number of cardiovascular risk factors, or high Framingham 10-year cardiovascular risk score. PMID:25565858

Toth, Peter P

2015-01-01

324

Cardiovascular risk profile and lifestyle habits in a cohort of Italian cardiologists (from the SOCRATES Survey).  

PubMed

Cardiologists' cardiovascular profile and lifestyle habits are poorly known worldwide. To offer a snapshot of the personal health habits of Italian cardiologists, the Survey on Cardiac Risk Profile and Lifestyle Habits in a Cohort of Italian Cardiologists (SOCRATES) was undertaken. A Web-based electronic self-reported survey, accessible through a dedicated Web site, was used for data entry, and data were transferred through the Web to a central database. The survey was divided into 4 sections: baseline characteristics, medical illnesses and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle habits, and selected medication use. The e-mail databases of 3 national scientific societies were used to survey a large and representative sample of Italian cardiologists. During the 3-month period of the survey, 1,770 of the 5,240 cardiologists contacted (33.7%) completed and returned ?1 sections of the questionnaire. More than 49% of the participants had 1 of the 5 classic risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, active smoking, diabetes, and previous vascular events). More than 28% of respondents had 2 to 5 risk factors, and only 22.1% had none and therefore, according to age and gender, could be considered at low to intermediate risk. Despite the reported risk factors, >90% of cardiologists had a self-reported risk perception quantified as mild, such as low or intermediate. Furthermore, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, and stress at work or at home were commonly reported, as well as limited use of cardiovascular drugs, such as statins or aspirin. In conclusion, the average cardiovascular profile of Italian cardiologist is unlikely to be considered ideal or even favorable according to recent statements and guidelines regarding cardiovascular risk. PMID:23587277

Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Zito, Giovanni; Faggiano, Pompilio

2013-07-15

325

Association of sympathovagal imbalance with cardiovascular risks in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with cardiovascular risks like obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia that can lead to sympathovagal imbalance (SVI). The study was designed to assess the cardiovascular risk in PCOS and link of metabolic derangements to SVI. Thirty-five newly diagnosed PCOS patients and 32 age-matched controls were recruited. Waist-hip ratio, body mass index (BMI), basal cardiovascular parameters such as basal heart rate (BHR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and rate pressure product (RPP) were recorded. Autonomic functions were assessed using short-term heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, heart rate and blood pressure response to standing (30:15 ratio), deep breathing (E:I ratio) and isometric handgrip (?DBPihg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, lipid profile and testosterone were assayed. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and lipid risk factors were calculated. The cases had increased BHR, BMI, SBP, DBP, MAP and RPP. The ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency (LF-HF) of HRV, the marker of SVI was significantly increased in cases. 30:15 ratio and ?DBPihg were increased and E:I ratio was decreased in the cases. HOMA-IR, lipid risk factors and testosterone were significantly elevated in cases. There was a significant correlation of LF-HF with BMI, BHR, RPP, insulin resistance and lipid risk factors. On regression analysis, insulin resistance and lipid risk factors had independent association with LF-HF. PCOS patients have SVI, decreased HRV and increased RPP and the potential cardiovascular risks. The insulin resistance and dyslipidemia contribute to SVI and cardiovascular risks in PCOS patients. PMID:24866562

Kuppusamy, Saranya; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Habeebullah, Syed; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Pal, Pravati

2015-01-01

326

Residue and risk assessment of pyridaben in cabbage.  

PubMed

The dissipation and residue of pyridaben in cabbage under field conditions were investigated. A sensitive, simple, and fast method for determining pyridaben in cabbage was established by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The average recoveries were in the range of 90.29-95.00% with relative standard deviations ranging from 1.72% to 6.39%. The field results showed that pyridaben dissipated rapidly in cabbage and had a half-life of 2.8-3.5 d. During harvest, the terminal residues of pyridaben were 0.01-0.80 mg/kg. Given that no maximum residue limit (MRL) has been set for pyridaben in cabbage, risk assessment was evaluated by using the risk quotient (RQ). Results indicated that the RQ value was significantly lower than RQ = 1. Thus, the effect of pyridaben in cabbage at the recommended dosage was negligible to humans. This study could provide guidance for the safe and reasonable use of pyridaben as a broad-spectrum acaricide and serve as a reference for the establishment of an MRL in China. PMID:24295701

Liu, Congyun; Lu, Dahai; Wang, Youcheng; Huang, Jianxiang; Wan, Kai; Wang, Fuhua

2014-04-15

327

Community Cardiovascular Disease Risk From Cross-Sectional General Practice Clinical Data: A Spatial Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be a leading cause of illness and death among adults worldwide. The objective of this study was to calculate a CVD risk score from general practice (GP) clinical records and assess spatial variations of CVD risk in communities. Methods We used GP clinical data for 4,740 men and women aged 30 to 74 years with no history of CVD. A 10-year absolute CVD risk score was calculated based on the Framingham risk equation. The individual risk scores were aggregated within each Statistical Area Level One (SA1) to predict the level of CVD risk in that area. Finally, the pattern of CVD risk was visualized to highlight communities with high and low risk of CVD. Results The overall 10-year risk of CVD in our sample population was 14.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.3%–14.9%). Of the 4,740 patients in our study, 26.7% were at high risk, 29.8% were at moderate risk, and 43.5% were at low risk for CVD over 10 years. The proportion of patients at high risk for CVD was significantly higher in the communities of low socioeconomic status. Conclusion This study illustrates methods to further explore prevalence, location, and correlates of CVD to identify communities of high levels of unmet need for cardiovascular care and to enable geographic targeting of effective interventions for enhancing early and timely detection and management of CVD in those communities. PMID:25719216

Gilmour, Bridget; McRae, Ian; Konings, Paul; Dawda, Paresh; Del Fante, Peter; van Weel, Chris

2015-01-01

328

Is Vitamin D Deficiency a New Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease?  

PubMed Central

The role of vitamin D in the regulation of bone metabolism has been well established. However, in recent years, many studies have demonstrated that its role extends far beyond bone health. Growing evidence has shown a strong association between vitamin D deficiency and hypertension, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. The mechanisms by which vitamin D exerts its cardiovascular protective effects are still not completely understood, but there is evidence that it participates in the regulation of renin-angiotensin system and the mechanisms of insulin sensitivity and activity of inflammatory cytokines, besides its direct cardiovascular actions. In this review, several studies linking vitamin D deficiency with cardiometabolic risk as well as small randomized trials that have evaluated the cardiovascular effects of its supplementation are presented. However, large randomized placebo-controlled studies are still needed before we can definitively establish the role of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention and control of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25866591

Mandarino, Natália Ribeiro; Júnior, Francisco das Chagas Monteiro; Salgado, João Victor Leal; Lages, Joyce Santos; Filho, Natalino Salgado

2015-01-01

329

Occupational Stress and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Ranking Government Officials and Office Workers  

PubMed Central

Background: Cardiovascular diseases are among the most important sources of mortality and morbidity, and have a high disease burden. There are some major well-known risk factors, which contribute to the development of these diseases. Occupational stress is caused due to imbalance between job demands and individual’s ability, and it has been implicated as an etiology for cardiovascular diseases. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors and different dimensions of occupational stress in high-ranking government officials, comparing an age and sex-matched group of office workers with them. Patients and Methods: We invited 90 high-ranking officials who managed the main governmental offices in a city, and 90 age and sex-matched office workers. The subjects were required to fill the occupational role questionnaire (Osipow) which evaluated their personal and medical history as well as occupational stress. Then, we performed physical examination and laboratory tests to check for cardiovascular risk factors. Finally, the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors and occupational stress of two groups were compared. Results: High-ranking officials in our study had less work experience in their current jobs and smoked fewer pack-years of cigarette, but they had higher waist and hip circumference, higher triglyceride level, more stress from role overload and responsibility, and higher total stress score. Our group of office workers had more occupational stress because of role ambiguity and insufficiency, but their overall job stress was less than officials. Conclusions: The officials have higher scores in some dimensions of occupational stress and higher overall stress score. Some cardiovascular risk factors were also more frequent in managers. PMID:25389469

Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Taheri, Mahmoud; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Heydari, Mohammad; Saadati Kanafi, Ali; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad

2014-01-01

330

Clinical efficacy and safety of statins in managing cardiovascular risk  

PubMed Central

Since their introduction in the 1980s, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) have emerged as the one of the best-selling medication classes to date, with numerous trials demonstrating powerful efficacy in preventing cardiovascular outcomes. As our understanding of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherosclerosis continues to grow, the concept of ‘lower is better’ has corresponded with a ‘more is better’ approach to statin-based therapy. This review provides a detailed understanding of the clinical efficacy and safety of statins with a particular emphasis on the third generation drug, rosuvastatin. PMID:18561510

Kapur, Navin K; Musunuru, Kiran

2008-01-01

331

Altering dietary lysine: arginine ratio has little effect on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: The effect of dietary protein type on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity, with specific focus on the lysine to arginine (Lys:Arg) ratio, has been studied sporadically. Objective: Determine effect of dietary Lys:Arg ratio on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reacti...

332

Different effect of hormone replacement therapy, DHEAS and tibolone on endothelial function in postmenopausal women with increased cardiovascular risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Menopause is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and with a decrease in endothelial function. Hormone replace- ment therapy (HRT) improves endothelial function in post-menopausal women (PMW) without established atherosclerosis. New alternative treatments, among which tibolone (T) and DHEAS have been suggested to reduce postmenopausal cardiovascular risk. Although, in vitro animal studies have suggested that T and DHEAS improve endothelial

Antonello Silvestri; Marco Gambacciani; Cristiana Vitale; Patrizia Monteleone; Massimo Ciaponi; Massimo Fini; Andrea R. Genazzani; Giuseppe Mercuro; Giuseppe M. C. Rosanoa

2005-01-01

333

Molecular variants of soluble guanylyl cyclase affecting cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the physiological receptor for nitric oxide (NO) and NO-releasing drugs, and is a key enzyme in several cardiovascular signaling pathways. Its activation induces the synthesis of the second messenger cGMP. cGMP regulates the activity of various downstream proteins, including cGMP-dependent protein kinase G, cGMP-dependent phosphodiesterases and cyclic nucleotide gated ion channels leading to vascular relaxation, inhibition of platelet aggregation, and modified neurotransmission. Diminished sGC function contributes to a number of disorders, including cardiovascular diseases. Knowledge of its regulation is a prerequisite for understanding the pathophysiology of deficient sGC signaling. In this review we consolidate the available information on sGC signaling, including the molecular biology and genetics of sGC transcription, translation and function, including the effect of rare variants, and present possible new targets for the development of personalized medicine in vascular diseases. (Circ J 2015; 79: 463-469). PMID:25746521

Wobst, Jana; Rumpf, Philipp Moritz; Dang, Tan An; Segura-Puimedon, Maria; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert

2015-02-25

334

Reprint of "heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors".  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may result from the interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors including sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits. The quality of dietary oils and fats has been widely recognised to be inextricably linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. Vegetable oil is one of the essential dietary components in daily food consumption. However, the benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating that leads to lipid oxidation. The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health. Prolonged consumption of the repeatedly heated oil has been shown to increase blood pressure and total cholesterol, cause vascular inflammation as well as vascular changes which predispose to atherosclerosis. The harmful effect of heated oils is attributed to products generated from lipid oxidation during heating process. In view of the potential hazard of oxidation products, therefore this review article will provide an insight and awareness to the general public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health. PMID:24846858

Ng, Chun-Yi; Leong, Xin-Fang; Masbah, Norliana; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah

2014-07-01

335

Heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may result from the interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors including sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits. The quality of dietary oils and fats has been widely recognised to be inextricably linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. Vegetable oil is one of the essential dietary components in daily food consumption. However, the benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating that leads to lipid oxidation. The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health. Prolonged consumption of the repeatedly heated oil has been shown to increase blood pressure and total cholesterol, cause vascular inflammation as well as vascular changes which predispose to atherosclerosis. The harmful effect of heated oils is attributed to products generated from lipid oxidation during heating process. In view of the potential hazard of oxidation products, therefore this review article will provide an insight and awareness to the general public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health. PMID:24632108

Ng, Chun-Yi; Leong, Xin-Fang; Masbah, Norliana; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah

2014-04-01

336

Arterial Hypertension and other risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases among adults1  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence of arterial hypertension and its association with cardiovascular risk factors among adults. METHOD: cross-sectional, population-based, descriptive study conducted with 408 adult individuals. Data were collected through a questionnaire and measurements of weight, height and waist circumference. Person's Chi-square and multiple logistic regression were used in the data analysis. RESULTS: 23.03% of the individuals reported hypertension with a higher prevalence among women. Odds Ratio indicated that smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia were positively associated with arterial hypertension. CONCLUSION: high self-reported hypertension and its association with other cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia show the need for specific nursing interventions and the implementation of protocols focused on minimizing complications arising from hypertension, as well as to prevent the emergence of other cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25296137

Radovanovic, Cremilde Aparecida Trindade; dos Santos, Lucimary Afonso; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Marcon, Sonia Silva

2014-01-01

337

Effects of Particulate Air Pollution on Cardiovascular Health: A Population Health Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable risk factor for adverse health outcomes including cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there are still gaps regarding large population risk assessment. Results from the nationwide Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used along with air quality monitoring measurements to implement a systematic evaluation of PM-related CVD risks at the national and regional scales. CVD status and individual-level risk factors were collected from more than 500,000 BRFSS respondents across 2,231 contiguous U.S. counties for 2007 and 2009. Chronic exposures to PM pollutants were estimated with spatial modeling from measurement data. CVD outcomes attributable to PM pollutants were assessed by mixed-effects logistic regression and latent class regression (LCR), with adjustment for multicausality. There were positive associations between CVD and PM after accounting for competing risk factors: the multivariable-adjusted odds for the multiplicity of CVD outcomes increased by 1.32 (95% confidence interval: 1.23–1.43) and 1.15 (1.07–1.22) times per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and PM10 respectively in the LCR analyses. After controlling for spatial confounding, there were moderate estimated effects of PM exposure on multiple cardiovascular manifestations. These results suggest that chronic exposures to ambient particulates are important environmental risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity. PMID:22432017

Feng, Jing; Yang, Wei

2012-01-01

338

Cardiovascular disease risk factors in Asian Indian population: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death globally and are the leading cause of death in India also. Several surveys conducted across the country over the past few decades have shown a rising prevalence of major risk factors for CVD in Asian Indian population. The problem of increasing risk factors for CVD in India is because of lack of surveillance system and lack of proper diagnosis. This study will help to point out the need of research so that some advanced diagnosis system may be developed for proper diagnosis of CVDs and to reduce the growing burden of CVDs in the country. Methods We did a literature search for the period from 1968 to 2012 using PUBMED search to identify all relevant studies of cardiovascular diseases. Besides PUBMED searching, manual searching has also been done. This article provides a review of current understanding of the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, particularly, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and related risk factors in Asian Indian population. Results Hypertension and diabetes are highly prevalent among Asian Indian population, which may explain their high rate of stroke and heart attack in India. The increasing rate of CVD may be explained by the high rates of other risk factors including adverse lipid profile. The etiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is multifactorial and no single factor is an absolute cause. Conclusion The cardiovascular diseases and its risk factors are increasing with a rapid pace in Asian Indian population. Though the prevalence of CVD risk factors is found higher in urban population, yet it is increasing at an alarming rate in rural population also, which is a serious threatening to the nation. Since majority of the Indians live in rural area, CVD may lead to epidemic proportions. We need health promotion programs and reorientation of primary health care to improve CVD detection in earlier stage and its management. PMID:24653585

Nag, Tanmay; Ghosh, Arnab

2014-01-01

339

Is cardiovascular disease a risk factor in the development of axonal polyneuropathy?  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine if cardiovascular disease may be a risk factor in the development of chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP). Methods: In this incidence case-control study, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and risk factors in 97 patients with CIAP (mean age 67.5 (SD 7.9) years) and the prevalence of neuropathic features in 97 patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (mean age 67.1 (SD 7.3) years) were investigated. The results were compared with those for 96 age and sex matched controls without diagnosed PAD or polyneuropathy (mean age 67.5 (SD 9.1) years). In a randomly chosen subgroup of 23 patients with CIAP, 42 patients with PAD, and 48 controls, an electrodiagnostic investigation was performed. Results: Patients with CIAP more often had manifest cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors than controls (stroke 18% v 6% of patients, odds ratio (OR) 3.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8 to 5.9); heart disease 29% v 15%, OR 2.4 (95% CI 1.2 to 4.9); family history of cardiovascular disease 42% v 21%, OR 2.8 (95% CI (1.5 to 5.2); hypertension 56% v 39%, OR 2.0 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.6); hypercholesterolaemia 46% v 21%, OR 3.3 (95% CI 1.5 to 7.3); current smoking 38% v 23%, OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.9)). The prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors was lower than in patients with PAD. Patients with PAD more often had polyneuropathy than controls (15% v 5%, OR 3.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 10.0)). There was a trend towards lower nerve conduction velocities and lower amplitudes on electrodiagnostic investigation compared with controls. Conclusion: This study shows that cardiovascular disease and CIAP often coexist, and therefore cardiovascular disease may be a cofactor in the development of CIAP. PMID:11971043

Teunissen, L; Franssen, H; Wokke, J; van der Graaf, Y; Linssen, W; Banga, J; Laman, D; Notermans, N

2002-01-01

340

Surveillance for risk factors of cardiovascular disease among an industrial population in southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. We assessed (i) the risk of cardiovascular disease in an industrial population in Chennai, southern India and (ii) whether the status of treatment and control of diabetes and hypertension would be different in an industrial population, which is provided free healthcare, compared with the general population of Chennai. Methods. Subjects residing in the residential areas of 2 industries (Indian

V. MOHAN; M. DEEPA; S. FAROOQ; D. PRABHAKARAN; K. S. REDDY

2008-01-01

341

LACK OF EFFECT OF DRINKING WATER BARIUM ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Higher cardiovascular mortality has been associated in a single epidemiological study with higher levels of barium in drinking water. he purpose of this study was to determine whether drinking water barium at levels found in some U.S. communities alters the known risk factors for...

342

Cardiovascular Risk in Midlife and Psychological Well-being Among Older Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Negativeandpositiveaffectsinfluencethe prognosis in the elderly, but underlying mechanisms are obscure. We investigated whether cardiovascular dis- ease risk in midlife is related to psychological well- being in older men (aged 69-84 years old). Methods: A socioeconomically homogeneous volun- teer sample of men, born from 1919 through 1934, was followed up for 29 years. At baseline in 1974, they were healthy but

Timo E. Strandberg; Arto Y. Strandberg; Kaisu H. Pitkala; Veikko V. Salomaa; Reijo S. Tilvis; Tatu A. Miettinen

343

Smokeless tobacco, cardiovascular risk factors, and nicotine and cotinine levels in professional baseball players.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND. The use of smokeless tobacco (ST), which has increased in popularity over the past 2 decades, results in considerable systemic exposure to nicotine. Nicotine might contribute to atherosclerosis by an effect on cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS. The effects of ST use on cardiovascular risk factors and cotinine and nicotine levels were studied in 1061 professional baseball players during spring training in 1988 and 1989. RESULTS. Of the study participants 477 (45%) were users. ST use was more common among Whites (55%) than among Blacks (29%) or Hispanics (21%), and users reported heavier consumption of alcohol (p less than .001) and had higher mean serum caffeine levels (p less than .001) than nonusers. ST users did not differ from nonusers in adjusted levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse, and total or HDL-cholesterol. Among ST users, participants using snuff had higher mean serum cotinine levels than those who used chewing tobacco (p less than .001). There was no association between serum cotinine levels and adjusted levels of any cardiovascular risk factor studied. However, higher diastolic blood pressures were associated with higher mean serum nicotine levels (p = .02). CONCLUSIONS. Smokeless tobacco use has at most a modest effect on cardiovascular risk factors in young physically fit men. PMID:1536359

Siegel, D; Benowitz, N; Ernster, V L; Grady, D G; Hauck, W W

1992-01-01

344

Effect of Obesity on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is a growing health care concern with implications for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity and CVD morbidity and mortality are highly prevalent among African American women. This pilot study examined the association between obesity and the traditional and emerging CVD risk factors in a sample of African American women. Participants comprised 48 women (27 obese, 21 normal weight) aged 18–45.

Queen Henry-Okafor; Patricia A. Cowan; Mona N. Wicks; Muriel Rice; Donna S. Husch; Michelle S. C. Khoo

2012-01-01

345

Dietary carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Framingham Offspring Cohort  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Evidence from observational studies has suggested that carbohydrate quality rather than absolute intake is associated with greater risk of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between carbohydrate intake and dietary glycemic index and several cardiovascular disease...

346

Fatty acid desaturase gene variants, cardiovascular risk factors, and myocardial infarction in the costa rica study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic variation in fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has previously been linked to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk. The goal of our study was to test associations between six common FADS polymorphisms (rs174556, rs3834458, rs174570, rs2524299, r...

347

The preoperative cardiovascular evaluation of the intermediate-risk patient: New data, changing strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intermediate-risk preoperative patient can be defined as a patient without severely symptomatic or unstable heart disease who, nonetheless, has clinical predictors of adverse perioperative cardiovascular events. Newer data have created an awareness of competing considerations in managing these patients. There is still debate about how to appropriately select patients for noninvasive cardiac testing, invasive coronary testing, coronary revascularization, beta-blockers,

David H. Wesorick; Kim A. Eagle

2005-01-01

348

Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Older People with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence and correlates of cardiovascular risk factors in older adults with intellectual disability was examined. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 50- to 90-year-old clients (N = 470) of three Dutch intellectual disability care providing organizations and found that healthy behavior was low, with 98.9% of the participants having an…

de Winter, Channa F.; Magilsen, Karla W.; van Alfen, J. Claudia; Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

2009-01-01

349

Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

2013-01-01

350

Community-Responsive Interventions to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk in American Indians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations bear a heavy burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and they have the highest rates of risk factors for CVD, such as cigarette smoking, obesity, and diabetes, of any U.S. population group. Yet, few randomized controlled trials have been launched to test potential preventive interventions in…

Jobe, Jared B.; Adams, Alexandra K.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Karanja, Njeri; Lee, Elisa T.; Walters, Karina L.

2012-01-01

351

A Community Health Advisor Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk among Rural African-American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…

Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.

2009-01-01

352

INTRODUCTION Advanced age is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Advanced age is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure male Wistar rats, cardiac hemodynamic measurements indicated heart failure at 28 and 32 mo, associated loss, fibrosis and subsequently reduce heart function, both leading to a particular vulnerability

Boyer, Edmond

353

Effect of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors including endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the effects of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis. A randomised controlled study was conducted in which we measured the microvascular endothelial function with peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), selected plasma markers of endothelial function, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in 60 obese patients with psoriasis. The participants were randomised to either low-energy diet (n?=?30) providing 800-1,000 kcal/day for 8 weeks followed by 8 weeks of reduced food intake reaching 1,200 kcal/day or normal healthy foods (n?=?30) for 16 weeks. The intervention group lost significantly more weight than controls, which resulted in significant reductions of diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, triglyceride, plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin, and tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor. Microvascular endothelial function assessed by PAT remained unchanged. We conclude that certain components of the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis can be significantly improved by weight reduction. PMID:24556829

Jensen, Peter; Zachariae, Claus; Christensen, Robin; Geiker, Nina R W; Schaadt, Bente K; Stender, Steen; Astrup, Arne; Hansen, Peter R; Skov, Lone

2014-11-01

354

Dietary Trans Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Past and Present  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dietary trans double bond fatty acids have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There are two main sources of dietary trans fatty acids: meat and dairy fats, and partially-hydrogenated oils. Due to a number of factors, including changes in federal labeling requirements fo...

355

The Effect of Antioxidant Vitamin Supplementation on Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Evidence from observational epidemiologic studies has indicated that antioxidants consumed through the diet or as dietary supplements lower the risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Evidence suggesting that the major mechanism for the protective effect of antioxidants is mediated through decreased oxidation of lipids, particularly low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is accumulating. Other evidence, however, suggests that antioxidants may influence

Edgar R. Miller; Lawrence J. Appel; Orville A. Levander; David M. Levine

1997-01-01

356

The influence of lifestyle on cardiovascular risk factors Analysis using a neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cardiovascular pathologies are the most common causes of death in the elderly patient. To single out the main risk factors in order to effectively prevent the onset of the disease, the authors experimented a special computerized tool, the neural network, that works out a mathematical relation that can obtain certain data (defined as output) as a function of other

Mauro Cacciafestaa; A. Moro

357

POLYMORPHISMS IN CYTOPLASMIC SERINE HYDROXYMETHYLTRANSFERASE AND METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE AFFECT THE RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN MEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic variation in folate-regulating enzymes contributes to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The cytoplasmic serine hydroxymethyltransferase (cSHMT) enzyme is proposed to regulate a key metabolic intersection in folate metabolism. We hypothesized that a variant in cSHMT (cSHMT 1420CT) aff...

358

Cerebellar stroke in a low cardiovascular risk patient associated with sorafenib treatment for fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message Sorafenib is the standard treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, fibrolamellar HCC was not included in sorafenib trials. The case is a 26-year-old man with fibrolamellar HCC, who had a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) while being treated with sorafenib. This illustrates a probable relationship between use of sorafenib and CVA in low cardiovascular risk patients. PMID:25356226

Vandewynckel, Yves-Paul; Geerts, Anja; Verhelst, Xavier; Van Vlierberghe, Hans

2014-01-01

359

Longitudinal Genome-Wide Association of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in the Bogalusa Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have pinpointed many loci associated with CVD risk factors in adults. It is unclear, however, if these loci predict trait levels at all ages, if they are associated with how a trait develops over time, or if they could be used to screen individuals who

Erin N. Smith; Wei Chen; Mika Kähönen; Johannes Kettunen; Terho Lehtimäki; Leena Peltonen; Olli T. Raitakari; Rany M. Salem; Nicholas J. Schork; Marian Shaw; Sathanur R. Srinivasan; Eric J. Topol; Jorma S. Viikari; Gerald S. Berenson; Sarah S. Murray

2010-01-01

360

Political changes and trends in cardiovascular risk factors in the Czech Republic, 1985-92  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mortality from cardiovascular diseases is substantially higher in central and eastern Europe than in the west. After the fall of communism, these countries have undergone radical changes in their political, social, and economic environments but little is known about the impact of these changes on health behaviours or risk factors. Data from the Czech Republic, a country whose mortality

M Bobak; Z Skodova; Z Pisa; R Poledne; M Marmot

1997-01-01

361

Effects of exercise rehabilitation on cardiovascular risk factors in older patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 6-month exercise rehabilitation program can improve cardiovascular risk factors in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Methods: Thirty-four patients (mean age, 68 ± 8 years; range 54-84 years) with PAOD with intermittent claudication (Fontaine stage II) and 14 longitudinal controls of comparable age with stage II PAOD enrolled

Anna Maria Izquierdo-Porrera; Andrew W Gardner; Claudia C Powell; Leslie I Katzel

2000-01-01

362

Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk: A systematic review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Greater fish oil consumption has been associated with reduced CVD risk, although the mechanisms are unclear. Plant-source oil omega-3 fatty acids (ALA) have also been studied regarding their cardiovascular effect. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials that evaluated the ef...

363

Fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors in obese adolescent girls: importance of the intraabdominal fat depot'  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regional distribution of body fat has repeat- edly been found to be a significant and independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in both obese men and women. To deter- mine whether abnormalities in the lipid-lipoprotein profile and systolic and diastolic blood pressure are related to specific fat depots early in the course of obesity, we used magnetic resonance imaging

Sonia Caprio; Lauren D Hyman; Sherley McCarthy; Robert Lange; Mary Bronson; William V Tamborlane

364

An Investigation of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in an Adolescent Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to analyze high school students' self-reports and to determine biomedical cardiovascular disease risk factors in an adolescent population. Factors evaluated included smoking frequency, dietary fat intake, saturated fat intake, and cholesterol/high density lipoprotein ratio. (JN)

Wolfgang, James; Dennison, Darwin

1982-01-01

365

The Experience of Daily Hassles, Cardiovascular Reactivity and Adolescent Risk Taking and Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on Boyce and Ellis's model on "context" and "biological sensitivity to the context", this article analyzes the interaction between the experience of daily hassles and experimentally induced cardiovascular reactivity as an indicator of stress reactivity, in explaining risk taking and self-esteem. This study found, in a sample of 599…

Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Vincke, John; Bracke, Piet

2010-01-01

366

Metabolic Syndrome and 10Year Cardiovascular Disease Risk in the Hoorn Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Different definitions of the metabolic syndrome have been proposed. Their value in a clinical setting to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is still unclear. We compared the definitions proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP), World Health Organization (WHO), European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR), and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) with

Jacqueline M. Dekker; Cynthia Girman; Thomas Rhodes; Giel Nijpels; Coen D. A. Stehouwer; Lex M. Bouter; Robert J. Heine

2010-01-01

367

Aerobic interval training reduces cardiovascular risk factors more than a multitreatment approach in overweight adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a multidisciplinary approach (MTG) and aerobic interval training (AIT) on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight adolescents. A total of 62 overweight and obese adolescents from Trøndelag County in Norway, referred to medical treatment at St Olav's Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, were invited to participate. Of these, 54 adolescents (age,

Anja Bye; Marte Volden; Rønnaug Ødegård; Eirik Skogvoll; Ulrik Wisløff

2009-01-01

368

Role Models and the Psychological Characteristics That Buffer Low-Socioeconomic-Status Youth from Cardiovascular Risk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163…

Chen, Edith; Lee, William K.; Cavey, Lisa; Ho, Amanda

2013-01-01

369

Genetic influences on blood lipids and cardiovascular disease risk: tools for primary prevention  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic polymorphism in the human population is part of the evolutionary process that results from the interaction between the environment and the human genome. Recent changes in diet have upset this equilibrium, potentially influencing the risk of most common morbidities such as cardiovascular dise...

370

Periodontal disease: a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease in ESRD patients?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating evidence suggests that periodontal disease is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this association. To date, however, a causal relation has not been firmly established. In addition, the extent to which treatment of periodontal disease might result in lower incidence of CVD has not been addressed in any study to

François Madore

2009-01-01

371

Frequency of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective: Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study was to elucidate the frequency of traditional and novel cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease. Identification of these risk factors will allow for precautions to be taken earlier to prevent cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome in chronic kidney disease patients. Methods: A total of 214 patients (91 females, 123 males, mean age 56.1±14.4 years) with chronic kidney disease who were followed in the Nephrology Department of Istanbul Goztepe Training and Research Hospital were included in the study. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements for cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome parameters were recorded. Glomerular filtration rates (GFR) were estimated using the Cockroft Gault formula. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results: Thirty-seven percent of patients with chronic renal failure were found to have three or more major cardiovascular risk factors. Seventy percent of patients were found to have metabolic syndrome. The mean numbers of major cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome parameters in patients with different GFR stages were: 1.8±1.0, 2.6±1.2 (GFR <15mL/min per 1.73 m2, n=102); 2.4±1.0, 3.0±1.0 (GFR 15–29 mL/min per 1.73 m2, n=51 ); 2.5±1.1, 3.3±1.0 (GFR 30–59 mL/min per 1.73 m2, n=39); 2.4±1.1, 3.5±0.7 (GFR 60–89 mL/min per 1.73 m2, n=22), respectively (P=.001). Conclusion: Although the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome were high in patients with chronic kidney disease, they were negatively correlated with the stage of renal failure. PMID:20682757

Sagun, Gul; Kantarci, Gulcin; Mesci, Banu; Gungor, Sinem; Turkoglu, Funda; Yorulmaz, Elif; Oguz, Aytekin

2010-01-01

372

Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greater fish oil consumption has been associated with reduced CVD risk, although the mechanisms are unclear. Plant-source oil omega-3 fatty acids (ALA) have also been studied regarding their cardiovascular effect. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect of consumption of fish oil and ALA on commonly measured serum CVD risk factors, performing meta-analyses when

Ethan M. Balk; Alice H. Lichtenstein; Mei Chung; Bruce Kupelnick; Priscilla Chew; Joseph Lau

2006-01-01

373

Relationship of Body Fat and Cardiorespiratory Fitness with Cardiovascular Risk in Chinese Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgrounds\\/ObjectivesCardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body fat play an important role in elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the combined effects of CRF and obesity on metabolic health in Chinese children are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the independent and combined associations between body fat, CRF, and CVD risk in Chinese schoolchildren.MethodsThe study subjects comprised 676

Pei-gang Wang; Jie Gong; Su-qing Wang; Evelyn O. Talbott; Bo Zhang; Qi-qiang He

2011-01-01

374

Cardiovascular risk factors and noninvasive assessment of arterial structure and function in obese Turkish children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is associated with a number of risk factors, such as hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and early atherosclerosis.\\u000a Evidence indicates that atherosclerosis begins in childhood and progresses over decades. In this work, we examined the relationship\\u000a between cardiovascular risk factors and ultrasonographic signs of subclinical atherosclerosis in 77 obese children and adolescents\\u000a compared to 40 non-obese healthy peers. Carotis intima media

Murat Muhtar Yilmazer; Vedide Tavli; Özgür Umaç Carti; Timur Mese; Bar?? Güven; Banu Ayd?n; Ilker Devrim; Talat Tavl?

2010-01-01

375

Global approach to cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease: Reality and opportunities for intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current implementation into nephrology clinical practice of guidelines on treatment of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. We designed a cross-sectional analysis to evaluate the prevalence and treatment of eight modifiable CV risk factors in 1058 predialysis CKD patients (stage 3: n=486; stage 4: n=430, stage 5: n=142) followed for at least 1 year

L De Nicola; R Minutolo; P Chiodini; C Zoccali; P Castellino; C Donadio; M Strippoli; F Casino; M Giannattasio; F Petrarulo; M Virgilio; E Laraia; B R Di Iorio; V Savica; G Conte

2006-01-01

376

The Association between Heart Rate and Blood Pressure, Blood Lipids and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several studies have shown that an elevated heart rate is associated with an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between heart rate, blood pressure, blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged men.Methods: A total of 7735 men, aged 40–59 years at screening, were selected at random from

Goya Wannamethee; A. Gerald Shaper

1994-01-01

377

Physical activity in German adults: Types, settings, and patterns of association by cardiovascular risk status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about physical activity in adults at differing risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here, we describe and compare the physical activity and patterns of association with physical activity by CVD risk status based on data from computer-assisted telephone interviews of 2002 men and women aged 50–70 years in Germany. Physical activity preferences, settings, and health-related attitudes were assessed

Christina Huy; Karen Steindorf; David Litaker; Ansgar Thiel; Curt Diehm

2011-01-01

378

Antipsychotic Medication–Induced Weight Gain and Risk for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with the general population, individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate an increased hprevalence of obesity, type\\u000a 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular disease (CVD), with related increases in mortality. Increased adiposity is\\u000a associated with decreases in insulin sensitivity, leading to increased risk of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Current evidence\\u000a supports the hypothesis that treatment with antipsychotic medications is associated with increased risk

John W. Newcomer

379

The association of interleukin-18 genotype and serum levels with metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-18 are associated with the metabolic syndrome and risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated the association between the circulating IL-18 levels and the K137 G\\/C polymorphism within the IL-18 gene with metabolic risk factors for CVD in normal-weight and obese black South African women. Methods: Blood pressure (BP), body composition

Juliet Evans; Malcolm Collins; Courtney Jennings; Lize van der Merwe; Ingegerd Soderstrom; Tommy Olsson; Naomi S Levitt; Estelle V Lambert; Julia H Goedecke

2007-01-01

380

Coffee consumption and risk of total and cardiovascular mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Higher habitual coffee drinking has been associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The relation between coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been examined in many studies, but the issue remains controversial. This study was designed to assess the association between coffee consumption and CVD mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods  We prospectively followed

S. Bidel; G. Hu; Q. Qiao; P. Jousilahti; R. Antikainen; J. Tuomilehto

2006-01-01

381

Effects of dietary animal and soy protein on cardiovascular disease risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of research offers insight into the influence of dietary protein on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Early\\u000a studies in rabbits indicated that animal protein was atherogenic; however, this has not been demonstrated in other animals\\u000a species (pig, primate) or humans. More recent studies have found that low-fat animal protein can effectively improve some\\u000a CVD risk factors. Soy protein

Kari D. Hecker

2001-01-01

382

Effect of tamoxifen and transdermal hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular risk factors in a prevention trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of tamoxifen and transdermal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may potentially reduce risks and side-effects of either agent, but an adverse interaction could attenuate their beneficial effects. We assessed the effects of their combination on cardiovascular risk factors within a prevention trial of tamoxifen. Baseline and 12-month measurements of total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, platelets and

A Decensi; C Robertson; N Rotmensz; G Severi; P Maisonneuve; V Sacchini; P Boyle; A Costa; U Veronesi

1998-01-01

383

Biomarkers, erectile dysfunction, and cardiovascular risk prediction: the latest of an evolving concept  

PubMed Central

A number of circulating and imaging biomarkers are robustly associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk. The overall expectation from a biomarker in the erectile dysfunction (ED) setting is to enhance the optimal management of a man with this disorder but no clinical atherosclerosis. Evidence demonstrating that these biomarkers enhance risk prediction for individuals with ED is at this stage still limited for most of them. A better identification of the subsets of the ED population that require further risk stratification, as well as the initiation of randomized trials that will formally test the ability of biomarkers to predict CV risk, could make biomarker-guided prevention an attainable goal. PMID:25412676

Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Ioakeimidis, Nikolaos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

2015-01-01

384

New paradigms in PCOS: impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular risk. Clinical approach.  

PubMed

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age and is associated with various metabolic risk factors, in addition to chronic anovulation and factors related to androgen excess. Women with PCOS have a higher risk of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and an increased prothrombotic state, resulting in a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, subclinical atherosclerosis, vascular dysfunction, and apparently cardiovascular disease and mortality. The aim of the present article was to summarize current knowledge with focus on a suggestion to the clinical approach and handling of these metabolic risk factors. PMID:25668421

Ravn, P

2015-04-01

385

Aspirin resistance as cardiovascular risk after kidney transplantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International surveys have shown that the leading cause of death after kidney transplantation has cardiovascular origin with a prevalence of 35-40%. As a preventive strategy these patients receive aspirin (ASA) therapy, even though their rate of aspirin resistance is still unknown. In our study, platelet aggregation measurements were performed between 2009 and 2012 investigating the laboratory effect of low-dose aspirin (100 mg) treatment using a CARAT TX4 optical aggregometer. ASA therapy was considered clinically effective in case of low ( i.e., below 40%) epinephrine-induced (10 ?M) platelet aggregation index. Rate of aspirin resistance, morbidity and mortality data of kidney transplanted patients (n = 255, mean age: 49 ± 12 years) were compared to a patient population with cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases (n = 346, mean age: 52.6 ± 11 years). Rate of aspirin resistance was significantly higher in the renal transplantation group (RT) compared to the positive control group (PC) (35.9% vs. 25.6%, p < 0.002). Morbidity analysis demonstrated significantly higher incidence of myocardial infarction, hypertension and diabetes mellitus in the RT group (p < 0.05). The subgroup analysis revealed significantly higher incidence of infarction and stroke in the ASA resistant RT group compared to the RT patients without ASA resistance (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the incidence of myocardial infarction and hypertension was significantly higher in the non-resistant RT group than in the group of PC patients without ASA resistance (p < 0.05). These results may suggest that the elevated rate of aspirin resistance contributes to the high cardiovascular mortality after kidney transplantation.

Sandor, Barbara; Varga, Adam; Rabai, Miklos; Toth, Andras; Papp, Judit; Toth, Kalman; Szakaly, Peter

2014-05-01

386

Usefulness of cognitive dysfunction in heart failure to predict cardiovascular risk at 180 days.  

PubMed

Cognitive dysfunction is common in patients with heart failure (HF). Despite the high prevalence and the adverse associations of cognitive dysfunction in HF, the prognostic implications remain poorly understood. We sought to determine the influence of cognitive dysfunction, identified using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), on 180-day cardiovascular events. We analyzed data on 246 participants in an observational cohort study of adults with HF. The interview-format MoCA was administered to all participants. Time to first cardiovascular event was assessed as a cumulative end point during the 180 days after enrollment. Cox proportional hazards model was used for analysis of time to first event. The MoCA score was <26 for 91 patients (37%). Patients with a MoCA score <26 were more likely to have a cardiovascular event at 180 days. MoCA score <26 remained an independent predictor of cardiovascular event risk at 180 days when adjusted for the Seattle Heart Failure Model Score and the Charlson comorbidity index (hazard ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.6, p = 0.03). In conclusion, in patients with HF, cognitive dysfunction identified with a MoCA score of <26 is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events at 180 days. PMID:25644853

Gelow, Jill M; Mudd, James O; Chien, Christopher V; Lee, Christopher S

2015-03-15

387

Psoriasis and atherosclerosis: Is there a need for novel biomarkers assessing cardiovascular risk?  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies indicate increased mortality rates in cohorts of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Psoriasis is associated with an enhanced cardiovascular risk. The excess mortality in psoriasis and PsA is predominantly due to coronary artery disease. The aim of this review is to overview the biomarkers and/or mediators of increased cardiovascular risk in patients with psoriasis and PsA. We searched through Medline/PubMed to retrieve sources on cardiovascular disease (CVD), related risk factors and inflammatory markers in psoriasis and PsA. We analyzed the relationship between psoriasis and novel vascular biomarkers with potential use for preventive studies. Studies underline the importance of considering psoriatic patients as a high-risk population in terms of CVD. Novel biomarkers of inflammation, thrombosis, oxidative stress and atherosclerosis can provide risk stratification and strategies for early detection and treatment of CVD in patients with psoriasis. A better understanding of the association between psoriasis and vascular risk can help the clinician to manage the increased morbidity and mortality related to CVD. PMID:23565636

Sunbul, Murat; Agirbasli, Mehmet

2014-01-01

388

Milk Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Older Chinese: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Dairy products consumption is increasingly common globally. Most of the evidence concerning dairy products comes from observational studies in western populations which are inevitably open to confounding. To triangulate the evidence concerning dairy products, we examined the associations of whole cow's milk consumption with cardiovascular risk factors in a non-Western setting with a different pattern of milk consumption and cardiovascular diseases from Western populations. Methods We used multivariable censored linear or logistic regression to examine cross-sectionally the adjusted associations of whole cow's milk consumption (none (n?=?14892), 1–3/week (n?=?2689) and 3+/week (n?=?2754)) with cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese (?50 years) in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Results Whole cow's milk consumption was negatively associated with systolic blood pressure (3+/week compared to none ?2.56 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI) ?3.63 to ?1.49), diastolic blood pressure (?1.32 mmHg, 95% CI ?1.87 to ?0.77) and triglycerides (?0.06 mmol/L, 95% CI ?0.11 to ?0.002), but was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol (0.02 mmol/L,95% CI 0.01 to 0.04) and fasting glucose (0.08 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.16) adjusted for age, sex, phase of study, socio-economic position, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol use and physical activity) and adiposity, but had no obvious association with LDL-cholesterol or the presence of diabetes. Conclusions Whole cow's milk consumption had heterogeneous associations with cardiovascular risk factors. Higher whole cow's milk consumption was associated with lower levels of specific cardiovascular risk factors which might suggest risk factor specific biological pathways with different relations to blood pressure and lipids than glucose. PMID:24416290

Sun, Yangbo; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Cheng, Kar Keung; Zhang, Weisen; Leung, Gabriel M.; Lam, Tai Hing; Schooling, C. Mary

2014-01-01

389

The influence of calcium and magnesium in drinking water and diet on cardiovascular risk factors in individuals living in hard and soft water areas with differences in cardiovascular mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The role of water hardness as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease has been widely investigated and evaluated as regards regional differences in cardiovascular disease. This study was performed to evaluate the relation between calcium and magnesium in drinking water and diet and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in individuals living in hard and soft water areas with considerable

Christina Nerbrand; Lars Agréus; Ragnhild Arvidsson Lenner; Per Nyberg; Kurt Svärdsudd

2003-01-01

390

Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention  

PubMed Central

Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed???20?hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12?months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect the cardiovascular health, and additionally decrease the objectively measured relative workload, in a population with high physical work demands. Previous intervention studies have lacked robust objective measurements of the relative workload and physical work demands. This study will monitor the relative workload and general physical activity before, during after the intervention, and contribute to the understanding of the previously observed opposing effects on cardiovascular health and mortality from occupational and leisure time physical activity. Trial registration The study is registered as ISRCTN86682076. PMID:22888833

2012-01-01

391

Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and socioeconomic level among public-sector workers in Angola  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the majority of developed and developing countries. African countries are currently facing an increase in both cardiovascular and transmitted diseases. In addition, cardiovascular risk varies among different socioeconomic groups. Thus, we determined the prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy public-sector workers and investigated possible relationships with socioeconomic status. Methods We employed a cross-sectional study comprising 42.2% (n = 615) of the public-sector workers at Agostinho Neto University, 48% (n = 294) male and 52% (n= 321) female, with ages between 20 and 72 years and from various socioeconomic groups. The study was conducted from February 2009 to December 2010. Personal, anthropometric, biochemical, hemodynamic, socioeconomic, and physical activity data were collected. Results The prevalence rates of cardiovascular risk factors were as follows: hypertension, 45.2% (men 46.3%, women 44.2%, P > 0.05); hypercholesterolemia, 11.1% (men 10.5%, women 11.5%, P > 0.05); low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, 50.1% (men 36.9%, women 62.3%; P < 0.05); hypertriglyceridemia, 10.6% (men 12.6%, women 8.7%, P > 0.05); smoking, 7.2% (men 10.2%, women 4.4%; P < 0.05); diabetes, 5.7% (men 5.5%, women 5.9%, P > 0.05); overweight, 29.3% (men 27.3%, women 31.2%, P > 0.05); obesity, 19.6% (men 9.2%, women 29.0%; P < 0.05); sedentary lifestyle, 87.2% (men 83.0%, women 91,0%, P < 0.05); and left ventricular hypertrophy, 20% (men 32.0%, women 9.0%; P < 0.05). At least one risk factor was present in 27.7% of the sample; 15.2% had two risk factors, and 31.4% had three or more risk factors. Among the individuals with low socioeconomic status, 41.0% had three or more risk factors. Conclusions The results of this study suggest the existence of a high prevalence of multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy public-sector workers in Angola. The workers in lower socioeconomic groups had higher incidences of hypertension, smoking, and left ventricular hypertrophy. PMID:23924306

2013-01-01

392

Diabetes, cardiovascular disease, selected cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the 5-year incidence of age-related cataract and progression of lens opacities: the beaver dam eye study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To describe the relationships of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and selected cardiovascular disease risk factors to cumulative incidence of age-related cataract and to progression of lens opacities over a 5-year interval.METHODS: A follow-up examination of the Beaver Dam Eye Study cohort was performed 5 years after the baseline evaluation. Ages at the census prior to baseline ranged from 43

Barbara E. K Klein; Ronald Klein; Kristine E Lee

1998-01-01

393

[No advantage of the combination of ACE-inhibition and angiotensin receptor blockade in patients with high cardiovascular risk].  

PubMed

The results of the 'Ongoing telmisartan alone and in combination with ramipril global eendpoint trial' (ONTARGET) have recently been published. In this trial, which was performed in patients with a high cardiovascular risk, it was investigated whether angiotensin II receptor blockade with telmisartan is equally effective as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition with ramipril and whether the combination oftelmisartan and ramipril (dual blockade) is more effective than ACE-inhibition alone to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and hospitalization for heart failure. On the basis of the ONTARGET results it can be concluded that dual blockade has no place in the treatment of high cardiovascular risk patients without heart failure, because this approach gives no additional reduction of cardiovascular risk and may even be associated with increased mortality. It also has more side effects. Since telmisartan was equally effective and safe as ramipril, one can choose from both agents in the treatment of patients with a high cardiovascular risk. PMID:18664211

van den Meiracker, A H

2008-06-14

394

Bad Marriage, Broken Heart? Age and Gender Differences in the Link between Marital Quality and Cardiovascular Risks among Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57–85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts; and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework. PMID:25413802

Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

2015-01-01

395

Hemostasis and cardiovascular risk. The British and European experience.  

PubMed

There is evidence that increased reactivity of blood plasma to thrombogenic surfaces (hypercoagulability) may contribute to the risk of thrombotic occlusion of a coronary artery in coronary heart disease. The Northwick Park Heart Study found raised levels of factor VII coagulant (VIIc) activity and fibrinogen in men at high risk of a coronary event. Several other European studies have confirmed the latter finding, but the Northwick Park Heart Study is the only study to report formally on VIIc to date. Plasma VIIc is increased in the presence of hyperlipidemia and on a high fat diet, and falls with lipid-lowering therapy and a reduction in fat intake. Fibrinogen concentration is raised in smokers and decreases when the habit is given up. Thus, these markers of thrombogenic risk are readily controlled by standard preventive measures against coronary heart disease. Unresolved issues include: (1) whether the distinctive features of the Northwick Park VII bioassay improve the value of VIIc as a predictor of coronary heart disease; (2) the separate extent to which activation of factor VII and increases in factor VII concentration account for the raised VIIc in hyperlipidemia; (3) the basis of the raised fibrinogen in men at high coronary heart disease risk, even among nonsmokers; and (4) the usefulness of plasma levels of activation peptides of factors IX, X, and prothrombin as markers of thrombogenic risk. PMID:1456878

Miller, G J

1992-12-01

396

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Profiling of Group C Employees in JIPMER, Puducherry  

PubMed Central

Background: Settings-based approach for health promotion includes conducting risk factor surveillance as one of its component. It was aimed to estimate the prevalence of CVD risk factors among group C employees of tertiary care hospital in south India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 400 group C employees aged ?20 years using the WHO “STEPwise approach to surveillance of non-communicable diseases” (STEPS) methodology. Standardized international protocols were used to measure behavioral risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity) and physical characteristics (weight, waist and hip circumferences, height, and blood pressure). Multivariate analysis was done to predict the factors, which carry independent risk of hypertension. Risk factor profiling of the staff was done using WHO/ISH risk prediction chart to calculate the 10-year risk of a fatal or non-fatal major cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction or stroke), according to age, gender, blood pressure, smoking status, and presence or absence of diabetes mellitus. Results: Mean age in years was 40.9 (±10.4), and men constituted 81.3% of study population. Prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors was as follows: Current smokers 12.3% men, regular alcohol intake 33.2% among men, overweight (?23 kg/m2) 74.5%, central obesity 78.7%, hypertension 38.8%, and history of diabetes mellitus 13.2%. Age, gender, physical inactivity, obesity, and family history of hypertension were found to be independently associated with hypertension. Four percent participants had a >10% risk of developing CVD in next 10 years. Conclusion: The prevalence of CVD risk factors is high in the sample population. Employee wellness program should be started in the institute to combat the burden of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25374865

Aswin, K; Ghorpade, Arun G.; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Kumar, Ganesh

2014-01-01

397

Communicating cardiovascular disease risk: an interview study of General Practitioners’ use of absolute risk within tailored communication strategies  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines encourage assessment of absolute CVD risk - the probability of a CVD event within a fixed time period, based on the most predictive risk factors. However, few General Practitioners (GPs) use absolute CVD risk consistently, and communication difficulties have been identified as a barrier to changing practice. This study aimed to explore GPs’ descriptions of their CVD risk communication strategies, including the role of absolute risk. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 25 GPs in New South Wales, Australia. Transcribed audio-recordings were thematically coded, using the Framework Analysis method to ensure rigour. Results GPs used absolute CVD risk within three different communication strategies: ‘positive’, ‘scare tactic’, and ‘indirect’. A ‘positive’ strategy, which aimed to reassure and motivate, was used for patients with low risk, determination to change lifestyle, and some concern about CVD risk. Absolute risk was used to show how they could reduce risk. A ‘scare tactic’ strategy was used for patients with high risk, lack of motivation, and a dismissive attitude. Absolute risk was used to ‘scare’ them into taking action. An ‘indirect’ strategy, where CVD risk was not the main focus, was used for patients with low risk but some lifestyle risk factors, high anxiety, high resistance to change, or difficulty understanding probabilities. Non-quantitative absolute risk formats were found to be helpful in these situations. Conclusions This study demonstrated how GPs use three different communication strategies to address the issue of CVD risk, depending on their perception of patient risk, motivation and anxiety. Absolute risk played a different role within each strategy. Providing GPs with alternative ways of explaining absolute risk, in order to achieve different communication aims, may improve their use of absolute CVD risk assessment in practice. PMID:24885409

2014-01-01

398

The postpartum cardiovascular risk factor profile of women with isolated hyperglycemia at 1-hour on the oral glucose tolerance test in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aimsWomen with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an enhanced cardiovascular risk factor profile at 3-months postpartum and an elevated risk of future cardiovascular disease, as compared to their peers. Recently, it has emerged that even mild dysglycemia on antepartum oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) predicts an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease, although it is not known whether

R. Retnakaran; Y. Qi; M. Sermer; P. W. Connelly; A. J. Hanley; B. Zinman

2011-01-01

399

Phosphate: an old bone molecule but new cardiovascular risk factor.  

PubMed

Phosphate handling in the body is complex and involves hormones produced by the bone, the parathyroid gland and the kidneys. Phosphate is mostly found in hydroxyapatite. however recent evidence suggests that phosphate is also a signalling molecule associated with bone formation. Phosphate balance requires careful regulation of gut and kidney phosphate transporters, SLC34 transporter family, but phosphate signalling in osteoblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells is likely mediated by the SLC20 transporter family (PiT1 and PiT2). If not properly regulated, phosphate imblanace could lead to mineral disorders as well as vascular calcification. In chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder, hyperphosphataemia has been consistently associated with extra-osseous calcification and cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on the physiological mechanisms involved in phosphate balance and cell signalling (i.e. osteoblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells) as well as pathological consequences of hyperphosphataemia. Finally, conventional as well as new and experimental therapeutics in the treatment of hyperphosphataemia are explored. PMID:23506202

Shobeiri, Navid; Adams, Michael A; Holden, Rachel M

2014-01-01

400

Phosphate: an old bone molecule but new cardiovascular risk factor  

PubMed Central

Phosphate handling in the body is complex and involves hormones produced by the bone, the parathyroid gland and the kidneys. Phosphate is mostly found in hydroxyapatite. however recent evidence suggests that phosphate is also a signalling molecule associated with bone formation. Phosphate balance requires careful regulation of gut and kidney phosphate transporters, SLC34 transporter family, but phosphate signalling in osteoblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells is likely mediated by the SLC20 transporter family (PiT1 and PiT2). If not properly regulated, phosphate imblanace could lead to mineral disorders as well as vascular calcification. In chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder, hyperphosphataemia has been consistently associated with extra-osseous calcification and cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on the physiological mechanisms involved in phosphate balance and cell signalling (i.e. osteoblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells) as well as pathological consequences of hyperphosphataemia. Finally, conventional as well as new and experimental therapeutics in the treatment of hyperphosphataemia are explored. PMID:23506202

Shobeiri, Navid; Adams, Michael A; Holden, Rachel M

2014-01-01

401

Type 1 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) traditionally had a low body mass index and microangiopathic complications were common, while macroangiopathy and the metabolic syndrome were exceptional. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, published in 1993, demonstrated that therapy aimed at maintaining HbA1c levels as close to normal as feasible reduced the incidence of microangiopathy. Since then, the use of intensive insulin therapy to optimize metabolic control became generalized. Improved glycemic control resulted in a lower incidence of microangiopathy; however, its side effects included a higher rate of severe hypoglycemia and increased weight gain. Approximately 50% of patients with T1DM are currently obese or overweight, and between 8% and 40% meet the metabolic syndrome criteria. The components of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance have been linked to chronic T1DM complications, and cardiovascular disease is now the leading cause of death in these patients. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are required in T1DM subjects, not only to intensively lower glycemia, but to control all associated metabolic syndrome traits. PMID:24274980

Chillarón, Juan J; Flores Le-Roux, Juana A; Benaiges, David; Pedro-Botet, Juan

2014-02-01

402

Frailty and cardiovascular disease: potential role of gait speed in surgical risk stratification in older adults  

PubMed Central

Frailty is a state of late life decline and vulnerability, typified by physical weakness and decreased physiologic reserve. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of frailty share features with those of cardiovascular disease. Gait speed can be used as a measure of frailty and is a powerful predictor of mortality. Advancing age is a potent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has been associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Older adults comprise approximately half of cardiac surgery patients, and account for nearly 80% of the major complications and deaths following surgery. The ability of traditional risk models to predict mortality and major morbidity in older patients being considered for cardiac surgery may improve if frailty, as measured by gait speed, is included in their assessment. It is possible that in the future frailty assessment may assist in choosing among therapies (e.g., surgical vs. percutaneous aortic valve replacement for patients with aortic stenosis). PMID:25678904

Chen, Michael A.

2015-01-01

403

Eating patterns and cardiovascular disease risk in a Detroit Mexican American population.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Hispanic adults living in Southwest Detroit. A descriptive design was used. Self-report baseline data were collected using The Rate Your Plate and Personal Health Risk Assessment questionnaires. A nonrandom sample of 32 Mexican American adults was recruited from a large Roman Catholic Church in Southwest Detroit. Participants were selected if they were enrolled in the larger parent research study to test the effects of a lay health educator intervention and planned to participate in the nutrition education portion of the intervention. Unhealthy eating patterns outnumbered heart healthy eating practices. The majority used higher fat salad dressings; ate fried foods, sweets, and high fat snacks; consumed greater than the desired amounts of regular cheese; drank whole milk; and ate few fruits and vegetables. Lack of physical activity, being overweight, and exposure to second-hand smoke were the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors. The data suggest that effective community-based heart disease prevention programs that emphasize risk factor screening and cardiovascular risk reduction through heart healthy eating are needed. PMID:15363023

Artinian, Nancy T; Schim, Stephanie Myers; Vander Wal, Jillon S; Nies, Mary A

2004-01-01

404

Cardiovascular Risks in Relation to Daidzein Metabolizing Phenotypes among Chinese Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Background Studies suggested that the inter-individual differences in metabolizing isoflavone daidzein to equol or O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA) might explain the inconsistency of the soy/isoflavones efficacy on cardiovascular health. Objectives The study aims to evaluate the relationship between equol and ODMA phenotypes and cardiovascular risks with habitual isoflavone consumption in Chinese postmenopausal women. Methods This is a cross-sectional study among 726 prehypertensive postmenopal women who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. 648 women returned a daidzein-challenged urine samples for determination of equol and O-DMA production. 595 attended clinic visits for assessment of cardiovascular risks including body composition, blood pressure (BP), serum lipids, uric acid, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fasting glucose and free fatty acid (FFA). Results The prevalences of equol and O-DMA producers were 53.2% and 60.9% respectively. Equol producers had higher fat free mass (p?=?0.001), lower systolic (p?=?0.01) and diastolic (p?=?0.01) BP, serum triglyceride (p?=?0.023), hs-CRP (p?=?0.015) and FFA (p?=?0.001) than non-producers. O-DMA producers had lower body fat% (p?=?0.032), SBP (p?=?0.02), total cholesterol (p?=?0.002) than non-producers. The significant differences remained after further adjustment for potential confounders. The habitual soy isoflavones intake had little relation to cardiovascular risk factors in either equol/O-DMA producer phenotypes. Conclusion Equol/O-DMA producers had more favorable cardiovascular risk profiles than non-producers in prehypertensive postmenopausal women. PMID:24533060

Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Chen, Yu-ming; Liu, Jun; Woo, Jean

2014-01-01

405

Resting Heart Rate and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases and All-Cause Death: The Kailuan Study  

PubMed Central

Background Resting heart rate (RHR) predicts both cardiovascular and noncardiovascular death in different populations. However, the results of the association between RHR and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are inconsistent, especially for each subtype of CVDs. Objective The aim of this study was to prospectively explore the relationship between RHR and CVDs including myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke and all-cause death in a general population. Methods The Kailuan study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study on cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events. Hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox regression modeling. Results We analyzed 92,562 participants (18–98 years old) in the Kailuan Study. CVDs were developed in 1,903 people during follow-ups. In multivariate analysis with adjustment for major traditional cardiovascular risk factors, HRs of the highest quintile group compared with the lowest quintile group of RHR for all-cause CVDs, MI, any stroke, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and all-cause death were 1.03 (95% CI, 0.98–1.07), 1.10 (95% CI, 1.01–1.20), 1.01 (95% CI, 0.97–1.06), 1.02 (95% CI, 0.96–1.07), 1.01 (95% CI, 0.92–1.11) and 1.18, (95% CI, 1.13–1.23), respectively. Conclusions The elevated RHR was independently associated with the increased risk for MI and all-cause death, but not for all-cause CVDs, any stroke, ischemic stroke, nor hemorrhagic stroke. This indicates that the elevated RHR might be a risk marker for MI and all-cause death in general populations. PMID:25343354

Wang, Chunxue; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Yuntao; Xing, Aijun; Luo, Yanxia; Huang, Zhe; Liu, Xiaoxue; Guo, Xiuhua; Zhao, Xingquan; Wu, Shouling

2014-01-01

406

Long?term Cardiovascular Risks Associated With an Elevated Heart Rate: The Framingham Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background Higher heart rate has been associated with an adverse prognosis, but most prior studies focused on individuals with known cardiovascular disease or examined a limited number of outcomes. We sought to examine the association of baseline heart rate with both fatal and nonfatal outcomes during 2 decades of follow?up. Methods and Results Our study included 4058 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age 55 years, 56% women). Cox models were performed with multivariable adjustment for clinical risk factors and physical activity. A total of 708 participants developed incident cardiovascular disease (303 heart failure, 343 coronary heart disease, and 216 stroke events), 48 received a permanent pacemaker, and 1186 died. Baseline heart rate was associated with incident cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15 per 1 SD [11 bpm] increase in heart rate, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.24, P=0.0002), particularly heart failure (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.48, P<0.0001). Higher heart rate was also associated with higher all?cause (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.24, P<0.0001) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.33, P=0.01). Spline analyses did not suggest a lower threshold beyond which the benefit of a lower heart rate abated or increased. In contrast, individuals with a higher heart rate had a lower risk of requiring permanent pacemaker placement (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.79, P=0.001). Conclusions Individuals with a higher heart rate are at elevated long?term risk for cardiovascular events, in particular, heart failure, and all?cause death. On the other hand, a higher heart rate is associated with a lower risk of future permanent pacemaker implantation. PMID:24811610

Ho, Jennifer E.; Larson, Martin G.; Ghorbani, Anahita; Cheng, Susan; Coglianese, Erin E.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

407

Antioxidant Micronutrients and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Inverse associations between micronutrient intake and cardiovascular outcomes have been previously shown, but did not focus on diabetic patients. Objective To systematically review the role of micronutrients in the development/presence of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, and Scopus (January/1949-March/2012) for observational studies that evaluated micronutrients and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes, and then selected and extracted the data (two independent reviewers). Results From the 15 658 studies identified, five were included, comprising three case-control and two cohorts, with a follow-up of 7-15 years. A meta-analysis was not performed due to the different antioxidant micronutrients (types and measurement methods) and outcomes evaluated. The micronutrients assessed were vitamin C intake in diet and/ or supplementation, chromium and selenium in toenail samples, and ?-tocopherol and zinc in serum levels. Intake of > 300 mg of vitamin C through supplementation was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease (CAD), and stroke (RR 1.69-2.37). High levels of ?-tocopherol in serum were associated with 30% lower CAD risk in another study (HR 0.71; 95%CI 0.53-0.94). Among minerals (zinc, selenium, and chromium), an inverse association between zinc and CAD was observed; levels lower than 14.1 ?mol/L were associated with an increased risk for CAD (RR 1.70; 95%CI 1.21-2.38). Conclusion The information available on this issue is scarce. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the role of these nutrients in the cardiovascular risk of patients with diabetes. PMID:23877741

Sarmento, Roberta Aguiar; Silva, Flávia Moraes; Sbruzzi, Graciele; Schaan, Beatriz D'Agord; de Almeida, Jussara Carnevale

2013-01-01

408

Calcium Intake and Serum Concentration in Relation to Risk of Cardiovascular Death in NHANES III  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence for an association between calcium intake and risk of cardiovascular death remains controversial. By assessing dietary intake, use of supplements, and serum levels of calcium, we aimed to disentangle this link in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Methods Mortality linkage of NHANES III to death certificate data for those aged 17 years or older (n?=?20,024) was used to estimate risk of overall cardiovascular death as well as death from ischemic heart disease (IHD), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), and cerebrovascular disease (CD) with multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results About 10.0% of the population died of cardiovascular disease and the majority (5.4%) died of IHD. There was increased risk of overall CVD death for those in the bottom 5% of serum calcium compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.03–2.22)). For women there was a statistically significant increased risk of IHD death for those with serum calcium levels in the top 5% compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.72 (95%CI: 1.13–2.61)), whereas in men, low serum calcium was related to increased IHD mortality (HR: 2.32 (95% CI 1.14–3.01), Pinteraction: 0.306). No clear association with CVD death was observed for dietary or supplemental calcium intake. Conclusions Calcium as assessed by serum concentrations is involved in cardiovascular health, though differential effects by sex may exist. No clear evidence was found for an association between dietary or supplementary intake of calcium and cardiovascular death. PMID:23593383

Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Michaelsson, Karl; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine

2013-01-01

409

Cardiovascular health and awareness in high risk college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to illustrate the altered perceptions of health in African American youth.In the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), African Americans had the highest rate of obesity and diagnosed diabetes in the nation. Approximately 14% of individuals 18 to 29 years of age are obese. In addition to diabetes, rates of uncontrolled dyslipidemia and

Cori M. Brock; Deborah S. King; Thomas K. Harrell; Wendy B. White; Nimr Fahmy; Jimmy L. Stewart

2005-01-01

410

The influence of an intense cardiovascular disease risk factor modification program.  

PubMed

In an effort to make intensive lifestyle modification programs more accessible to patients with cardiovascular disease, the Ornish Program was offered at eight independent medical centers located across the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine if one of these independent sites was able to replicate outcomes produced by the original Ornish Program. Fifty program participants from six different cohorts provided baseline, 3- and 12-month data consisting of blood lipids, body fat, blood pressure, anginal pain, quality of life, stress, depression, social support, and hostility. A pooled analysis showed significant reductions in almost all physiological and psychosocial variables with most reductions persisting for at least 12 months. These findings suggest that cardiovascular disease patients who choose to participate in an independent, intensive lifestyle modification program can experience significant improvements in both physiological and psychosocial cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:15010624

Aldana, Steven G; Greenlaw, Roger; Thomas, Dean; Salberg, Audrey; DeMordaunt, Tawnya; Fellingham, Gill W; Avins, Andrew L

2004-01-01

411

Glycosylated hemoglobin and the risk of death and cardiovascular mortality in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has been associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the findings are inconsistent. We tested the hypothesis that HbA1c may be associated with an increased risk of death and cardiovascular mortality in older adults. Methods and results We evaluated the association between HbA1c with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in 810 participants without a history of diabetes in a sub-study of the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a community cohort study of individuals ?65 years of age. Glycosylated hemoglobin was measured at baseline and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was assessed during the follow-up period. The relation between baseline HbA1c and death was evaluated with multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. After a median follow-up of 14.2 years, 416 deaths were observed. The crude incidence rates of all-cause mortality across HbA1c groups were: 4.4% per year, 4.3% per year and 4.6% per year for tertile 1 (?5.6%), tertile 2 (5.61–6.20%) and tertile 3 (?6.21%), respectively. In unadjusted and fully adjusted analyses, baseline HbA1c was not associated with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio: 1.16 [95% confidence interval 0.91–1.47] and hazard ratio: 1.31 [95% confidence interval 0.90–1.93], respectively for the highest HbA1c tertile compared with the lowest). Conclusion These results suggest that HbA1c does not significantly predict all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in non-diabetic community-dwelling older adults. PMID:19364638

Chonchol, M.; Katz, R.; Fried, L.F.; Sarnak, M.J.; Siscovick, D.S.; Newman, A.B.; Strotmeyer, E.S.; Bertoni, A.; Shlipak, M.G.

2010-01-01

412

Risk of serious adverse cardiovascular events associated with varenicline: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: There have been postmarketing reports of adverse cardiovascular events associated with the use of varenicline, a widely used smoking cessation drug. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to ascertain the serious adverse cardiovascular effects of varenicline compared with placebo among tobacco users. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, websites of regulatory authorities and registries of clinical trials, with no date or language restrictions, through September 2010 (updated March 2011) for published and unpublished studies. We selected double-blind randomized controlled trials of at least one week’s duration involving smokers or people who used smokeless tobacco that reported on cardiovascular events (ischemia, arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, sudden death or cardiovascular-related death) as serious adverse events asociated with the use of varenicline. Results: We analyzed data from 14 double-blind randomized controlled trials involving 8216 participants. The trials ranged in duration from 7 to 52 weeks. Varenicline was associated with a significantly increased risk of serious adverse cardiovascular events compared with placebo (1.06% [52/4908] in varenicline group v. 0.82% [27/3308] in placebo group; Peto odds ratio [OR] 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09–2.71; I2 = 0%). The results of various sensitivity analyses were consistent with those of the main analysis, and a funnel plot showed no publication bias. There were too few deaths to allow meaningful comparisons of mortality. Interpretation: Our meta-analysis raises safety concerns about the potential for an increased risk of serious adverse cardiovascular events associated with the use of varenicline among tobacco users. PMID:21727225

Singh, Sonal; Loke, Yoon K.; Spangler, John G.; Furberg, Curt D.

2011-01-01

413

Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular risk: A unique cardiometabolic imprint?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from randomized controlled trials indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids (TFA) leads to harmful changes\\u000a in serum lipids, systemic inflammation, endothelial function, and, in nonhuman primates, visceral adiposity and insulin resistance.\\u000a Prospective observational studies demonstrate strong positive associations between TFA consumption and risk of myocardial\\u000a infarction, coronary heart disease death, and sudden death. Links have also been seen

Dariush Mozaffarian; Walter C. Willett

2007-01-01

414

Socioeconomic status and trends in risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the Danish MONICA population, 1982–1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVEThe decline in cardiovascular mortality in Denmark during the 1980s has been greatest in the highest socioeconomic groups of the population. This study examines whether the increased social inequality in cardiovascular mortality has been accompanied by a different trend in cardiovascular risk factors in different educational groups.DESIGNData from three cross sectional WHO MONICA surveys conducted in 1982–84, 1987, and

Merete Osler; Lars Ulrik Gerdes; Michael Davidsen; Henrik Brønnum-Hansen; Mette Madsen; Torben Jørgensen; Marianne Schroll

2000-01-01

415

Postprandial blood glucose as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in Type II diabetes: the epidemiological evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   That cardiovascular disease occurs more frequently in patients with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus has\\u000a been recognized for a