Sample records for residual cardiovascular risk

  1. Molecular sources of residual cardiovascular risk, clinical signals, and innovative solutions: relationship with subclinical disease, undertreatment, and poor adherence: implications of new evidence upon optimizing cardiovascular patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kones, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Residual risk, the ongoing appreciable risk of major cardiovascular events (MCVE) in statin-treated patients who have achieved evidence-based lipid goals, remains a concern among cardiologists. Factors that contribute to this continuing risk are atherogenic non-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and atherogenic processes unrelated to LDL cholesterol, including other risk factors, the inherent properties of statin drugs, and patient characteristics, ie, genetics and behaviors. In addition, providers, health care systems, the community, public policies, and the environment play a role. Major statin studies suggest an average 28% reduction in LDL cholesterol and a 31% reduction in relative risk, leaving a residual risk of about 69%. Incomplete reductions in risk, and failure to improve conditions that create risk, may result in ongoing progression of atherosclerosis, with new and recurring lesions in original and distant culprit sites, remodeling, arrhythmias, rehospitalizations, invasive procedures, and terminal disability. As a result, identification of additional agents to reduce residual risk, particularly administered together with statin drugs, has been an ongoing quest. The current model of atherosclerosis involves many steps during which disease may progress independently of guideline-defined elevations in LDL cholesterol. Differences in genetic responsiveness to statin therapy, differences in ability of the endothelium to regenerate and repair, and differences in susceptibility to nonlipid risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, hypertension, and molecular changes associated with obesity and diabetes, may all create residual risk. A large number of inflammatory and metabolic processes may also provide eventual therapeutic targets to lower residual risk. Classically, epidemiologic and other evidence suggested that raising high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol would be cardioprotective. When LDL cholesterol is aggressively lowered to targets, low HDL cholesterol levels are still inversely related to MCVE. The efflux capacity, or ability to relocate cholesterol out of macrophages, is believed to be a major antiatherogenic mechanism responsible for reduction in MCVE mediated in part by healthy HDL. HDL cholesterol is a complex molecule with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, antiplatelet, and vasodilatory properties, among which is protection of LDL from oxidation. HDL-associated paraoxonase-1 has a major effect on endothelial function. Further, HDL promotes endothelial repair and progenitor cell health, and supports production of nitric oxide. HDL from patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and autoimmune disease may fail to protect or even become proinflammatory or pro-oxidant. Mendelian randomization and other clinical studies in which raising HDL cholesterol has not been beneficial suggest that high plasma levels do not necessarily reduce cardiovascular risk. These data, coupled with extensive preclinical information about the functional heterogeneity of HDL, challenge the "HDL hypothesis", ie, raising HDL cholesterol per se will reduce MCVE. After the equivocal AIM-HIGH (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome With Low HDL/High Triglycerides: Impact on Global Health Outcomes) study and withdrawal of two major cholesteryl ester transfer protein compounds, one for off-target adverse effects and the other for lack of efficacy, development continues for two other agents, ie, anacetrapib and evacetrapib, both of which lower LDL cholesterol substantially. The negative but controversial HPS2-THRIVE (the Heart Protection Study 2-Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events) trial casts further doubt on the HDL cholesterol hypothesis. The growing impression that HDL functionality, rather than abundance, is clinically important is supported by experimental evidence highlighting the conditional pleiotropic actions of HDL. Non-HDL cholesterol reflects the cholesterol in all atherogenic particles containing apolipoprotein B, and has outperformed LDL cholest

  2. Molecular sources of residual cardiovascular risk, clinical signals, and innovative solutions: relationship with subclinical disease, undertreatment, and poor adherence: implications of new evidence upon optimizing cardiovascular patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kones, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Residual risk, the ongoing appreciable risk of major cardiovascular events (MCVE) in statin-treated patients who have achieved evidence-based lipid goals, remains a concern among cardiologists. Factors that contribute to this continuing risk are atherogenic non-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and atherogenic processes unrelated to LDL cholesterol, including other risk factors, the inherent properties of statin drugs, and patient characteristics, ie, genetics and behaviors. In addition, providers, health care systems, the community, public policies, and the environment play a role. Major statin studies suggest an average 28% reduction in LDL cholesterol and a 31% reduction in relative risk, leaving a residual risk of about 69%. Incomplete reductions in risk, and failure to improve conditions that create risk, may result in ongoing progression of atherosclerosis, with new and recurring lesions in original and distant culprit sites, remodeling, arrhythmias, rehospitalizations, invasive procedures, and terminal disability. As a result, identification of additional agents to reduce residual risk, particularly administered together with statin drugs, has been an ongoing quest. The current model of atherosclerosis involves many steps during which disease may progress independently of guideline-defined elevations in LDL cholesterol. Differences in genetic responsiveness to statin therapy, differences in ability of the endothelium to regenerate and repair, and differences in susceptibility to nonlipid risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, hypertension, and molecular changes associated with obesity and diabetes, may all create residual risk. A large number of inflammatory and metabolic processes may also provide eventual therapeutic targets to lower residual risk. Classically, epidemiologic and other evidence suggested that raising high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol would be cardioprotective. When LDL cholesterol is aggressively lowered to targets, low HDL cholesterol levels are still inversely related to MCVE. The efflux capacity, or ability to relocate cholesterol out of macrophages, is believed to be a major antiatherogenic mechanism responsible for reduction in MCVE mediated in part by healthy HDL. HDL cholesterol is a complex molecule with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, antiplatelet, and vasodilatory properties, among which is protection of LDL from oxidation. HDL-associated paraoxonase-1 has a major effect on endothelial function. Further, HDL promotes endothelial repair and progenitor cell health, and supports production of nitric oxide. HDL from patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and autoimmune disease may fail to protect or even become proinflammatory or pro-oxidant. Mendelian randomization and other clinical studies in which raising HDL cholesterol has not been beneficial suggest that high plasma levels do not necessarily reduce cardiovascular risk. These data, coupled with extensive preclinical information about the functional heterogeneity of HDL, challenge the “HDL hypothesis”, ie, raising HDL cholesterol per se will reduce MCVE. After the equivocal AIM-HIGH (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome With Low HDL/High Triglycerides: Impact on Global Health Outcomes) study and withdrawal of two major cholesteryl ester transfer protein compounds, one for off-target adverse effects and the other for lack of efficacy, development continues for two other agents, ie, anacetrapib and evacetrapib, both of which lower LDL cholesterol substantially. The negative but controversial HPS2-THRIVE (the Heart Protection Study 2-Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events) trial casts further doubt on the HDL cholesterol hypothesis. The growing impression that HDL functionality, rather than abundance, is clinically important is supported by experimental evidence highlighting the conditional pleiotropic actions of HDL. Non-HDL cholesterol reflects the cholesterol in all atherogenic particles containing apolipoprotein B, and has outperformed LDL cho

  3. Pretransplant cardiovascular evaluation and posttransplant cardiovascular risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James B Young; Hans-Hellmut Neumayer; Robert D Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Modern immunosuppression has expanded access to kidney transplantation by limiting the risk of rejection. However, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the principal cause of death with a functioning graft, threatening the long-term survival of transplant recipients. The article reviews the leading risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity both before and after kidney transplantation. Evidence linking poor renal function to CVD is discussed.

  4. Residual Antibiotics in Decontaminated Human Cardiovascular Tissues Intended for Transplantation and Risk of Falsely Negative Microbiological Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Gatto, Claudio; Manara, Sabrina; Dainese, Luca; Polvani, Gianluca; Tóthová, Jana D'Amato

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the presence of antibiotics in cryopreserved cardiovascular tissues and cryopreservation media, after tissue decontamination with antibiotic cocktails, and the impact of antibiotic residues on standard tissue bank microbiological analyses. Sixteen cardiovascular tissues were decontaminated with bank-prepared cocktails and cryopreserved by two different tissue banks according to their standard operating procedures. Before and after decontamination, samples underwent microbiological analysis by standard tissue bank methods. Cryopreserved samples were tested again with and without the removal of antibiotic residues using a RESEP tube, after thawing. Presence of antibiotics in tissue homogenates and processing liquids was determined by a modified agar diffusion test. All cryopreserved tissue homogenates and cryopreservation media induced important inhibition zones on both Staphylococcus aureus- and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-seeded plates, immediately after thawing and at the end of the sterility test. The RESEP tube treatment markedly reduced or totally eliminated the antimicrobial activity of tested tissues and media. Based on standard tissue bank analysis, 50% of tissues were found positive for bacteria and/or fungi, before decontamination and 2 out of 16 tested samples (13%) still contained microorganisms after decontamination. After thawing, none of the 16 cryopreserved samples resulted positive with direct inoculum method. When the same samples were tested after removal of antibiotic residues, 8 out of 16 (50%) were contaminated. Antibiotic residues present in tissue allografts and processing liquids after decontamination may mask microbial contamination during microbiological analysis performed with standard tissue bank methods, thus resulting in false negatives. PMID:25397402

  5. Residual antibiotics in decontaminated human cardiovascular tissues intended for transplantation and risk of falsely negative microbiological analyses.

    PubMed

    Buzzi, Marina; Guarino, Anna; Gatto, Claudio; Manara, Sabrina; Dainese, Luca; Polvani, Gianluca; Tóthová, Jana D'Amato

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the presence of antibiotics in cryopreserved cardiovascular tissues and cryopreservation media, after tissue decontamination with antibiotic cocktails, and the impact of antibiotic residues on standard tissue bank microbiological analyses. Sixteen cardiovascular tissues were decontaminated with bank-prepared cocktails and cryopreserved by two different tissue banks according to their standard operating procedures. Before and after decontamination, samples underwent microbiological analysis by standard tissue bank methods. Cryopreserved samples were tested again with and without the removal of antibiotic residues using a RESEP tube, after thawing. Presence of antibiotics in tissue homogenates and processing liquids was determined by a modified agar diffusion test. All cryopreserved tissue homogenates and cryopreservation media induced important inhibition zones on both Staphylococcus aureus- and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-seeded plates, immediately after thawing and at the end of the sterility test. The RESEP tube treatment markedly reduced or totally eliminated the antimicrobial activity of tested tissues and media. Based on standard tissue bank analysis, 50% of tissues were found positive for bacteria and/or fungi, before decontamination and 2 out of 16 tested samples (13%) still contained microorganisms after decontamination. After thawing, none of the 16 cryopreserved samples resulted positive with direct inoculum method. When the same samples were tested after removal of antibiotic residues, 8 out of 16 (50%) were contaminated. Antibiotic residues present in tissue allografts and processing liquids after decontamination may mask microbial contamination during microbiological analysis performed with standard tissue bank methods, thus resulting in false negatives. PMID:25397402

  6. Cardiovascular risk factors in centenarians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Galioto; Ligia J. Dominguez; Antonella Pineo; Anna Ferlisi; Ernesto Putignano; Mario Belvedere; Giuseppe Costanza; Mario Barbagallo

    Several studies have shown that centenarians have better cardiovascular risk profiles compared to younger old people. Some reports have revealed that cardiovascular diseases (i.e. hypertension, diabetes, angina and\\/or myocardial infarction) are less common in cente- narians respect to 70 and 80 years old persons. In order to explain this evidence, there is a growing number of hypothesis that consider a

  7. Testosterone and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Tirabassi, Giacomo; Gioia, Angelo; Giovannini, Lara; Boscaro, Marco; Corona, Giovanni; Carpi, Angelo; Maggi, Mario; Balercia, Giancarlo

    2013-04-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) disease is one of the most common causes of death in the western populations and, nowadays, its incidence is increasing even in the developing countries; although CV disease affects both sexes, it is more frequent in males in whom it shortens the average life expectancy. In this regard, this difference has been wrongly attributed for many years to the negative effects of testosterone (T); however, nowadays, a large amount of evidence suggests that this hormone may have protective effects on the CV system and that, indeed, the low levels of T could be associated with an increased CV risk and with an augmentation of morbidity and mortality in males. Such an aspect gains great relevance in light of the consideration that T decrease, besides occurring as a consequence of rare pathological conditions, can often take place with natural aging, causing a state of "male menopause", also called late-onset hypogonadism. In this review, we aimed to summarize the present state of the art concerning the association between T deficit and CV disease by analyzing the protective role of T on CV system and the relationship of this hormonal lack with metabolic syndrome, CV morbidity and mortality, and with the CV complications, such as ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke, that frequently occur in T deficiency. PMID:23475207

  8. [Homocysteine and cardiovascular risk].

    PubMed

    Lutteri, L; Chapelle, J P; Gielen, J

    1999-06-01

    Homocystinuria is an uncommon genetic disease characterized by a marked increase of serum homocysteine (HCY), an intermediate of methionine metabolism. In patients with homocystinuria, hyperhomocysteinemia promotes the development of atherosclerotic lesions and is responsible for premature coronary artery disease. Recently, several studies have also demonstrated that moderate hyperhomocysteinemia--not necessarily linked to an inborn metabolic defect--may also be considered as an independant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The main mechanisms of HCY atherogenic action are thought to be LDL oxydation, inhibition of vascular endothelium growth combined with stimulation of smooth muscular cells proliferation, and interference with the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. Cofactors of key enzymes in HCY metabolism, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6, may be given, alone or in combination, for the treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia. Homocysteinemia can be assessed by basal plasma HCY concentration and/or by HCY levels measured after a methionine loading test. Mainly measured till now in specialized laboratories using rather complex techniques (HPLC, GCMS, amino acid analyser ...), HCY determination is today spreading widely owing to the development of automated immunoassays. PMID:10446525

  9. Managing the residual cardiovascular disease risk associated with HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in statin-treated patients: a clinical update.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Z

    2013-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a significant cause of death in Europe. In addition to patients with proven CVD, those with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at a particularly high-risk of CVD and associated mortality. Treatment for dyslipidaemia, a principal risk factor for CVD, remains a healthcare priority; evidence supports the reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as the primary objective of dyslipidaemia management. While statins are the treatment of choice for lowering LDL-C in the majority of patients, including those with T2D, many patients retain a high CVD risk despite achieving the recommended LDL-C targets with statins. This 'residual risk' is mainly due to elevated triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Following statin therapy optimisation additional pharmacotherapy should be considered as part of a multifaceted approach to risk reduction. Fibrates (especially fenofibrate) are the principal agents recommended for add-on therapy to treat elevated TG or low HDL-C levels. Currently, the strongest evidence of benefit is for the addition of fenofibrate to statin treatment in high-risk patients with T2D and dyslipidaemia. An alternative approach is the addition of agents to reduce LDL-C beyond the levels attainable with statin monotherapy. Here, addition of fibrates and niacin to statin therapy is discussed, and novel approaches being developed for HDL-C and TG management, including cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, Apo A-1 analogues, mipomersen, lomitapide and monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9, are reviewed. PMID:23932901

  10. Global risk of cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Poulter

    2003-01-01

    UK death rates from coronary heart disease are among the highest in the world. This is because the UK has high levels of standard risk factors and a low level of intervention on those risk factors. The most important modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are dyslipidaemia (particularly high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol), smoking, hypertension, glucose intolerance, and central obesity.

  11. Cardiovascular Risk in the Cambodian Community

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    .....................................................................................13 ii. Factors Associated With Cardiovascular Disease............................................13Cardiovascular Risk in the Cambodian Community Formative Research from Lowell, Massachusetts U ...........................................................14 v. Perceptions of Heart Disease

  12. Obesity, Inflammation, and Cardiovascular Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Mathieu; I Lemieux; J-P Després

    2010-01-01

    Obesity, a highly prevalent condition, is heterogeneous with regard to its impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Epidemiological observations and metabolic investigations have consistently demonstrated that the accumulation of excess visceral fat is related to an increased risk of CVD as well as several metabolic and inflammatory perturbations. In the past decade, data from several studies have served to emphasize

  13. Sirtuins, aging, and cardiovascular risks.

    PubMed

    Favero, Gaia; Franceschetti, Lorenzo; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Rezzani, Rita

    2015-08-01

    The sirtuins comprise a highly conserved family proteins present in virtually all species from bacteria to mammals. Sirtuins are members of the highly conserved class III histone deacetylases, and seven sirtuin genes (sirtuins 1-7) have been identified and characterized in mammals. Sirtuin activity is linked to metabolic control, apoptosis, cell survival, development, inflammation, and healthy aging. In this review, we summarize and discuss the potential mutual relations between each sirtuin and cardiovascular health and the impact of sirtuins on oxidative stress and so age-related cardiovascular disorders, underlining the possibility that sirtuins will be novel targets to contrast cardiovascular risks induced by aging. PMID:26099749

  14. Thinking beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: strategies to further reduce cardiovascular risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh K Sharma; Vibhuti N Singh; Hanumanth K Reddy

    Several large statin trials and meta-analyses have demonstrated a reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Some trials have also highlighted the significance of residual cardiovascular risk after treatment of LDL-C to target levels. This reflects the complex nature of residual cardiovascular risk. This residual risk is partially due to low HDL-C and high triglycerides (TG)

  15. Sleep apnea and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Floras, John S

    2014-01-01

    Sleep apnea is evident in approximately 10% of adults in the general population, but in certain cardiovascular diseases, and in particular those characterized by sodium and water retention, its prevalence can exceed 50%. Although sleep apnea is not as yet integrated into formal cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms, there is increasing awareness of its importance in the causation or promotion of hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial arrhythmias, and stroke, and thus, not surprisingly, as a predictor of premature cardiovascular death. Sleep apnea manifests as two principal phenotypes, both characterized by respiratory instability: obstructive (OSA), which arises when sleep-related withdrawal of respiratory drive to the upper airway dilator muscles is superimposed upon a narrow and highly compliant airway predisposed to collapse, and central (CSA), which occurs when the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide falls below the apnea threshold, resulting in withdrawal of central drive to respiratory muscles. The present objectives are to: (1) review the epidemiology and patho-physiology of OSA and CSA, with particular emphasis on the role of renal sodium retention in initiating and promoting these processes, and on population studies that reveal the long-term consequences of untreated OSA and CSA; (2) illustrate mechanical, autonomic, chemical, and inflammatory mechanisms by which OSA and CSA can increase cardiovascular risk and event rates by initiating or promoting hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, and stroke; (3) highlight insights from randomized trials in which treating sleep apnea was the specific target of therapy; (4) emphasize the present lack of evidence that treating sleep apnea reduces cardiovascular risk and the current clinical equipoise concerning treatment of asymptomatic patients with sleep apnea; and (5) consider clinical implications and future directions of clinical research and practice. PMID:24084492

  16. Lowering triglycerides to modify cardiovascular risk: will icosapent deliver?

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Daniel J; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clinical benefits of lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, many patients continue to experience cardiovascular events. This residual risk suggests that additional risk factors require aggressive modification to result in more effective prevention of cardiovascular disease. Hypertriglyceridemia has presented a considerable challenge with regard to understanding its role in the promotion of cardiovascular risk. Increasing evidence has established a clear causal role for elevated triglyceride levels in vascular risk. As a result, there is increasing interest in the development of specific therapeutic strategies that directly target hypertriglyceridemia. This has seen a resurgence in the use of omega-3 fatty acids for the therapeutic lowering of triglyceride levels. The role of these agents and other emerging strategies to reduce triglyceride levels in order to decrease vascular risk are reviewed. PMID:25848301

  17. Psoriasis: an opportunity to identify cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Federman, D G; Shelling, M; Prodanovich, S; Gunderson, C G; Kirsner, R S

    2009-01-01

    Psoriasis is highly prevalent and is associated with skin-associated complaints as well as arthritis, depression and a lower quality of life. Recently, it has been demonstrated that not only do patients with psoriasis have an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, but an increased risk of myocardial infarction, and for those with severe disease, increased mortality. Dermatologists and other health professionals need to be cognizant of this association and ensure that cardiovascular risk factors are evaluated and treated appropriately in those patients with psoriasis. We review the association between psoriasis, atherosclerosis and inflammation, as well as some treatable cardiovascular risk factors that may prove beneficial in reducing a patient's cardiovascular risk. PMID:19016698

  18. Lipoprotein Metabolism Indicators Improve Cardiovascular Risk Prediction

    PubMed Central

    van Schalkwijk, Daniël B.; de Graaf, Albert A.; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; Parnell, Laurence D.; van der Werff-van der Vat, Bianca J. C.; van Ommen, Ben; van der Greef, Jan; Ordovás, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to investigate whether lipoprotein metabolism indicators can improve cardiovascular risk prediction and therapy management. Methods and Results We calculated lipoprotein metabolism indicators for 1981 subjects (145 cases, 1836 controls) from the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort in which NMR lipoprotein profiles were measured. We applied a statistical learning algorithm using a support vector machine to select conventional risk factors and lipoprotein metabolism indicators that contributed to predicting risk for general cardiovascular disease. Risk prediction was quantified by the change in the Area-Under-the-ROC-Curve (?AUC) and by risk reclassification (Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI) and Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI)). Two VLDL lipoprotein metabolism indicators (VLDLE and VLDLH) improved cardiovascular risk prediction. We added these indicators to a multivariate model with the best performing conventional risk markers. Our method significantly improved both CVD prediction and risk reclassification. Conclusions Two calculated VLDL metabolism indicators significantly improved cardiovascular risk prediction. These indicators may help to reduce prescription of unnecessary cholesterol-lowering medication, reducing costs and possible side-effects. For clinical application, further validation is required. PMID:24667559

  19. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to inves...

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors and disease in women.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sharon K

    2015-05-01

    Coronary artery disease and stroke predominantly affect older women as opposed to younger women, but the risk factors that contribute to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk often start in young women. Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with migraine, and who use oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have short-term increases in thrombotic complications that can result in coronary events or stroke. Attention should be focused on risk reduction in women of all ages. Screening for and discussing diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking, migraine, PCOS, and pregnancy complication history and discussing the pros and cons of hormone and statin medications are part of reducing cardiovascular risk for women. PMID:25841599

  1. Risk factors and cardiovascular disease in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Altan Onat

    2001-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors as well as morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease among Turkish adults are herein reviewed. Lipids and lipoproteins are in focus, but other relevant risk factors are also discussed. Turks have distinctively low levels of total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, associated with high levels of hepatic lipase and fasting triglycerides. In addition, physical inactivity is common

  2. Blood Pressure Targets and Absolute Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Odutayo, Ayodele; Rahimi, Kazem; Hsiao, Allan J; Emdin, Connor A

    2015-08-01

    In the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline on hypertension, the threshold for the initiation of blood pressure-lowering treatment for elderly adults (?60 years) without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was raised from 140/90 mm Hg to 150/90 mm Hg. However, the committee was not unanimous in this decision, particularly because a large proportion of adults ?60 years may be at high cardiovascular risk. On the basis of Eighth Joint National Committee guideline, we sought to determine the absolute 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease among these adults through analyzing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2012). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of adults who were at ?20% predicted absolute cardiovascular risk and above goals for the Seventh Joint National Committee guideline but reclassified as at target under the Eighth Joint National Committee guideline (reclassified). The Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score was used. From 2005 to 2012, the surveys included 12 963 adults aged 30 to 74 years with blood pressure measurements, of which 914 were reclassified based on the guideline. Among individuals reclassified as not in need of additional treatment, the proportion of adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus at ?20% absolute risk was 44.8%. This corresponds to 0.8 million adults. The proportion at high cardiovascular risk remained sizable among adults who were not receiving blood pressure-lowering treatment. Taken together, a sizable proportion of reclassified adults 60 to 74 years without chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus was at ?20% absolute cardiovascular risk. PMID:26056340

  3. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Organ Transplantation

    E-print Network

    Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Organ Transplantation Donald M. Lloyd-Jones, MD ScM FACC FAHA-stage liver disease and organ transplantation. They are working at a critical interface of acute peri Anton I. Skaro, MD, PhD Lisa B. VanWagner, MD, MS Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a life

  4. Cardiovascular Health Score and the Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Aijun; Chen, Shuohua; Wu, Yuntao; Cai, Jun; Chen, Youren; Yang, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the American Heart Association proposed a definition of ideal health behaviors and health factors to measure cardiovascular health, from which Huffman et al. created the Cardiovascular Health Score (CVH score) to estimate these metrics on an individual level. We performed a prospective cohort study among employees of the Kailuan Group Corporation, who underwent a physical examination in 2006–2007 to investigate the relationship between the CVH score and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A total of 91,598 individuals free of stroke and myocardial infarction at baseline were included in the final analysis. We calculated baseline CVH score for each metric (poor=0, intermediate=1, ideal=2 points; range=0–14 points for all seven metrics) and categorized them into three groups: inadequate (0–4 points), average (5–9 points), and optimum (10–14 points). Incidence of total number of CVD events, myocardial infarction, and stroke was analyzed among these three groups and each incremental point on the CVH score. During an average 6.81 years of follow-up, there were 3276 CVD events, 2579 strokes and 747 myocardial infarction occurred. After adjusting for several confounding factors, each better health category of the CVH score was associated with reduced odds of 47% for all CVD events, and each point higher on the CVH score was associated with reduced odds of 18%. Similar trends were detected in the risks for myocardial infarction and stroke. A higher CVH score is therefore a protective factor for CVD, myocardial infarction, and stroke. PMID:26154254

  5. Cardiovascular Risk in Women With PCOS

    PubMed Central

    Scicchitano, Pietro; Dentamaro, Ilaria; Carbonara, Rosa; Bulzis, Gabriella; Dachille, Annamaria; Caputo, Paola; Riccardi, Roberta; Locorotondo, Manuela; Mandurino, Cosimo; Matteo Ciccone, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), or Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is a common endocrine disorder defined by two of the three following features: i) oligoovulation or anovulation, ii) clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism, or iii) polycystic ovaries, once the related endocrinological and gynaecological disorders have been excluded. PCOS does not exclusively involve the reproductive apparatus , it has a complex number of systemic relevancy symptoms. It leads to Metabolic Syndrome, with severe consequences on the cardiovascular apparatus. Many clinical studies have underlined the connection between PCOS and the cardiovascular risk profile of such female patients, due to a lipid/glucose altered metabolism, hypertension, systemic inflammatory condition (assessable by markers such as VES, TNF-alfa, citokines and C-reactive protein (hsPCR) levels), and vascular injuries. Considering the early onset of the disease, PCOS could be considered as a real cardiovascular risk factor which affects the quality of life seriously. The current review aimed to point out the main connections between PCOS and cardiovascular risk factors according to the latest findings coming from literature data analysis, and try to depict the great influences that such a common disease can have on the patients’ health integrity. PMID:23843832

  6. Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Locatelli; Pietro Pozzoni; Francesca Tentori; Lucia Del Vecchio

    2003-01-01

    Background. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are highly prone to cardiovascular disease for a number of reasons. At the time of starting renal replacement treatment, their cardiovascular condition is already severely compromised, suggesting that cardiovascular risk factors begin to operate very early in the progression of CKD. Moreover, those patients reaching end-stage renal disease without cardiovascular abnormalities have a high

  7. p-Cresol and Cardiovascular Risk in Mild-to-Moderate Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meijers, Björn K.I.; Claes, Kathleen; Bammens, Bert; de Loor, Henriette; Viaene, Liesbeth; Verbeke, Kristin; Kuypers, Dirk; Vanrenterghem, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease. Traditional risk factors are insufficient to explain the high cardiovascular disease prevalence. Free p-cresol serum concentrations, mainly circulating as its derivative p-cresyl sulfate, are associated with cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients. It is not known if p-cresol is associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease not yet on dialysis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: In a prospective observational study in 499 patients with mild-to-moderate kidney disease, we examined the multivariate association between p-cresol free serum concentrations and cardiovascular events. Results: After a mean follow-up of 33 mo, 62 patients reached the primary end point of fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular events. Higher baseline concentrations of free p-cresol were directly associated with cardiovascular events (univariate hazard ratio [HR] 1.79, P < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, p-cresol remained a predictor of cardiovascular events, independent of GFR and independent of Framingham risk factors (full model, HR 1.39, P = 0.04). Conclusions: These findings suggest that p-cresol measurements may help to predict cardiovascular disease risk in renal patients over a wide range of residual renal function, beyond traditional markers of glomerular filtration. Whether p-cresol is a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in CKD patients remains to be proven. PMID:20430946

  8. COX2 Inhibitors And Cardiovascular Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Salzberg; Matthew R. Weir

    The development of drugs that selectively inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) demonstrates translational research from bench\\u000a to bedside based on underlying knowledge of micro-cellular structure and function. However, theoretical concerns about potentially\\u000a pro-thrombotic effects of selective COX-2 inhibitors coupled with observations of increased cardiovascular risk have produced\\u000a significant consternation and lead to the withdrawal of two of these agents from the market.

  9. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  10. [Burnout syndrome: a "true" cardiovascular risk factor].

    PubMed

    Cursoux, Pauline; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Marchetti, Hélène; Chaumet, Guillaume; Delliaux, Stéphane

    2012-11-01

    The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment in individuals professionally involved with others. The burnout syndrome is poorly recognized, particularly in France, as a distinct nosology from adaptation troubles, stress, depression, or anxiety. Several tools quantifying burnout and emotional exhaustion exist, the most spread is the questionnaire called Maslach Burnout Inventory. The burnout syndrome alters cardiovascular function and its neuroregulation by autonomic nervous system and is associated with: increased sympathetic tone to heart and vessels after mental stress, lowered physiological post-stress vagal rebound to heart, and lowered arterial baroreflex sensitivity. Job strain as burnout syndrome seems to be a real independent cardiovascular risk factor. Oppositely, training to manage emotions could increase vagal tone to heart and should be cardio-protective. PMID:22425226

  11. A perspective on telmisartan and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Giles, Thomas D

    2007-01-01

    The angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are well established as safe and effective in the treatment of arterial hypertension. Telmisartan is an ARB with potent blood-pressure lowering effects. It has a long terminal half-life of about 24 hours (the longest of any of the ARBs), which enables it to sustain blood pressure reductions in the early morning hours, after the previous morning dosing. Unlike the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, the ARBs have not been shown to reduce mortality and morbidity in high-risk patients with coronary disease, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, or diabetes with cardiovascular risk factors without evidence of heart failure or low ejection fraction. Two studies, the ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) and the Telmisartan Randomized AssessmeNt Study in ACE-I INtolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND) trial, are examining the benefits of ARBs alone and in combination with ACE inhibitors in high-risk patients. PMID:17938615

  12. Predicting cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes: the heterogeneity challenges.

    PubMed

    Gore, M Odette; McGuire, Darren K; Lingvay, Ildiko; Rosenstock, Julio

    2015-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions around the world, and the increase in cardiovascular risk attributable to diabetes estimated to range from 2- to 4-fold poses grave public health concern. Though in some contexts type 2 diabetes has been equated with coronary heart disease equivalent risk, there is considerable evidence that incremental cardiovascular risk does not uniformly affect all people with type 2 diabetes. This heterogeneity in cardiovascular risk is multifactorial and only partially understood but is a key consideration for our understanding of the nexus of diabetes and cardiovascular disease and for the development of optimal and individualized cardiovascular risk reduction strategies. This review provides a brief synopsis of the concept of cardiovascular risk heterogeneity in diabetes, including epidemiologic evidence, discussion of established and potential determinants of heterogeneity, and clinical, research, and regulatory implications. PMID:26031671

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors in the antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Felipe Freire; Levy, Roger Abramino; de Carvalho, Jozélio Freire

    2014-01-01

    A major cause of morbidity and mortality in the context of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is the occurrence of thrombotic events. Besides the pathogenic roles of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), other risk factors and medical conditions, which are conditions for traditional risk of an individual without the APS, can coexist in this patient, raising their risk of developing thrombosis. Therefore, the clinical and laboratory investigation of comorbidities known to increase cardiovascular risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is crucial for the adoption of a more complete and effective treatment. Experimental models and clinical studies show evidence of association between APS and premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis has major traditional risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle that may be implicated in vascular involvement in patients with APS. The influence of nontraditional risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lipoprotein a, and anti-oxLDL in the development of thromboembolic events in APS patients has been studied in scientific literature. Metabolic syndrome with all its components also has been recently studied in antiphospholipid syndrome and is associated with arterial events. PMID:25133195

  14. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Felipe Freire; Levy, Roger Abramino; de Carvalho, Jozélio Freire

    2014-01-01

    A major cause of morbidity and mortality in the context of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is the occurrence of thrombotic events. Besides the pathogenic roles of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), other risk factors and medical conditions, which are conditions for traditional risk of an individual without the APS, can coexist in this patient, raising their risk of developing thrombosis. Therefore, the clinical and laboratory investigation of comorbidities known to increase cardiovascular risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is crucial for the adoption of a more complete and effective treatment. Experimental models and clinical studies show evidence of association between APS and premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis has major traditional risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle that may be implicated in vascular involvement in patients with APS. The influence of nontraditional risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lipoprotein a, and anti-oxLDL in the development of thromboembolic events in APS patients has been studied in scientific literature. Metabolic syndrome with all its components also has been recently studied in antiphospholipid syndrome and is associated with arterial events. PMID:25133195

  15. [Obesity and cardiovascular risk in children].

    PubMed

    Shashaj, Blegina; Graziani, Maria Pia; Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio; Manco, Melania

    2014-12-01

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood has substantially increased worldwide in recent decades with children becoming obese at progressively younger ages. Obesity in children carries a wide range of serious complications, and contributes to an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, hypertrygliceridema, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), impaired glucose metabolism and early atherosclerotic changes not only in adulthood but since in very early pediatric age. In the ORIGIN study (Outcome Reduction with an Initial Glargine Intervention), cardiometabolic risk factors including fatty liver were already detectable in preschoolers at the onset of overweight/obesity despite short-term exposure to excess weight and fairly reduced insulin sensitivity. These facts together with the evidence that early cardiometabolic impairment reverts with lifestyle intervention in pediatric age, emphasize the need to start prevention of childhood obesity and screening of cardiometabolic co-morbities at the earliest stage with multidisciplinary strategies. PMID:25533232

  16. Evaluation of residue drum storage safety risks

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, W.V.

    1994-06-17

    A study was conducted to determine if any potential safety problems exist in the residue drum backlog at the Rocky Flats Plant. Plutonium residues stored in 55-gallon drums were packaged for short-term storage until the residues could be processed for plutonium recovery. These residues have now been determined by the Department of Energy to be waste materials, and the residues will remain in storage until plans for disposal of the material can be developed. The packaging configurations which were safe for short-term storage may not be safe for long-term storage. Interviews with Rocky Flats personnel involved with packaging the residues reveal that more than one packaging configuration was used for some of the residues. A tabulation of packaging configurations was developed based on the information obtained from the interviews. A number of potential safety problems were identified during this study, including hydrogen generation from some residues and residue packaging materials, contamination containment loss, metal residue packaging container corrosion, and pyrophoric plutonium compound formation. Risk factors were developed for evaluating the risk potential of the various residue categories, and the residues in storage at Rocky Flats were ranked by risk potential. Preliminary drum head space gas sampling studies have demonstrated the potential for formation of flammable hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in some residue drums.

  17. Incidence of cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation and cardiovascular risk scores: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of death after renal transplantation. Not only conventional CVD risk factors, but also transplant-specific risk factors can influence the development of CVD in kidney transplant recipients. The main objective of this study will be to determine the incidence of post-transplant CVD after renal transplantation and related factors. A secondary objective will be to examine the ability of standard cardiovascular risk scores (Framingham, Regicor, SCORE, and DORICA) to predict post-transplantation cardiovascular events in renal transplant recipients, and to develop a new score for predicting the risk of CVD after kidney transplantation. Methods/Design Observational prospective cohort study of all kidney transplant recipients in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain) in the period 1981-2008 (2059 transplants corresponding to 1794 patients). The variables included will be: donor and recipient characteristics, chronic kidney disease-related risk factors, pre-transplant and post-transplant cardiovascular risk factors, routine biochemistry, and immunosuppressive, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment. The events studied in the follow-up will be: patient and graft survival, acute rejection episodes and cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, invasive coronary artery therapy, cerebral vascular events, new-onset angina, congestive heart failure, rhythm disturbances and peripheral vascular disease). Four cardiovascular risk scores were calculated at the time of transplantation: the Framingham score, the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) equation, and the REGICOR (Registre Gironí del COR (Gerona Heart Registry)), and DORICA (Dyslipidemia, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Risk) functions. The cumulative incidence of cardiovascular events will be analyzed by competing risk survival methods. The clinical relevance of different variables will be calculated using the ARR (Absolute Risk Reduction), RRR (Relative Risk Reduction) and NNT (Number Needed to Treat). The ability of different cardiovascular risk scores to predict cardiovascular events will be analyzed by using the c index and the area under ROC curves. Based on the competing risks analysis, a nomogram to predict the probability of cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation will be developed. Discussion This study will make it possible to determine the post-transplant incidence of cardiovascular events in a large cohort of renal transplant recipients in Spain, to confirm the relationship between traditional and transplant-specific cardiovascular risk factors and CVD, and to develop a score to predict the risk of CVD in these patients. PMID:21639867

  18. Triglycerides and atherogenic dyslipidaemia: extending treatment beyond statins in the high-risk cardiovascular patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald F Watts; Fredrik Karpe

    2011-01-01

    Although statins significantly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), residual CVD risk remains high. This may partly be due to uncorrected atherogenic dyslipidaemia. The driving force behind atherogenic dyslipidaemia is hypertriglyceridaemia, which results from hepatic oversecretion and\\/or hypocatabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and is typical of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Persistent atherogenic dyslipidaemia in patients treated with a

  19. Inflammation enhances cardiovascular risk and mortality in hemodialysis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEF ZIMMERMANN; SILKE HERRLINGER; ANTJE PRUY; THOMAS METZGER; CHRISTOPH WANNER

    1999-01-01

    Inflammation enhances cardiovascular risk and mortality in hemodialysis patients.BackgroundAtherosclerosis, a major problem in patients on chronic hemodialysis, has been characterized as an inflammatory disease. C-reactive protein (CRP), the prototypical acute phase protein in humans, is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in the general population. We hypothesize that several of the classic, as well as nontraditional, cardiovascular risk factors may respond

  20. High Performance Lipoprotein Profiling for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment 

    E-print Network

    Larner, Craig

    2012-10-19

    With the severity of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the related mortality rate to this disease, new methods are necessary for risk assessment and treatment prior to the onset of the disease. The current paradigm in CVD risk assessment has shifted...

  1. Simple anthropometric indexes and cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GTC Ko; JCN Chan; J Woo; E Lau; VTF Yeung; C-C Chow; HPS Wai; JKY Li; W-Y So; CS Cockram; Gary TC Ko

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a major public health problem due to its associations with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Although there are sophisticated methods, such as imaging, to document total body fat and its distributions, anthropometric measurements remain important in clinical practice. We examined the relationships between cardiovascular risk factors and the three commonest anthropometric measurements for obesity, body mass index (BMI),

  2. Adaptive Patient Education Framework Featuring Personalized Cardiovascular Risk Management

    E-print Network

    Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    Adaptive Patient Education Framework Featuring Personalized Cardiovascular Risk Management Interventions Selena Davis and Syed Sibte Raza Abidi Health Informatics Laboratory, Faculty of Computer Science of cardiovascular risk. We present a web-based adaptive hypermedia system to create and deliver the personalized

  3. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Homeless Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony C. Lee; John G. Hanlon; Jessica Ben-David; Gillian L. Booth; Warren J. Cantor; Philip W. Connelly; Stephen W. Hwang

    2010-01-01

    Background—Homeless people represent an extremely disadvantaged group in North America. Among older homeless men, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death. The objective of this study was to examine cardiovascular risk factors in a representative sample of homeless adults and identify opportunities for improved risk factor modification. Methods and Results—Homeless persons were randomly selected at shelters for single

  4. Reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in maintenance dialysis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh; Gladys Block; Michael H. Humphreys; Joel D. Kopple

    2003-01-01

    Reverse epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in maintenance dialysis patients. Conventional risk factors of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the general population such as body mass, serum cholesterol, and blood pressure are also found to relate to outcome in maintenance dialysis patients, but often in an opposite direction. Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension appear to be protective features that are associated

  5. Comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriasis*

    PubMed Central

    Baeta, Isabela Guimarães Ribeiro; Bittencourt, Flávia Vasques; Gontijo, Bernardo; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease and its pathogenesis involves an interaction between genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. Recent studies have suggested that the chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis may predispose to an association with other inflammatory diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVES To describe the demographic, clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of a sample of psoriasis patients; to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities in this group of patients; and to identify the cardiovascular risk profile using the Framingham risk score. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study involving the assessment of 190 patients. Participants underwent history and physical examination. They also completed a specific questionnaire about epidemiological data, past medical history, and comorbidities. The cardiovascular risk profile was calculated using the Framingham risk score. RESULTS Patients' mean age was 51.5 ± 14 years, and the predominant clinical presentation was plaque psoriasis (78.4%). We found an increased prevalence of systemic hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Increased waist circumference was also found in addition to a considerable prevalence of depression, smoking, and regular alcohol intake. Patients' cardiovascular risk was high according to the Framingham risk score, and 47.2% of patients had moderate or high risk of fatal and non-fatal coronary events in 10 years. CONCLUSIONS Patients had high prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities, and high cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham risk score. Further epidemiological studies are needed in Brazil for validation of our results. PMID:25184912

  6. Lifestyle Decreases Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Slaví?ek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E.; Medová, Eva; Kone?ná, Jana; Žižka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Summary The morbidity and mortality of the cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1,349 volunteers, 320 men, 1,029 woman, mean age 51±14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999–2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1,223 measured persons from 71.2±14.38 (SD) to 70.6±14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1±4.60 (SD) to 24.8±4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8±23.02 (SD) to 123.8±21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1,210 persons) from 79.8±12.7 (SD) to 77.5±11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86±0.95 (SD) to 4.32±0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31±1.59 (SD) to 3.88±1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  7. Maternal preeclampsia and risk for cardiovascular disease in offspring.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Garcia, Guadalupe; Contag, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    Hypertensive disease of pregnancy (HDP) has been associated with elevated lifetime cardiovascular risk, including stroke, myocardial disease, coronary artery disease, and peripheral arterial disease. These two entities share common risk factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension. This article will evaluate the current literature on the maternal and fetal cardiovascular risks posed by HDP. The landmark study by Barker et al. demonstrated increased cardiovascular risk in growth-restricted infants, which may also be associated with HDP. Research has demonstrated the effects that HDP may have on the vascular and nephron development in offspring, particularly with respect to endothelial and inflammatory markers. In order to control for confounding variables and better understand the relationship between HDP and lifetime cardiovascular risk, future research will require following blood pressure and metabolic profiles of the parturients and their offspring. PMID:25097112

  8. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2005-06-23

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  9. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AFFECT HIPPOCAMPAL MICROVASCULATURE IN EARLY AD

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Elizabeth; Wicinski, Bridget; Schmeidler, James; Haroutunian, Vahram; Hof, Patrick R.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing clinical and neuropathologic evidence suggesting that cognitive decline in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is aggravated by a synergistic relationship between AD and cerebrovascular disease associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes and hypertension. Here we used the stereologic “Space Balls” method to investigate the relationships between AD pathology and cardiovascular risk factors in postmortem human brains of patients with hypertension and diabetes in two groups – one consisting of cases with AD diagnosis and one of cases without. Hippocampal CA1 and CA3 microvasculature length density estimates were generated to characterize quantitatively the contribution of cardiovascular risk factors to the severity of neuropathologic changes. Our main finding is that the mean and variance of length density values in the AD group were significantly increased from the non-AD group, regardless of the absence or presence of a cardiovascular risk factor. An additional finding is that in the AD group without a risk factor, dementia severity correlated with amount of length density change in the CA1 field—this correlation did not exist in the AD groups with risk factors. Our findings suggest a role for cardiovascular risk factors in quantifiable change of hippocampal CA1 field microvasculature, as well as suggest a possible role of cardiovascular risk factors in altering microvasculature pathology in the presence of AD. PMID:21331351

  10. Air Pollution and Blood Markers of Cardiovascular Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Schwartz

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies have linked air pollution to tens of thousands of premature cardiovascular deaths per year. The mechanisms of such associations remain unclear. In this study we examine the association between blood markers of cardiovascular risk and air pollution in a national sample of the U.S. population. Air pollution concentrations were merged to subjects in the Third National Health and

  11. Opening a New Lipid “Apo-thecary”: Incorporating Apolipoproteins as Potential Risk Factors and Treatment Targets to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Terry A.

    2011-01-01

    Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) represent the cornerstone of drug therapy to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and cardiovascular risk. However, even optimal statin management of LDL cholesterol leaves many patients with residual cardiovascular risk, in part because statins are more effective in reducing LDL cholesterol than apolipoprotein B (Apo B). Apo B may be a better marker of atherogenic risk than LDL cholesterol because Apo B measures the total number of all atherogenic particles (total atherosclerotic burden), including LDL, very low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein, remnant lipoproteins, and lipoprotein(a). To determine whether Apo B is a better indicator of baseline cardiovascular risk and residual risk after lipid therapy compared with LDL cholesterol, a MEDLINE search of the literature published in English from January 1, 1975, through December 1, 2010, was conducted. On the basis of data from most population studies, elevated Apo B was more strongly associated with incident coronary heart disease than similarly elevated LDL cholesterol. Apo B was also a superior benchmark (vs LDL cholesterol) of statins' cardioprotective efficacy in both primary-prevention and secondary-prevention trials. To minimize cardiovascular risk among persons with hypercholesterolemia or dyslipidemia, the best available evidence suggests that intensive therapy with statins should be initiated to achieve the lowest possible Apo B level (with adequate drug toleration) and then other therapies (eg, niacin, bile acid resins, ezetimibe) added to potentiate these Apo B–lowering effects. In future consensus lipid-lowering treatment guidelines, Apo B should be considered as an index of residual risk, a potential parameter of treatment efficacy, and a treatment target to minimize risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:21803958

  12. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Young Adults: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M

    2015-01-01

    This extensive literature review focuses on cardiovascular risk factors in young adults, with an emphasis on hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Multiple studies have confirmed that hyperlipidemia and hypertension during young adulthood are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in later decades, and CHD is one type of cardiovascular disease. The primary risk factors identified in the literature that are predictive of CHD are age; gender; race/ethnicity; smoking status; high blood pressure; and elevated lipid levels, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The current guidelines are insufficient to address screening and treatment in young adults with cardiovascular risk factors. Future studies are warranted to confirm the extent of cardiovascular risks in young adults, which can then be targeted to this population for prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:24743652

  13. Generating Personalised Cardiovascular Risk Management Educational Interventions Linking

    E-print Network

    Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    72 Generating Personalised Cardiovascular Risk Management Educational Interventions Linking SCORE and Behaviour Change Selena Davis, Syed Abidi, Jafna Cox* Health Informatics Laboratory, Faculty of Computer Science, and *Departments of Medicine and of Community Health and Epidemiology, QEII Health Sciences

  14. Association between simple anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SC Ho; YM Chen; JLF Woo; SSF Leung; TH Lam; ED Janus

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify which of the three simple anthropometric indices, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC), best predicts cardiovascular risk factors, and to determine if the association between the anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors varies with gender.DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional population-based survey was carried out during 1995–1996. One thousand and ten Chinese people

  15. Imaging of cardiovascular risk in patients with Turner's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marin, A; Weir-McCall, J R; Webb, D J; van Beek, E J R; Mirsadraee, S

    2015-08-01

    Turner's syndrome is a disorder defined by an absent or structurally abnormal second X chromosome and affects around 1 in 2000 newborn females. The standardised mortality ratio in Turner's syndrome is around three-times higher than in the general female population, mainly as a result of cardiovascular disorders. Most striking is the early age at which Turner's syndrome patients develop the life-threatening complications of cardiovascular disorders compared to the general population. The cardiovascular risk stratification in Turner's syndrome is challenging and imaging is not systematically used. The aim of this article is to review cardiovascular risks in this group of patients and discuss a systematic imaging approach for early identification of cardiovascular disorders in these patients. PMID:25917542

  16. New Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Their Use for an Accurate Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    TAUTU, Oana-Florentina; DARABONT, Roxana; ONCIUL, Sebastian; DEACONU, Alexandru; COMANESCU, Ioana; ANDREI, Radu Dan; DRAGOESCU, Bogdan; CINTEZA, Mircea; DOROBANTU, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the predictive value of new cardiovascular (CV) risk factors for CV risk assessment in the adult Romanian hypertensive (HT) population. Methods: Hypertensive adults aged between 40-65 years of age, identified in national representative SEPHAR II survey were evaluated by anthropometric, BP and arterial stiffness measurements: aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao), aortic augmentation index (AIXao), revers time (RT) and central systolic blood pressure (SBPao), 12 lead ECGs and laboratory workup. Values above the 4th quartile of mean SBP' standard deviation (s.d.) defined increased BP variability. Log(TG/HDL-cholesterol) defined atherogenic index of plasma (AIP). Serum uric acid levels above 5.70 mg/dl for women and 7.0 mg/dl for males defined hyperuricemia (HUA). CV risk was assessed based on SCORE chart for high CV risk countries. Binary logistic regression using a stepwise likelihood ratio method (adjustments for major confounders and colliniarity analysis) was used in order to validate predictors of high and very high CV risk class. Results: The mean SBP value of the study group was 148.46±19.61 mmHg. Over forty percent of hypertensives had a high and very high CV risk. Predictors of high/very high CV risk category validated by regression analysis were: increased visit-to-visit BP variability (OR: 2.49; 95%CI: 1.67-3.73), PWVao (OR: 1.12; 95%CI: 1.02-1.22), RT (OR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.93-0.98), SBPao (OR: 1.01; 95%CI: 1.01-1.03) and AIP (OR: 7.08; 95%CI: 3.91-12.82). Conclusion: The results of our study suggests that the new CV risk factors such as increased BP variability, arterial stiffness indices and AIP are useful tools for a more accurate identification of hypertensives patients at high and very high CV risk. PMID:25705267

  17. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR COKE OVENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-m...

  18. High-density lipoprotein levels and risk of cardiovascular events: a review.

    PubMed

    Mureddu, Gian Francesco; Brandimarte, Filippo; De Luca, Leonardo

    2012-09-01

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a strong and independent predictor of major cardiovascular events in a wide range of patients. The relationship between HDL-C cholesterol and cardiovascular risk appears to be linear, continuous, negative and independent of other risk factors such as blood pressure, smoking and BMI. In addition, the inverse relationship between HDL-C and cardiovascular events does not depend on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, so a substantial residual cardiovascular risk is maintained also in individuals with LDL-C levels below the target recommended by scientific guidelines. Furthermore, a strong relationship among HDL-C levels, progression of atherosclerosis and risk of cardiovascular diseases has been also demonstrated. Treatments that increase HDL-C levels have been shown to be effective in reducing incidence of cardiovascular diseases both in primary and secondary prevention settings. However, proof that increasing HDL-C levels by pharmacological treatment is able to confer a reduction in major cardiovascular outcomes independent of changes in LDL-C or triglycerides levels is not completely defined. Among currently available compounds, statins do not seems to have a sufficient effect on HDL-C profile. Studies on fibrates have shown inconclusive results. Although niacin has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of major cardiovascular events paralleling the regression of atherosclerosis, significant side-effects still limit its use. The potential benefit of cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibition is still under investigation. The combination therapy of fibrates with statins is also controversial. Thus, despite the potentially favorable effect of raising HDL-C levels, the available guidelines still do not consider HDL-C levels as a specific target for therapy. Further studies are needed to assess the role of new compounds to raise HDL-C levels or modify HDL composition and functionality. PMID:21986488

  19. Cardiovascular Risk and Statin Use in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Michael Edward; Green, Lee A.; Sen, Ananda; Kircher, Sheetal; Richardson, Caroline R.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Statins reduce the risk of mortality and coronary artery disease in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Using nationally representative data, we examined the relationships between statin use and cardiovascular risk, diagnosis of hyperlipidemia, and other risk factors. METHODS We analyzed data from the 2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationally representative survey of the US civilian noninstitutionalized population. The study sample had a total of 16,712 individuals aged 30 to 79 years. Those who reported filling at least 2 statin prescriptions were classified as statin users. We created multiple logistic regression models for statin use as the dependent variable, with cardiovascular risk factors and sociodemographic factors as independent variables. RESULTS Overall, 58.2% (95% CI, 54.6%–61.7%) of individuals with coronary artery disease and 52.0% (95% CI, 49.4%–54.6%) of individuals with diabetes aged older than 40 years were statin users. After adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and sociodemographic factors, the probability of being on a statin was significantly higher among individuals with both hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease, at 0.44 (95% CI, 0.40–0.48), or hyperlipidemia only, at 0.32 (95% CI, 0.30–0.33), than among those with coronary artery disease only, at 0.11 (95% CI, 0.07–0.15). A similar pattern was seen in people with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS In this nationally representative sample, many people at high risk for cardiovascular events, including those with coronary artery disease, diabetes, or both, were not receiving statins despite evidence that these agents reduce adverse events. This undertreatment appears to be related to placing too much emphasis on hyperlipidemia and not enough on cardiovascular risk. Recently released guidelines from the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association offer an opportunity to improve statin use by focusing on cardiovascular risk instead of lipid levels. PMID:24821892

  20. Serum FGF23 and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Relation to Mineral Metabolism and Cardiovascular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Ärnlöv, Johan; Carlsson, Axel C.; Sundström, Johan; Ingelsson, Erik; Larsson, Anders; Lind, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Circulating fibroblast growth factor-23 is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in CKD and non-CKD individuals, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study tested whether this association is independent of mineral metabolism and indices of subclinical cardiovascular pathology. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The prospective association between fibroblast growth factor-23 and major cardiovascular events (a composite of hospital-treated myocardial infarction, hospital-treated stroke, or all-cause mortality) was investigated in the community-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (n=973; mean age=70 years, 50% women) using multivariate logistic regression. Subjects were recruited between January of 2001 and June of 2004. Results During follow-up (median=5.1 years), 112 participants suffered a major cardiovascular event. In logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, and estimated GFR, higher fibroblast growth factor-23 was associated with increased risk for major cardiovascular events (odds ratio for tertiles 2 and 3 versus tertile 1=1.92, 95% confidence interval=1.19–3.09, P<0.01). After additional adjustments in the model, adding established cardiovascular risk factors, confounders of mineral metabolism (calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and 25(OH)-vitamin D), and indices of subclinical pathology (flow-mediated vasodilation, endothelial-dependent and -independent vasodilation, arterial stiffness, and atherosclerosis and left ventricular mass) attenuated this relationship, but it remained significant (odds ratio for tertiles 2 and 3 versus tertile 1=1.69, 95% confidence interval=1.01–2.82, P<0.05). Conclusions Fibroblast growth factor-23 is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in the community, even after accounting for mineral metabolism abnormalities and subclinical cardiovascular damage. Circulating fibroblast growth factor-23 may reflect novel and important aspects of cardiovascular risk yet to be unraveled. PMID:23335040

  1. Congenital Cerebral Palsy, Child Sex and Parent Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Streja, Elani; Wu, Chunsen; Uldall, Peter; Grove, Jakob; Arah, Onyebuchi; Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Objective Genes associated with cardiovascular disease may also be risk factors for congenital cerebral palsy (CP) and these associations may be modified by sex, since there is an increased risk of CP in male children. We investigated the association between CP of the child with cardiovascular disease in parents, taking sex of the child into consideration. Methods All parents of non-adopted singletons born in Denmark between 1973 and 2003 were included. Parents of a child with CP, confirmed by the Danish National CP registry, were considered exposed. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to model risk of cardiovascular outcomes for exposed parents compared to all other parents beginning at the child’s 10th birthday. Results We identified 733,730 mothers and 666,652 fathers among whom 1,592 and 1,484, respectively, had a child with CP. The mean age for mothers at end of follow up was 50±8 years. After adjustment for maternal age, parental education, child’s sex, child’s residence, child being small for gestational age and maternal hypertensive disorder during pregnancy, mothers of CP male children had an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.16-2.00), attributable mostly to an increased incidence of hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. After additional adjustment for preterm birth, the association was markedly attenuated for cardiovascular disease (1.34, 95%CI: 1.02 - 1.76), became nonsignificant for hypertension, but remained significant for cerebrovascular disease (HR: 2.73, 95% CI: 1.45- 5.12). There was no increased risk of cardiovascular events in mothers of female CP children, or fathers of CP children of any sex. Conclusions Women that have a male child with CP are at increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease. Part of this association may be related to risk factors for preterm births. PMID:24223882

  2. Cardiovascular Disorders Risk Factors in Different Industries of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Assadi, Seyedeh Negar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Disorders of cardiovascular system can cause disability or death, screening is necessary specially in workers who maybe had risk factors. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, smoking, genetic, exposure to chemicals, fumes, solvents, coldness are non occupational and occupational risk factors. Objective was comparison of cardiovascular disorders risk factors between workers in different industries of Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, workers of automobile, food industries and light works had been selected and cardiovascular disorders risk factors had been gathered then data analyzed in SPSS with one-way ANOVA, Chi-2 and multi nominal logistic regression with P < 0.05. Results: 875 workers had been participated in the study, all of the cardiovascular disorders risk factors were in the normal range. Mean of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in food industry workers was 63.83 ± 17.42 mg/dl and it was protective, but in workers who work in automobile industry was 38.97 ± 11.08 mg/dl and the lowest, Also hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia were more prominent in this industry and after regression with P < 0.05, the differences were significant. Conclusions: Screening of cardiovascular disorders risk factors were important and helpful in industries specially automobile industry, that might be preventive method for these disorders in the future. PMID:23930194

  3. Immediate Risk for Cardiovascular Events and Suicide Following a Prostate Cancer Diagnosis: Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mucci, Lorelei A.; Ye, Weimin; Andrén, Ove; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Sparén, Pär; Klein, Georg; Stampfer, Meir; Adami, Hans-Olov; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur

    2009-01-01

    Background Stressful life events have been shown to be associated with altered risk of various health consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the emotional stress evoked by a prostate cancer diagnosis increases the immediate risks of cardiovascular events and suicide. Methods and Findings We conducted a prospective cohort study by following all men in Sweden who were 30 y or older (n?=?4,305,358) for a diagnosis of prostate cancer (n?=?168,584) and their subsequent occurrence of cardiovascular events and suicide between January 1, 1961 and December 31, 2004. We used Poisson regression models to calculate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cardiovascular events and suicide among men who had prostate cancer diagnosed within 1 y to men without any cancer diagnosis. The risks of cardiovascular events and suicide were elevated during the first year after prostate cancer diagnosis, particularly during the first week. Before 1987, the RR of fatal cardiovascular events was 11.2 (95% CI 10.4–12.1) during the first week and 1.9 (95% CI 1.9–2.0) during the first year after diagnosis. From 1987, the RR for cardiovascular events, nonfatal and fatal combined, was 2.8 (95% CI 2.5–3.2) during the first week and 1.3 (95% CI 1.3–1.3) during the first year after diagnosis. While the RR of cardiovascular events declined, the RR of suicide was stable over the entire study period: 8.4 (95% CI 1.9–22.7) during the first week and 2.6 (95% CI 2.1–3.0) during the first year after diagnosis. Men 54 y or younger at cancer diagnosis demonstrated the highest RRs of both cardiovascular events and suicide. A limitation of the present study is the lack of tumor stage data, which precluded possibilities of investigating the potential impact of the disease severity on the relationship between a recent diagnosis of prostate cancer and the risks of cardiovascular events and suicide. In addition, we cannot exclude residual confounding as a possible explanation. Conclusions Men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer are at increased risks for cardiovascular events and suicide. Future studies with detailed disease characteristic data are warranted. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20016838

  4. Hypogonadism and Testosterone Therapy: Associations With Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Maganty, Avinash; Osterberg, E Charles; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2015-07-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) use is increasing, primarily in men with symptomatic hypogonadism. There are many benefits associated with TRT use, including improved sexual function, improved bone mineral density, and increased free fat mass and strength. As TRT use increases, its role on cardiovascular health must be explored. While previous evidence identified no adverse cardiovascular risks associated with TRT use, more recent studies suggest that there may be an associated risk, especially in elderly men and younger men with cardiac disease. Care must be taken with TRT use in these groups of men by careful monitoring for cardiac dysfunction. While testosterone therapy has many benefits and may generally be well tolerated, those prescribing the therapy must be cognizant of the potential adverse cardiovascular risks and advise men on the potential risks versus benefits. PMID:24972716

  5. [Cardiovascular risk factors in childhood. An anamnestic guideline].

    PubMed

    Dalla Pozza, R

    2013-04-01

    Being overweight in childhood causes several cardiovascular risk factors which in turn contribute to accelerated atherosclerosis. Being overweight itself represents a risk factor, but also contributes to an increased prevalence of arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance. Thus, cardiovascular prevention should be included in the management of obese children. Most of all, therapy of adiposity should be performed, as weight reduction and increased fitness represent protective factors. Moreover, a detailed cardiovascular workup and therapy of secondary vascular disease must also be performed. Subclinical changes at the level of the endothelium may be diagnosed using modern imaging techniques such as the measurement of the intima-media thickness of the carotid artery. In general, the overweight child should be considered as a future patient with vascular disease! The following article focuses on the prevalence, diagnostics and therapeutic options in the cardiovascular management of overweight children. PMID:23529592

  6. Cancer therapy and cardiovascular risk: focus on bevacizumab

    PubMed Central

    Economopoulou, Panagiota; Kotsakis, Athanasios; Kapiris, Ioannis; Kentepozidis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Recognition and management of treatment-related cardiovascular toxicity, defined as either an acute cardiac event or a chronic condition, has been tightly integrated into routine cancer care and has become an important component in treatment selection. Several chemotherapeutic agents, such as anthracyclines, are traditionally characterized as cardiotoxic, but cardiovascular adverse events are also associated with commonly used molecular targeted therapies. In the past decade, bevacizumab, a monoclonal humanized antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, has been introduced in the treatment of a variety of metastatic malignancies. Despite its efficacy, bevacizumab has been associated with significant risk of cardiovascular complications, such as hypertension, cardiac ischemia, and congestive heart failure. This review will focus on the cardiovascular toxicity of bevacizumab, providing the latest evidence on the incidence, clinical spectrum, risk factors, and responsible mechanisms. PMID:26082660

  7. Krill oil for cardiovascular risk prevention: is it for real?

    PubMed

    Backes, James M; Howard, Patricia A

    2014-11-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play an important role in cardiovascular health. Although it is suggested that individuals obtain these nutrients through diet, many prefer to rely on supplements. Fish oil supplements are widely used, yet large capsule sizes and tolerability make them less than ideal. Recently, krill oil has emerged as a potential alternative for omega-3 supplementation. This article will discuss what is known about krill oil and its potential use in cardiovascular risk prevention. PMID:25477562

  8. DIETARY EFFECTS OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the beginning of the 21st century, as in the latter half of the 20th century, diseases of the cardiovascular system are the leading cause of death and disability in developed counties. In 2004, a report from the World Health Organization sounded the alarm, indicating that countries in transition ...

  9. Cardiovascular risk in pediatric-onset rheumatological diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are becoming major health concerns for adults with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The enhanced atherogenesis in this patient population is promoted by the exposure to traditional risk factors as well as nontraditional cardiovascular insults, such as corticosteroid therapy, chronic inflammation and autoantibodies. Despite definite differences between many adult-onset and pediatric-onset rheumatologic diseases, it is extremely likely that atherosclerosis will become the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this pediatric patient population. Because cardiovascular events are rare at this young age, surrogate measures of atherosclerosis must be used. The three major noninvasive vascular measures of early atherosclerosis - namely, flow-mediated dilatation, carotid intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity - can be performed easily on children. Few studies have explored the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and even fewer have used the surrogate vascular measures to document signs of early atherosclerosis in children with pediatric-onset rheumatic diseases. The objective of this review is to provide an overview on cardiovascular risk and early atherosclerosis in pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and juvenile dermatomyositis patients, and to review cardiovascular preventive strategies that should be considered in this population. PMID:23731870

  10. Changes in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among American Indians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas K. Welty; Dorothy A. Rhoades; Fawn Yeh; Elisa T. Lee; Linda D. Cowan; Richard R. Fabsitz; David C. Robbins; Richard B. Devereux; Jeffrey A. Henderson; Barbara V. Howard

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study describes changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in older American Indians over a 4-year period.METHODS: The Strong Heart Study, a longitudinal population-based study of CVD and CVD risk factors among American Indians aged 45–74 years, measured CVD risk factors among 3638 members of 13 tribes in three geographic areas during examinations in 1989 to 1991 and

  11. Blood pressure variables and cardiovascular risk: new findings from ADVANCE.

    PubMed

    Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Czernichow, Sébastien; Huxley, Rachel; Grobbee, Diederick; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce; Zoungas, Sophia; Cooper, Mark; Glasziou, Paul; Hamet, Pavel; Harrap, Stephen B; Mancia, Giuseppe; Poulter, Neil; Williams, Bryan; Chalmers, John

    2009-08-01

    The relative importance of various blood pressure indices on cardiovascular risk in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus has not been established. This study compares the strengths of the associations between different baseline blood pressure variables (systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], pulse pressure [PP], and mean arterial pressure) and the 4.3-year risk of major cardiovascular events in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron-Modified Release Controlled Evaluation Study. Mean (SD) age for the 11 140 participants was 65.8 years (6.4 years). During follow-up, 1000 major cardiovascular events, 559 major coronary events, and 468 cardiovascular deaths were recorded. After adjustment for age, sex, and treatment allocation, the hazard ratios (95% CIs) associated with 1 increment in SD for the risk of major cardiovascular events were 1.17 (1.10 to 1.24) for SBP; 1.20 (1.13 to 1.28) for PP; 1.12 (1.05 to 1.19) for mean arterial pressure; and 1.04 (0.98 to 1.11) for DBP. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were slightly higher for SBP and PP compared with mean arterial pressure and DBP for major cardiovascular and coronary events. Using achieved instead of baseline blood pressure values marginally improved the effect estimates for SBP, DBP, and mean arterial pressure, with no significant differences in the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve between models with SBP and those with PP. In conclusion, SBP and PP are the 2 best and DBP is the least effective determinant of the risk of major cardiovascular outcomes in the relatively old patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus participating in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron-Modified Release Controlled Evaluation Study. However, SBP may be the simplest and most useful predictor across a wider range of age groups and populations. PMID:19470869

  12. Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Mellitus: Complication of the Disease or of Antihyperglycemic Medications.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, C A; Lingvay, I; Vuylsteke, V; Koffarnus, R L; McGuire, D K

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the principal complication and the leading cause of death for patients with diabetes (DM). The efficacy of antihyperglycemic treatments on cardiovascular disease risk remains uncertain. Cardiovascular risk factors are affected by antihyperglycemic medications, as are many intermediate markers of cardiovascular disease. Here we summarize the evidence assessing the cardiovascular effects of antihyperglycemic medications with regard to risk factors, intermediate markers of disease, and clinical outcomes. PMID:25963811

  13. Menopause management: a cardiovascular risk-based approach.

    PubMed

    Haines, C J; Farrell, E

    2010-08-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) remains the gold standard for the management of menopausal symptoms; however, HRT use has declined due to concerns over possible adverse side-effects. Approaches to menopause management are continually being revised and these extend beyond the control of recognized menopausal symptoms to encompass wider aspects of menopausal women's health. Hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk are particularly important unmet needs in postmenopausal women, especially in the Asia-Pacific region which has a rapidly aging population and bears around half of the global burden of cardiovascular disease, two-thirds of which has been attributed to elevated blood pressure. As first point of contact for women with menopausal symptoms, gynecologists play a gatekeeper role in assessing women's health, providing appropriate lifestyle counseling, and, where appropriate, implementing treatment or referral to relevant specialists. This paper, with contributions by gynecologists and cardiologists from Asia Pacific and beyond, summarizes available evidence and provides a treatment algorithm that employs a flexible blood pressure classification strategy to assist physicians in their decision-making for the individualized management of menopausal symptoms in women with low, moderate and high cardiovascular risk, and also for women with diabetes. Individualized HRT according to cardiovascular risk may yield improvements in cardiovascular health, as well as managing menopausal symptoms. PMID:20001565

  14. Environmental Endocrine Disruption of Energy Metabolism and Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kirkley, Andrew G.; Sargis, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Rates of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases have increased at an astounding rate in recent decades. While poor diet and physical inactivity are central drivers, these lifestyle changes alone fail to fully account for the magnitude and rapidity of the epidemic. Thus, attention has turned to identifying novel risk factors, including the contribution of environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals. Epidemiological and preclinical data support a role for various contaminants in the pathogenesis of diabetes. In addition to the vascular risk associated with dysglycemia, emerging evidence implicates multiple pollutants in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Reviewed herein are studies linking endocrine disruptors to these key diseases that drive significant individual and societal morbidity and mortality. Identifying chemicals associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease as well as their mechanisms of action is critical for developing novel treatment strategies and public policy to mitigate the impact of these diseases on human health. PMID:24756343

  15. Cardiovascular health informatics: risk screening and intervention.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Craig J; Naghavi, Morteza; Parodi, Oberdan; Pattichis, Constantinos S; Poon, Carmen C Y; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2012-09-01

    Despite enormous efforts to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the past, it remains the leading cause of death in most countries worldwide. Around two-thirds of these deaths are due to acute events, which frequently occur suddenly and are often fatal before medical care can be given. New strategies for screening and early intervening CVD, in addition to the conventional methods, are therefore needed in order to provide personalized and pervasive healthcare. In this special issue, selected emerging technologies in health informatics for screening and intervening CVDs are reported. These papers include reviews or original contributions on 1) new potential genetic biomarkers for screening CVD outcomes and high-throughput techniques for mining genomic data; 2) new imaging techniques for obtaining faster and higher resolution images of cardiovascular imaging biomarkers such as the cardiac chambers and atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries, as well as possible automatic segmentation, identification, or fusion algorithms; 3) new physiological biomarkers and novel wearable and home healthcare technologies for monitoring them in daily lives; 4) new personalized prediction models of plaque formation and progression or CVD outcomes; and 5) quantifiable indices and wearable systems to measure them for early intervention of CVD through lifestyle changes. It is hoped that the proposed technologies and systems covered in this special issue can result in improved CVD management and treatment at the point of need, offering a better quality of life to the patient. PMID:22997187

  16. Cardiovascular Health Informatics: Risk Screening and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Craig J.; Naghavi, Morteza; Parodi, Oberdan; Pattichis, Constantinos S.; Poon, Carmen C. Y.; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Despite enormous efforts to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the past, it remains the leading cause of death in most countries worldwide. Around two-thirds of these deaths are due to acute events, which frequently occur suddenly and are often fatal before medical care can be given. New strategies for screening and early intervening CVD, in addition to the conventional methods, are therefore needed in order to provide personalized and pervasive healthcare. In this special issue, selected emerging technologies in health informatics for screening and intervening CVDs are reported. These papers include reviews or original contributions on 1) new potential genetic biomarkers for screening CVD outcomes and high-throughput techniques for mining genomic data; 2) new imaging techniques for obtaining faster and higher resolution images of cardiovascular imaging biomarkers such as the cardiac chambers and atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries, as well as possible automatic segmentation, identification, or fusion algorithms; 3) new physiological biomarkers and novel wearable and home healthcare technologies for monitoring them in daily lives; 4) new personalized prediction models of plaque formation and progression or CVD outcomes; and 5) quantifiable indices and wearable systems to measure them for early intervention of CVD through lifestyle changes. It is hoped that the proposed technologies and systems covered in this special issue can result in improved CVD management and treatment at the point of need, offering a better quality of life to the patient. PMID:22997187

  17. Practical Dietary Approaches to Reducing Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen J. Melanson

    2007-01-01

    As a follow-up to a previous review on the relationship between diet and cardiovascular disease risk, this article offers practical advice for making appropriate dietary changes. Reliable resources and Web sites are discussed, as well as general concepts in diet planning. These include reading food labels, controlling serving sizes, and selecting foods with high nutrient density and low energy density.

  18. Job strain and autonomic indices of cardiovascular disease risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean M. Collins; Robert A. Karasek; Kevin Costas

    2005-01-01

    Background Despite the epidemiological evidence linking job strain to cardiovascular disease, more insight is needed into the etiologic mechanisms. This, in turn, would help to more precisely identify risk. Methods We measured Job Strain using the Job Content Questionnaire, 8\\/day diary reports, and nationally standardized occupational code linkage, as well as autonomic regulation utilizing heart rate variability including spectral-derived components

  19. Microalbuminuria, an integrated marker of cardiovascular risk in essential hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Pedrinelli; G Dell’Omo; V Di Bello; R Pontremoli; M Mariani

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing epidemiological and clinical evidence about the relationships of non-diabetic microalbuminuria with cardiovascular risk factors such as elevated blood pressure (BP), systolic particularly, cardiac hypertrophy, adverse metabolic status, smoking habits, elevated angiotensin II levels, endothelial dysfunction, acute and perhaps subclinical inflammation. Because of that unique property of reflecting the influence of so many clinically relevant parameters,

  20. Cardiovascular risk factor prevalence in three Chinese communities in 1989.

    PubMed

    Rao, X; Hsu-Hage, B H; Wahlqvist, M L; Li, Y; Liu, X; Zhang, K; Kuang, T; Zhang, D; Dai, Z

    1995-09-01

    The cardiovascular risk prevalence of 935 adult Chinese living in Chauzhou, Meizhou, and Xinhui cities of Guangdong Province, China, is reported. The three communities are geographically separated, and represent the three major dialect group in Guangdong Province (Teochew, Hakka and Cantonese respectively) which are also the major donor populations of overseas Chinese to Australia and South East Asia. Taking into account historical data, the conventional cardiovascular risk factor prevalence of these combined communities in China as a whole is on the increase and approaches or even exceeds that in Western Society. However, the three communities are not very alike in their prevalences of individual conventional cardiovascular risk factors, notably for hyperlipidaemia (most prevalent in Chauzhou), hypertension (most prevalent in Chauzhou men at 12.4% and least in Meizhou women 5.0%) and cigarette smoking (most prevalent in Xinhui men at 72.7% and least in Xinhui women, 0%). They are similar in stature, body weight, BMI, and waist-to-hip ratio, with very low prevalences of overweight/obesity, or abdominal obesity. An understanding of the contributors to sub-ethnic difference in cardiovascular risk should emerge with further study of these Chinese populations. PMID:24394352

  1. Genetic Influences on Blood Lipids and Cardiovascular Risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in diet are likely to modulate cardiovascular disease risk, but after decades of active research and heated discussion the question still remains: what is the optimal diet to achieve this elusive goal? A well-known phenomenon in nutrition research and practice is the dramatic variability in ...

  2. Metabolic acidosis-induced insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Souto, Gema; Donapetry, Cristóbal; Calviño, Jesús; Adeva, Maria M

    2011-08-01

    Microalbuminuria has been conclusively established as an independent cardiovascular risk factor, and there is evidence of an association between insulin resistance and microalbuminuria, the former preceding the latter in prospective studies. It has been demonstrated that even the slightest degree of metabolic acidosis produces insulin resistance in healthy humans. Many recent epidemiological studies link metabolic acidosis indicators with insulin resistance and systemic hypertension. The strongly acidogenic diet consumed in developed countries produces a lifetime acidotic state, exacerbated by excess body weight and aging, which may result in insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes, contributing to cardiovascular risk, along with genetic causes, lack of physical exercise, and other factors. Elevated fruits and vegetables consumption has been associated with lower diabetes incidence. Diseases featuring severe atheromatosis and elevated cardiovascular risk, such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney failure, are typically characterized by a chronic state of metabolic acidosis. Diabetic patients consume particularly acidogenic diets, and deficiency of insulin action generates ketone bodies, creating a baseline state of metabolic acidosis worsened by inadequate metabolic control, which creates a vicious circle by inducing insulin resistance. Even very slight levels of chronic kidney insufficiency are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, which may be explained at least in part by deficient acid excretory capacity of the kidney and consequent metabolic acidosis-induced insulin resistance. PMID:21352078

  3. Metabolic Acidosis-Induced Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Souto, Gema; Donapetry, Cristóbal; Calviño, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Microalbuminuria has been conclusively established as an independent cardiovascular risk factor, and there is evidence of an association between insulin resistance and microalbuminuria, the former preceding the latter in prospective studies. It has been demonstrated that even the slightest degree of metabolic acidosis produces insulin resistance in healthy humans. Many recent epidemiological studies link metabolic acidosis indicators with insulin resistance and systemic hypertension. The strongly acidogenic diet consumed in developed countries produces a lifetime acidotic state, exacerbated by excess body weight and aging, which may result in insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes, contributing to cardiovascular risk, along with genetic causes, lack of physical exercise, and other factors. Elevated fruits and vegetables consumption has been associated with lower diabetes incidence. Diseases featuring severe atheromatosis and elevated cardiovascular risk, such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney failure, are typically characterized by a chronic state of metabolic acidosis. Diabetic patients consume particularly acidogenic diets, and deficiency of insulin action generates ketone bodies, creating a baseline state of metabolic acidosisworsened by inadequate metabolic control, which creates a vicious circle by inducing insulin resistance. Even very slight levels of chronic kidney insufficiency are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, which may be explained at least in part by deficient acid excretory capacity of the kidney and consequent metabolic acidosis-induced insulin resistance. PMID:21352078

  4. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Healthy Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Kathy V.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in 57 healthy older individuals were measured (blood pressure, lipids and lipoproteins, and lifestyle behaviors) via a personal health questionnaire. Results indicated that, though the subjects were generally healthy, their lifestyle behaviors, particularly diet and physical activity, could be improved. (SM)

  5. Cardiovascular risk assessment before and after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Glicklich, Daniel; Vohra, Parag

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in dialysis patients and the most common cause of death and allograft loss among kidney transplant recipients. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with an increased incidence and prevalence of a wide range of CVDs including coronary artery disease, stroke, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, sudden cardiac death, pulmonary hypertension, and valvular heart disease. CVD risk factors are very common in patients with ESRD, and most patients have multiple risk factors. Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with ESRD, as a successful transplant improves longevity and quality of life, primarily by decreasing the incidence and severity of CVD. Correction of the uremic state and improved glomerular filtration rate seem to be the major mechanism of this benefit. Transplant candidates should undergo cardiovascular assessment, usually echocardiography and exercise stress testing, and may require formal cardiology consultation. Higher risk candidates, including those aged >50 years, hypertension, diabetes, established coronary artery disease or peripheral vascular disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, and dialysis duration >1 year, should have repeat cardiovascular assessment every 1-2 years. Transplant candidates and recipients should have individualized treatment for CVD and risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. Special consideration should be given for statin therapy, as its use is associated with decreased cardiovascular death in dialysis and transplant patients. Prospective randomized, controlled trials are needed to determine the optimal approach to diagnosis and treat CVD in the transplant candidate and recipient population. PMID:24896248

  6. History of depression, race, and cardiovascular risk in cardia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Knox; Adelaide Barnes; Catarina I. Kiefe; Cara E. Lewis; Carlos Iribarren; Karen A. Matthews; Nathan D. Wong; Mary A. Whooley

    2006-01-01

    Though previous data indicate a positive association between depression and coronary heart disease, the mechanisms mediating\\u000a these associations remain unclear. These prospective analyses assessed the association between history of Center for Epidemiologic\\u000a Studies Depression Scale depression and possible mediators of cardiovascular risk at Year 15 of follow-up in African Americans\\u000a (AA) and Caucasians (C) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development

  7. Childhood obesity and adult cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L J Lloyd; S C Langley-Evans; S McMullen

    2010-01-01

    Background:Although the relationship between adult obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been shown, the relationship with childhood obesity remains unclear. Given the evidence of tracking of body mass index (BMI) from childhood to adulthood, this systematic review investigated the independent relationship between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk.Objective:To investigate the association between childhood BMI and adult CVD risk, and whether

  8. Trading off dietary choices, physical exercise and cardiovascular disease risks.

    PubMed

    Grisolía, José M; Longo, Alberto; Boeri, Marco; Hutchinson, George; Kee, Frank

    2013-09-01

    Despite several decades of decline, cardiovascular diseases are still the most common causes of death in Western societies. Sedentary living and high fat diets contribute to the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. This paper analyses the trade-offs between lifestyle choices defined in terms of diet, physical activity, cost, and risk of cardiovascular disease that a representative sample of the population of Northern Ireland aged 40-65 are willing to make. Using computer assisted personal interviews, we survey 493 individuals at their homes using a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) questionnaire administered between February and July 2011 in Northern Ireland. Unlike most DCE studies for valuing public health programmes, this questionnaire uses a tailored exercise, based on the individuals' baseline choices. A "fat screener" module in the questionnaire links personal cardiovascular disease risk to each specific choice set in terms of dietary constituents. Individuals are informed about their real status quo risk of a fatal cardiovascular event, based on an initial set of health questions. Thus, actual risks, real diet and exercise choices are the elements that constitute the choice task. Our results show that our respondents are willing to pay for reducing mortality risk and, more importantly, are willing to change physical exercise and dietary behaviours. In particular, we find that to improve their lifestyles, overweight and obese people would be more likely to do more physical activity than to change their diets. Therefore, public policies aimed to target obesity and its related illnesses in Northern Ireland should invest public money in promoting physical activity rather than healthier diets. PMID:23906130

  9. Intestinal Microbial Metabolism of Phosphatidylcholine and Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Tang, W.H. Wilson; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S.; Koeth, Robert A.; Britt, Earl B.; Fu, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuping; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent studies in animals have shown a mechanistic link between intestinal microbial metabolism of the choline moiety in dietary phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) and coronary artery disease through the production of a proatherosclerotic metabolite, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We investigated the relationship among intestinal microbiota-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine, TMAO levels, and adverse cardiovascular events in humans. METHODS We quantified plasma and urinary levels of TMAO and plasma choline and betaine levels by means of liquid chromatography and online tandem mass spectrometry after a phosphatidylcholine challenge (ingestion of two hard-boiled eggs and deuterium [d9]-labeled phosphatidylcholine) in healthy participants before and after the suppression of intestinal microbiota with oral broad-spectrum antibiotics. We further examined the relationship between fasting plasma levels of TMAO and incident major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) during 3 years of follow-up in 4007 patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. RESULTS Time-dependent increases in levels of both TMAO and its d9 isotopologue, as well as other choline metabolites, were detected after the phosphatidylcholine challenge. Plasma levels of TMAO were markedly suppressed after the administration of antibiotics and then reappeared after withdrawal of antibiotics. Increased plasma levels of TMAO were associated with an increased risk of a major adverse cardiovascular event (hazard ratio for highest vs. lowest TMAO quartile, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.96 to 3.28; P<0.001). An elevated TMAO level predicted an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events after adjustment for traditional risk factors (P<0.001), as well as in lower-risk subgroups. CONCLUSIONS The production of TMAO from dietary phosphatidylcholine is dependent on metabolism by the intestinal microbiota. Increased TMAO levels are associated with an increased risk of incident major adverse cardiovascular events. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.) PMID:23614584

  10. Circulating Adiponectin: Associations with Risk Factors and the Reynolds Risk Score in Women without Prior Major Cardiovascular Events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicoleta Calomfirescu; Calin Popa; Ruxandra Jurcut; Marinela Serban; Carmen Ginghina

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Adiponectin may play an important role in the interplay between metabolic changes and cardiovascular risks. Our aim was to establish if plasma adiponectin can be used to detect the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in women without a history of major cardiovascular events and to evaluate its correlation with the global cardiovascular risk expressed by the Reynolds risk score (RRS). Methods:

  11. Gastrointestinal and Cardiovascular Risk of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saeed, Abdulwahed

    2011-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) confer a gastrointestinal (GI) side effect profile and concerns regarding adverse cardiovascular effects have emerged associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. NSAIDs are highly effective in treating pain and inflammation, but it is well recognized that these agents are associated with substantial gastrointestinal toxicity. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors may also reduce the risk for gastrointestinal events, although they may increase cardiovascular adverse events. The selection of an appropriate analgesic or anti-inflammatory agent with or without gastroprotective therapy should be individualized. PMID:22253945

  12. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Sassen; Gerjo Kok; Herman Schaalma; Henri Kiers; Luc Vanhees

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned

  13. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in diabetes: Risk scores and provocative testing.

    PubMed

    Lam, Teresa; Burns, Kharis; Dennis, Mark; Cheung, N Wah; Gunton, Jenny E

    2015-05-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus, who have a risk of cardiovascular mortality two to four times that of people without diabetes. An individualised approach to cardiovascular risk estimation and management is needed. Over the past decades, many risk scores have been developed to predict CVD. However, few have been externally validated in a diabetic population and limited studies have examined the impact of applying a prediction model in clinical practice. Currently, guidelines are focused on testing for CVD in symptomatic patients. Atypical symptoms or silent ischemia are more common in the diabetic population, and with additional markers of vascular disease such as erectile dysfunction and autonomic neuropathy, these guidelines can be difficult to interpret. We propose an algorithm incorporating cardiovascular risk scores in combination with typical and atypical signs and symptoms to alert clinicians to consider further investigation with provocative testing. The modalities for investigation of CVD are discussed. PMID:25987961

  14. Tobacco as a Cardiovascular Risk Factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robyn Bergman Buchsbaum; Jeffrey Craig Buchsbaum

    Tobacco use in the form of cigarettes has long been established as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). It\\u000a is the most preventable cause of mortality. Each year, cigarette smoking causes more than 400,000 deaths in the United States\\u000a alone, more than the number of American lives lost during World War I, Korea, and Vietnam combined (1,2).

  15. Dietary lignans: physiology and potential for cardiovascular disease risk reduction

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Julia; Dwyer, Johanna; Adlercreutz, Herman; Scalbert, Augustin; Jacques, Paul; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed lignan physiology and lignan intervention and epidemiological studies to determine if they decreased the risks of cardiovascular disease in Western populations. Five intervention studies using flaxseed lignan supplements indicated beneficial associations with C-reactive protein and a meta-analysis, which included these studies, also suggested a lowering effect on plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Three intervention studies using sesamin supplements indicated possible lipid and blood pressure lowering associations. Eleven human observational epidemiological studies examined dietary intakes of lignans in relation to cardiovascular disease risk. Five showed decreased risk with either increasing dietary intakes of lignans or increased levels of serum enterolactone (an enterolignan used as a biomarker of lignan intake), five studies were of borderline significance, and one was null. The associations between lignans and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease are promising, but are yet not well established, perhaps due to low lignan intakes in habitual Western diets. At the higher doses used in intervention studies, associations were more evident. PMID:20883417

  16. [Cardiovascular risk in schoolchildren in rural Sousse, Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Ghannem, H; Harrabi, I; Ben Abdelaziz, A; Gaha, R; Trabelsi, L; Selmi, H; Jeridi, G; Ammar, H; Essoussi, A S

    2001-12-01

    There is no data available on the cardiovascular risk of children under 18 years of age in Tunisia, although it is well known that these risk factors present themselves in childhood. The authors performed an epidemiological study based on a representative sample of 793 schoolchildren in the rural region of Sousse, in Tunisia, to determine the incidence of the following risk factors: hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and other lipid disorders, obesity and smoking. The main results show that the prevalence of hypertension is 11.2% with no statistically significant difference between the sexes. The prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (2.9%), of hyper-LDL cholesterolaemia (0.6%) and hypertriglyceridaemia (1%) were comparable in boys and girls. Obesity (BMI > 30) was observed in 1.8% of the study population and was as common in girls (1.7%) as in boys (1.9%). Smoking was recorded in 4% of the study population and was commoner in boys (7.3%) than in girls (1.2%). This cardiovascular risk profile is encouraging and efforts should be made to maintain these levels until adulthood. This data will form the basis of a regional programme for the promotion of cardiovascular health in schools. PMID:11828923

  17. Metabolic Syndrome and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Thayyil, Jayakrishnan; Jayakrishnan, Thejus Thayyil; Raja, Meharoof; Cherumanalil, Jeeja Mathumal

    2012-01-01

    Background: Police force constitutes a special occupational group. They have been shown to be at high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases. A multitude of factors may be responsible for this. There is very limited documentation of their health status and health surveillance activities are inadequate. Aim: The present study was designed to measure the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors among police officers. Materials and Methods: The design was cross-sectional and spanned 900 policemen (n = 900). A pre-tested questionnaire was used for collecting historical data. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were carried out using standard techniques. MS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program—Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 16.0 software. Results: MS was observed in 16.8% of the study population. High blood pressure and hyper-triglyceridemia were the commonest abnormalities. The prevalence of other cardiovascular risk factors were high body mass index (65.6%), hypertension (37.7%), diabetes (7%), smoking (10%), and alcohol use (48%). Conclusion: Our study identified police officers as a high-risk group for developing CVDs. The findings underscore the need for regular surveillance and lifestyle interventions in this important occupational group. PMID:23272304

  18. Lipoprotein(a) hyperlipidemia as cardiovascular risk factor: pathophysiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Gerd; Orsó, Evelyn

    2015-04-01

    Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a modified LDL particle with an additional apolipoprotein [apo(a)] protein covalently attached by a thioester bond. Multiple isoforms of apo(a) exist that are genetically determined by differences in the number of Kringle-IV type-2 repeats encoded by the LPA gene. Elevated plasma Lp(a) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease.The phenotypic diversity of familial Lp(a) hyperlipidemia [Lp(a)-HLP] and familial hypercholesterolemia [FH], as defined risks with genetic background, and their frequent co-incidence with additional cardiovascular risk factors require a critical revision of the current diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations established for isolated familial Lp(a)-HLP or FH in combination with elevated Lp(a) levels.Lp(a) assays still suffer from poor standardization, comparability and particle variation. Further evaluation of the current biomarkers and establishment of novel comorbidity biomarkers are necessary for extended risk assessment of cardiovascular disease in FH or Lp(a)-HLP and to better understand the pathophysiology and to improve patient stratification of the Lp(a) syndrome complex.Lp(a) promotes vascular remodeling, increased lesion progression and intima media thickening through induction of M1-macrophages, antiangiogenic effects (e.g. vasa vasorum) with secretion of the antiangiogenic chemokine CXCL10 (IP10) and CXCR3 mediated activation of Th1- and NK-cells.In addition inhibition of serine proteases causing disturbances of thrombosis/ hemostasis/ fibrinolysis, TGFb-activation and acute phase response (e.g. CRP, anti-PL antibodies) are major features of Lp(a) pathology. Anti-PL antibodies (EO6 epitope) also bind to oxidized Lp(a).Lipoprotein apheresis is used to reduce circulating lipoproteins in patients with severe FH and/or Lp(a)-HLP, particularly with multiple cardiovascular risks who are intolerant or insufficiently responsive to lipid-lowering drugs. PMID:25708587

  19. Modern obesity pharmacotherapy: weighing cardiovascular risk and benefit.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Jonathan W; Wiviott, Stephen D

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is a major correlate of cardiovascular disease. Weight loss improves cardiovascular risk factors and has the potential to improve outcomes. Two drugs, phentermine plus topiramate and lorcaserin, have recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the indication of obesity; a third, bupropion plus naltrexone, is under consideration for approval. In clinical trials, these drugs cause weight loss and improve glucose tolerance, lipid profile, and, with the exception of bupropion plus naltrexone, blood pressure. However, their effect on cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. In defining appropriate roles for these drugs in preventive cardiology, it is important to remember the checkered history of drugs for obesity. New weight-loss drugs share the serotonergic and sympathomimetic mechanisms that proved harmful in the cases of Fen-Phen and sibutramine, respectively, albeit with significant differences. Given these risks, randomized cardiovascular outcomes trials are needed to establish the safety, and potential benefit, of these drugs. This review will discuss the history of pharmacotherapy for obesity, existing efficacy and safety data for the novel weight-loss drugs, and issues in the design of postapproval clinical trials. PMID:25223901

  20. Cardiovascular risk stratification obtained by Framingham risk score and C-reactive protein measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Bard; Nicholas Clarke; Melvyn Rubenfire; Kim Eagle; Robert D. Brook

    2005-01-01

    High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) evaluation adds prognostic information beyond that available from Framingham risk scores (FRS) and is a useful tool to further risk stratify patients at intermediate risk. However, the clinical utility of hsCRP in routine practice remains unclear. We investigated how hsCRP evaluation may change the cardiovascular risk stratification of 100 patients deemed intermediate risk by FRS.

  1. Heart Rate Variability Dynamics for the Prognosis of Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Villegas, Juan F.; Lam-Espinosa, Eric; Ramirez-Moreno, David F.; Calvo-Echeverry, Paulo C.; Agredo-Rodriguez, Wilfredo

    2011-01-01

    Statistical, spectral, multi-resolution and non-linear methods were applied to heart rate variability (HRV) series linked with classification schemes for the prognosis of cardiovascular risk. A total of 90 HRV records were analyzed: 45 from healthy subjects and 45 from cardiovascular risk patients. A total of 52 features from all the analysis methods were evaluated using standard two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS-test). The results of the statistical procedure provided input to multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks, radial basis function (RBF) neural networks and support vector machines (SVM) for data classification. These schemes showed high performances with both training and test sets and many combinations of features (with a maximum accuracy of 96.67%). Additionally, there was a strong consideration for breathing frequency as a relevant feature in the HRV analysis. PMID:21386966

  2. Cardiovascular protection for all individuals at high risk: evidence-based best practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Bakris; Michael Böhm; Gilles Dagenais; Hans-Christoph Diener; Toshiro Fujita; Philip Gorelick; Sverre Erik Kjeldsen; Markku Laakso; Giuseppe Mancia; Bertram Pitt; Arya Sharma; Peter Sleight; Koon Teo; Thomas Unger; Michael Weber; Bryan Williams; Faiez Zannad

    2008-01-01

    Patients with cardiovascular risk factors are largely undertreated, for many reasons. Vulnerable individuals may not be aware\\u000a of the risks they are facing or an individual’s risk of cardiovascular disease may be underestimated, particularly among those\\u000a at high risk. Furthermore, in individuals identified as being at high total cardiovascular risk, the full spectrum of therapeutic\\u000a options may not be implemented

  3. Relationship between Neck Length, Sleep, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Tae Seung; Kim, Su Min; Yang, Hyun Ju; Lee, Bum Soon; Park, Soon Yeob; Lee, Won Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background Neck circumference, as a predicator of obesity, is a well-known risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular diseases. However, little research exists on neck length associated with these factors. This study explored the association of neck length with sleep and cardiovascular risk factors by measuring midline neck length (MNL) and lateral neck length (LNL). Methods We examined 240 patients aged 30 to 75 years who visited a health check-up center between January 2012 and July 2012. Patients with depressive disorder or sleep disturbance were excluded from this study. MNL from the upper margin of the hyoid bone to the jugular notch and LNL from the mandibular angle to the mid-portion of the ipsilateral clavicle were measured twice and were adjusted by height to determine their relationship with sleep and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Results Habitual snorers had shorter LNL height ratios (P = 0.011), MNL height ratios in men (P = 0.062), and MNL height ratios in women (P = 0.052). Those snoring bad enough to annoy others had shorter MNL height ratios in men (P = 0.083) and women (P = 0.035). Men with objective sleep apnea had longer distances from the mandible to the hyoid bone to the mandible (P = 0.057). Men with metabolic syndrome had significantly shorter LNL height ratios (P = 0.021), and women with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome had shorter MNL height ratios (P < 0.05). Conclusion This study shows that a short neck by measuring the MNL is probably associated with snoring. In addition, MNL is related to cardiovascular disease risk factors in women. PMID:25780512

  4. Four anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K-C Huang; W-Y Lin; L-T Lee; C-Y Chen; H Lo; H-H Hsia; I-L Liu; W-Y Shau; R-S Lin; Kuo-Chin Huang

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships between four anthropometric measurements and cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan.DESIGN: The data was collected from four nationwide health screen centers in Taiwan from 1998 to 1999.SUBJECTS: A total of 38 556 subjects: 18 280 men and 20 276 women, mean age=37.0±11.1 y. None had any known major systemic diseases or were currently on medication.MEASUREMENTS: Individual

  5. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabet Svenungsson; Kerstin Jensen-Urstad; Mikael Heimbürger; Angela Silveira; Anders Hamsten; Joseph L. Witztum; Johan Frostegård

    2010-01-01

    Background—Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is overrepresented in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We determined the prevalence of traditional and nontraditional risk factors for CVD in SLE patients with and without CVD compared with controls. Methods and Results—Twenty-six women (aged 528.2 years) with SLE and a history of CVD (SLE cases) were compared with 26 age-matched women with SLE but without

  6. Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Incident Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Emily B.; Bayliss, Elizabeth A.; Daugherty, Stacie L.; Steiner, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for women and men with diabetes. Previous cross-sectional studies of prevalent diabetes have found that women are less likely to meet ADA and AHA guidelines for control of cardiovascular risk factors (hemoglobin A1c, LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure), but have not studied the critical period immediately after diagnosis. Methods To assess gender differences in cardiovascular risk factors at the time of diabetes diagnosis (baseline) and one year later (follow-up), we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 6,547 individuals with incident diabetes in an integrated care delivery system. We assessed mean cardiovascular risk factor values by gender and adjusted odds ratios of attaining ADA goals. Findings Compared with men, at baseline women had lower hemoglobin A1c (7.9% vs. 8.2%, P<0.001), higher LDL cholesterol (118.9 vs. 111.5 mg/dL, P < 0.001), higher systolic blood pressure (131.9 vs. 130.5 mmHg, P<0.001), and lower diastolic blood pressure (79.1 vs. 79.7 mmHg, P=0.006). At follow-up, the hemoglobin A1c gender gap had closed (6.9% vs. 6.9%, P=0.39), and the gender gaps had decreased for blood pressure (129.8/77.0 vs. 128.9/77.6, P=0.009) and LDL cholesterol (104.0 vs 98.2 mg/dL, P<0.001). These associations varied by age. Adjusted odds ratios showed similar relationships. Conclusions In this cohort of individuals with incident diabetes, men and women had important differences in risk factor control at the time of diabetes diagnosis. These differences varied by age, and decreased over time. PMID:24439948

  7. Obesity and cardiovascular risk in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Raj, Manu

    2012-01-01

    The global prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents has increased substantially over the past several decades. These trends are also visible in developing economies like India. Childhood obesity impacts all the major organ systems of the body and is well known to result in significant morbidity and mortality. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with established risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and accelerated atherosclerotic processes, including elevated blood pressure (BP), atherogenic dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes mellitus, cardiac structural and functional changes and obstructive sleep apnea. Probable mechanisms of obesity-related hypertension include insulin resistance, sodium retention, increased sympathetic nervous system activity, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and altered vascular function. Adiposity promotes cardiovascular risk clustering during childhood and adolescence. Insulin resistance has a strong association with childhood obesity. A variety of proinflammatory mediators that are associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction are also known to be influenced by obesity levels. Obesity in early life promotes atherosclerotic disease in vascular structures such as the aorta and the coronary arteries. Childhood and adolescent adiposity has strong influences on the structure and function of the heart, predominantly of the left ventricle. Obesity compromises pulmonary function and increases the risk of sleep-disordered breathing and obstructive sleep apnea. Neglecting childhood and adolescent obesity will compromise the cardiovascular health of the pediatric population and is likely to result in a serious public health crisis in future. PMID:22276248

  8. Prevalence of stroke/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.

  9. Predicting long-term cardiovascular risk using the mayo clinic cardiovascular risk score in a referral population.

    PubMed

    Dhoble, Abhijeet; Lahr, Brian D; Allison, Thomas G; Bailey, Kent R; Thomas, Randal J; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Gupta, Bhanu; Kopecky, Stephen L

    2014-09-01

    Exercise testing provides valuable information but is rarely integrated to derive a risk prediction model in a referral population. In this study, we assessed the predictive value of conventional cardiovascular risk factors and exercise test parameters in 6,546 consecutive adults referred for exercise testing, who were followed for a period of 8.1 ± 3.7 years for incident myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and cardiovascular death. A risk prediction model was developed, and cross-validation of model was performed by splitting the data set into 10 equal random subsets, with model fitting based on 9 of the 10 subsets and testing in of the remaining subset, repeated in all 10 possible ways. The best performing model was chosen based on measurements of model discrimination and stability. A risk score was constructed from the final model, with points assigned for the presence of each predictor based on the regression coefficients. Using both conventional risk factors and exercise test parameters, a total of 9 variables were identified as independent and robust predictors and were included in a risk score. The prognostic ability of this model was compared with that of the Adult Treatment Panel III model using the net reclassification and integrated discrimination index. From the cross-validation results, the c statistic of 0.77 for the final model indicated strong predictive power. In conclusion, we developed, tested, and internally validated a novel risk prediction model using exercise treadmill testing parameters. PMID:25052544

  10. Combination therapy of statins and fibrates in the management of cardiovascular risk Catherine Fivet, PhD, and Bart Staels*, PhD

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    an event despite being allocated to statin. Beyond LDL-C, other factors, including triglycerides, non-HDL-C-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and several patients still experience a high residual risk. Statins lower LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), with limited effects

  11. Cardiovascular risk in operators under radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, Katia; Deyanov, Christo; Israel, Mishel

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the long-term effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on the cardiovascular system. Two groups of exposed operators (49 broadcasting (BC) station and 61 TV station operators) and a control group of 110 radiorelay station operators, matched by sex and age, with similar job characteristics except for the radiofrequency EMR were studied. The EMR exposure was assessed and the time-weighted average (TWA) was calculated. The cardiovascular risk factors arterial pressure, lipid profile, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, smoking, and family history of cardiovascular disease were followed. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly higher in the two exposed groups. It was found that the radiofrequency EMR exposure was associated with greater chance of becoming hypertensive and dyslipidemic. The stepwise multiple regression equations showed that the SBP and TWA predicted the high TC and high LDL-C, while the TC, age and abdominal obesity were predictors for high SBP and DBP. In conclusion, our data show that the radiofrequency EMR contributes to adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. PMID:16503299

  12. Cardiovascular risk levels in general practice patients with type 2 diabetes in rural and urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Wan; Mark F. Harris; Gawaine Powell-Davies; Upali W. Jayasinghe; Jeff Flack; Andrew Georgiou; Joan R. Burns; Danielle L. Penn

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of cardiovascular risk factor from 2000 to 2002 in general practice patients with type 2 diabetes in urban and rural areas, and the association between cardiovascular risk (both single risk factors and coronary heart disease absolute risk (CHDAR)) and rurality in three years. Methods: In total, 6305 patients were extracted from 16 Divisions (250 practices).

  13. Cardiovascular Disease in CKD in Children: Update on Risk Factors, Risk Assessment, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Amy C; Mitsnefes, Mark M

    2009-01-01

    In young adults with onset of chronic kidney disease in childhood, cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death. The likely reason for increased cardiovascular disease in these patients is high prevalence of traditional and uremia-related cardiovascular disease risk factors during childhood chronic kidney disease. Early markers of cardiomyopathy, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction and early markers of atherosclerosis, such as increased carotid artery intima-media thickness, carotid arterial wall stiffness and coronary artery calcification are frequently found in this patient population. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of recent advances in the understanding and management of cardiovascular disease risks in this population. PMID:19619845

  14. Prediabetes and cardiovascular risk alert programs - useful tools for preventing diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular events in primary medicine.

    PubMed

    Virgolici, Horia; Virgolici, Bogdana; Purcarea, Victor

    2015-01-01

    We propose alert programs, made in Excel using VBA, for general practitioners, in order not to miss the diagnosis of prediabetes and cardiovascular risk factors for their patients and to improve their management. PMID:25991138

  15. [Renal markers and predictors, and renal and cardiovascular risk factors].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Andrade, C

    2002-01-01

    An important task of the nephrologists during the last century, it has been the search of elements and means that allow us, with the adequate precision, to correlate the functional deterioration of the kidney, and the patient's clinical reality. And the continuous searching of factors and markers that injure them, the prognosis, and early diagnosis, to be able to predict the degree of the organs and patient's survival. Almost parallel survival presage in the natural history of the illness, almost one century ago. In the second half of the XX century, in the developed countries, appear modifications of the social, cultural, and sanitary conditions, that make appear some very different partner-sanitary and epidemic circumstances, and take place like they are, among others: 1. An increase of per cápita private rents, what takes place to increase of the level of social life and the population's health. With increment of the longevity, and smaller incidence and prevalence of classic process, as malnutrition, infections, infantile mortality, so increasing the weight of the cardiovascular diseases and death. This is potentiated for the increment and the incidence of environmental cardiovascular risk's factors (like high caloric and fatty-rich diets, smoke, alcohol, disappearance of the physical work, inactivity, etc). And that situations are also product of the change of the outline of human and social values and guides. 2. Access of the whole population to a sanitary attention of more quality and effectiveness. It allows the biggest survival of patients that suffer vascular crisis, (as angina, miocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident), that few years ago they have had a higher morbimortality and an inferior survival (2). 3. The execution of big epidemic studies has been able to, not only characterize and test with scientific evidence to numerous factors and markers, that induce renal and cardiovascular prejudicial changes, but risk and death probability prediction. And also, its possible association nexuses, its injuring mechanisms, and the characterization of the new "emergent" renal and cardiovascular risk's markers and factors. 4. The impact on the possibility to treat the end stage renal disease with effective and prolonged procedures, by hemodialisis or kidney transplantation, has been occurred. The affected population's survival with the adequacy renal-sustitution treatment, and the possibility of indefinite duration of its treatment, has also impacted on the public health, and its resources, in an evident way. Simultaneously to increase of the incidence in the population, the electivity for the treatment has been enlarged and extended increasing it exponentially. These facts are documented here, and are defined the characteristics of the factors and markers of risk, of renal and cardiovascular diseases. The defined factors are valued to mark, so far as with the well-known evidence is possible, the prediction and the progression of the renal and cardiovascular functional deterioration: The hypertension, cardiovascular remodeling, the arterial stiffness, the heart rate, the sympathetic activation, the modification of the physiological response of the target organ to the overcharge, the metabolic syndrome, the obesity, the insulin resistance, the altered lipid profile, and metabolism of the fatty acids, the salt-sensibility, the decrease of the renal functional reserve, the glomerular hyperfiltration, the absence of the arterial pressure nocturnal descent, the abnormal excretion of proteins for the urine, the phenomenon induced by dysfunctions of the clotting, superoxide production, growth factors, the production of chronic inflammation and its markers, the factors of the glomerulosclerosis progression, the hyperuricemic status, the endothelial dysfunction and others, are evaluated. As well as their association among them and with other factors of risk not changeable like the age, and in turn, with other acquired voluntarily factors of risk, as the smoking habit and the alcohol. These facts are now impa

  16. [The risk of cardiovascular diseases induced by radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Hudecová, K; Urbanová, D; Petrásová, H

    2008-06-01

    At present the number of cancer survivors is still increasing. However, their long-term quality of life after anticancer treatment can be decreased. Radiotherapy may represent a risk for the future of some oncologic patients. The late cardiovascular effects of radiotherapy to the area of thorax, cranium and to the abdominal area are the actual multidisciplinary problem. The unique problem is mediastinal radiotherapy which may induce the development of the cardiomyopathy, constrictive pericarditis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, valvular defects, arrhythmias and other complications. Exact knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms of radiation induced cardiovascular damage after radiotherapy as well as using of new diagnostic cardiologic methods might be useful for the detection of subclinical abnormalities and their early treatment already in the asymptomatic patients. PMID:18672577

  17. History of depression, race, and cardiovascular risk in CARDIA.

    PubMed

    Knox, Sarah; Barnes, Adelaide; Kiefe, Catarina; Lewis, Cara E; Iribarren, Carlos; Matthews, Karen A; Wong, Nathan D; Whooley, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Though previous data indicate a positive association between depression and coronary heart disease, the mechanisms mediating these associations remain unclear. These prospective analyses assessed the association between history of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale depression and possible mediators of cardiovascular risk at Year 15 of follow-up in African Americans (AA) and Caucasians (C) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Physiological assessments included plasma levels of low-density-lipoprotein cholestrol (LDL), high-density-lipoprotein cholestrol (HDL), total cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting glucose, diabetes and blood pressure. Behavioral risk factors included alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI). AA's showed significant associations between history of depression and diabetes that did not exist in Cs and AA women had significantly more episodes of depression than any other group. However, associations of depression with smoking, BMI, and physical activity were consistent across groups in the expected direction. HDL-cholesterol was positively and LDL-cholesterol inversely associated with depression in Cs, which was unexpected. These data indicate that in this still healthy cohort, there are already associations between depression and factors that predispose to cardiovascular risk. PMID:16503840

  18. Assessment of high cardiovascular risk profiles for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Whayne, Thomas F

    2013-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. General Framingham Risk Profile (GFRP) and World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) charts were used to assess CV risk in DM in Oman. The GFRP identified more patients with medium-risk DM; GFRP and WHO/ISH identified essentially equal numbers at very high risk. These were then used to evaluate statin usage in Oman, including economics. Google lists innumerable tools from organizations, hospitals, practitioners, magazines, societies, clinics, and medical associations. The GFRP and WHO/ISH calculations provided useful DM assessment of populations in Oman. Other major risk models are Adult Treatment Panel III, based on Framingham, and Reynolds Risk Score; the latter incorporates other factors such as family history, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hemoglobin A(1c) (in DM). These models are useful in assessing specific populations. Individual practitioners with limited time may just evaluate patients as low, medium, and high CV risk based on general knowledge and then treat. PMID:23299171

  19. History of the Evolution of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and the Predictive Value of Traditional Risk-Factor-Based Risk Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Khera

    \\u000a The near epidemic rise in cardiovascular disease deaths in the early and middle twentieth century necessitated a more complete\\u000a understanding of the risk factors for these illnesses. Through histologic examinations, animal studies, clinical and geographical\\u000a observations and, ultimately, through large, prospective epidemiologic studies, the major traditional risk factors for cardiovascular\\u000a disease were discovered, which paved the way for successful public

  20. Lipoprotein(a) as a cardiovascular risk factor: current status

    PubMed Central

    Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Chapman, M. John; Ray, Kausik; Borén, Jan; Andreotti, Felicita; Watts, Gerald F.; Ginsberg, Henry; Amarenco, Pierre; Catapano, Alberico; Descamps, Olivier S.; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Aims The aims of the study were, first, to critically evaluate lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] as a cardiovascular risk factor and, second, to advise on screening for elevated plasma Lp(a), on desirable levels, and on therapeutic strategies. Methods and results The robust and specific association between elevated Lp(a) levels and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD)/coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, together with recent genetic findings, indicates that elevated Lp(a), like elevated LDL-cholesterol, is causally related to premature CVD/CHD. The association is continuous without a threshold or dependence on LDL- or non-HDL-cholesterol levels. Mechanistically, elevated Lp(a) levels may either induce a prothrombotic/anti-fibrinolytic effect as apolipoprotein(a) resembles both plasminogen and plasmin but has no fibrinolytic activity, or may accelerate atherosclerosis because, like LDL, the Lp(a) particle is cholesterol-rich, or both. We advise that Lp(a) be measured once, using an isoform-insensitive assay, in subjects at intermediate or high CVD/CHD risk with premature CVD, familial hypercholesterolaemia, a family history of premature CVD and/or elevated Lp(a), recurrent CVD despite statin treatment, ?3% 10-year risk of fatal CVD according to European guidelines, and/or ?10% 10-year risk of fatal + non-fatal CHD according to US guidelines. As a secondary priority after LDL-cholesterol reduction, we recommend a desirable level for Lp(a) <80th percentile (less than ?50 mg/dL). Treatment should primarily be niacin 1–3 g/day, as a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled intervention trials demonstrates reduced CVD by niacin treatment. In extreme cases, LDL-apheresis is efficacious in removing Lp(a). Conclusion We recommend screening for elevated Lp(a) in those at intermediate or high CVD/CHD risk, a desirable level <50 mg/dL as a function of global cardiovascular risk, and use of niacin for Lp(a) and CVD/CHD risk reduction. PMID:20965889

  1. Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Sinicato, Nailú Angélica; Cardoso, Priscila Aparecida da Silva; Appenzeller, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic and multisystemic autoimmune disorder which predominantly affecting women. The most common cause of death in SLE patients affected by disease for more than 5 years is cardiovascular disease (CVD). Epidemiological observations suggest that, together with classical conventional risk factors, other mechanisms (non-conventional/disease-specific factors) promote accelerated atherosclerosis in inflammatory diseases like SLE. Traditional CVD risk factors included age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, previous vascular event defined as previous history of cerebrovascular accidents or ischemic heart disease, menopause and smoking. The non-traditional factors presents in SLE are disease-specific like renal disease manifestation as Lupus nephritis (LN), presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines, some of inflammatory mediators, antiphospholipid antibodies, anti-oxLDL antibodies, corticosteroid uses and cumulative dose of glucocorticoids. We will review traditional and non-traditional risk factors associated with CVD in SLE patients. PMID:23463953

  2. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Chronic Kidney Disease—FGF23: A Key Molecule in the Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jimbo, Rika

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk of mortality, mainly from cardiovascular disease. Moreover, abnormal mineral and bone metabolism, the so-called CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD), occurs from early stages of CKD. This CKD-MBD presents a strong cardiovascular risk for CKD patients. Discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has altered our understanding of CKD-MBD and has revealed more complex cross-talk and endocrine feedback loops between the kidney, parathyroid gland, intestines, and bone. During the past decade, reports of clinical studies have described the association between FGF23 and cardiovascular risks, left ventricular hypertrophy, and vascular calcification. Recent translational reports have described the existence of FGF23-Klotho axis in the vasculature and the causative effect of FGF23 on cardiovascular disease. These findings suggest FGF23 as a promising target for novel therapeutic approaches to improve clinical outcomes of CKD patients. PMID:24678415

  3. [Cardiovascular risks of combined oral contraceptives - beyond the French controversy].

    PubMed

    Gronier, H; Gronier-Gouvernel, H; Robin, G

    2014-03-01

    Combined hormonal contraceptive is the most used contraceptive method in France among childbearing-aged women. Following the temporary delisting of oral contraception containing a 3rd generation progestin and following the market withdrawal of oral pills containing cyproterone acetate in combination with ethynil-estradiol (35?g), the impact of these events on our prescribing practice remains to determine. We will especially discuss the cardiovascular risk associated with combined hormonal contraceptives in the light of the most recent publications either with epidemiological or biological data. PMID:24582295

  4. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    D'Adamo, Ebe; Guardamagna, Ornella; Chiarelli, Francesco; Liccardo, Daniela; Ferrari, Federica; Nobili, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children. PMID:25663838

  5. C-reactive protein as a cardiovascular risk factor: more than an epiphenomenon ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wim K. Lagrand; Cees A. Visser; Willem T. Hermens; Hans W. M. Niessen; Freek W. A. Verheugt; Gert-Jan Wolbink; C. Erik Hack

    1999-01-01

    Background—Circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) may constitute an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. How CRP as a risk factor is involved in cardiovascular disease is still unclear. Methods and Results—By reviewing available studies, we discuss explanations for the associations between CRP and cardiovascular disease. CRP levels within the upper quartile\\/quintile of the normal range constitute an increased risk

  6. Ten-year cardiovascular risk assessment in university students.

    PubMed

    Uvacsek, Martina; Kneffel, Zs; Tóth, M; Johnson, A W; Vehrs, P; Myrer, J W; Hager, R

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is responsible for more than half of all deaths in the European region. The aim of the study was to compare body composition, blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), family history, activity behaviors, and the 10-year risk of having a heart attack between 166 university students (21.62 ± 2.59 yrs) from Utah (USA) and 198 students (22.11 ± 2.51 yrs) from Hungary. Ninety-two percent of the Hungarian students and 100% of the Utah students had an estimated 10-year Framingham risk score of 1% or less. The high prevalence of low risk was primarily due to the young age of study participants, healthy body composition and non-smoking behavior. Hungarians who had higher 10-year risk of heart attack had significantly higher waist hip ratio (WHR), TC, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and were smokers compared to those Hungarians with lower risk. The self-reported physical activity levels between the two groups of students were not different. In conclusion the young men and women who participated in this study were, for the most part healthy; however the smoking habits and the lower physical activity of the Hungarian students likely elevated their risk of CVD. PMID:25183506

  7. Managing tobacco use: the neglected cardiovascular disease risk factor.

    PubMed

    Rigotti, Nancy A; Clair, Carole

    2013-11-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the leading avoidable cause of death worldwide. Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) increases the risk of CVD among non-smokers. Smoking cessation benefits all smokers, regardless of age or amount smoked. The excess risk of CVD is rapidly reversible, and stopping smoking after a myocardial infarction reduces an individual's risk of CVD mortality by 36% over 2 years. Smoking cessation is a key component of primary and secondary CVD prevention strategies, but tobacco use often receives less attention from cardiologists than other risk factors, despite the availability of proven treatments that improve smoking cessation rates. Both psychosocial counselling and pharmacotherapy are effective methods to help smokers quit, but they are most effective when used together. The first-line medications licensed to aid smoking cessation, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline, are effective in and appropriate for patients with CVD. An evidence-based approach for physicians is to routinely ask all patients about smoking status and SHS exposure, advise all smokers to quit and all patients to adopt smoke-free policies for their home and car, and offer all smokers in the office or hospital brief counselling, smoking cessation pharmacotherapy, and referral to local programmes where psychosocial support can be sustained in person or by telephone. Like other chronic diseases, tobacco use requires a long-term management strategy. It deserves to be managed as intensively as other CVD risk factors. PMID:24014389

  8. Qualitative-fuzzy decision support system for monitoring patients with cardiovascular risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cesar Uribe; Claudia Isaza; Jose F. Florez-Arango

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are increasingly common in many countries. Cardiovascular risk (CVR) patients can continue their daily activities, but they must be monitored continuously in order to detect and respond to cardiovascular emergencies in the shortest possible time. Monitoring provides information to the medical personnel, which helps them make a diagnosis and decide upon a tailored treatment. This paper proposes a

  9. NOS3 polymorphisms, cigarette smoking, and cardiovascular disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Craig R.; North, Kari E.; Bray, Molly S.; Avery, Christy L.; Mosher, Mary Jane; Couper, David J.; Coresh, Josef; Folsom, Aaron R.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Heiss, Gerardo; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) activity and cigarette smoking significantly influence endothelial function. We sought to determine whether cigarette smoking modified the association between NOS3 polymorphisms and risk of coronary heart disease or stroke. Methods All 1085 incident coronary heart disease cases, all 300 incident ischemic stroke cases, and 1065 reference individuals from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study were genotyped for the T-786C and E298D polymorphisms in NOS3. Using a case–cohort design, associations between genotype/haplotype and disease risk were evaluated by multivariable proportional hazards regression. Multiplicative scale interaction testing evaluated the influence of cigarette smoking history at baseline on these associations. Results In Caucasians, association between E298D genotype and risk of coronary heart disease was significantly modified by current smoking status (interaction P = 0.013), with the highest risk observed in smokers carrying the variant D298 allele relative to nonsmokers carrying two E298 alleles (adjusted hazard rate ratio 2.07, 95% confidence interval 1.39?3.07). In African-Americans, association between T-786C genotype and risk of ischemic stroke was significantly modified by pack-year smoking history (interaction P = 0.037), with the highest risk observed in ? 20 pack-year smokers carrying the variant C-786 allele relative to < 20 pack-year smokers carrying two T-786 alleles (adjusted hazard rate ratio 4.03, 95% confidence interval 1.54?10.6). Conclusions An interaction between the E298D and T-786C polymorphisms in NOS3, cigarette smoking, and risk of incident coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke events appears to exist, suggesting a potential complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors and cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:17108813

  10. Arterial stiffness, central hemodynamics, and cardiovascular risk in hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Palatini, Paolo; Casiglia, Edoardo; G?sowski, Jerzy; G?uszek, Jerzy; Jankowski, Piotr; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Saladini, Francesca; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Van Bortel, Luc; Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes several scientific contributions at the recent Satellite Symposium of the European Society of Hypertension, held in Milan, Italy. Arterial stiffening and its hemodynamic consequences can be easily and reliably measured using a range of noninvasive techniques. However, like blood pressure (BP) measurements, arterial stiffness should be measured carefully under standardized patient conditions. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity has been proposed as the gold standard for arterial stiffness measurement and is a well recognized predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcome. Systolic BP and pulse pressure in the ascending aorta may be lower than pressures measured in the upper limb, especially in young individuals. A number of studies suggest closer correlation of end-organ damage with central BP than with peripheral BP, and central BP may provide additional prognostic information regarding cardiovascular risk. Moreover, BP-lowering drugs can have differential effects on central aortic pressures and hemodynamics compared with brachial BP. This may explain the greater beneficial effect provided by newer antihypertensive drugs beyond peripheral BP reduction. Although many methodological problems still hinder the wide clinical application of parameters of arterial stiffness, these will likely contribute to cardiovascular assessment and management in future clinical practice. Each of the abovementioned parameters reflects a different characteristic of the atherosclerotic process, involving functional and/or morphological changes in the vessel wall. Therefore, acquiring simultaneous measurements of different parameters of vascular function and structure could theoretically enhance the power to improve risk stratification. Continuous technological effort is necessary to refine our methods of investigation in order to detect early arterial abnormalities. Arterial stiffness and its consequences represent the great challenge of the twenty-first century for affluent countries, and “de-stiffening” will be the goal of the next decades. PMID:22174583

  11. Special Diabetes Program for Indians: Retention in Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Manson, Spero M.; Jiang, Luohua; Zhang, Lijing; Beals, Janette; Acton, Kelly J.; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Purpose:?This study examined the associations between participant and site characteristics and retention in a multisite cardiovascular disease risk reduction project.?Design and Methods:?Data were derived from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart Demonstration Project, an intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk among American Indians and Alaska Natives with diabetes. In 2006, a total of 1,072 participants from 30 participating sites completed baseline questionnaires measuring demographics and sociobehavioral factors. They also underwent a medical examination at baseline and were reassessed annually after baseline. A Provider Annual Questionnaire was administered to staff members of each grantee site at the end of each year to assess site characteristics. Generalized estimating equation models were used to evaluate the relationships between participant and site characteristics and retention 1 year after baseline.?Results:?Among enrolled participants, 792 (74%) completed their first annual assessment. Participants who completed the first annual assessment tended to be older and had, at baseline, higher body mass index and higher level of physical activity. Site characteristics associated with retention included average age of staff, proportion of female staff members, and percentage of staff members having completed graduate or professional school.?Implications:?Understanding successful retention must reach beyond individual characteristics of participants to include features of the settings that house the interventions. PMID:21565816

  12. When does cardiovascular risk start? Past and present socioeconomic circumstances and risk factors in adulthood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Brunner; M. J. Shipley; D. Blane; G. D. Smith; M. G. Marmot

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To compare associations of childhood and adult socioeconomic position with cardiovascular risk factors measured in adulthood. To estimate the effects of adult socioeconomic position after adjustment for childhood circumstances. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey, using the relative index of inequality method to compare socioeconomic differences at different life stages. SETTING: The Whitehall II longitudinal study of men and women

  13. Divergent Associations of Antecedent- and Response-Focused Emotion Regulation Strategies with Midlife Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Loucks, Eric B.; Buka, Stephen L.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not known whether various forms of emotion regulation are differentially related to cardiovascular disease risk. Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess whether antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation would have divergent associations with likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease. Methods Two emotion regulation strategies were examined: reappraisal (antecedent-focused) and suppression (response-focused). Cardiovascular disease risk was assessed with a validated Framingham algorithm that estimates the likelihood of developing CVD in 10 years. Associations were assessed among 373 adults via multiple linear regression. Pathways and gender-specific associations were also considered. Results One standard deviation increases in reappraisal and suppression were associated with 5.9 % lower and 10.0 % higher 10-year cardiovascular disease risk, respectively, in adjusted analyses. Conclusions Divergent associations of antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation with cardiovascular disease risk were observed. Effective emotion regulation may promote cardiovascular health. PMID:24570218

  14. An office-based approach to emotional and behavioral risk factor reduction for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Daniel M; Feinstein, Robert E; Stauter, Erinn C

    2013-01-01

    There are many psychological risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and the ability to reduce mortality depends on an ability to integrate care of these risk factors with traditional Framingham cardiovascular risk and use them both in routine practice. The aim of this article is to provide an update of all the major emotional and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors along with a practical treatment model for implementation. First, we provide a review of major emotional and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors, the associated primary effect, and proposed mechanism of action. Second, we provide an office-based approach to cardiovascular risk factor reduction and methods of reducing barriers to implementation, called Prevention Oriented Primary Care-Abridged. The approach integrates several forms of detection, assessment using the 3As (ask, assess, assist), and Stages of Change approaches, and subsequent efficient and targeted treatment with either Motivational Interviewing or further office intervention. A case example is provided to help illustrate this process. PMID:23535528

  15. Emerging Risk Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Diseases and Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    Present review article highlights various cardiovascular risk prediction biomarkers by incorporating both traditional risk factors to be used as diagnostic markers and recent technologically generated diagnostic and therapeutic markers. This paper explains traditional biomarkers such as lipid profile, glucose, and hormone level and physiological biomarkers based on measurement of levels of important biomolecules such as serum ferritin, triglyceride to HDLp (high density lipoproteins) ratio, lipophorin-cholesterol ratio, lipid-lipophorin ratio, LDL cholesterol level, HDLp and apolipoprotein levels, lipophorins and LTPs ratio, sphingolipids, Omega-3 Index, and ST2 level. In addition, immunohistochemical, oxidative stress, inflammatory, anatomical, imaging, genetic, and therapeutic biomarkers have been explained in detail with their investigational specifications. Many of these biomarkers, alone or in combination, can play important role in prediction of risks, its types, and status of morbidity. As emerging risks are found to be affiliated with minor and microlevel factors and its diagnosis at an earlier stage could find CVD, hence, there is an urgent need of new more authentic, appropriate, and reliable diagnostic and therapeutic markers to confirm disease well in time to start the clinical aid to the patients. Present review aims to discuss new emerging biomarkers that could facilitate more authentic and fast diagnosis of CVDs, HF (heart failures), and various lipid abnormalities and disorders in the future. PMID:25949827

  16. Cardiovascular event-free survival after adjuvant radiation therapy in breast cancer patients stratified by cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Onwudiwe, Nneka C; Kwok, Young; Onukwugha, Eberechukwu; Sorkin, John D; Zuckerman, Ilene H; Shaya, Fadia T; Daniel Mullins, C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of a cardiovascular event or death associated with modern radiation in a population of elderly female breast cancer patients with varying baseline cardiovascular risk. The data used for this analysis are from the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER)-Medicare database. The retrospective cohort study included women aged 66 years and older with stage 0–III breast cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2005. Women were grouped as low, intermediate, or high cardiovascular risk based on the presence of certain clinical diagnoses. The risk for the combined outcome of a hospitalization for a cardiovascular event or death within 6 months and 24 months of diagnosis was estimated using a multivariable Cox model. The median follow-up time was 24 months. Among the 91,612 women with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage 0–III breast cancer: 39,555 (43.2%) were treated with radiation therapy and 52,057 (56.8%) were not. The receipt of radiation therapy in the first 6 months was associated with a statistically significant increased risk for the combined outcome in women categorized as high risk (HR = 1.510; 95% CI, 1.396–1.634) or intermediate risk (HR = 1.415; 95% CI, 1.188–1.686) but not low risk (HR = 1.027; 95% CI, 0.798–1.321). Women with a prior medical history of cardiovascular disease treated with radiation therapy are at increased risk for an event and should be monitored for at least 6 months following treatment with radiation therapy. PMID:25044867

  17. Adiposopathy and thyroid disease: tracing the pathway to cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Duntas, Leonidas; Micic, Dragan

    2012-06-01

    Adiposopathy, defined as functionally disturbed adipose tissue mainly composed of large adipocytes and induced by chronic excess of food intake, has been associated with immune, metabolic and endocrine derangements promoting inflammation and, eventually, cardiovascular disease. Adiposopathy may positively influence thyrotropin-stimulating hormone, by raising leptin levels, and triggering autoimmunity. In this regard, it is hypothesized that the increased thyrotropin-stimulating hormone is independent of the negative regulation of the thyroid hormone, thereby constituting a secondary phenomenon and not a causal effect. Replacement therapy with thyroid hormones should therefore be applied following strict individualized consideration. Leptin is involved in the immune response and neuroendocrine appetite regulation, while leptin resistance may further promote autoimmune disease. The lipid derangement in adiposopathy may be aggravated in the presence of hypothyroidism and thus considerably augment cardiovascular risk. Lifestyle-modification counselling, including low-fat dietary intake and regular physical exercise, is today the cornerstone of adiposopathy treatment. Meanwhile, new drug formulations, such as leptin and leptin analogs, 5-HT2C-receptor agonist, and potent thyromimetics, currently comprise a promising armamentarium against adiposity and adiposopathy. PMID:22894634

  18. Kennedy Space Center Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction Program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Kristine S; Smallwood, Charles; Tipton, David A

    2008-01-01

    This program evaluation examined the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Reduction Program which aims to identify CVD risk factors and reduce these risk factors through health education phone counseling. High risk participants (those having two or more elevated lipid values) are identified from monthly voluntary CVD screenings and counseled. Phone counseling consists of reviewing lab values with the participant, discussing dietary fat intake frequency using an intake questionnaire, and promoting the increase in exercise frequency. The participants are followed-up at two-months and five-months for relevant metrics including blood pressure, weight, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, dietary fat intake, and exercise frequency. Data for three years of the KSC CVD Program included 366 participants, average age of 49 years, 75% male, and 25% female. For those with complete two and five month follow-up data, significant baseline to two-month follow-up comparisons included decreases in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.03); diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.002); total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and dietary fat intake (all three at p < 0.0001) as well as a significant increase in exercise frequency (p = 0.04). Significant baseline to five-month follow-up comparisons included decreases in triglycerides (p = 0.05); and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and dietary intake (all three at p < 0.0001). These program evaluation results indicate that providing brief phone health education counseling and information at the worksite to high risk CVD participants may impact CVD risk factors. PMID:18561517

  19. Association between Plasma Total Testosterone and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Healthy Adult Men: The Telecom Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DOMINIQUE SIMON; MARIE-ALINE CHARLES; KHALIL NAHOUL; GENEVIEVE ORSSAUD; JACQUELINE KREMSKI; VERONIQUE HULLY; EVELYNE JOUBERT; LAURE PAPOZ; EVELINE ESCHWEGE

    2006-01-01

    The associations between androgens and cardiovascular risk factors in men are controversial. A nested case-control study was used to compare the levels of cardiovascular risk factors in two groups (n 5 25 each) of healthy men contrasted by their plasma total testosterone (PTT) concentration, matched by age and ethnic origin. Compared to the men with normal PTT (mean 6 SEM,

  20. Associations between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in an urban population in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhijie Yu; Aulikki Nissinen; Erkki Vartiainen; Guide Song; Zeyu Guo; Gengwen Zheng; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Huiguang Tian

    2000-01-01

    Introduction In developed countries socioeconomic status has been proven to be an important factor in the progression of cardiovascular disease. The present article reports the results of a cross-sectional assessment to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in a Chinese urban population. Methods In 1996, a behavioural risk factor survey was carried out in Tianjin, the

  1. Initial combination therapy reduces the risk of cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients: a matched cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gradman, Alan H; Parisé, Hélène; Lefebvre, Patrick; Falvey, Heather; Lafeuille, Marie-Hélène; Duh, Mei Sheng

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of initial versus delayed treatment with a drug combination on blood pressure (BP) control and the risk of cardiovascular (CV) events in hypertensive patients. Clinical trials suggest that the time to BP control is an important determinant of long-term outcomes, but real-world evidence is scarce. Using electronic medical charts (2005-2009), we retrospectively analyzed 1762 adult patients with BP elevation initiating combination therapy matched 1:1 with similar patients initiating monotherapy and later switched to combination therapy. Incidence rate ratios of CV events (myocardial infarction, stroke/transient ischemic attack, or hospitalization for heart failure) or all-cause death and Kaplan-Meier analyses of time to BP control were compared between cohorts. Hazard ratios indicating the effects of initial treatment on CV events and BP control were estimated using time-varying Cox proportional hazard models. Initial combination therapy was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of CV events or death (incidence rate ratio, 0.66 [95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.84]; P=0.0008). After 6 months of therapy, 40.3% and 32.6% of patients with initial versus delayed combination treatment reached BP control, respectively. Achieving target BP was associated with a statistically significant risk reduction of 23% for CV events or death (hazard ratio, 0.77 [95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.96]; P=0.0223); the residual effect of initial combination therapy did not reach statistical significance (hazard ratio, 0.84 [95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.03]; P=0.0935). Initial combination therapy was associated with a significant risk reduction of cardiovascular events. More rapid achievement of target BP was found to be the main contributor to the estimated risk reduction. PMID:23184383

  2. Migraine, vascular risk, and cardiovascular events in women: prospective cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Kurth; Markus Schürks; Giancarlo Logroscino; J Michael Gaziano; Julie E Buring

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate whether the association between migraine with aura and increased risk of cardiovascular disease is modified by vascular risk groups as measured by the Framingham risk score for coronary heart disease.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Women’s health study, United States.Participants 27 519 women who were free from cardiovascular disease at baseline with available information on the Framingham risk score

  3. Cardiovascular risk factor knowledge and risk perception among HIV-infected adults

    PubMed Central

    Cioe, Patricia A.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Stein, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected adults. Research in non-infected populations has suggested that knowledge of CVD risk factors significantly influences perceptions of risk. This cross-sectional study describes CVD risk factor knowledge and risk perception in HIV-infected adults. We recruited 130 HIV-infected adults (mean age = 48 years, 62% male, 56% current smokers, mean years since HIV diagnosis, 14.7). The mean CVD risk factor knowledge score was fairly high. However, controlling for age, CVD risk factor knowledge was not predictive of perceived risk (F[1,117] = 0.13, p > .05). Estimated risk and perceived risk were weakly, but significantly, correlated, r(126) = .24, p = .01. HIV-infected adults are at increased risk for CVD. Despite having adequate risk factor knowledge, CVD risk perception was inaccurate. Improving risk perception and developing CVD risk reduction interventions for this population are imperative. PMID:24070645

  4. Ultrasonography for the evaluation of visceral fat and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Filho, F F; Faria, A N; Kohlmann, O; Ajzen, S; Ribeiro, A B; Zanella, M T; Ferreira, S R

    2001-09-01

    Visceral fat accumulation is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Clinical evaluation of visceral fat is limited because of the lack of reliable and low-cost methods. To assess the correlation between ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of visceral fat, 101 obese women, age 50.5+/-7.7 years with a body mass index of 39.2+/-5.4 kg/m(2), were submitted to ultrasonograph and CT scans. Visceral fat measured by ultrasonography, 1 cm above the umbilical knot, showed a high correlation with CT-determined visceral fat (r=0.67, P<0.0001). The ultrasonograph method showed good reproducibility with an intra-observer variation coefficient of <2%. Both ultrasonograph and CT visceral fat values were correlated with fasting insulin (r=0.29 and r=0.27, P<0.01) and plasma glucose 2 hours after oral glucose load (r=0.22 and r=0.34, P<0.05), indicating that ultrasonography is a useful method to evaluate cardiovascular risk. A significant correlation was also found between visceral fat by CT and serum sodium (r=0.18, P<0.05). A ultrasonograph-determined visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio of 2.50 was established as a cutoff value to define patients with abdominal visceral obesity. This value also identified patients with higher levels of plasma glucose, serum insulin and triglycerides and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol, which are metabolic abnormalities characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. Our data demonstrate that ultrasonography is a precise and reliable method for evaluation of visceral fat and identification of patients with adverse metabolic profile. PMID:11566963

  5. Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Markers of Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Augoulea, Areti; Iliodromiti, Zoe; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Sifakis, Stavros; Creatsas, George

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the developed world has increased at an alarming rate over the last few decades. GDM has been shown to be associated with postpartum diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. A history of previous GDM (pGDM), associated or not with any of these metabolic abnormalities, can increase the risk of developing not only type 2 diabetes mellitus but also cardiovascular disease (CVD) independent of a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes later in life. In this paper we discuss the relationship among inflammatory markers, metabolic abnormalities, and vascular dysfunction in women with pGDM. We also review the current knowledge on metabolic modifications occurring in normal pregnancy and the link between alterations of a normal metabolic state with the long-term maternal complications that may result in increased CVD risk. Our review of studies on pGDM prompts us to recommend that these women be considered a population at risk for later CVD events, which however could be avoided via the use of specially designed follow-up programs in the future. PMID:22518122

  6. Trans fatty acids – A risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz

    2014-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are produced either by hydrogenation of unsaturated oils or by biohydrogenation in the stomach of ruminant animals. Vanaspati ghee and margarine have high contents of TFA. A number of studies have shown an association of TFA consumption and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This increased risk is because TFA increase the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization have come up with the recommendation that the contents of TFA in human dietary fat should be reduced to less than 4%. There is high prevalence of CVD in Pakistan. High consumption of vanaspati ghee which contains 14.2-34.3% of TFA could be one of the factors for this increased burden of CVD in Pakistan. Consumption of dietary fat low in TFA would be helpful in reducing the risk of CVD in South Asia. Denmark by banning the sale of food items with TFA has brought down the number of deaths due to coronary heart disease by nearly 50% over a period of 20 years. Public awareness about the adverse effects of TFA on human health would be extremely important. Media can play a very effective role in educating the masses and advocating the policy for the sale of only low TFA food items. Literature sources: Google and US National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health were the sources of papers cited in this review article. PMID:24639860

  7. Arterial stiffness and increased cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuxia; Zhou, Lin; Dong, Jinghui; Zhang, Xiaoshen; Yan, Shi

    2015-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common comorbidity and a major cause of mortality in CKD population. While CVD-related mortality is relatively uncommon in young population, it accounts for most deaths in young CKD adults. There are numerous risk factors for CVD in CKD patients including conventional (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia) and nonconventional (oxidative stress, inflammation, anemia, mineral metabolism disorder) factors. Recent studies have placed great emphasis on the association of arterial stiffness (AS) and CVD. AS is traditionally known as an aging marker of the artery; however, increased AS is observed in young and even in pediatric CKD patients; it is also shown that AS progresses in consistent with kidney function decline. Unparallel AS in young CKD population and excessive risk of CVD in young CKD adults show an indication that AS probably offers one of the underlying mechanisms for linking CKD and CVD. AS in CKD patients has multifactorial causes. Comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and mineral metabolism disorder which are risk factors for CVD also show great contribution to AS in CKD patients. Increased systolic blood pressure and decreased diastolic blood pressure resulting from AS cause elevated ventricular afterload, lead to impaired coronary perfusion, myocardial ischemia, and ventricular hypertrophy, and consequently develop into CVD event. In this review, we summarized the role of AS in CKD and CVD, aiming to explore the linkage of AS between CKD and CVD. PMID:25991557

  8. Modifiable Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Indigenous Populations

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Adam A.; Lambrick, Danielle M.; Faulkner, James A.; Tarrant, Michael A.; Poudevigne, Melanie; Williams, Michelle A.; Stoner, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify modifiable cardio-metabolic and lifestyle risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians/Torres Strait Islanders), New Zealand (M?ori), and the United States (American Indians and Alaska Natives) that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized, and synthesized. Results. Compared to their non-indigenous counterparts, indigenous populations exhibit lower life expectancies and a greater prevalence of CVD. All indigenous populations have higher rates of obesity and diabetes, hypertension is greater for M?ori and Aboriginal Australians, and high cholesterol is greater only among American Indians/Alaska Natives. In turn, all indigenous groups exhibit higher rates of smoking and dangerous alcohol behaviour as well as consuming less fruits and vegetables. Aboriginal Australians and American Indians/Alaska Natives also exhibit greater rates of sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Indigenous groups from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have a lower life expectancy then their respective non-indigenous counterparts. A higher prevalence of CVD is a major driving force behind this discrepancy. A cluster of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors precede CVD, which, in turn, is linked to modifiable lifestyle risk factors. PMID:24649368

  9. Modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors among indigenous populations.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Adam A; Lambrick, Danielle M; Faulkner, James A; Fryer, Simon; Tarrant, Michael A; Poudevigne, Melanie; Williams, Michelle A; Stoner, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify modifiable cardio-metabolic and lifestyle risk factors among indigenous populations from Australia (Aboriginal Australians/Torres Strait Islanders), New Zealand (M?ori), and the United States (American Indians and Alaska Natives) that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. National health surveys were identified where available. Electronic databases identified sources for filling missing data. The most relevant data were identified, organized, and synthesized. Results. Compared to their non-indigenous counterparts, indigenous populations exhibit lower life expectancies and a greater prevalence of CVD. All indigenous populations have higher rates of obesity and diabetes, hypertension is greater for M?ori and Aboriginal Australians, and high cholesterol is greater only among American Indians/Alaska Natives. In turn, all indigenous groups exhibit higher rates of smoking and dangerous alcohol behaviour as well as consuming less fruits and vegetables. Aboriginal Australians and American Indians/Alaska Natives also exhibit greater rates of sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Indigenous groups from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States have a lower life expectancy then their respective non-indigenous counterparts. A higher prevalence of CVD is a major driving force behind this discrepancy. A cluster of modifiable cardio-metabolic risk factors precede CVD, which, in turn, is linked to modifiable lifestyle risk factors. PMID:24649368

  10. Glycemic management in diabetes and the associated cardiovascular risk: are we helping or hurting our patients?

    PubMed

    Koshizaka, Masaya; Green, Jennifer B; Alexander, John H

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes, which is a metabolic disorder with multiple comorbidities, increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Although it was once assumed that controlling plasma glucose levels would reduce diabetes-related morbidity and mortality, recent trials have demonstrated that this is not consistently the case. Data from large, well-designed trials suggest that intensive glycemic therapy may be useful in preventing cardiovascular events if initiated early in the disease course, but may be harmful or not useful if applied to high-risk patients with a longer history of diabetes. Furthermore, the cardiovascular safety of existing individual antihyperglycemic agents remains largely unknown. We review the relationship between glycemic control targets and cardiovascular outcomes, as well as the current understanding of the cardiovascular effects of existing glucose-lowering therapies. This information has affected recommendations for diabetes care in Japan and the United States differently, and supports a more comprehensive and prospective approach to cardiovascular safety assessments of diabetes therapies in the future. Results from ongoing cardiovascular outcomes trials of diabetes medications may help to define optimal glucose-lowering strategies for patients at high risk of cardiovascular complications. Until then, glycemic control targets and the medications used to achieve them should be individualized according to each patient's age, duration of diabetes, risk of hypoglycemia, risk of cardiovascular complications, and life expectancy. PMID:22789974

  11. Effects of tea and coffee on cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Bøhn, Siv K; Ward, Natalie C; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D

    2012-06-01

    Tea and coffee have been associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), both positively and negatively. Epidemiological data suggest that black and green tea may reduce the risk of both coronary heart disease and stroke by between 10 and 20%. Experimental and clinical trial data generally indicate either neutral or beneficial effects on risk factors and pathways linked to the development of CVD. Controversy still exists regarding the effects of coffee, where there have been concerns regarding associations with hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and myocardial infarction. However, long term moderate intake of coffee is not associated with detrimental effects in healthy individuals and may even protect against the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The detrimental effects of coffee may be associated with the acute pressor effects, most likely due to caffeine at high daily intakes, and lipids from boiled coffee can contribute to raised serum cholesterol. Genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in uptake, metabolism and excretion of tea and coffee compounds are also associated with differential biological effects. Potential mechanisms by which tea and coffee phytochemicals can exert effects for CVD protection include the regulation of vascular tone through effects on endothelial function, improved glucose metabolism, increased reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of foam cell formation, inhibition of oxidative stress, immunomodulation and effects on platelet function (adhesion and activation, aggregation and clotting). The phytochemical compounds in tea and coffee and their metabolites are suggested to influence protective endogenous pathways by modulation of gene-expression. It is not known exactly which compounds are responsible for the suggestive protective effects of tea and coffee. Although many biologically active compounds have been identified with known biological effects, tea and coffee contain many unidentified compounds with potential bioactivity. PMID:22456725

  12. Combining antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic agents – optimizing cardiovascular risk factor management

    PubMed Central

    Zamorano, José; Edwards, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Clinical guidelines now recognize the importance of a multifactorial approach to managing cardiovascular (CV) risk. This idea was taken a step further with the concept of the Polypill™. There are, however, considerable patent, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, registration, and cost implications that will need to be overcome before the Polypill™ or other single-pill combinations of CV medications become widely available. However, a medication targeting blood pressure (BP) and lipids provides much of the proposed benefits of the Polypill™. A single-pill combination of the antihypertensive amlodipine besylate and the lipid-lowering medication atorvastatin calcium (SPAA) is currently available in many parts of the world. This review describes the rationale for this combination therapy and the clinical trials that have demonstrated that these two agents can be combined without the loss of efficacy for either agent or an increase in the incidence of adverse events. The recently completed Cluster Randomized Usual Care vs Caduet Investigation Assessing Long-term-risk (CRUCIAL trial) is discussed in detail. CRUCIAL was a 12-month, international, multicenter, prospective, open-label, parallel design, cluster-randomized trial, which demonstrated that a proactive intervention strategy based on SPAA in addition to usual care (UC) had substantial benefits on estimated CV risk, BP, and lipids over continued UC alone. Adherence with antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapies outside of the controlled environment of clinical trials is very low (~30%–40% at 12 months). Observational studies have demonstrated that improving adherence to lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medications may reduce CV events. One means of improving adherence is the use of single-pill combinations. Real-world observational studies have demonstrated that patients are more adherent to SPAA than co-administered antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy, and this improved adherence translated to reduced CV events. Taken together, these findings suggest that SPAA can play an important role in helping physicians improve the management of CV risk in their patients. PMID:22162939

  13. Olive oil intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the PREDIMED Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether individuals at high cardiovascular risk sustain a benefit in cardiovascular disease from increased olive oil consumption. The aim was to assess the association between total olive oil intake, its varieties (extra virgin and common olive oil) and the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods We included 7,216 men and women at high cardiovascular risk, aged 55 to 80 years, from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study, a multicenter, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. Participants were randomized to one of three interventions: Mediterranean Diets supplemented with nuts or extra-virgin olive oil, or a control low-fat diet. The present analysis was conducted as an observational prospective cohort study. The median follow-up was 4.8 years. Cardiovascular disease (stroke, myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death) and mortality were ascertained by medical records and National Death Index. Olive oil consumption was evaluated with validated food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and generalized estimating equations were used to assess the association between baseline and yearly repeated measurements of olive oil intake, cardiovascular disease and mortality. Results During follow-up, 277 cardiovascular events and 323 deaths occurred. Participants in the highest energy-adjusted tertile of baseline total olive oil and extra-virgin olive oil consumption had 35% (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.89) and 39% (HR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.44 to 0.85) cardiovascular disease risk reduction, respectively, compared to the reference. Higher baseline total olive oil consumption was associated with 48% (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.93) reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality. For each 10 g/d increase in extra-virgin olive oil consumption, cardiovascular disease and mortality risk decreased by 10% and 7%, respectively. No significant associations were found for cancer and all-cause mortality. The associations between cardiovascular events and extra virgin olive oil intake were significant in the Mediterranean diet intervention groups and not in the control group. Conclusions Olive oil consumption, specifically the extra-virgin variety, is associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and mortality in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Trial registration This study was registered at controlled-trials.com (http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN35739639). International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 35739639. Registration date: 5 October 2005. PMID:24886626

  14. Central Versus Peripheral Cardiovascular Risk in Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Edgell, H.; Petrella, R. J.; Hodges, G. J.; Shoemaker, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS; i.e., three of five of the following risk factors (RFs): elevated blood pressure, waist circumference, triglycerides, blood glucose, or reduced HDL) are thought to be prone to serious cardiovascular disease and there is debate as to whether the disease begins in the peripheral vasculature or centrally. This study investigates hemodynamics, cardiac function/morphology, and mechanical properties of the central (heart, carotid artery) or peripheral [total peripheral resistance (TPR), forearm vascular bed] vasculature in individuals without (1–2 RFs: n?=?28), or with (?3 RFs: n?=?46) MetS. After adjustments for statin and blood pressure medication use, those with MetS had lower mitral valve E/A ratios (<3 RFs: 1.24?±?0.07; ?3 RFs: 1.01?±?0.04; P?=?0.025), and higher TPR index (<3 RFs: 48?±?2?mmHg/L/min/m2; ?3 RFs: 53?±?2?mmHg/L/min/m2; P?=?0.04). There were no differences in heart size, carotid artery measurements, cardiovagal baroreflex, pulse-wave velocity, stroke volume index, or cardiac output index due to MetS after adjustments for statin and blood pressure medication use. The use of statins was associated with increased inertia in the brachial vascular bed, increased HbA1c and decreased LDL cholesterol. The independent use of anti-hypertensive medication was associated with decreased predicted VO2max, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, interventricular septum thickness, calculated left ventricle mass, left ventricle posterior wall thickness, and left ventricle pre-ejection period, but increased carotid stiffness, HDL cholesterol, and heart rate. These data imply that both a central cardiac effect and a peripheral effect of vascular resistance are expressed in MetS. These data also indicate that variance in between-group responses due to pharmacological treatments are important factors to consider in studying cardiovascular changes in these individuals. PMID:22375126

  15. Cyclooxygenase Polymorphisms and Risk of Cardiovascular Events: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, CR; North, KE; Bray, MS; Couper, DJ; Heiss, G; Zeldin, DC

    2008-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-derived prostaglandins modulate cardiovascular disease risk. We genotyped 2212 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants (1,023 incident coronary heart disease (CHD) cases; 270 incident ischemic stroke cases; 919 non-cases) with available DNA for polymorphisms in PTGS1 and PTGS2. Using a case–cohort design, associations between genotype and CHD or stroke risk were evaluated using proportional hazards regression. In Caucasians, the reduced function PTGS1 ?1006A variant allele was significantly more common among stroke cases compared to non-cases (18.2 versus 10.6%, P = 0.027). In African Americans, the reduced function PTGS2 ?765C variant allele was significantly more common in stroke cases (61.4 versus 49.4%, P = 0.032). No significant relationships with CHD risk were observed. However, aspirin utilization appeared to modify the relationship between the PTGS2 G-765C polymorphism and CHD risk (interaction P = 0.072). These findings suggest that genetic variation in PTGS1 and PTGS2 may be important risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease events. Confirmation in independent populations is necessary. PMID:17495879

  16. Principal Component and Linkage Analysis of Cardiovascular Risk Traits in the Norfolk Isolate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannah C. Cox; Claire Bellis; Rod A. Lea; Sharon Quinlan; Roger Hughes; Thomas Dyer; Jac Charlesworth; John Blangero; Lyn R. Griffiths

    2009-01-01

    Objective(s): An individual’s risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is influenced by genetic factors. This study focussed on mapping genetic loci for CVD-risk traits in a unique population isolate derived from Norfolk Island. Methods: This investigation focussed on 377 individuals descended from the population founders. Principal component analysis was used to extract orthogonal components from 11 cardiovascular risk traits. Multipoint

  17. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment and Management in Mental Health Clients: Whose Role is it Anyway?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda J. Wheeler; Jeff Harrison; Priya Mohini; Jeshika Nardan; Amy Tsai; Eve Tsai

    2010-01-01

    People with serious mental illness have higher rates of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. This study describes\\u000a health practitioners’ views on their role and confidence assessing and managing cardiovascular risk. The key findings were\\u000a of a widespread acknowledgement of the need to undertake systematic risk assessment and offer structured approaches to risk\\u000a factor management. Barriers of client engagement, lack

  18. Sex differences in cardiovascular risk factors and disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Appelman, Yolande; van Rijn, Bas B; Ten Haaf, Monique E; Boersma, Eric; Peters, Sanne A E

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been seen as a men's disease for decades, however it is more common in women than in men. It is generally assumed in medicine that the effects of the major risk factors (RF) on CVD outcomes are the same in women as in men. Recent evidence has emerged that recognizes new, potentially independent, CVD RF exclusive to women. In particular, common disorders of pregnancy, such as gestational hypertension and diabetes, as well as frequently occurring endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age (e.g. polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and early menopause) are associated with accelerated development of CVD and impaired CVD-free survival. With the recent availability of prospective studies comprising men and women, the equivalency of major RF prevalence and effects on CVD between men and women can be examined. Furthermore, female-specific RFs might be identified enabling early detection of apparently healthy women with a high lifetime risk of CVD. Therefore, we examined the available literature regarding the prevalence and effects of the traditional major RFs for CVD in men and women. This included large prospective cohort studies, cross-sectional studies and registries, as randomised trials are lacking. Furthermore, a literature search was performed to examine the impact of female-specific RFs on the traditional RFs and the occurrence of CVD. We found that the effects of elevated blood pressure, overweight and obesity, and elevated cholesterol on CVD outcomes are largely similar between women and men, however prolonged smoking is significantly more hazardous for women than for men. With respect to female-specific RF only associations (and no absolute risk data) could be found between preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and menopause onset with the occurrence of CVD. This review shows that CVD is the main cause of death in men and women, however the prevalence is higher in women. Determination of the CV risk profile should take into account that there are differences in impact of major CV RF leading to a worse outcome in women. Lifestyle interventions and awareness in women needs more consideration. Furthermore, there is accumulating evidence that female-specific RF are of influence on the impact of major RF and on the onset of CVD. Attention for female specific RF may enable early detection and intervention in apparently healthy women. Studies are needed on how to implement the added RF's in current risk assessment and management strategies to maximize benefit and cost-effectiveness specific in women. PMID:25670232

  19. Pesticide residues and bees--a risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees. PMID:24718419

  20. Influence of immune activation and inflammatory response on cardiovascular risk associated with the human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán, Luis M; Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Amaro-Villalobos, Juan Manuel; Egido, Jesús; García-Puig, Juan; Moreno, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased cardiovascular risk. Although initially this increased risk was attributed to metabolic alterations associated with antiretroviral treatment, in recent years, the attention has been focused on the HIV disease itself. Inflammation, immune system activation, and endothelial dysfunction facilitated by HIV infection have been identified as key factors in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In this review, we describe the epidemiology and pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in patients with HIV infection and summarize the latest knowledge on the relationship between traditional and novel inflammatory, immune activation, and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers on the cardiovascular risk associated with HIV infection. PMID:25609975

  1. Describing an Academic and Nonprofit Organization Partnership to Educate At-Risk Adolescents about Cardiovascular Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palazzo, Steven J.; Skager, Cherie; Kraiger, Anneliese

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence to suggest community-based interventions can change community-wide behaviors and attitudes toward cardiovascular health. This article describes a partnership between an academic institution and a community nonprofit organization to develop and implement a cardiovascular health promotion program targeting at risk high…

  2. Effects of thyroid hormones on major cardiovascular risk in acute coronary syndromes

    E-print Network

    P1 Effects of thyroid hormones on major cardiovascular risk in acute coronary syndromes A Bayrak1 In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between thyroid hormone abnormalities and major cardiac death and major cardiovascular events. The relationship between thyroid hormone levels and acute

  3. Omega3 Fatty Acids, Homocysteine, and the Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Mortality in Major Depressive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Emanuel Severus; Andrew B. Littman; Andrew L. Stoll

    2001-01-01

    Depression is associated with elevated rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This elevation seems to be due to a significantly increased risk of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction and, once the ischemic heart disease is established, sudden cardiac death. Recent data suggest that the increased rates of cardiovascular disease in patients with depression may be the result of one

  4. Arterial hypertension – prevalence of risk factors and morbide associations that increase cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Sur, G; Sur, M; Kudor-Szabadi, L; Sur, L; Sporis, D; Sur, D

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hypertension represents a serious problem in Romania, as there are over 3 million hypertensive people in our country. There is a high incidence of deaths caused by hypertension. We performed an analytical prospective study that aims to determine: prevalence of arterial hypertension in a population from Cluj county, distribution on age and gender, arterial hypertension severity, association of hypertension with other cardiovascular risk factors. Our study included 2266 patients, age 14 years old up to over 90 years old, both masculine and feminine gender, known with hypertension and new-diagnosed ones. Each subject was submitted to an interview based on a questionnaire. Diagnosis of arterial hypertension was established according to ESH criteria that consider as hypertension: values over 140/90 mmHg. Out of all subjects submitted to the study 647 (29.74%) were diagnosed with arterial hypertension and, from these, 102 (15.13%) were new-diagnosed patients. We found out a predominance of arterial hypertension at the age of 51-60 and over 60, an increased involvement of feminine sex; an association of hypertension with other major cardiovascular risk factors: obesity, diabetes, dislypidemia. Arterial hypertension represents an important health problem in Romania due to an increased prevalence, major impact on morbidity and mortality by cardiovascular and cerebro-vascular disease. These facts accentuate the necessity of an early diagnosis, of making people aware of the severity of the disease and it’s impact on their lifestyle. PMID:21977116

  5. Methodological Issues in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Risk of Determining Absolute Risk Through Statistical Models

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Stavrinos, Vassilis

    2006-01-01

    During the past years there has been increasing interest in the development of cardiovascular disease functions that predict future events at individual level. However, this effort has not been so far very successful, since several investigators have reported large differences in the estimation of the absolute risk among different populations. For example, it seems that predictive models that have been derived from US or north European populations overestimate the incidence of cardiovascular events in south European and Japanese populations. A potential explanation could be attributed to several factors such as geographical, cultural, social, behavioral, as well as genetic variations between the investigated populations in addition to various methodological, statistical, issues relating to the estimation of these predictive models. Based on current literature it can be concluded that, while risk prediction of future cardiovascular events is a useful tool and might be valuable in controlling the burden of the disease in a population, further work is required to improve the accuracy of the present predictive models. PMID:17326336

  6. Can a statin neutralize the cardiovascular risk of unhealthy dietary choices?

    PubMed

    Ferenczi, Emily A; Asaria, Perviz; Hughes, Alun D; Chaturvedi, Nishi; Francis, Darrel P

    2010-08-15

    The cardiovascular risk reduction associated with different statins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and the cardiovascular risk increase associated with excess dietary intake of fat have been quantified. However, these relative risks have never been directly juxtaposed to determine whether an increase in relative risk by 1 activity could be neutralized by an opposing change in relative risk from a second activity. The investigators compared the increase in relative risk for cardiovascular disease associated with the total fat and trans fat content of fast foods against the relative risk decrease provided by daily statin consumption from a meta-analysis of statins in primary prevention of coronary artery disease (7 randomized controlled trials including 42,848 patients). The risk reduction associated with the daily consumption of most statins, with the exception of pravastatin, is more powerful than the risk increase caused by the daily extra fat intake associated with a 7-oz hamburger (Quarter Pounder) with cheese and a small milkshake. In conclusion, statin therapy can neutralize the cardiovascular risk caused by harmful diet choices. In other spheres of human activity, individuals choosing risky pursuits (motorcycling, smoking, driving) are advised or compelled to use measures to minimize the risk (safety equipment, filters, seatbelts). Likewise, some individuals eat unhealthily. Routine accessibility of statins in establishments providing unhealthy food might be a rational modern means to offset the cardiovascular risk. Fast food outlets already offer free condiments to supplement meals. A free statin-containing accompaniment would offer cardiovascular benefits, opposite to the effects of equally available salt, sugar, and high-fat condiments. Although no substitute for systematic lifestyle improvements, including healthy diet, regular exercise, weight loss, and smoking cessation, complimentary statin packets would add, at little cost, 1 positive choice to a panoply of negative ones. PMID:20691321

  7. Cardiovascular Risks Associated with Low Dose Ionizing Particle Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xinhua; Sasi, Sharath P.; Gee, Hannah; Lee, JuYong; Yang, Yongyao; Mehrzad, Raman; Onufrak, Jillian; Song, Jin; Enderling, Heiko; Agarwal, Akhil; Rahimi, Layla; Morgan, James; Wilson, Paul F.; Carrozza, Joseph; Walsh, Kenneth; Kishore, Raj; Goukassian, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous epidemiologic data demonstrate that cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality may occur decades after ionizing radiation exposure. With increased use of proton and carbon ion radiotherapy and concerns about space radiation exposures to astronauts on future long-duration exploration-type missions, the long-term effects and risks of low-dose charged particle irradiation on the CV system must be better appreciated. Here we report on the long-term effects of whole-body proton (1H; 0.5 Gy, 1 GeV) and iron ion (56Fe; 0.15 Gy, 1GeV/nucleon) irradiation with and without an acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) event in mice. We show that cardiac function of proton-irradiated mice initially improves at 1 month but declines by 10 months post-irradiation. In AMI-induced mice, prior proton irradiation improved cardiac function restoration and enhanced cardiac remodeling. This was associated with increased pro-survival gene expression in cardiac tissues. In contrast, cardiac function was significantly declined in 56Fe ion-irradiated mice at 1 and 3 months but recovered at 10 months. In addition, 56Fe ion-irradiation led to poorer cardiac function and more adverse remodeling in AMI-induced mice, and was associated with decreased angiogenesis and pro-survival factors in cardiac tissues at any time point examined up to 10 months. This is the first study reporting CV effects following low dose proton and iron ion irradiation during normal aging and post-AMI. Understanding the biological effects of charged particle radiation qualities on the CV system is necessary both for the mitigation of space exploration CV risks and for understanding of long-term CV effects following charged particle radiotherapy. PMID:25337914

  8. The Impact of C Reactive Protein on Global Cardiovascular Risk on Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cozlea, D.L.; Farcas, D.M.; Nagy, A.; Keresztesi, A.A.; Tifrea, Ramona; Cozlea, L.; Cara?ca, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of premature death worldwide. Hundreds of risk factors have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Recent extensive evidence supports inflammation as a key pathogenetic mechanism in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and in triggering clinical atherothrombotic CVD events. C-reactive protein (CRP) is one possible marker of vascular inflammation and plays a direct role in promoting vascular inflammation, vessel damage and clinical CVD events. Material and method. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CRP level and the global cardiovascular risk. We evaluated 100 patients with cardiovascular risk factors, using the systematic coronary risk evalution (SCORE) charts for high risk regions of Europe and we determined the CRP level, using the nephelometric method. Results. By their SCORE chart, 44% of the patients are in the moderate risk category, and almost 40% in the high risk category, the rest of them (16%) are in the low and very high risk category. A statistically significant p value (p<0.05) was observed between patients with CRP<10mg/L, who had a lower sistolic blood pressure than patients with CRP?10mg/L, Conclusion. The CRP level over 10mg/L is correlated with an over 4% risk of developing a fatal CVD in 10 years. The acute phase reactant, CRP, a simple downstream marker of inflammation, has now emerged as a major cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:24778862

  9. The impact of C reactive protein on global cardiovascular risk on patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Cozlea, D L; Farcas, D M; Nagy, A; Keresztesi, A A; Tifrea, Ramona; Cozlea, L; Cara?ca, E

    2013-10-01

    Introduction. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of premature death worldwide. Hundreds of risk factors have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Recent extensive evidence supports inflammation as a key pathogenetic mechanism in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and in triggering clinical atherothrombotic CVD events. C-reactive protein (CRP) is one possible marker of vascular inflammation and plays a direct role in promoting vascular inflammation, vessel damage and clinical CVD events. Material and method. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CRP level and the global cardiovascular risk. We evaluated 100 patients with cardiovascular risk factors, using the systematic coronary risk evalution (SCORE) charts for high risk regions of Europe and we determined the CRP level, using the nephelometric method. Results. By their SCORE chart, 44% of the patients are in the moderate risk category, and almost 40% in the high risk category, the rest of them (16%) are in the low and very high risk category. A statistically significant p value (p<0.05) was observed between patients with CRP<10mg/L, who had a lower sistolic blood pressure than patients with CRP?10mg/L, Conclusion. The CRP level over 10mg/L is correlated with an over 4% risk of developing a fatal CVD in 10 years. The acute phase reactant, CRP, a simple downstream marker of inflammation, has now emerged as a major cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:24778862

  10. Cardiovascular risk factors in children with obesity, hypertension and diabetes: lipoprotein(a) levels and body mass index correlate with family history of cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Glowinska; Miroslawa Urban; Alicja Koput

    2002-01-01

    The aims of the study were to compare atherosclerosis risk factors in obese, hypertensive and diabetic children with positive and negative family history (FH) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to find which of the new atherosclerosis risk factors may be of clinical value in predicting future cardiovascular events. A total of 285 children and adolescents were divided into groups: obese,

  11. Cardiovascular Risks of Anemia Correction with Erythrocyte Stimulating Agents: Should Blood Viscosity Be Monitored for Risk Assessment?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seul-Ki Jeong; Young I. Cho; Marc Duey; Robert S. Rosenson

    2010-01-01

    To date, all major clinical trials for anemia correction using erythrocyte stimulating agents (ESAs) failed to show improved\\u000a outcomes for cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, and vascular thrombosis. Even moderate elevations in hemoglobin (e.g.,\\u000a to 13 g\\/dL) using erythropoietin have been associated with significantly increased risk of thrombotic cardiovascular events\\u000a and heart failure. This review presents a biophysical rationale for increased risk

  12. A critical appraisal of the use of Internet for calculating cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed Central

    Gillois, P.; Colombet, I.; Dréau, H.; Degoulet, P.; Chatellier, G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper aims to retrieve and evaluate the quality of the Internet sites providing information on cardiovascular risk. We searched web pages related to risk prediction using six search engines. Sites proposing a cardiovascular risk prediction were selected for evaluation. The quality of each site was checked against criteria testing the validity, type and potential usefulness of information for physicians or patients. Search engines retrieved about 50 10(6) web pages. Eight sites were included. Only 2 of them provided calculation of cardiovascular risk based on Framingham equation. The others proposed algorithms, guidelines, or general information on cardiovascular health. Most sites lacked details to ensure quality of information. Present search engines are inefficient to retrieve precise and valid information. Facing the inflation of medical information, a systematic approach to validate the quality of a site is mandatory. Application of Evidence Based Medicine concepts gives a solution for evaluation of internet-based medical information. PMID:10566465

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the risk of major cardiovascular events with etoricoxib therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Aldington; Philippa Shirtcliffe; Mark Weatherall; Richard Beasley

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the risk of thromboembolic cardiovascular events associated with the use of etoricoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomised

  14. Prevalence of Uncontrolled Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease: United States, 1999-2010

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevalence of Uncontrolled Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease: United States, 1999–2010 On This Page Key findings Did ... is the leading cause of death in the United States ( 1 ). High blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking ...

  15. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1 Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle ... fatty deposits called plaque build up in the arteries, especially those in the legs. Over time, the ...

  16. Waist circumference as a predictor of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in obese girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Maffeis; N Corciulo; C Livieri; I Rabbone; G Trifirò; A Falorni; L Guerraggio; P Peverelli; G Cuccarolo; G Bergamaschi; M Di Pietro; A Grezzani

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: (a) to explore the relationship between waist circumference and certain cardiovascular risk factors in a group of girls; and (b) to assess the clinical relevance of waist circumference in identifying girls with higher cardiovascular risk across puberty.Subjects and methods: One-hundred and fifty-five overweight or obese girls aged 5–16 y were recruited. Overweight and obesity were defined on the basis

  17. The relationship between calcium intake, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors: the jackson heart study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health risk in the United States. Major indicators of CVD risk include obesity, blood lipids, and blood pressure. Modifiable risk factors associated with CVD include body composition (body mass index and waist circumference), serum lipids, and blood pressure. ...

  18. Work and diet-related risk factors of cardiovascular diseases: comparison of two occupational groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danielle Hartung; Martina Stadeler; Romano Grieshaber; Sylvia Keller; Gerhard Jahreis

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although work related risk factors associated with Cardiovascular Diseases (CD) have been well researched, there is no detailed knowledge regarding disparate occupational groups each with a different risk exposition. Therefore, two occupational groups (chefs and office workers) were compared with a focus on nutritional and psychosocial factors. METHODS: Two groups of subjects were tested for work and diet-related risks

  19. Inne czynniki ryzyka sercowo-naczyniowego u pacjentów z nadci?nieniem t?tniczym o ró?nym ryzyku zgonu sercowo-naczyniowego wed?ug SCORE w populacji badania RISK Other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with arterial hypertension and different risk of cardiovascular death according to SCORE charts in the RISK study population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PRACA ORYGINALNA; Arkadiusz Niklas; Katarzyna Kolasi?ska-Malkowska; Arleta Wilkins

    Summary Background Comparison of prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors not included in the SCORE index in patients with mild and moderate hypertension and different risk of cardiovascular death according to SCORE charts in the RISK study population. SCORE index includes only some of the significant cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods 1054 patients with grade 1 or 2 new-onset or

  20. Occupational differences, cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle habits in South Eastern rural Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In rural and remote Australia, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates are higher than metropolitan rates. This study analysed cardiovascular and other chronic disease risk factors and related health behaviours by occupational status, to determine whether agricultural workers have higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk than other rural workers. Methods Cross-sectional surveys in three rural regions of South Eastern Australia (2004-2006). A stratified random sample of 1001 men and women aged 25-74 from electoral rolls were categorised by occupation into agricultural workers (men?=?214, women?=?79), technicians (men?=?123), managers (men?=?148, women?=?272) and ‘home duties’ (women?=?165). Data were collected from self-administered questionnaire, physical measurements and laboratory tests. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk were assessed by Framingham 5 years risk calculation. Results Amongst men, agricultural workers had higher occupational physical activity levels, healthier more traditional diet, lower alcohol consumption, lower fasting plasma glucose, the lowest proportion of daily smokers and lower age-adjusted 5 year CVD and CHD risk scores. Amongst women, managers were younger with higher HDL cholesterol, lower systolic blood pressure, less hypertension, lower waist circumference, less self-reported diabetes and better 5 year CVD and CHD risk scores. Agricultural workers did not have higher cardiovascular disease risk than other occupational groups. Conclusions Previous studies have suggested that farmers have higher risks of cardiovascular disease but this is because the risk has been compared with non-rural populations. In this study, the comparison has been made with other rural occupations. Cardiovascular risk reduction programs are justified for all. Programs tailored only for agricultural workers are unwarranted. PMID:24266886

  1. A four-year cardiovascular risk score for type 2 diabetic inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Prado, Dolores; Folgado-de la Rosa, David Manuel; Carbonell-Torregrosa, María Ángeles; Martínez-Díaz, Ana María; Martínez-St. John, Damian Robert James; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2015-01-01

    As cardiovascular risk tables currently in use were constructed using data from the general population, the cardiovascular risk of patients admitted via the hospital emergency department may be underestimated. Accordingly, we constructed a predictive model for the appearance of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department. We undertook a four-year follow-up of a cohort of 112 adult patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department for any cause except patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction, stroke, cancer, or a palliative status. The sample was selected randomly between 2010 and 2012. The primary outcome was time to cardiovascular disease. Other variables (at baseline) were gender, age, heart failure, renal failure, depression, asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, insulin, smoking, admission for cardiovascular causes, pills per day, walking habit, fasting blood glucose and creatinine. A cardiovascular risk table was constructed based on the score to estimate the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Risk groups were established and the c-statistic was calculated. Over a mean follow-up of 2.31 years, 39 patients had cardiovascular disease (34.8%, 95% CI [26.0–43.6%]). Predictive factors were gender, age, hypertension, renal failure, insulin, admission due to cardiovascular reasons and walking habit. The c-statistic was 0.734 (standard error: 0.049). After validation, this study will provide a tool for the primary health care services to enable the short-term prediction of cardiovascular disease after hospital discharge in patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department. PMID:26056618

  2. Cardiovascular disease in CKD in 2013: Reducing cardiovascular risk--light at the end of the tunnel.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Jessica; Chonchol, Michel

    2014-02-01

    During 2013, a meta-analysis provided evidence that cystatin C improves estimated glomerular filtration rate in cardiovascular risk categorization in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Another study showed that low diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is harmful in patients with CKD, challenging the paradigm of treating elevated systolic blood pressure regardless of DBP. Overall, mortality rates in CKD have decreased but further improvement is required. PMID:24322975

  3. Assessment of Cardiovascular Calcium: Interpretation and Relevance of Calcium Scoring Relationship to Lipids and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harvey S. Hecht

    The validation of CAC scanning as a risk assessment tool may well represent one of the most significant advances in the history\\u000a of preventive medicine. It offers the possibility of accurately identifying the vast majority of patients destined to suffer\\u000a acute cardiac events, and in so doing, will allow for substantial reduction of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity by increasingly\\u000a effective

  4. Efficacy of statins for primary prevention in people at low cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Marcello; Lloyd, Anita; Clement, Fiona; Conly, Jon; Husereau, Don; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Klarenbach, Scott; McAlister, Finlay A.; Wiebe, Natasha; Manns, Braden

    2011-01-01

    Background: Statins were initially used to improve cardiovascular outcomes in people with established coronary artery disease, but recently their use has become more common in people at low cardiovascular risk. We did a systematic review of randomized trials to assess the efficacy and harms of statins in these individuals. Methods: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (to Jan. 28, 2011), registries of health technology assessments and clinical trials, and reference lists of relevant reviews. We included trials that randomly assigned participants at low cardiovascular risk to receive a statin versus a placebo or no statin. We defined low risk as an observed 10-year risk of less than 20% for cardiovascular-related death or nonfatal myocardial infarction, but we explored other definitions in sensitivity analyses. Results: We identified 29 eligible trials involving a total of 80 711 participants. All-cause mortality was significantly lower among patients receiving a statin than among controls (relative risk [RR] 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84–0.97) for trials with a 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease < 20% [primary analysis] and 0.83, 95% CI 0.73–0.94, for trials with 10-year risk < 10% [sensitivity analysis]). Patients in the statin group were also significantly less likely than controls to have nonfatal myocardial infarction (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.49–0.84) and nonfatal stroke (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68–0.96). Neither metaregression nor stratified analyses suggested statistically significant differences in efficacy between high-and low-potency statins, or larger reductions in cholesterol. Interpretation: Statins were found to be efficacious in preventing death and cardiovascular morbidity in people at low cardiovascular risk. Reductions in relative risk were similar to those seen in patients with a history of coronary artery disease. PMID:21989464

  5. [Cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic shift workers in a population of railway workers].

    PubMed

    Graziani, A; De Luca, A; Mazzantini, A; Montalti, M; Mucci, N; Cupelli, V; Arcangeli, G

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors prevalence is studied with an increasing interest, involving also working-age people, Several studies had evidenced that shift-work is a key factor in the etiology of cardiovascular illnesses. Railway workers--especially those who are involved in the monitoring of rail traffic--are often shift-workers. Their shift-schedule is based on a rotation of--in this order--afternoon, morning and night. Regarding the important role played by this kind of workers for the public safety, the evaluation of their cardiovascular risk is of utmost importance. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in railway shift-workers to define prevention strategies. PMID:23405615

  6. Projections of preventable risks for cardiovascular disease in Canada to 2021: a microsimulation modelling approach

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Douglas G.; Tuna, Meltem; Hennessy, Deirdre; Okhmatovskaia, Anya; Finès, Philippe; Tanuseputro, Peter; Tu, Jack V.; Flanagan, William

    2014-01-01

    Background Reductions in preventable risks associated with cardiovascular disease have contributed to a steady decrease in its incidence over the past 50 years in most developed countries. However, it is unclear whether this trend will continue. Our objective was to examine future risk by projecting trends in preventable risk factors in Canada to 2021. Methods We created a population-based microsimulation model using national data on births, deaths and migration; socioeconomic data; cardiovascular disease risk factors; and algorithms for changes in these risk factors (based on sociodemographic characteristics and previous cardiovascular disease risk). An initial population of 22.5 million people, representing the Canadian adult population in 2001, had 13 characteristics including the risk factors used in clinical risk prediction. There were 6.1 million potential exposure profiles for each person each year. Outcome measures included annual prevalence of risk factors (smoking, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and lipid levels) and of co-occurring risks. Results From 2003 to 2009, the projected risks of cardiovascular disease based on the microsimulation model closely approximated those based on national surveys. Except for obesity and diabetes, all risk factors were projected to decrease through to 2021. The largest projected decreases were for the prevalence of smoking (from 25.7% in 2001 to 17.7% in 2021) and uncontrolled hypertension (from 16.1% to 10.8%). Between 2015 and 2017, obesity was projected to surpass smoking as the most prevalent risk factor. Interpretation Risks of cardiovascular disease are projected to decrease modestly in Canada, leading to a likely continuing decline in its incidence. PMID:25077135

  7. Cardiovascular risk estimated after 13 years of follow-up in a low-incidence Mediterranean region with high-prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José M Huerta; María-José Tormo; Diana Gavrila; Carmen Navarro

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Murcia (south-east Spain) shows increased cardiovascular (CV) morbimortality as compared to other Spanish regions. Our objective was to assess the CV risk associated with major risk factors (RF) among adult population of Murcia. METHODS: A cohort of 2314 subjects (18-70 years) with full biochemical and questionnaire data was followed-up for 13 years. Incident cases of ischemic heart disease and

  8. [Benefits and risks of electroconvulsive therapy (ECG) in elderly patients with cardiovascular risk factors].

    PubMed

    Agelink, M W; Dammers, S; Malessa, R; Leonhardt, M; Zitzelsberger, A; Ullrich, H; Zeit, T

    1998-01-01

    Between January 1995 and June 1996, 24 inpatients at our hospital (mean age 55.6 years) were treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Clinical improvement was observed in 80% of the patients, including those without risk factors (NRG, n = 16), as well as those with concomitant cardiovascular diseases (RG, n = 8). During a mean period of observation of 224 days after the end of ECT 7 patients (35%) relapsed. The rate of relapse was higher in RG than in NRG patients (57.1 vs 23.1%). In all cases ECT was well tolerated; 285 applications of ECT did not result in mortality or persistent morbidity. However, RG patients may be at increased risk for the development of minor cardiovascular complications, which were noted in three RG patients (37.5%), but only in one patient (6.2%) in the NRG (Fisher's test, P = 0.09). Taken together, our results demonstrate that ECT is a safe treatment regimen for depression even in medically ill patients of old age. PMID:9522336

  9. Magnesium Modifies the Cardiovascular Mortality Risk Associated with Hyperphosphatemia in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Yusuke; Fujii, Naohiko; Shoji, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Terumasa; Rakugi, Hiromi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Background In vitro studies have shown inhibitory effects of magnesium (Mg) on phosphate-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells, raising the possibility that maintaining a high Mg level may be useful for reducing cardiovascular risks of patients with hyperphosphatemia. We examined how serum Mg levels affect the association between serum phosphate levels and the risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted using database of the Renal Data Registry of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy in 2009. We identified 142,069 patients receiving in-center hemodialysis whose baseline serum Mg and phosphate levels were available. Study outcomes were one-year cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Serum Mg levels were categorized into three groups (lower, <2.7 mg/dL; intermediate, ?2.7, <3.1 mg/dL; and higher, ?3.1 mg/dL). Results During follow-up, 11,401 deaths occurred, out of which 4,751 (41.7%) were ascribed to cardiovascular disease. In multivariable analyses, an increase in serum phosphate levels elevated the risk of cardiovascular mortality in the lower- and intermediate-Mg groups, whereas no significant risk increment was observed in the higher-Mg group. Moreover, among patients with serum phosphate levels of ?6.0 mg/dL, the cardiovascular mortality risk significantly decreased with increasing serum Mg levels (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] of the lower-, intermediate-, and higher-Mg groups were 1.00 (reference), 0.81 [0.66–0.99], and 0.74 [0.56–0.97], respectively.). An interaction between Mg and phosphate on the risk of cardiovascular mortality was statistically significant (P?=?0.03). Conclusion Serum Mg levels significantly modified the mortality risk associated with hyperphosphatemia in patients undergoing hemodialysis. PMID:25545498

  10. Challenges and Opportunities for Extracting Cardiovascular Risk Biomarkers from Imaging Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakadiaris, I. A.; Mendizabal-Ruiz, E. G.; Kurkure, U.; Naghavi, M.

    Complications attributed to cardiovascular diseases (CDV) are the leading cause of death worldwide. In the United States, sudden heart attack remains the number one cause of death and accounts for the majority of the 280 billion burden of cardiovascular diseases. In spite of the advancements in cardiovascular imaging techniques, the rate of deaths due to unpredicted heart attack remains high. Thus, novel computational tools are of critical need, in order to mine quantitative parameters from the imaging data for early detection of persons with a high likelihood of developing a heart attack in the near future (vulnerable patients). In this paper, we present our progress in the research of computational methods for the extraction of cardiovascular risk biomarkers from cardiovascular imaging data. In particular, we focus on the methods developed for the analysis of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) data.

  11. [Gender aspects of socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors of cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Dorner, Thomas; Kiefer, Ingrid; Kunze, Michael; Rieder, Anita

    2004-09-01

    Socioeconomic and psychosocial factors exert influence on health as well as the development, the progression and the prevention of diseases. Social factors regarding cardiovascular diseases have been widely researched. Whilst characteristics of classic type A behaviour increase cardiovascular risk among men, characteristics of type B behaviour represent a protective value, especially among women. Depression--a disease that is particularly prevalent among women and is associated with socioeconomic factors--negatively influences the development of cardiovascular diseases, triggers cardiovascular events and influences rehabilitation. Lifestyle factors, which are positively or negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease, show a gender-specific prevalence and are related to psychosocial factors. More women than men report healthy nutrition, whereas more men report partaking in physical exercise. Obesity is--depending on the occupational group and the social level--more prevalent among women compared to men. PMID:15552231

  12. Pulse Pressure Predicts Cardiovascular Risk in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Cockcroft; Ian B. Wilkinson; Marc Evans; Philip McEwan; John R. Peters; Steve Davies; Maurice F. Scanlon; Craig J. Currie

    2005-01-01

    Background: Pulse pressure (PP), a marker of arterial stiffness, is a better predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk than systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in older adults. Whether this is also true in subjects with type 2 diabetes, who are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, is unknown.Methods: Data on 2911 type 2 diabetic subjects

  13. Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among rural older adults: gender differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overweight and obese patients present with a greater risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to explore how weight status relates to cardiovascular risk factor in older adults in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (114 male, 158 female mean age 78. 5). Anthropometric and health data, along with a f...

  14. A Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program for American Indians with Metabolic Syndrome: The Balance Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Elisa T.; Jobe, Jared B.; Yeh, Jeunliang; Ali, Tauqeer; Rhoades, Everett R.; Knehans, Allen W.; Willis, Diane J.; Johnson, Melanie R.; Zhang, Ying; Poolaw, Bryce; Rogers, Billy

    2012-01-01

    The Balance Study is a randomized controlled trial designed to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in 200 American Indian (AI) participants with metabolic syndrome who reside in southwestern Oklahoma. Major risk factors targeted include weight, diet, and physical activity. Participants are assigned randomly to one of two groups, a guided or a…

  15. Obesity in the Elderly and Its Relationship with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuo-Chin Huang; Meei-Shyuan Lee; Shyh-Dye Lee; Yung-Han Chang; Yi-Chin Lin; Su-Hao Tu; Wen-Harn Pan

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The obese elderly are at increased risk of mortality, morbidity, and functional disability. In this study, we examined the prevalence of obesity and relationship between various anthropometric indices (AI) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the elderly.Research Methods and Procedures: A stratified multistage clustered sampling scheme was used in the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan during

  16. Dietary carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence from observational studies has suggested that carbohydrate quality rather than absolute intake is associated with greater risk of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between carbohydrate intake and glycemic index and several cardiovascular disease risk f...

  17. Effect of Rosiglitazone on the Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Death from Cardiovascular Causes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven E. Nissen; Kathy Wolski

    2007-01-01

    Rosiglitazone was associated with a significant increase in the risk of myocardial infarction and with an increase in the risk of death from cardiovascular causes that had borderline significance. Our study was limited by a lack of access to original source data, which would have enabled time-to-event analysis. Despite these limita- tions, patients and providers should consider the potential for

  18. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Burden in Africa and the Middle East: The Africa Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.; Omar, Mohamed I.; Raal, Frederick J.; Rashed, Wafa; Hamoui, Omar; Kane, Abdoul; Alami, Mohamed; Abreu, Paula; Mashhoud, Walid M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased urbanization in the developing world parallels a rising burden of chronic diseases. Developing countries account for ?80% of global cardiovascular (CV) deaths, but contribute a paucity of systematic epidemiological data on CV risk factors. Objective To estimate the prevalence of CV risk factors in rural and urban cohorts attending general practice clinics in the Africa and Middle East (AfME) region. Methods In a cross-sectional epidemiological study, the presence of CV risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus (diabetes), dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking and abdominal obesity) were evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending general practice primary care clinics. A rural population was defined as isolated (>50 km or lack of easy access to commuter transportation) from urban centers. Results 4,378 outpatients were systematically recruited from 94 clinics across 14 AfME countries. Mean age was 46±14 years and 52% of outpatients were female. A high prevalence of dyslipidemia (70%) and abdominal obesity (68%) were observed, followed by hypertension (43%) and diabetes (25%). The vast majority of outpatients (92%) had at least one modifiable CV risk factor, many (74%) had more than one, and half (53%) had 3 or more. These findings were observed in both genders and across urban and rural centers. Among outpatients with pre-existing hypertension or dyslipidemia, many were not at their target blood pressure or LDL-cholesterol goals. Conclusion Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among relatively young, stable outpatients attending general practice clinics across AfME. The findings support opportunistic screening for CV risk factors whenever outpatients visit a general practitioner and provide an opportunity for early identification and management of CV risk factors, including lifestyle interventions. PMID:25090638

  19. Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with mortality in adults at high cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ros, Emilio; Covas, Maribel; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Babio, Nancy; Pintó, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The relation between dietary magnesium intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or mortality was evaluated in several prospective studies, but few of them have assessed the risk of all-cause mortality, which has never been evaluated in Mediterranean adults at high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to assess the association between magnesium intake and CVD and mortality risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk with high average magnesium intake. The present study included 7216 men and women aged 55-80 y from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, a randomized clinical trial. Participants were assigned to 1 of 2 Mediterranean diets (supplemented with nuts or olive oil) or to a control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). Mortality was ascertained by linkage to the National Death Index and medical records. We fitted multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions to assess associations between baseline energy-adjusted tertiles of magnesium intake and relative risk of CVD and mortality. Multivariable analyses with generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the associations between yearly repeated measurements of magnesium intake and mortality. After a median follow-up of 4.8 y, 323 total deaths, 81 cardiovascular deaths, 130 cancer deaths, and 277 cardiovascular events occurred. Energy-adjusted baseline magnesium intake was inversely associated with cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Compared with lower consumers, individuals in the highest tertile of magnesium intake had a 34% reduction in mortality risk (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.95; P < 0.01). Dietary magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality risk in Mediterranean individuals at high risk of CVD. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639. PMID:24259558

  20. Risk of cardiovascular events and celecoxib: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brent Caldwell; Sarah Aldington; Mark Weatherall; Philippa Shirtcliffe; Richard Beasley

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives: To examine whether the increased risk of cardiovascular events with rofecoxib represents a class effect of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) specific inhibitors. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized double-blind clinical trials of celecoxib of at least 6 weeks' duration and presented data on serious cardiovascular thromboembolic events. Data sources included six bibliographic databases, the relevant files of the United

  1. Increased risk of cardiovascular events with parecoxib\\/valdecoxib: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Aldington; Philippa Shirtcliffe; Mark Weatherall; Richard Beasley

    Abstract Objective To determine the risk of serious cardiovascular events associated with the use of the COX-2 inhibitor valdecoxib and its prodrug parecoxib following major surgery. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomised double-blind clinical trials of IV parecoxib followed by oral valdecoxib treatment, that presented data on serious cardiovascular events. Studies were identified from six databases including

  2. High prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in parents of IDDM patients with albuminuria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. De Cosmo; S. Bacci; G. P. Piras; M. Cignarelli; G. Placentino; M. Margaglione; D. Colaizzo; G. Di Minno; R. Giorgino; A. Liuzzi; G. C. Viberti

    1997-01-01

    Summary   Life expectancy is shorter in the subset of insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients who are susceptible to kidney disease.\\u000a Familial factors may be important. In this study the prevalence of cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity and of risk\\u000a factors for cardiovascular disease was compared in the parents of 31 IDDM patients with elevated albumin excretion rate (AER\\u000a > 45 ?g\\/min;

  3. Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Autoimmune Rheumatic Disorders: a Suggested Model of Preventive Strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Bartoloni; Alessia Alunno; Onelia Bistoni; Roberto Gerli

    The pathogenesis of accelerated cardiovascular damage commonly characterizing patients affected by systemic chronic inflammatory\\u000a and autoimmune rheumatic disorders is quite complex and still not fully clarified. However, it is well accepted that a strong\\u000a relationship between multiple factors, including both traditional cardiovascular risk factors and disease-related inflammatory\\u000a and autoimmune mechanisms, may in part explain the precocious atherosclerotic vessel damage and

  4. Apolipoprotein B, non-HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol for identifying individuals at increased cardiovascular risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Holewijn; M. den Heijer; D. W. Swinkels; A. F. H. Stalenhoef; J. de Graaf

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To compare apolipoprotein B (apoB), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-c) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) for identifying individuals with a deteriorated cardiovascular (CV) risk profile, including a panel of subclinical atherosclerosis measurements and prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a Dutch population-based cohort. METHODS: Clinical and biochemical measurements and a panel of noninvasive parameters of subclinical atherosclerosis were determined in 1517 individuals, aged

  5. Probabilistic networks of blood metabolites in healthy subjects as indicators of latent cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Saccenti, Edoardo; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Luchinat, Claudio; Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo

    2015-02-01

    The complex nature of the mechanisms behind cardiovascular diseases prevents the detection of latent early risk conditions. Network representations are ideally suited to investigate the complex interconnections between the individual components of a biological system that underlies complex diseases. Here, we investigate the patterns of correlations of an array of 29 metabolites identified and quantified in the plasma of 864 healthy blood donors and use a systems biology approach to define metabolite probabilistic networks specific for low and high latent cardiovascular risk. We adapted methods based on the likelihood of correlation and methods from information theory and combined them with resampling techniques. Our results show that plasma metabolite networks can be defined that associate with latent cardiovascular disease risk. The analysis of the networks supports our previous finding of a possible association between cardiovascular risk and impaired mitochondrial activity and highlights post-translational modifications (glycosilation and oxidation) of lipoproteins as a possible target-mechanism for early detection of latent cardiovascular risk. PMID:25428344

  6. Risk of Cardiovascular Events Associated With Selective COX2 Inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debabrata Mukherjee; Steven E. Nissen; Eric J. Topol

    2005-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a process with inflammatory features and selective cy- clooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors may potentially have antiatherogenic ef- fects by virtue of inhibiting inflammation. However, by decreasing vasodi- latory and antiaggregatory prostacyclin production, COX-2 antagonists may lead to increased prothrombotic activity. To define the cardiovascular ef- fects of COX-2 inhibitors when used for arthritis and musculoskeletal pain in patients

  7. An Important, Common, and Easily Treatable Cardiovascular Risk Factor?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Lee; James H. O'Keefe; David Bell; Donald D. Hensrud; Michael F. Holick

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent condition, present in approximately 30% to 50% of the general popula- tion. A growing body of data suggests that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may adversely affect cardiovascular health. Vitamin D deficiency activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and can predispose to hyperten- sion and left ventricular hypertrophy. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency causes an increase in

  8. Cutaneous stigmata associated with insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Schilling, William H K; Crook, Martin A

    2014-09-01

    Certain cutaneous conditions have been reported to be associated with diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. In this novel review paper, the evidence linking various cutaneous phenomena (e.g. skin tags, acanthosis nigricans, ear lobe creases, and xanthelasma) and metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is examined, and explanations for these associations are proposed. PMID:24697530

  9. Cardiovascular risk assessment in prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus study: international collaboration research overview.

    PubMed

    Nwose, Ezekiel Uba; Richards, Ross Stuart; Digban, Kester; Bwititi, Philip Taderera; Ennis, Gretchen; Yee, Kwang Choon; Oguoma, Victor Maduabuchi; Liberato, Selma

    2013-11-01

    The study aims to develop a screening protocol for the risk of future cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in people with prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes; and to establish a framework for early identification and intervention of prediabetes including strategies for holistic management and monitoring of progression. The first phase is to identify prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes in volunteers who are ?18-years-old for 5 years. Point-of-care testing and questionnaire will be used to screen for prediabetes and cardiovascular disease. We anticipate screening more than 2000 individuals of both genders by the end of first phase. The second and third phases which shall run for 5-10 years will be longitudinal study involving participants identified in the first phase as having prediabetes without dyslipidaemia, or clinically established cardiovascular disease. The second phase shall focus on preventive management of risk of progress to diabetes with explicit diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. Oxidative stress measurements will be performed cum evaluation of the use of antioxidants, exercise, and nutrition. The third phase will include probing the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Binomial logistic regression would be performed to generate and propose a model chart for the assessment of cardiovascular disease risk in prediabetes. PMID:24404539

  10. Determining Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Elementary School Children: Developing a Healthy Heart Score

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Kate E.; Warburton, Darren E.R.; McKay, Heather A.

    2007-01-01

    At least 50% of children have one or more cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. We aimed to 1) determine the prevalence of CVD risk factors in a sample of Canadian children, and 2) create a Healthy Heart Score that could be used in a school setting, to identify children with a greater number and severity of CVD risk factors. Children (n = 242, 122M, 120F, aged 9-11 years) were assessed for cardiovascular fitness, physical activity, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI). Biological values were converted to age and sex specific percentiles and allocated a score. Healthy Heart Scores could range between 5 and 18, with lower scores suggesting a healthier cardiovascular profile. Seventy-seven children volunteered for blood samples in order to assess the relationship between the Healthy Heart Score and (total cholesterol (TC), high and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, LDL) and triglycerides (TG). Fifty eight percent of children had elevated scores for at least 1 risk factor. The group mean Healthy Heart Score was 8 (2.2). The mean score was significantly higher in boys (9 (2.2)) compared with girls (8 (2.1), p < 0.01). A high score was significantly associated with a low serum HDL, a high TC:HDL and a high TG concentration. Our results support other studies showing a high prevalence of CVD risk factors in children. Our method of allocation of risk score, according to percentile, allows for creation of an age and sex specific CVD risk profile in children, which takes into account the severity of the elevated risk factor. Key pointsThere was a high incidence of elevated risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Canadian elementary school children.Physical fitness and physical activity levels were particularly low.In this cohort, boys had increased levels of cardiovascular disease risk factors compared with age-matched girls. PMID:24149236

  11. Increased microvascular vasodilation and cardiovascular risk following a pre-eclamptic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Malia S Q; Vignarajah, Meera; Smith, Graeme N

    2014-11-01

    Women who develop pre-eclampsia are at high-risk for premature cardiovascular disease and death. The aim of this study was to assess microvascular function and cardiovascular risk in the early postpartum period for women who did/did not have a pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia. Peripheral microvascular function was assessed in women in the third trimester of uncomplicated pregnancies, with re-evaluation at 2 and 6 months postpartum. The effect of pre-eclampsia on postpartum microvascular function was assessed 2 and 6 months after delivery. Never-pregnant, naturally cycling women served for comparison. Cutaneous microvascular reactivity to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, delivered locally by iontophoresis, was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. 30-year and lifetime risk estimates for cardiovascular disease were established. Acetylcholine-mediated vasodilation was enhanced by normotensive pregnancy, and declined to nonpregnant levels by 6 months postpartum. Acetylcholine-mediated vasodilation remained high in pre-eclamptic subjects from 2 to 6 months postpartum compared to normotensive and never-pregnant controls. Pre-eclamptic subjects exhibited elevated 30-year and lifetime risk at 6 months postpartum. This study provides in vivo evidence of microvascular and cardiovascular risk implications of pre-eclampsia as early as 6 months postpartum, and suggests that the development of pre-eclampsia may be used to identify women at risk and eligible for risk screening and intervention. PMID:25428950

  12. Increased microvascular vasodilation and cardiovascular risk following a pre?eclamptic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Malia S. Q.; Vignarajah, Meera; Smith, Graeme N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Women who develop pre?eclampsia are at high?risk for premature cardiovascular disease and death. The aim of this study was to assess microvascular function and cardiovascular risk in the early postpartum period for women who did/did not have a pregnancy complicated by pre?eclampsia. Peripheral microvascular function was assessed in women in the third trimester of uncomplicated pregnancies, with re?evaluation at 2 and 6 months postpartum. The effect of pre?eclampsia on postpartum microvascular function was assessed 2 and 6 months after delivery. Never?pregnant, naturally cycling women served for comparison. Cutaneous microvascular reactivity to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, delivered locally by iontophoresis, was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. 30?year and lifetime risk estimates for cardiovascular disease were established. Acetylcholine?mediated vasodilation was enhanced by normotensive pregnancy, and declined to nonpregnant levels by 6 months postpartum. Acetylcholine?mediated vasodilation remained high in pre?eclamptic subjects from 2 to 6 months postpartum compared to normotensive and never?pregnant controls. Pre?eclamptic subjects exhibited elevated 30?year and lifetime risk at 6 months postpartum. This study provides in vivo evidence of microvascular and cardiovascular risk implications of pre?eclampsia as early as 6 months postpartum, and suggests that the development of pre?eclampsia may be used to identify women at risk and eligible for risk screening and intervention. PMID:25428950

  13. Fatty Acid Oxidation and Cardiovascular Risk during Menopause: A Mitochondrial Connection?

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Paulo J.; Carvalho, Rui A.; Portincasa, Piero; Bonfrate, Leonilde; Sardao, Vilma A.

    2012-01-01

    Menopause is a consequence of the normal aging process in women. This fact implies that the physiological and biochemical alterations resulting from menopause often blur with those from the aging process. It is thought that menopause in women presents a higher risk for cardiovascular disease although the precise mechanism is still under discussion. The postmenopause lipid profile is clearly altered, which can present a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Due to the role of mitochondria in fatty acid oxidation, alterations of the lipid profile in the menopausal women will also influence mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation fluxes in several organs. In this paper, we propose that alterations of mitochondrial bioenergetics in the heart, consequence from normal aging and/or from the menopausal process, result in decreased fatty acid oxidation and accumulation of fatty acid intermediates in the cardiomyocyte cytosol, resulting in lipotoxicity and increasing the cardiovascular risk in the menopausal women. PMID:22496981

  14. Peroxiredoxin isoforms are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    El Eter, E.; Al-Masri, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    The production of oxygen free radicals in type 2 diabetes mellitus contributes to the development of complications, especially the cardiovascular-related ones. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are antioxidant enzymes that combat oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the levels of PRDX isoforms (1, 2, 4, and 6) and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fifty-three patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (28F/25M) and 25 healthy control subjects (7F/18M) were enrolled. We measured the plasma levels of each PRDX isoform and analyzed their correlations with cardiovascular risk factors. The plasma PRDX1, -2, -4, and -6 levels were higher in the diabetic patients than in the healthy control subjects. PRDX2 and -6 levels were negatively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and hemoglobin A1c. In contrast, PRDX1 levels were positively correlated with low-density lipoprotein and C-reactive protein levels. PRDX4 levels were negatively correlated with triglycerides. In conclusion, PRDX1, -2, -4, and -6 showed differential correlations with a variety of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. These results should encourage further research into the crosstalk between PRDX isoforms and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25742636

  15. Cardiovascular risk assessment and cholesterol management in adolescents: getting to the heart of the matter

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Holly C.; de Ferranti, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Adolescence is a common time for the identification of cardiovascular disease risk factors, including elevated cholesterol. Guidelines for the detection and treatment of hypercholesterolemia differ for children and adults. This review highlights these differences and discusses special considerations for cholesterol management in the adolescent population. Recent findings Several longitudinal studies have confirmed that the number of cardiovascular risk factors present in adolescence, including elevated cholesterol, lead to atherosclerosis in adults. There is increased awareness that other chronic medical conditions, including diabetes, congenital heart disease, inflammatory diseases, and childhood cancer, can accelerate this process. There is a move to screen and treat more young patients with elevated cholesterol to prevent future cardiovascular disease. New markers of atherosclerosis are being used to quantify cardiovascular disease risk in adolescents in research populations. The safety and efficacy of several interventions, including drug therapy, is increasingly established. Summary Comprehensive cardiovascular risk assessment is important for adolescent health and includes assessment of family history and tobacco use along with measurement of body mass index and blood pressure. Additionally, cholesterol screening is recommended for overweight adolescents or those with an unknown family history and for all patients by the age of 20. Providers caring for adolescents should be familiar with both the pediatric and adult cholesterol screening and treatment guidelines as well as how common adolescent conditions affect cholesterol levels. PMID:20489635

  16. Cardiovascular and lifestyle risk factors in lumbar radicular pain or clinically defined sciatica: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahman Shiri; Jaro Karppinen; Päivi Leino-Arjas; Svetlana Solovieva; Helena Varonen; Eija Kalso; Olavi Ukkola; Eira Viikari-Juntura

    2007-01-01

    Lumbar radicular pain is a fairly common health problem, yet its risk factors are far from clear. There are no published systematic\\u000a reviews on associations between cardiovascular or lifestyle risk factors and lumbar radicular pain or sciatica. The aim of\\u000a this systematic literature review was to assess associations between these risk factors and lumbar radicular pain or sciatica.\\u000a We conducted

  17. Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Characterization of Atherosclerotic Disease Risk Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin C. Maki; Martyn R. Rubin

    \\u000a Over 80 million people in the United States exhibit one or more forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and atherosclerotic\\u000a CVD (mainly coronary heart disease and stroke) is, by far, the leading cause of death among men and women. More women die\\u000a from CVD in the United States each year than men. Atherosclerotic CVD has become a worldwide pandemic. While CVD

  18. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Peggy W.; Rhew, Elisa Y.; Dyer, Alan R.; Dunlop, Dorothy D.; Langman, Craig B.; Price, Heather; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; McPherson, David D.; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Kondos, George T.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind

    2009-01-01

    Objective Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D, vitamin D) are associated with a higher frequency of cardiovascular disease and risk factors in the general population. Vitamin D deficiency has been noted in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of serum 25(OH)D levels with cardiovascular risk factors in women with SLE. Methods Data collected in 181 women with SLE included demographics, SLE activity and damage assessments, cardiovascular risk factors, medications, and laboratory assessments of inflammatory markers and 25(OH)D levels. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were used to estimate the association of 25(OH)D with cardiovascular risk factors. Results Mean age and disease duration were 43.2 and 11.9 years, respectively. Mean 25(OH)D was 27.1 ng/ml and 62.2% had 25(OH)D levels <30 ng/ml. In unadjusted analyses, lower 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with higher diastolic blood pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), lipoprotein (a), body mass index (BMI), and fibrinogen levels, as well as self-reported hypertension and diabetes. Lower 25(OH)D levels were also significantly associated with higher SLE disease activity and damage scores. After adjustment for age, seasonal variation, and race/ethnicity, lower 25(OH)D levels were also significantly related to higher fasting serum glucose. With further adjustment for BMI, associations between 25(OH)D and cardiovascular risk factors were no longer significant. Conclusion This study demonstrates that vitamin D levels are low in women with SLE and significant associations exist with selected cardiovascular risk factors although most of these associations can be explained by BMI. PMID:19790113

  19. Assessment of Cardiovascular Calcium: Interpretation, Prognostic Value, and Relationship to Lipids and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harvey S. Hecht

    \\u000a Cardiac risk assessment has traditionally been based on conventional risk factors; the shortcomings of this approach are all\\u000a too often highlighted by major cardiac events occurring in presumably low-risk people. The annual presentation of 650,000\\u000a previously asymptomatic patients with an acute coronary event as the initial manifestation of coronary artery disease (CAD)\\u000a [1] is a testimony to the failure of

  20. Cost-effectiveness of cardiovascular risk management by practice nurses in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely preventable and prevention expenditures are relatively low. The randomised controlled SPRING-trial (SPRING-RCT) shows that cardiovascular risk management by practice nurses in general practice with and without self-monitoring both decreases cardiovascular risk, with no additional effect of self-monitoring. For considering future approaches of cardiovascular risk reduction, cost effectiveness analyses of regular care and additional self-monitoring are performed from a societal perspective on data from the SPRING-RCT. Methods Direct medical and productivity costs are analysed alongside the SPRING-RCT, studying 179 participants (men aged 50–75 years, women aged 55–75 years), with an elevated cardiovascular risk, in 20 general practices in the Netherlands. Standard cardiovascular treatment according to Dutch guidelines is compared with additional counselling based on self-monitoring at home (pedometer, weighing scale and/ or blood pressure device) both by trained practice nurses. Cost-effectiveness is evaluated for both treatment groups and patient categories (age, sex, education). Results Costs are €98 and €187 per percentage decrease in 10-year cardiovascular mortality estimation, for the control and intervention group respectively. In both groups lost productivity causes the majority of the costs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is approximately €1100 (95% CI: -5157 to 6150). Self-monitoring may be cost effective for females and higher educated participants, however confidence intervals are wide. Conclusions In this study population, regular treatment is more cost effective than counselling based on self-monitoring, with the majority of costs caused by lost productivity. Trial registration Trialregister.nl identifier: http://NTR2188 PMID:23418958

  1. Study of cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural schoolchildren in Sousse, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ghannem, H; Trabelsi, L; Gaha, R; Harrabi, I; Essoussi, A S

    2001-01-01

    We undertook an epidemiological survey based on a representative sample of 793 rural schoolchildren in Sousse, Tunisia to assess the prevalence of certain cardiovascular disease risk factors. The prevalence of hypertension (11.2%), hypercholesterolaemia (2.9%), hypertriglyceridaemia (1.0%), high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.6%) and obesity (4.0%) showed no statistically significant difference based on sex. However, smoking (4%) showed a significant gender difference (boys: 7.3%; girls 1.2%). The relatively low cardiovascular disease risk factor profile of Tunisian children needs to be encouraged through to adulthood. Thus a school programme of heart health promotion should be established. PMID:15332757

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors improve during 3 years of growth hormone therapy in Prader-Willi syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dagmar l'Allemand; Urs Eiholzer; Michael Schlumpf; Hans Steinert; Walter Riesen

    2000-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS, OMIM 176270) may be independently caused by overweight or hypothalamic\\u000a growth hormone (GH) deficiency. The present observational study in 23 children with PWS, aged 0.3–14.6?years, focuses on the\\u000a specific pattern, age-dependency and interrelation of cardiovascular risk factors, namely percentage fat mass and regional\\u000a fat distribution, triglycerides (TG), lipoprotein cholesterols (LDL-C, HDL-C), lipoprotein (a)

  3. Community Cardiovascular Disease Risk From Cross-Sectional General Practice Clinical Data: A Spatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Bridget; McRae, Ian; Konings, Paul; Dawda, Paresh; Del Fante, Peter; van Weel, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be a leading cause of illness and death among adults worldwide. The objective of this study was to calculate a CVD risk score from general practice (GP) clinical records and assess spatial variations of CVD risk in communities. Methods We used GP clinical data for 4,740 men and women aged 30 to 74 years with no history of CVD. A 10-year absolute CVD risk score was calculated based on the Framingham risk equation. The individual risk scores were aggregated within each Statistical Area Level One (SA1) to predict the level of CVD risk in that area. Finally, the pattern of CVD risk was visualized to highlight communities with high and low risk of CVD. Results The overall 10-year risk of CVD in our sample population was 14.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.3%–14.9%). Of the 4,740 patients in our study, 26.7% were at high risk, 29.8% were at moderate risk, and 43.5% were at low risk for CVD over 10 years. The proportion of patients at high risk for CVD was significantly higher in the communities of low socioeconomic status. Conclusion This study illustrates methods to further explore prevalence, location, and correlates of CVD to identify communities of high levels of unmet need for cardiovascular care and to enable geographic targeting of effective interventions for enhancing early and timely detection and management of CVD in those communities. PMID:25719216

  4. Cardiovascular Risk in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Magge, Sheela N.

    2012-01-01

    Rising rates of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in children have led to increased concern regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk during childhood. Diabetic children face prolonged exposure to hyperglycemia, and have increased risk of both microvascular and macrovascular disease. These circumstances may result in a generation of young adults presenting with cardiovascular outcomes, a tremendous personal and public health toll. In this article, we review CVD risk in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, discuss aspects of pathophysiology, and review current methods of CVD risk assessment. We also identify crucial areas in need of future research in order to devise effective prevention and treatment of CVD risk in children. PMID:23293697

  5. Occupational Stress and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Ranking Government Officials and Office Workers

    PubMed Central

    Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Taheri, Mahmoud; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Heydari, Mohammad; Saadati Kanafi, Ali; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases are among the most important sources of mortality and morbidity, and have a high disease burden. There are some major well-known risk factors, which contribute to the development of these diseases. Occupational stress is caused due to imbalance between job demands and individual’s ability, and it has been implicated as an etiology for cardiovascular diseases. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors and different dimensions of occupational stress in high-ranking government officials, comparing an age and sex-matched group of office workers with them. Patients and Methods: We invited 90 high-ranking officials who managed the main governmental offices in a city, and 90 age and sex-matched office workers. The subjects were required to fill the occupational role questionnaire (Osipow) which evaluated their personal and medical history as well as occupational stress. Then, we performed physical examination and laboratory tests to check for cardiovascular risk factors. Finally, the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors and occupational stress of two groups were compared. Results: High-ranking officials in our study had less work experience in their current jobs and smoked fewer pack-years of cigarette, but they had higher waist and hip circumference, higher triglyceride level, more stress from role overload and responsibility, and higher total stress score. Our group of office workers had more occupational stress because of role ambiguity and insufficiency, but their overall job stress was less than officials. Conclusions: The officials have higher scores in some dimensions of occupational stress and higher overall stress score. Some cardiovascular risk factors were also more frequent in managers. PMID:25389469

  6. The differential impact of subjective and objective aspects of social engagement on cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This article provides new insights into the impact of social engagement on CVD risk factors in older adults. We hypothesized that objective (social participation, social ties and marital status) and subjective (emotional support) aspects of social engagement are independently associated with objective measures of cardiovascular risk. Methods Data from the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA) were analyzed. The effects of social participation, social ties, marital status, and emotional support on hypertension, obesity, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen were estimated by logistic regression controlling for age, sex, education, physical function, depression, cardiovascular disease, other chronic diseases, physical activity, and smoking. Results Social participation is a consistent predictor of low risk for four risk factors, even after controlling for a wide range of covariates. Being married is associated with lower risk for hypertension. Social ties and emotional support are not significantly associated with any of the cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that participation in social activities has a stronger association with CV risk factors than marital status, social ties or emotional support. Different forms of social engagement may therefore have different implications for the biological risk factors involved. PMID:21044327

  7. Cardiovascular risk assessment of dyslipidemic children: analysis of biomarkers to identify monogenic dyslipidemia[S

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Ana Margarida; Alves, Ana Catarina; Aguiar, Pedro; Bourbon, Mafalda

    2014-01-01

    The distinction between a monogenic dyslipidemia and a polygenic/environmental dyslipidemia is important for the cardiovascular risk assessment, counseling, and treatment of these patients. The present work aims to perform the cardiovascular risk assessment of dyslipidemic children to identify useful biomarkers for clinical criteria improvement in clinical settings. Main cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed in a cohort of 237 unrelated children with clinical diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). About 40% carried at least two cardiovascular risk factors and 37.6% had FH, presenting mutations in LDLR and APOB. FH children showed significant elevated atherogenic markers and lower concentration of antiatherogenic particles. Children without a molecular diagnosis of FH had higher levels of TGs, apoC2, apoC3, and higher frequency of BMI and overweight/obesity, suggesting that environmental factors can be the underlying cause of their hypercholesterolem?ia. An apoB/apoA1 ratio ?0.68 was identified as the best biomarker (area under the curve = 0.835) to differentiate FH from other dyslipidemias. The inclusion in clinical criteria of a higher cut-off point for LDL cholesterol or an apoB/apoA1 ratio ?0.68 optimized the criteria sensitivity and specificity. The correct identification, at an early age, of all children at-risk is of great importance so that specific interventions can be implemented. apoB/apoA1 can improve the identification of FH patients. PMID:24627126

  8. Cardiovascular risk assessment of dyslipidemic children: analysis of biomarkers to identify monogenic dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Ana Margarida; Alves, Ana Catarina; Aguiar, Pedro; Bourbon, Mafalda

    2014-05-01

    The distinction between a monogenic dyslipidemia and a polygenic/environmental dyslipidemia is important for the cardiovascular risk assessment, counseling, and treatment of these patients. The present work aims to perform the cardiovascular risk assessment of dyslipidemic children to identify useful biomarkers for clinical criteria improvement in clinical settings. Main cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed in a cohort of 237 unrelated children with clinical diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). About 40% carried at least two cardiovascular risk factors and 37.6% had FH, presenting mutations in LDLR and APOB. FH children showed significant elevated atherogenic markers and lower concentration of antiatherogenic particles. Children without a molecular diagnosis of FH had higher levels of TGs, apoC2, apoC3, and higher frequency of BMI and overweight/obesity, suggesting that environmental factors can be the underlying cause of their hypercholesterolem?ia. An apoB/apoA1 ratio ?0.68 was identified as the best biomarker (area under the curve = 0.835) to differentiate FH from other dyslipidemias. The inclusion in clinical criteria of a higher cut-off point for LDL cholesterol or an apoB/apoA1 ratio ?0.68 optimized the criteria sensitivity and specificity. The correct identification, at an early age, of all children at-risk is of great importance so that specific interventions can be implemented. apoB/apoA1 can improve the identification of FH patients. PMID:24627126

  9. Total and High Molecular Weight Adiponectin Levels and Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Horáková, Dagmar; Azeem, Kate?ina; Benešová, Radka; Pastucha, Dalibor; Horák, Vladimír; Dumbrovská, Lenka; Martínek, Arnošt; Novotný, Dalibor; Hobzová, Milada; Galuszková, Dana; Janout, Vladimír; Don?vská, Sandra; Vrbková, Jana; Kollárová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing the potential use of lower total and HMW adiponectin levels for predicting cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Concentrations of total adiponectin or high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin decrease in association with the development of metabolic dysfunction such as obesity, insulin resistance, or T2DM. Increased adiponectin levels are associated with a lower risk for coronary heart disease. A total of 551 individuals were assessed. The first group comprised metabolically healthy participants (143 females, and 126 males) and the second group were T2DM patients (164 females, and 118 males). Both total adiponectin and HMW adiponectin in diabetic patients were significantly lower when compared with the group of metabolically healthy individuals. There was a weak monotonic correlation between HMW adiponectin levels and triglycerides levels. Binary logistic regression analysis, gender adjusted, showed a higher cardiovascular risk in diabetic persons when both total adiponectin (OR = 1.700) and HMW adiponectin (OR = 2.785) levels were decreased. A decrease in total adiponectin levels as well as a decrease in its HMW adiponectin is associated with a higher cardiovascular risk in individuals with T2DM. This association suggests that adiponectin levels may be potentially used as an epidemiological marker for cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients.

  10. The Effectiveness of Screening for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in a Community Pharmacy Setting

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Andrew; Rivers, Peter; Gray, Laura J.; Davies, Melanie; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for cardiovascular disease including diabetes have seen a large rise in prevalence in recent years. This has prompted interest in prevention through the identifying individuals at risk of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease and has seen increased investment in screening interventions taking place in primary care. Community pharmacies have become increasingly involved in the provision of such interventions and this systematic review and meta-analysis aims to gather and analyse the existing literature assessing community pharmacy based screening for risk factors for diabetes and those with a high cardiovascular disease risk. Methods We conducted systematic searches of electronic databases using MeSH and free text terms from 1950 to March 2012. For our analysis two outcomes were assessed. They were the percentage of those screened who were referred for further assessment by primary care and the uptake of this referral. Results Sixteen studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria comprising 108,414 participants screened. There was significant heterogeneity for all included outcomes. Consequently we have not presented summary statistics and present forest plots with I2 and p values to describe heterogeneity. We found that all included studies suffered from high rates of attrition between pharmacy screening and follow up. We have also identified a strong trend towards higher rates for referral in more recent studies. Conclusions Our results show that pharmacies are feasible sites for screening for diabetes and those at risk of cardiovascular disease. A significant number of previously unknown cases of cardiovascular disease risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes are identified, however a significant number of referred participants at high risk do not attend their practitioner for follow up. Research priorities should include methods of increasing uptake to follow up testing and early intervention, to maximise the efficacy of screening interventions based in community pharmacies. PMID:24690919

  11. Residue and risk assessment of pyridaben in cabbage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Congyun; Lu, Dahai; Wang, Youcheng; Huang, Jianxiang; Wan, Kai; Wang, Fuhua

    2014-04-15

    The dissipation and residue of pyridaben in cabbage under field conditions were investigated. A sensitive, simple, and fast method for determining pyridaben in cabbage was established by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The average recoveries were in the range of 90.29-95.00% with relative standard deviations ranging from 1.72% to 6.39%. The field results showed that pyridaben dissipated rapidly in cabbage and had a half-life of 2.8-3.5 d. During harvest, the terminal residues of pyridaben were 0.01-0.80 mg/kg. Given that no maximum residue limit (MRL) has been set for pyridaben in cabbage, risk assessment was evaluated by using the risk quotient (RQ). Results indicated that the RQ value was significantly lower than RQ = 1. Thus, the effect of pyridaben in cabbage at the recommended dosage was negligible to humans. This study could provide guidance for the safe and reasonable use of pyridaben as a broad-spectrum acaricide and serve as a reference for the establishment of an MRL in China. PMID:24295701

  12. Clinical efficacy and safety of statins in managing cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Navin K; Musunuru, Kiran

    2008-01-01

    Since their introduction in the 1980s, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) have emerged as the one of the best-selling medication classes to date, with numerous trials demonstrating powerful efficacy in preventing cardiovascular outcomes. As our understanding of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherosclerosis continues to grow, the concept of ‘lower is better’ has corresponded with a ‘more is better’ approach to statin-based therapy. This review provides a detailed understanding of the clinical efficacy and safety of statins with a particular emphasis on the third generation drug, rosuvastatin. PMID:18561510

  13. Strategies for Reducing the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently accompanied by multimorbidities in affected patients. Even though the majority of these comorbidities are also related to advanced age and cigarette smoke, also COPD itself has significant impact on insurgence, or worsening of these conditions. As a consequence, COPD is regarded as a complex disease with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary involvement. According to current guidelines for the management of COPD patients, the comprehensive treatment of this condition should target respiratory symptoms as well as comorbidities. Cardiovascular disease is one of the most frequent comorbidities in COPD patients and there are several strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in COPD patients. These include smoking cessation, pharmacologic prevention of cardiovascular disease, and the treatment of COPD. Beta-blockers for the prevention of cardiovascular disease have been traditionally limited in COPD patients, albeit current evidence supporting their efficacy and safety in these patients. With regard to COPD medications, corticosteroids are generally not recommended, except for exacerbations, while long-acting beta2-agonists have demonstrated an acceptable profile of cardiovascular safety. Long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilators, in particular tiotropium in the mist inhaler formulation, have been associated with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events and mortality. Data on this issue remain, however, controversial. Glycopyrronium, a recently introduced anticholinergic, demonstrated. a rapid and sustained relief of respiratory symptoms with a favorable safety profile and no increase in cardiovascular risk, in monotherapy and in combination with a long-acting beta2-agonist in a comprehensive trial program indicating a valid option for COPD patients with CV comorbidities. PMID:25655487

  14. Cardiovascular and Diabetes Risk Perception in a Hispanic Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Vanessa A.; Mainous, Arch G.; Williamson, Deborah; Johnson, Sharleen P.; Knoll, Michele E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined perceptions of 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk or likelihood of having undiagnosed diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) with actual risk in a community sample of Hispanic adults. Methods We conducted a survey of 183 Hispanic adults (?18 years) recruited at community events around Charleston, SC. Likelihood of having undiagnosed diabetes/IFG as well as 10-year CHD risk were calculated. Perceived risk was assessed with questions based on the Risk Perception Survey-Diabetes Mellitus. Results Over half of respondents (54.8%) underestimated their likelihood of undiagnosed diabetes/IFG and 14.8% underestimated their 10-year CHD risk. Older and overweight respondents were more likely to underestimate their likelihood of undiagnosed diabetes/IFG. Respondents with family history of diabetes were the least likely to underestimate their likelihood of current undiagnosed diabetes/IFG. Respondents with diagnosed hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol or a family history of heart attack were more likely to underestimate their 10-year CHD risk. Men were more likely to underestimate their risk for diabetes/IFG and CHD risk. Conclusions Health education to improve accurate risk perception could improve health promotion for this population. PMID:22774302

  15. Altering dietary lysine: arginine ratio has little effect on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The effect of dietary protein type on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity, with specific focus on the lysine to arginine (Lys:Arg) ratio, has been studied sporadically. Objective: Determine effect of dietary Lys:Arg ratio on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reacti...

  16. European Practice Assessment of Cardiovascular risk management (EPA Cardio): protocol of an international observational study in primary care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Wensing; Sabine Ludt; Stephen Campbell; Jan van Lieshout; Eckhard Volbracht; Richard Grol

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite important improvements in available prevention and treatment, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Not all high-risk patients and patients with CVD have healthy lifestyles and receive the best possible healthcare. Internationally comparative data are needed to compare cardiovascular risk management in different countries, and to examine the impact of improvement programs and others

  17. Does diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome detect further men at high risk of cardiovascular death beyond those

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1/1 Does diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome detect further men at high risk of cardiovascular Study Group Short title: Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk scores Abstract: 226 words Text.0000230107.78524.da #12;2/2 Abstract Background It is not known whether the metabolic syndrome detects

  18. Multiple genetic loci influence serum urate levels and their relationship with gout and cardiovascular disease risk factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Yang; A. Köttgen; A. Dehghan; A. V. Smith; N. L. Glazer; M. H. Chen; D. I. Chasman; T. Aspelund; G. Eiriksdottir; T. B. Harris; L. J. Launer; M. A. Nalls; D. G. Hernandez; D. E. Arking; E. Boerwinkle; M. L. Grove; M. Li; W. H. Linda Kao; M. Chonchol; T. Haritunians; T. Lumley; B. M. Psaty; M. G. Shlipak; S. J. Hwang; M. G. Larson; C. J. O'Donnell; A. Upadhyay; P. Tikka-Kleemola; A. Hofman; F. Rivadeneira Ramirez; B. H. Ch. Stricker; A. G. Uitterlinden; G. Paré; A. N. Parker; P. M. Ridker; D. S. Siscovick; V. Gudnason; J. C. M. Witteman; C. S. Fox; J. Coresh

    2010-01-01

    Background - Elevated serum urate levels can lead to gout and are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. We performed a genome-wide association study to search for genetic susceptibility loci for serum urate and gout and investigated the causal nature of the associations of serum urate with gout and selected cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods and Results

  19. Regional disparities in cardiovascular risk factors in France: A five-year analysis of the GAZEL cohort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Dang Tran; Annette Leclerc; Jean François Chastang; Marcel Goldberg

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: the study was set up to explore regional disparities in France in the annual prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, high lipids, obesity, diabetes and tobacco consumption) and protective factors (alcohol intake) in members of the GAZEL Cohort and to determine which, if any, risk factors followed the same north-south gradient as the one known for cardiovascular mortality. Methods:

  20. Risk of idiopathic cardiovascular death and rionfatal venous thromboembolism in women using oral contraceptives with differing progestagen components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Jick; S. S Jick; M. W Myers; C Vasilakis; V Gurewich

    1995-01-01

    SummaryConcern about the risks of cardiovascular illness in women using combined oral contraceptives (OC) containing the progestagens desogestrel and gestodene prompted two studies of data from the UK General Practice Research Database. We compared the risks of certain cardiovascular illnesses in otherwise healthy women exposed to one of three OCs containing In the first study, based on some 470 general

  1. Prevalence and Clustering of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Tibetan Adults in China: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Zhu, Hong; Chang, Hong; Shi, Wei; Gao, Zhengxuan; Ning, Xianjia; Wang, Jinghua

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors has increased worldwide. However, the prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetans is currently unknown. We aimed to explore the prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetan adults in China. Methods In 2011, 1659 Tibetan adults (aged ?18 years) from Changdu, China were recruited to this cross-section study. The questionnaire, physical examinations and laboratory testing were completed and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, dyslipidemia, and current smoking, were counted. The association between the clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors and demographic characteristics, and geographic altitude were assessed. Results The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, overweight or obesity, dyslipidemia, and current smoking were 62.4%, 6.4%, 34.3%, 42.7%, and 6.1%, respectively, and these risk factors were associated with age, gender, education level, yearly family income, altitude, occupation, and butter tea consumption (P < 0.05). Overall, the age-adjusted prevalence of clustering of ?1, ?2, and ?3 cardiovascular disease risk factors were 79.4%, 47.1%, and 20.9%, respectively. There appeared higher clustering of ?2 and ?3 cardiovascular disease risk factors among Tibetans with higher education level and family income yearly, and those living at an altitude < 3500 m and in a township. Conclusions The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors, especially hypertension, was high in Tibetans. Moreover, there was an increased clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors among those with higher socioeconomic status, lamas and those living at an altitude < 3500 m. These findings suggest that without the immediate implementation of an efficient policy to control these risk factors, cardiovascular disease will eventually become a major disease burden among Tibetans. PMID:26047133

  2. Reprint of "heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors".

    PubMed

    Ng, Chun-Yi; Leong, Xin-Fang; Masbah, Norliana; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2014-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may result from the interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors including sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits. The quality of dietary oils and fats has been widely recognised to be inextricably linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. Vegetable oil is one of the essential dietary components in daily food consumption. However, the benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating that leads to lipid oxidation. The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health. Prolonged consumption of the repeatedly heated oil has been shown to increase blood pressure and total cholesterol, cause vascular inflammation as well as vascular changes which predispose to atherosclerosis. The harmful effect of heated oils is attributed to products generated from lipid oxidation during heating process. In view of the potential hazard of oxidation products, therefore this review article will provide an insight and awareness to the general public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health. PMID:24846858

  3. Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Sowmya; Fields, David A.; Copeland, Kenneth C.; Blackett, Piers R.; Anderson, Michael P; Gardner, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is seen at a younger age and at a higher prevalence in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) than in the general population. It is well described that women with T1D have a higher relative risk for cardiovascular disease than men with T1D, unlike that seen in the general population. The pathophysiology behind this is unknown. We did a cross-sectional study to examine gender differences in cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents with T1D between the ages of 13-20 years, compared to children of a similar age without T1D. All subjects underwent Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA scan) to measure body composition, and an HDI/Pulsewave CR-2000 test measure of arterial elasticity. Fasting serum lipids, apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein C-III were measured in each subject. 29 children with T1D (10 F, 19 M) and 37 healthy children (18F, 19 M) participated. Although no gender differences for body mass index (p = 0.91) and A1C (p =0.69) were seen, females with T1D had a significantly higher trunk % fat compared to males (p=0.004). No gender differences were found (p > 0.05) for trunk % fat in adolescents without diabetes. There was no gender difference among any other cardiovascular risk factors in both children with and without diabetes. Thus we conclude that female adolescents with T1D have more centrally distributed fat which may contribute to their relatively higher cardiovascular risk. Attenuation of the central distribution of fat through exercise and dietary modifications may help ameliorate their subsequent cardiovascular disease burden. PMID:22795492

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors in an Iranian urban population: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (Phase 1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fereidoun Azizi; Maziar Rahmani; Habib Emami; P. Mirmiran; R. Hajipour; M. Madjid; J. Ghanbili; A. Ghanbarian; J. Mehrabi; N. Saadat; P. Salehi; N. Mortazavi; P. Heydarian; N. Sarbazi; S. Allahverdian; N. Saadati; E. Ainy; S. Moeini

    2002-01-01

    Summary. Objectives: Coronary artery disease is becoming more prevalent in developing countries, particularly in urban areas. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among Tehran urban population. Methods: The prevalence and distribution of high blood pressure, cigarette smoking, dyslipoproteinemia, diabetes mellitus, and obesity was determined in 15005 subjects, aged three years and over, selected by

  5. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the urban population of Soussa in Tunisia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ghannem; A. Hadj Fredj

    Background With the epidemiological transition phenom- enon, Tunisia is now facing the growing prevalence of chronic diseases. Environmental and behavioural changes such as the adoption of new dietary habits and a sedentary lifestyle, and the stress of urbanization and of working conditions all lead to the rise in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Methods The aim of this study is

  6. Should preclinical vascular abnormalities be measured in asymptomatic adults to improve cardiovascular risk stratification?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. de Graaf; S. Holewijn; A. F. H. Stalenhoef; A. D. Sniderman

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Guideline groups have issued contradictory decisions as to the value of noninvasive tests in asymptomatic adults at intermediate cardiovascular risk. Reclassification has only recently been accepted as a critical criterion to determine the utility of a diagnostic test. The present review examines potential limitations in reclassification and evaluates the utility of carotid ultrasound, pulse wave velocity and

  7. Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Variants, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Myocardial Infarction in the Costa Rica Study

    PubMed Central

    Aslibekyan, S.; Jensen, M. K.; Campos, H.; Linkletter, C. D.; Loucks, E. B.; Ordovas, J. M.; Deka, R.; Rimm, E. B.; Baylin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation in fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has previously been linked to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk. The goal of our study was to test associations between six common FADS polymorphisms (rs174556, rs3834458, rs174570, rs2524299, rs174589, rs174627), intermediate cardiovascular risk factors, and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) in a matched population based case–control study of Costa Rican adults (n?=?1756). Generalized linear models and multiple conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of interest. Analyses involving intermediate cardiovascular risk factors and MI were also conducted in two replication cohorts, The Nurses’ Health Study (n?=?1200) and The Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (n?=?1295). In the Costa Rica Study, genetic variation in the FADS cluster was associated with a robust linear decrease in adipose gamma-linolenic, arachidonic, and eicosapentaenoic fatty acids, and significant or borderline significant increases in the eicosadienoic, eicosatrienoic, and dihomo-gamma-linolenic fatty acids. However, the associations with adipose tissue fatty acids did not translate into changes in inflammatory biomarkers, blood lipids, or the risk of MI in the discovery or the replication cohorts. In conclusion, fatty acid desaturase polymorphisms impact long-chain PUFA biosynthesis, but their overall effect on cardiovascular health likely involves multiple pathways and merits further investigation. PMID:22563332

  8. Fatty Acid desaturase gene variants, cardiovascular risk factors, and myocardial infarction in the costa rica study.

    PubMed

    Aslibekyan, S; Jensen, M K; Campos, H; Linkletter, C D; Loucks, E B; Ordovas, J M; Deka, R; Rimm, E B; Baylin, A

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation in fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has previously been linked to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk. The goal of our study was to test associations between six common FADS polymorphisms (rs174556, rs3834458, rs174570, rs2524299, rs174589, rs174627), intermediate cardiovascular risk factors, and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) in a matched population based case-control study of Costa Rican adults (n?=?1756). Generalized linear models and multiple conditional logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of interest. Analyses involving intermediate cardiovascular risk factors and MI were also conducted in two replication cohorts, The Nurses' Health Study (n?=?1200) and The Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (n?=?1295). In the Costa Rica Study, genetic variation in the FADS cluster was associated with a robust linear decrease in adipose gamma-linolenic, arachidonic, and eicosapentaenoic fatty acids, and significant or borderline significant increases in the eicosadienoic, eicosatrienoic, and dihomo-gamma-linolenic fatty acids. However, the associations with adipose tissue fatty acids did not translate into changes in inflammatory biomarkers, blood lipids, or the risk of MI in the discovery or the replication cohorts. In conclusion, fatty acid desaturase polymorphisms impact long-chain PUFA biosynthesis, but their overall effect on cardiovascular health likely involves multiple pathways and merits further investigation. PMID:22563332

  9. Fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors in obese adolescent girls: importance of the intraabdominal fat depot'

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia Caprio; Lauren D Hyman; Sherley McCarthy; Robert Lange; Mary Bronson; William V Tamborlane

    The regional distribution of body fat has repeat- edly been found to be a significant and independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in both obese men and women. To deter- mine whether abnormalities in the lipid-lipoprotein profile and systolic and diastolic blood pressure are related to specific fat depots early in the course of obesity, we used magnetic resonance imaging

  10. Dietary carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence from observational studies has suggested that carbohydrate quality rather than absolute intake is associated with greater risk of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between carbohydrate intake and dietary glycemic index and several cardiovascular disease...

  11. Dietary Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Beyond Saturated Fatty Acids and Cholesterol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Nicolosi; Thomas A. Wilson; Carl Lawton; Garry J. Handelman

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a significant risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While diet intervention remains the initial choice for the prevention and treatment of CVD, the nature of the dietary modification remains controversial. For example, reducing calories from total fat, without decreasing saturated fat intake results in insignificant changes in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Similarly, diet interventions that focus solely on

  12. Renal Allograft Function and Cardiovascular Risk in Recipients of Kidney Transplantation After Successful Pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Gutiérrez; P. González; I. Delgado; E. Gutiérrez; E. González; R. C. Siqueira; A. Andrés; J. M. Morales

    2009-01-01

    Successful pregnancy is one of the better indicators of quality of life for women who are of child-bearing age with restored fertility after kidney transplantation. Our objective was to evaluate whether pregnancy represented a risk factor for worsening of renal function or for cardiovascular disease among renal transplant recipients. From 1976 to 2007, we followed 30 successful pregnancies in 27

  13. Inflammation and Infection Do Not Promote Arterial Aging and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among

    E-print Network

    Gurven, Michael

    Inflammation and Infection Do Not Promote Arterial Aging and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Arterial aging is well characterized in industrial populations, but scantly described in populations adiposity and robust physical fitness. Inflammation has been implicated in all stages of arterial aging

  14. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Firefighters: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elpidoforos S. Soteriades; Russ Hauser; Ichiro Kawachi; Dimitrios Liarokapis; David C. Christiani; Stefanos N. Kales

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Obesity, despite being a significant determinant of fitness for duty, is reaching epidemic levels in the workplace. Firefighters’ fitness is important to their health and to public safety.Research Methods and Procedures: We examined the distribution of BMI and its association with major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Massachusetts firefighters who underwent baseline (1996) and annual medical examinations through

  15. Insights and perspectives on dietary modifications to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article summarizes presentations from, “Insights and Perspectives on Dietary Modifications to Reduce the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease”, a symposium held at the American Society for Nutrition (ASN) Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions in conjunction with Experimental Biology 2014 in San Dieg...

  16. Fatty acid desaturase gene variants, cardiovascular risk factors, and myocardial infarction in the costa rica study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variation in fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has previously been linked to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk. The goal of our study was to test associations between six common FADS polymorphisms (rs174556, rs3834458, rs174570, rs2524299, r...

  17. Research report Therapeutic drug and cardiovascular disease risk monitoring in patients with bipolar disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy M. Kilbourne; Edward P. Post; Mark S. Bauer; John E. Zeber; Laurel A. Copeland; Chester B. Good; Harold Alan Pincus

    Objectives: We assessed whether patients with bipolar disorder received serum drug level and toxicity monitoring for mood stabilizers and assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related risk factors attributed to atypical antipsychotic medications. Methods: A population-based study of individuals with bipolar disorder was conducted between July 2004 and July 2006. Based on American Psychiatric and American Diabetes Association guidelines, we assessed whether

  18. Diet quality is inversely related to cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of the study was to determine if there was an association between diet quality and cardiovascular risk factors in adults. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2008 data were used to compare diet quality, as determined by using 2005 Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores, and card...

  19. Statin Treatment in Hypercholesterolemic Pregnant Mice Reduces Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Their Offspring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maqsood M. Elahi; Felino R. Cagampang; Frederick W. Anthony; Nick Curzen; Sunil K. Ohri; Mark A. Hanson

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that hypercholesterolemia during pregnancy initiates pathogenic events in the fetus leading to increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the adult offspring. In this study we examined in mice whether pharmacological intervention using statins in late pregnancy could alleviate the detrimental effects of a high-fat, high-cholesterol (45% fat) maternal diet on the health of the dams and their

  20. Awareness and Knowledge of Cardiovascular Risk through Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Testing in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnyk, J. A.; Panza, G.; Zaleski, A.; Taylor, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, yet knowledge of CVD risk factors is surprisingly low in college students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an individualized blood pressure, cholesterol, and CVD education intervention on college freshmen. Methods:…

  1. Burnout and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Evidence, Possible Causal Paths, and Promising Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melamed, Samuel; Shirom, Arie; Toker, Sharon; Berliner, Shlomo; Shapira, Itzhak

    2006-01-01

    Burnout is characterized by emotional exhaustion, physical fatigue, and cognitive weariness, resulting from prolonged exposure to work-related stress. The authors review the accumulated evidence suggesting that burnout and the related concept of vital exhaustion are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and…

  2. Metabolic syndrome and 10-year cardiovascular disease risk in the Hoorn study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Dekker; C. J. Girman; T. Rhodes; M. G. A. A. M. Nijpels; C. D. A. Stehouwer; L. M. Bouter; R. J. Heine

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Different definitions of the metabolic syndrome have been proposed. Their value in a clinical setting to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is still unclear. We compared the definitions proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP), World Health Organization (WHO), European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR), and American College of Endocrinology (ACE)

  3. An Investigation of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in an Adolescent Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfgang, James; Dennison, Darwin

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyze high school students' self-reports and to determine biomedical cardiovascular disease risk factors in an adolescent population. Factors evaluated included smoking frequency, dietary fat intake, saturated fat intake, and cholesterol/high density lipoprotein ratio. (JN)

  4. Association between Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Risk in Chinese Youth Independent of Age and Pubertal Stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice PS Kong; Kai-Chow Choi; Albert MC Li; Stanley SC Hui; Michael HM Chan; YK Wing; Ronald CW Ma; Christopher WK Lam; Joseph TF Lau; Wing Yee So; Gary TC Ko; Juliana CN Chan

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of habit formation with substantial tracking of lifestyle and cardiovascular risk into adulthood. There are various guidelines on recommended levels of physical activity in youth of school-age. Despite the epidemic of obesity and diabetes in China, there is a paucity of data in this regard in Chinese youth. We examined the association of

  5. A systematic literature review: prescribing indicators related to type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Martirosyan; J. Voorham; F. M. Haaijer-Ruskamp; J. C. C. Braspenning; B. H. R. Wolffenbuttel; P. Denig

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Valid prescribing indicators (PI) are needed for reliable assessment of prescribing quality. The purpose of this study is to describe the validity of existing PI for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk management. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search for studies describing the development and assessment of relevant PIs between January 1990 and January 2009. We grouped

  6. Cardiovascular Risk in Midlife and Psychological Well-being Among Older Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timo E. Strandberg; Arto Y. Strandberg; Kaisu H. Pitkala; Veikko V. Salomaa; Reijo S. Tilvis; Tatu A. Miettinen

    Background:Negativeandpositiveaffectsinfluencethe prognosis in the elderly, but underlying mechanisms are obscure. We investigated whether cardiovascular dis- ease risk in midlife is related to psychological well- being in older men (aged 69-84 years old). Methods: A socioeconomically homogeneous volun- teer sample of men, born from 1919 through 1934, was followed up for 29 years. At baseline in 1974, they were healthy but

  7. Role Models and the Psychological Characteristics That Buffer Low-Socioeconomic-Status Youth from Cardiovascular Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Edith; Lee, William K.; Cavey, Lisa; Ho, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163…

  8. Identifying Risk Factors for the Prediction of Hospital Readmission among Older Persons with Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Renee Annette

    Older persons (55 years and older) with cardiovascular disease are at increased risk for hospital readmission when compared to other subgroups of our population. This issue presents an economic problem, a concern for the quality and type of care provided, and an urgent need to implement innovative strategies designed to reduce the rising cost of…

  9. Does present use of cardiovascular medication reflect elevated cardiovascular risk scores estimated ten years ago? A population based longitudinal observational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is desirable that those at highest risk of cardiovascular disease should have priority for preventive measures, eg. treatment with prescription drugs to modify their risk. We wanted to investigate to what extent present use of cardiovascular medication (CVM) correlates with cardiovascular risk estimated by three different risk scores (Framingham, SCORE and NORRISK) ten years ago. Methods Prospective logitudinal observational study of 20 252 participants in The Hordaland Health Study born 1950-57, not using CVM in 1997-99. Prescription data obtained from The Norwegian Prescription Database in 2008. Results 26% of men and 22% of women aged 51-58 years had started to use some CVM during the previous decade. As a group, persons using CVM scored significantly higher on the risk algorithms Framingham, SCORE and NORRISK compared to those not treated. 16-20% of men and 20-22% of women with risk scores below the high-risk thresholds for the three risk scores were treated with CVM, while 60-65% of men and 25-45% of women with scores above the high-risk thresholds received no treatment. Among women using CVM, only 2.2% (NORRISK), 4.4% (SCORE) and 14.5% (Framingham) had risk scores above the high-risk values. Low education, poor self-reported general health, muscular pains, mental distress (in females only) and a family history of premature cardiovascular disease correlated with use of CVM. Elevated blood pressure was the single factor most strongly predictive of CVM treatment. Conclusion Prescription of CVM to middle-aged individuals by large seems to occur independently of estimated total cardiovascular risk, and this applies especially to females. PMID:21366925

  10. Androgen Deprivation Therapy and Cardiovascular Risk in Chinese Patients with Nonmetastatic Carcinoma of Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gang; Yeung, Chun-Yip; Lee, Ka Kui; Liu, Jianxiong; Ho, Kwan Lun; Yiu, Ming-Kwong; Lam, Karen Siu-Ling; Tse, Hung-Fat; Yau, Thomas; Siu, Chung-Wah

    2014-01-01

    Background. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in nonmetastatic prostate cancer is unclear. Recent data suggests possible increase in the cardiovascular risks receiving ADT. The aim of the study was to investigate the cardiovascular outcomes in a cohort of Chinese nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients with no previously documented cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results. 745 patients with no previously documented cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes mellitus diagnosed to have nonmetastatic prostate cancer were recruited. Of these, 517 patients received ADT and the remaining 228 did not. After a mean follow-up of 5.3 years, 60 patients developed primary composite endpoint including (1) coronary artery disease, (2) congestive heart failure, and (3) ischemic stroke. Higher proportion of patients on ADT (51 patients, 9.9%) developed composite endpoint compared with those not on ADT (9 patients, 3.9%) with hazard ratio (HR) of 2.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–3.24, P = 0.04). Furthermore, Cox regression analysis revealed that only the use of ADT (HR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.03–4.25, P = 0.04) and hypertension (HR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.21–3.33, P < 0.01) were independent predictors for primary composite endpoint. Conclusion. ADT in Chinese patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer with no previously documented cardiovascular disease was associated with subsequent development of cardiovascular events. PMID:24803931

  11. Correlation between dietary glycemic index and cardiovascular disease risk factors among Japanese women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Amano; K Kawakubo; J S Lee; A C Tang; M Sugiyama; K Mori

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the correlation between dietary glycemic index (GI) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among subjects who consume white rice as a staple food.Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the associations between dietary GI, dietary glycemic load (GL) and dietary intakes, and CVD risk factors. Dietary GI and GL were calculated from a 3-day (including two

  12. Evaluation of the performance of existing non-laboratory based cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The high burden and rising incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in resource constrained countries necessitates implementation of robust and pragmatic primary and secondary prevention strategies. Many current CVD management guidelines recommend absolute cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment as a clinically sound guide to preventive and treatment strategies. Development of non-laboratory based cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms enable absolute risk assessment in resource constrained countries. The objective of this review is to evaluate the performance of existing non-laboratory based CV risk assessment algorithms using the benchmarks for clinically useful CV risk assessment algorithms outlined by Cooney and colleagues. Methods A literature search to identify non-laboratory based risk prediction algorithms was performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Ovid Premier Nursing Journals Plus, and PubMed databases. The identified algorithms were evaluated using the benchmarks for clinically useful cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms outlined by Cooney and colleagues. Results Five non-laboratory based CV risk assessment algorithms were identified. The Gaziano and Framingham algorithms met the criteria for appropriateness of statistical methods used to derive the algorithms and endpoints. The Swedish Consultation, Framingham and Gaziano algorithms demonstrated good discrimination in derivation datasets. Only the Gaziano algorithm was externally validated where it had optimal discrimination. The Gaziano and WHO algorithms had chart formats which made them simple and user friendly for clinical application. Conclusion Both the Gaziano and Framingham non-laboratory based algorithms met most of the criteria outlined by Cooney and colleagues. External validation of the algorithms in diverse samples is needed to ascertain their performance and applicability to different populations and to enhance clinicians’ confidence in them. PMID:24373202

  13. Effects of dietary animal and soy protein on cardiovascular disease risk factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kari D. Hecker

    2001-01-01

    A growing body of research offers insight into the influence of dietary protein on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Early\\u000a studies in rabbits indicated that animal protein was atherogenic; however, this has not been demonstrated in other animals\\u000a species (pig, primate) or humans. More recent studies have found that low-fat animal protein can effectively improve some\\u000a CVD risk factors. Soy protein

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors and noninvasive assessment of arterial structure and function in obese Turkish children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murat Muhtar Yilmazer; Vedide Tavli; Özgür Umaç Carti; Timur Mese; Bar?? Güven; Banu Ayd?n; Ilker Devrim; Talat Tavl?

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a number of risk factors, such as hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and early atherosclerosis.\\u000a Evidence indicates that atherosclerosis begins in childhood and progresses over decades. In this work, we examined the relationship\\u000a between cardiovascular risk factors and ultrasonographic signs of subclinical atherosclerosis in 77 obese children and adolescents\\u000a compared to 40 non-obese healthy peers. Carotis intima media

  15. Intima–media thickness measurements in children with cardiovascular risk factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mieczys?aw Litwin; Anna Niemirska

    2009-01-01

    Measuring intima–media thickness (IMT) is now a standard diagnostic procedure in assessing cardiovascular risk and hypertensive\\u000a target-organ damage (TOD) in adults. There is also an increasing number of pediatric publications evaluating IMT in children\\u000a from high-risk groups, such as those with arterial hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, obesity, dyslipidemia,\\u000a and homocystinurias. It has been shown that carotid IMT is strongly

  16. Hostile Behaviors Predict Cardiovascular Mortality Among Men Enrolled in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen A. Matthews; Brooks B. Gump; Kelly F. Harris; Thomas L. Haney; John C. Barefoot

    2011-01-01

    Background—Hostility is associated with incident coronary disease in most large population-based studies, but little is known about its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in high-risk individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the association of hostility with CVD mortality in the subsequent 16 years in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) participants and to explore the

  17. Effects of a High Oleic Acid Beef Diet on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors of Human Subjects 

    E-print Network

    Adams, Thaddeus Hunter

    2012-10-19

    that the general public, especially those at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), should consume diets containing little or no red meat. Early research concluded that dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) such as palmitic acid (16:0) elevate serum cholesterol... with MUFA can be obtained from Wagyu steers, although feeding practices markedly affect the degree of enrichment with MUFA(14). In this study, we compared several risks factors for CVD in mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects after consumption...

  18. The Association between Heart Rate and Blood Pressure, Blood Lipids and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goya Wannamethee; A. Gerald Shaper

    1994-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown that an elevated heart rate is associated with an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between heart rate, blood pressure, blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged men.Methods: A total of 7735 men, aged 40–59 years at screening, were selected at random from

  19. Global approach to cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease: Reality and opportunities for intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L De Nicola; R Minutolo; P Chiodini; C Zoccali; P Castellino; C Donadio; M Strippoli; F Casino; M Giannattasio; F Petrarulo; M Virgilio; E Laraia; B R Di Iorio; V Savica; G Conte

    2006-01-01

    The current implementation into nephrology clinical practice of guidelines on treatment of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. We designed a cross-sectional analysis to evaluate the prevalence and treatment of eight modifiable CV risk factors in 1058 predialysis CKD patients (stage 3: n=486; stage 4: n=430, stage 5: n=142) followed for at least 1 year

  20. Computed tomography imaging of early coronary artery lesions in stable individuals with multiple cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xi; Huang, Hong; Liu, Hong; Zeng, Zhi-Yu; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence, extent, severity, and features of coronary artery lesions in stable patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with more than 3 cardiovascular risk factors were suspected of having coronary artery disease. Patients with high-risk factors and 39 controls with no risk factors were enrolled in the study. The related risk factors included hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, smoking history, and overweight. The characteristics of coronary lesions were identified and evaluated by 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography. RESULTS: The incidence of coronary atherosclerosis was higher in the high-risk group than in the no-risk group. The involved branches of the coronary artery, the diffusivity of the lesion, the degree of stenosis, and the nature of the plaques were significantly more severe in the high-risk group compared with the no-risk group (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Among stable individuals with high-risk factors, early coronary artery lesions are common and severe. Computed tomography has promising value for the early screening of coronary lesions. PMID:26017789

  1. Sex-specific risk of cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline: pregnancy and menopause

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the biology of sex differences is integral to personalized medicine. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline are two related conditions, with distinct sex differences in morbidity and clinical manifestations, response to treatments, and mortality. Although mortality from all-cause cardiovascular diseases has declined in women over the past five years, due in part to increased educational campaigns regarding the recognition of symptoms and application of treatment guidelines, the mortality in women still exceeds that of men. The physiological basis for these differences requires further research, with particular attention to two physiological conditions which are unique to women and associated with hormonal changes: pregnancy and menopause. Both conditions have the potential to impact life-long cardiovascular risk, including cerebrovascular function and cognition in women. This review draws on epidemiological, translational, clinical, and basic science studies to assess the impact of hypertensive pregnancy disorders on cardiovascular disease and cognitive function later in life, and examines the effects of post-menopausal hormone treatments on cardiovascular risk and cognition in midlife women. We suggest that hypertensive pregnancy disorders and menopause activate vascular components, i.e., vascular endothelium and blood elements, including platelets and leukocytes, to release cell-membrane derived microvesicles that are potential mediators of changes in cerebral blood flow, and may ultimately affect cognition in women as they age. Research into specific sex differences for these disease processes with attention to an individual’s sex chromosomal complement and hormonal status is important and timely. PMID:23537114

  2. Toothbrushing, inflammation, and risk of cardiovascular disease: results from Scottish Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine if self reported toothbrushing behaviour is associated with cardiovascular disease and markers of inflammation (C reactive protein) and coagulation (fibrinogen). Design National population based survey. Setting Scottish Health Survey, which draws a nationally representative sample of the general population living in households in Scotland. Participants 11?869 men and women, mean age 50 (SD 11). Main outcome measures Oral hygiene assessed from self reported frequency of toothbrushing. Surveys were linked prospectively to clinical hospital records, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of cardiovascular disease events or death according to oral hygiene. The association between oral hygiene and inflammatory markers and coagulation was examined in a subsample of participants (n=4830) by using general linear models with adjustments. Results There were a total of 555 cardiovascular disease events over an average of 8.1 (SD 3.4) years of follow-up, of which 170 were fatal. In about 74% (411) of cardiovascular disease events the principal diagnosis was coronary heart disease. Participants who reported poor oral hygiene (never/rarely brushed their teeth) had an increased risk of a cardiovascular disease event (hazard ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.3; P<0.001) in a fully adjusted model. They also had increased concentrations of both C reactive protein (? 0.04, 0.01 to 0.08) and fibrinogen (0.08, ?0.01 to 0.18). Conclusions Poor oral hygiene is associated with higher levels of risk of cardiovascular disease and low grade inflammation, though the causal nature of the association is yet to be determined. PMID:20508025

  3. Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk Using Framingham, ASSIGN and QRISK2: How Well Do They Predict Individual Rather than Population Risk?

    PubMed Central

    van Staa, Tjeerd-Pieter; Gulliford, Martin; Ng, Edmond S.-W.; Goldacre, Ben; Smeeth, Liam

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of risk scores (Framingham, Assign and QRISK2) in predicting high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in individuals rather than populations. Methods and findings This study included 1.8 million persons without CVD and prior statin prescribing using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. This contains electronic medical records of the general population registered with a UK general practice. Individual CVD risks were estimated using competing risk regression models. Individual differences in the 10-year CVD risks as predicted by risk scores and competing risk models were estimated; the population was divided into 20 subgroups based on predicted risk. CVD outcomes occurred in 69,870 persons. In the subgroup with lowest risks, risk predictions by QRISK2 were similar to individual risks predicted using our competing risk model (99.9% of people had differences of less than 2%); in the subgroup with highest risks, risk predictions varied greatly (only 13.3% of people had differences of less than 2%). Larger deviations between QRISK2 and our individual predicted risks occurred with calendar year, different ethnicities, diabetes mellitus and number of records for medical events in the electronic health records in the year before the index date. A QRISK2 estimate of low 10-year CVD risk (<15%) was confirmed by Framingham, ASSIGN and our individual predicted risks in 89.8% while an estimate of high 10-year CVD risk (?20%) was confirmed in only 48.6% of people. The majority of cases occurred in people who had predicted 10-year CVD risk of less than 20%. Conclusions Application of existing CVD risk scores may result in considerable misclassification of high risk status. Current practice to use a constant threshold level for intervention for all patients, together with the use of different scoring methods, may inadvertently create an arbitrary classification of high CVD risk. PMID:25271417

  4. Bad Marriage, Broken Heart? Age and Gender Differences in the Link between Marital Quality and Cardiovascular Risks among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57–85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts; and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework. PMID:25413802

  5. Landmark risk prediction of residual life for breast cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Parast, Layla; Cai, Tianxi

    2013-09-10

    The importance of developing personalized risk prediction estimates has become increasingly evident in recent years. In general, patient populations may be heterogenous and represent a mixture of different unknown subtypes of disease. When the source of this heterogeneity and resulting subtypes of disease are unknown, accurate prediction of survival may be difficult. However, in certain disease settings, the onset time of an observable short-term event may be highly associated with these unknown subtypes of disease and thus may be useful in predicting long-term survival. One approach to incorporate short-term event information along with baseline markers for the prediction of long-term survival is through a landmark Cox model, which assumes a proportional hazards model for the residual life at a given landmark point. In this paper, we use this modeling framework to develop procedures to assess how a patient's long-term survival trajectory may change over time given good short-term outcome indications along with prognosis on the basis of baseline markers. We first propose time-varying accuracy measures to quantify the predictive performance of landmark prediction rules for residual life and provide resampling-based procedures to make inference about such accuracy measures. Simulation studies show that the proposed procedures perform well in finite samples. Throughout, we illustrate our proposed procedures by using a breast cancer dataset with information on time to metastasis and time to death. In addition to baseline clinical markers available for each patient, a chromosome instability genetic score, denoted by CIN25, is also available for each patient and has been shown to be predictive of survival for various types of cancer. We provide procedures to evaluate the incremental value of CIN25 for the prediction of residual life and examine how the residual life profile changes over time. This allows us to identify an informative landmark point, t(0) , such that accurate risk predictions of the residual life could be made for patients who survive past t(0) without metastasis. PMID:23494768

  6. Descriptive epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Mensah, George A

    2013-01-01

    Reliable data on risk factor levels, exposure history, and population distribution can help inform policies and programs for disease prevention and control. With rare exception however, ideal local data on major risk factors and causes of death and disease burden have been scarce in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Basic community surveys in some countries and recent systematic analysis of disease burden attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions of the world provide an opportunity to examine and relate diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors to mortality and burden in SSA. Rising body mass index, especially in women in Southern Africa; and rising systolic blood pressure in East Africa for both sexes, and in West Africa for women are the major cardiometabolic risk factors. Harmful use of alcohol, especially in Southern SSA, tobacco use, and physical inactivity are also important. Improving vital registration and risk factor surveillance remain major challenges. PMID:24267431

  7. Trends in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Prevalence and Estimated 10-Year Cardiovascular Risk Scores in a Large Untreated French Urban Population: The CARVAR 92 Study

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Carma; Beauchet, Alain; Czernichow, Sebastien; de Roquefeuil, Florence; Bourez, Alain; Mansencal, Nicolas; Dubourg, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Background Surveys measuring effectiveness of public awareness campaigns in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence have yielded equivocal findings. The aim of this study was to describe cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) changes over the years in an untreated population-based study. Methods Between 2007 and 2012, we conducted a screening campaign for CVRFs in men aged 40 to 65 yrs and women aged 50 to 70 yrs in the western suburbs of Paris. Data were complete for 20,324 participants of which 14,709 were untreated. Results The prevalence trend over six years was statistically significant for hypertension in men from 25.9% in 2007 to 21.1% in 2012 (p=0.002) and from 23% in 2007 to 12.7% in 2012 in women (p<0.0001). The prevalence trend of tobacco smoking decreased from 38.6% to 27.7% in men (p=0.0001) and from 22.6% to 16.8% in women (p=0.113). The Framingham 10-year risk for CVD decreased from 13.3 ± 8.2 % in 2007 to 11.7 ± 9.0 % in 2012 in men and from 8.0 ± 4.1 % to 5.9 ± 3.4 % in women. The 10-year risk of fatal CVD based on the European Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) decreased in men and in women (p <0.0001). Conclusions Over a 6-year period, several CVRFs have decreased in our screening campaign, leading to decrease in the 10-year risk for CVD and the 10-year risk of fatal CVD. Cardiologists should recognize the importance of community prevention programs and communication policies, particularly tobacco control and healthier diets to decrease the CVRFs in the general population. PMID:25906186

  8. Back to past leeches: repeated phlebotomies and cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In patients with metabolic syndrome, body iron overload exacerbates insulin resistance, impairment of glucose metabolism, endothelium dysfunction and coronary artery responses. Conversely, iron depletion is effective to ameliorate glucose metabolism and dysfunctional endothelium. Most of its effectiveness seems to occur through the amelioration of systemic and hepatic insulin resistance. In a study published by BMC Medicine, Michalsen et al. demonstrated a dramatic improvement of blood pressure, serum glucose and lipids after removing 550 to 800 ml of blood in subjects with metabolic syndrome. This effect was apparently independent of changes in insulin resistance, in contrast to previous cross-sectional and cohort studies investigating the association between iron overload, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Despite drawbacks in the study design, its findings may lead the way to investigations aimed at exploring iron-dependent regulatory mechanisms of vascular tone in healthy individuals and patients with metabolic disease, thus providing a rationale for novel preventive and therapeutic strategies to counteract hypertension. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/54 PMID:22647488

  9. Dietary strategies, policy and cardiovascular disease risk reduction in England.

    PubMed

    Levy, L B

    2013-11-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are major public health concerns in England and the associated costs to the National Health Service and society are considerable. Poor diet and other lifestyle factors are estimated to account for about one-third of all deaths from CVD in England. UK dietary recommendations were set by the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy and are now set by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. For cardiovascular health, dietary recommendations are set for nutrients (saturated fat, trans-fat and carbohydrates), foods (fruits, vegetables and oily fish) and salt. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey demonstrates that the majority of the UK population have poor diets. Average intakes of saturated fat and salt are above recommendations while fruit, vegetables, fibre and oily fish are below recommendations. The Department of Health in England is committed to working to improve diet and lifestyle. Current work includes the Public Health Responsibility Deal, under which organisations pledge to increase fruits and vegetables and reduce levels of salt, trans-fat and energy in manufactured foods and menus, the provision of information to help improve food choice through better food labels and provision of information, including a NHS Choices website and the social marketing campaign Change4Life. PMID:23842106

  10. Long?term Cardiovascular Risks Associated With an Elevated Heart Rate: The Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jennifer E.; Larson, Martin G.; Ghorbani, Anahita; Cheng, Susan; Coglianese, Erin E.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher heart rate has been associated with an adverse prognosis, but most prior studies focused on individuals with known cardiovascular disease or examined a limited number of outcomes. We sought to examine the association of baseline heart rate with both fatal and nonfatal outcomes during 2 decades of follow?up. Methods and Results Our study included 4058 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age 55 years, 56% women). Cox models were performed with multivariable adjustment for clinical risk factors and physical activity. A total of 708 participants developed incident cardiovascular disease (303 heart failure, 343 coronary heart disease, and 216 stroke events), 48 received a permanent pacemaker, and 1186 died. Baseline heart rate was associated with incident cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15 per 1 SD [11 bpm] increase in heart rate, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.24, P=0.0002), particularly heart failure (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.48, P<0.0001). Higher heart rate was also associated with higher all?cause (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.24, P<0.0001) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.33, P=0.01). Spline analyses did not suggest a lower threshold beyond which the benefit of a lower heart rate abated or increased. In contrast, individuals with a higher heart rate had a lower risk of requiring permanent pacemaker placement (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.79, P=0.001). Conclusions Individuals with a higher heart rate are at elevated long?term risk for cardiovascular events, in particular, heart failure, and all?cause death. On the other hand, a higher heart rate is associated with a lower risk of future permanent pacemaker implantation. PMID:24811610

  11. The benefits of statins in people without established cardiovascular disease but with cardiovascular risk factors: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether statins reduce all cause mortality and major coronary and cerebrovascular events in people without established cardiovascular disease but with cardiovascular risk factors, and whether these effects are similar in men and women, in young and older (>65 years) people, and in people with diabetes mellitus. Design Meta-analysis of randomised trials. Data sources Cochrane controlled trials register, Embase, and Medline. Data abstraction Two independent investigators identified studies on the clinical effects of statins compared with a placebo or control group and with follow-up of at least one year, at least 80% or more participants without established cardiovascular disease, and outcome data on mortality and major cardiovascular disease events. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Q and I2 statistics. Publication bias was assessed by visual examination of funnel plots and the Egger regression test. Results 10 trials enrolled a total of 70?388 people, of whom 23?681 (34%) were women and 16?078 (23%) had diabetes mellitus. Mean follow-up was 4.1 years. Treatment with statins significantly reduced the risk of all cause mortality (odds ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.96), major coronary events (0.70, 0.61 to0.81), and major cerebrovascular events (0.81, 0.71 to 0.93). No evidence of an increased risk of cancer was observed. There was no significant heterogeneity of the treatment effect in clinical subgroups. Conclusion In patients without established cardiovascular disease but with cardiovascular risk factors, statin use was associated with significantly improved survival and large reductions in the risk of major cardiovascular events. PMID:19567909

  12. Mercury Exposure and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Two U.S. Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Shi, Peilin; Morris, J. Steven; Spiegelman, Donna; Grandjean, Philippe; Siscovick, David S.; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Exposure to methylmercury from fish consumption has been linked to a potentially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence from prior studies is equivocal. Beneficial effects of the ingestion of fish and selenium may also modify such effects. METHODS Among subjects from two U.S. cohorts (a total of 51,529 men and 121,700 women) whose toenail clippings had been stored, we prospectively identified incident cases of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease and stroke) in 3427 participants and matched them to risk-set–sampled controls according to age, sex, race, and smoking status. Toenail mercury and selenium concentrations were assessed with the use of neutron-activation analysis. Other demographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, fish consumption, and lifestyle habits were assessed by means of validated questionnaires. Associations between mercury exposure and incident cardiovascular disease were evaluated with the use of conditional logistic regression. RESULTS Median toenail mercury concentrations were 0.23 µg per gram (interdecile range, 0.06 to 0.94) in the case participants and 0.25 µg per gram (interdecile range, 0.07 to 0.97) in the controls. In multivariate analyses, participants with higher mercury exposures did not have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. For comparisons of the fifth quintile of mercury exposure with the first quintile, the relative risks were as follows: coronary heart disease, 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.04; P = 0.10 for trend); stroke, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.62 to 1.14; P = 0.27 for trend); and total cardiovascular disease, 0.85 (95% CI, 0.72 to 1.01; P = 0.06 for trend). Findings were similar in analyses of participants with low selenium concentrations or low overall fish consumption and in several additional sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS We found no evidence of any clinically relevant adverse effects of mercury exposure on coronary heart disease, stroke, or total cardiovascular disease in U.S. adults at the exposure levels seen in this study. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.) PMID:21428767

  13. Lack of cardiovascular risk assessment in inflammatory arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus patients at a tertiary care center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie O. Keeling; Michelle Teo; Daisy Fung

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate cardiovascular risk assessment at a Canadian rheumatology center and describe the\\u000a cardiovascular risk of inflammatory arthritis (IA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients using the Framingham risk\\u000a score. A retrospective chart review of 504 patients attending nine rheumatology practices at the University of Alberta Hospital\\u000a was performed. A pre-specified case report form

  14. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease from Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bavinger, Clay; Bendavid, Eran; Niehaus, Katherine; Olshen, Richard A.; Olkin, Ingram; Sundaram, Vandana; Wein, Nicole; Holodniy, Mark; Hou, Nanjiang; Owens, Douglas K.; Desai, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest certain antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs are associated with increases in cardiovascular disease. Purpose We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the available evidence, with the goal of elucidating whether specific ART drugs are associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Data Sources We searched Medline, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and abstract archives from the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections and International AIDS Society up to June 2011 to identify published articles and abstracts. Study Selection Eligible studies were comparative and included MI, strokes, or other cardiovascular events as outcomes. Data Extraction Eligibility screening, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed independently by two investigators. Data Synthesis Random effects methods and Fisher’s combined probability test were used to summarize evidence. Findings Twenty-seven studies met inclusion criteria, with 8 contributing to a formal meta-analysis. Findings based on two observational studies indicated an increase in risk of MI for patients recently exposed (usually defined as within last 6 months) to abacavir (RR 1.92, 95% CI 1.51–2.42) and protease inhibitors (PI) (RR 2.13, 95% CI 1.06–4.28). Our analysis also suggested an increased risk associated with each additional year of exposure to indinavir (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05–1.17) and lopinavir (RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01–1.47). Our findings of increased cardiovascular risk from abacavir and PIs were in contrast to four published meta-analyses based on secondary analyses of randomized controlled trials, which found no increased risk from cardiovascular disease. Conclusion Although observational studies implicated specific drugs, the evidence is mixed. Further, meta-analyses of randomized trials did not find increased risk from abacavir and PIs. Our findings that implicate specific ARTs in the observational setting provide sufficient evidence to warrant further investigation of this relationship in studies designed for that purpose. PMID:23555704

  15. An Overview of NASA's Risk of Cardiovascular Disease from Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Huff, Janice L.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The association between high doses of radiation exposure and cardiovascular damage is well established. Patients that have undergone radiotherapy for primary cancers of the head and neck and mediastinal regions have shown increased risk of heart and vascular damage and long-term development of radiation-induced heart disease [1]. In addition, recent meta-analyses of epidemiological data from atomic bomb survivors and nuclear industry workers has also shown that acute and chronic radiation exposures is strongly correlated with an increased risk of circulatory disease at doses above 0.5 Sv [2]. However, these analyses are confounded for lower doses by lifestyle factors, such as drinking, smoking, and obesity. The types of radiation found in the space environment are significantly more damaging than those found on Earth and include galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs), and trapped protons and electrons. In addition to the low-LET data, only a few studies have examined the effects of heavy ion radiation on atherosclerosis, and at lower, space-relevant doses, the association between exposure and cardiovascular pathology is more varied and unclear. Understanding the qualitative differences in biological responses produced by GCR compared to Earth-based radiation is a major focus of space radiation research and is imperative for accurate risk assessment for long duration space missions. Other knowledge gaps for the risk of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease include the existence of a dose threshold, low dose rate effects, and potential synergies with other spaceflight stressors. The Space Radiation Program Element within NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is managing the research and risk mitigation strategies for these knowledge gaps. In this presentation, we will review the evidence and present an overview of the HRP Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure.

  16. [Intermittent claudication--a major cardiovascular risk factor. Proposed guidelines for investigation and treatment].

    PubMed

    Svensson, P; Wahlberg, E; Hedin, U; Ostergren, J

    1999-03-31

    Intermittent claudication is a common disorder, the diagnosis of which can usually be made on the basis of careful history taking and physical examination. Treatment should be focused on abstinence from smoking, increased daily walking distance, risk-factor modification, and aspirin prophylaxis. Laboratory studies including duplex ultrasonography should be limited to cases where uncertainty exists or to the preoperative work-up for invasive intervention. Intermittent claudication patients merit special attention as a category at high risk of cardiovascular disease, and in whom risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and diabetes need to be identified and treated. PMID:10218341

  17. Personality, emotional adjustment, and cardiovascular risk: marriage as a mechanism.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Baron, Carolynne E; Grove, Jeremy L

    2014-12-01

    A variety of aspects of personality and emotional adjustment predict the development and course of coronary heart disease (CHD), as do indications of marital quality (e.g., satisfaction, conflict, strain, disruption). Importantly, the personality traits and aspects of emotional adjustment that predict CHD are also related to marital quality. In such instances of correlated risk factors, traditional epidemiological and clinical research typically either ignores the potentially overlapping effects or examines independent associations through statistical controls, approaches that can misrepresent the key components and mechanisms of psychosocial effects on CHD. The interpersonal perspective in personality and clinical psychology provides an alternative and integrative approach, through its structural and process models of interpersonal behavior. We present this perspective on psychosocial risk and review research on its application to the integration of personality, emotional adjustment, and marital processes as closely interrelated influences on health and disease. PMID:24118013

  18. Influence of risk behavior aggregation in different categories of physical activity on the occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We aimed to verify the association of risk behavior aggregation in different categories of physical activity (PA) with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (RF) employees at a public university. Method We analyzed data of 376 employees, which were visited in their workplace for measurement of weight, height and questionnaires to identify the risk behaviors and risk factors. Chi-square test was used to analyze the association between the dependent and independent variables and binary logistic regression was used to construct a multivariate model for the observed associations. Results Associations were found between the aggregation of following risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity, considered in different categories of PA, and the increase in RF, except for the presence of hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with two or more risk behaviors in occupational PA category are more likely to be hypertensive (3.04 times) and diabetes (3.44 times). For the free time PA category, these individuals were 3.18 times more likely to have hypercholesterolemia and for locomotion PA, more likely to be hypertensive (2.42 times) and obese (2.51 times). Conclusion There are association between the aggregation of two or more risk behaviors and the presence of cardiovascular RF. PMID:23800219

  19. Parenting styles, peer influences, and adolescent cardiovascular disease risk factors 

    E-print Network

    Tramm, Amy Bishop

    2000-01-01

    and the pediatric population is more obese (45-47). Health risks of obesity are echoed throughout research with higher incidences of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol, and lipoproteins (48-50). It is estimated that 26. 2 million children under... 19 years old have hyperlipidemia (6). It is believed that the rise in childhood obesity has substantially increased adolescent type 2 diabetes. Whereas fewer than 4/o of childhood diabetes cases in 1990 were type 2, that number has risen...

  20. Sexual Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Risk – Links and Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn Matfin

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is an increasingly common problem, affecting up to 30 million men in the US and 140 million men\\u000a worldwide. The prevalence and incidence of ED is closely related to an aging population and also to an increase in other associated\\u000a risk factors (such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, atherosclerosis, smoking and polypharmacy). Several of\\u000a these

  1. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in the Coastal Region of South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    McElligott, Kevin; McElligott, James; Rivell, Guillermo; Rolfe, Robert; Sharpe, Robert; Lambright, Kelly; Charles, Laurine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess risk factors for cardiovascular disease, barriers to health care, and desired health care education topics for Hispanics in the coastal region of South Carolina known as the Lowcountry. Methods 174 Hispanic adults were surveyed at visits at the Mexican consulate using a novel interview instrument. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was compared to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), an annual telephone survey, to evaluate the validity of the survey instrument. Results Results are comparable to the BRFSS telephone study of the Hispanics in the same area. However, participants in our study were older (Age >35 = 41.4% vs. 34.9%) and reported fewer years of formal education (higher level education = 12.9% vs. 44.2%). Cost of care (72.8%) and language barriers (46.8%) were the main difficulties reported in obtaining health care access. The main educational topics of interest were diabetes (61.5%), hypertension (43.7%), stress (42.5%), and cardiac disease (40.2%). Conclusion Our study supports the evidence that there is a demand and need for cardiovascular disease and diabetes education among Hispanics. Our study also shows that a large proportion of Hispanics experience barriers to health care. and that large telephone studies may underrepresent higher risk Hispanic populations. PMID:24804360

  2. Hormone therapy and risk of cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in women treated with statins

    PubMed Central

    Berglind, Ingegärd Anveden; Andersen, Morten; Citarella, Anna; Linder, Marie; Sundström, Anders; Kieler, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective This work aims to study the effects of hormone therapy (HT) on the risk of cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality in women treated with statins. Methods We included women aged 40 to 74 years and living in Sweden who filled a first statin prescription between 2006 and 2007. Women were categorized as HT users or as nonusers. Information on dispensed drugs, comorbidity, cardiovascular outcomes, and all-cause mortality was obtained from national health registers. Results A total of 40,958 statin users—2,862 (7%) HT users and 38,096 nonusers—were followed for a mean of 4.0 years. In total, 70% of the women used statins as primary prevention. Among HT users, there were five cardiovascular deaths per 10,000 person-years. The corresponding rate among nonusers was 18, which yielded a hazard ratio of 0.38 (95% CI, 0.12-1.19). The all-cause mortality rates were 33 and 87, respectively, and the hazard ratio was 0.53 (95% CI, 0.34-0.81). There were no associations with cardiovascular events. A similar pattern was found for both primary and secondary prevention. Conclusions HT is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality in women treated with statins. Although confounding factors, such as lifestyle and disease severity, might have influenced the results, HT does not seem to be detrimental to statin-treated women. PMID:25335101

  3. Novel risk factors of cardiovascular disease and their associations between obesity, physical activity and physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Duncan S; Thomas, Non E; Baker, Julien S

    2012-02-17

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing around the globe and is the leading cause of death around the world. Though once thought of as an adult problem, it is now recognised that the early manifestations of disease may occur during childhood. Numerous risk factors have been linked to CVD with much of the research focusing on understanding the prevalence and relationship of traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, psychosocial stress, poor diet, physical inactivity and alcohol consumption to the early etiology of disease. While this line of investigation has greatly enhanced our understanding of the relationship between these risk factors and disease, they do not fully explain all cardiovascular events. To enhance our understanding and help with the management of CVD, investigations that involve the measurement of traditional as well as novel risk factors may be necessary. Public health strategies that aim to reduce the prevalence of obesity and overweight encourage youth to increase their physical activity levels as a means of protecting against poor cardiometabolic profiles. Interventions that increase physical activity levels and improve cardiorespiratory fitness cause a reduction in certain CVD risk factors but the lack of agreement between findings makes it impossible to give precise recommendations that will ensure CVD risk reduction. Yet it is important that research continues in order to establish the most appropriate means of improving the health and well-being of those at most risk of future CVD. PMID:25170447

  4. Risks and benefits of omega 3 fats for mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Lee; Thompson, Rachel L; Harrison, Roger A; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Ness, Andy R; Moore, Helen J; Worthington, Helen V; Durrington, Paul N; Higgins, Julian P T; Capps, Nigel E; Riemersma, Rudolph A; Ebrahim, Shah B J; Smith, George Davey

    2006-01-01

    Objective To review systematically the evidence for an effect of long chain and shorter chain omega 3 fatty acids on total mortality, cardiovascular events, and cancer. Data sources Electronic databases searched to February 2002; authors contacted and bibliographies of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) checked to locate studies. Review methods Review of RCTs of omega 3 intake for 3 6 months in adults (with or without risk factors for cardiovascular disease) with data on a relevant outcome. Cohort studies that estimated omega 3 intake and related this to clinical outcome during at least 6 months were also included. Application of inclusion criteria, data extraction, and quality assessments were performed independently in duplicate. Results Of 15 159 titles and abstracts assessed, 48 RCTs (36 913 participants) and 41 cohort studies were analysed. The trial results were inconsistent. The pooled estimate showed no strong evidence of reduced risk of total mortality (relative risk 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.73 to 1.03) or combined cardiovascular events (0.95, 0.82 to 1.12) in participants taking additional omega 3 fats. The few studies at low risk of bias were more consistent, but they showed no effect of omega 3 on total mortality (0.98, 0.70 to 1.36) or cardiovascular events (1.09, 0.87 to 1.37). When data from the subgroup of studies of long chain omega 3 fats were analysed separately, total mortality (0.86, 0.70 to 1.04; 138 events) and cardiovascular events (0.93, 0.79 to 1.11) were not clearly reduced. Neither RCTs nor cohort studies suggested increased risk of cancer with a higher intake of omega 3 (trials: 1.07, 0.88 to 1.30; cohort studies: 1.02, 0.87 to 1.19), but clinically important harm could not be excluded. Conclusion Long chain and shorter chain omega 3 fats do not have a clear effect on total mortality, combined cardiovascular events, or cancer. PMID:16565093

  5. Effects of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that Ramadan fasting has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, however there are controversies. In the present study, the effect of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors has been investigated. Method This is a prospective observational study that was carried out in a group of patients with at least one cardiovascular risk factor (including history of documented previous history of either coronary artery disease (CAD), metabolic syndrome or cerebro-vascular disease in past 10 y). Eighty two volunteers including 38 male and 44 female, aged 29–70 y, mean 54.0?±?10 y, with a previous history of either coronary artery disease, metabolic syndrome or cerebro-vascular disease were recruited. Subjects attended the metabolic unit after at least 10?h fasting, before and after Ramadan who were been fasting for at least 10?days. A fasting blood sample was obtained, blood pressure was measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Lipids profile, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and insulin, homocysteine (hcy), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and complete blood count (CBC) were analyzed on all blood samples. Results A significant improvement in 10?years coronary heart disease risk (based on Framingham risk score) was found (13.0?±?8 before Ramadan and 10.8 ±7 after Ramadan, P <0.001, t test).There was a significant higher HDL-c, WBC, RBC and platelet count (PLT), and lower plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, VLDL-c, systolic blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference after Ramadan (P <0.05, t test). The changes in FBS, insulin,Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), hcy, hs-CRP and diastolic blood pressure before and after Ramadan were not significant (P >0.05, t test). Conclusions This study shows a significant improvement in 10?years coronary heart disease risk score and other cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids profile, systolic blood pressure, weight, BMI and waist circumference in subjects with a previous history of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22963582

  6. Lipid effects and cardiovascular disease risk associated with glucose-lowering medications.

    PubMed

    Stähli, Barbara E; Gebhard, Catherine; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes is a global epidemic, associated with a high burden of complications and 4.6 million deaths annually worldwide. As a result of decreasing levels of physical activity and increasing rates of obesity, diabetes is shifting from a disease affecting the elderly to one that affects younger patients or even children. Thus, aggressive treatment and optimal control of risk factors is the key to improve outcomes in those patients. Accumulating evidence of the cardiovascular and lipid effects of glucose-lowering medications suggest that treatment efficacy in diabetes can be further improved. This review provides an overview of the lipid effects and cardiovascular disease risk of current anti-diabetic medications and highlights opportunities and challenges in clinical practice. PMID:26031672

  7. Resting heart rate: risk indicator and emerging risk factor in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Michael; Reil, Jan-Christian; Deedwania, Prakash; Kim, Jae B; Borer, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-01

    Resting heart rate is central to cardiac output and is influenced by changes occurring in numerous diseases. It predicts longevity and cardiovascular diseases, and current evidence suggests that it is also an important marker of outcome in cardiovascular disease, including heart failure. Beta-blockers improve outcomes in heart failure; however, they have effects outside reducing heart rate. Ivabradine has demonstrated efficacy in reducing rehospitalizations and mortality in heart failure and in improving exercise tolerance and reducing angina attacks in patients with coronary artery disease, whereas selective heart rate reduction may also prove to be beneficial in therapeutic areas outside those in which ivabradine has already demonstrated clinical efficacy. This review provides an update on the associations between heart rate and cardiovascular outcomes in various conditions, the experimental effects of heart rate reduction with ivabradine, and the potential new indications in cardiovascular disease. PMID:25447617

  8. Effects of Endurance Training on Blood Pressure, Blood Pressure-Regulating Mechanisms, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronique A. Cornelissen; Robert H. Fagard

    2007-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials on the effects of chronic dynamic aerobic endurance training on blood pressure reported on resting blood pressure only. Our aim was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis including resting and ambulatory blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and concomi- tant cardiovascular risk factors. Inclusion criteria of studies were: random allocation to intervention and control; endurance training

  9. Cardiovascular Risk Prediction by Measurement of Arterial Elastic Properties and Wall Thickness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos Aznaouridis; Saurabh S. Dhawan; Arshed A. Quyyumi

    \\u000a Arterial elastic properties (stiffness, wave reflections, and central pressures) and carotid wall thickness are important\\u000a determinants of global cardiovascular (CV) performance. There is mounting evidence that these arterial characteristics are\\u000a associated with the presence and extent of CV disease. Furthermore, they are important and independent predictors of CV risk\\u000a in several populations, and may even be used to monitor the

  10. Lipoprotein profile and prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in urban Moroccan women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M El ayachi; M Mziwira; S Vincent; C Defoort; H Portugal; D Lairon; R Belahsen

    2005-01-01

    Objective:The study aimed to characterize the lipid and apolipoprotein profile and the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a population of urban adult women of Morocco.Design:A total of 213 women 25–55 y old were sampled from an agricultural province of Morocco: El Jadida. The following parameters of lipid and apolipoprotein profile were measured: plasma triglycerides (TG), plasma cholesterol (TC), triglyceride-rich

  11. Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Factors among Psoriasis Patients in Two US Healthcare Databases, 2001–2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Kimball; Y. Wu; C. Guzzo; N. Yeilding; C. Paramore; K. Fraeman; M. Bala

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases or risk factors (CVDR) seem to be more common in psoriasis patients than in the general population. Objective: We assessed the relationship of psoriasis with CVDR by analysis of healthcare claims data using a cross-sectional, prevalence-based study design. Patients and Methods: The IMS Health and MarketScan® claims databases were used to identify adults with psoriasis diagnostic codes.

  12. High-Oleic Ground Beef and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Men and Postmenopausal Women 

    E-print Network

    Ghahramany, Ghazal

    2012-07-16

    . Riechman Alice Villalobos Chaodong Wu Intercollegiate Faculty Chair, Stephen B. Smith May 2012 Major Subject: Nutrition iii ABSTRACT High-Oleic Ground Beef and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Men... and low HDL-C are often associated with metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus secondary to insulin resistance (14, 15). It is still believed that small, dense LDL particles are a contributing factor to atherosclerosis based on evidence that smaller...

  13. Effect of BMI on cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome risk factors in an Appalachian pediatric population

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Katelynn E; Fischl, Andrea FR; Murray, Pamela J; Conway, Baqiyyah N

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to characterize cardiovascular risk factors in a rural pediatric population by body mass index (BMI) category and the presence of the metabolic syndrome. Methods Data on 13,018 children and adolescents (aged younger than 20 years) from West Virginia and Ohio in 2005–2006 were obtained from the C8 Health Project to determine the prevalence of overweight/obesity and the metabolic syndrome, which was then compared with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006 data. Cardiovascular risk factors were assessed by age-standardized and sex-standardized BMI category (<85th, 85th–95th, >95th percentiles) and the presence of metabolic syndrome, defined as the presence of three or more of the following criteria: BMI >97th percentile, triglycerides >110 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40 mg/dL, and fasting blood glucose >110 mg/dL. Results The population was 51% male and 95% white. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 38% and metabolic syndrome was 4.6% in the C8 population, compared with a prevalence of 30% and 3.4%, respectively, within the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey population. In our Appalachian population, a significant adverse trend across BMI categories was observed for lipids, insulin, inflammatory markers, white blood cell count, and C-reactive protein. Significant differences in these risk factors were seen among those with metabolic syndrome compared with those without metabolic syndrome. Conclusion The increased prevalence of overweight/obesity and the metabolic syndrome along with the increase in cardiovascular risk factors in Appalachian children and adolescents, suggests a cohort that may develop earlier onset and possibly increased severity of cardiovascular disease and other complications associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity. PMID:25285020

  14. A Green Tea Extract High in Catechins Reduces Body Fat and Cardiovascular Risks in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomonori Nagao; Tadashi Hase; Ichiro Tokimitsu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The body fat reducing effect and reduction of risks for cardiovascular disease by a green tea extract (GTE) high in catechins was investigated in humans with typical lifestyles.Research Methods and Procedures: Japanese women and men with visceral fat-type obesity were recruited for the trial. After a 2-week diet run-in period, a 12-week double-blind parallel multicenter trial was performed, in

  15. High prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among policemen in Puducherry, South India

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Jayalakshmy; Majgi, Sumanth Mallikarjuna; Premarajan, Kariyarath Cheriyath; Lakshminarayanan, Subitha; Thangaraj, Susila; Chinnakali, Palanivel

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus and hypertension (HT) are common diseases in adulthood, pre-disposing to many cardiovascular complications, posing a major public health challenge. Few studies have reported increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and type 2 diabetes in policemen. Hence, this study aims to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, HT, smoking, alcohol intake, and obesity among policemen. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008–2009 among 256 policemen in Puducherry, South India. Policemen were selected by simple random sampling. Socio-demographic details and some of the risk factors such as alcohol intake and smoking history were obtained using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. Presence of stress was measured using the professional life stress score questionnaire. Blood pressure, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured by standard methods. Fasting blood sugar was estimated using a glucometer. Serum cholesterol was also measured. Lipid profile was measured for a randomly chosen subgroup of 50 participants. Results Mean age of study participants was 40.9 years (SD ± 10.9). Out of the study subjects, 23% (n = 60) were known diabetic and 16.8% (n = 43) were known hypertensive. Prevalence of diabetes among study participants was 33.6% (CI: 27.8%–39.6%). Prevalence of HT among study participants was 30.5% (CI: 24.9%–36.5%). Seventy percent (n = 178) had at least moderate range of stress in their life related to their profession and 4% (n = 11) had stress as a “problem” in their life. Conclusions Burden of cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes and HT was high among police personnel of Puducherry. PMID:24027367

  16. Left ventricular volumes and mass in marathon runners and their association with cardiovascular risk factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Nassenstein; Frank Breuckmann; Nils Lehmann; Axel Schmermund; Peter Hunold; Martina Broecker-Preuss; Torleif A. Sandner; Martin Halle; Klaus Mann; Karl-Heinz Jöckel; Gerd Heusch; Thomas Budde; Raimund Erbel; Jörg Barkhausen; Stefan Möhlenkamp

    2009-01-01

    Background To assess left ventricular volumes and mass by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in relation to conventional cardiovascular\\u000a risk factors and coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden in master marathon runners aged ?50 years. Methods Cardiac MRI was performed in 105 clinically healthy male marathon runners (mean age 57.3 ± 5.7 years, range 50–71 years)\\u000a on a 1.5 T MR system (Avanto, Siemens, Germany). Cine steady state

  17. Paraoxonase 1 Polymorphism and Prenatal Pesticide Exposure Associated with Adverse Cardiovascular Risk Profiles at School Age

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Helle R.; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Dalgård, Christine; Christiansen, Lene; Main, Katharina M.; Nellemann, Christine; Murata, Katsuyuki; Jensen, Tina K.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Grandjean, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Prenatal environmental factors might influence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has anti-oxidative functions that may protect against atherosclerosis. It also hydrolyzes many substrates, including organophosphate pesticides. A common polymorphism, PON1 Q192R, affects both properties, but a potential interaction between PON1 genotype and pesticide exposure on cardiovascular risk factors has not been investigated. We explored if the PON1 Q192R genotype affects cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides. Methods Pregnant greenhouse-workers were categorized as high, medium, or not exposed to pesticides. Their children underwent a standardized examination at age 6-to-11 years, where blood pressure, skin folds, and other anthropometric parameters were measured. PON1-genotype was determined for 141 children (88 pesticide exposed and 53 unexposed). Serum was analyzed for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), insulin and leptin. Body fat percentage was calculated from skin fold thicknesses. BMI results were converted to age and sex specific Z-scores. Results Prenatally pesticide exposed children carrying the PON1 192R-allele had higher abdominal circumference, body fat content, BMI Z-scores, blood pressure, and serum concentrations of leptin and IGF-I at school age than unexposed children. The effects were related to the prenatal exposure level. For children with the PON1 192QQ genotype, none of the variables was affected by prenatal pesticide exposure. Conclusion Our results indicate a gene-environment interaction between prenatal pesticide exposure and the PON1 gene. Only exposed children with the R-allele developed adverse cardiovascular risk profiles thought to be associated with the R-allele. PMID:22615820

  18. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Hemodialysis Patients - The CORDIAL Study

    PubMed Central

    Burmeister, Jayme Eduardo; Mosmann, Camila Borges; Costa, Veridiana Borges; Saraiva, Ramiro Tubino; Grandi, Renata Rech; Bastos, Juliano Peixoto; Gonçalves, Luiz Felipe; Rosito, Guido Aranha

    2014-01-01

    Background There are scarce epidemiological data on cardiovascular risk profile of chronic hemodialysis patients in Brazil. Objective The CORDIAL study was designed to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors and follow up a hemodialysis population in a Brazilian metropolitan city. Methods All patients undergoing regular hemodialysis for chronic renal failure in all fifteen nephrology centers of Porto Alegre were considered for inclusion in the baseline phase of the CORDIAL study. Clinical, laboratory and demographic data were obtained in medical records and in structured individual interviews performed in all patients by trained researchers. Results A total of 1215 patients were included (97.3% of all hemodialysis patients in the city of Porto Alegre). Their average age was 58.3 years old, 59.5% were male and 62.8% were white. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors observed was 87.5% for hypertension, 84.7% for dyslipidemia, 73.1% for sedentary lifestyle, 53.7% for tobacco use, and 35.8% for diabetes. In a multivariate adjusted analysis, we found that sedentary lifestyle (p = 0.032, PR 1.08 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.15), dyslipidemia (p = 0.019, PR 1.08 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.14), and obesity (p < 0.001, PR 1.96 - 95%CI: 1.45-2.63) were more frequent in women; and hypertension (p = 0.018, PR 1.06 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.11) and tobacco use (p = 0.006, PR 2.7 - 95%CI: 1.79-4.17) were more often found among patients under 65 years old. Sedentary lifestyle was independently associated with time in dialysis less than 12 months (p < 0.001, PR 1.23 - 95% CI: 1.14-1.33). Conclusion Hemodialysis patients in this southern metropolitan Brazilian city have a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors resembling many northern countries. PMID:24759948

  19. Calcium Loading, Calcium Accumulation, and Associated Cardiovascular Risks in Dialysis Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip J. Klemmer

    2005-01-01

    Calcium and phosphate imbalances are important mutable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nearly all dialysis patients require phosphate binders. These include traditional calcium-based compounds and, more recently, the calcium-free, metal-free, non-absorbed agent, sevelamer hydrochloride. Both binder types reduce serum phosphorus, but differ with respect to calcium load and metabolism. Absorption from calcium-based agents very likely

  20. Complementary effects of Mediterranean diet and moderate red wine intake on haemostatic cardiovascular risk factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Mezzano; F Leighton; C Martínez; G Marshall; A Cuevas; O Castillo; O Panes; B Muñoz; DD Pérez; C Mizón; J Rozowski; A San Martín; J Pereira

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effect of alcohol-free Mediterranean-type diet (MD) and high-fat diet (HFD) on plasma concentration of emergent haemostatic cardiovascular risk factors (HCVRF). Also, to test if red wine supplementation modifies HCVRF, independent of diet.Design, subjects and intervention: Controlled prospective intervention study. Two groups, each of 21 healthy male university students (22±3.4 y), received either MD or HFD for

  1. Childhood socioeconomic status and risk of cardiovascular disease in middle aged US women: a prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M D Gliksman; I Kawachi; D Hunter; G A Colditz; J E Manson; M J Stampfer; F E Speizer; W C Willett; C H Hennekens

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine prospectively the relationship of childhood socioeconomic status and risk of cardiovascular disease in middle aged women. DESIGN--A prospective cohort of women with 14 years follow up data (1976-90). SUBJECTS--A total of 117,006 registered female nurses aged 30 to 55 years in 1976 and free of diagnosed coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Incident fatal

  2. Results of a multifactor cardiovascular risk reduction program in the czech republic: The healthy dubec project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl L. Albright; Lumír Komárek; Katerina Osancová; Vladimír Kebza; Jarmila Janovská; Ludmila Lhotská; Jaroslava Okénková; Zdenek Roth; Jana Vignerová; Rudolf Poledne; Michal Andel; Jana Málková; Dalibor Herman; Pavel Kraml; Richard Havel; Philip Frost; Sushma Palmer; Helena C. Kraemer; John W. Farquhar

    2000-01-01

    Czech cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality rates are among the highest in the world. A 2-year community-based\\u000a project was designed to increase CVD awareness and knowledge and behavior change skills, thus stimulating change in CVD-related\\u000a behaviors. Dubec, a Czech town located just outside Prague, was the study community. Risk-factor surveys were conducted before\\u000a and after the intervention (1992 and

  3. Estimating cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes: a national multicenter study in Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilia B Gomes; Daniel Giannella-Neto; Manuel Faria; Marcos Tambascia; Reine M Fonseca; Rosangela Rea; Geisa Macedo; João Modesto-Filho; Helena Schmid; Alcina V Bittencourt; Saulo Cavalcanti; Nelson Rassi; Hermelinda Pedrosa; Sergio A Dib

    2009-01-01

    According to Brazilian National Data Survey diabetes is the fifth cause for hospitalization and is one of the ten major causes of mortality in this country. AIMS: to stratify the estimated cardiovascular risk (eCVR) in a population of type 2 diabetics (T2DM) according to the Framingham prediction equations as well as to determine the association between eCVR with metabolic and

  4. Development of a Cardiovascular Risk Score for Use in Low- and Middle-Income Countries123

    PubMed Central

    Aslibekyan, Stella; Campos, Hannia; Loucks, Eric B.; Linkletter, Crystal D.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Baylin, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Summary measures of cardiovascular risk have long been used in public health, but few include nutritional predictors despite extensive evidence linking diet and heart disease. Study objectives were to develop and validate a novel risk score in a case-control study of myocardial infarction (MI) conducted in Costa Rica during 1994–2004. After restricting the data set to healthy participants (n = 1678), conditional logistic regression analyses modeled associations of lifestyle factors (unhealthy diet, decreased physical activity, smoking, waist:hip ratio, low or high alcohol intake, and low socioeconomic status) with risk for MI. Using the estimated coefficients as weights for each component, a regression model was fit to assess score performance. The score was subsequently validated in participants with a history of chronic disease. Higher risk score values were associated with a significantly increased risk of MI [OR = 2.72 (95% CI = 2.28–3.24)]. The findings were replicated in a model (n = 1392) that included the best covariate measures available in the study [OR = 2.71 (95% CI = 2.26–3.26)]. Performance of the score in different subsets of the study population showed c-statistics ranging from 0.63 to 0.67. The new score presents a quantitative summary of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in the study population. PMID:21562240

  5. Development of a cardiovascular risk score for use in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Aslibekyan, Stella; Campos, Hannia; Loucks, Eric B; Linkletter, Crystal D; Ordovas, Jose M; Baylin, Ana

    2011-07-01

    Summary measures of cardiovascular risk have long been used in public health, but few include nutritional predictors despite extensive evidence linking diet and heart disease. Study objectives were to develop and validate a novel risk score in a case-control study of myocardial infarction (MI) conducted in Costa Rica during 1994-2004. After restricting the data set to healthy participants (n = 1678), conditional logistic regression analyses modeled associations of lifestyle factors (unhealthy diet, decreased physical activity, smoking, waist:hip ratio, low or high alcohol intake, and low socioeconomic status) with risk for MI. Using the estimated coefficients as weights for each component, a regression model was fit to assess score performance. The score was subsequently validated in participants with a history of chronic disease. Higher risk score values were associated with a significantly increased risk of MI [OR = 2.72 (95% CI = 2.28-3.24)]. The findings were replicated in a model (n = 1392) that included the best covariate measures available in the study [OR = 2.71 (95% CI = 2.26-3.26)]. Performance of the score in different subsets of the study population showed c-statistics ranging from 0.63 to 0.67. The new score presents a quantitative summary of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in the study population. PMID:21562240

  6. Update on type 2 diabetes as a cardiovascular disease risk equivalent.

    PubMed

    Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku

    2013-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) from two- to four-fold. In our large Finnish population-based study published in 1998 subjects with medication for type 2 diabetes had as high a risk of fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) during the 7- year follow-up as non-diabetic subjects with a prior MI, suggesting that type 2 diabetes is a CVD equivalent. In another large study, including all 3.3 million residents of Denmark, subjects requiring glucose-lowering therapy exhibited a CVD risk similar to that of non-diabetic subjects with a prior MI. Subsequent studies have not systematically replicated aforementioned results. Some studies have supported the concept that type 2 diabetes is a CVD equivalent only in some subgroups, and many studies have reported negative findings. This is likely to be due to many differences across the studies published, for example ethnicity, gender, age and other demographic factors of the populations involved, study design, validation of diabetes status and CVD events, statistical analyses (adjustments for confounding factors), duration of diabetes, and treatment of hyperglycemia among diabetic participants. Varying results reflect the fact that not all diabetic patients are at a similar risk for CVD. Therefore, CVD risk assessment and the tailoring of preventive measures should be done individually, taking into consideration each patient's long-term risk of developing cardiovascular events. PMID:23299711

  7. South Asian ethnicity and cardiovascular risk: the known, the unknown, and the paradox.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Emad; El-Menyar, Ayman

    2015-05-01

    South Asians (SAs), in their countries or after migration, are at high risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality compared to other ethnic groups. It has been shown that >90% of CAD global risk could be attributed to 9 modifiable risk factors (RFs) worldwide. However, these conventional RFs may not fully explain this high risk of CAD among SAs. Therefore, attention has been directed toward nonconventional RFs. In this narrative review, we evaluate the conventional and emerging cardiovascular RFs characterizing SAs. These factors may explain the high morbidity and mortality among SAs. Further prospective studies are urgently needed to set algorithms for the optimal management of these RFs in high-risk populations like SAs. PMID:25005766

  8. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Cardiovascular Risks Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Cardiovascular Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) evaluated several cardiovascular risks associated with space flight along with the ongoing and emerging plans to study these issues and potentially propose and/or develop countermeasures. The areas of focus included: 1) The risk of cardiac rhythm problems during prolonged space flight, and 2) Issues related to the risk of orthostatic intolerance during re-exposure to gravity. An emerging area of concern is radiation associated vascular injury. The risk of cardiac rhythm disturbances has emerged based on case reports only. No systematic study of this risk has been published. However, concerns about this risk are heightened by the age range of astronauts, the structural changes in the heart that occur during space flight, and the potential shifts in fluids and electrolytes. The current plan is to use prolonged Holter monitor EKG records made as part of the "Integrated Cardiovascular SMO" in space to determine more about the frequency and magnitude of this problem and to link this data to complementary data from the nutrition group on electrolytes. The SRP was supportive of this approach. The SRP also felt that any data related to cardiovascular risk in space should be better coordinated with the medical screening data that all astronauts undergo at regular intervals. Additionally, while there are potential privacy issues related to this suggestion, many of the current barriers to better coordination of experimental and clinical data appear to reflect longstanding cultural traditions at NASA that need rethinking. The risk of orthostatic intolerance during re-exposure to gravity was seen by the SRP as an area supported by a wealth of published physiological evidence. The SRP also felt that moving forward with the planned approach to countermeasures was reasonable and that extensive additional hypothesis testing on the physiology of orthostatic intolerance was not needed at this time. There was support for developing ground based models of limited (e.g. 1/6 th) G environments on Earth that generated a number of ideas for consideration by NASA investigators.

  9. Comparative assessment of absolute cardiovascular disease risk characterization from non-laboratory-based risk assessment in South African populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background All rigorous primary cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines recommend absolute CVD risk scores to identify high- and low-risk patients, but laboratory testing can be impractical in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to compare the ranking performance of a simple, non-laboratory-based risk score to laboratory-based scores in various South African populations. Methods We calculated and compared 10-year CVD (or coronary heart disease (CHD)) risk for 14,772 adults from thirteen cross-sectional South African populations (data collected from 1987 to 2009). Risk characterization performance for the non-laboratory-based score was assessed by comparing rankings of risk with six laboratory-based scores (three versions of Framingham risk, SCORE for high- and low-risk countries, and CUORE) using Spearman rank correlation and percent of population equivalently characterized as ‘high’ or ‘low’ risk. Total 10-year non-laboratory-based risk of CVD death was also calculated for a representative cross-section from the 1998 South African Demographic Health Survey (DHS, n = 9,379) to estimate the national burden of CVD mortality risk. Results Spearman correlation coefficients for the non-laboratory-based score with the laboratory-based scores ranged from 0.88 to 0.986. Using conventional thresholds for CVD risk (10% to 20% 10-year CVD risk), 90% to 92% of men and 94% to 97% of women were equivalently characterized as ‘high’ or ‘low’ risk using the non-laboratory-based and Framingham (2008) CVD risk score. These results were robust across the six risk scores evaluated and the thirteen cross-sectional datasets, with few exceptions (lower agreement between the non-laboratory-based and Framingham (1991) CHD risk scores). Approximately 18% of adults in the DHS population were characterized as ‘high CVD risk’ (10-year CVD death risk >20%) using the non-laboratory-based score. Conclusions We found a high level of correlation between a simple, non-laboratory-based CVD risk score and commonly-used laboratory-based risk scores. The burden of CVD mortality risk was high for men and women in South Africa. The policy and clinical implications are that fast, low-cost screening tools can lead to similar risk assessment results compared to time- and resource-intensive approaches. Until setting-specific cohort studies can derive and validate country-specific risk scores, non-laboratory-based CVD risk assessment could be an effective and efficient primary CVD screening approach in South Africa. PMID:23880010

  10. Consumption of orange fermented beverage reduces cardiovascular risk factors in healthy mice.

    PubMed

    Escudero-López, Blanca; Berná, Genoveva; Ortega, Ángeles; Herrero-Martín, Griselda; Cerrillo, Isabel; Martín, Franz; Fernández-Pachón, María-Soledad

    2015-04-01

    The consumption of fruits prevents the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Alcoholic fermentation has been carried out in fruits resulting in products which provide high concentration of bioactive compounds and variable alcohol content. The aim of this study was to assess the potential beneficial effect of an orange beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation and pasteurization of orange juice on cardiovascular risk biomarkers. For this purpose, four mice groups (n?=?8) ingested orange beverage (equivalent volume to 250?mL/day in human), orange juice, alcoholic solution (at the proportional amount of orange beverage) or water during 12 weeks. The equivalent amount to double serving of orange beverage (500?mL/day) was administered to mice in a subsequent intervention, and a control group was also evaluated. Orange beverage consumption increased levels of glutathione and uric acid, improved lipid profile, decreased oxidized LDL and maintained levels of IL-6 and C-reactive protein. Synergistic effects between the bioactive compounds and the alcohol content of orange beverage may occur. The intake of double serving also increased antioxidant enzyme activities, bilirubin content and plasma antioxidant capacity. These results suggest that orange beverage may produce greater protection against cardiovascular risk factors than orange juice in healthy mice. PMID:25666657

  11. Cardiovascular Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), the CKD- Mineral Bone Disorder (CKD- MBD)

    PubMed Central

    Hruska, Keith A.; Choi, Eric T.; Memon, Imran; Davis, T. Keefe; Mathew, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the excess mortality of chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to cardiovascular complications demonstrate through observational studies that vascular calcification and hyperphosphatemia are major cardiovascular risk factors. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that these two risk factors are related, and that hyperphosphatemia directly stimulates vascular calcification. The role of hyperphosphatemia in stimulating vascular calcification in CKD is associated with a block to the skeletal reservoir function in phosphate balance due to excess bone resorption. This has lead to the realization that renal osteodystrophy is linked to vascular calcification by disordered mineral homeostasis (phosphate), and that a multiorgan system fails in CKD leading to cardiovascular mortality. In children with renal disease the multiorgan system fails just as in adults, but the outcomes have been less well studied and perceptions of differences from adults are possibly incorrect. Vascular calcification and cardiovascular mortality are less prevalent but present. However, CKD induced vascular disease causes stiffness of the arterial tree causing systolic hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy as early manifestations of the same pathology in the adult. Because of the role of the skeleton in these outcomes, renal osteodystrophy has been renamed as the CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). This review adapted to children describes our current state of knowledge with regards to the pathophysiology of the CKD-MBD, including the new discoveries related to early stages of CKD. As a new necessity, cardiovascular function issues are incorporated into the CKD-MBD, and new advances in our knowledge of this critical component of the disorder will lead to improved outcomes in CKD. PMID:19898875

  12. Waist to stature ratio is more strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors than other simple anthropometric indices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sai-Yin Ho; Tai-Hing Lam; Edward D Janus

    2003-01-01

    PurposeTo determine which is the best anthropometric index among body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to stature ratio (WSR) in relation to cardiovascular risk factors.

  13. A comprehensive assessment of variations in electrocardiogram morphology in risk assessment of cardiovascular death post-acute coronary syndrome

    E-print Network

    Parayanthal, Priya

    2011-01-01

    Millions of patients worldwide are hospitalized each year due to an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients who have had an acute coronary syndrome are at higher risk for developing future adverse cardiovascular events ...

  14. Height, adiposity and hormonal cardiovascular risk markers in childhood: how to partition the associations?

    PubMed Central

    Wells, J C K; Cole, T J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Obesity is associated with rapid growth during childhood. There is uncertainty over how to adjust for body size, when using adiposity as a proxy for cardiovascular risk. We studied associations of height, body composition (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and cardiovascular risk markers (insulin resistance (IR), leptin) in children. Methods: Using partial correlations in 172 children aged 7–12 years, we investigated associations of (a) fat mass with IR or leptin, adjusting for height or lean mass, and (b) height or lean mass with IR or leptin, adjusting for fat mass. Analyses were conducted both cross-sectionally at each age, and for changes between 7 and 12 years. Results: Height, fat mass, lean mass, IR and leptin were all inter-correlated at all ages. Although fat mass was strongly associated with IR and leptin, height was independently negatively associated with leptin (whole sample, adjusting for age: boys r=?0.12, girls r=?0.13; P<0.001). Independent of adiposity, height was also associated with insulin IR (whole sample, adjusting for age: boys r=0.11, girls r=0.20; P<0.001). When analysed by year of age, these associations tended to remain significant at older ages. Change in height from 7 to 12 years was also associated with change in IR (boys: r=0.18, P<0.05; girls: r=0.34, P<0.01), independently of change in adiposity, with similar findings for lean mass. Conclusions: During childhood, markers of cardiovascular risk have a complex profile, associated with growth as well as fat accumulation. Taller and faster-growing children have elevated risk markers, independently of their adiposity. These findings have implications for the interpretation of pediatric indices of adiposity that aim to adjust for body size. Adiposity indices that perform best at summarizing metabolic risk may not be those that perform best at understanding the developmental aetiology of risk. PMID:24509503

  15. Rangeland Risk Management for Texans: Managing Residual Forage for Rangeland Health 

    E-print Network

    Hanselka, C. Wayne; White, Larry D.; Holechek, Jerry L.

    2002-01-11

    Livestock grazing is a tool for managing economic and climatic risk. Overgrazing increases a producer's risk should drought occur or market prices decline. This publication explains the importance of leaving enough forage residue to protect against...

  16. Long-term effects of non-surgical therapy for obesity on cardiovascular risk management: a weighted empirical review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Laederach-Hofmann; Nadine Messerli-Burgy; Katharina Meyer

    2008-01-01

    Weight loss affects cardiovascular risk profiles in obese patients. Surgery is not a plausible or viable response to the public\\u000a health problem of obesity, given that more than 30% of adults are obese in some countries. However, most studies investigating\\u000a the effects of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile are focussed on weight loss and limited to short-term effects.

  17. Adult Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Have Elevated Blood Pressure but Otherwise a Normal Cardiovascular Risk Profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiaan F. Mooij; Jeanne Margot Kroese; Fred C. G. J. Sweep; Ad R. M. M. Hermus; Cees J. Tack

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveTreatment with glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids has changed congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) from a fatal to a chronic lifelong disease. Long-term treatment, in particular the chronic (over-)treatment with glucocorticoids, may have an adverse effect on the cardiovascular risk profile in adult CAH patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk profile of adult CAH patients.DesignCase-control study.Patients and

  18. Conversion from cyclosporine to tacrolimus improves quality of life indices, renal graft function and cardiovascular risk profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marika A. Artz; Johannes M. M. Boots; L. B. Hilbrands; Joke I. Roodnat; Maarten H. L. Christiaans; Pieter F. Vos; Philip Moons; George Borm

    2004-01-01

    Long-term use of cyclosporine after renal transplantation results in nephrotoxicity and an increased cardiovascular risk profile. Tacrolimus may be more favorable in this respect. In this randomized controlled study in 124 renal transplant patients, the effects of conversion from cyclosporine to tacrolimus on renal function, cardiovascular risk factors, and perceived side-effects were investigated after a follow-up of 2 years. After

  19. The relationship of cardiovascular risk factors measured at different ages to prediction of all-cause mortality and longevity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Menotti; Simona Giampaoli; Fulvia Seccareccia

    1998-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship of cardiovascular risk factors measured at different ages to all-cause mortality in a population-based sample of middle-aged Italian men over a 30-year period. Two rural populations of men aged 40–59 were examined in 1960 (n=1712, participation rate 98.8%). Cardiovascular disease risk factors measured at year 0, 10 and 20 were used for the

  20. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes in Patients at Metabolic Risk: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L. Rosenzweig; Ele Ferrannini; Scott M. Grundy; Steven M. Haffner; Robert J. Heine; Edward S. Horton; Ryuzo Kawamori

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to develop clinical practice guidelines for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients at metabolic risk. Conclusions: Healthcare providers should incorporate into their practice concrete measures to reduce the risk of developing CVD and T2DM. These include the regular screening and identifi- cation of patients at metabolic risk

  1. New standards in hypertension and cardiovascular risk management: focus on telmisartan

    PubMed Central

    Galzerano, Domenico; Capogrosso, Cristina; Di Michele, Sara; Galzerano, Antonio; Paparello, Paola; Lama, Diana; Gaudio, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Blockade of the renin–angiotensin system is an important approach in managing high blood pressure, and has increasingly been shown to affect cardiovascular disease processes mediated by angiotensin II throughout the cardiovascular and renal continua. Telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) displaying unique pharmacologic properties, including a longer half life than any other ARB, that result in large and sustained reductions of blood pressure. In patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension, telmisartan has proved superior to other antihypertensive agents (valsartan, losartan, ramipril, perindopril, and atenolol) in controlling blood pressure particularly towards the end of the dosing interval. There is also clinical evidence that telmisartan reduces left ventricular hypertrophy, reduces arterial stiffness and the recurrence of atrial fibrillation, and confers renoprotection. The ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET®) study has demonstrated that telmisartan has similar cardiovascular protective effects to ramipril in a large, high-risk patient population but was better tolerated. The powerful and sustained blood pressure control apparent in clinical trials, together with cardiovascular protection and tolerability demonstrated in ONTARGET® means that telmisartan may be a preferred option for patients with hypertension. PMID:20448797

  2. Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: cardiovascular risk factors do not influence hearing threshold recovery.

    PubMed

    Ciorba, A; Hatzopoulos, S; Bianchini, C; Iannini, V; Rosignoli, M; Skarzynski, H; Aimoni, C

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that risk factors for ischaemic vascular disease, such as cigarette smoking, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia, can also be considered risk factors for the development of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). In this study, we have evaluated the hypothesis that these factors can influence hearing threshold recovery in patients affected by ISSNHL. A total of 141 subjects who suffered an episode of ISSNHL were included. All subjects were assessed with tonal audiometry, auditory brainstem responses and MRI to exclude retrocochlear pathology. Hearing tests were conducted at ISSNHL onset (t = 0) and after 30 days. Patients were divided into three classes according to the presence/absence of one or more cardiovascular risk factors including: history of smoking, total serum cholesterol/triglycerides, history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Values of hearing threshold recovery were estimated and comparisons were conducted across the three risk factor classes. 75% of patients affected by ISSNHL showed a threshold recovery. However, the threshold recovery was found to be class-independent (average recovery value of 18 dB HL per classes) and also independent of age and gender. Even if cardiovascular risk factors have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of ISSNHL, the present study suggests that these factors do not have any significant influence on the threshold recovery in ISSNHL. PMID:26019394

  3. Frequency of private spiritual activity and cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Fitchett, George; Hovey, Kathleen M.; Schnall, Eliezer; Thomson, Cynthia; Andrews, Christopher A.; Crawford, Sybil; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Post, Stephen; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Ockene, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Spirituality has been associated with better cardiac autonomic balance, but its association with cardiovascular risk is not well studied. We examined whether more frequent private spiritual activity was associated with reduced cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods Frequency of private spiritual activity (prayer, Bible reading, and meditation) was self-reported at year 5 of follow-up. Cardiovascular outcomes were centrally adjudicated, and cardiovascular risk was estimated from proportional hazards models. Results Final models included 43,708 women (mean age, 68.9 ± 7.3 years; median follow-up, 7.0 years) free of cardiac disease through year 5 of follow-up. In age-adjusted models, private spiritual activity was associated with increased cardiovascular risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.31 for weekly vs. never; HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11–1.40 for daily vs. never). In multivariate models adjusted for demographics, lifestyle, risk factors, and psychosocial factors, such association remained significant only in the group with daily activity (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03–1.30). Subgroup analyses indicate this association may be driven by the presence of severe chronic diseases. Conclusions Among aging women, higher frequency of private spiritual activity was associated with increased cardiovascular risk, likely reflecting a mobilization of spiritual resources to cope with aging and illness. PMID:23621989

  4. Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline in women with cardiovascular disease or risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Vercambre, Marie-Noel; Grodstein, Francine; Berr, Claudine; Kang, Jae H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease and vascular risk factors increase rates of cognitive impairment, but very little is known regarding prevention in this high-risk group. The heart-healthy Mediterranean-type dietary pattern may beneficially influence both vascular and cognitive outcomes. Objectives We examined the association between Mediterranean-style diet and cognitive decline in women with prevalent vascular disease or ?3 coronary risk factors. Design / Participants / Setting Prospective cohort study among 2504 women participants of the Women’s Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study (WACS), a cohort of female health professionals Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was determined at WACS baseline (1995–1996) using a zero-to-nine-point scale with higher scores indicating higher adherence. In 1998–2000, participants aged ? 65 years underwent a telephone cognitive battery including five tests of global cognition, verbal memory, and category fluency. Tests were administered three additional times over 5.4 years. Statistical analyses performed We used multivariable-adjusted generalized linear models for repeated measures to compare the annual rates of cognitive score changes across tertiles of Mediterranean diet score, as assessed at WACS baseline. Results In both basic- and multivariable-adjusted models, Mediterranean diet was not related to cognitive decline. No effect modification was detected by age, education, depression, cardiovascular disease severity at WACS baseline, or level of cognition at initial assessment. Conclusions In women at higher risk of cognitive decline due to vascular disease or risk factors, adherence to the Mediterranean diet was not associated with subsequent 5-year cognitive change. PMID:22709809

  5. ALDOSTERONE DYSREGULATION WITH AGING PREDICTS RENAL-VASCULAR FUNCTION AND CARDIO-VASCULAR RISK

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jenifer M.; Underwood, Patricia C.; Ferri, Claudio; Hopkins, Paul N.; Williams, Gordon H.; Adler, Gail K.; Vaidya, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Aging and abnormal aldosterone regulation are both associated with vascular disease. We hypothesized that aldosterone dysregulation influences the age-related risk of renal- and cardio-vascular disease. We conducted an analysis of 562 subjects who underwent detailed investigations under conditions of liberal and restricted dietary sodium intake (1,124 visits) in a Clinical Research Center. Aldosterone regulation was characterized by the ratio of maximal suppression-to-stimulation (supine serum aldosterone on a liberal sodium diet divided by the same measure on a restricted sodium diet). We previously demonstrated that higher levels of this Sodium-modulated Aldosterone Suppression-Stimulation Index (SASSI) indicate greater aldosterone dysregulation. Renal plasma flow (RPF) was determined via p-aminohippurate clearance to assess basal renal hemodynamics, and the renal-vascular responses to dietary sodium manipulation and angiotensin II (AngII) infusion. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score. In univariate linear regression, older age (?= -4.60, p<0.0001) and higher SASSI (?= -58.63, p=0.001) predicted lower RPF and a blunted RPF response to sodium loading and AngII infusion. We observed a continuous, independent, multivariate-adjusted interaction between age and SASSI, where the inverse relationship between SASSI and RPF was most apparent with older age (p<0.05). Higher SASSI and lower RPF independently predicted higher Framingham Risk Score (p<0.0001) and together displayed an additive effect. Aldosterone regulation and age may interact to mediate renal-vascular disease. Our findings suggest that the combination of aldosterone dysregulation and renal-vascular dysfunction could additively increase the risk of future cardiovascular outcomes; therefore, aldosterone dysregulation may represent a modifiable mechanism of age-related vascular disease. PMID:24664291

  6. Paradoxical Association of Enhanced Cholesterol Efflux With Increased Incident Cardiovascular Risks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Min; Tang, Wai Hong Wilson; Mosior, Marian K.; Huang, Ying; Wu, Yuping; Matter, William; Gao, Vivian; Schmitt, David; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Fisher, Edward A.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Diminished cholesterol efflux activity of apolipoprotein B (apoB)–depleted serum is associated with prevalent coronary artery disease, but its prognostic value for incident cardiovascular events is unclear. We investigated the relationship of cholesterol efflux activity with both prevalent coronary artery disease and incident development of major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, or stroke). Approach and Results Cholesterol efflux activity from free cholesterol–enriched macrophages was measured in 2 case– control cohorts: (1) an angiographic cohort (n=1150) comprising stable subjects undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography and (2) an outpatient cohort (n=577). Analysis of media from cholesterol efflux assays revealed that the high-density lipoprotein fraction (1.063risk of prevalent coronary artery disease in unadjusted models within both cohorts; however, the inverse risk relationship remained significant after adjustment for traditional coronary artery disease risk factors only within the outpatient cohort. Surprisingly, higher cholesterol efflux activity was associated with increase in prospective (3 years) risk of myocardial infarction/stroke (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–4.74) and major adverse cardiovascular events (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–3.06). Conclusions Heightened cholesterol efflux to apoB-depleted serum was paradoxically associated with increased prospective risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. The majority of released radiolabeled cholesterol from macrophages in cholesterol efflux activity assays does not reside within a high-density lipoprotein particle. PMID:23520163

  7. Ramipril: a review of its use in preventing cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Vanessa R; Perry, Caroline M; Robinson, Dean M

    2006-01-01

    Ramipril is an oral, non-sulfhydryl ACE inhibitor thought to act in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to decrease vasopressor activity, aldosterone secretion, and bradykinin degradation. Ramipril is generally well tolerated and effective in the treatment of patients aged > or =55 years at high risk for the development of cardiovascular (CV) events, in whom the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and CV death can be significantly reduced. The risk of these CV outcomes may also be reduced with ramipril therapy in various subgroups; these include patients with diabetes mellitus, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) or renal insufficiency, and women. Thus, ramipril, in addition to lifestyle interventions, should be considered an important therapy in the prevention of CV outcomes in high-risk patients. PMID:17192135

  8. Effects of Cold Air on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Bin; Zhang, Shuyu; Ma, Shoucun; Zhou, Ji; Wang, Baojian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore possible potential implications of cold air in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in rats. Healthy Wistar rats were exposed to artificial cold air under laboratory conditions, and their systolic blood pressure, heart rate, vasoconstriction, CVD risk factors, and myocardial damage indicators after cold air exposure were determined and evaluated. Systolic blood pressure, whole blood viscosity, and plasma level of norepinephrine, angiotensin?, low density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, and fibrinogen in treatment groups increased significantly compared with control groups. No significant variations were found in plasma Mb and cTnT and myocardial tissue between the treatment and control groups. Results indicate that: (1) higher levels of SBP, WBV and LDL/HDL, total cholesterol (TC), and FG in blood may indicate higher CVD risks during cold air exposure; (2) cold air may exert continuous impacts on SBP and other CVD risk factors. PMID:22851943

  9. Perioperative cardiovascular monitoring of high-risk patients: a consensus of 12.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Pelosi, Paolo; Pearse, Rupert; Payen, Didier; Perel, Azriel; Hoeft, Andreas; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ranieri, V Marco; Ichai, Carole; Forget, Patrice; Rocca, Giorgio Della; Rhodes, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of surgical patients are at risk of intra- or post-operative complications or both, which are associated with increased lengths of stay, costs, and mortality. Reducing these risks is important for the individual patient but also for health-care planners and managers. Insufficient tissue perfusion and cellular oxygenation due to hypovolemia, heart dysfunction or both is one of the leading causes of perioperative complications. Adequate perioperative management guided by effective and timely hemodynamic monitoring can help reduce the risk of complications and thus potentially improve outcomes. In this review, we describe the various available hemodynamic monitoring systems and how they can best be used to guide cardiovascular and fluid management in the perioperative period in high-risk surgical patients. PMID:25953531

  10. Cardiovascular disease risk factors among HIV-infected Nigerians receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Sanusi; Sani, Mahmoud Umar; Okeahialam, Basil N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has become more accessible to Human immunodeficiency virus infection/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients worldwide. There is growing concern that the metabolic complications associated with HIV and HAART may increase cardiovascular risk and lead to cardiovascular diseases. We, therefore, set out to describe the cardiovascular risk profile of HIV/AIDS patients receiving HAART at a health facility in northern part of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. Consenting patients, who had been receiving HAART, were compared with age and sex matched HAART-naive subjects. Questionnaire interview, electrocardiography, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were conducted under standard conditions. Blood samples were obtained for the determination of plasma glucose, uric acid and lipid levels. Results: Two hundred subjects were studied, 100 were on HAART (group 1) and the other 100 (group 2) were HAART-naive. Subjects’ mean age for all the participants was 32.5 (7.6) years. The prevalence of hypertension was 17% in group 1 and 2% in group 2 (P < 0.001). Similarly, 11% and 21% of group 1 subjects were obese or had metabolic syndrome compared with 2% and 9% of group 2 patients (P < 0.05 for both). Conclusion: HAART treatment was associated with significantly higher prevalences of hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:23901181

  11. Study of cardiovascular risk factors among tertiary hospital employees and their families?

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Divya; Vatsa, Manju; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Narang, Rajiv; Bahl, Vinay Kumar; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among administrative employees working at a tertiary hospital (All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi) and their families. Methods and results A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a total of 453 individuals aged 30 years and above. The mean age of the study group was 43.3 ± 9.5 years. There was a high prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors – current smoking 58 (12.8%), tobacco consumption 26 (5.7%), family history of coronary artery disease 79 (17.4%), diabetes mellitus 25 (5.8%), hypertension 94 (20.7%), hypercholesterolemia 110 (25.7%), hypertriglyceridemia 148 (34.5%), physical inactivity 180 (39.7%), body mass index ?23 kg/m2 350 (77.3%), central obesity 201 (80.1%) of males and 163 (80.7%) of females, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption 387 (85.4%), heavy drinking 12 (2.6%), and stress 58 (12.7%). Conclusion This indicates an urgent need to initiate a comprehensive health promotion and cardiovascular disease prevention programme at workplace and community level. PMID:22929817

  12. Inflammation, lipid metabolism and cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: A qualitative relationship?

    PubMed Central

    García-Gómez, Carmen; Bianchi, Maria; de la Fuente, Diana; Badimon, Lina; Padró, Teresa; Corbella, Emili; Pintó, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Life expectancy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is reduced compared to the general population owing to an increase in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) not fully explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors. In recent years, interest has been focused on the alterations in lipid metabolism in relation to chronic inflammation as one of the possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis of RA patients. Research regarding this issue has revealed quantitative alterations in lipoproteins during the acute-phase reaction, and has also demonstrated structural alterations in these lipoproteins which affect their functional abilities. Although many alterations in lipid metabolism have been described in this regard, these structural changes associated with inflammation are particularly important in high-density lipoproteins as they affect their cardioprotective functions. In this respect, excessive oxidation in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increased lipoprotein(a) with a predominance of smaller apolipoprotein(a) isoforms has also been reported. This article will discuss proinflammatory high-density lipoproteins (piHDL), oxidized LDL and lipoprotein(a). Elevated concentrations of these lipoproteins with marked pro-atherogenic properties have been observed in RA patients, which could help to explain the increased cardiovascular risk of these patients. PMID:25035833

  13. Women with cardiovascular risk after preeclampsia: is there follow-up within the Unified Health System in Brazil?

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Maria de Lourdes Costa; Galvão, Ana Cristina Araújo de Andrade; de Souza, Nilba Lima; de Azevedo, George Dantas; Jerônimo, Selma Maria Bezerra; de Araújo, Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to identify women with cardiovascular risk, five years after a preeclampsic episode (PE), and identify the follow-up of these women within the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS), in the city of Natal/RN. Methods a quantitative and exploratory study conducted at the Januário Cicco University Maternity Ward/RN. The sample consisted of 130 women, 65 with a PE episode and 65 who were normotensive. Results we found statistical significance with regard to body mass index, weight, family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular complications when comparing women with previous PE to normotensive women. The groups were unaware of their cardiovascular risk factors and, in addition, they reported difficulties in accessing primary health care (PHC) services. Conclusions women with a PE history are at increased risk of developing CVD, unaware of late PE complications, and lacked customized care when compared to normotensive patients. PMID:24553708

  14. Screening for Cardiovascular Risk in Asymptomatic Users of the Primary Health Care Network in Lebanon, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Adib, Salim M.; Hamadeh, Randa; Freidi, Alia; Ammar, Walid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In 2012, the Ministry of Public Health in Lebanon piloted a service of multifactorial cardiovascular screening in the publicly subsidized Primary Health Care (PHC) Network. We present an epidemiological analysis of data produced during this pilot to justify the inclusion of this service in the package of essential services offered through PHC and to present a preliminary cardiovascular risk profile in an asymptomatic population. Methods A total of 4,205 participants (two-thirds of which were women) aged at least 40 years and reportedly free from diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) were screened. The screening protocol used a questionnaire and direct measurements to assess 5 modifiable cardiovascular risk factors; total cardiovascular risk score was calculated according to a paper-based algorithm developed by the World Health Organization and the International Society of Hypertension. Results Approximately 25% of the sample displayed metabolic impairments (11% for impaired blood glucose metabolism and 17% for impaired systolic blood pressure), and 6.6% were classified at total cardiovascular risk of 10% or more. Just over one-quarter of the sample was obese, almost half had a substantially elevated waist circumference, and 41% were smokers. Men were significantly more likely to screen positive for metabolic impairment than women, and women were more likely to be obese. Conclusion The implementation of a multifactorial screening for CVD among asymptomatic subjects detected a substantial proportion of previously undiagnosed cases of high metabolic risk, people who could now be referred to optimal medical follow-up. PMID:25032835

  15. Validation of candidate genes associated with cardiovascular risk factors in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Windemuth, Andreas; de Leon, Jose; Goethe, John W; Schwartz, Harold I; Woolley, Stephen; Susce, Margaret; Kocherla, Mohan; Bogaard, Kali; Holford, Theodore R; Seip, Richard L; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants predictive of cardiovascular risk factors in a psychiatric population treated with second generation antipsychotics (SGA). 924 patients undergoing treatment for severe mental illness at four US hospitals were genotyped at 1.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Patients were assessed for fasting serum lipid (low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDLc], high density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDLc], and triglycerides) and obesity phenotypes (body mass index, BMI). Thirteen candidate genes from previous studies of the same phenotypes in non-psychiatric populations were tested for association. We confirmed 8 of the 13 candidate genes at the 95% confidence level. An increased genetic effect size was observed for triglycerides in the psychiatric population compared to that in the cardiovascular population. PMID:21851846

  16. Burnout and risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence, possible causal paths, and promising research directions.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Samuel; Shirom, Arie; Toker, Sharon; Berliner, Shlomo; Shapira, Itzhak

    2006-05-01

    Burnout is characterized by emotional exhaustion, physical fatigue, and cognitive weariness, resulting from prolonged exposure to work-related stress. The authors review the accumulated evidence suggesting that burnout and the related concept of vital exhaustion are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular-related events. The authors present evidence supporting several potential mechanisms linking burnout with ill health, including the metabolic syndrome, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis along with sympathetic nervous system activation, sleep disturbances, systemic inflammation, impaired immunity functions, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, and poor health behaviors. The association of burnout and vital exhaustion with these disease mediators suggests that their impact on health may be more extensive than currently indicated. PMID:16719565

  17. A High Dietary Glycemic Index Increases Total Mortality in a Mediterranean Population at High Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Estruch, Ramón; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Schröder, Helmut; Álvarez-Pérez, Jacqueline; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Artacho, Reyes; Ros, Emilio; Bulló, Mónica; Covas, María-Isabel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Pintó, Xavier; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Objective Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. Material and Methods The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. Results We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths). As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR?=?2.15 (95% CI: 1.15–4.04); P for trend ?=?0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. Conclusions High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25250626

  18. Supporting South Asian Taxi Drivers to Exercise through Pedometers (SSTEP) to decrease cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Gill, Pavan; Baser, Raymond; Leng, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    There is considerable evidence demonstrating the positive impact of pedometers and walking programs for increasing physical activity and reducing risk for cardiovascular disease among diverse populations. However, no interventions have been targeted towards South Asian taxi drivers, a population that may be at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Supporting South Asian Taxi Drivers to Exercise through Pedometers (SSTEP) was a 12-week pilot study among South Asian taxi drivers to increase their daily step counts. SSTEP assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and potential impact of an exercise intervention employing pedometers, a step diary, written materials, and telephone follow-up to initiate or increase physical activity in this at-risk occupational group. Seventy-four drivers were recruited to participate at sites frequented by South Asian taxi drivers. Participant inclusion criteria were: (1) age 18 or over; (2) birthplace in India, Pakistan, or Bangladesh; (3) fluent in English, Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi, or Bengali; and (4) intention to remain in New York City for the 3-month study period. Comprehensive intake and exit questionnaires were administered to participants in their preferred languages. Intake and exit health screenings, including blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose were completed. Daily step counts were obtained 4 days after recruitment, and at the 4-, 8-, and 12-week mark via phone calls. To measure the impact of the intervention, step counts, blood pressure, cholesterol, and body mass index were compared at intake and exit. Participants in SSTEP were sedentary at baseline. The SSTEP intervention resulted in a small increase in step counts among participants overall, and in a significant increase (>2,000 steps) among a subset ("Bigsteppers"). Drivers with higher baseline glucose values had significantly greater improvements in their step counts. Focused lifestyle interventions for drivers at high risk for cardiovascular disease may be particularly impactful. PMID:24500026

  19. Fibroblast Growth Factor?23 and Incident Coronary Heart Disease, Heart Failure, and Cardiovascular Mortality: The Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Lutsey, Pamela L.; Alonso, Alvaro; Selvin, Elizabeth; Pankow, James S.; Michos, Erin D.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Loehr, Laura R.; Eckfeldt, John H.; Coresh, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor?23 (FGF?23) is a hormone involved in phosphorous regulation and vitamin D metabolism that may be associated with cardiovascular risk, and it is a potential target for intervention. We tested whether elevated FGF?23 is associated with incident coronary heart disease, heart failure, and cardiovascular mortality, even at normal kidney function. Methods and Results A total of 11 638 Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities study participants, median age 57 at baseline (1990–1992), were followed through 2010. Cox regression was used to evaluate the independent association of baseline serum active FGF?23 with incident outcomes. Models were adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and estimated glomerular filtration rate. During a median follow?up of 18.6 years, 1125 participants developed coronary heart disease, 1515 developed heart failure, and 802 died of cardiovascular causes. For all 3 outcomes, there was a threshold, whereby FGF?23 was not associated with risk at <40 pg/mL but was positively associated with risk at >40 pg/mL. Compared with those with FGF?23 <40 pg/mL, those in the highest FGF?23 category (?58.8 pg/mL) had a higher risk of incident coronary heart disease (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% CIs: 1.65, 1.40 to 1.94), heart failure (1.75, 1.52 to 2.01), and cardiovascular mortality (1.65, 1.36 to 2.01). Associations were modestly attenuated but remained statistically significant after further adjustment for estimated glomerular filtration rate. In stratified analyses, similar results were observed in African Americans and among persons with normal kidney function. Conclusions High levels of serum FGF?23 were associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, heart failure, and cardiovascular mortality in this large, biracial, population?based cohort. This association was independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and kidney function. PMID:24922628

  20. Physical activity during pregnancy and offspring cardiovascular risk factors: findings from a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Louise A C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Fraser, Abigail; Howe, Laura D

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The long-term consequences of maternal physical activity during pregnancy for offspring cardiovascular health are unknown. We examined the association of maternal self-reported physical activity in pregnancy (18?weeks gestation) with offspring cardiovascular risk factors at age 15. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Participants 4665 maternal-offspring pairs (based on a sample with multiple imputation to deal with missing data) from the ALSPAC, a prospective cohort based in the South West of England with mothers recruited in pregnancy in 1991–1992. Primary and secondary outcome measures Offspring cardiovascular risk factors at age 15; body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, glucose, insulin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Results Greater maternal physical activity was associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, glucose and insulin in unadjusted analyses. The magnitude of associations was generally small with wide CIs, and most associations attenuated towards the null after adjusting for confounders. The strongest evidence of association after adjustment for confounders was for glucose, although the 95% CI for this association includes the null; a one SD greater physical activity during pregnancy was associated with a ?0.013?mmol/L difference in offspring glucose levels (equivalent to approximately one-third of a SD; 95% CI ?0.027 to 0.001?mmol/L). Conclusions Our results suggest that maternal physical activity in pregnancy, measured at 18?weeks gestation, is unlikely to be an important determinant of later offspring cardiovascular health. There was some suggestion of association with offspring glucose, but given that all other associations (including insulin) were null after adjustment for confounders, this result should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24071462

  1. Community-Based Cardiovascular Disease Prevention to Reduce Cardiometabolic Risk in Latina Women: A Pilot Program

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Robin; Nunez de Ybarra, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women, yet significant health disparities exist for high-risk groups, including Latinas, and comprehensive, culturally relevant, and effective prevention intervention models are lacking. We used a systems approach to develop, assess, and pilot a community-based education program for improving outcomes for knowledge/awareness of CVD, cardiometabolic risk, and health behaviors in Latinas. Methods: Latinas (n=35, mean age 50) participated in a 4-month community-based bilingual preventive cardiovascular education program. Pre/post analyses were for knowledge/awareness of CVD risk factors, symptoms, calling 911; personal risk factors (smoking, physical inactivity, family history of CVD); clinical parameters (weight, body mass index [BMI], waist, blood pressure, fasting lipids, and glucose); diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS); and serum inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-?, high-sensitivity C reactive protein [hsCRP], and interleukin [IL]-12). Results: Baseline knowledge/awareness was relatively low, risk factors and MetS prevalent, and serum inflammatory markers elevated. Postintervention, participants demonstrated significant (p<0.05) improvements in knowledge of symptoms, risk factors for CVD, calling 911, and knowledge/adoption of heart-healthy behaviors. Clinical health status also improved, especially for serum triglycerides (p<0.05; 21% decline), prevalence of MetS (from 43% to 37% of participants), and serum levels of the proinflammatory TNF-? (from 16.9±1.11?pg/mL to 13.5±0.8?pg/mL, p<0.05). Conclusion: A bilingual culturally appropriate community-based CVD-prevention program based on health education, medical screenings, and empowerment is a successful, effective, adaptable, and replicable model to significantly improve cardiometabolic risk in Latinas. PMID:24552357

  2. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in a Traditional African Population with a High Infectious Load: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Koopman, Jacob J. E.; van Bodegom, David; Jukema, J. Wouter; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background To test the inflammatory origin of cardiovascular disease, as opposed to its origin in western lifestyle. Population-based assessment of the prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease in an inflammation-prone African population, including electrocardiography and ankle-arm index measurement. Comparison with known prevalences in American and European societies. Methodology/Principal Findings Traditional population in rural Ghana, characterised by adverse environmental conditions and a high infectious load. Population-based sample of 924 individuals aged 50 years and older. Median values for cardiovascular risk factors, including waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, and markers of glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation. Prevalence of myocardial infarction detected by electrocardiography and prevalence of peripheral arterial disease detected by ankle-arm index. When compared to western societies, we found the Ghanaians to have more proinflammatory profiles and less cardiovascular risk factors, including obesity, dysglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension. Prevalences of cardiovascular disease were also lower. Definite myocardial infarction was present in 1.2% (95%CI: 0.6 to 2.4%). Peripheral arterial disease was present in 2.8% (95%CI: 1.9 to 4.1%). Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our data indicate that for the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease inflammatory processes alone do not suffice and additional factors, probably lifestyle-related, are mandatory. PMID:23071653

  3. Ischaemic cardiovascular risk and prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for musculoskeletal complaints

    PubMed Central

    Valkhoff, Vera E; Jong, Geert W't; Warlé-van Herwaarden, Margreet F; Bindels, Patrick Je; Sturkenboom, Miriam Cjm; Luijsterburg, Pim Aj; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita Ma

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To determine the influence of ischaemic cardiovascular (CV) risk on prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by general practitioners (GPs) in patients with musculoskeletal complaints. Design. Cohort study. Setting. A healthcare database containing the electronic GP medical records of over one million patients throughout the Netherlands. Patients. A total of 474 201 adults consulting their GP with a new musculoskeletal complaint between 2000 and 2010. Patients were considered at high CV risk if they had a history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke, transient ischaemic attack, or peripheral arterial disease, and at low CV risk if they had no CV risk factors. Main outcome measures. Frequency of prescription of non-selective (ns)NSAIDs and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (coxibs). Results. Overall, 24.4% of patients were prescribed an nsNSAID and 1.4% a coxib. Of the 41,483 patients with a high CV risk, 19.9% received an nsNSAID and 2.2% a coxib. These patients were more likely to be prescribed a coxib than patients with a low CV risk (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.8–2.0). Prescription of nsNSAIDs decreased over time in all risk groups and was lower in patients with a high CV risk than in patients with a low CV risk (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7–0.8). Conclusion. Overall, patients with a high CV risk were less likely to be prescribed an NSAID for musculoskeletal complaints than patients with a low CV risk. Nevertheless, one in five high CV risk patients received an NSAID, indicating that there is still room for improvement. PMID:24931511

  4. Assessing cardiovascular risk in regional areas: the Healthy Hearts – Beyond City Limits program

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more prevalent in regional and remote Australia compared to metropolitan areas. The aim of Healthy Hearts was to determine age and sex specific CVD risk factor levels and the potential value of national risk clinics. Methods Healthy Hearts was an observational research study conducted in four purposefully selected higher risk communities in regional Victoria, Australia. The main outcome measures were the proportion of participants with CVD risk factors with group comparisons to determine the adjusted likelihood of elevated risk factor levels. Trained personnel used a standardized protocol over four weeks per community to measure CVD risk factor levels, estimate absolute CVD risk and provide feedback and advice. Results A total of 2125 self-selected participants were assessed (mean age 58?±?15 years, 57% women). Overall, CVD risk factors were highly prevalent. More men than women had???2 modifiable CVD risk factors (76% vs. 68%, p?risk factor levels were confirmed for regional Victoria. Close engagement with individuals and communities provides scope for the application of regional risk management clinics to reduce the burden of CVD risk in regional Australia. PMID:22943553

  5. Leucocyte telomere length and risk of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heydon, Emma E; Kaptoge, Stephen; Butterworth, Adam S; Thompson, Alex; Willeit, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between leucocyte telomere length and risk of cardiovascular disease. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Studies published up to March 2014 identified through searches of Medline, Web of Science, and Embase. Eligibility criteria Prospective and retrospective studies that reported on associations between leucocyte telomere length and coronary heart disease (defined as non-fatal myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease death, or coronary revascularisation) or cerebrovascular disease (defined as non-fatal stroke or death from cerebrovascular disease) and were broadly representative of general populations—that is, they did not select cohort or control participants on the basis of pre-existing cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Results Twenty four studies involving 43?725 participants and 8400 patients with cardiovascular disease (5566 with coronary heart disease and 2834 with cerebrovascular disease) were found to be eligible. In a comparison of the shortest versus longest third of leucocyte telomere length, the pooled relative risk for coronary heart disease was 1.54 (95% confidence interval 1.30 to 1.83) in all studies, 1.40 (1.15 to 1.70) in prospective studies, and 1.80 (1.32 to 2.44) in retrospective studies. Heterogeneity between studies was moderate (I2=64%, 41% to 77%, Phet<0.001) and was not significantly explained by mean age of participants (P=0.23), the proportion of male participants (P=0.45), or distinction between retrospective versus prospective studies (P=0.32). Findings for coronary heart disease were similar in meta-analyses restricted to studies that adjusted for conventional vascular risk factors (relative risk 1.42, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 1.73); studies with ?200 cases (1.44, 1.20 to 1.74); studies with a high quality score (1.53, 1.22 to 1.92); and in analyses that corrected for publication bias (1.34, 1.12 to 1.60). The pooled relative risk for cerebrovascular disease was 1.42 (1.11 to 1.81), with no significant heterogeneity between studies (I2=41%, 0% to 72%, Phet=0.08). Shorter telomeres were not significantly associated with cerebrovascular disease risk in prospective studies (1.14, 0.85 to 1.54) or in studies with a high quality score (1.21, 0.83 to 1.76). Conclusion Available observational data show an inverse association between leucocyte telomere length and risk of coronary heart disease independent of conventional vascular risk factors. The association with cerebrovascular disease is less certain. PMID:25006006

  6. Alcohol consumption and the risk of incident atrial fibrillation among people with cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim; Gao, Peggy; Sleight, Peter; Zhu, Jun; Fagard, Robert; Lonn, Eva; Teo, Koon K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Moderate alcohol consumption may reduce cardiovascular events, but little is known about its effect on atrial fibrillation in people at high risk of such events. We examined the association between moderate alcohol consumption and the risk of incident atrial fibrillation among older adults with existing cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Methods: We analyzed data for 30 433 adults who participated in 2 large antihypertensive drug treatment trials and who had no atrial fibrillation at baseline. The patients were 55 years or older and had a history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes with end-organ damage. We classified levels of alcohol consumption according to median cut-off values for low, moderate and high intake based on guidelines used in various countries, and we defined binge drinking as more than 5 drinks a day. The primary outcome measure was incident atrial fibrillation. Results: A total of 2093 patients had incident atrial fibrillation. The age- and sex-standardized incidence rate per 1000 person-years was 14.5 among those with a low level of alcohol consumption, 17.3 among those with a moderate level and 20.8 among those with a high level. Compared with participants who had a low level of consumption, those with higher levels had an increased risk of incident atrial fibrillation (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.26, for moderate consumption; 1.32, 95% CI 0.97–1.80, for high consumption). Results were similar after we excluded binge drinkers. Among those with moderate alcohol consumption, binge drinkers had an increased risk of atrial fibrillation compared with non–binge drinkers (adjusted HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02–1.62). Interpretation: Moderate to high alcohol intake was associated with an increased incidence of atrial fibrillation among people aged 55 or older with cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Among moderate drinkers, the effect of binge drinking on the risk of atrial fibrillation was similar to that of habitual heavy drinking. PMID:23027910

  7. Behavioral Interventions and Cardiovascular Risk in Obese Youth: Current Findings and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Vannucci, Anna; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    The identification and early intervention of pediatric obesity is critical to reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Family-based behavioral interventions have consistently demonstrated efficacy in reducing adiposity and CVD risk factors (i.e., blood pressure, cholesterol, fasting glucose levels, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome). Even modest weight loss in severely obese youth can lead to sustained improvement in CVD risk factors. However, weight regain following treatment cessation remains a challenge in the contemporary obesogenic environment. Intensive family-based interventions spanning socioenvironmental contexts (i.e., home, peer, community) show promise in sustaining weight loss in the long-term. Despite having effective treatments for pediatric obesity and CVD risk factors, families rarely have access to these programs and so increasing the role of healthcare providers in screening and referral efforts is imperative. Moving forward, it is also essential to establish communication and cooperative networks across sectors build sustainable prevention and intervention programs and to provide cohesive health messages. PMID:23336013

  8. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Nutritional Intake are not Associated with Ultrasound-defined Increased Carotid Intima Media Thickness in Individuals Without a History of Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Kazemi-Bajestani, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Esmaeili, Habib; Vedadian, Payam; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Parizadeh, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Heidari-Bakavoli, Ali Reza; Moohebati, Mohsen; Safarian, Mohammad; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Nematy, Mohsen; Mazidi, Mohsen; Ferns, Gorden A; Ghayour-Mehrabani, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Carotid ultrasound appears to be useful in the assessment of cardiovascular risk. In this study, we have assessed the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in a group of individuals without a history of cardiovascular events. Methods: A sample of 431subjects (189 [43.9%] males and 242 [56.1%] females) was obtained from an urban population using a stratified-cluster method in Mashhad stroke and heart atherosclerosis disorder study. None of the subjects had a history of the cardiovascular event. Carotid artery duplex ultrasound was used to determine the CIMT in all subjects, and to identify those with an abnormal value (CIMT [+]; i.e., CIMT ? 0.8 mm). Dietary intake of participants was assessed using a questionnaire for 24-h dietary recall. The relationship between anthropometric, biochemical and dietary data and CIMT were assessed. Results: The mean age of subjects was 48.7 ± 8.0 years. Of the 431 patients, 118 (27.4%) were found to be CIMT (+). Of the cardiovascular parameters assessed, only age (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval (CI)], 1.11 [0.56-4.34]; P < 0.01) and male gender (OR [95% CI], 1.14 [0.63-2.23]; P < 0.05) were significant independent predictors of ultrasound defined CIMT. Crude and total energy adjusted intake were not associated with the presence of CIMT (+). Conclusions: It appears that within a relatively young Iranian population of individuals without a history of cardiovascular event, the presence of CIMT (+) defined by duplex ultrasound cut-off value of ?0.8 mm, did not associate with several modifiable cardiovascular risk factors or measures of dietary intake. PMID:25538837

  9. Cardiovascular risk factor trends and potential for reducing coronary heart disease mortality in the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Earl S; Croft, Janet B; Critchley, Julia A; Greenlund, Kurt J; Labarthe, Darwin R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the potential for reducing cardiovascular risk factors in the United States of America enough to cause age-adjusted coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates to drop by 20% (from 2000 baseline figures) by 2010, as targeted under the Healthy People 2010 initiative. Methods Using a previously validated, comprehensive CHD mortality model known as IMPACT that integrates trends in all the major cardiovascular risk factors, stratified by age and sex, we calculated how much CHD mortality would drop between 2000 and 2010 in the projected population of the United States aged 25–84 years (198 million). We did this for three assumed scenarios: (i) if recent risk factor trends were to continue to 2010; (ii) success in reaching all the Healthy People 2010 risk factor targets, and (iii) further drops in risk factors, to the levels already seen in the low-risk stratum. Findings If age-adjusted CHD mortality rates observed in 2000 remained unchanged, some 388 000 CHD deaths would occur in 2010. First scenario: if recent risk factor trends continued to 2010, there would be approximately 19 000 fewer deaths than in 2000. Although improved total cholesterol, lowered blood pressure in men, decreased smoking and increased physical activity would account for some 51 000 fewer deaths, these would be offset by approximately 32 000 additional deaths from adverse trends in obesity and diabetes and in blood pressure in women. Second scenario: If Healthy People 2010 cardiovascular risk factor targets were reached, approximately 188 000 CHD deaths would be prevented. Scenario three: If the cardiovascular risk levels of the low-risk stratum were reached, approximately 372 000 CHD deaths would be prevented. Conclusion Achievement of the Healthy People 2010 cardiovascular risk factor targets would almost halve the predicted CHD death rates. Additional reductions in major risk factors could prevent or postpone substantially more deaths from CHD. PMID:20428369

  10. Carotid intima-media thickness and plaque in cardiovascular risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Tasneem Z; Lee, Ming-Sum

    2014-10-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been shown to predict cardiovascular (CV) risk in multiple large studies. Careful evaluation of CIMT studies reveals discrepancies in the comprehensiveness with which CIMT is assessed-the number of carotid segments evaluated (common carotid artery [CCA], internal carotid artery [ICA], or the carotid bulb), the type of measurements made (mean or maximum of single measurements, mean of the mean, or mean of the maximum for multiple measurements), the number of imaging angles used, whether plaques were included in the intima-media thickness (IMT) measurement, the report of adjusted or unadjusted models, risk association versus risk prediction, and the arbitrary cutoff points for CIMT and for plaque to predict risk. Measuring the far wall of the CCA was shown to be the least variable method for assessing IMT. However, meta-analyses suggest that CCA-IMT alone only minimally improves predictive power beyond traditional risk factors, whereas inclusion of the carotid bulb and ICA-IMT improves prediction of both cardiac risk and stroke risk. Carotid plaque appears to be a more powerful predictor of CV risk compared with CIMT alone. Quantitative measures of plaques such as plaque number, plaque thickness, plaque area, and 3-dimensional assessment of plaque volume appear to be progressively more sensitive in predicting CV risk than mere assessment of plaque presence. Limited data show that plaque characteristics including plaque vascularity may improve CV disease risk stratification further. IMT measurement at the CCA, carotid bulb, and ICA that allows inclusion of plaque in the IMT measurement or CCA-IMT measurement along with plaque assessment in all carotid segments is emerging as the focus of carotid artery ultrasound imaging for CV risk prediction. PMID:25051948

  11. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in a southwestern Native American tribe.

    PubMed

    Campos-Outcalt, D; Ellis, J; Aickin, M; Valencia, J; Wunsch, M; Steele, L

    1995-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among the Pascua Yaqui Indian tribe in Tucson, AZ, in 1990 to document the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality for Native Americans and for members of the Pascua Yaqui tribe specifically. A total of 230 randomly selected adults, ages 25-65 years, who were listed as members on the tribal roll, participated, resulting in a 73-percent participation rate for those contacted. The five risk factors studied included diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and smoking. Only 14 percent of participants had none of the risk factors; 52 percent had two or more factors. Obesity was the most prevalent, being present in 69 percent of the women and 40 percent of the men, followed by diabetes, 35 percent of men and 39 percent of women. Twenty-six percent of the population had hypertension, and 43 percent of men were smokers, compared with 24 percent of women. Hypercholesterolemia was present in 19 percent of men and 14 percent of women. The rates of diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and smoking documented in this tribe are relatively high and can serve as a baseline for evaluating future prevention efforts. PMID:8570829

  12. Effectiveness of Physical Exercise to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youths: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cesa, Claudia Ciceri; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Petkowicz, Rosemary de Oliveira; Martins, Carla Correa; Marques, Renata das Virgens; Andreolla, Allana Abreu Martins; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to test the effectiveness of a physical activity and exercise-based program in a clinical context to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. Methods A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a pediatric preventive outpatient clinic. Intervention was 14 weeks of exercise for the intervention group or general health advice for the control group. The primary and the secondary outcomes were reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and the feasibility and the effectiveness of clinical advice plan to practice physical exercises at home. Results A total of 134 children were screened; 26 met eligibility criteria. Of these, 10 were allocated in the exercise intervention group and nine were included in the control group until the end of the intervention. Those patients who discontinued the intervention had the lowest scores of z-BMI (P = 0.033) and subscapular skin fold (P = 0.048). After 14 weeks of intervention, no statistical differences were found between the groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher in the exercise group, with a mild tendency to be significant (P = 0.066). Patients who adhere to treatment had diastolic blood pressure decreased from baseline to the end of the follow-up period in the control group (P = 0.013). Regardless of this result, the other comparisons within the group were not statistically different between T0 and T14. Conclusion A low-cost physical activity advice intervention presented many barriers for implementation in routine clinical care, limiting its feasibility and evaluation of effectiveness to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25780484

  13. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) Strain

    PubMed Central

    Fazan, Rubens; Silva, Carlos Alberto A.; Oliveira, José Antônio Cortes; Salgado, Helio Cesar; Montano, Nicola; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Risk factors for life-threatening cardiovascular events were evaluated in an experimental model of epilepsy, the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strain. Methods We used long-term ECG recordings in conscious, one year old, WAR and Wistar control counterparts to evaluate spontaneous arrhythmias and heart rate variability, a tool to assess autonomic cardiac control. Ventricular function was also evaluated using the pressure-volume conductance system in anesthetized rats. Results Basal RR interval (RRi) was similar between WAR and Wistar rats (188±5 vs 199±6 ms). RRi variability strongly suggests that WAR present an autonomic imbalance with sympathetic overactivity, which is an isolated risk factor for cardiovascular events. Anesthetized WAR showed lower arterial pressure (92±3 vs 115±5 mmHg) and exhibited indices of systolic dysfunction, such as higher ventricle end-diastolic pressure (9.2±0.6 vs 5.6±1 mmHg) and volume (137±9 vs 68±9 ?L) as well as lower rate of increase in ventricular pressure (5266±602 vs 7320±538 mmHg.s-1). Indices of diastolic cardiac function, such as lower rate of decrease in ventricular pressure (-5014±780 vs -7766±998 mmHg.s-1) and a higher slope of the linear relationship between end-diastolic pressure and volume (0.078±0.011 vs 0.036±0.011 mmHg.?L), were also found in WAR as compared to Wistar control rats. Moreover, Wistar rats had 3 to 6 ventricular ectopic beats, whereas WAR showed 15 to 30 ectopic beats out of the 20,000 beats analyzed in each rat. Conclusions The autonomic imbalance observed previously at younger age is also present in aged WAR and, additionally, a cardiac dysfunction was also observed in the rats. These findings make this experimental model of epilepsy a valuable tool to study risk factors for cardiovascular events in epilepsy. PMID:26029918

  14. Longevity is independent of common variations in genes associated with cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Bladbjerg, E M; Andersen-Ranberg, K; de Maat, M P; Kristensen, S R; Jeune, B; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    1999-09-01

    Do extremely old persons have a genetically favourable profile which has protected them from cardiovascular death? We have tried to answer this question by measuring DNA polymorphisms of selected cardiovascular risk indicators [factor VII, FVII (R/Q353, intron 7 (37bp)n, and -323ins10), beta fibrinogen (-455G/A), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, PAI-1 (-675(4G/5G)), tissue plasminogen activator, t-PA (intron 8 ins311), platelet receptor glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, GPIIb/IIIa (L/P33), prothrombin (20210G/A), methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, MTHFR (A/V114), angiotensin converting enzyme, ACE (intron 16 ins287), and angiotensinogen (M/T235)]. Blood was collected from 187 unselected Danish centenarians, and 201 healthy Danish blood donors, aged 20-64 years (mean age 42 years). Genomic DNA was amplified using PCR and the genotype was determined by RFLP methods or allele-specific amplification followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The frequencies of the high-risk alleles in centenarians were: for FVII R/Q353 0.91; for FVII intron 7 (37bp)n 0.67; for FVII-323 ins10 0.90; for fibrinogen 0.16; for PAI-1 0.52; for t-PA 0.59; for GPIIb/IIIa 0.16; for prothrombin 0.008; for MTHFR 0.33; for ACE 0.52; and for angiotensinogen 0.36. Comparable frequencies were observed in the blood donors. Subgroup analysis of men and women separately gave similar results. The genotype frequencies in the centenarians and the blood donors were similar for all polymorphisms, and this study suggests that common variations in genes associated with cardiovascular risk do not contribute significantly to longevity. PMID:10494771

  15. Early Myocardial Repolarization Heterogeneity Is Detected by Magnetocardiography in Diabetic Patients with Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Hung; Wu, Yen-Wen; Yang, Ying-Chieh; Chang, Tien-Jyun; Jiang, Yi-Der; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Multi-channel magnetocardiography (MCG) is a sensitive technique to map spatial ventricular repolarization with high resolution and reproducibility. Spatial ventricular repolarization heterogeneity measured by MCG has been shown to accurately detect and localize myocardial ischemia. Here, we explored whether these measurements correlated with cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Two hundreds and seventy-seven type 2 diabetic patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) and arrhythmia were recruited consecutively from the outpatient clinic of National Taiwan University Hospital. The spatially distributed QTc contour maps were constructed with 64-channel MCG using the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) system. Indices of myocardial repolarization heterogeneity including the smoothness index of QTc (SI-QTc) and QTc dispersion were derived and analyzed for association with conventional cardiovascular risk factors. SI-QTc correlated strongly with the QTc dispersion (r = 0.70, p <0.0001). SI-QTc was significantly higher in patients with presence of metabolic syndrome in comparison to those without metabolic syndrome (8.56 vs. 7.96 ms, p = 0.02). In univariate correlation analyses, QTc dispersion was associated with smoking status (average 79.90, 83.83, 86.51, and 86.00 ms for never smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers reporting less than 10 cigarettes daily, and current smoker reporting more than 10 cigarettes daily, respectively, p = 0.03), body weight (r = 0.15, p = 0.01), and hemoglobin A1c (r = 0.12, p = 0.04). In stepwise multivariate regression analyses, QTc dispersion was associated with smoking (p = 0.02), body weight (p = 0.04), total cholesterol levels (p = 0.05), and possibly estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.07). In summary, spatial heterogeneity of myocardial repolarization measured by MCG is positively associated cardiovascular risk factors including adiposity, smoking, and total cholesterol levels. PMID:26185995

  16. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Ethnicity Are Independent Factors Associated with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Rohan; Sundram, Murali; Tan, Guan Hee; Bahadzor, Badrulhisham; Ong, Teng Aik; Ng, Keng Lim; Abdul Razack, Azad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) profile and factors affecting its degree of severity including cardiovascular risk profile, age, ethnicity, education level and prostate volume in a multiethnic Asian setting. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1021 men aged 40–79 years with no clinical evidence of prostate cancer, prostate surgery or 5?-reductase inhibitor treatment of known prostate conditions. The severity of LUTS was assessed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Potential factors associated with LUTS including age, ethnicity, education, history of hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, height, weight, and prostate volume were evaluated using univariable and multivariable analyses. Results There were 506 (50%) men found to have moderate-to-severe LUTS attaining an IPSS above 7. Overall, nocturia (45.5%) was the most frequently reported symptom. Multivariable analysis showed that age, ethnicity, prostate volume and history of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were independent factors associated with severity of LUTS (p < 0.05). Considering individual lower urinary tract symptoms, we found a strong association of storage symptom with history of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Malay men were significantly bothered by post micturition symptom compared to their Chinese and Indian counterparts. Stratified analyses of LUTS demonstrated a mutually exclusive cardiovascular risk factors profile defined by ethnicity. Conclusion Severity of LUTS varies between different ethnicities across all age groups. In addition to age and prostate volume, ethnicity and cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension and hypercholesterolemia may also need to be taken into account in managing men with LUTS. PMID:26098884

  17. SOIL BOUND RESIDUES: CHARACTERIZATION, LONG-TERM FATE, RISK POTENTIAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. BURAUEL

    Outdoor lysimeter studies using 14C-labelled compounds allow the quantification of the 'non-extractable residue fraction' in long-term investigations. The results from more than twenty lysimeter studies under realistic environmental conditions demonstrated that about 80-90 % of residual radiocarbon of different molecules is retained in the topsoil layer even after several years. Generally, 50 to 90 % of this residual radiocarbon is

  18. Sex-specific impact of maternal–fetal risk factors on depression and cardiovascular risk 40 years later

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, J. M.; Cherkerzian, S.; Buka, S. L.; Fitzmaurice, G.; Hornig, M.; Gillman, M.; O’Toole, S.; Sloan, R. P.

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) represent leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We tested the hypothesis that growth restriction and preeclampsia (referred to as fetal risk) are significant predictors of these conditions, with women at higher risk in adulthood. Adult offspring exposed to fetal risk factors and their discordant siblings were from two prenatal cohorts, whose mothers were followed through pregnancy and whom we recruited as adults 40 years later (n=538; 250 males and 288 females). Subjects were psychiatrically diagnosed and underwent a stress challenge during which parasympathetic regulation was assessed by electrocardiogram, operationalized as high-frequency R-R interval variability (HF-RRV). Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship of fetal risk on HF-RRV, MDD and comorbidity of low HF-RRV (lowest 25th percentile) and MDD, including interactions with sex and socioeconomic status (SES). Fetal risk was significantly associated with low HF-RRV response (F=3.64, P=0.05), particularly among low SES (interaction: F=4.31, P<0.04). When stratified by MDD, the fetal risk impact was three times greater among MDD compared with non-MDD subjects (effect size: 0.21 v. 0.06). Females had a significantly higher risk for the comorbidity of MDD and low HF-RRV than males (relative risk (RR)=1.36, 95% CI: 1.07–1.73), an association only seen among those exposed to fetal risk (RR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.04–1.83). Findings suggest that these are shared fetal antecedents to the comorbidity of MDD and CVD risk 40 years later, an association stronger in females than in males. PMID:23378891

  19. Impaired interaction of platelets with endothelial progenitor cells in patients with cardiovascular risk factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth Dernbach; Voahanginirina Randriamboavonjy; Ingrid Fleming; Andreas M. Zeiher; Stefanie Dimmeler; Carmen Urbich

    2008-01-01

    Objective  Recent studies indicate that platelets influence endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) recruitment to sites of vascular injury\\u000a and promote their differentiation to an endothelial phenotype. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) demonstrate\\u000a a reduced number and impaired function of EPC, as well as platelet hyper-reactivity. Therefore, we investigated the interaction\\u000a of platelets and EPC from patients with CVRF.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and results  Co-incubation

  20. High sensitivity C-reactive protein, disease activity and cardiovascular risk factors in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Mok, CC; Birmingham, Daniel J.; Ho, Ling Yin; Hebert, Lee A; Rovin, Brad H

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To study the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and its relationship with disease activity, damage and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Method Consecutive patients who fulfilled ?4 ACR criteria for SLE but did not have concurrent infection were recruited. Blood was assayed for hsCRP and disease activity, organ damage of SLE and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed. Linear regression was performed for the relationship among hsCRP, SLE activity, damage and cardiovascular risk factors. Results 289 patients were studied (94% women; age 39.0±13.1 years; SLE duration 7.8±6.7 years). The mean SLEDAI score was 4.9±5.6 and clinically active SLE was present in 122(42%) patients. The mean hsCRP level was 4.87±12.7mg/L, and 28(23%) patients with active SLE had undetectable hsCRP (<0.3mg/L). Linear regression revealed a significant correlation between hsCRP and musculoskeletal (Beta=0.21), hematological (Beta=0.19), serosal (Beta=0.46) and clinical SLEDAI score (Beta=0.24), adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, creatinine and the use of various medications (p<0.005 in all). Levels of hsCRP correlated significantly with anti-dsDNA titer (Beta=0.33;p<0.001) but not with complement C3 (Beta=0.07;p=0.26). Significantly more patients with hsCRP >3.0mg/L were men and chronic smokers, and had diabetes mellitus, higher atherogenic index and history of arterial thrombosis. hsCRP levels correlated significantly with pulmonary and endocrine damage score. Conclusions hsCRP is detectable in 77% of SLE patients with clinically active disease and correlates with SLEDAI scores, particularly serositis and in the musculoskeletal and hematological systems. Elevated hsCRP in SLE is associated with certain cardiovascular risk factors and history of arterial thromboembolism. PMID:22949303

  1. Obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors: intervention recommendations to decrease adolescent obesity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calderon, Kristine S.; Yucha, Carolyn B.; Schaffer, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of adolescent obesity is increasing dramatically in the United States with associated risks of hypertension, adverse lipid profiles, and Type II diabetes. Unless reversed, this trend predicts an epidemic of adult cardiovascular disease. Interventions at home, at school, and in the community are required to empower teens to increase physical activity and to modify eating habits. This article describes assessment for obesity-related health problems as well as scientific guidelines and research-based intervention strategies to decrease obesity in adolescents.

  2. Blood Pressure Variability and Cardiovascular Risk in the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER)

    PubMed Central

    Poortvliet, Rosalinde K. E.; Ford, Ian; Lloyd, Suzanne M.; Sattar, Naveed; Mooijaart, Simon P.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Packard, Christopher J.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; de Ruijter, Wouter; Stott, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Variability in blood pressure predicts cardiovascular disease in young- and middle-aged subjects, but relevant data for older individuals are sparse. We analysed data from the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) study of 5804 participants aged 70–82 years with a history of, or risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure (standard deviation) was determined using a minimum of five measurements over 1 year; an inception cohort of 4819 subjects had subsequent in-trial 3 years follow-up; longer-term follow-up (mean 7.1 years) was available for 1808 subjects. Higher systolic blood pressure variability independently predicted long-term follow-up vascular and total mortality (hazard ratio per 5 mmHg increase in standard deviation of systolic blood pressure?=?1.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1–1.4; hazard ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 1.1–1.2, respectively). Variability in diastolic blood pressure associated with increased risk for coronary events (hazard ratio 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.2–1.8 for each 5 mmHg increase), heart failure hospitalisation (hazard ratio 1.4, 95% confidence interval 1.1–1.8) and vascular (hazard ratio 1.4, 95% confidence interval 1.1–1.7) and total mortality (hazard ratio 1.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1–1.5), all in long-term follow-up. Pulse pressure variability was associated with increased stroke risk (hazard ratio 1.2, 95% confidence interval 1.0–1.4 for each 5 mmHg increase), vascular mortality (hazard ratio 1.2, 95% confidence interval 1.0–1.3) and total mortality (hazard ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 1.0–1.2), all in long-term follow-up. All associations were independent of respective mean blood pressure levels, age, gender, in-trial treatment group (pravastatin or placebo) and prior vascular disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Our observations suggest variability in diastolic blood pressure is more strongly associated with vascular or total mortality than is systolic pressure variability in older high-risk subjects. PMID:23285043

  3. Executive summary of the consensus document on metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in patients with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Polo Rodríguez, Rosa; Galindo Puerto, María José; Dueñas, Carlos; Gómez Candela, Carmen; Estrada, Vicente; Villar, Noemí G P; Locutura, Jaime; Mariño, Ana; Pascua, Javier; Palacios, Rosario; Von Wichmman, Miguel Ángel; Álvarez, Julia; Asensi, Victor; Lopez Aldeguer, José; Lozano, Fernando; Negredo, Eugenia; Ortega, Enrique; Pedrol, Enric; Gutiérrez, Félix; Sanz Sanz, Jesús; Martínez Chamorro, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the metabolic disorders and their impact on patients with HIV infection requires an individualized study and continuous updating. HIV patients have the same cardiovascular risk factors as the general population. The HIV infection per se increases the cardiovascular risk, and metabolic disorders caused by some antiretroviral drugs are added risk factors. For this reason, the choice of drugs with a good metabolic profile is essential. The most common metabolic disorders of HIV infected-patients (insulin resistance, diabetes, hyperlipidemia or osteopenia), as well as other factors of cardiovascular risk, such as hypertension, should also be dealt with according to guidelines similar to the general population, as well as insisting on steps to healthier lifestyles. The aim of this document is to provide a query tool for all professionals who treat HIV-patients and who may present or display any metabolic disorders listed in this document. PMID:25096166

  4. Gastrointestinal surgery: cardiovascular risk reduction and improved long-term survival in patients with obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Adams, Ted D; Davidson, Lance E; Litwin, Sheldon E; Hunt, Steven C

    2012-12-01

    Whereas the initial focus of bariatric surgery primarily focused on weight loss and was considered by many clinicians and the public as a cosmetic-driven procedure, this surgical therapy is now recognized as a successful approach to reducing cardiovascular disease risk and the only substantial and sustainable weight loss treatment for most severely obese patients. In addition, as a result of the multiple metabolic-related benefits associated with bariatric surgery, efforts to understand physiologic and biochemical mechanisms have led to a dramatic increase in scientific discovery. This review focuses on bariatric research conducted during the past two decades in relation to cardiovascular disease risk and the effects of this surgical therapy on diabetes. Cardiovascular and diabetes mortality and morbidity associated with bariatric surgery are reviewed. The opportunity for bariatric (and/or metabolic) surgery to provide a preventive strategy for cardiovascular disease and diabetes as well as treatment therapy is presented for clinical consideration. PMID:23054662

  5. THE PREVALENCE OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AND CORRELATION WITH NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sommaieh Mohammadi; Mehrdad Karimi; Khadijeh Mirzaie; Seyyed Hossein Hosseini

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a major predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is a large body of evidence that nutrients have a important role in preventing and controlling of CVD risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of CVD risk factors and their re- lations with nutrients and energy intake in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS:

  6. Diet and Cardiovascular Risk in University Marching Band, Dance Team and Cheer Squad Members: a cross-sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shreela V Sharma; Jill A Bush; Andrew J Lorino; Mark Knoblauch; Diana Abuamer; Gabe Blog; Dave Bertman

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Diets high in fat, especially saturated fat, are often linked to obesity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, all risk factors for CVD. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between diet and CVD risk factors in members of a university marching band, dance team and

  7. Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. Screening for cardiovascular risk factors is recommended but not always followed in this population. PHASER is a project charged with identifying and prioritizing risk factors in emergency responders. We have deployed an advanced ECG (A-ECG) system developed at NASA for improved sensitivity and specificity in the detection of cardiac risk. METHODS Forty-four professional firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance and laboratory tests for fasting lipid profiles and glucose. Heart rate and conventional 12-lead ECG were obtained at rest and during incremental treadmill exercise testing (XT). In addition, a 5-min resting 12-lead A-ECG was obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=18) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a physician collaborator at NASA for advanced-ECG analysis. This A-ECG system has been proven, using myocardial perfusion and other imaging, to accurately identify a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS Subjects mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI of 28 (3) kg/square meter. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 39 (9) ml/kg/min. This compares with the 45th %ile in healthy reference values and a recommended standard of 42 ml/kg/min for firefighters. The metabolic threshold (VO2Theta) above which lactate accumulates was 23 (8) ml/kg/min. The chronotropic index, a measure of cardiovascular strain during XT was 35 (8) /L compared with reference values for men of 40 /L. Total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C were 202 (34),126 (29), and 55 (15) mg/dl, respectively. Fifty-one percent of subjects had .3 cardiovascular risk factors, 2 subjects had resting hypertension (BP.140/90), and 23 had pre-hypertension (.120/80 but <140/90). Seven had exaggerated exercise induced hypertension but only one had ST depression on XT ECG, at least one positive A-ECG score for CAD, and documented CAD based on cardiology referral. While all other subjects, including those with fewer risk factors, higher aerobic fitness, and normal exercise ECGs, were classified as healthy by A-ECG, there was no trend for association between risk factors and any of 20 A-ECG parameters in the grouped data. CONCLUSIONS A-ECG screening correctly identified the individual with CAD although there was no trend for A-ECG parameters to distinguish those with elevated BP or multiple risk factors but normal XT ECG. We have demonstrated that a new technology, advanced-ECG, can be introduced for remote firefighter risk assessment. This simple, time and cost-effective approach to risk identification that can be acquired remotely and transmitted securely can detect individuals potentially at risk for line-of-duty death. Additional research is needed to further document its value.

  8. Waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio are better predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children than body mass index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SC Savva; M Tornaritis; ME Savva; Y Kourides; A Panagi; N Silikiotou; C Georgiou; A Kafatos

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease risk factors and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases. Waist measurement and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) have been used as proxy measures of visceral adipose tissue, mainly in adults.OBJECTIVE: To validate body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and WHtR as predictors for the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children

  9. Framingham Risk Score for Prediction of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Population-Based Study from Southern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Artigao-Rodenas, Luis M.; Carbayo-Herencia, Julio A.; Divisón-Garrote, Juan A.; Gil-Guillén, Vicente F.; Massó-Orozco, Javier; Simarro-Rueda, Marta; Molina-Escribano, Francisca; Sanchis, Carlos; Carrión-Valero, Lucinio; López de Coca, Enrique; Caldevilla, David; López-Abril, Juan; Carratalá-Munuera, Concepción; Lopez-Pineda, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Background The question about what risk function should be used in primary prevention remains unanswered. The Framingham Study proposed a new algorithm based on three key ideas: use of the four risk factors with the most weight (cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes and smoking), prediction of overall cardiovascular diseases and incorporating the concept of vascular age. The objective of this study was to apply this new function in a cohort of the general non Anglo-Saxon population, with a 10-year follow-up to determine its validity. Methods The cohort was studied in 1992-94 and again in 2004-06. The sample comprised 959 randomly-selected persons, aged 30-74 years, who were representative of the population of Albacete, Spain. At the first examination cycle, needed data for the new function were collected and at the second examination, data on all events were recorded during the follow-up period. Discrimination was studied with ROC curves. Comparisons of prediction models and reality in tertiles (Hosmer-Lemeshow) were performed, and the individual survival functions were calculated. Results The mean risks for women and men, respectively, were 11.3% and 19.7% and the areas under the ROC curve were 0.789 (95%CI, 0.716-0.863) and 0.780 (95%CI, 0.713-0.847) (P<0.001, both). Cardiovascular disease events occurred in the top risk tertiles. Of note were the negative predictive values in both sexes, and a good specificity in women (85.6%) and sensitivity in men (79.1%) when their risk for cardiovascular disease was high. This model overestimates the risk in older women and in middle-aged men. The cumulative probability of individual survival by tertiles was significant in both sexes (P<0.001). Conclusions The results support the proposal for “reclassification” of Framingham. This study, with a few exceptions, passed the test of discrimination and calibration in a random sample of the general population from southern Europe. PMID:24039972

  10. The Application of a Residual Risk Evaluation Technique Used for Expendable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, John A.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation provides a Residual Risk Evaluation Technique (RRET) developed by Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Launch Services Division. This technique is one of many procedures used by S&MA at KSC to evaluate residual risks for each Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) mission. RRET is a straight forward technique that incorporates the proven methodology of risk management, fault tree analysis, and reliability prediction. RRET derives a system reliability impact indicator from the system baseline reliability and the system residual risk reliability values. The system reliability impact indicator provides a quantitative measure of the reduction in the system baseline reliability due to the identified residual risks associated with the designated ELV mission. An example is discussed to provide insight into the application of RRET.

  11. Education to a Healthy Lifestyle Improves Symptoms and Cardiovascular Risk Factors – AsuRiesgo Study

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Graciela; Britez, Nidia; Munzinger, Judith; Uhlmann, Lorenz; Gonzalez, Graciela; Oviedo, Guillermo; Chaparro, Victoria; Achon, Oscar; Bruckner, Thomas; Kieser, Meinhard; Katus, Hugo A.; Mereles, Derliz

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are the current leading causes of death and disability globally. Objective To assess the effects of a basic educational program for cardiovascular prevention in an unselected outpatient population. Methods All participants received an educational program to change to a healthy lifestyle. Assessments were conducted at study enrollment and during follow-up. Symptoms, habits, ATP III parameters for metabolic syndrome, and American Heart Association’s 2020 parameters of cardiovascular health were assessed. Results A total of 15,073 participants aged ? 18 years entered the study. Data analysis was conducted in 3,009 patients who completed a second assessment. An improvement in weight (from 76.6 ± 15.3 to 76.4 ± 15.3 kg, p = 0.002), dyspnea on exertion NYHA grade II (from 23.4% to 21.0%) and grade III (from 15.8% to 14.0%) and a decrease in the proportion of current active smokers (from 3.6% to 2.9%, p = 0.002) could be documented. The proportion of patients with levels of triglycerides > 150 mg/dL (from 46.3% to 42.4%, p < 0.001) and LDL cholesterol > 100 mg/dL (from 69.3% to 65.5%, p < 0.001) improved. A ? 20% improvement of AHA 2020 metrics at the level graded as poor was found for smoking (-21.1%), diet (-29.8%), and cholesterol level (-23.6%). A large dropout as a surrogate indicator for low patient adherence was documented throughout the first 5 visits, 80% between the first and second assessments, 55.6% between the second and third assessments, 43.6% between the third and fourth assessments, and 38% between the fourth and fifth assessments. Conclusion A simple, basic educational program may improve symptoms and modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, but shows low patient adherence. PMID:25789881

  12. Leisure-time physical activity, cardiovascular risk factors and mortality during a 34-year follow-up in men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salla Savela; Pentti Koistinen; Reijo S. Tilvis; Arto Y. Strandberg; Kaisu H. Pitkälä; Veikko V. Salomaa; Tatu A. Miettinen; Timo E. Strandberg

    2010-01-01

    The inverse relationship between physical activity and mortality may be confounded by socioeconomic factors, cardiovascular\\u000a risk factors and inverse causality. We investigated long-term association between self-reported regular physical activity\\u000a and mortality in a socioeconomically homogeneous, initially healthy middle-aged (mean age 47) male cohort (the Helsinki Businessmen\\u000a Study). In 1974, the men were assessed with questionnaires, clinical and laboratory examinations. Cardiovascular

  13. Correlates of cardiovascular disease risk scores in women in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alquaiz, AlJohara M; Kazi, Ambreen; Qureshi, Riaz; Siddiqui, Amna Rehana; Jamal, Amr; Shaik, Shaffi Ahamed

    2015-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has a high prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. We measured cardiovascular (CVD) risk scores and determined the factors associated with them in women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted on 291 women aged ? 30 years. Information was collected on socio-demographics and physical health status. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken. Physical activity was measured using Kaiser's Physical Activity Survey and Godin's Leisure Time Exercise questionnaire. CVD risk scores were calculated using the non-laboratory-based Framingham Risk (FRS) prediction model for primary care. FRS scores ranged from 0.50 to 21.9. A total of 2.7% (n = 8) of women had a high FRS score (>20), 5.5% (n = 16) had intermediate scores (11-20), and 91.8% (n = 267) of women had low scores (<10) CVD risk scores. Multiple linear regression results indicated that a one-unit change in physical activity (household/caregiver index), strenuous exercise, waist circumference, number of children, television watching, and knee pain were significantly associated with -0.20 (p < .01), -0.12 (p = .03), 0.19 (p = .001), 0.29 (p < .01), 0.13 (p = .04), and 0.11 (p = .05) unit change in CVD risk scores, respectively. Household activities and strenuous exercise had a protective role in females in relation to CVD risk. Programs recommending physical activity at all levels should be encouraged. PMID:25569108

  14. Prediction of cardiovascular disease risk among low-income urban dwellers in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Bulgiba, Awang; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to predict the ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among low-income urban dwellers of metropolitan Malaysia. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kuala Lumpur. To assess the 10-year CVD risk, we employed the Framingham risk scoring (FRS) models. Significant determinants of the ten-year CVD risk were identified using General Linear Model (GLM). Altogether 882 adults (?30 years old with no CVD history) were randomly selected. The classic FRS model (figures in parentheses are from the modified model) revealed that 20.5% (21.8%) and 38.46% (38.9%) of respondents were at high and moderate risk of CVD. The GLM models identified the importance of education, occupation, and marital status in predicting the future CVD risk. Our study indicated that one out of five low-income urban dwellers has high chance of having CVD within ten years. Health care expenditure, other illness related costs and loss of productivity due to CVD would worsen the current situation of low-income urban population. As such, the public health professionals and policy makers should establish substantial effort to formulate the public health policy and community-based intervention to minimize the upcoming possible high mortality and morbidity due to CVD among the low-income urban dwellers. PMID:25821810

  15. [Cardiovascular risks and management during Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder treatment with methylphenidate].

    PubMed

    Bange, F; Le Heuzey, M-F; Acquaviva, E; Delorme, R; Mouren, M-C

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common of the pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders. Methylphenidate is an important element of therapeutic strategies for ADHD. Clinicians are interested in the safety of methylphenidate. Because this drug raises heart rate and blood pressure, concerns have been raised about its cardiovascular safety. Concerns were based on case reports of sudden cardiac death in methylphenidate users, plausible pharmacological pathways involving well-established stimulant effects on heart rate and blood pressure. Until recently, data were limited to a number of observational studies too small to examine serious cardiac events. In the past two years, large retrospective, population-based cohort studies were performed. These studies did not show any evidence that methylphenidate was associated with an increase in risk of myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, or stroke. Treatment of children with methylphenidate is not significantly associated with an increase in the short term or mid-term risk of severe cardiac events. For many, available data now will be seen as reassuring. But gaps persist in the methodical and comprehensive assessments of the safety of methylphenidate. Analyses cannot be generalized to children with long-term use of stimulants. Furthermore, long-term effects of slight increases in heart rate or blood pressure are unknown. Stimulant administration continues to have a detectable adrenergic effect even after years of treatment. In the MTA study, greater cumulative stimulant exposure was associated with a higher heart rate at years 3 and 8. Although less severe, such adverse cardiac events are nonetheless alarming to patients. This adrenergic effect may have clinical implications, especially for individual patients with underlying heart abnormalities and it deserves further investigation. More research is necessary to optimize a safe use of methylphenidate regarding its cardiovascular effects. In light of the controversies surrounding the increase in the number of children being diagnosed with ADHD, the broad use of methylphenidate in these patients, and cardiovascular concerns about it, this article addresses topics of clinical significance. For ease of use by practitioners, the article summarizes the guidelines stated by the European Medicines Agency over the appropriate pretreatment evaluation and cardiovascular assessment. It advocates a thorough history and physical examination before initiating methylphenidate to treat patients with ADHD, with an emphasis on the identification of risk factors for sudden death. A cardiac sub-specialist consultation is mandatory in case of history or physical examination findings. In other cases, an electrocardiographic screening is recommended in order to check out previously unrecognized heart disease. PMID:24309201

  16. Childhood Environmental and Genetic Predictors of Adulthood Obesity: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    Juhola, Jonna; Magnussen, Costan G.; Würtz, Peter; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Thomson, Russell; Seppälä, Ilkka; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hurme, Mikko; Telama, Risto; Mikkilä, Vera; Eklund, Carita; Räsänen, Leena; Hintsanen, Mirka; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kivimäki, Mika; Raitakari, Olli T.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Obesity from childhood to adulthood is associated with adverse health later in life. Increased youth BMI is a risk factor for later obesity, but it is unknown whether identification of other risk factors, including recently discovered genetic markers, would help to identify children at risk of developing adult obesity. Objectives: Our objective was to examine the childhood environmental and genetic predictors of adult obesity. Design, Setting, and Participants: We followed 2119 individuals of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study for up to 27 yr since baseline (1980, age 3–18 yr). Main Outcome Measure: We evaluated adult obesity [body mass index (BMI) ?30 kg/m2]. Results: The independent predictors (P < 0.05) of adult obesity included childhood BMI, C-reactive protein (CRP), family income (inverse), mother's BMI, and polymorphisms near genes TFAP2B, LRRN6C, and FLJ35579. A risk assessment based on childhood BMI, mother's BMI, and family income was superior in predicting obesity compared with the approach using data only on BMI (C-statistics 0.751 vs. 0.772, P = 0.0015). Inclusion of data on childhood CRP and novel genetic variants for BMI did not incrementally improve C-value (0.779, P = 0.16). A nonlaboratory risk score (childhood BMI, mother's BMI, and family income) predicted adult obesity in all age groups between 3–18 yr (P always <0.001). Conclusions: Childhood BMI, CRP, family income (inversely), mother's BMI, and polymorphisms near genes FLJ35779, TFAP2B, and LRRN6C are independently related to adulthood obesity. However, because genetic risk markers and CRP only marginally improve the prediction, our results indicate that children at high risk of adult obesity can be identified using a simple non-laboratory-based risk assessment. PMID:21778217

  17. Use of the internet for health information by African-Americans with modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Laken, Marilyn A; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Duffy, Nadejda Grigebovskaya; Swinton, Rosetta; Jordan, Jeannette

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Internet use among African-Americans at risk of cardiovascular disease and to determine the feasibility of developing Webbased, culturally relevant health information programs to reduce cardiovascular disease in the African American faith community. A cross-sectional survey was used to investigate the association of Internet use with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among members of African Methodist Episcopal churches in South Carolina. A telephone survey including questions on demographic factors, medical history, diet, and exercise was administered to a sample of 208 adult church members. A preventable CVD risk factor was defined as having any of the following: hypertension, obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol, cigarette use, and not participating in moderate physical activity. A logistic regression determined the relationship of having a preventable CVD risk factor with Internet use while controlling for potential confounding variables. Among respondents, 47% used the Internet with most (65%) using it for 1 month or less. Most (87%) have at least one preventable CVD risk factor. Both higher education and younger age were significantly associated with Internet use. Results of the logistic regression indicate that individuals with a cardiovascular risk factor were not significantly less likely to use the Internet when controlling for age and education. Use of the Internet has potential to reach large populations, however, more work needs to be done to increase access to the Internet by older African-Americans at greatest risk of CVD before this approach can be effective. PMID:15650525

  18. Association of diet and anthropometric measures as cardiovascular modifiable risk factors in young adults.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Soumya; Banerjee, Swasti; Sengupta, Tridip Kumar; Behera, Anugya Aparajita; Manjareeka, Magna; Mishra, Jayanti

    2013-12-18

    Abstract Background: Cardiovascular accidents are the major cause of death in the developing world, accounting for nearly 40% of deaths in adult men and women. Developed countries have already brought this under control, whereas India has to take a giant leap. Diet plays a pivotal role among the various modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. The sole objective of this study is to point at nutrition as being the main modulator of different anthropometric parameters and directly or indirectly has a tremendous impact on the blood pressure levels even during young age. Methods: In a cross-sectional study involving 223 young adults, the pattern of food habits and level of physical activity were determined from self-reported questionnaires, while blood pressure, weight, height, waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were computed. The subjects were grouped as normotensives and prehypertensives and also were compared according to their BMI and other parameters. Results: Statistically significant, greater association of weight followed by WC with the prehypertensive levels of blood pressure compared to other parameters was seen. The subjects detected as prehypertensives had predilection for salty, fried, oily, sweet, and fast food; BMI >25 kg/m2; and WC and WHR in high risk-categories per World Health Organization standards. More than 69% of subjects had high WHR, whereas only 9% of total subjects exercised regularly. Conclusions: Central obesity is associated with sedentary life and high intake of calories, leading to hypertension with advancing age. Early detection, awareness, and primary prevention would help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24353140

  19. The Quality of Spouses’ Social Networks Contributes to Each Other’s Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Uchino, Bert N.; Smith, Timothy W.; Carlisle, McKenzie; Birmingham, Wendy C.; Light, Kathleen C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although the quality of one’s own social relationships has been related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, whether a partner’s social network quality can similarly influence one’s cardiovascular risk is unknown. In this study we tested whether the quality of a partner’s social networks influenced one’s own ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). Methods The quality of 94 couples’ social networks was determined using a comprehensive model of relationships that separates out social ties that are sources of positivity(supportive), negativity (aversive), and both positivity and negativity (ambivalent). We then utilized statistical models (actor-partner analyses) that allowed us to separate out the links between one’s own social network quality on ABP (actor influences), a partner’s social network quality on ABP (partner influences), and a couple’s network quality combined on ABP (actor X partner interactions). Results Independent of one’s own relationship quality, results showed that an individual’s ABP was lower if their spouse had more supportive ties, and higher if a spouse had more aversive and ambivalent ties. In addition, couples’ networks in combination were associated with higher ABP but only if both had a low number of supportive ties, or a high number of aversive or ambivalent ties. Conclusions These data suggest that the social ties of those we have close relationships with may influence our cardiovascular risk and opens new opportunities to capitalize on untapped social resources or to mitigate hidden sources of social strain. PMID:23990999

  20. Adherence with statins in a real-life setting is better when associated cardiovascular risk factors increase: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background While the factors for poor adherence for treatment with statins have been highlighted, the impact of their combination on adherence is not clear. Aims To estimate adherence for statins and whether it differs according to the number of cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A cohort study was conducted using data from the main French national health insurance system reimbursement database. Newly treated patients with statins between September 1 and December 31, 2004 were included. Patients were followed up 15 months. The cohort was split into three groups according to their number of additional cardiovascular risk factors that included age and gender, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (using co-medications as a proxy). Adherence was assessed for each group by using four parameters: (i) proportion of days covered by statins, (ii) regularity of the treatment over time, (iii) persistence, and (iv) the refill delay. Results 16,397 newly treated patients were identified. Of these statin users, 21.7% did not have additional cardiovascular risk factors. Thirty-one percent had two cardiovascular risk factors and 47% had at least three risk factors. All the parameters showed a sub-optimal adherence whatever the group: days covered ranged from 56% to 72%, regularity ranged from 23% to 33% and persistence ranged from 44% to 59%, but adherence was better for those with a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions The results confirm that long-term drug treatments are a difficult challenge, particularly in patients at lower risk and invite to the development of therapeutic education. PMID:21791073

  1. A Web-Based Approach to Address Cardiovascular Risks in Managers: Results of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Joel B.; Broome, Kirk M.; Pilley, Ashleigh; Gilmore, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether a web-based health and leadership development program—designed specifically for managers—was associated with changes in self-reported and biometric indicators of cardiovascular risk (CVD) within the context of a randomized control trial. Methods 145 managers from eight organizations participated in a 6-month Internet-based program or a control condition. They completed pre- and posttest assessments that included both self-reported attitudes (on diet, exercise, and mental health) and biometric measures (e.g., body weight, waist circumference). Results The intervention was associated with improvements in dietary attitudes, dietary self-efficacy, and exercise, and reductions in distress symptoms. Women in the program reduced their waist circumference significantly more than controls. Conclusions The program showed promise for reducing CVD risk factors. Similar results across diverse organizations suggest the program may be useful across industry types. PMID:21785368

  2. Pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics of thiazolidinediones: role in diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Della-Morte, David; Palmirotta, Raffaele; Rehni, Ashish K; Pastore, Donatella; Capuani, Barbara; Pacifici, Francesca; De Marchis, Maria Laura; Dave, Kunjan R; Bellia, Alfonso; Fogliame, Giuseppe; Ferroni, Patrizia; Donadel, Giulia; Cacciatore, Francesco; Abete, Pasquale; Dong, Chuanhui; Pileggi, Antonello; Roselli, Mario; Ricordi, Camillo; Sbraccia, Paolo; Guadagni, Fiorella; Rundek, Tatjana; Lauro, Davide

    2014-12-01

    The most important goal in the treatment of patients with diabetes is to prevent the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the first cause of mortality in these subjects. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), a class of antidiabetic drugs, act as insulin sensitizers increasing insulin-dependent glucose disposal and reducing hepatic glucose output. TZDs including pioglitazone, rosiglitazone and troglitazone, by activating PPAR-? have shown pleiotropic effects in reducing vascular risk factors and atherosclerosis. However, troglitazone was removed from the market due to its hepatoxicity, and rosiglitazone and pioglitazone both have particular warnings due to being associated with heart diseases. Specific genetic variations in genes involved in the pathways regulated by TDZs have demonstrated to modify the variability in treatment with these drugs, especially in their side effects. Therefore, pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics are an important tool in further understand intersubject variability per se but also to assess the therapeutic potential of such variability in drug individualization and therapeutic optimization. PMID:25521362

  3. Life-style characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors in regular downhill skiers: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Downhill skiing is part of active life style in many residents of Alpine regions. However, only very little information is available whether downhill skiing on a regular basis is associated with a healthier life style resulting in the reduction of major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and memory deficits when compared to the general population. Thus, the aim of the study was to compare life-style characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors between regular downhill skiers and the general population. Methods Self-reported health and life-style data were collected by questionnaire from 1259 long-term downhill skiers (971 males, aged 57.3?±?14.6 years; 288 females, aged 47.7?±?16.4 years) and compared with data from the general population. Results Long-term skiers showed more favourable life-style characteristics and a better health status than the general population. Prevalences of hypercholesterolemia, systemic hypertension, diabetes, the frequency of mental stress and the occurrence of memory deficits declined with increasing yearly skiing frequency. Conclusion Long-term alpine skiing on a regular basis may contribute to healthy aging by its association with a healthier life style. PMID:23987102

  4. Exploring Risk Factors in Latino Cardiovascular Disease: The Role of Education, Nativity, and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Dinwiddie, Gniesha Y.; Zambrana, Ruth Enid; Garza, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined 3 cardiovascular disease risk factors by nativity and gender, evaluating evidence for education and health behaviors in explaining the “Hispanic Health Paradox.” Methods We analyzed 2001–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for adults (n = 6032) to compare hypertension, high waist circumference, and diabetes for US- and foreign-born Mexican men and women. We controlled for age, depression, and health insurance. Results Cardiovascular disease risk factors differed by education, nativity, and gender. Higher education was associated with higher odds of hypertension and high waist circumference for men and women regardless of nativity. As education increased, the odds of diabetes increased for US-born women, showing a gradient for this population. Finally, foreign-born Mexican women with 5 to 19 years in the United States conferred the highest odds of having diabetes, whereas foreign-born men with less than 5 years in the United States had the lowest odds for high waist circumference and presence of diabetes. Conclusions Results contest assumptions of the Hispanic Health Paradox and suggest new approaches. New research can yield accurate information to ensure the development of appropriate interventions, decreasing health disparities endemic to a subgroup of Latinos. PMID:24028268

  5. Assessment of the Body Composition and Parameters of the Cardiovascular Risk in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate cardiovascular risk parameters, body mass index (BMI) centiles for sex and age, and body fat percentage using the electric bioimpedance method in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). 30 children with JIA participated in the study. A control group included 20 children. Patients were well matched for the age and sex. The body mass and body fat percentage were determined using the segmental body composition analyser; the BMI centiles were determined. All patients had the following parameters determined: lipid profile, hsCRP, homocysteine, and IL-6. The intima media thickness (IMT) was measured. Patients with JIA had significantly lower body weight, BMI, and the BMI centile compared to the control group. The IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with JIA compared to the control group. There were no differences between two groups with regard to the lipid profile, % content of the fat tissue, homocysteine levels, hsCRP, and IMT. Further studies are necessary to search for reasons for lower BMI and BMI centile in children with JIA and to attempt to answer the question of whether lower BMI increases the cardiovascular risk in these patients, similarly as in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PMID:25839035

  6. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Ehret, Georg B; Munroe, Patricia B; Rice, Kenneth M; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D; Chasman, Daniel I; Smith, Albert V; Tobin, Martin D; Verwoert, Germaine C; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A; Jackson, Anne U; Peden, John F; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C; Fox, Ervin R; Kumari, Meena; Go, Min Jin; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D G; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Lehtimäki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N; Platou, Carl G P; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Palmas, Walter; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Steinle, Nanette I; Grobbee, Diederick E; Arking, Dan E; Kardia, Sharon L; Morrison, Alanna C; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J; Connell, John M; Hingorani, Aroon D; Day, Ian N M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Beilby, John P; Lawrence, Robert W; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C; Ongen, Halit; Dreisbach, Albert W; Li, Yali; Young, J Hunter; Bis, Joshua C; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S; Lee, Nanette R; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Bolton, Judith A Hoffman; Köttgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R; Bornstein, Stefan R; Grässler, Jürgen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B; Hunt, Steven C; Sun, Yan V; Bergman, Richard N; Collins, Francis S; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Scott, Laura J; Stringham, Heather M; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Thomas J; Burton, Paul R; Soler Artigas, Maria; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K; Rudock, Megan E; Heckbert, Susan R; Smith, Nicholas L; Wiggins, Kerri L; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stan?áková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Schwartz, Stephen M; Ikram, M Arfan; Longstreth, W T; Mosley, Thomas H; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R G; Wain, Louise V; Morken, Mario A; Swift, Amy J; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A; Humphries, Steve E; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J L; van Gilst, Wiek H; Janipalli, Charles S; Mani, K Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Oostra, Ben A; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Dörr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F; Nalls, Michael A; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M V Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Fowkes, F Gerald R; Charchar, Fadi J

    2011-10-01

    Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (?140?mm?Hg systolic blood pressure or? ?90?mm?Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3, NPR3-C5orf23, ADM, FURIN-FES, GOSR2, GNAS-EDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:21909115

  7. Abnormal glucocorticoid activity in subjects with risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Walker, B R

    1996-11-01

    There are striking similarities between Cushing's syndrome and the 'metabolic syndrome X' since both are characterised by hypertension, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hyperlipidaemia, and central obesity. The possibility that cortisol contributes to the associations between multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease was rejected when it was demonstrated that there was no elevation in cortisol secretion or circulating concentration in patients with essential hypertension or type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, in recent years the enormous variability in tissue sensitivity to cortisol has become apparent. We have measured tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids using an assay of skin vasoconstriction and have demonstrated its relationship with high blood pressure, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and hypertriglyceridaemia. Our data suggest that the increase in dermal glucocorticoid sensitivity is not a secondary phenomenon and may be explained by increased glucocorticoid receptor affinity together with impaired inactivation of cortisol by 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Importantly, we have not found that enhanced peripheral glucocorticoid sensitivity is associated with compensatory suppression of cortisol secretion, so that the maintenance of normal circulating cortisol concentrations in patients with cardiovascular risk factors may be paradoxical and inappropriate. PMID:8969930

  8. Genetic Variants in Novel Pathways Influence Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable trait1 influenced by multiple biological pathways and is responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (BP ?140 mm Hg systolic [SBP] or ?90 mm Hg diastolic [DBP])2. Even small increments in BP are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events3. This genome-wide association study of SBP and DBP, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified 16 novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate BP (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3; NPR3-C5orf23; ADM; FURIN-FES; GOSR2; GNAS-EDN3); the other 10 provide new clues to BP physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke, and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with BP in East Asian, South Asian, and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of BP, and suggest novel potential therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:21909115

  9. Potential Cardiovascular Risk Protection of Bilirubin in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients under Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    do Sameiro-Faria, Maria; Kohlova, Michaela; Ribeiro, Sandra; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Teixeira, Laetitia; Nascimento, Henrique; Reis, Flávio; Miranda, Vasco; Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa; Quintanilha, Alexandre; Belo, Luís; Costa, Elísio; Santos-Silva, Alice

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential cardiovascular risk protection of bilirubin in hemodialysis (HD) patients. An enlarged set of studies were evaluated in 191 HD patients, including hematological study, lipid profile, iron metabolism, nutritional, inflammatory markers, and dialysis adequacy. The TA duplication screening in the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 A1 (UGT1A1) promoter region was also performed. The UGT1A1 genotype frequencies in HD patients were 49.2%, 42.4%, and 8.4% for 6/6, 6/7, and 7/7 genotypes, respectively. Although no difference was found in UGT1A1 genotype distribution between the three tertiles of bilirubin, significant differences were found with increasing bilirubin levels, namely, a decrease in platelet, leukocyte, and lymphocyte counts, transferrin, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), ox-LDL/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, apolipoprotein (Apo) A, Apo B, and interleukin-6 serum levels and a significant increased concentration of hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte count, iron, transferrin saturation, Apo A/Apo B ratio, adiponectin, and paraoxonase 1 serum levels. After adjustment for age these results remained significant. Our data suggest that higher bilirubin levels are associated with beneficial effects in HD patients, by improving lipid profile and reducing the inflammatory grade, which might contribute to increase in iron availability. These results suggest a potential cardiovascular risk protection of bilirubin in HD patients. PMID:25276769

  10. Determination of Dietary Status as a Risk Factor of Cardiovascular Heart Disease in Turkish Elderly People.

    PubMed

    Keser, Alev; Yabanci Ayhan, Nurcan; Bilgiç, Pelin; Tayfur, Muhittin; ?Im?ek, I?il

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the status of diet as a risk factor of cardiovascular heart disease in a group of Turkish elderly people. We performed a cross-sectional study using the data of voluntary participants aged between 65-74 years old. Participants completed 3-day diet records. Of participants, 64.1% of the men and 62.2% of the women reported their daily dietary fat intake as being > 30% of total energy (p > .05). More than 20% of these elderly respondents' daily intakes of vitamin E, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate were found to be under the recommended values. As a result, the total fat intake of these elderly people was found to be high; while their intake of fiber and vitamin B6, vitamin B12 were found to be low, compared to American Heart Association recommendations. In conclusion, it is recommended that developing sufficient and balanced diets may decrease cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25603127

  11. Ambulatory monitoring derived blood pressure variability and cardiovascular risk factors in elderly hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Magdás, Annamária; Szilágyi, László; Belényi, Boglárka; Incze, Alexandru

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension in the elderly is characterized by isolated systolic hypertension and high variability, but its clinical significance is not yet fully understood. The goal of this paper was to assess circadian blood pressure variability (BPV) in elderly hypertensives, and to determine its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors. To achieve this goal, a number of 75 inefficiently treated hypertensive patients were studied, 45 elderly, aged over 60 years, 30 middle-aged, younger than 60 years. After 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), blood pressure (BP) values, pulse pressure (PP), morning surge were compared between the groups. BPV was calculated using average real variability (ARV). The relationships between BPV, pulse pressure, left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in both groups. As a result, it was found that left ventricular mass (p=0.01), PP, morning surge, 24-hour systolic ARV were significantly higher in the elderly group (p<0.05). In both groups, higher 24-hour BPV was associated with an increase in LVMI. In the elderly population 24-hour BPV was positively correlated to increased PP, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels (p<0.05). Moreover, it was concluded that ABPM-derived BP variability index could be an early predictive marker of end-organ damage in hypertension. Its reduction might be an important objective of hypertension management in elderly. PMID:25226958

  12. Risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus versus reduction in cardiovascular events with statin therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kang-Ling; Liu, Chia-Jen; Chao, Tze-Fan; Chen, Su-Jung; Wu, Cheng-Hsueh; Huang, Chi-Ming; Chang, Chun-Chin; Wang, Ko-Fan; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chiang, Chern-En

    2014-02-15

    The Food and Drug Administration recently updated the safety warning concerning the association between statin therapy and new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM). For prediabetes, little information is available for statins on cardiovascular outcome reduction and diabetogenic consequences. This study aimed to examine the risk of NODM and the reduction of cardiovascular events and death (MACE) after statin therapy in the prediabetic subjects. The medical and pharmacy claims of the prediabetic beneficiaries were retrieved from Taiwan National Health Insurance research database. The occurrence of NODM, MACE, and morbidity indexed by hospitalizations and emergency visits was ascertained by ambulatory and inpatient database. A propensity score-matched model was constructed for statin users and nonusers. During follow-up (4.1 ± 2.5 years), NODM and MACE occurred in 23.5% and 16.7%, respectively, of nonusers and 28.5% and 12.0%, respectively, of users. Statin therapy was associated with a greater risk of NODM (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.32) and less risk of MACE (hazard ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.80), both in dose-dependent fashions. The earlier and more persistent use correlated with the greater increase in risk of NODM offset by the proportionally larger reduction in MACE. Furthermore, the early persistent users had the lowest rate of hospitalizations and emergency visits. In conclusion, our findings suggested that the relation between NODM and therapeutic advantages of statins was parallel in the prediabetic population. Treatment benefits outweighed diabetic consequences in subjects receiving the earlier and more persistent treatment. PMID:24360773

  13. Prevalence of cardiovascular health risk behaviors in a remote rural community of Sindhuli district, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is emerging as a public health menace among low and middle income countries. It has particularly affected the poorest. However, there is paucity of information about CVD risk factors profile among Nepalese rural communities where the majority of people live in poverty. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular health risk behaviors in an outback community of Nepal. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study in Tinkanya Village Development Committee (VDC), Sindhuli between January and March, 2014. Total 406 participants of age 20 to 50 years were selected randomly. Data were collected using WHO-NCD STEPwise approach questionnaires and analyzed with SPSS V.16.0 and R i386 2.15.3 software. Result The mean age of participants was 36.2?±?9 years. Majority of participants (76.3%) were from lower socio-economic class, Adibasi/Janajati (63.1%), and without formal schooling (46.3%). Smoking was present in 28.6%, alcohol consumption in 47.8%, insufficient fruits and vegetables intake in 96.6%, insufficient physical activity in 48.8%; 25.6% had high waist circumference, 37.4% had overweight and obesity. Average daily salt intake per capita was 14.4 grams ±4.89 grams. Hypertension was detected in 12.3%. It had an inverse relationship with education and socio-economic status. In binary logistic regression analysis, age, smoking, body mass index (BMI) and daily salt intake were identified as significant predictors of hypertension. Conclusion Present study showed high prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, daily salt intake, overweight and obesity and hypertension among remote rural population suggesting higher risk for developing CVD in future. Nepalese rural communities, therefore, are in need of population-wide comprehensive intervention approaches for reducing CVD health risk behaviors. PMID:25066117

  14. Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to deploy and then evaluate the contribution of resting advanced ECG (A-ECG) in addition to other screening tools (family history, lipid profiles, and cardiopulmonary exercise tests, XT) in assessment of an individual fs cardiac risk profile. METHODS: Forty-four career firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance, fasting lipids and glucose. Five-min resting 12-lead A-ECGs were obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=21) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a NASA physician collaborator. Using myocardial perfusion and other imaging as the gold standard, A-ECG scoring has been proven useful in accurately identifying a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and non-ischemic and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: Subjects f mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI 28 (3) kg/m2. Fifty-one percent of subjects had .3 cardiovascular risk factors. One subject had ST depression on XT ECG, at least one positive A-ECG score for CAD, and documented CAD based on cardiology referral. While all other subjects, including those with fewer risk factors, higher aerobic fitness, and normal exercise ECGs, were classified as healthy by A-ECG, there was no trend for association between risk factors and any of 20 A-ECG parameters in the grouped data.

  15. Relating Education, Brain Structure, and Cognition: The Role of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mortby, Moyra E.; Burns, Richard; Janke, Andrew L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Cherbuin, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The protective effect of education on cognitive and brain health is well established. While the direct effects of individual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (i.e., hypertension, smoking, diabetes, and obesity) on cerebral structure have been investigated, little is understood about the possible interaction between the protective effect of education and the deleterious effects of CVD risk factors in predicting brain ageing and cognition. Using data from the PATH Through Life study (N = 266), we investigated the protective effect of education on cerebral structure and function and tested a possible mediating role of CVD risk factors. Higher education was associated with larger regional grey/white matter volumes in the prefrontal cortex in men only. The association between education and cognition was mediated by brain volumes but only for grey matter and only in relation to information processing speed. CVD risk factors did not mediate the association between regional volumes and cognition. This study provides additional evidence in support for a protective effect of education on cerebral structures and cognition. However, it does not provide support for a mediating role of CVD risk factors in these associations. PMID:25184136

  16. Associations Between Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Korean Youth

    PubMed Central

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: 1) describe the patterns of screen-based sedentary behaviors, and 2) examine the association between screen-based sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in representative Korean children and adolescents, aged 12 to 18 yr, in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Screen-based sedentary behavior was measured using self-report questionnaires that included items for time spent watching TV and playing PC/video games. Physical activity was measured using items for frequency and duration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). CVD risk factors such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Boys spent more time playing PC/video games, and girls spent more time watching TV. After adjusting for age, gender, annual household income, and MVPA, an additional hour of watching TV was significantly associated with the risk of overweight (OR 1.17 [95% CI 1.03-1.33]), high abdominal adiposity (OR 1.27 [1.06-1.51]), and low HDL cholesterol (OR 1.27 [1.10-1.47]). An additional hour spent playing PC/video games also increased the risk of high abdominal adiposity (OR 1.20 [1.03-1.40]). Prospective observations and interventions are needed to determine causal relationships between screen-based sedentary behavior and CVD risk profiles in Korean youth. PMID:22468102

  17. The relationships between body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in young Australian men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a leading cause of global mortality. Despite clear evidence of the coexistence of several risk factors in young people as children and an understanding of the importance of the health behaviors in controlling CV disease, there are limited data on the relationships between risk factors and CV disease in young people. Therefore further study is required. Objective This study aimed to investigate associations among body composition, health behaviors and CV risk factors in young Australian men. Methods Thirty five healthy men aged 18–25 years had their blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), physical activity, dietary intake and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed. Results Participants were categorised according to the percentage of body fat into two groups: lean and overweight men. There were no between-group differences in the biochemical indicators except that overweight men had lower HDL-C compared to lean men. Both groups had similar mean energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate and alcohol intake, RMR, physical activity level (PAL) and energy expenditure (EE). Most of the participants (65.7%) had LDL?2.5 mmol/L. Other common individual risk factors were body fat?20% (42.9%), waist circumference?88 cm (28.6%), PAL<1.8 (22.9%) and systolic BP?130 mmHg (20%). The mean number of CV risk factors was lower among men having a high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, >12% of the energy intake) regardless of whether they were overweight or lean and did not seem to differ according to the source of MUFA consumed. Conclusions It is a serious concern to observe such a high percentage of CV risk factors in a group of apparently healthy young men. The likelihood of multiple CV risk factors is greater among those with high body fatness and low MUFA intake. Intake of MUFA favorably affects CV risk factors regardless of the source. PMID:23902697

  18. [Tracking of cardiovascular risk factors among school children: a four-year population surveillance in Susa, Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Ghannem, Hassen; Ben Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Limam, Khelifa; Gaha, Rafika; Ghedira, Adel; Harrabi, Imed; Essoussi, Ahmed Sahloul

    2005-07-01

    In order to confirm the phenomenon of tracking of cardiovascular risk factors among school children, we undertook in 2003, a prospective survey of a population of 789 pupils aged 13 to 15 years who had participated in a first investigation on cardiovascular risk factors in 1999. We were able to follow and study 453 pupils (57.4% of the initial population). Prevalences of hypertension and obesity were respectively 11.3% and 6.1% without significant difference between sexes. On the other hand, hypercholesterolemia was significantly more elevated among girls than boys (16.1% versus 9.3%, p = 0.039). Children classified initially as hypertensive, obese or having a hypercholesterolemia were identified 4 years later at a subsequent exam as hypertensive, obese or having a hypercholesterolemia in respectively 25%, 48.9% and 59%. The stability of cardiovascular risk factors among children imposes an early screening for a better management and a policy of cardiovascular health promotion since childhood based essentially on prevention of risk factors in order to reduce the cardiovascular disease burden in adulthood. PMID:16220697

  19. Clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women in Southern Brazil: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Sandra Costa; Moreira, Leila Beltrami; Camey, Susi Alves; Moreira, Marina Beltrami; Fuchs, Flávio Danni

    2008-01-01

    The association between clustering of risk factors and self-reported cardiovascular disease among women was investigated in a cross-sectional study using a multistage population-based sample. Participants were interviewed at home about diabetes mellitus, physical activity, and diet pattern. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure > or =140/90mmHg or use of anti-hypertensive medication. Cardiovascular disease included self-reported myocardial infarction, heart failure, coronary artery bypass surgery, and stroke. A sample of 1,007 women from Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, mostly white (73%), 44.8 +/- 0.8 years old, and with 9.3 +/- 0.3 years of schooling was investigated. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, low fruit and vegetable intake, and lack of vigorous or moderate physical activity were clustered into a combination of risk factors, which were independently associated with self-reported cardiovascular disease. The main cluster included hypertension and diabetes, accounting for an independent risk ratio of 8.5 (95%CI: 3.0-24.5). Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors is strongly associated with self-reported cardiovascular disease among women. PMID:18670708

  20. Ultrasound Imaging of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: an Office-Based Tool to Assist Physicians in Cardiovascular Risk Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Y. Yang; Vijay Nambi

    Traditional coronary heart disease risk prediction schemes such as the Framingham Risk Score, although useful, do not adequately\\u000a identify all individuals who experience an adverse coronary heart disease event. Therefore, additional tools, including biomarkers,\\u000a genetic markers, and imaging markers, are being evaluated for their value in improving cardiovascular risk assessment. Of\\u000a the two accepted imaging markers of atherosclerosis, namely coronary

  1. RELATING THE 4 RS OF ENVIRONMENTAL DREDGING: RESUSPENSION, RELEASE, RESIDUAL, AND RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes discussions at an EPA/Corps of Engineers' Workshop which summarizind the state of the science in regard to understanding and predicting resuspension, release, residuals, and risk associated with remedial dredging....

  2. Pesticide Residues in some Commodities: Dietary Risk for Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Gebara; C. H. P. Ciscato; S. H. Monteiro; G. S. Souza

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify pesticides found in infants’ and children’s diets. Fruits and vegetables were\\u000a collected from 2004 to 2007 and analyzed using a multiresidue method. The most frequently detected residues were procymidone,\\u000a captan, chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil. Twenty-eight percent of the samples contained pesticide residues. Strawberry, pear,\\u000a apple, peach and tomato contained pesticide levels of concern.

  3. Resting Heart Rate Is Not a Good Predictor of a Clustered Cardiovascular Risk Score in Adolescents: The HELENA Study

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Cassenote, Alex Jones Flores; Leclercq, Catherine; Dallongeville, Jean; Androutsos, Odysseas; Török, Katalin; González-Gross, Marcela; Widhalm, Kurt; Kafatos, Anthony; Carvalho, Heráclito Barbosa; Moreno, Luis Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Resting heart rate (RHR) reflects sympathetic nerve activity a significant association between RHR and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality has been reported in some epidemiologic studies. Methods To analyze the predictive power and accuracy of RHR as a screening measure for individual and clustered cardiovascular risk in adolescents. The study comprised 769 European adolescents (376 boys) participating in the HELENA cross-sectional study (2006–2008) were included in this study. Measurements on systolic blood pressure, HOMA index, triglycerides, TC/HDL-c, VO2máx and the sum of four skinfolds were obtained, and a clustered cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk index was computed. The receiver operating characteristics curve was applied to calculate the power and accuracy of RHR to predict individual and clustered CVD risk factors. Results RHR showed low accuracy for screening CVD risk factors in both sexes (range 38.5%–54.4% in boys and 45.5%–54.3% in girls). Low specificity’s (15.6%–19.7% in boys; 18.1%–20.0% in girls) were also found. Nevertheless, the sensitivities were moderate-to-high (61.4%–89.1% in boys; 72.9%–90.3% in girls). Conclusion RHR is a poor predictor of individual CVD risk factors and of clustered CVD and the estimates based on RHR are not accurate. The use of RHR as an indicator of CVD risk in adolescents may produce a biased screening of cardiovascular health in both sexes. PMID:26010248

  4. Race/Ethnic Differences in the Associations of the Framingham Risk Factors with Carotid IMT and Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Hoefer, Imo E.; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Anderson, Todd J.; Britton, Annie R.; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; Engström, Gunnar; Evans, Greg W.; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Hedblad, Bo; Holewijn, Suzanne; Ikeda, Ai; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Akihiko; de Kleijn, Dominique P. V.; Lonn, Eva M.; Lorenz, Matthias W.; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Nijpels, Giel; Okazaki, Shuhei; O’Leary, Daniel H.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peters, Sanne A. E.; Polak, Joseph F.; Price, Jacqueline F.; Robertson, Christine; Rembold, Christopher M.; Rosvall, Maria; Rundek, Tatjana; Salonen, Jukka T.; Sitzer, Matthias; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Bots, Michiel L.; den Ruijter, Hester M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical manifestations and outcomes of atherosclerotic disease differ between ethnic groups. In addition, the prevalence of risk factors is substantially different. Primary prevention programs are based on data derived from almost exclusively White people. We investigated how race/ethnic differences modify the associations of established risk factors with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Methods We used data from an ongoing individual participant meta-analysis involving 17 population-based cohorts worldwide. We selected 60,211 participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline with available data on ethnicity (White, Black, Asian or Hispanic). We generated a multivariable linear regression model containing risk factors and ethnicity predicting mean common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and a multivariable Cox regression model predicting myocardial infarction or stroke. For each risk factor we assessed how the association with the preclinical and clinical measures of cardiovascular atherosclerotic disease was affected by ethnicity. Results Ethnicity appeared to significantly modify the associations between risk factors and CIMT and cardiovascular events. The association between age and CIMT was weaker in Blacks and Hispanics. Systolic blood pressure associated more strongly with CIMT in Asians. HDL cholesterol and smoking associated less with CIMT in Blacks. Furthermore, the association of age and total cholesterol levels with the occurrence of cardiovascular events differed between Blacks and Whites. Conclusion The magnitude of associations between risk factors and the presence of atherosclerotic disease differs between race/ethnic groups. These subtle, yet significant differences provide insight in the etiology of cardiovascular disease among race/ethnic groups. These insights aid the race/ethnic-specific implementation of primary prevention. PMID:26134404

  5. Socioeconomic status and trends in risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the Danish MONICA population, 1982-1992

    PubMed Central

    Osler, M.; Gerdes, L. U.; Davidsen, M.; Bronnum-Hansen, H.; Madsen, M.; Jorgensen, T.; Schroll, M.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—The decline in cardiovascular mortality in Denmark during the 1980s has been greatest in the highest socioeconomic groups of the population. This study examines whether the increased social inequality in cardiovascular mortality has been accompanied by a different trend in cardiovascular risk factors in different educational groups.?DESIGN—Data from three cross sectional WHO MONICA surveys conducted in 1982-84, 1987, and 1991-92, were analysed to estimate trends in biological (weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure, and serum lipids) and behavioural (smoking, physical activity during leisure, and eating habits) risk factors in relation to educational status.?SETTING—County of Copenhagen, Denmark.?PARTICIPANTS—6695 Danish men and women of ages 30, 40, 50, and 60 years.?MAIN RESULTS—The prevalence of smoking and heavy smoking decreased during the study but only in the most educated groups. In fact, the prevalence of heavy smoking increased in the least educated women. There was no significant interaction for the remaining biological and behavioural risk factors between time of examination and educational level, indicating that the trend was the same in the different educational groups. However, a summary index based on seven cardiovascular risk factors improved, and this development was only seen in the most educated men and women.?CONCLUSION—The difference between educational groups in prevalence of smoking increased during the 1980s, and this accounted for widening of an existing social difference in the total cardiovascular risk.???Keywords: cardiovascular risk factors; socioeconomic status; time trends PMID:10715743

  6. The Cardiovascular Intervention Improvement Telemedicine Study (CITIES): Rationale for a Tailored Behavioral and Educational Pharmacist-Administered Intervention for Achieving Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zullig, Leah L.; Melnyk, S. Dee; Stechuchak, Karen M.; McCant, Felicia; Danus, Susanne; Oddone, Eugene; Bastian, Lori; Olsen, Maren; Edelman, David; Rakley, Susan; Morey, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes are significant, but often preventable, contributors to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Medication and behavioral nonadherence are significant barriers to successful hypertension, hyperlidemia, and diabetes management. Our objective was to describe the theoretical framework underlying a tailored behavioral and educational pharmacist-administered intervention for achieving CVD risk reduction. Materials and Methods: Adults with poorly controlled hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia were enrolled from three outpatient primary care clinics associated with the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center (Durham, NC). Participants were randomly assigned to receive a pharmacist-administered, tailored, 1-year telephone-based intervention or usual care. The goal of the study was to reduce the risk for CVD through a theory-driven intervention to increase medication adherence and improve health behaviors. Results: Enrollment began in November 2011 and is ongoing. The target sample size is 500 patients. Conclusions: The Cardiovascular Intervention Improvement Telemedicine Study (CITIES) intervention has been designed with a strong theoretical underpinning. The theoretical foundation and intervention are designed to encourage patients with multiple comorbidities and poorly controlled CVD risk factors to engage in home-based monitoring and tailored telephone-based interventions. Evidence suggests that clinical pharmacist-administered telephone-based interventions may be efficiently integrated into primary care for patients with poorly controlled CVD risk factors. PMID:24303930

  7. A Simple Chinese Risk Score Model for Screening Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fangfang; Tang, Zi-Hui; Wang, Ying-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to develop and evaluate a risk score to predict people at high risk of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction neuropathy (CAN) in Chinese population. Methods and Materials A population-based sample of 2,092 individuals aged 30–80 years, without previously diagnosed CAN, was surveyed between 2011 and 2012. All participants underwent short-term HRV test. The risk score was derived from an exploratory set. The risk score was developed by stepwise backward multiple logistic regression. The coefficients from this model were transformed into components of a CAN score. This score was tested in a validation and entire sample. Results The final risk score included age, body mass index, hypertension, resting hear rate, items independently and significantly (P<0.05) associated with the presence of previously undiagnosed CAN. The area under the receiver operating curve was 0.726 (95% CI 0.686–0.766) for exploratory set, 0.784 (95% CI 0.749–0.818) for validation set, and 0.756 (95% CI 0.729–0.782) for entire sample. In validation set, at optimal cutoff score of 5 of 10, the risk score system has the sensitivity, specificity, and percentage that needed subsequent testing were 69, 78, and 30%, respectively. Conclusion We developed a CAN risk score system based on a set of variables not requiring laboratory tests. The score system is simple fast, inexpensive, noninvasive, and reliable tool that can be applied to early intervention to delay or prevent the disease in China. PMID:24621478

  8. Systemic inflammation and cardiovascular risk factors predict rapid progression of atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    del Rincón, Inmaculada; Polak, Joseph F; O’Leary, Daniel H; Battafarano, Daniel F; Erikson, John M; Restrepo, Jose F; Molina, Emily; Escalante, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate atherosclerosis progression and identify influencing factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We used carotid ultrasound to measure intima-media thickness (IMT) in RA patients, and ascertained cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, inflammation markers and medications. A second ultrasound was performed approximately 3 years later. We calculated the progression rate by subtracting the baseline from the follow-up IMT, divided by the time between the two scans. We used logistic regression to identify baseline factors predictive of rapid progression. We tested for interactions of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) with CV risk factors and medication use. Results Results were available for 487 RA patients. The mean (SD) common carotid IMT at baseline was 0.571 mm (0.151). After a mean of 2.8 years, the IMT increased by 0.050 mm (0.055), p?0.001, a progression rate of 0.018 mm/year (95% CI 0.016 to 0.020). Baseline factors associated with rapid progression included the number of CV risk factors (OR 1.27 per risk factor, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.61), and the ESR (OR 1.12 per 10 mm/h, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.23). The ESR×CV risk factor and ESR×medication product terms were significant, suggesting these variables modify the association between the ESR and IMT progression. Conclusions Systemic inflammation and CV risk factors were associated with rapid IMT progression. CV risk factors may modify the role of systemic inflammation in determining IMT progression over time. Methotrexate and antitumour necrosis factor agents may influence IMT progression by reducing the effect of the systemic inflammation on the IMT. PMID:24845391

  9. Cardiovascular disease risk reduction by raising HDL cholesterol--current therapies and future opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mahdy Ali, K; Wonnerth, A; Huber, K; Wojta, J

    2012-11-01

    Since the first discovery of an inverse correlation between high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and coronary heart disease in the 1950s the life cycle of HDL, its role in atherosclerosis and the therapeutic modification of HDL-C levels have been major research topics. The Framingham study and others that followed could show that HDL-C is an independent cardiovascular risk factor and that the increase of HDL-C of only 10 mg·L(-1) leads to a risk reduction of 2-3%. While statin therapy and therefore low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction could lower coronary heart disease considerably; cardiovascular morbidity and mortality still occur in a significant portion of subjects already receiving therapy. Therefore, new strategies and therapies are needed to further reduce the risk. Raising HDL-C was thought to achieve this goal. However, established drug therapies resulting in substantial HDL-C increase are scarce and their effect is controversial. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly evident that HDL particle functionality is at least as important as HDL-C levels since HDL particles not only promote reverse cholesterol transport from the periphery (mainly macrophages) to the liver but also exert pleiotropic effects on inflammation, haemostasis and apoptosis. This review deals with the biology of HDL particles, the established and future therapeutic options to increase HDL-C and discusses the results and conclusions of the most important studies published in the last years. Finally, an outlook on future diagnostic tools and therapeutic opportunities regarding coronary artery disease is given. PMID:22725625

  10. General Characteristics and Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease among Interstate Bus Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Raquel Pastréllo; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosa; Leitão Filho, Fernando Sergio Studart; Braghiroli, Alberto; Balbi, Bruno; Romano, Salvatore; Insalaco, Giuseppe; de Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco

    2012-01-01

    Workers in the transportation industry are at greater risk of an incorrect diet and sedentary behavior. The aim of our study was to characterize a population of professional bus drivers with regard to clinical and demographic variables, lipid profile, and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Data from 659 interstate bus drivers collected retrospectively, including anthropometric characteristics, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, meatoscopy, and audiometry. All participants were male, with a mean age of 41.7 ± 6.9 years, weight of 81.4 ± 3.3?kg, and BMI 27.2 ± 3.3?Kg/m2; the mean abdominal and neck circumferences were 94.4 ± 8.6?cm and 38.9 ± 2.2 ?cm; 38.2% of the sample was considered hypertensive; mean HDL cholesterol was 47.9 ± 9.5?mg/dL, mean triglyceride level was 146.3 ± 87.9?mg/dL, and fasting glucose was above 100?mg/dL in 249 subjects (39.1%). Drivers exhibited reduced audiometric hearing at 4–8?kHz, being all sensorineural hearing loss. The clinical characterization of a young male population of interstate bus drivers revealed a high frequency of cardiovascular risk factors, as obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia, as well as contributing functional characteristics, such as a low-intensity activity, sedentary behavior, long duration in a sitting position, and high-calorie diet, which lead to excessive weight gain and associated comorbidities. PMID:22701350

  11. Plasma Free Fatty Acids and Risk of Heart Failure: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Djoussé, Luc; Benkeser, David; Arnold, Alice; Kizer, Jorge R.; Zieman, Susan J.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Tracy, Russell P.; Gottdiener, John S.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Siscovick, David S.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Ix, Joachim H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations have been associated with lipotoxicity, apoptosis, and risk of diabetes and coronary heart disease, it is unclear whether FFA levels are associated with heart failure (HF). Methods and Results To test the hypothesis that plasma concentration of FFA is positively associated with incident HF, we prospectively analyzed data on 4248 men and women free of HF at baseline and aged 65+ years from the Cardiovascular Health Study. FFA concentration was measured in duplicate by the Wako enzymatic method. Incident HF was validated by a centralized Events Committee. We used Cox proportional hazards to estimate the hazard ratio of HF per standard deviation (SD) of FFA. During a median follow up of 10.5 y, 1,286 new cases of HF occurred. In a multivariable model adjusting for clinic site, comorbidity, demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle factors, each SD (0.2 mEq/L) higher plasma FFA was associated with 12% (95% CI: 6% to 19%) higher risk of HF. Controlling for time-varying diabetes and coronary heart disease did not change the results [HR per SD: 1.16 (95% CI: 1.09–1.23)]. Conclusions A single measure of plasma FFA obtained later in life is associated with a higher risk of HF in older adults. Additional studies are needed to explore biologic mechanisms by which FFA may influence the risk of HF and determine whether FFA could serve as a novel pharmacological target for HF prevention. PMID:23926204

  12. Non-Stroke Cardiovascular Disease and Risk of Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Ulrika K.; Bennet, Anna M.; Gatz, Margaret; Dickman, Paul W.; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Unresolved issues in dementia research include 1) the association between non-stroke cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 2) whether the association between CVD and dementia is mediated by familial factors (i.e. genes and early life environment). We therefore conducted a study with both a longitudinal and a co-twin control design in 2,214 Swedish twins with clinical dementia evaluation and APOE4 genotyping. The analyses were then replicated in a register-based cohort of 18,405 individuals. Results show that CVD increases the risk of AD in carriers (but not non-carriers) of the APOE4 allele (Hazard Ratio [HR] 2.39, 95% confidence interval 1.15-4.96). CVD was also associated with an almost two-fold increased risk of developing late-life dementia (HR 1.83, 1.23-2.72). Within twin pairs, the dementia-affected twin was more likely to have had CVD than the non-demented twin partner (Odds Ratio 1.86, 1.11-3.13). In conclusion, this study shows that 1) non-stroke CVD increases the risk of late-life dementia but that it is only a risk factor for AD in carriers of the APOE4 allele and 2) the association between CVD and dementia is not explained by genetic or early life environmental factors in common to both disorders. PMID:20473139

  13. Risk of cardiovascular thrombotic events after surgical castration versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in Chinese men with prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, Jeremy YC; Chan, Samson YS; Chiu, Peter KF; Poon, Darren MC; Cheung, Ho-Yuen; Hou, Simon SM; Ng, Chi-Fai

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the cardiovascular thrombotic risk after surgical castration (SC) versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) in Chinese men with prostate cancer. All Chinese prostate cancer patients who were treated with SC or GnRHa from year 2000 to 2009 were reviewed and compared. The primary outcome was any new-onset of cardiovascular thrombotic events after SC or GnRHa, which was defined as any event of acute myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke. The risk of new-onset cardiovascular thrombotic event was compared between the SC group and the GnRHa group using Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to adjust for other potential confounding factors. A total of 684 Chinese patients was included in our study, including 387 patients in the SC group and 297 patients in the GnRHa group. The mean age in the SC group (75.3 ± 7.5 years) was significantly higher than the GnRHa group (71.8 ± 8.3 years) (P < 0.001). There was increased risk of new cardiovascular thrombotic events in the SC group when compared to the GnRHa group upon Kaplan–Meier analysis (P = 0.014). Upon multivariate Cox regression analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.072, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.11, P< 0.001), hyperlipidemia (HR 2.455, 95% CI 1.53–3.93, P< 0.001), and SC (HR 1.648, 95% CI 1.05–2.59, P = 0.031) were significant risk factors of cardiovascular thrombotic events. In conclusion, SC was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular thrombotic events when compared to GnRHa. This is an important aspect to consider while deciding on the method of androgen deprivation therapy, especially in elderly men with known history of hyperlipidemia. PMID:25578930

  14. A probabilistic model for risk assessment of residual host cell DNA in biological products.

    PubMed

    Yang, Harry; Zhang, Lanju; Galinski, Mark

    2010-04-26

    Biological products such as viral vaccines manufactured in cells contain residual DNA derived from host cell substrates used in production. It is theoretically possible that the residual DNA could transmit activated oncogenes and/or latent infectious viral genomes to subjects receiving the product, and induce oncogenic or infective events. A probabilistic model to estimate the risks due to residual DNA is proposed. The model takes account of enzyme inactivation process. It allows for more accurate risk assessment when compared to methods currently in use. An application of the method to determine safety factor of a vaccine product is provided. PMID:20226252

  15. Obesity Indexes and Total Mortality among Elderly Subjects at High Cardiovascular Risk: The PREDIMED Study

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, Miguel A.; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefanía; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Bulló, Mónica; Corella, Dolores; Fito, Montserrat; Ros, Emilio; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Rekondo, Javier; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Santos-Lozano, Jose Manuel; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Eguaras, Sonia; Sáez-Tormo, Guillermo; Pintó, Xavier; Estruch, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Background Different indexes of regional adiposity have been proposed for identifying persons at higher risk of death. Studies specifically assessing these indexes in large cohorts are scarce. It would also be interesting to know whether a dietary intervention may counterbalance the adverse effects of adiposity on mortality. Methods We assessed the association of four different anthropometric indexes (waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI) and height) with all-cause mortality in 7447 participants at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED trial. Forty three percent of them were men (55 to 80 years) and 57% were women (60 to 80 years). All of them were initially free of cardiovascular disease. The recruitment took place in 11 recruiting centers between 2003 and 2009. Results After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, intervention group, family history of coronary heart disease, and leisure-time physical activity, WC and WHtR were found to be directly associated with a higher mortality after 4.8 years median follow-up. The multivariable-adjusted HRs for mortality of WHtR (cut-off points: 0.60, 0.65, 0.70) were 1.02 (0.78–1.34), 1.30 (0.97–1.75) and 1.55 (1.06–2.26). When we used WC (cut-off points: 100, 105 and 110 cm), the multivariable adjusted Hazard Ratios (HRs) for mortality were 1.18 (0.88–1.59), 1.02 (0.74–1.41) and 1.57 (1.19–2.08). In all analyses, BMI exhibited weaker associations with mortality than WC or WHtR. The direct association between WHtR and overall mortality was consistent within each of the three intervention arms of the trial. Conclusions Our study adds further support to a stronger association of abdominal obesity than BMI with total mortality among elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease. We did not find evidence to support that the PREDIMED intervention was able to counterbalance the harmful effects of increased adiposity on total mortality. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35739639 PMID:25072784

  16. Abdominal obesity modifies the risk of hypertriglyceridemia for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Postorino, Maurizio; Marino, Carmen; Tripepi, Giovanni; Zoccali, Carmine

    2011-04-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is the most prevalent lipid alteration in end-stage renal disease, and we studied the relationship between serum triglycerides and all-cause and cardiovascular death in these patients. Since abdominal fat modifies the effect of lipids on atherosclerosis, we analyzed the interaction between serum lipids and waist circumference (WC) as a metric of abdominal obesity. In a cohort of 537 hemodialysis patients, 182 died, 113 from cardiovascular causes, over an average follow-up of 29 months. In Cox models that included traditional and nontraditional risk factors, there were significant strong interactions between triglycerides and WC to both all-cause and cardiovascular death. A fixed (50 mg/dl) excess in triglycerides was associated with a progressive lower risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with threshold WC <95 cm but with a progressive increased risk in those above this threshold. A significant interaction between cholesterol and WC with all-cause and cardiovascular death emerged only in models excluding the triglycerides-WC interaction. Neither high-density lipoprotein (HDL) nor non-HDL cholesterol or their interaction terms with WC were associated with study outcomes. Thus, the predictive value of triglycerides and cholesterol for survival and atherosclerotic complications in hemodialysis patients is critically dependent on WC. Hence, intervention studies in end-stage renal disease should specifically target patients with abdominal obesity and hyperlipidemia. PMID:21178980

  17. [Diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk: Working group recommendations of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease of the Spanish Society of Diabetes (SED, 2015)].

    PubMed

    Arrieta, Francisco; Iglesias, Pedro; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Tébar, Francisco Javier; Ortega, Emilio; Nubiola, Andreu; Pardo, Jose Luis; Maldonado, Gonzálo Fernando; Obaya, Juan Carlos; Matute, Pablo; Petrecca, Romina; Alonso, Nuria; Sarabia, Elena; Sánchez-Margalet, Victor; Alemán, José Juan; Navarro, Jorge; Becerra, Antonio; Duran, Santiago; Aguilar, Manuel; Escobar-Jiménez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The present paper updates the Clinical Practice Recommendations for the management of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in diabetes mellitus. This is a medical consensus agreed by an independent panel of experts from the Spanish Society of Diabetes (SED). Several consensuses have been proposed by scientific and medical Societies to achieve clinical goals. However, the risk score for general population may lack sensitivity for individual assessment or for particular groups at risk, such as diabetics. Traditional risk factors together with non-traditional factors are reviewed throughout this paper. Intervention strategies for managing CVRF in the diabetic patient are reviewed in detail: balanced food intake, weight reduction, physical exercise, smoking cessation, reduction in HbA1c, therapy for high blood pressure, obesity, lipid disorders, and platelet anti-aggregation. It is hoped that these guidelines can help clinicians in the decisions of their clinical activity. This regular update by the SED Cardiovascular Disease Group of the most relevant concepts, and of greater practical and realistic clinical interest, is presented in order to reduce CVR of diabetics. PMID:25825221

  18. Perceived Discrimination and Markers of Cardiovascular Risk among Low-Income African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Malone, Sarah; Richardson, Elizabeth; Cheadle, Jacob E.; Williams, Deadric

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Our study examines the relationship between perceived discrimination and levels of C-reactive Protein and blood pressure in low-income youth ages 10–15 years old. Methods Data were collected from 10–15 year old focal children and their mothers. Face-to-face interviews were implemented to collect data on stressors including experiences of everyday discrimination from youth. High sensitivity CRP in dried blood spot samples and diastolic and systolic blood pressure were also collected at the time of the interview. Results Perceived discrimination among youth was significantly associated with higher levels of CRP, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. CRP, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure remained significant after controlling for age-adjusted BMI, waist circumference, and other factors. Conclusion Discrimination is a salient risk factor for inflammation and cardiovascular health. Early life course inflammation and cardiovascular reactivity are important candidate pathways through which the repeated exposure to discrimination for minority group members contributes to racial and economic health inequities in adulthood. PMID:25753652

  19. Correlation of increased plasma osteoprotegerin and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with adult growth hormone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiajia; Li, Linman; Ren, Wei; Zheng, Xiaoya; Liu, Chan; Li, Jinchao; Chen, Tingying; Li, Xiaofeng; Wang, Lingli; Hu, Yumei

    2015-01-01

    Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is correlated to many adverse effects on metabolism and increases cardiovascular risk. 40 patients with AGHD and 40 healthy subjects were included. Anthropometric parameters such as body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio were measured. Meanwhile, plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high sensitivity C-relative protein, interleukin-6 and OPG were determined. Homeostasis model assessments for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and ?-cell function (HOMA-?) were calculated using homeostasis model. Plasma OPG concentrations of AGHD patients were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects (131.82 ± 45.04 versus 81.02 ± 45.04, P < 0.01). Plasma OPG levels were positively correlated with age, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, fasting insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high sensitivity C-relative protein and interleukin-6 (P < 0.05), but negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.05). Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that body mass index, triglyceride, and interleukin-6 were independently related to plasma OPG levels (P < 0.05). The levels of plasma OPG were increased in AGHD patients and were closely correlated with glycolipid metabolism and chronic inflammation. OPG might play an important role in the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases in AGHD patients.

  20. Bupropion response on sleep quality in patients with depression: implications for increased cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Preetam J; Poland, Russell E; Rao, Uma

    2014-02-01

    Depression could be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We assessed bupropion response in depressed patients by polysomnography (PSG) and cardiopulmonary coupling (CPC) variables. Nineteen subjects participated in a two-session, two consecutive night PSG protocol. Participants received either placebo or bupropion-SR 150 mg, orally, in a randomized, double-blind cross-over fashion on night two. Outcome variables were: sleep stages, REM latency, stable, unstable sleep and very low frequency coupling (VLFC). CPC analysis uses heart rate variability and the electrocardiogram's R-wave amplitude fluctuations associated with respiration to generate frequency maps. Bupropion increased REM latency (p=0.043) but did not impact PSG sleep continuity, architecture and CPC variables. A trend (p=0.092) was observed towards increasing VLFC duration. Bupropion increased the number of stable-unstable sleep transitions (p=0.036). Moderate to strong correlations between PSG and CPC variables were found on placebo and bupropion nights. Limitations include a small sample size, limited power to detect CPC changes and lack of normal controls for comparison. Increased stable-unstable sleep transitions and VLFC duration may indicate vulnerability to cardiovascular disease due to their association with low heart rate variability that has been associated with increased mortality raising the question whether the beneficial effects of the antidepressant medication outweighs the impact on cardiopulmonary dynamics. PMID:24239431

  1. Altered control of cortisol secretion in adult men with low birth weight and cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, R M; Walker, B R; Syddall, H E; Andrew, R; Wood, P J; Whorwood, C B; Phillips, D I

    2001-01-01

    It has been suggested that increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may link low birth weight with subsequent development of cardiovascular risk factors and disease. Two hundred and five men, aged 66-77 yr, who were born and still live in East Hertfordshire underwent an overnight very low dose (0.25 mg) dexamethasone suppression test followed by a low dose 1-microgram ACTH-(1-24) stimulation test. A 24-h urine sample was collected for analysis of cortisol metabolites by gas chromatography/electron impact mass spectrometry. Men with lower birth weight had enhanced responses of plasma cortisol to ACTH-(1-24) (P = 0.03), increased total urinary cortisol metabolite excretion (after adjustment for confounding effects of increased obesity and lean body mass in high birth weight men; P = 0.04), but no difference in plasma cortisol after dexamethasone. Features of the metabolic syndrome were independently associated with enhanced adrenal responsiveness to ACTH-(1-24) (raised blood pressure, P = 0.02; glucose intolerance, P = 0.09; hypertriglyceridemia, P = 0.02), with trends to increased urinary cortisol metabolite excretion, but not with differences in plasma cortisol after dexamethasone. Men with low birth weight and/or the metabolic syndrome have increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This may be an important mechanism underpinning the effects of events in early life on later cardiovascular disease. PMID:11232008

  2. Cardiovascular risk biomarkers in CKD: the inflammation link and the road less traveled.

    PubMed

    Elewa, Usama; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Martin-Cleary, Catalina; Fernandez-Fernandez, Beatriz; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

    2012-12-01

    End-stage renal disease patients suffer a syndrome of accelerated aging characterized by a 10- to 100-fold increase in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality when compared to age-matched controls. No specific therapeutic interventions have been shown to improve this dismal outcome. Inflammation, chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) and other biomarkers predict outcome in observational studies. However, we lack clinical trials that address the role of these biomarkers in risk stratification and therapeutic decision making. Biomarkers may also provide insights into the pathophysiology of disease and identify novel therapeutic targets. Inflammation emerges as a prime potential target for intervention. Thus, CKD-MBD biomarkers, asymmetrical dimethyl arginine and tri-iodothyronine have a link to inflammation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is one of the inflammation biomarkers with highest predictive value for outcome in ESRD. Biologicals targeting IL-6 are approved for the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, trials are underway to test IL-6 targeting potential to decrease cardiovascular injury in non-CKD patients. In this regard, targeting IL-1 was recently shown to decrease systemic inflammation in hemodialysis patients. The success of these trials will likely influence future studies on biomarker targeting in CKD. PMID:22965378

  3. Hospitalization for infection and risk of acute ischemic stroke: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Carty, Cara L.; O’Meara, Ellen S.; Lumley, Thomas; Lefkowitz, David; Kronmal, Richard A.; Longstreth, W. T.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Little is known about acute precipitants of ischemic stroke, although evidence suggests infections contribute to risk. We hypothesized that acute hospitalization for infection is associated with short-term risk of stroke. Methods The case-crossover design was used to compare hospitalization for infection during case periods (90, 30, or 14 days prior to incident ischemic stroke) and control periods (equivalent time periods exactly 1 or 2 years prior to stroke) in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a population-based cohort of 5888 elderly participants from 4 US sites. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Confirmatory analyses assessed hazard ratios (HR) of stroke from Cox regression models with hospitalization for infection as a time-varying exposure. Results During a median follow-up of 12.2 years, 669 incident ischemic strokes were observed in participants without baseline history of stroke. Hospitalization for infection was more likely during case than control time periods; for 90 days prior to stroke, OR=3.4 (95% CI 1.8–6.5). The point estimates of risks were higher when examining shorter intervals: for 30 days, OR= 7.3 (95% CI 1.9–40.9), and 14 days, OR=8.0 (95% CI 1.7–77.3). In survival analyses, risk of stroke was associated with hospitalization for infection in the preceding 90 days, adjusted HR=2.4 (95% CI 1.6–3.4). Conclusions Hospitalization for infection is associated with a short-term increased risk of stroke, with higher risks observed for shorter intervals preceding stroke. PMID:21546476

  4. Double Depression is Associated with Greater Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease than Major Depression: Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Double Depression is Associated with Greater Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease than Major Depression: Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) Stephanie-Purdue University Indianapolis Evidence suggests depressive disorders are risk factors for cardiovascular disease

  5. Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate\\/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate\\/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manny Noakes; Paul R Foster; Jennifer B Keogh; Anthony P James; John C Mamo; Peter M Clifton

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB) have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. METHODS: Eighty

  6. Using Simulation to Compare 4 Categories of Intervention for Reducing Cardiovascular Disease Risks

    PubMed Central

    Homer, Jack; Trogdon, Justin; Wile, Kristina; Orenstein, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The Prevention Impacts Simulation Model (PRISM) projects the multiyear impacts of 22 different interventions aimed at reducing risk of cardiovascular disease. We grouped these into 4 categories: clinical, behavioral support, health promotion and access, and taxes and regulation. We simulated impacts for the United States overall and also for a less-advantaged county with a higher death rate. Of the 4 categories of intervention, taxes and regulation reduce costs the most in the short term (through 2020) and long term (through 2040) and reduce deaths the most in the long term; they are second to clinical interventions in reducing deaths in the short term. All 4 categories combined were required to bring costs and deaths in the less-advantaged county down to the national level. PMID:24832142

  7. Developing a Research Agenda for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in High-Risk Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Nelson, Cheryl; Walker, Evelyn R.; Ammerman, Alice; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Best, Lyle G.; Cherrington, Andrea L.; Economos, Christina D.; Green, Lawrence W.; Harman, Jane; Hooker, Steven P.; Murray, David M.; Perri, Michael G.; Ricketts, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health convened a workshop to engage researchers and practitioners in dialogue on research issues viewed as either unique or of particular relevance to rural areas, key content areas needed to inform policy and practice in rural settings, and ways rural contexts may influence study design, implementation, assessment of outcomes, and dissemination. Our purpose was to develop a research agenda to address the disproportionate burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors among populations living in rural areas. Complementary presentations used theoretical and methodological principles to describe research and practice examples from rural settings. Participants created a comprehensive CVD research agenda that identified themes and challenges, and provided 21 recommendations to guide research, practice, and programs in rural areas. PMID:23597371

  8. An exploratory study of dietary intake patterns among adults diagnosed with cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Vasilopoulou, Archontia; Galitsianos, Ioannis; Fotiou, Maria; Menexes, Georgios; Tsakoumaki, Foteini; Tsitlakidou, Petra; Psirropoulos, Dimitrios; Michaelidou, Alexandra-Maria

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present exploratory study was to assess compliance with the nutrient recommendations among a convenience sample of adults diagnosed with cardiovascular risk factors in northern Greece and evaluate their dietary intake patterns. Ninety-two people participated in this cross-sectional study. Dietary assessment was carried out using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were adopted to obtain dietary patterns and classify individuals with similar dietary behaviour. HCA, performed on the factorial scores obtained from PCA, revealed a 4-group interpretable and statistically significant clustering of participants. For all clusters, the mean daily intake for saturated fatty acids was more than 10% of total calories, while the mean sodium intake was above 1500?mg; additionally, a relatively low mean Mediterranean diet score was recorded. Dietary interventions should be considered to raise awareness and expand knowledge on the nutritional and functional benefits of heart-healthy foods. PMID:26037078

  9. The Addition of Vascular Calcification Scores to Traditional Risk Factors Improves Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Momar; Temmar, Mohamed; Renard, Cédric; Choukroun, Gabriel; Massy, Ziad A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although a variety of non-invasive methods for measuring cardiovascular (CV) risk (such as carotid intima media thickness, pulse wave velocity (PWV), coronary artery and aortic calcification scores (measured either by CT scan or X-ray) and the ankle brachial index (ABI)) have been evaluated separately in chronic kidney disease (CKD) cohorts, few studies have evaluated these methods simultaneously. Here, we looked at whether the addition of non-invasive methods to traditional risk factors (TRFs) improves prediction of the CV risk in patients at different CKD stages. Methods We performed a prospective, observational study of the relationship between the outputs of non-invasive measurement methods on one hand and mortality and CV outcomes in 143 patients at different CKD stages on the other. During the follow-up period, 44 patients died and 30 CV events were recorded. We used Cox models to calculate the relative risk for outcomes. To assess the putative clinical value of each method, we also determined the categorical net reclassification improvement (NRI) and the integrated discrimination improvement. Results Vascular calcification, PWV and ABI predicted all-cause mortality and CV events in univariate analyses. However, after adjustment for TRFs, only aortic and coronary artery calcification scores were found to be significant, independent variables. Moreover, the addition of coronary artery calcification scores to TRFs improved the specificity of prediction by 20%. Conclusion The addition of vascular calcification scores (especially the coronary artery calcification score) to TRFs appears to improve CV risk assessment in a CKD population. PMID:26181592

  10. Residual Injection Risk Behavior, HIV Infection, and the Evaluation of Syringe Exchange Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; Braine, Naomi; Yi, Huso; Turner, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed relationships between residual risk behavior (risk behavior among persons participating in effective HIV prevention programs) and HIV infection. Structured interviews and HIV tests were obtained from participants in six large U.S. syringe exchange programs. Program characteristics were obtained through interviews with the…

  11. Cost-effectiveness of the use of low- and high-potency statins in people at low cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Conly, Jon; Clement, Fiona; Tonelli, Marcello; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Klarenbach, Scott; Lloyd, Anita; McAlister, Finlay A.; Husereau, Don; Wiebe, Natasha; Au, Flora; Manns, Braden

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although statins have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients at low cardiovascular risk, their absolute benefit is small in the short term, which may adversely affect cost-effectiveness. We sought to determine the long-term cost-effectiveness (beyond the duration of clinical trials) of low- and high-potency statins in patients at low cardiovascular risk and to estimate the impact on Canada’s publicly funded health care system. Methods: Using Markov modelling, we performed a cost-utility analysis in which we compared low-potency statins (fluvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin and simvastatin) and high-potency statins (atorvastatin and rosuvastatin) with no statins in a simulated cohort of low-risk patients over a lifetime horizon. Model outcomes included costs (in 2010 Canadian dollars), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained and the cost per QALY gained. Results: Over a lifetime horizon, the cost of managing a patient at low cardiovascular risk was estimated to be about $10 100 without statins, $15 200 with low-potency statins and $16 400 with high-potency statins. The cost per QALY gained with high-potency statins (v. no statins) was $21 300; the use of low-potency statins was not considered economically attractive. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses, although their use became economically unattractive when the duration of benefit from statin use was assumed to be less than 10 years. Interpretation: Use of high-potency statins in patients at low cardiovascular risk was associated with a cost per QALY gained that was economically attractive by current standards, assuming that the benefit from statin use would continue for at least 10 years. However, the overall expenditure on statins would be substantial, and the ramifications of this practice should be carefully considered by policy-makers. PMID:21989469

  12. Dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease-related risks in chinese older adults.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Shen, Shuying

    2013-01-01

    Studies of Western populations demonstrate a relationship between dietary patterns and cardiovascular-related risk factors. Similar research regarding Chinese populations is limited. This study explored the dietary patterns of Chinese older adults and their association with cardiovascular-related risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected using a 34-item Chinese food frequency questionnaire from 750 randomly selected older adults aged 50-88 who participated in the study in 2012. Factor analysis revealed four dietary patterns: a "traditional food pattern," consisting of vegetable, fruit, rice, pork, and fish; a "fast and processed food pattern" consisting of fast or processed food products, sugar, and confectionery; a "soybean, grain, and flour food pattern"; and a "dairy, animal liver, and other animal food pattern." These patterns explained 17.48, 9.52, 5.51, and 4.80% of the variances in food intake, respectively. This study suggests that specific dietary patterns are evident in Chinese older adults. Moderate intake of "traditional Chinese food" is associated with decreased blood pressure and cholesterol level. A dietary pattern rich in soybeans, grains, potatoes, and flour is associated with reduced metabolic factors including reduced triglycerides, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio, and a high level of dairy, animal liver, and other animal intake food pattern is associated with increased level of Body Mass Index. In conclusion, this study revealed identifiable dietary patterns among Chinese older adults that are significantly related to blood pressure and metabolic biomarkers. Further study using prospective cohort or intervention study should be used to confirm the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure and metabolic factors. PMID:24350217

  13. Prevalence of obesity in type 2 diabetes in secondary care: association with cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Daousi, C; Casson, I F; Gill, G V; MacFarlane, I A; Wilding, J P H; Pinkney, J H

    2006-01-01

    Aims To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus attending a secondary care diabetes clinic in the United Kingdom, and to assess the impact of overweight and obesity on glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods 3637 patients with diabetes were identified from the hospital electronic diabetes register, 916 with type 1 diabetes (mean (SD) age 40.4 (15.1) years, 496 male) and 2721 with type 2 diabetes (mean (SD) age 62.5 (11.8) years, 1436 male). Data on body mass index (BMI), glycaemic control, lipid profiles, and blood pressure were extracted. Results Of patients with type 1 diabetes, 55.3% were overweight (BMI ?25?kg/m2), 16.6% were obese (BMI ?30?kg/m2), and 0.4% had morbid obesity (BMI ?40?kg/m2). In contrast, 86% of patients with type 2 diabetes were overweight or obese, 52% were obese, and 8.1% had morbid obesity. Obese patients with type 2 diabetes were younger, had poorer glycaemic control, higher blood pressures, worse lipid profiles, and were more likely to be receiving antihypertensive and lipid lowering drugs compared with patients with BMI <30?kg/m2. Conclusions Obesity is the rule among patients attending this hospital diabetes clinic, with 86% of those with type 2 diabetes overweight or obese. Obesity is associated with significantly worse cardiovascular risk factors in this patient group, suggesting that more active interventions to control weight gain would be appropriate. PMID:16597817

  14. Hypertension update and cardiovascular risk reduction in physically active individuals and athletes.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Leonardo P J; Lawless, Christine E

    2010-04-01

    Hypertension is a prevalent disease worldwide. Its inadequate treatment leads to major cardiovascular complications, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure. These conditions decrease life expectancy and are a substantial cost burden to health care systems. Physically active individuals and professional athletes are not risk free for developing this condition. Although the percentage of persons affected is substantially lower than the general population, these individuals still need to be thoroughly evaluated and blood pressure targets monitored to allow safe competitive sports participation. Regarding treatment, lifestyle modification measures should be routinely emphasized to athletes and active individuals with the same importance as for the general population. Medication treatment can be complicated because of restrictions by athletic organizations and possible limitations on maximal exercise performance. In addition, the choice of an antihypertensive drug should be made with consideration for salt and water losses that routinely occur in athletes, as well as preservation of exercise performance and endothelial function. First-line therapies for athletes and physically active individuals may be different from the general population. Some authorities believe that blocking the renin-angiotensin system with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is more beneficial compared with diuretics because of ACE inhibitors and ARBs being able to avoid salt and water losses. Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are another reasonable choice. Despite effects on heart rate, nondihydropyridine CCBs do not appear to impair exercise performance. beta-Blockers are not used as a first-line therapy in athletes because of effects on exercise and prohibition by the National Collegiate Athletic Association and World Anti-Doping Agency in certain sports. In this article, we address the evidence on hypertension and its related treatments in active individuals to provide recommendations that allow the best competitive sports results and reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:20424397

  15. Blueberries Decrease Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Men and Women with Metabolic Syndrome123

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Du, Mei; Leyva, Misti J.; Sanchez, Karah; Betts, Nancy M.; Wu, Mingyuan; Aston, Christopher E.; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Among all fruits, berries have shown substantial cardio-protective benefits due to their high polyphenol content. However, investigation of their efficacy in improving features of metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular risk factors in obesity is limited. We examined the effects of blueberry supplementation on features of metabolic syndrome, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation in obese men and women. Forty-eight participants with metabolic syndrome [4 males and 44 females; BMI: 37.8 ± 2.3 kg/m2; age: 50.0 ± 3.0 y (mean ± SE)] consumed freeze-dried blueberry beverage (50 g freeze-dried blueberries, #126 350 g fresh blueberries) or equivalent amounts of fluids (controls, 960 mL water) daily for 8 wk in a randomized controlled trial. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, assessment of dietary intakes, and fasting blood draws were conducted at screening and at wk 4 and 8 of the study. The decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures were greater in the blueberry-supplemented group (? 6 and ? 4%, respectively) than in controls (? 1.5 and ? 1.2%) (P lt 0.05), whereas the serum glucose concentration and lipid profiles were not affected. The decreases in plasma oxidized LDL and serum malondialdehyde and hydroxynonenal concentrations were greater in the blueberry group (? 28 and ? 17%, respectively) than in the control group (? 9 and ? 9%) (P lt 0.01). Our study shows blueberries may improve selected features of metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular risk factors at dietary achievable doses. PMID:20660279

  16. Genetic polymorphisms and the cardiovascular risk of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    St Germaine, Christine G; Bogaty, Peter; Boyer, Luce; Hanley, James; Engert, James C; Brophy, James M

    2010-06-15

    The cardiovascular safety of cyclooxygenase-2-selective (coxibs) and nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is of concern, although most users remain free of adverse outcomes. A gene-drug interaction could modulate this cardiovascular risk through prostaglandin synthesis or inflammatory pathways. From an existing acute coronary syndrome cohort (Recurrence and Inflammation in the Acute Coronary Syndromes Study) (n = 1,210), a case-only study was performed by identifying 115 patients exposed to NSAIDs (rofecoxib [n = 43], celecoxib [n = 49], or nonselective NSAIDs [n = 23]) and 345 unexposed patients matched for age, gender, and hospital center. These patients were genotyped for 115 candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Statistically significant associations between NSAID exposure and 9 SNPs in 6 genes were observed. Analyzing patients exposed only to coxibs and their matched unexposed cases, significant associations remained for 5 SNPs at 4 loci (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-1 [PTGS1], chromosome 9p21.3, C-reactive protein [CRP], and klotho [KL]). Two independent SNPs from the PTGS1 gene gave similar results under a recessive model, with odds ratios for the association with NSAID exposure of 6.94 (95% confidence interval 1.35 to 35.65, p = 0.016) and 7.11 (95% confidence interval 1.38 to 36.74, p = 0.033). A significant association was also observed for a SNP in the CRP gene (rs1205) (additive odds ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.27, p = 0.003). In conclusion, these findings suggest that genetic variability may contribute to the susceptibility for acute coronary syndromes observed in some NSAID users. In particular, genetic polymorphisms in the PTGS1 and CRP genes appear to be candidates for a possible gene-drug interaction influencing the acute coronary risk associated with NSAID use, but these findings will require confirmation in larger cohorts. PMID:20538124

  17. Amphetamines, Atomoxetine and the Risk of Serious Cardiovascular Events in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schelleman, Hedi; Bilker, Warren B.; Kimmel, Stephen E.; Daniel, Gregory W.; Newcomb, Craig; Guevara, James P.; Cziraky, Mark J.; Strom, Brian L.; Hennessy, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Main Objective To compare the incidence rates of serious cardiovascular events in adult initiators of amphetamines or atomoxetine to rates in non-users. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of new amphetamines (n?=?38,586) or atomoxetine (n?=?20,995) users. Each medication user was matched to up to four non-users on age, gender, data source, and state (n?=?238,183). The following events were primary outcomes of interest 1) sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia, 2) stroke, 3) myocardial infarction, 4) a composite endpoint of stroke or myocardial infarction. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate propensity-adjusted hazard ratios for amphetamines versus matched non-users and atomoxetine versus matched non-users, with intracluster dependence within matched sets accounted for using a robust sandwich estimator. Results The propensity-score adjusted hazard ratio for amphetamines use versus non-use was 1.18 (95% CI: 0.55–2.54) for sudden death/ventricular arrhythmia, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.44–1.47) for stroke, 0.75 (95% CI: 0.42–1.35) for myocardial infarction, and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.51–1.19) for stroke/myocardial infarction. The propensity-score adjusted hazard ratio for atomoxetine use versus non-use was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.10–1.75) for sudden death/ventricular arrhythmia, 1.30 (95% CI: 0.52–3.29) for stroke, 0.56 (95% CI: 0.16–2.00) for myocardial infarction, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.44–1.92) for stroke/myocardial infarction. Conclusions Initiation of amphetamines or atomoxetine was not associated with an elevated risk of serious cardiovascular events. However, some of the confidence intervals do not exclude modest elevated risks, e.g. for sudden death/ventricular arrhythmia. PMID:23382829

  18. Ultrasound vascular screening for cardiovascular risk assessment. Why, when and how?

    PubMed

    Naqvi, T Z

    2006-02-01

    Carotid artery vessel wall assessment in the form of intima-media thickness (IMT) has been identified since the late 1970's as a sensitive tool to detect atherosclerosis, predict its sequelae and detect its progression and regression. Unfortunately the technique has remained confined to large multicenter clinical research trials and no consensus has been developed regarding methodology, analysis and interpretation and no agreed upon clinical protocol that could be used in clinical practice exists. The need for an accepted clinical protocol has become acute especially since the technique has been recommended by writing groups such as American Heart Association as a useful tool for risk stratification in those with unclear or intermediate risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. The advent of automated edge detection software and a reimbursement of this technique by insurers make it compelling that clinical consensus is reached soon. Accurate data collection methodology and measurement precision are essential; as such a method that is sensitive yet not cumbersome is required for clinical utility. This review will give a short introduction to the studies that confirm value of IMT in detecting atherosclerosis and predicting its sequelae, followed by a discussion on the appropriate clinical method of imaging and reporting. Other controversial areas in methodology such as difference between plaque vs IMT in CV risk prediction will be discussed. Finally tools and skill a clinician will need to be able to do this technique will be discussed. PMID:16467742

  19. Gender-Specific Association of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Arab Population

    PubMed Central

    Khadir, Abdelkrim; Kavalakatt, Sina; Behbehani, Kazem; Elkum, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Background. The impact of gender difference on the association between metabolic stress and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. We have investigated, for the first time, the gender effect on the oxidative and inflammatory stress responses and assessed their correlation with classical cardiometabolites in Arab population. Methods. A total of 378 adult Arab participants (193 females) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Plasma levels of CRP, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, ROS, TBARs, and PON1 were measured and correlated with anthropometric and cardiometabolite parameters of the study population. Results. Compared to females, males had significantly higher FBG, HbA1c, TG, and blood pressure but lower BMI, TC, and HDL (P?risk in Arab population linked to gender and this risk is better reflected by central obesity. Arab females might be at risk of CVD complications due to increased oxidative stress. PMID:25918477

  20. Gender-specific association of oxidative stress and inflammation with cardiovascular risk factors in arab population.

    PubMed

    Khadir, Abdelkrim; Tiss, Ali; Kavalakatt, Sina; Behbehani, Kazem; Dehbi, Mohammed; Elkum, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Background. The impact of gender difference on the association between metabolic stress and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. We have investigated, for the first time, the gender effect on the oxidative and inflammatory stress responses and assessed their correlation with classical cardiometabolites in Arab population. Methods. A total of 378 adult Arab participants (193 females) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Plasma levels of CRP, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, ROS, TBARs, and PON1 were measured and correlated with anthropometric and cardiometabolite parameters of the study population. Results. Compared to females, males had significantly higher FBG, HbA1c, TG, and blood pressure but lower BMI, TC, and HDL (P?risk in Arab population linked to gender and this risk is better reflected by central obesity. Arab females might be at risk of CVD complications due to increased oxidative stress. PMID:25918477

  1. Genetic Identification and Risk Factor Analysis of Asymptomatic Bacterial Colonization on Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Xian-Ming; An, Yi; Li, Xue-Bin; Guo, Ji-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacterial colonization of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) is widespread and increases the risk of clinical CIED infection. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of bacterial colonization of generator pockets in patients without signs of infection and to analyze the relationship with clinical infection and risk factors. From June 2011 to December 2012, 78 patients underwent CIED replacement or upgrade. Exclusion criteria included a clinical diagnosis of CIED infection, bacteremia, or infective endocarditis. All patients were examined for evidence of bacterial 16S rDNA on the device and in the surrounding tissues. Infection cases were recorded during follow-up. The bacterial-positive rate was 38.5% (30 cases); the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus detection rate was the highest (9 cases, 11.5%). Positive bacterial DNA results were obtained from pocket tissue in 23.1% of patients (18 cases), and bacterial DNA was detected on the device in 29.5% of patients (23 cases). During follow-up (median 24.6 months), two patients (6.7%, 2/30) became symptomatic with the same species of microorganism, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found that the history of bacterial infection, use of antibiotics, application of antiplatelet drugs, replacement frequency, and renal insufficiency were independent risk factors for asymptomatic bacterial colonization. PMID:25530969

  2. Trialogue Plus: Management of cardiovascular risk in hyperglycaemic/diabetic patients at hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Beltramello, Giampietro; Manicardi, Valeria; Mazzuoli, Francesco; Rivellese, Angela

    2013-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus and hyperglycaemia are both independent risk factors (RF) for cardiovascular (CV) events and increased general and CV mortality. Type 2 diabetes, which is often associated with obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia, is accompanied by an up to fourfold increase in the incidence of acute coronary heart disease compared to normoglycaemia, even when other CV RF are equal. In the diabetic population, acute CV events are more likely to have associated cardiac complications, such as heart failure, and CV mortality is increased by twofold–fourfold. Several patients, hospitalised in medical, cardiology and intensive care departments, have undiagnosed diabetes mellitus or elevated glucose levels at the time of admission. These conditions require intensive care in the acute phase and dedicated follow-up at discharge. The Trialogue Plus project was created with the goal of providing good clinical practice guidelines and recommendations for the management of CV risk in patients with diabetes/hyperglycaemia at discharge from hospital. The aim is developing a document that defines timing, diagnostics, targets and therapeutic strategy for the management of CV risk, both in primary and in secondary prevention of patients with diabetes/hyperglycaemia who have experienced an event, involving the Diabetologist, Cardiologist, Internist, GP and area Specialists. This document concerns the implementation of existing guidelines and consensus statements, and as such, the recommendations have not been classified on the basis of scientific evidence and strength. PMID:24121870

  3. ASSOCIATION OF THE 276GT POLYMORPHISM OF THE ADIPONECTIN GENE WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS IN NONDIABETIC KOREANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adiponectin gene is known to modulate adiponectin levels and development of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We wanted to determine whether two SNPs (45T>G/276G>T) at the adiponectin (ACDC) locus influence changes in circulating adiponectin and CVD risk factors in response to a we...

  4. Psychosocial Work Characteristics Predict Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Health Functioning in Rural Women: The Wisconsin Rural Women's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…

  5. Benefits of modest weight loss in improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overweight and obese individuals are encouraged to lose 5–10% of their body weight to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but data supporting this recommendation are limited, particularly for individuals with type 2 diabetes. We conducted an observational analysis of participants in the Look ...

  6. Audit of cardiovascular risk assessment in type 2 diabetic patients referred for insulin therapy: a cardiological perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A Henriksen; K Ann Lockman; Sharon J Robertson; Donna Clark; Janet Ip Barclay; John Chalmers; Ian W Campbell

    2004-01-01

    We present an audit of cardiovascular risk, and drug prescription of 250 type 2 diabetic patients referred from primary care to a District General Hospital for prescription of 250 type 2 diabetic patients referred from primary care to a District General Hospital for management of insulin therapy. Prescription patterns were compared to current UK guidelines for primary and secondary prevention

  7. Divergent fifteen-year trends in traditional and cardiometabolic risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in the Seychelles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Bovet; Sarah Romain; Conrad Shamlaye; Shanti Mendis; Roger Darioli; Walter Riesen; Luc Tappy; Fred Paccaud

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Few studies have assessed secular changes in the levels of cardiovascular risk factors (CV-RF) in populations of low or middle income countries. The systematic collection of a broad set of both traditional and metabolic CV-RF in 1989 and 2004 in the population of the Seychelles islands provides a unique opportunity to examine trends at a fairly early stage of

  8. Current Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Dutch Resistance Veterans from World War II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. J. Falger; Wybrand Op den Velde; Johannes E. Hovens; Erik G. W. Schouten; Johannes H. M. De Groen; Hans Van Duijn

    1992-01-01

    The extraordinary trauma experienced by Resistance veterans from World War II (WWII) and other veterans may be associated with an increased incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and somatic morbidity, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study explored some relationships between current PTSD and CVD risk factors in 147 male Dutch WW II Resistance veterans. They were compared to 65 same-aged

  9. Associations of Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression with Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Older People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, C. F.; Hermans, H.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression, anxiety, diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors are frequent health problems among older people with intellectual disability (ID). These conditions may be bidirectionally related. Depression and anxiety may have biological effects causing glucose intolerance, fat accumulation and also lifestyle changes causing metabolic…

  10. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Black and White Girls: The NHLBI Growth and Health Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Public Health, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Growth and Health Study Research Group's 5-year cohort study provides basic information on the baseline cohort of 1,166 white and 1,213 African-American girls aged 9 through 10 years. Factors associated with development of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors are assessed. (SLD)

  11. Impact of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil regimen vs. a conventional therapy with steroids on cardiovascular risk in liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Cuervas-Mons, Valentín; Herrero, J Ignacio; Gomez, Miguel A; González-Pinto, Ignacio; Serrano, Trinidad; de la Mata, Manuel; Fabregat, Joan; Gastaca, Mikel; Bilbao, Itxarone; Varo, Evaristo; Sánchez-Antolín, Gloria; Rodrigo, Juan; Espinosa, María Dolores

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a steroid-free regimen with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (modified therapy) vs. a standard regimen of tacrolimus and steroids on the cardiovascular risk score of liver transplant recipients. Patients who received a liver transplant were randomized to a modified therapy (n = 58) or a standard regimen (n = 59). Both groups were balanced at baseline, except for a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) (p < 0.01) and a higher serum creatinine concentration (p < 0.05) in the modified therapy group. After 12 months, the prevalence of new-onset DM, arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and changes in cardiovascular risk factors was similar in both groups. The increase in serum creatinine (mg/dL) compared to baseline at one yr post-transplantation was numerically lower in the modified therapy group (0.22 ± 0.42) than in the standard regimen group (0.41 ± 0.67) (p = 0.068). Although estimated cardiovascular risk score did not vary significantly compared to baseline in either group, there was a slight reduction in the modified regimen (-0.27 ± 2.87) vs. a mild increase (0.17 ± 2.94) in the standard regimen (p = 0.566). In conclusion, a steroid-free regimen with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil was associated with a trend toward better preservation of kidney function and reduction of cardiovascular risk score. PMID:25924549

  12. How artificial intelligence tools can be used to assess individual patient risk in cardiovascular disease: problems with the current methods

    PubMed Central

    Grossi, Enzo

    2006-01-01

    Background In recent years a number of algorithms for cardiovascular risk assessment has been proposed to the medical community. These algorithms consider a number of variables and express their results as the percentage risk of developing a major fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular event in the following 10 to 20 years Discussion The author has identified three major pitfalls of these algorithms, linked to the limitation of the classical statistical approach in dealing with this kind of non linear and complex information. The pitfalls are the inability to capture the disease complexity, the inability to capture process dynamics, and the wide confidence interval of individual risk assessment. Artificial Intelligence tools can provide potential advantage in trying to overcome these limitations. The theoretical background and some application examples related to artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic have been reviewed and discussed. Summary The use of predictive algorithms to assess individual absolute risk of cardiovascular future events is currently hampered by methodological and mathematical flaws. The use of newer approaches, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks, linked to artificial intelligence, seems to better address both the challenge of increasing complexity resulting from a correlation between predisposing factors, data on the occurrence of cardiovascular events, and the prediction of future events on an individual level. PMID:16672045

  13. Longitudinal relationships between resting heart rate and biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willem Van Mechelen; Jos W. R. Twisk; Frank J. Van Lenthe; G. Bertheke Post; Jan Snel; Han C. G. Kemper

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse longitudinal relationships between resting heart rate and biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease using data from the longitudinal Amsterdam Growth and Health Study (AGHS). In the AGHS, 98 females and 81 males were measured six times between 1977 and 1991. In 1977, the age of the subjects was 13 years. The variables

  14. Managers' Practices Related to Work–Family Balance Predict Employee Cardiovascular Risk and Sleep Duration in Extended Care Settings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa F. Berkman; Orfeu Buxton; Karen Ertel; Cassandra Okechukwu

    2010-01-01

    An increasing proportion of U.S. workers have family caregiving responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether employees in extended care settings whose managers are supportive, open, and creative about work–family needs, such as flexibility with work schedules, have lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and longer sleep than their less supported counterparts. From semistructured interviews with managers, we

  15. First-line treatment patterns and lipid target levels attainment in very high cardiovascular risk outpatients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies have demonstrated gaps in achievement of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) goals among patients at very high cardiovascular risk. We aimed to investigate lipid treatment patterns, rates and predictors of lipid targets attainment, in such outpatients in an urban area of Greece. Methods This was a prospective observational study, conducted in 19 outpatient clinics of Western Greece. We recruited patients with established cardiovascular disease (CVD) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM), previously (at least 3 months before baseline assessment) untreated with any lipid lowering medication. Lipid profile assessment was performed at baseline (prior to lipid-lowering treatment initiation) and at follow-up. Lipid lowering treatment choice was at physicians’ discretion and was kept constant until follow-up. Results We recruited 712 patients with a mean age 61.4?±?10.4 years, 68.0% males, 43.0% with DM, 64.7% with prior coronary artery disease-CAD. In total, 237/712 (33.3%) of prescribed regimens were of high or very high LDL-C lowering efficacy and out of them 113/237 (47.7%) comprised a combination of statin and ezetimibe. At follow-up the primary target of LDL-C?150 mg/dl or 1.7 mmol/L) was achieved in 45(11.6%) of patients. In multivariate logistic regression analysis (AUC?=?0.71, 95% CIs 0.65-0.77, p?cardiovascular risk outpatients in Western Greece is unsatisfactory, with the majority of treated individuals failing to attain the LDL-C and non-HDL-C targets. This finding points out the need for intensification of statin treatment in such patients. PMID:24209409

  16. Gender Differences in Coronary Artery Disease: Correlational Study on Dietary Pattern and Known Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Mahdi; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Background: The relationship between diet and cardiovascular risk factors in men and women with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) has been the subject of recent studies. We studied a group of Iranian CAD patients to analyze any relationship between diet and CAD risk factors based on gender. Methods: In this study, 461 consecutive patients were assessed before their planned isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. They were interviewed to obtain the quantity and components of nutrients and micronutrients based on a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diet scores were calculated in each dietary group and the total score was reported as the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (Med-DQI). Physical activity was assessed using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Functional class, EuroSCORE and the frequency of the known risk factors in the men and women were recorded as well. Results: The women were more likely than the men to present with obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension (all Ps < 0.001). Also, the women had higher functional class and mean of EuroSCORE (P < 0.001 and P = 0.03). Only six women (5.7%) reported to have regular physical activity. In addition, Women’s energy intake was more likely to be supplied through fat. Cereals, fruit, and vegetable consumption in both genders was within the safe recommended range, while olive and fish consumption was low in both sexes. MedDQI score was different between men and women with hypertension (P = 0.018) and obesity (P = 0.048). Conclusions: Modifiable classical risk factors for CAD, except for smoking, were more prevalent in women and were associated with their diet. Therefore, women probably need to maintain low calorie intake while improving physical activity and dietary patterns to decrease the frequency and severity of modifiable cardiac risk factors. PMID:24757636

  17. Is liver transplantation a risk factor for cardiovascular disease? A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Madhwal, Surabhi; Atreja, Ashish; Albeldawi, Mazen; Albeldawdi, Mazen; Lopez, Rocio; Post, Anthony; Costa, Marco A

    2012-10-01

    Up to two-thirds of patients develop metabolic syndrome within the first 5 years after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). However, data on overall cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality among OLT recipients and particularly those who develop metabolic syndrome remain elusive. A literature search using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and meeting abstracts (along with their bibliographies) was performed to identify studies. Data on ischemic CV events were extracted from each study and were used for pooled analyses. Overall pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the incidence of CV events and deaths were obtained with a random effects model. Twelve observational studies reporting CV outcomes for 4792 post-OLT recipients who were followed for 28,783 person-years were included. Pooled estimates showed that the 10-year risk of developing CV events among the post-OLT recipients was 13.6% (95% CI = 9%-8.1%). Pooled estimates from case-control studies showed that the post-OLT group had an approximately 64% greater risk of experiencing CV events than controls (standardized incidence ratio = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.18-2.20). Among OLT recipients, those with metabolic syndrome were approximately 4 times more likely to have a CV event [odds ratio (OR) = 4.01, 95% CI = 1.94-8.32] without any significant increase in all-cause mortality (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.63-2.10). In conclusion, this systematic review suggests that OLT recipients and particularly those with metabolic syndrome have a high risk for CV events. However, the literature is limited and lacks high-quality studies. Future prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings and determine whether aggressive risk-reduction strategies can attenuate the increased CV risk seen in this population. PMID:22821899

  18. Frailty and cardiovascular risk in community-dwelling elderly: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Natalia Aquaroni; Pessoa, Germane Silva; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Dias, Rosangela Correa; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests a possible bidirectional connection between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the frailty syndrome in older people. Purpose To verify the relationship between CVD risk factors and the frailty syndrome in community-dwelling elderly. Methods This population-based study used data from the Fragilidade em Idosos Brasileiros (FIBRA) Network Study, a cross-sectional study designed to investigate frailty profiles among Brazilian older adults. Frailty status was defined as the presence of three or more out of five of the following criteria: unintentional weight loss, weakness, self-reported fatigue, slow walking speed, and low physical activity level. The ascertained CVD risk factors were self-reported and/or directly measured hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, waist circumference measurement, and smoking. Results Of the 761 participants, 9.7% were characterized as frail, 48.0% as pre-frail, and 42.3% as non-frail. The most prevalent CVD risk factor was hypertension (84.4%) and the lowest one was smoking (10.4%). It was observed that among those participants with four or five risk factors there was a higher proportion of frail and pre-frail compared with non-frail (Fisher’s exact test: P=0.005; P=0.021). Self-reported diabetes mellitus was more prevalent among frail and pre-frail participants when compared with non-frail participants (Fisher’s exact test: P?0.001; P?0.001). There was little agreement between self-reported hypertension and hypertension identified by blood pressure measurement. Conclusion Hypertension was highly prevalent among the total sample. In addition, frail and pre-frail older people corresponded to a substantial proportion of those with more CVD risk factors, especially diabetes mellitus, highlighting the need for preventive strategies in order to avoid the co-occurrence of CVD and frailty. PMID:25336932

  19. Optimal cut-off values for obesity: using simple anthropometric indices to predict cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W-Y Lin; L-T Lee; C-Y Chen; H Lo; H-H Hsia; I-L Liu; R-S Lin; W-Y Shau; K-C Huang

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increased health risks associated with obesity have been found to occur in Asians at lower body mass indices (BMIs). To determine the optimal cut-off values for overweight or obesity in Taiwan, we examined the relationships between four anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors.METHODS: The data were collected from four health-screening centers from 1998 to 2000 in Taiwan. Included

  20. Postprandial Lipemia Detects the Effect of Soy Protein on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Compared with the Fasting Lipid Profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio S. Santo; Ariana M. Santo; Richard W. Browne; Harold Burton; John J. Leddy; Steven M. Horvath; Peter J. Horvath

    2010-01-01

    Studies examining the effect of soy protein on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have not taken advantage of the postprandial\\u000a state as an adjunct to the fasting lipid profile. The American Heart Association has acknowledged the efficacy of soy protein\\u000a in reducing CVD risk factors to be limited. We hypothesized that the postprandial state would be more sensitive to any

  1. Cardiovascular risk engines can help in selecting patients to be evaluated by dynamic penile color doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Corona, G; Mannucci, E; Fisher, A D; Lotti, F; Bandini, E; Vignozzi, L; Balercia, G; Paggi, F; Petrone, L; Forti, G; Maggi, M

    2008-12-01

    General dynamic penile color doppler ultrasound (D-PCDU) screening in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) has been questioned due to an inadequate cost-benefit ratio. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the validity of different risk scores in the identification of patients being screened for arteriogenic ED (AED) at D-PCDU. A consecutive series of 738 patients with ED was studied. AED was defined when peak systolic velocity (PSV) was lower than 25 cm/sec. The assessment of cardiovascular risk was evaluated using different risk engines, derived from the Framingham, the PROCAM and the Progetto Cuore studies. An iterative receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the most proper threshold for different scales for the screening of AED. Among the patients studied, 52 (7%) had PSV<25 cm/sec. The area under the ROC curves for pathological PSV in relation to cardiovascular risk estimated with different engines was 0.762+/-0.03, 0.716+/-0.03, and 0.667+/-0.03 for Progetto Cuore, Framingham, and PROCAM engines, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of Progetto Cuore estimated risk were 67%, 71% when a threshold of 15% was chosen. Corresponding figures for Framingham and PROCAM engine were 74%, 57% and 69%, 55%, respectively. If D-PCDU is performed only on patients with cardiovascular risk >15%, who represent about 1/4 of all patients (26.8%), as estimated by Progetto Cuore, about 70% of cases of arteriogenic ED can be identified. Estimated cardiovascular risk, assessed through risk engines, could be used to identify patients who should undergo D-PCDU evaluation for the diagnosis of AED. PMID:19246970

  2. Prevalence of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors in Central India

    PubMed Central

    Bhadoria, Ajeet S.; Kasar, Pradeep K.; Toppo, Neelam A.; Bhadoria, Pooja; Pradhan, Sambit; Kabirpanthi, Vikrant

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the difference in the prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors in urban and rural populations and the association of hypertension with various determinants. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 48 villages and 15 urban wards of Jabalpur District of Central India. Nine hundred and thirty-nine individuals aged 20 years and above (624 from rural areas and 315 from urban areas) were included in the study. The prevalence of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors was assessed in the urban and rural populations. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic, behavioral, and dietary factors. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure measurements were taken using the standard methodology. The glucose oxidase–peroxidase and cholesterol oxidase–cholesterol peroxidase methods were used to measure plasma glucose and serum cholesterol, respectively. Bivariate analysis was followed by multivariate analysis to detect the odds of getting hypertension with various risk factors for the urban and rural populations separately. Hypertension was defined as per Joint National Committee (JNC) - VII criteria. Results: The response rate was 97%. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 17%, with 21.4% in the urban population and 14.8% in the rural population. Significantly higher mean values of weight, height, body mass index (BMI), hip circumference (HC), waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting blood sugar (FBS), and serum cholesterol levels were mapped in the urban population in comparison with the rural population. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified increasing age, parental history of hypertension, tobacco smoking, tobacco chewing, physical inactivity, high estimated per capita salt consumption, and BMI ?27.5 kg/m2 as independent predictors for hypertension in the urban population, while in the rural population, increasing age, physical inactivity, central obesity, tobacco chewing and tobacco smoking were independent predictors for hypertension. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors was high in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, there is a need for comprehensive health promotion programs to encourage lifestyle modification. PMID:24695988

  3. First trimester fetal growth restriction and cardiovascular risk factors in school age children: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether first trimester fetal growth restriction correlates with cardiovascular outcomes in childhood. Design Population based prospective cohort study. Setting City of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Participants 1184 children with first trimester fetal crown to rump length measurements, whose mothers had a reliable first day of their last menstrual period and a regular menstrual cycle. Main outcomes measures Body mass index, total and abdominal fat distribution, blood pressure, and blood concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and C peptide at the median age of 6.0 (90% range 5.7-6.8) years. Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors was defined as having three or more of: high android fat mass; high systolic or diastolic blood pressure; low high density lipoprotein cholesterol or high triglycerides concentrations; and high insulin concentrations. Results One standard deviation score greater first trimester fetal crown to rump length was associated with a lower total fat mass (?0.30%, 95% confidence interval ?0.57% to ?0.03%), android fat mass (?0.07%, ?0.12% to ?0.02%), android/gynoid fat mass ratio (?0.53, ?0.89 to ?0.17), diastolic blood pressure (?0.43, ?0.84 to ?0.01, mm Hg), total cholesterol (?0.05, ?0.10 to 0, mmol/L), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (?0.04, ?0.09 to 0, mmol/L), and risk of clustering of cardiovascular risk factors (relative risk 0.81, 0.66 to 1.00) in childhood. Additional adjustment for gestational age and weight at birth changed these effect estimates only slightly. Childhood body mass index fully explained the associations of first trimester fetal crown to rump length with childhood total fat mass. First trimester fetal growth was not associated with other cardiovascular outcomes. Longitudinal growth analyses showed that compared with school age children without clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, those with clustering had a smaller first trimester fetal crown to rump length and lower second and third trimester estimated fetal weight but higher weight growth from the age of 6 months onwards. Conclusions Impaired first trimester fetal growth is associated with an adverse cardiovascular risk profile in school age children. Early fetal life might be a critical period for cardiovascular health in later life. PMID:24458585

  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Cha, Eunme; Scharf, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Recent studies described association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In their analysis none of these studies accounted for sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, and patient comorbidities simultaneously. Objective: To study whether COPD diagnosis is an independent risk factor for CVD. Methods: Subjects aged 40 years and older (N = 18,342) from the sample adult file of the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were included in the analysis. Chi-squared tests and odds ratios (OR) were utilized to compare the data. Multiple logistic regression was employed to analyze the association between COPD and CVD with simultaneous control for sociodemographic factors (age, gender, race, marital status, education, income), health behaviors (tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity), and patient comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, and obesity). The analysis employed NHIS sampling weights to generate data representative of the entire US population. Results: The COPD population had increased prevalence of CVD (56.5% vs 25.6%; P < 0.0001). Adjusted logistic regression showed that COPD patients (N = 958) were at higher risk of having coronary heart disease (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.5–2.5), angina (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.6–2.7), myocardial infarction (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.7–2.8), stroke (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1–2.1), congestive heart failure (OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.8–5.5), poor circulation in lower extremities (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 2.0–3.0), and arrhythmia (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 2.0–2.8). Overall, the presence of COPD increased the odds of having CVD by a factor of 2.7 (95% CI: 2.3–3.2). Conclusions: These findings support the conclusion that COPD is an independent risk factor for CVD. PMID:19802349

  5. Detectable Subclinical Myocardial Necrosis Is Associated With Cardiovascular Risk in Stable Patients With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tang, W.H. Wilson; Wu, Yuping; Britt, Earl B.; Iqbal, Naveed; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between different degrees of subclinical myocardial necrosis, glycemic control, and long-term adverse clinical outcomes within a stable patient population with diabetes mellitus. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We examined 1,275 stable patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography with cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels below the diagnostic cut-off for defining myocardial infarction (MI) (<0.03 ng/mL). The relationship of subclinical myocardial necrosis (cTnI 0.009–0.029 ng/mL) with incident major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; defined as any death, MI, or stroke) over 3 years of follow-up was examined. RESULTS Subclinical myocardial necrosis was observed in 22% of patients. A strong association was observed between the magnitude of subclinical myocardial necrosis and risk of 3-year incident MACE (hazard ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.48–2.65; P < 0.001) and remained statistically significant even after adjustment for traditional risk factors, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and creatinine clearance. Only a weak correlation was observed between the presence of subclinical myocardial necrosis and either glycemic control (r = 0.06; P = 0.044 for hemoglobin A1c versus cTnI) or ins