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Sample records for residual urine volumes

  1. Unnoticed Post-Void Residual Urine Volume in People with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Waal, K. H.; Tinselboer, B. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Penning, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Increased post-void residual urine volume (PVR) is often seen in geriatric populations. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have risk factors in common with these populations. Aims: To investigate in adults with ID: (1) Feasibility of portable ultrasound bladder scanning; (2) Prevalence of PVR; and (3) Relations with proposed…

  2. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a day, such as: Creatinine Sodium Potassium Nitrogen Protein This test may also be done if ... disease Potassium urine test Sodium urine test Urea nitrogen urine test Urination - excessive amount Urine output - decreased ...

  3. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePlus

    ... test results: Dehydration Any type of x-ray exam with dye (contrast material) within 3 days before the urine test Fluid from the vagina that gets into the urine Emotional stress Heavy exercise Urinary tract infection

  4. A urine volume measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

  5. Chemical measurement of urine volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical method of measuring volume of urine samples using lithium chloride dilution technique, does not interfere with analysis, is faster, and more accurate than standard volumetric of specific gravity/weight techniques. Adaptation of procedure to urinalysis could prove generally practical for hospital mineral balance and catechoamine determinations.

  6. Chemical Method of Urine Volume Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrack, P.

    1967-01-01

    A system has been developed and qualified as flight hardware for the measurement of micturition volumes voided by crewmen during Gemini missions. This Chemical Urine Volume Measurement System (CUVMS) is used for obtaining samples of each micturition for post-flight volume determination and laboratory analysis for chemical constituents of physiological interest. The system is versatile with respect to volumes measured, with a capacity beyond the largest micturition expected to be encountered, and with respect to mission duration of inherently indefinite length. The urine sample is used for the measurement of total micturition volume by a tracer dilution technique, in which a fixed, predetermined amount of tritiated water is introduced and mixed into the voided urine, and the resulting concentration of the tracer in the sample is determined with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The tracer employed does not interfere with the analysis for the chemical constituents of the urine. The CUVMS hardware consists of a four-way selector valve in which an automatically operated tracer metering pump is incorporated, a collection/mixing bag, and tracer storage accumulators. The assembled system interfaces with a urine receiver at the selector valve inlet, sample bags which connect to the side of the selector valve, and a flexible hose which carries the excess urine to the overboard drain connection. Results of testing have demonstrated system volume measurement accuracy within the specification limits of +/-5%, and operating reliability suitable for system use aboard the GT-7 mission, in which it was first used.

  7. Diagnosis of neonatal group B Streptococcus sepsis by nested-PCR of residual urine samples.

    PubMed

    Cezarino, Bruno Nicolino; Yamamoto, Lidia; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro; Rocha, Daisy; Okay, Thelma Suely

    2008-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) remains the most common cause of early-onset sepsis in newborns. Laboratory gold-standard, broth culture methods are highly specific, but lack sensitivity. The aim of this study was to validate a nested-PCR and to determine whether residue volumes of urine samples obtained by non invasive, non sterile methods could be used to confirm neonatal GBS sepsis. The nested-PCR was performed with primers of the major GBS surface antigen. Unavailability of biological samples to perform life supporting exams, as well as others to elucidate the etiology of infections is a frequent problem concerning newborn patients. Nevertheless, we decided to include cases according to strict criteria: newborns had to present with signs and symptoms compatible with GBS infection; at least one of the following biological samples had to be sent for culture: blood, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid; availability of residue volumes of the samples sent for cultures, or of others collected on the day of hospitalization, prior to antibiotic therapy prescription, to be analyzed by PCR; favorable outcome after GBS empiric treatment. In only one newborn GBS infection was confirmed by cultures, while infection was only presumptive in the other three patients (they fulfilled inclusion criteria but were GBS-culture negative). From a total of 12 biological samples (5 blood, 3 CSF and 4 urine specimen), eight were tested by culture methods (2/8 were positive), and 8 were tested by PCR (7/8 were positive), and only 4 samples were simultaneously tested by both methods (1 positive by culture and 3 by PCR). In conclusion, although based on a restricted number of neonates and samples, our results suggest that the proposed nested-PCR might be used to diagnose GBS sepsis as it has successfully amplified the three types of biological samples analyzed (blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid), and was more sensitive than culture methods as PCR in urine confirmed diagnosis in all four patients

  8. Diagnosis of neonatal group B Streptococcus sepsis by nested-PCR of residual urine samples

    PubMed Central

    Cezarino, Bruno Nicolino; Yamamoto, Lidia; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro; Rocha, Daisy; Okay, Thelma Suely

    2008-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) remains the most common cause of early-onset sepsis in newborns. Laboratory gold-standard, broth culture methods are highly specific, but lack sensitivity. The aim of this study was to validate a nested-PCR and to determine whether residue volumes of urine samples obtained by non invasive, non sterile methods could be used to confirm neonatal GBS sepsis. The nested-PCR was performed with primers of the major GBS surface antigen. Unavailability of biological samples to perform life supporting exams, as well as others to elucidate the etiology of infections is a frequent problem concerning newborn patients. Nevertheless, we decided to include cases according to strict criteria: newborns had to present with signs and symptoms compatible with GBS infection; at least one of the following biological samples had to be sent for culture: blood, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid; availability of residue volumes of the samples sent for cultures, or of others collected on the day of hospitalization, prior to antibiotic therapy prescription, to be analyzed by PCR; favorable outcome after GBS empiric treatment. In only one newborn GBS infection was confirmed by cultures, while infection was only presumptive in the other three patients (they fulfilled inclusion criteria but were GBS-culture negative). From a total of 12 biological samples (5 blood, 3 CSF and 4 urine specimen), eight were tested by culture methods (2/8 were positive), and 8 were tested by PCR (7/8 were positive), and only 4 samples were simultaneously tested by both methods (1 positive by culture and 3 by PCR). In conclusion, although based on a restricted number of neonates and samples, our results suggest that the proposed nested-PCR might be used to diagnose GBS sepsis as it has successfully amplified the three types of biological samples analyzed (blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid), and was more sensitive than culture methods as PCR in urine confirmed diagnosis in all four patients

  9. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800... volume measuring system. (a) Identification. A urine flow or volume measuring system is a device that measures directly or indirectly the volume or flow of urine from a patient, either during the course...

  10. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800... volume measuring system. (a) Identification. A urine flow or volume measuring system is a device that measures directly or indirectly the volume or flow of urine from a patient, either during the course...

  11. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800... volume measuring system. (a) Identification. A urine flow or volume measuring system is a device that measures directly or indirectly the volume or flow of urine from a patient, either during the course...

  12. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800... volume measuring system. (a) Identification. A urine flow or volume measuring system is a device that measures directly or indirectly the volume or flow of urine from a patient, either during the course...

  13. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800... volume measuring system. (a) Identification. A urine flow or volume measuring system is a device that measures directly or indirectly the volume or flow of urine from a patient, either during the course...

  14. Development of a prototype fluid volume measurement system. [for urine volume measurement on space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Sabin, C. M.; Meckel, P. T.

    1974-01-01

    The research is reported in applying the axial fluid temperature differential flowmeter to a urine volume measurement system for space missions. The fluid volume measurement system is described along with the prototype equipment package. Flowmeter calibration, electronic signal processing, and typical void volume measurements are also described.

  15. Gastric Residual Volume: Rethinking the Threshold.

    PubMed

    Emami Zeydi, Amir; Sharafkhani, Mohammad; Armat, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    There are many challenges related to enteral feedings of the mechanically ventilated patient. Among the most often debated issues is the threshold for gastric residual volume before further feeding. This brief article considers the factors to be considered and reviews current thinking on the topic. PMID:27575801

  16. SELECTED PESTICIDE RESIDUES AND METABOLITES IN URINE FROM A SURVEY OF THE U.S. GENERAL POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residues of toxic chemicals in human tissues and fluids can be important indicators of exposure. Urine collected from a subsample of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed for organochlorine, organophosphorus, and chlorophenoxy pesticides or the...

  17. RESIDUAL LIMB VOLUME CHANGE: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Fatone, S

    2014-01-01

    Management of residual limb volume affects decisions regarding timing of fit of the first prosthesis, when a new prosthetic socket is needed, design of a prosthetic socket, and prescription of accommodation strategies for daily volume fluctuations. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess what is known about measurement and management of residual limb volume change in persons with lower-limb amputation. Publications that met inclusion criteria were grouped into three categories: (I) descriptions of residual limb volume measurement techniques; (II) studies on people with lower-limb amputation investigating the effect of residual limb volume change on clinical care; and (III) studies of residual limb volume management techniques or descriptions of techniques for accommodating or controlling residual limb volume. The review showed that many techniques for the measurement of residual limb volume have been described but clinical use is limited largely because current techniques lack adequate resolution and in-socket measurement capability. Overall, there is limited evidence regarding the management of residual limb volume, and the evidence available focuses primarily on adults with trans-tibial amputation in the early post-operative phase. While we can draw some insights from the available research about residual limb volume measurement and management, further research is required. PMID:22068373

  18. Recovery of intravenously infused chromium EDTA and lithium sulphate in the urine of cattle and their use as markers to measure urine volume.

    PubMed

    Bowen, M K; Poppi, D P; McLennan, S R

    2009-04-01

    A series of metabolism experiments investigated the recovery of continuous-, intravenously infused chromium complexed with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (CrEDTA) and lithium sulphate in the urine of cattle with a view to using the markers to estimate urine and metabolite output in grazing cattle. The recovery of Cr in urine from these infusions was similar (90%) in metabolism trials when cattle consumed three very contrasting diets: high-grain formulated pellet, lucerne hay (Medicago sativa) or low-quality native grass hay (predominantly Heteropogon contortus). By contrast, Li recovery in urine averaged 46.3 ± 0.40% and 72.6 ± 0.43% for native pasture and lucerne hays, respectively, but was not constant across days. There was negligible transfer of Cr from CrEDTA in blood serum to the rumen or faeces, whereas appreciable quantities of infused Li were found in both. The ratio of urine volume estimated by spot samples and marker dilution of Cr, to urine volume measured gravimetrically, was 1.05. In grazing studies using rumen-fistulated (RF) steers grazing seven different tropical and temperate grass and legume pastures, the ratio of concentrations of purine derivatives (PD) to Cr in spot samples of urine was shown to vary diurnally in the range of 49% to 157% of the average 24 h value. This finding indicated the need for regular sampling of urine to achieve an accurate average value for the PD : Cr ratio in urine for use in estimating urinary PD excretion and hence microbial protein production in the rumen. It was concluded that continuous, intravenous infusion of CrEDTA resulted in a constant recovery of Cr in the urine of cattle across diets and, provided an intensive sampling regime was followed to account for diurnal variation, it would be suitable as a marker to estimate urine volume and urinary output of PD in grazing cattle. PMID:22444379

  19. Ractopamine residues in urine, plasma and hair of cattle during and after treatment.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chaohua; Zhang, Junmin; Li, Lijun; Zhao, Qingyu; Bu, Dengpan

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate ractopamine residues in urine, plasma and hair of cattle during and after treatment. Three cattle (body weight = 620 ± 6.2 kg) were administered ractopamine (2.01 mg/kg body weight) into the rumen for 5 consecutive days. Ractopamine concentrations in samples were determined by an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method. The concentrations of parent ractopamine in urine were 1,631.1 ng/mL on withdrawal day 0 and 8.3 ng/mL on withdrawal day 14. After hydrolysis of its conjugates, ractopamine concentration ranged from 11,796.7 ng/mL (withdrawal day 0) to 39.7 ng/mL (withdrawal day 14). In plasma, parent ractopamine and its conjugates were below the limits of quantification (LOQ = 0.2 ng/mL) on withdrawal days 5 and 7. Accumulation of ractopamine in black and white hair was 124.6 and 78.1 ng/g, respectively, on withdrawal day 0, and 226.7 and 165.6 ng/g, respectively, on withdrawal day 14. This study demonstrated the rapid elimination and high bioavailability of ractopamine in urine and plasma in cattle. However, accumulation of ractopamine in cattle's hair is high and persistent, so hair can be used as the target matrix for monitoring ractopamine abuse in ruminants. PMID:24569651

  20. Residual cannabis levels in blood, urine and oral fluid following heavy cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Odell, Morris S; Frei, Matthew Y; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Chu, Mark; Lubman, Dan I

    2015-04-01

    An understanding of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) kinetics and residual levels after cannabis use is essential in interpreting toxicology tests in body fluids from live subjects, particularly when used in forensic settings for drug abuse, traffic and interpersonal violence cases. However the current literature is largely based on laboratory studies using controlled cannabis dosages in experienced users, with limited research investigating the kinetics of residual THC concentrations in regular high dose cannabis users. Twenty-one dependent cannabis users were recruited at admission to two residential detoxification units in Melbourne, Australia. After being provided with information about, and consenting to, the study, subjects volunteered to provide once-daily blood, urine and oral fluid (saliva) samples for seven consecutive days following admission, involving cessation and abstinence from all cannabis use. Blood and oral fluid specimens were analysed for THC and urine specimens for the metabolite THC-COOH. In some subjects THC was detectable in blood for at least 7 days and oral fluid specimens were positive for THC up to 78 h after admission to the unit. Urinary THC-COOH concentrations exceeded 1000 ng/mL for some subjects 129 h after last use. The presented blood THC levels are higher and persist longer in some individuals than previously described, our understanding and interpretation of THC levels in long term heavy cannabis users may need to be reconsidered. PMID:25698515

  1. Multi-residue analysis of organic pollutants in hair and urine for matrices comparison.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Emilie M; Duca, Radu C; Salquebre, Guillaume; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2015-04-01

    Urine being currently the most classically used matrix for the assessment of human exposure to pesticides, a growing interest is yet observed in hair analysis for the detection of organic pollutants. The aim of the present work was to develop and to validate multi-residue analytical methods, as similar as possible, in order to determine pesticides and their metabolites in these two biological matrices despite their different nature. The list of parent compounds and their metabolites investigated here consisted of 56 compounds, including organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates, other pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Two different approaches were necessary for the analysis of non-polar compounds (mainly parents) on one hand and polar analytes (mainly metabolites) on the other hand. In the final procedure, extraction from hair was carried out with acetonitrile/water after sample decontamination and pulverization. Extract was split into two fractions, which were analyzed directly with solid phase microextraction (SPME) injection for non-polar compounds and after derivatization with liquid injection for polar compounds. In urine, non-polar compounds were analyzed directly using SPME. Polar compounds were analyzed after acidic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile-cyclohexane-ethyl acetate, derivatization and liquid injection. Analysis was performed with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry operating in negative chemical ionization (GC-MS/MS-NCI) for all the compounds (non-polar and polar) in the two matrices. In hair, limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.02 pg/mg for trifluralin to 5.5 pg/mg for diethylphosphate. In urine, LOQ ranged from 0.4 pg/mL for α-endosulfan to 4 ng/mL for dimethyldithiophosphate. The analysis of samples supplemented with standards and samples collected from an animal previously submitted to chronic exposure to pesticides confirmed that all the compounds were analyzable in both

  2. Plasma Levels of Middle Molecules to Estimate Residual Kidney Function in Haemodialysis without Urine Collection

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Enric; Boltiador, Capella; Wong, Jonathan; Viljoen, Adie; Machado, Ashwini; Uthayakumar, Arani; Farrington, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Background Residual Kidney Function (RKF) is associated with survival benefits in haemodialysis (HD) but is difficult to measure without urine collection. Middle molecules such as Cystatin C and β2-microglobulin accumulate in renal disease and plasma levels have been used to estimate kidney function early in this condition. We investigated their use to estimate RKF in patients on HD. Design Cystatin C, β2-microglobulin, urea and creatinine levels were studied in patients on incremental high-flux HD or hemodiafiltration(HDF). Over sequential HD sessions, blood was sampled pre- and post-session 1 and pre-session 2, for estimation of these parameters. Urine was collected during the whole interdialytic interval, for estimation of residual GFR (GFRResidual = mean of urea and creatinine clearance). The relationships of plasma Cystatin C and β2-microglobulin levels to GFRResidual and urea clearance were determined. Results Of the 341 patients studied, 64% had urine output>100ml/day, 32.6% were on high-flux HD and 67.4% on HDF. Parameters most closely correlated with GFRResidual were 1/β2-micoglobulin (r2 0.67) and 1/Cystatin C (r2 0.50). Both these relationships were weaker at low GFRResidual. The best regression model for GFRResidual, explaining 67% of the variation, was: GFRResidual=160.3⋅(1β2m)−4.2 Where β2m is the pre-dialysis β2 microglobulin concentration (mg/L). This model was validated in a separate cohort of 50 patients using Bland-Altman analysis. Areas under the curve in Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis aimed at identifying subjects with urea clearance≥2ml/min/1.73m2 was 0.91 for β2-microglobulin and 0.86 for Cystatin C. A plasma β2-microglobulin cut-off of ≤19.2mg/L allowed identification of patients with urea clearance ≥2ml/min/1.73m2 with 90% specificity and 65% sensitivity. Conclusion Plasma pre-dialysis β2-microglobulin levels can provide estimates of RKF which may have clinical utility and appear superior to cystatin C. Use

  3. Rational design of an on-site volume reduction system for source-separated urine.

    PubMed

    Pahore, Muhammad Masoom; Ito, Ryusei; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2010-04-01

    Human urine contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, which can be applied as fertilizer in agriculture, replacing commercial fertilizer. However, owing to the low nutrient content of the urine, huge quantities must be transported to farmland to meet the nutrient demand of crops. This highly increases the transportation cost for the farmers. To address the transportation issue, a new on-site volume reduction system was tested at the laboratory scale based on water evaporation from vertical gauze sheets. A mathematical water transport model was proposed to evaluate the performance of the system. The mass transfer coefficient and the resistance of water flow through the sheet in the water transport model were obtained from the experiments. The results agreed with the simulated data, thereby confirming the proposed model. The model was then applied to the dry climate of southern Pakistan, having an air temperature of 30-40 degrees C and air humidity of 20-40%, for an 80% volume reduction of 10 L urine per day, which corresponds to a family of 10 members (average for a household in Pakistan). The findings revealed that the estimated size of the vertical sheet is 440-2060 cm2, which is only a small area for setting up the system at a household level. PMID:20450114

  4. Residual waste volume measurement for Hanford underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.

    1996-08-21

    The Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval program seeks commercial solutions to measure any waste residual (i.e., heel)left after waste retrieval operations of underground radioactive storage tanks. The technology identified should operate in a range of waste depth thickness of 0 - 6 inches. This report provides a description of the need, requirements, and constraints for the residual waste volume measurement system; describes a logical approach to measuring waste volume; provides a brief review and assessment of available technologies; and outlines a set of integrated tests that will evaluate the performance of candidate technologies.

  5. Calcium Isolation from Large-Volume Human Urine Samples for 41Ca Analysis by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Miller, James J; Hui, Susanta K; Jackson, George S; Clark, Sara P; Einstein, Jane; Weaver, Connie M; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2013-01-01

    Calcium oxalate precipitation is the first step in preparation of biological samples for 41Ca analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry. A simplified protocol for large-volume human urine samples was characterized, with statistically significant increases in ion current and decreases in interference. This large-volume assay minimizes cost and effort and maximizes time after 41Ca administration during which human samples, collected over a lifetime, provide 41Ca:Ca ratios that are significantly above background. PMID:23672965

  6. Flunixin urine residues in culled dairy cows and its relevance to food safety and environmental concerns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flunixin is a US-FDA approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent; it is prominent due to violative meat residues detected by the US-FSIS in dairy cows. The effects of route of administration (2.2 mg/kg) and endotoxin challenge on flunixin elimination and residues were investigated. High urinary ...

  7. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-08

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The ability to

  8. Low-volume, high-sensitivity assay for cadmium in blood and urine using conventional atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Cerny, E. A.; Bhattacharyya, M. H.; Biosciences Division

    2003-03-15

    An assay for cadmium in whole blood and urine using deuterium background-correction electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (D2-ETAAS) was developed. Cadmium (in a 1- to 2-ml sample) was bound to 15 mg anion-exchange resin, interfering ions were removed in a 2-ml Bio-Spin column, and cadmium was extracted into 100 {mu}l 1 M nitric acid for analysis. Cadmium in the sample extract was concentrated 7-fold for blood and 10-fold for urine over the starting material. These steps produced cadmium atomic absorption traces with high signal to background ratios and allowed analysis against aqueous standards. At {approx}0.1 ng Cd/ml, mean intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 11-12%. Cadmium recovery for 0.1 to 0.6 ng added cadmium was 107{+-}4% for blood and 94{+-}4% for urine (mean{+-}SE, n=3). The mean detection limit (mean + 3x SD of blank) was 0.008 ng/ml for blood and 0.003 ng/ml for urine. Samples from 'unexposed' animals including humans ranged from 0.051{+-}0.000 to 0.229{+-}0.035 ng/ml. Values were approximately 10-fold lower than those obtained by the method of Stoeppler and Brandt using Zeeman background-correction ETAAS. This new high-sensitivity, low-volume assay will be useful for epidemiological studies, even those involving children, and will provide a means to help determine the contribution of cadmium to disease incidence in the general population.

  9. A downscaled multi-residue strategy for detection of anabolic steroids in bovine urine using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS3).

    PubMed

    Impens, S; Van Loco, J; Degroodt, J M; De Brabander, H

    2007-03-14

    Within the scope of the European Community member states' residue monitoring plan, illicit administration of anabolic steroids is monitored at slaughterhouse level as well as on living animals. At farm level, urine is one of the target matrices to detect possible abuse of anabolic steroid growth promoters. Optimisation of the routinely applied analysis method resulted in a procedure for which high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fractionation prior to GC-MS(n) analysis was no longer required. Analytical results could be obtained within 1 day and only 5 mL urine was needed to carry out the screening procedure. Using the downscaled methodology, all validation criteria described in the European Commission document 2002/657/EC could be fulfilled, and the minimum required performance limits (MRPLs) established for anabolic steroids in urine, could be achieved. A higher GC-MS technique's specificity was achieved by detecting the steroids using GC-MS3. Nevertheless, it was decided to screen routinely sampled urine with GC-MS2 whereas GC-MS3 was applied to confirm the presence of anabolic steroid residues in suspected sample extracts. PMID:17386695

  10. Determination of Atto- to Femtogram Levels of Americium and Curium Isotopes in Large-Volume Urine Samples by Compact Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiongxin; Christl, Marcus; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2016-03-01

    Ultralow level analysis of actinides in urine samples may be required for dose assessment in the event of internal exposures to these radionuclides at nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants. A new bioassay method for analysis of sub-femtogram levels of Am and Cm in large-volume urine samples was developed. Americium and curium were co-precipitated with hydrous titanium oxide from the urine matrix and purified by column chromatography separation. After target preparation using mixed titanium/iron oxides, the final sample was measured by compact accelerator mass spectrometry. Urine samples spiked with known quantities of Am and Cm isotopes in the range of attogram to femtogram levels were measured for method evaluation. The results are in good agreement with the expected values, demonstrating the feasibility of compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for the determination of minor actinides at the levels of attogram/liter in urine samples to meet stringent sensitivity requirements for internal dosimetry assessment. PMID:26822907

  11. A novel stacking method of repetitive large volume sample injection and sweeping MEKC for determination of androgenic steroids in urine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Chi; Chen, Jia-Ling; Chen, Yen-Ling; Cheng, Hui-Ling; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2012-09-26

    In this research, a novel stacking capillary electrophoresis method, repetitive large volume sample injection and sweeping MEKC (rLVSI-sweeping MEKC) were developed to analyze the presence of three androgenic steroids considered as sport doping drugs, testosterone (T), epitestosterone (E) and epitestosterone glucuronide (EG) in urine. This method provides better sensitivity enhancement than the traditional large volume sample stacking-sweeping strategies due to sensitivity enhancement by repetitive injections. This multiple sampling method enhances sensitivity of monitoring of urine samples by UV detection (254 nm). Firstly, the phosphate buffer was filled into an uncoated fused silica capillary and the samples were injected into the capillary at 10 psi for 20s, and then stacked at -10 kV for 1 min using phosphate buffer containing SDS. The above injecting and stacking steps were repeated five times. Finally, separation was performed at -20 kV, using phosphate buffer containing methanol, SDS and (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin. Method validation showed that calibration plots were linear (r≥0.997) over a range of 5-200 ng mL(-1) for T, 20-200 ng mL(-1) for E and 0.5-500 ng mL(-1) for EG. The limits of detection were 1.0 ng mL(-1) for T, 5.0 ng mL(-1) for E and 200.0 pg mL(-1) for EG. When evaluating precision and accuracy, values of RSD and RE in intra-day (n=3) and inter-day (n=5) analysis were found to be less than 10.0%. Compared with the simple LVSS-sweeping, which is also a stacking strategy, this method further improves sensitivity up to 25 folds (~2500 folds with MEKC without preconcentration). This method was applied to monitor 10 athletes' urine, and did not detect any analyte. The novel stacking method was feasible for monitoring of doping by sportsmen. PMID:22935380

  12. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePlus

    Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - urine; Gamma globulin electrophoresis - urine; Urine immunoglobulin electrophoresis; IEP - urine ... is used to measure the amounts of various immunoglobulins in urine. Most often, it is done after ...

  13. Plutonium in human urine: Normal levels in the US public. 1991 Annual report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wrenn, M.E.; Singh, N.P.; Xue, Ying-Hua

    1997-03-01

    A neutron induced fission track method was successfully developed for assaying {sup 239}Pu in human urine with a detection limit below 20 aCi/sample. The technique involves the co-precipitation of {sup 239}Pu with rhodizonic acid, separation of {sup 239}Pu from potentially interfering natural uranium and other inorganic materials by ion-exchange techniques, collection of the sample onto lexan detectors, irradiation of sample in MIT reactor at a fluence of 1.1 x 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}, etching of the lexan slide and counting the track either manually or by some automated counting system.

  14. Does temporary socket removal affect residual limb fluid volume of trans-tibial amputees?

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Hartley, TL; Phillips, RH; Ciol, MA; Hafner, BJ; Allyn, KJ; Harrison, DS

    2015-01-01

    Background Lower-limb prosthesis users typically experience residual limb volume losses over the course of the day that can detrimentally affect socket fit. Objectives To determine if temporarily doffing the prosthesis encouraged residual limb fluid volume recovery and if the recovered fluid was maintained. Study Design Experimental design. Methods Residual limb fluid volume was monitored on sixteen participants in three test sessions each. Participants conducted six cycles of resting/standing/walking. Between the third and fourth cycles, participants sat for 30 minutes with the prosthesis and liner: donned (ON), the prosthesis doffed but the liner donned (LINER), or the prosthesis and liner doffed (OFF). Results Percentage fluid volume gain and retention were greatest for the OFF condition followed by the LINER condition. Participants experienced fluid volume losses for the ON condition. Conclusion Doffing the prosthesis and/or liner during rest improved residual limb fluid volume retention compared with leaving the prosthesis and liner donned. Clinical Relevance Practitioners should advise patients who undergo high daily limb volume losses to consider temporarily doffing their prosthesis. Fluid volume retention during subsequent activity will be highest if both the prosthesis and liner are doffed. PMID:25710944

  15. Porphyrins - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... results may be due to: Liver cancer Hepatitis Lead poisoning Porphyria (several types) Alternative Names Urine uroporphyrin; Urine ... More Delta-ALA urine test Enzyme Hemoglobin Hepatitis Lead poisoning Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma PBG urine test Porphyria ...

  16. Fundamental problem in determining functional residual capacity or residual volume. [Of lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Boutellier, U.; Farhi, L.E.

    1986-05-01

    To measure a lung volume that is not directly accessible, one often follows dilution of a single-gas tracer, present initially only in the lung or in a rebreathing bag. The final volume available to the tracer is assumed to be the sum of the two initial components. Since O2 is taken up and CO2 is eliminated during the few breaths required for mixing, the total volume changes. The error in lung volume due to this volume change can exceed 10 pct. Theoretical and experimental data is presented to demonstrate the effect of CO2 and O2 exchange. A general equation, based on N2 and Ar, which allows one to circumvent the problems created by these fluxes is introduced. The pitfall of the back-extrapolation approach for a single tracer is shown.

  17. A fundamental problem in determining functional residual capacity or residual volume. [of lungs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boutellier, U.; Farhi, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    To measure a lung volume that is not directly accessible, one often follows dilution of a single-gas tracer, present initially only in the lung or in a rebreathing bag. The final volume available to the tracer is assumed to be the sum of the two initial components. Since O2 is taken up and CO2 is eliminated during the few breaths required for mixing, the total volume changes. The error in lung volume due to this volume change can exceed 10 pct. Theoretical and experimental data is presented to demonstrate the effect of CO2 and O2 exchange. A general equation, based on N2 and Ar, which allows one to circumvent the problems created by these fluxes is introduced. The pitfall of the back-extrapolation approach for a single tracer is shown.

  18. HOW DOES ADDING AND REMOVING LIQUID FROM SOCKET BLADDERS AFFECT RESIDUAL LIMB FLUID VOLUME?

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Cagle, JC; Harrison, DS; Myers, TR; Allyn, KJ

    2015-01-01

    Adding and removing liquid from socket bladders is a means for people with limb loss to accommodate residual limb volume change. Nineteen people with trans-tibial amputation using their regular prosthetic socket fitted with fluid bladders on the inside socket surface underwent cycles of bladder liquid addition and removal. In each cycle, subjects sat, stood, and walked for 90s with bladder liquid added and then sat, stood, and walking for 90s again with the bladder liquid removed. The amount of bladder liquid added was increased in each cycle. Bioimpedance analysis was implemented to measure residual limb fluid volume. Results showed that the preferred bladder liquid volume was 16.8 mL (s.d.8.4), corresponding to 1.7% (s.d.0.8%) of the average socket volume between the bioimpedance voltage-sensing electrodes. Limb fluid volume driven out of the residual limb when bladder liquid was added was typically not recovered upon subsequent bladder liquid removal. Fifteen of nineteen subjects experienced a gradual limb fluid volume loss over the test session. Care should be taken when implementing adjustable socket technologies in people with limb amputation. Reducing socket volume may accentuate limb fluid volume loss. PMID:24203546

  19. Post-doffing residual limb fluid volume change in people with trans-tibial amputation

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Joan E; Harrison, Daniel S; Cagle, John C; Myers, Timothy R; Ciol, Marcia A; Allyn, Katheryn J

    2014-01-01

    Background Residual limb volume may change after doffing, affecting the limb shape measured and used as a starting point for socket design. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare residual limb fluid volume changes after doffing for different test configurations. Study Design The study was a repeated measures experimental design with three conditions (Sit, Liner, and Walk). Methods Residual limb fluid volume on 30 people with trans-tibial amputation was measured using bioimpedance analysis. Three tests were conducted – Sit: sit for 10 minutes, remove the prosthesis, socks and liner, sit for 10 minutes; Liner: sit for 10 minutes, remove the prosthesis and socks but not the liner, sit for 10 minutes; Walk: conduct sit, stand and walk activities for 30 minutes, remove the prosthesis, socks and liner, sit for 10 minutes. Results The percentage fluid volume increase after doffing was significantly higher for Walk (2.8%) than for Sit (1.8%) (p = 0.03). The time to achieve a maximum or stable fluid volume was shorter for Liner (4.3 min) than for Sit (6.6 min) (p = 0.03). Conclusions Activity before doffing intensified the post-doffing limb fluid volume increase. Maintaining a liner after doffing caused limb fluid volume to stabilize faster than removing the liner. PMID:22588848

  20. Residual gastric fluid volume and chewing gum before surgery.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, Renate C; Ponnamma, Chandra M; Freyle, David; Wang, Shu-Ming; Kain, Zeev N

    2006-02-01

    In this study we sought to determine if chewing gum preoperatively increases gastric fluid volume (GFV) and changes gastric acidity. Children, 5-17 yr old, were randomized to one of three groups: a control group that was not given any gum, a group that was given sugarless bubble gum, and a group that was given sugared bubble gum. Patients in the two gum groups were instructed to chew their gum for a period of 30 min. After induction of anesthesia and tracheal intubation, the stomach was suctioned with a salem sump orogastric tube. We found that children who did not chew gum had significantly smaller GFV as compared with children who chewed sugared and sugarless gum (0.35 [0.2-0.5] mL/kg versus 0.88 [0.6-1.4] mL/kg versus 0.69 [0.4-1.6] mL/kg; P = 0.0001). Children who did not chew gum also had a significantly lower gastric fluid pH as compared with children chewing sugared and sugarless gum (geometric mean, 1.91 versus 2.25 versus 2.19; P = 0.007). We conclude that children who present for surgery while chewing gum have significantly larger GFV and higher pH. PMID:16428535

  1. Urine odor

    MedlinePlus

    Urine odor refers to the smell from your urine. Urine odor varies. Most of the time, urine does not ... Most changes in urine odor are not a sign of disease and go away in time. Some foods and medicines, including vitamins, may affect your ...

  2. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  3. Investigation of Urination Disorder in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-Mei; Zhang, Xu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urination disorders are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and respond poorly to medication. This study aimed to analyze the risk factors for urination disorders in PD. Methods: Ninety-one patients with PD (aged 34–83 years old) were recruited. Patients were assessed with the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hoehn and Yahr stage, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA). Micturition number was recorded, and Type B ultrasound was used to evaluate residual urine. Statistics was performed using binary logistic regression, bivariate correlations, and Chi-square and t-tests. Results: Of 91 patients, urinary dysfunction occurred in 55.0%. Among these, 49.5% suffered with nocturia, 47.3% with pollakiuria. Nocturia number had a positive linear relationship with HAMA score (odds ratio [OR] = 0.340, P = 0.001), HAMD score (OR = 0.323, P = 0.002), duration of L-dopa medication (OR = 0.328, P = 0.001), dose of L-dopa (OR = 0.273, P = 0.009), UPDRS-II (OR = 0.402, P = 0.000), UPDRS-III score (OR = 0.291, P = 0.005), and PSQI score (OR = 0.249, P = 0.017). Micturition number over 24 h was positively associated with HAMA (OR = 0.303, P = 0.004) and UPDRS-II scores (OR = 0.306, P = 0.003). Of patients with residual urine, 79.3% had a volume of residual urine <50 ml. Residual urine was present in 44.4% of the patients with nocturia, 46.5% of the patients with pollakiuria, and 80.0% of the patients with dysuria. More men than women had residual urine (35.2% male vs. 13.3% female; P = 0.002). Conclusions: Nocturia and pollakiuria were common micturition symptoms in our participants with PD. Nocturia was associated with depression, anxiety, sleep problems, and severity of PD. Pollakiuria was associated with anxiety and severity of PD. Male patients were more prone to residual urine and pollakiuria. PMID:26521789

  4. Urine Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feedback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a system designed to collect an individual crewmember's void, gently separate urine from air, accurately measure void volume, allow for void sample acquisition, and discharge remaining urine into the Waste Collector Subsystem (WCS) onboard the International Space Station. The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a successor design to the existing Space Shuttle system and will resolve anomalies such as: liquid carry-over, inaccurate void volume measurements, and cross contamination in void samples. The crew will perform an evaluation of airflow at the ISS UMS urinal hose interface, a calibration evaluation, and a full user interface evaluation. o The UMS can be used to facilitate non-invasive methods for monitoring crew health, evaluation of countermeasures, and implementation of a variety of biomedical research protocols on future exploration missions.

  5. Direct analysis of eight chlorophenols in urine by large volume injection online turbulent flow solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography with multiple wavelength ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Liu, Qian; Shi, Jian-bo; Wei, Fu-sheng; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2014-02-01

    A novel method for determining eight chlorophenols (CPs) by large volume injection online turbulent flow solid-phase extraction high performance liquid chromatography in urine samples was developed. An aliquot of 1.0 mL urine sample could be analyzed directly after centrifugation. The analytes were preconcentrated online on a Turboflow C18-P SPE column, eluted in back-flush mode, and then separated on an Acclaim PA2 analytical column. Major parameters such as SPE column type, sample loading flow rate and elution time were optimized in detail. Eight CPs from monochlorophenol to pentacholophenol were measured by multiple-wavelength UV detection at four different wavelengths. The limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.5 and 2 ng/mL. The linearity range was from the limit of quantification to 1000 ng/mL for each compound, with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) ranging from 0.9990 to 0.9996. The reproducibility of intraday and interday relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0.6% to 4.5% (n=5). The method was successfully applied to analyze eight CPs in urine samples. Good recoveries, ranging from 76.3% to 122.9%, were obtained. This simple, sensitive and accurate method provides an alternative way to rapidly analyze and monitor CPs in urine samples, especially for matters of occupational exposure. PMID:24401430

  6. Computer aided preoperative evaluation of the residual liver volume using computed tomography images.

    PubMed

    Bliznakova, Kristina; Kolev, Nikola; Buliev, Ivan; Tonev, Anton; Encheva, Elitsa; Bliznakov, Zhivko; Ivanov, Krasimir

    2015-04-01

    Major hepatectomy causes a risk of postoperative liver dysfunction, failure, and infections like surgical site infection. Preoperative assessment of the liver volume and function of the remnant liver is a mandatory prerequisite before performing such surgery. The aim of this work is to develop and test a software application for evaluation of the residual function of the liver prior to the intervention of the surgeons. For this purpose, a technique for evaluation of liver volume from computed tomography (CT) images has been developed. Furthermore, the methodology algorithms were implemented and incorporated within a software tool with three basic functionalities: volume determination based on segmentation of liver from CT images, virtual tumour resection and estimation of the residual liver function and 3D visualisation. Forty-one sets of abdominal CT images consisting of different number of tomographic slice images were used to test and evaluate the proposed approach. Volumes that were obtained after manual tracing by two surgeon experts showed a relative difference of 3.5 %. The suggested methodology was encapsulated within an application with user-friendly interface that allows surgeons interactively to perform virtual tumour resection, to evaluate the relative residual liver and render the final result. Thereby, it is a tool in the surgeons' hands that significantly facilitates their duties, saves time, and allows them to objectively evaluate the situation and take the right decisions. At the same time, the tool appears to be appropriate educational instrument for virtual training of young surgeon specialists. PMID:25273505

  7. Determining the Volume of Additive Solution and Residual Plasma in Whole Blood Filtered and Buffy Coat Processed Red Cell Concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Andrew; Acker, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Residual plasma in transfused red cell concentrates (RCCs) has been associated with adverse transfusion outcomes. Despite this, there is no consensus on the standard procedure for measuring residual plasma volume. Methods The volumes of residual plasma and additive solution were measured in RCCs processed using two separation methods: whole blood filtration (WBF) and buffy coat (BC)/RCC filtration. The concentration of mannitol and albumin in RCC components was measured using colorimetric assays. Mannitol concentration was used to calculate additive solution volume. Residual plasma volume was calculated using two methods. Results Calculated RCC supernatant volumes were much lower in BC-processed components compared to WBF-processed components (BC = 97 ± 6 ml, WBF = 109 ± 4 ml; p < 0.05). Calculated additive solution volumes were greater in WBF- than in BC-processed components (BC = 81 ± 4 ml, WBF = 105 ± 2 ml; p < 0.05). Absolute residual plasma volume varied significantly based on the calculation method used. Conclusion Disparity between plasma volume calculation methods was observed. Efforts should be made to standardize residual plasma volume measurement methods in order to accurately assess the impact of residual plasma on transfusion outcomes. PMID:27330533

  8. Blackcurrant seed press residue increases tocopherol concentrations in serum and stool whilst biomarkers in stool and urine indicate increased oxidative stress in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Helbig, Dorit; Wagner, Andreas; Glei, Michael; Basu, Samar; Schubert, Rainer; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2009-08-01

    Berry seeds are a tocopherol-rich by-product of fruit processing without specific commercial value. In a human intervention study, the physiological impact of blackcurrant seed press residue (PR) was tested. Thirty-six women (aged 24 +/- 3 years; twenty non-smokers, sixteen smokers) consumed 250 g bread/d containing 8% PR for a period of 4 weeks (period 3). Comparatively, a control bread without PR (250 g/d) was tested (period 2) and baseline data were obtained (period 1). Blood, stool and 24 h urine were collected during a 5 d standardised diet within each period. Tocopherol and Fe intakes were calculated from food intake. In serum, tocopherol concentration and Fe parameters were determined. In urine, oxidative stress markers 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-iso-PGF2alpha and inflammatory response marker 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2alpha were analysed. Stool tocopherol concentration, genotoxicity of faecal water (comet assay) and antioxidant capacity of stool (aromatic hydroxylation of salicylic acid) were determined. Fe and total tocopherol intake, total tocopherol concentrations in serum and stool, and genotoxicity of faecal water increased with PR bread consumption (P < 0.05). The antioxidant capacity of stool decreased between baseline and intervention, expressed by increased formation of 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid in vitro (P < 0.05). In smokers, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine increased with PR consumption (P < 0.05). Prostane concentrations were unaffected by PR bread consumption. In summary, the intake of bread containing blackcurrant PR for 4 weeks increased serum and stool total tocopherol concentrations. However, various biomarkers indicated increased oxidative stress, suggesting that consumption of ground berry seed may not be of advantage. PMID:19302719

  9. Preliminary investigation of residual-limb fluid volume changes within one day

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Joan E.; Allyn, Katheryn J.; Harrison, Daniel S.; Myers, Timothy R.; Ciol, Marcia A.; Tsai, Elaine C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate rates of residual limb fluid volume change within a day on people with transtibial limb loss. Rates of fluid volume change during 30-minute test sessions of sitting, standing, and walking activities were measured twice a day on twelve regular prosthesis users, once in the morning and once in the afternoon, using bioimpedance analysis. Between test sessions all subjects consumed food and drink, and subject activity ranged from low to high. The rate of fluid volume change within sessions ranged from −8.5%/h to +5.9%/h with a median of −2.3%/h. The rate of fluid volume change between sessions ranged from −2.6%/h to 1.2%/h with a median of −1.0%/h. The between-session rate of fluid volume change was highly correlated with afternoon within-session rates of change (r=0.9) but not well-correlated with morning within-session rates of change (r=0.8). Subjects with peripheral arterial complications showed greater fluid volume loss rates during test sessions than between sessions. Rate of fluid volume change may be affected by sitting, standing, and walking activities; presence of peripheral arterial complications; being a female; time since amputation; and maintaining the socket without doffing for extended periods. PMID:23516051

  10. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the urine can result from: Amyloidosis Leukemia Multiple myeloma Kidney disorders such as IgA nephropathy or IgM ... CLL) IgA nephropathy Immunoelectrophoresis - blood Macroglobulinemia of Waldenstrom Multiple myeloma Protein electrophoresis - urine Protein urine test Urinalysis Update ...

  11. Greene’s residue criterion for the breakup of invariant tori of volume-preserving maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Adam M.; Meiss, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Invariant tori play a fundamental role in the dynamics of symplectic and volume-preserving maps. Codimension-one tori are particularly important as they form barriers to transport. Such tori foliate the phase space of integrable, volume-preserving maps with one action and d angles. For the area-preserving case, Greene’s residue criterion is often used to predict the destruction of tori from the properties of nearby periodic orbits. Even though KAM theory applies to the three-dimensional case, the robustness of tori in such systems is still poorly understood. We study a three-dimensional, reversible, volume-preserving analogue of Chirikov’s standard map with one action and two angles. We investigate the preservation and destruction of tori under perturbation by computing the “residue” of nearby periodic orbits. We find tori with Diophantine rotation vectors in the “spiral mean” cubic algebraic field. The residue is used to generate the critical function of the map and find a candidate for the most robust torus.

  12. Polyphenol-rich extract of Vernonia amygdalina (Del.) leaves ameliorated cadmium-induced alterations in feeding pattern and urine volume of male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Imafidon, Christian Eseigbe; Akomolafe, Rufus Ojo; Sanusi, Abubakar Abefe; Ogundipe, Oluwadare Joshua; Olukiran, Olaoluwa Sesan; Ayowole, Oladele Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effects of a polyphenol-rich extract of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (PEVA) on the feeding pattern of rats that are exposed to cadmium (Cd) toxicity. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats, weighing 160-180 g, were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each as follows; Group 1 received distilled water orally (0.2 ml a 100 g rats), daily, throughout the period of study. Group 2 received Cd alone (in the form of CdSO4) at 5 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal route for 5 consecutive days. Group 3 were pre-treated with Cd as Group 2 and thereafter left untreated for a period of 4-week. After the oral lethal dose of PEVA was determined, Groups 4, 5, and 6 received graded doses of PEVA at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day (0.2 ml per 100 g rats), respectively via oral route for 4 weeks after they were pre-treated with Cd as Group 2. Blood samples were collected for some plasma biochemical assays while urine samples were collected using metabolic cages. Results: PEVA administration significantly increased (P < 0.05) the body weight and feeding patterns that were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by Cd toxicity. PEVA also significantly reinstated the plasma antioxidant status, as well as glucose and urine volume of the rats toward control values (P < 0.05). Conclusion: PEVA can be an herbal alternative in the treatment or management of subjects manifesting alterations in feeding pattern and urine volume that is Cd-induced. PMID:26649233

  13. Urine sampling and collection system optimization and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Geating, J. A.; Koesterer, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    A Urine Sampling and Collection System (USCS) engineering model was developed to provide for the automatic collection, volume sensing and sampling of urine from each micturition. The purpose of the engineering model was to demonstrate verification of the system concept. The objective of the optimization and testing program was to update the engineering model, to provide additional performance features and to conduct system testing to determine operational problems. Optimization tasks were defined as modifications to minimize system fluid residual and addition of thermoelectric cooling.

  14. Calculation of the Residual Blood Volume after Acute, Non-Ongoing Hemorrhage Using Serial Hematocrit Measurements and the Volume of Isotonic Fluid Infused: Theoretical Hypothesis Generating Study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won Sup; Chon, Sung-Bin

    2016-05-01

    Fluid resuscitation, hemostasis, and transfusion is essential in care of hemorrhagic shock. Although estimation of the residual blood volume is crucial, the standard measuring methods are impractical or unsafe. Vital signs, central venous or pulmonary artery pressures are inaccurate. We hypothesized that the residual blood volume for acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage was calculable using serial hematocrit measurements and the volume of isotonic solution infused. Blood volume is the sum of volumes of red blood cells and plasma. For acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage, red blood cell volume would not change. A certain portion of the isotonic fluid would increase plasma volume. Mathematically, we suggest that the residual blood volume after acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage might be calculated as 0·25N/[(Hct1/Hct2)-1], where Hct1 and Hct2 are the initial and subsequent hematocrits, respectively, and N is the volume of isotonic solution infused. In vivo validation and modification is needed before clinical application of this model. PMID:27134507

  15. Calculation of the Residual Blood Volume after Acute, Non-Ongoing Hemorrhage Using Serial Hematocrit Measurements and the Volume of Isotonic Fluid Infused: Theoretical Hypothesis Generating Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation, hemostasis, and transfusion is essential in care of hemorrhagic shock. Although estimation of the residual blood volume is crucial, the standard measuring methods are impractical or unsafe. Vital signs, central venous or pulmonary artery pressures are inaccurate. We hypothesized that the residual blood volume for acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage was calculable using serial hematocrit measurements and the volume of isotonic solution infused. Blood volume is the sum of volumes of red blood cells and plasma. For acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage, red blood cell volume would not change. A certain portion of the isotonic fluid would increase plasma volume. Mathematically, we suggest that the residual blood volume after acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage might be calculated as 0·25N/[(Hct1/Hct2)–1], where Hct1 and Hct2 are the initial and subsequent hematocrits, respectively, and N is the volume of isotonic solution infused. In vivo validation and modification is needed before clinical application of this model. PMID:27134507

  16. How do sock ply changes affect residual limb fluid volume in people with trans-tibial amputation?

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Harrison, DS; Allyn, KJ; Myers, TR; Ciol, MA; Tsai, EC

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of sock addition and sock removal on residual limb fluid volume in people using prosthetic limbs. We used bioimpedance analysis to measure residual limb extracellular fluid volume on 28 transtibial amputee subjects during 30-minute test sessions. Upon addition of a 1-ply polyester sock, residual limb fluid volume changes ranged from −4.0% to 0.8% (mean −0.9% (s.d.=1.3%)) of the initial limb fluid volume. Changes for sock removal ranged from −1.2% to 2.8% (mean 0.5% (s.d.=0.8%)). Subjects who reduced in fluid volume with both addition and removal of a sock and subjects with high positive ratios between the fluid volume loss upon sock addition and the gain upon sock removal (high Add/Remove(AR) ratios) tended to have arterial disease, were obese and smokers. Subjects with low positive AR ratios, subjects who increased in fluid volume both with sock addition and removal, and a single subject who increased in fluid volume with sock addition and decreased with sock removal tended to be non-smokers and either healthy individuals without complications or individuals without arterial problems. Results are relevant towards anticipating limb volume changes during prosthetic fitting and towards the design of adjustable-socket technologies. PMID:22773526

  17. Immunofixation - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... need to supply a clean-catch (midstream) urine sample. Clean the area around where urine leaves the body. Men or boys should wipe the head of the penis. Women or girls should wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. Allow a small amount to ...

  18. Effects of elevated vacuum on in-socket residual limb fluid volume: Case study results using bioimpedance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, JE; Harrison, DS; Myers, TR; Allyn, KJ

    2015-01-01

    Bioimpedance analysis was used to measure residual limb fluid volume on seven trans-tibial amputee subjects using elevated vacuum sockets and non-elevated vacuum sockets. Fluid volume changes were assessed during sessions with the subjects sitting, standing, and walking. In general, fluid volume losses during 3 or 5 min walks and losses over the course of the 30-min test session were less for elevated vacuum than for suction. A number of variables including the time of day data were collected, soft tissue consistency, socket-to-limb size differences and shape differences, and subject health may have affected the results and had an equivalent or greater impact on limb fluid volume compared with elevated vacuum. Researchers should well consider these variables in study design of future investigations on the effects of elevated vacuum on residual limb volume. PMID:22234667

  19. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  20. Frequent Urination

    MedlinePlus

    ... leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day Your support helps babies We are determined to ... very strong. After birth For the first few days after delivery, you may urinate even more often ...

  1. Urination Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Urination ...

  2. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... best treatment for the most common type of kidney stone , which is made of calcium. This type of ... the kidneys into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production ...

  3. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production of ... Milk-alkali syndrome Proximal renal tubular acidosis Rickets Sarcoidosis Vitamin D Update Date 5/3/2015 Updated ...

  4. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  5. Bilirubin - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... or gallbladder Considerations Bilirubin can break down in light. That is why babies with jaundice are sometimes placed under blue fluorescent lamps. Alternative Names Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - ...

  6. Intrathecal baclofen withdrawal syndrome caused by low residual volume in the pump reservoir: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Rigoli, Gianfranco; Terrini, Giovanni; Cordioli, Zeno

    2004-12-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is an effective treatment for spasticity caused by spinal or cerebral pathologies. Severe withdrawal symptoms can result, however, if ITB is abruptly withdrawn as a result of equipment malfunctions or human error. We describe 2 cases of severe ITB withdrawal syndrome. In the first case, the symptoms appeared 5 months after pump placement, when residual volume was 2.0 mL; in the second case, symptoms appeared 2 months after the replacement of a new pump, when residual volume was 0.9 mL. In both cases, there was no evidence of system malfunction or human error. The syndrome occurred from up to 72 hours before the scheduled refilling procedure, and the residual volume in the Medtronic SynchroMed EL pump reservoir was either at, or significantly lower than, the recommended 2 mL. These cases suggest that the SynchroMed EL pump reservoir should be refilled, to avoid potentially serious consequences, when the residual volume is not lower than 3 mL by programming the alarm to sound at a volume larger than the recommended 2 mL. PMID:15605349

  7. Ketones urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  8. Functional residual capacity tool: A practical method to assess lung volume changes during pulmonary complications in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Veena, S; Palepu, Sudeep; Umamaheswara Rao, G S; Ramesh, V J

    2010-07-01

    In this report, we describe a patient in whom we used a functional residual capacity (FRC) tool available on a critical care ventilator to identify the loss of lung volume associated with pulmonary complications and increase in FRC with the application of a recruitment maneuver. The case report underlines the utility of the FRC tool in rapid visualization of the lung volume changes and the effects of application of corrective strategies in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. PMID:21253350

  9. Development of a high-resolution automatic digital (urine/electrolytes) flow volume and rate measurement system of miniature size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, F. F.

    1975-01-01

    To aid in the quantitative analysis of man's physiological rhythms, a flowmeter to measure circadian patterns of electrolyte excretion during various environmental stresses was developed. One initial flowmeter was designed and fabricated, the sensor of which is the approximate size of a wristwatch. The detector section includes a special type of dielectric integrating type sensor which automatically controls, activates, and deactivates the flow sensor data output by determining the presence or absence of fluid flow in the system, including operation under zero-G conditions. The detector also provides qualitative data on the composition of the fluid. A compact electronic system was developed to indicate flow rate as well as total volume per release or the cumulative volume of several releases in digital/analog forms suitable for readout or telemetry. A suitable data readout instrument is also provided. Calibration and statistical analyses of the performance functions required of the flowmeter were also conducted.

  10. The International Space Station Urine Monitoring System (UMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Milstead, Jeffery R.; Pietrzyk,, Robert A.; Clark, Mark S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A device capable of making in-flight volume measurements of single void urine samples, the Urine Monitoring System (UMS), was developed and flown on seven U.S. Space Shuttle missions. This device provided volume data for each urine void from multiple crewmembers and allowed samples of each to be taken and returned to Earth for post-flight analysis. There were a number of design flaws in the original instrument including the presence of liquid carry-over producing invalid "actual" micturition volumes and cross-contamination between successive users from residual urine in "dead" spots". Additionally, high or low volume voids could not be accurately measured, the on-orbit calibration and nominal use sequence was time intensive, and the unit had to be returned and disassembled to retrieve the volume data. These problems have been resolved in a new version, the International Space Station (ISS) UMS, that has been designed to provide real-time in-flight volume data with accuracy and precision equivalent to measurements made on Earth and the ability to provide urine samples that are unadulterated by the device. Originally conceived to be interfaced with a U.S.-built Waste Collection System (WCS), the unit now has been modified to interface with the Russian-supplied Sanitary Hygiene Device (ASY). The ISS UMS provides significant advantages over the current method of collecting urine samples into Urine Collection Devices (UCDs), from which samples are removed and returned to Earth for analyses. A significant future advantage of the UMS is that it can provide an interface to analytical instrumentation that will allow real-time measurement of urine bioanalytes allowing monitoring of crewmember health status during flight and the ability to provide medical interventions based on the results of these measurements. Currently, the ISS UMS is scheduled to launch along with Node-3 on STS-130 (20A) in December 2009. UMS will be installed and scientific/functional verification

  11. Using human urine as food for cyanobacteria in LSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalacheva, Galina; Gribovskaya, Iliada; Kolmakova, Angela

    In biological LSS: human, higher plants, algae, united by common cycle of matter, native human urine is the most problematic substance for using in inter-link exchange. It contains urea, ammonium compounds and up to 10 g/l of NaCl. Each of the mentioned components is toxic for growing higher plants. As for inferior plants, experiments showed that cyanobacteria of genus Spirulina platensis and similar genus Oscillatoria deflexa can grow at NaCl concentrations up to 20 g/l and NH4Cl concentrations up to 800 mg/l. These cyanobacteria can be used in LSS as a photosynthesizing link. Besides, S. platensis is edible for humans and fish. To use urine as food for algae, it is necessary to remove urea and organics. All previously used methods for urine treatment aimed at urea destruction: heating to 300oC, ultraviolet exposure, freezing, oxidation on reactor with hydrogen peroxide, had no effect. We used the following method of urine treatment: urine evaporation till dry residue, subsequent combustion in muffle furnace at 450-500oC and creation of ash water extract of the same volume as the initial urine. Comparison of standard Zarrouk's solution for S. platensis and O. deflexa with the water extract of urine ash showed that the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, P, S were similar. Successful experiments were made with O. deflexa that were grown on nutrient solution made of the water extract of urine ash with 10 g/l of NaHCO3 and 2 g/l of NaNO3. The sources of intersystem production of HCO3 and NO3 were shown, and the biochemical composition of the investigated algae species, including mineral composition, protein, carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid and vitamin content were studied.

  12. Estimation of Residual Peritoneal Volume Using Technetium-99m Sulfur Colloid Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Katopodis, Konstantinos P; Fotopoulos, Andrew D; Balafa, Olga C; Tsiouris, Spyridon Th; Triandou, Eleni G; Al-Bokharhli, Jichad B; Kitsos, Athanasios C; Dounousi, Evagelia C; Siamopoulos, Konstantinos C

    2015-01-01

    Residual peritoneal volume (RPV) may contribute in the development of ultrafiltration failure in patients with normal transcapillary ultrafiltration. The aim of this study was to estimate the RPV using intraperitoneal technetium-99m Sulfur Colloid (Tc). Twenty patients on peritoneal dialysis were studied. RPV was estimated by: 1) intraperitoneal instillation of Tc (RPV-Tc) and 2) classic Twardowski calculations using endogenous solutes, such as urea (RPV-u), creatinine (RPV-cr), and albumin (RPV-alb). Each method's reproducibility was assessed in a subgroup of patients in two consecutive measurements 48 h apart. Both methods displayed reproducibility (r = 0.93, p = 0.001 for RPVTc and r = 0.90, p = 0.001 for RPV-alb) between days 1 and 2, respectively. We found a statistically significant difference between RPV-Tc and RPV-cr measurements (347.3 ± 116.7 vs. 450.0 ± 67.8 ml; p =0.001) and RPV-u (515.5 ± 49.4 ml; p < 0.001), but not with RPV-alb (400.1 ± 88.2 ml; p = 0.308). A good correlation was observed only between RPV-Tc and RPV-alb (p < 0.001). The Tc method can estimate the RPV as efficiently as the high molecular weight endogenous solute measurement method. It can also provide an imaging estimate of the intraperitoneal distribution of RPV. PMID:25806615

  13. Pink urine.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, E; Capron, A; Hantson, P

    2014-11-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted after a suspected hypnotic overdose of valerian extracts. In addition to altered consciousness, the first clinical symptoms included not only diffuse rash on the face, trunk, and limbs, but also an inspiratory dyspnea with a marked hypoxemia. A major laryngeal edema was noted during orotracheal intubation. After correction of hypoxemia, the patient became agitated and propofol was administered by continuous infusion. In addition, the patient passed pink urine staining the urine collection bag. The presence of an unidentified toxic substance was suspected. PMID:25233954

  14. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESSES FOR AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST PRODUCT RESIDUES. VOLUME 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    A preliminary assessment was made of the environmental impacts of several types of conversion processes for producing energy or fuels from agricultural and forestry residues. Fifteen examples were selected to represent various combinations of agricultural residues and conversion ...

  15. Urine monitoring system failure analysis and operational verification test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glanfield, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Failure analysis and testing of a prototype urine monitoring system (UMS) are reported. System performance was characterized by a regression formula developed from volume measurement test data. When the volume measurement test data. When the volume measurement data was imputted to the formula, the standard error of the estimate calculated using the regression formula was found to be within 1.524% of the mean of the mass of the input. System repeatability was found to be somewhat dependent upon the residual volume of the system and the evaporation of fluid from the separator. The evaporation rate was determined to be approximately 1cc/minute. The residual volume in the UMS was determined by measuring the concentration of LiCl in the flush water. Observed results indicated residual levels in the range of 9-10ml, however, results obtained during the flushing efficiency test indicated a residual level of approximately 20ml. It is recommended that the phase separator pumpout time be extended or the design modified to minimize the residual level.

  16. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  17. Evaluation of EMIT and RIA high volume test procedures for THC metabolites in urine utilizing GC/MS confirmation.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, M L; Jewell, J S

    1986-01-01

    Results of EMIT, Abuscreen RIA, and GC/MS tests for THC metabolites in a high volume random urinalysis program are compared. Samples were field tested by non-laboratory personnel with an EMIT system using a 100 ng/mL cutoff. Samples were then sent to the Army Forensic Toxicology Drug Testing Laboratory (WRAMC) at Fort Meade, Maryland, where they were tested by RIA (Abuscreen) using a statistical 100 ng/mL cutoff. Confirmations of all RIA positives were accomplished using a GC/MS procedure. EMIT and RIA results agreed for 91% of samples. Data indicated a 4% false positive rate and a 10% false negative rate for EMIT field testing. In a related study, results for samples which tested positive by RIA for THC metabolites using a statistical 100 ng/mL cutoff were compared with results by GC/MS utilizing a 20 ng/mL cutoff for the THCA metabolite. Presence of THCA metabolite was detected in 99.7% of RIA positive samples. No relationship between quantitations determined by the two tests was found. PMID:3022068

  18. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection of Schistosoma DNA in Small-Volume Urine Samples Reflects Focal Distribution of Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Primary School Girls in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Pavitra; Taylor, Myra; Zulu, Siphosenkosi G.; Gundersen, Svein G.; Verweij, Jaco J.; Hoekstra, Pytsje; Brienen, Eric A. T.; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Kjetland, Eyrun F.; van Lieshout, Lisette

    2014-01-01

    Schistosoma haematobium eggs and Schistosoma DNA levels were measured in urine samples from 708 girls recruited from 18 randomly sampled primary schools in South Africa. Microscopic analysis of two 10-mL urine subsamples collected on three consecutive days confirmed high day-to-day variation; 103 (14.5%) girls had positive results at all six examinations, and at least one positive sample was seen in 225 (31.8%) girls. Schistosoma-specific DNA, which was measured in a 200-μL urine subsample by using real-time polymerase chain reaction, was detected in 180 (25.4%) cases, and levels of DNA corresponded significantly with average urine egg excretion. In concordance with microscopic results, polymerase chain reaction results were significantly associated with history of gynecologic symptoms and confirmed highly focal distribution of urogenital schistosomiasis. Parasite-specific DNA detection has a sensitivity comparable to single urine microscopy and could be used as a standardized high-throughput procedure to assess distribution of urogenital schistosomiasis in relatively large study populations by using small sample volumes. PMID:24470560

  19. Anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residue: potential for improvement and implementation. Final report, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Jewell, W. J.; Dell'orto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Hayes, T. D.; Leuschner, A. P.; Sherman, D. F.

    1980-04-01

    Earlier studies have shown that although large quantities of agricultural residues are generated on small farms, it was difficult to economically justify use of conventional anaerobic digestion technology, such as used for sewage sludge digestion. A simple, unmixed, earthen-supported structure appeared to be capable of producing significant quantities of biogas at a cost that would make it competitive with many existing fuels. The goal of this study was to define and demonstrate a methane fermentation technology that could be practical and economically feasible on small farms. This study provides the first long term, large scale (reactor volumes of 34 m/sup 3/) parallel testing of the major theory, design, construction, and operation of a low cost approach to animal manure fermentation as compared to the more costly and complex designs. The main objectives were to define the lower limits for successful fermentor operation in terms of mixing, insulation, temperature, feed rate, and management requirements in a cold climate with both pilot scale and full scale fermentors. Over a period of four years, innovative fermentation processes for animal manures were developed from theoretical concept to successful full scale demonstration. Reactors were sized for 50 to 65 dairy animals, or for the one-family dairy size. The results show that a small farm biogas generation system that should be widely applicable and economically feasible was operated successfully for nearly two years. Although this low cost system out-performed the completely mixed unit throughout the study, perhaps the greatest advantage of this approach is its ease of modification, operation, and maintenance.

  20. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. Causes Abnormal urine color may ... red blood cells, or mucus in the urine. Dark brown but clear urine is a sign of ...

  1. The Human Urine Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing

  2. Pre-Chemoradiotherapy FDG PET/CT cannot Identify Residual Metabolically-Active Volumes within Individual Esophageal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lu, W; Tan, S; Chen, W; Kligerman, S; Feigenberg, SJ; Zhang, H; Suntharalingam, M; Kang, M; D’Souza, WD

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study whether subvolumes with a high pre-chemoradiotherapy (CRT) FDG uptake could identify residual metabolically-active volumes (MAVs) post-CRT within individual esophageal tumors. Accurate identification will allow simultaneous integrated boost to these subvolumes at higher risk to improve clinical outcomes. Methods Twenty patients with esophageal cancer were treated with CRT plus surgery and underwent FDG PET/CT scans before and after CRT. The two scans were rigidly registered. Seven MAVs pre-CRT and four MAVs post-CRT within a tumor were defined with various SUV thresholds. The similarity and proximity between the MAVs pre-CRT and post-CRT were quantified with three metrics: fraction of post-CRT MAV included in pre-CRT MAV, volume overlap and centroid distance. Results Eight patients had no residual MAV. Six patients had local residual MAV (SUV ≥2.5 post-CRT) within or adjoining the original MAV (SUV ≥2.5 pre-CRT). On average, less than 65% of any post-CRT MAVs was included in any pre-CRT MAVs, with a low volume overlap <45%, and large centroid distance >8.6 mm. In general, subvolumes with higher FDG-uptake pre-CRT or post-CRT had lower volume overlap and larger centroid distance. Six patients had new distant MAVs that were determined to be inflammation from radiation therapy. Conclusions Pre-CRT PET/CT cannot reliably identify the residual MAVs within individual esophageal tumors. Simultaneous integrated boost to subvolumes with high FDG uptake pre-CRT may not be feasible. PMID:26594591

  3. DISINFECTION EFFICIENCY AND RESIDUAL TOXICITY OF SEVERAL WASTEWATER DISINFECTANTS. VOLUME I. GRANDVILLE, MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of chlorine, bromine chloride, and ozone as wastewater disinfectants, and to determine any residual toxicity associated with wastewater disinfection with these agents or with chlorinated wastewater which had been...

  4. A novel mutation affecting the arginine-137 residue of AVPR2 in dizygous twins leads to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and attenuated urine exosome aquaporin-2.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Gitte R; Hansen, Louise H; Nielsen, Maria R; Fagerberg, Christina; Dieperink, Hans; Rittig, Søren; Jensen, Boye L

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in the vasopressin V2 receptor gene AVPR2 may cause X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus by defective apical insertion of aquaporin-2 in the renal collecting duct principal cell. Substitution mutations with exchange of arginine at codon 137 can cause nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis or congenital X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. We present a novel mutation in codon 137 within AVPR2 with substitution of glycine for arginine in male dizygotic twins. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was demonstrated by water deprivation test and resistance to vasopressin administration. While a similar urine exosome release rate was shown between probands and controls by western blotting for the marker ALIX, there was a selective decrease in exosome aquaporin-2 versus aquaporin-1 protein in probands compared to controls. PMID:27117808

  5. Urine as a biological specimen for forensic analysis of alcohol and variability in the urine-to-blood relationship.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alan W

    2006-01-01

    This article concerns the use of urine as a biological specimen for determination of alcohol in clinical and forensic toxicology and discusses factors that might influence variability in the urine/blood concentration ratio of alcohol. A large number of human drinking experiments were conducted to determine the time course of urine-alcohol concentrations (UAC) in relation to blood-alcohol concentrations (BAC). The UAC and BAC curves were shifted in time and the BAC curve always began to decrease before the UAC started to decline. During the early absorption phase the UAC/BAC ratio was less than unity, whereas in the late absorption/distribution period the ratio was between 1.0-1.2. On reaching the post-absorptive phase, the UAC always exceeded BAC and UAC/BAC ratios averaged 1.3-1.4, increasing appreciably as BAC decreased towards zero. Alcohol-induced diuresis was most pronounced during the rising portion of the BAC curve and near to the peak value. After about 2 hours post-drinking, the production rate of urine diminished to the pre-drinking rate of about 0.5-1 mL/min. Drinking water during the post-absorptive phase of the alcohol curve produced dilute urine, as reflected in lower creatinine content and osmolality, although the concentration of ethanol remained unchanged. After subjects drank a moderate dose of ethanol (0.54-0.85 g/kg) about 2% of the dose was recoverable in the urine after 7 hours. Ethyl glucuronide, a minor metabolite of ethanol, was measured in urine samples from drunk drivers. The UAC/BAC ratio of ethanol in drunk drivers did not depend on the creatinine content of the urine and therefore the relative dilution of the specimens. When alcohol-free urine was spiked with glucose and infected with the yeast species Candida albicans, ethanol was produced by fermentation after approximately 24 hours storage at room temperature. This post-sampling synthesis of ethanol was prevented by sodium fluoride (1% weight by volume) in the urine tubes or by

  6. Large Residual Volume, Not Low Packing Density, Is the Most Influential Risk Factor for Recanalization after Coil Embolization of Cerebral Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Sadato, Akiyo; Hayakawa, Motoharu; Adachi, Kazuhide; Nakahara, Ichiro; Hirose, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Tight coil packing with density of at least 20%–25% is known to be important for preventing recanalization after embolization of cerebral aneurysms. However, large aneurysms sometimes recanalize regardless of the packing density, suggesting that the absolute residual volume which is determined by aneurysm volume and packing density may be more important risk factor for recanalization. To validate this hypothesis, we analyzed the factors affecting the outcomes of treated aneurysms at our institute. Methods and Findings We included 355 small and large aneurysms. The following six factors were obtained from every case: aneurysm volume (mL), neck size (mm), packing density (%), residual volume (mL), rupture status at presentation, and stent assistance (with or without stent). The data were then subjected to multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify significant risk factors for recanalization. Recanalization occurred in 61 aneurysms (17.2%). Significant predictors for recanalization were aneurysm volume (odds ratio, 15.3; P < 0.001) and residual volume (odds ratio, 30.9; P < 0.001), but not packing density (odds ratio, 0.98; P = 0.341). These results showed that for each 0.1-mL increase in aneurysm volume and residual volume, the risk of recanalization increased by 1.3 times and 1.4 times, respectively. Conclusions The most influential risk factor for recanalization after coil embolization was residual volume, not packing density. The larger the aneurysm volume, the greater the packing density has to be to minimize the residual volume and risk of recanalization. Since tight coil packing has already been aimed, further innovation of coil property or embolization technique may be needed. Otherwise, different treatment modality such as flow diverter or parent artery occlusion may have to be considered. PMID:27153192

  7. Urinal Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Randy; Hacking, Kip; Haymore, Benjamin; Truscott, Tadd; Splash Lab Team

    2013-11-01

    In response to harsh and repeated criticisms from our mothers and several failed relationships with women, we present the splash dynamics of a simulated human male urine stream impacting rigid and free surfaces. Our study aims to reduce undesired splashing that may result from lavatory usage. Experiments are performed at a pressure and flow rate that would be expected from healthy male subjects. For a rigid surface, the effects of stream breakup and surface impact angle on lateral and vertical droplet ejection distances are measured using high-speed photography and image processing. For free surface impact, the effects of velocity and fluid depth on droplet ejection distances are measured. Guided by our results, techniques for splash reduction are proposed.

  8. Osmolality urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... and urine concentration. Osmolality is a more exact measurement of urine concentration than the urine specific gravity ... slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider ...

  9. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...

  10. Urination - difficulty with flow

    MedlinePlus

    ... at night? Has the force of your urine flow decreased? Do you have dribbling or leaking urine? ... conditions or surgeries that could affect your urine flow? What medicines do you take? Tests that may ...

  11. Effect of natural ageing on volume stability of MSW and wood waste incineration residues

    SciTech Connect

    Gori, Manuela; Bergfeldt, Britta; Reichelt, Jürgen; Sirini, Piero

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Natural weathering on BA from MSW and wood waste incineration was evaluated. ► Type of mineral phases, pH and volume stability were considered. ► Weathering reactions effect in improved stability of the materials. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of natural weathering on volume stability of bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste (MSW) and wood waste incineration. BA samples were taken at different steps of treatment (fresh, 4 weeks and 12 weeks aged) and then characterised for their chemical and mineralogical composition and for volume stability by means of the mineralogical test method (M HMVA-StB), which is part of the German quality control system for using aggregates in road construction (TL Gestein-StB 04). Changes of mineralogical composition with the proceeding of the weathering treatment were also monitored by leaching tests. At the end of the 12 weeks of treatment, almost all the considered samples resulted to be usable without restrictions in road construction with reference to the test parameter volume stability.

  12. Engineering task plan for AX-104 residual waste volume and inventory data collection

    SciTech Connect

    Boechler, G.N., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    The purpose of this Engineering Task Plan is to document the strategy, equipment and responsibilities of the tasks required to preform the volume and inventory data collection of tank AX-104. The project is a part of the Hanford Tanks Initiative Plan document number WHC-SD-WM-PMP-022 Revision D.

  13. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; ...

  14. Carbon Emissions from Residue Burn Piles Estimated Using LiDAR or Ground Based Measurements of Pile Volumes in a Coastal Douglas-Fir Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Coops, N.; Hayhurst, D.

    2012-12-01

    Following forest harvest, residues left on site and roadsides are often disposed of to reduce fire risk and free planting space. In coastal British Columbia burn piles are the main method of disposal, particularly for accumulations from log processing. Quantification of residue wood in piles is required for: smoke emission estimates, C budget calculations, billable waste assessment, harvest efficiency monitoring, and determination of bioenergy potentials. A second-growth Douglas-fir dominated (DF1949) site on eastern Vancouver Island and subject of C flux and budget studies since 1998, was clearcut in winter 2011, residues piled in spring and burned in fall. Prior to harvest, the site was divided into 4 blocks to account for harvest plans and ecosite conditions. Total harvested wood volume was scaled for each block. Residue pile wood volume was determined by a standard Waste and Residue Survey (WRS) using field estimates of pile base area and plot density (wood volume / 0.005 ha plot) on 2 piles per block, by a smoke emissions geometric method with pile volumes estimated as ellipsoidal paraboloids and packing ratios (wood volume / pile volume) for 2 piles per block, as well as by five other GIS methods using pile volumes and areas from LiDAR and orthophotography flown August 2011, a LiDAR derived digital elevation model (DEM) from 2008, and total scaled wood volumes of 8 sample piles disassembled November 2011. A weak but significant negative relationship was found between pile packing ratio and pile volume. Block level avoidable+unavoidable residue pile wood volumes from the WRS method (20.0 m3 ha-1 SE 2.8) were 30%-50% of the geometric (69.0 m3 ha-1 SE 18.0) or five GIS/LiDAR (48.0 to 65.7 m3 ha-1 ) methods. Block volumes using the 2008 LiDAR DEM (unshifted 48.0 m3 ha-1 SE 3.9, shifted 53.6 m3 ha-1 SE 4.2) to account for pre-existing humps or hollows beneath piles were not different from those using the 2011 LiDAR DEM (50.3 m3 ha-1 SE 4.0). The block volume ratio

  15. Quantitative determination of nicotinic acid in micro liter volume of urine sample by drop-to-drop solvent microextraction coupled to matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivas, Kamlesh; Patel, Devesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Drop-to-drop solvent microextraction (DDSME) coupled with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) for quantitative determination of nicotinic acid in one drop of urine sample has been proposed. All parameters, such as type of organic solvent, extraction time, exposure volume solvent, pH of the sample solution that affecting the separation and preconcentration of nicotinic acid were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limit of the method was 20 ng mL -1 and the relative standard deviations (RSD) for determination of the nicotinic acid were in the range of 8.0-12.5%. The calculated calibration curves gave linearity in the range of 80-1000 ng mL -1. The main advantages of the proposed method are simple, fast, and small amount of sample solution is used for separation and preconcentration of nicotinic acid. This method could be also useful for the analysis of other interested analytes in small volume of biological samples, like plasma, saliva and urine, where the availability of samples are limited.

  16. Achieving second order advantage with multi-way partial least squares and residual bi-linearization with total synchronous fluorescence data of monohydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Calimag-Williams, Korina; Knobel, Gaston; Goicoechea, H C; Campiglia, A D

    2014-02-01

    An attractive approach to handle matrix interference in samples of unknown composition is to generate second- or higher-order data formats and process them with appropriate chemometric algorithms. Several strategies exist to generate high-order data in fluorescence spectroscopy, including wavelength time matrices, excitation-emission matrices and time-resolved excitation-emission matrices. This article tackles a different aspect of generating high-order fluorescence data as it focuses on total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. This approach refers to recording synchronous fluorescence spectra at various wavelength offsets. Analogous to the concept of an excitation-emission data format, total synchronous data arrays fit into the category of second-order data. The main difference between them is the non-bilinear behavior of synchronous fluorescence data. Synchronous spectral profiles change with the wavelength offset used for sample excitation. The work presented here reports the first application of total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy to the analysis of monohydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine samples of unknown composition. Matrix interference is appropriately handled by processing the data either with unfolded-partial least squares and multi-way partial least squares, both followed by residual bi-linearization. PMID:24456595

  17. Residual Tumor After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Outside the Radiation Therapy Target Volume: A New Prognostic Factor for Survival in Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Muijs, Christina; Smit, Justin; Karrenbeld, Arend; Beukema, Jannet; Mul, Veronique; Dam, Go van; Hospers, Geke; Kluin, Phillip; Langendijk, Johannes; Plukker, John

    2014-03-15

    Purpose/Objective(s): The aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy of gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation and clinical target volume (CTV) margins for neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (neo-CRT) in esophageal carcinoma at pathologic examination and to determine the impact on survival. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 63 esophageal cancer patients treated with neo-CRT. GTV and CTV borders were demarcated in situ during surgery on the esophagus, using anatomical reference points to provide accurate information regarding tumor location at pathologic evaluation. To identify prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), a Cox regression analysis was performed. Results: After resection, macroscopic residual tumor was found outside the GTV in 7 patients (11%). Microscopic residual tumor was located outside the CTV in 9 patients (14%). The median follow-up was 15.6 months. With multivariate analysis, only microscopic tumor outside the CTV (hazard ratio [HR], 4.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-15.36), and perineural growth (HR, 5.77; 95% CI, 1.27-26.13) were identified as independent prognostic factors for OS. The 1-year OS was 20% for patients with tumor outside the CTV and 86% for those without (P<.01). For DFS, microscopic tumor outside the CTV (HR, 5.92; 95% CI, 1.89-18.54) and ypN+ (HR, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.33-8.48) were identified as independent adverse prognostic factors. The 1-year DFS was 23% versus 77% for patients with or without tumor outside the CTV (P<.01). Conclusions: Microscopic tumor outside the CTV is associated with markedly worse OS after neo-CRT. This may either stress the importance of accurate tumor delineation or reflect aggressive tumor behavior requiring new adjuvant treatment modalities.

  18. The Prognostic Value of Residual Volume/Total Lung Capacity in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Shin, Tae Rim; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Park, Joo Hun; Lee, Keu Sung; Oh, Sunghee; Kang, Dae Ryoung; Sheen, Seungsoo; Seo, Joon Beom; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Lim, Seong Yong; Yoon, Ho Il; Rhee, Chin Kook; Choe, Kang-Hyeon; Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Sang-Do

    2015-10-01

    The prognostic role of resting pulmonary hyperinflation as measured by residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains poorly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the factors related to resting pulmonary hyperinflation in COPD and to determine whether resting pulmonary hyperinflation is a prognostic factor in COPD. In total, 353 patients with COPD in the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease cohort recruited from 16 hospitals were enrolled. Resting pulmonary hyperinflation was defined as RV/TLC ≥ 40%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that older age (P = 0.001), lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (P < 0.001), higher St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score (P = 0.019), and higher emphysema index (P = 0.010) were associated independently with resting hyperinflation. Multivariate Cox regression model that included age, gender, dyspnea scale, SGRQ, RV/TLC, and 6-min walking distance revealed that an older age (HR = 1.07, P = 0.027), a higher RV/TLC (HR = 1.04, P = 0.025), and a shorter 6-min walking distance (HR = 0.99, P < 0.001) were independent predictors of all-cause mortality. Our data showed that older age, higher emphysema index, higher SGRQ score, and lower FEV1 were associated independently with resting pulmonary hyperinflation in COPD. RV/TLC is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in COPD. PMID:26425043

  19. Chemicals from western hardwoods and agricultural residues. Appendix volume (manuscript copies). Semiannual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    This appendix volume contains papers on the following topics: the associative effects among organosolv lignin components; the effect of heating and quenching rates on volatiles produced from combustion-level-heat-flux pyrolysis of biomass; and the effect of particle size on volatiles produced from plasma pyrolysis of lignin. Organosolv lignins isolated under relatively mild conditions from angiosperms are composed of entities having low molecular weights. The extent to which an individual component may participate in association depends appreciably upon the relative proportions of the other species present. A simple conduction model is used to adequately predict the devolatilization rate of lignin pellets. The data reported has application to processes in which densified biomass is a fuel or feedstock and the heat transfer rate appears to limit the reaction rate. Models of biomass pyrolysis presented in the literature are reviewed for effect of particle size on product distribution. Compressed lignin pellets of varying sizes are pyrolyzed in a microwave plasma and char and volatile yields are reported as functions of particle size. Chemical analyses of noncondensible and condensible volatiles are presented and possible formation mechanisms are discussed.

  20. [Impulse galvanization in postoperative urination disorders].

    PubMed

    Kölbl, H; Riss, P

    1988-03-01

    In this study we examined the therapeutic effect of impulse-galvanization in patients with voiding difficulties after anterior vaginal repair. Patients (n = 56/79) revealing residual urine until the sixth postoperative day were studied. Considering the onset of the first spontaneous micturition and the lack of residual urine no significant difference was found in the group undergoing impulse-galvanization (n = 19) compared to a group without therapy (n = 37). By adjuvant treatment with alpha-sympathicolytics, spasmolytics or tranquilizers patients with impulse-galvanization and the comparative group were found to be without residual urine 11.2 and 13 days after surgery, respectively (p less than 0.001). PMID:3259522

  1. RBC urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Red blood cells in urine; Hematuria test; Urine - red blood cells ... A normal result is 4 red blood cells per high power field (RBC/HPF) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope. The example above ...

  2. Uric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... help determine the cause of a high uric acid level in the blood. It may also be ...

  3. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fluid (dehydration) Any type of x-ray exam with dye (contrast material) within 3 days before the urine test Fluid from the vagina that gets into the urine Severe emotional stress Strenuous exercise Urinary tract infection

  4. Urea nitrogen urine test

    MedlinePlus

    A 24-hour urine sample is often needed. You will need to collect your urine over 24 hours . Your health care provider will tell you how to do this. Follow instructions exactly to ensure accurate results.

  5. Cytology exam of urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... The urine sample can also be collected during cystoscopy . During this procedure, your provider uses a thin, ... discomfort with a clean catch urine specimen. During cystoscopy, there may be slight discomfort when the scope ...

  6. Urine drug screen

    MedlinePlus

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  7. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the urine. This may mean you have a urinary tract infection . If this test is positive, the urine should ... Results Mean An abnormal result indicates a possible urinary tract infection. Alternative Names WBC esterase Images Male urinary system ...

  8. Urination - difficulty with flow

    MedlinePlus

    ... can take to care for yourself include: Keep track of your urination patterns and bring the report ... Medical Professional Call your provider if you notice urinary hesitancy, dribbling, or a weak urine stream. Call ...

  9. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  10. PBG urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... tested in the lab. This is called a random urine sample. If needed, your health care provider ... For a random urine sample, a negative test result is considered normal. If the test is done on a 24-hour ...

  11. Urine concentration test

    MedlinePlus

    A urine concentration test measures the ability of the kidneys to conserve or excrete water. ... Increased urine concentration may be due to different conditions, such as: Heart failure Loss of body fluids (dehydration) from diarrhea or ...

  12. Urine drainage bags

    MedlinePlus

    ... catheter and urine drainage bag because you have urinary incontinence (leakage), urinary retention (not being able to urinate), ... wall repair Inflatable artificial sphincter Radical prostatectomy Stress urinary incontinence Urge incontinence Urinary incontinence Urinary incontinence - injectable implant ...

  13. Gas chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis of pesticides residues in produce using concurrent solvent recondensation-large volume injection.

    PubMed

    Walorczyk, Stanisław

    2012-01-27

    In the present work, the feasibility of the combined use of concurrent solvent recondensation-large volume injection (CSR-LVI) and interspersed calibration for pesticide residue analysis was investigated. Splitless injections of 5-20 μL extracts containing 0.25-1g sample per mL(-1) were made into a Carbofrit packed liner and a 0.53 mm I.D., uncoated and deactivated retention gap. The determination was achieved by gas chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS). The evaluation of the proposed approach was based on analysis of real samples representing a diverse range of commodities such as apples, barley malt, blackcurrants, carrots, clemetines, grapes, leek, plums, rapeseed (green plants) rucola, strawberries and tomatoes. The samples contained a total of 36 different incurred pesticides at different concentration levels. Also, analyses were carried out of artificial samples representing six differing matrices (apples, blackcurrants, carrots, huckleberry, strawberry and tomatoes) which were spiked with pesticides at known concentrations before proceeding with the extraction. When using 15 and 20 μL CSR-LVI injection, a decrease of about 30% in peak heights compared with injection of 5 μL was observed. In the case of 5 and 10 μL injections, no significant difference was observed when employing to the quantification of the incurred and spiked pesticide residues. In the evaluated experimental variants, overall recoveries of the pesticides were 92 ± 5% with relative standard deviations of 12 ± 4% on average. All individual recoveries were in the range between 72 and 103 with RSD between 4 and 21%. About 15% of the instrument run time was saved by the application of interspersed calibration with standards injected between sample extracts. PMID:22204933

  14. Urine sample (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... catch" urine sample is performed by collecting the sample of urine in midstream. Men or boys should wipe clean the head of the penis. Women or girls need to wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. A small amount of urine ...

  15. Trialling urine diversion in Australia: technical and social learnings.

    PubMed

    Abeysuriya, Kumi; Fam, Dena; Mitchell, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a urine diversion (UD) trial implemented within the institutional setting of the University of Technology Sydney that sought to identify key issues for public UD and reuse systems at scale in the Australian urban context. The trial was novel in its transdisciplinary action research approach, that included consideration of urine diverting toilets (UDTs) as socio-technical systems where interactions between users' practices and perceptions and the performance of the technology were explored. While the study explored a broad range of issues that included urine transport, reuse, and regulations, amongst others, the boundary of the work presented in this paper is the practicalities of UD practice within public urban buildings. Urine volume per urinal use, an important metric for sizing tanks for collecting urine from waterless urinal systems in commercial buildings, was also estimated. The project concluded that current UDTs are unsuitable to public/commercial spaces, but waterless urinals have a key role. PMID:24292466

  16. Large volume inside the cage leading incomplete interbody bone fusion and residual back pain after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Mikinobu; Kamiya, Mitsuhiro; Wakao, Norimitsu; Hirasawa, Atsuhiko; Kawanami, Katsuhisa; Osuka, Koji; Takayasu, Masakazu

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare intervertebral bone fusion and clinical outcomes in L4-5 posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using the same posterior instrumentation with four combinations of one of three types of interbody cage with one of two bone grafts, iliac and local or only local. In 67 patients who underwent L4-5 PLIF, 19 patients had the Brantigan cage and iliac and local bone graft, 18 with the TELAMON C cage and iliac and local bone graft, 16 with the TELAMON C cage and local bone graft (TL), and 14 with the OIC PEEK cage and local bone graft. Clinical assessments were based on Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores and on the visual analogue scale (VAS). The bone fusion assessments were based on radiography and CT scans according to the Brantigan, Steffee, and Fraser criteria. More than 2 years after surgery, these assessments were made. In the results, the fusion outcome for the group receiving TL was significantly less than those for the other three groups. In TL, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the inside volume of the cage of ≥2.0 mL was the only significant factor for incomplete fusion. Moreover, the VAS (low back pain) score was significantly higher for TL than for the other three groups. In conclusions, we believe that the large volume inside the cage (≥2.0 mL) with local bone graft may lead incomplete interbody bone fusion and residual postsurgical low back pain after PLIF. PMID:25666390

  17. Evaluation of storage and evaporation in the removal efficiency of D-norgestrel and progesterone in human urine.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, Priscilla Garozi; Heringer, Otávio; Scherer, Rodrigo; Pacheco, Henrique Poltronieri; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Pena, Angelina

    2015-10-01

    Pharmaceuticals are emerging contaminants and it must be noted that approximately 70 % of them are excreted via urine. Therefore, urine usage implies the risk of transfer of pharmaceutical residues to agricultural fields and environment contamination. Thus, this study aimed on the development and validation of a LC-MS/MS method for D-norgestrel (D-NOR) and progesterone (PRO) determination in human urine, as well as the evaluation of the removal efficiency of two methods (storage and evaporation), and the effects of acidification with sulfuric acid. The storage process was evaluated for 6 weeks, while the evaporation was assessed at three different temperatures (50, 75, and 100 °C). All experiments were done with normal urine (pH = 6.0) and acidified urine (pH = 2.0, with sulfuric acid). The results of validation showed good method efficiency. In the second week of storage, higher hormone degradation was observed. In the evaporation method, both D-NOR and PRO were almost completely degraded when the volume was reduced to the lowermost level. Results also indicate that acidification did not affect degradation. Overall, the results showed that combination of two methods can be employed for more efficient hormone removal in urine. PMID:26353967

  18. Urine pH test

    MedlinePlus

    A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products, or cheese can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your urine acid levels. It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).

  19. Dispersed and piled woody residues volumes in coastal Douglas-fir cutblocks determined using high-resolution imagery from a UAV and from ground-based surveys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Gougeon, F.

    2015-12-01

    After forest harvest significant amounts of woody residues are left dispersed on site and some subsequently piled and burned. Quantification of residues is required for estimating C budgets, billable waste, harvest efficiency, bioenergy potential and smoke emissions. Trofymow (et al 2014 CJFR) compared remote sensing methods to ground-based waste and residue survey (WRS) methods for residue piles in 4 cutblocks in the Oyster River (OR) area in coastal BC. Compared to geospatial methods using 15cm orthophotos and LiDAR acquired in 2011 by helicopter, the WRS method underestimated pile wood by 30% to 50% while a USFS volume method overestimated pile wood by 50% if site specific packing ratios were not used. A geospatial method was developed in PCI Geomatica to analyze 2-bit images of logs >15cm diameters to determine dispersed wood residues in OR and compare to WRS methods. Across blocks, geospatial and WRS method wood volumes were correlated (R2=0.69), however volumes were 2.5 times larger for the geospatial vs WRS method. Methods for dispersed residues could not be properly compared as individual WRS plots were not georeferenced, only 12 plots were sampled in total, and low-resolution images poorly resolved logs. Thus, a new study in 2 cutblocks in the Northwest Bay (NWB) area acquired 2cm resolution RGB air-photography in 2014-15 using an Aeryon Sky Ranger UAV prior to and after burn pile construction. A total of 57 dispersed WRS plots and 24 WRS pile or accumulation plots were georeferenced and measured. Stero-pairs were used to generate point-clouds for pile bulk volumes. Images processed to 8-bit grey scale are being analyzed with a revised PCI method that better accounts for log overlaps. WRS methods depend on a good sample of plots and accurate determination of stratum (dispersed, roadside, piles, accumulations) areas. Analysis of NWB blocks shows WRS field methods for stratum area differ by 5-20% from that determined using orthophotos. Plot-level wood

  20. Relation between residential magnetic fields, light-at-night, and nocturnal urine melatonin levels in women: Volume 2 -- Magnetic field exposure analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kaune, W.; Davis, S.; Stevens, R.

    1997-11-01

    Scientists have postulated a link between exposure to magnetic fields and reduced blood melatonin levels. This EPRI study was designed to supplement a National Cancer Institute study (NCI-BC) of magnetic fields, light-at-night, and the risk of breast cancer. By expanding the exposure assessment of the NCI-BC and collecting data on urine melatonin levels, this project provides new insight into a possible magnetic field-melatonin link. It has been proposed that exposure to 60-Hz (power frequency) magnetic fields may increase the risk of breast cancer by suppressing the normal nocturnal rise in melatonin production in the pineal gland. It remains unknown whether the human pineal gland is reproducibly responsive or sensitive to magnetic field exposure, and whether such exposures could alter elements of the endogenous hormonal environment in women that might be important in the etiology of breast cancer. The objective of this research was to investigate whether exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields and/or light-at-night is associated with levels of the primary urinary melatonin metabolite in women without a history of breast cancer.

  1. Source Separation of Urine as an Alternative Solution to Nutrient Management in Biological Nutrient Removal Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Jose; Bott, Charles; Love, Nancy; Bratby, John

    2015-12-01

    Municipal wastewater contains a mixture of brown (feces and toilet paper), yellow (urine), and gray (kitchen, bathroom and wash) waters. Urine contributes approximately 70-80% of the nitrogen (N), 50-70% of the phosphorus (P) load and 60-70% of the pharmaceutical residues in normal domestic sewage. This study evaluated the impact of different levels of source separation of urine on an existing biological nutrient removal (BNR) process. A process model of an existing biological nutrient removal (BNR) plant was used. Increasing the amount of urine diverted from the water reclamation facilities, has little impact on effluent ammonia (NH₃-N) concentration, but effluent nitrate (NO₃-N) concentration decreases. If nitrification is necessary then no reduction in the sludge age can be realized. However, a point is reached where the remaining influent nitrogen load matches the nitrogen requirements for biomass growth, and no residual nitrogen needs to be nitrified. That allows a significant reduction in sludge age, implying reduced process volume requirements. In situations where nitrification is required, lower effluent nitrate (NO₃-N) concentrations were realized due to both the lower influent nitrogen content in the wastewater and a more favorable nitrogen-to-carbon ratio for denitrification. The external carbon requirement for denitrification decreases as the urine separation efficiency increases due to the lower influent nitrogen content in the wastewater and a more favorable nitrogen-to-carbon ratio for denitrification. The effluent phosphorus concentration decreases when the amount of urine sent to water reclamation facilities is decreased due to lower influent phosphorus concentrations. In the case of chemical phosphate removal, urine separation reduces the amount of chemicals required. PMID:26652123

  2. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abubacker, Naufal Rizwan Taraganar; Jayaraman, Senthil Manikandan Thirumanilayur; R, Kannan; Sivanesan, Magesh Kumar; Mathew, Renu

    2015-08-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare disorder seen in elderly persons, wherein the urinary bag and the tubing turn in to purple colour. It is usually seen in patients who are on urinary catheters for a long time. Purple coloured urine occurs due to the accumulation of indigo and indirubin, which are the end products of tryptophan metabolism due to the action of sulfatases and phosphatases formed by bacteria like Providencia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella etc. We present this interesting phenomenon of purple urine in a young male who was on prolonged urinary catheterization. The urine culture was positive for Providencia and constipation was an added risk factor for the purple urine. The urinary catheter and tubing was changed along with a course of antibiotics which lead to the normalization of the urine colour. PMID:26435987

  3. 17-Ketosteroids urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 34. Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Metyrapone (cortisol) - 24-hour urine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . ...

  4. The Urinal Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranakis, Evangelos; Krizanc, Danny

    A man walks into a men's room and observes n empty urinals. Which urinal should he pick so as to maximize his chances of maintaining privacy, i.e., minimize the chance that someone will occupy a urinal beside him? In this paper, we attempt to answer this question under a variety of models for standard men's room behavior. Our results suggest that for the most part one should probably choose the urinal furthest from the door (with some interesting exceptions). We also suggest a number of variations on the problem that lead to many open problems.

  5. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  6. Urine concentration test

    MedlinePlus

    ... or osmolality, your provider will send your urine sample to a lab. If needed, your provider may ask you to collect your urine at home over 24 hours . Your provider will tell you how to do this. Follow instructions exactly so that the results are accurate.

  7. Osmolality urine - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... midstream) urine sample. To obtain a clean-catch sample, men or boys should wipe clean the head of the penis. Women or girls need to wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. As you start to urinate, ...

  8. Glucose urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a color-sensitive pad. The color the dipstick changes to tells the provider the level of glucose in your urine. If needed, your provider may ask you to collect your urine at home over 24 hours . Your provider will tell you how to do ...

  9. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  10. [Urine analysis in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Schlembach, D

    2006-09-01

    Beside prevention routine antenatal care involves screening examinations for early diagnosis and therapy of pregnancy associated complications. Antenatal care guidelines recommend physical and especially vaginal examination, ultrasonographic evaluation, laboratory examinations, but also urine analysis. The commonly used urine analysis by dipstick can provide information on urinary tract infections, glucosuria and proteinuria. While the estimation of glucosuria has been found to be of no use for the detection of gestational diabetes and therefore is not recommended as a screening method for this disorder, urine analysis by dipstick or culture for bacteriuria or urinary tract infection followed by an antibiotic treatment is able to reduce maternal and neonatal complications. The most important role for urine analysis is the detection of proteinuria by routine dipstick examination and the quantification of proteinuria by 24 hour urin sampling in women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, especially in preeclampsia. PMID:17048173

  11. [Balanitis xerotica obliterans with phimosis in elderly patients presenting with difficulty in urination].

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Kaoru; Ishidate, Takuzo

    2013-06-01

    Eight elderly patients (average age 76.1±4.3 years) with balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) accompanied by phimosis presented with difficulty in urination. Preoperative average international prostate symptom score, average maximum urinary flow rate, and average volume of residual urine were 20.7±6.3 points (n=8), 5.1±3.6 ml/s (n=5), and 85.4±77.3 ml (n=8), respectively. Some of the patient's complaints, such as severe dribbling of urine, urinary stream division, and ballooning of the foreskin, were not included in the items of the major questionnaire on urination. Dorsal incision and circumcision was performed in all patients, and all were pathologically diagnosed with BXO. Meatoplasty was performed in one patient with a meatal stenosis. No coexistence of penile cancer was observed. Statistically significant improvements were observed in subjective and objective findings after treatment. In conclusion, BXO with phimosis in elderly patients should be considered as a cause of lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:23827865

  12. Automated biowaste sampling system urine subsystem operating model, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Rosen, F.

    1973-01-01

    The urine subsystem automatically provides for the collection, volume sensing, and sampling of urine from six subjects during space flight. Verification of the subsystem design was a primary objective of the current effort which was accomplished thru the detail design, fabrication, and verification testing of an operating model of the subsystem.

  13. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 2: Residual-fired nocogeneration process boiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Computer generated data on the performance of the cogeneration energy conversion system are presented. Performance parameters included fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics, and emissions of residual fired process boilers.

  14. Risk factors for loss of residual renal function in children treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Ha, Il-Soo; Yap, Hui K; Munarriz, Reyner L; Zambrano, Pedro H; Flynn, Joseph T; Bilge, Ilmay; Szczepanska, Maria; Lai, Wai-Ming; Antonio, Zenaida L; Gulati, Ashima; Hooman, Nakysa; van Hoeck, Koen; Higuita, Lina M S; Verrina, Enrico; Klaus, Günter; Fischbach, Michel; Riyami, Mohammed A; Sahpazova, Emilja; Sander, Anja; Warady, Bradley A; Schaefer, Franz

    2015-09-01

    In dialyzed patients, preservation of residual renal function is associated with better survival, lower morbidity, and greater quality of life. To analyze the evolution of residual diuresis over time, we prospectively monitored urine output in 401 pediatric patients in the global IPPN registry who commenced peritoneal dialysis (PD) with significant residual renal function. Associations of patient characteristics and time-variant covariates with daily urine output and the risk of developing oligoanuria (under 100 ml/m(2)/day) were analyzed by mixed linear modeling and Cox regression analysis including time-varying covariates. With an average loss of daily urine volume of 130 ml/m(2) per year, median time to oligoanuria was 48 months. Residual diuresis significantly subsided more rapidly in children with glomerulopathies, lower diuresis at start of PD, high ultrafiltration volume, and icodextrin use. Administration of diuretics significantly reduced oligoanuria risk, whereas the prescription of renin-angiotensin system antagonists significantly increased the risk oligoanuria. Urine output on PD was significantly associated in a negative manner with glomerulopathies (-584 ml/m(2)) and marginally with the use of icodextrin (-179 ml/m(2)) but positively associated with the use of biocompatible PD fluid (+111 ml/m(2)). Children in both Asia and North America had consistently lower urine output compared with those in Europe perhaps due to regional variances in therapy. Thus, in children undergoing PD, residual renal function depends strongly on the cause of underlying kidney disease and may be modifiable by diuretic therapy, peritoneal ultrafiltration, and choice of PD fluid. PMID:25874598

  15. Risk factors for loss of residual renal function in children treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Il-Soo; Yap, Hui K; Munarriz, Reyner L; Zambrano, Pedro H; Flynn, Joseph T; Bilge, Ilmay; Szczepanska, Maria; Lai, Wai-Ming; Antonio, Zenaida L; Gulati, Ashima; Hooman, Nakysa; van Hoeck, Koen; Higuita, Lina M S; Verrina, Enrico; Klaus, Günter; Fischbach, Michel; Riyami, Mohammed A; Sahpazova, Emilja; Sander, Anja; Warady, Bradley A; Schaefer, Franz

    2015-01-01

    In dialyzed patients, preservation of residual renal function is associated with better survival, lower morbidity, and greater quality of life. To analyze the evolution of residual diuresis over time, we prospectively monitored urine output in 401 pediatric patients in the global IPPN registry who commenced peritoneal dialysis (PD) with significant residual renal function. Associations of patient characteristics and time-variant covariates with daily urine output and the risk of developing oligoanuria (under 100 ml/m2/day) were analyzed by mixed linear modeling and Cox regression analysis including time-varying covariates. With an average loss of daily urine volume of 130 ml/m2 per year, median time to oligoanuria was 48 months. Residual diuresis significantly subsided more rapidly in children with glomerulopathies, lower diuresis at start of PD, high ultrafiltration volume, and icodextrin use. Administration of diuretics significantly reduced oligoanuria risk, whereas the prescription of renin–angiotensin system antagonists significantly increased the risk oligoanuria. Urine output on PD was significantly associated in a negative manner with glomerulopathies (−584 ml/m2) and marginally with the use of icodextrin (−179 ml/m2) but positively associated with the use of biocompatible PD fluid (+111 ml/m2). Children in both Asia and North America had consistently lower urine output compared with those in Europe perhaps due to regional variances in therapy. Thus, in children undergoing PD, residual renal function depends strongly on the cause of underlying kidney disease and may be modifiable by diuretic therapy, peritoneal ultrafiltration, and choice of PD fluid. PMID:25874598

  16. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. ... tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The following may decrease urine citric acid levels: ...

  17. PBG urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Porphobilinogen test ... temporarily stop taking medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... This test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.

  18. Protein electrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... nephropathy Kidney failure Multiple myeloma Nephrotic syndrome Acute urinary tract infection Risks There are no risks associated with this ... Primary amyloidosis Protein in diet Protein urine test Urinary tract infection - adults Update Date 5/29/2014 Updated by: ...

  19. Frequent or urgent urination

    MedlinePlus

    ... urinate. Causes Common causes of these symptoms are: Urinary tract infection (UTI) Enlarged prostate in middle-aged and older ... Urogynecology. Physiology of micturition, voiding dysfunction, urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, and painful bladder syndrome. In: Lentz GM, Lobo ...

  20. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a doctor suspects that a child has a urinary tract infection (UTI) or a health problem that can cause ... to-Creatinine Ratio Kidney Diseases in Childhood Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions Urinary Tract Infections Urine Test: ...

  1. Maple syrup urine disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... People with this condition cannot break down the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. This leads to a ... be done to check for this disorder: Plasma amino acid test Urine organic acid test Genetic testing There ...

  2. Urinating more at night

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...

  3. Leucine aminopeptidase - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003617.htm Leucine aminopeptidase - urine To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Leucine aminopeptidase is a type of protein called an ...

  4. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... a blockage of blood vessels, or other causes Multiple myeloma Healthy people may have higher than normal urine ... Distal Hemolytic anemia Macroglobulinemia of Waldenstrom Microalbuminuria test Multiple myeloma Nephrotic syndrome Proximal Wilson disease Update Date 11/ ...

  5. Urine Is Not Sterile: Use of Enhanced Urine Culture Techniques To Detect Resident Bacterial Flora in the Adult Female Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Hilt, Evann E.; McKinley, Kathleen; Pearce, Meghan M.; Rosenfeld, Amy B.; Zilliox, Michael J.; Mueller, Elizabeth R.; Brubaker, Linda; Gai, Xiaowu; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study showed that bacterial genomes can be identified using 16S rRNA sequencing in urine specimens of both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who are culture negative according to standard urine culture protocols. In the present study, we used a modified culture protocol that included plating larger volumes of urine, incubation under varied atmospheric conditions, and prolonged incubation times to demonstrate that many of the organisms identified in urine by 16S rRNA gene sequencing are, in fact, cultivable using an expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) protocol. Sixty-five urine specimens (from 41 patients with overactive bladder and 24 controls) were examined using both the standard and EQUC culture techniques. Fifty-two of the 65 urine samples (80%) grew bacterial species using EQUC, while the majority of these (48/52 [92%]) were reported as no growth at 103 CFU/ml by the clinical microbiology laboratory using the standard urine culture protocol. Thirty-five different genera and 85 different species were identified by EQUC. The most prevalent genera isolated were Lactobacillus (15%), followed by Corynebacterium (14.2%), Streptococcus (11.9%), Actinomyces (6.9%), and Staphylococcus (6.9%). Other genera commonly isolated include Aerococcus, Gardnerella, Bifidobacterium, and Actinobaculum. Our current study demonstrates that urine contains communities of living bacteria that comprise a resident female urine microbiota. PMID:24371246

  6. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cibuzar, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight is required to be defined and understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Urine voids are capable of measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a constituent s urine. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross contamination (<0.7 ml urine) and has volume accuracy of +/-2% between 100 to 1000 ml urine voids.

  7. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight is required to be defined and understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Urine voids are capable of measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a constituent s urine. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross contamination (<0.7 ml urine) and has volume accuracy of +/-2% between 100 to 1000 ml urine voids.

  8. The urine specific gravity dipstick: a useful tool to increase fluid intake in stone forming patients.

    PubMed

    McCormack, M; Dessureault, J; Guitard, M

    1991-12-01

    High fluid intake is the only preventive dietary measure that can be recommended to all patients with stones. However, the efficacy of dietary advice given to patients is unknown. We compared the impact of dietary advice to increase hydration (group 1, 57 patients) and of no dietary advice (group 2, 83 patients) on 24-hour urine volume. No significant difference was noted between groups 1 (1,624 ml.) and 2 (1,732 ml.). We then determined if urine specific gravity dipsticks could help patients increase the 24-hour urine volume. A correlation between 24-hour urine volume and mean urine specific gravity was performed on 263 randomly chosen patients. There was an inverse relationship between urine specific gravity and 24-hour urine volume with a correlation coefficient of 0.522 (y = 1.0207 - 0.00374x). Most patients (81.6%) with 24-hour urine volumes of less than 2.1 had a urine specific gravity of more than 1.010. The use of specific gravity dipsticks was evaluated as a tool to help 24 patients increase the 24-hour urine volume. The 24-hour urine volume increased significantly (p less than 0.05, paired Student's t test) in patients after feedback from specific gravity dipsticks when they were instructed to keep the urine specific gravity at or less than 1.010 (average 24-hour urine volume increased 192%). We conclude that dietary advice may be insufficient to modify fluid intake habits in stone patients. However, modifications of fluid intake habits may be improved by feedback from specific gravity dipsticks. PMID:1942321

  9. Development of an analytical method for the targeted screening and multi-residue quantification of environmental contaminants in urine by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry for evaluation of human exposures.

    PubMed

    Cortéjade, A; Kiss, A; Cren, C; Vulliet, E; Buleté, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method and contribute to the assessment of the Exposome. Thus, a targeted analysis of a wide range of contaminants in contact with humans on daily routines in urine was developed. The method focused on a list of 38 contaminants, including 12 pesticides, one metabolite of pesticide, seven veterinary drugs, five parabens, one UV filter, one plastic additive, two surfactants and nine substances found in different products present in the everyday human environment. These contaminants were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS) with a quadrupole-time-of-flight (QqToF) instrument from a raw urinary matrix. A validation according to the FDA guidelines was employed to evaluate the specificity, linear or quadratic curve fitting, inter- and intra-day precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantification (LOQ). The developed analysis allows for the quantification of 23 contaminants in the urine samples, with the LOQs ranging between 4.3 ng.mL(-1) and 113.2 ng.mL(-1). This method was applied to 17 urine samples. Among the targeted contaminants, four compounds were detected in samples. One of the contaminants (tributyl phosphate) was detected below the LOQ. The three others (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate and O,O-diethyl thiophosphate potassium) were detected but did not fulfill the validation criteria for quantification. Among these four compounds, two of them were found in all samples: tributyl phosphate and the surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate. PMID:26695319

  10. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 2: Residual-fired nocogeneration process boiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented. Two nocogeneration base cases are included: coal fired and residual fired process boilers.

  11. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    MedlinePlus

    ... process starts in the kidneys , which remove excess fluids and waste from the blood and turn them into urine. The urine then flows through tubes called ureters into the bladder, where it's stored ...

  12. Gas chromatographic determination of pentachlorophenol in human blood and urine

    SciTech Connect

    Atuma, S.S.; Okor, D.I.

    1985-09-01

    The extraction, identification and quantification of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in human blood and urine are of great importance for monitoring human exposure to this environmental chemical. Although reports abound in the literature on PCP residues, toxicity and environmental fate, there is hardly any information on its existence in the developing tropical countries, particularly in Nigeria. There is therefore the need to survey the status of PCP in Nigerian environment with a view to establishing the potential health hazards resulting from its bioaccumulation. This paper reports a preliminary survey of the residue levels of PCP in human blood and urine of the general population in Bendel State of Nigeria.

  13. Effect of Icodextrin Solution on the Preservation of Residual Renal Function in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tae Ik; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Hyung Jong; Kang, Ea Wha; Kim, Hyunwook; Chang, Jae Hyun; Kim, Dong Ki; Moon, Sung Jin; Yoon, Soo Young; Han, Seung Hyeok

    2016-03-01

    Although icodextrin solution has been highlighted in the fluid management compared to glucose-based solutions, proof of a beneficial effect of icodextrin solution on residual renal function (RRF) is lacking. We conducted a multicenter prospective randomized controlled open-label trial to investigate whether icodextrin solution can preserve RRF.One hundred patients with urine volume ≥750 mL/day from 8 centers in Korea were randomly assigned to receive 1 exchange of icodextrin solution for a ≥8 hour-dwell time and 2 exchanges of 1.5% glucose-based biocompatible neutral pH solution or 1 exchange of ≥2.5% and 2 exchanges of 1.5% glucose-based biocompatible solutions. Using mixed-effects general linear models, we analyzed changes in residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and daily urine volume at 1 year.Forty-nine patients were assigned to the icodextrin group and 51 to the glucose solution group. During follow-up, the slope of the decline in residual GFR was -0.170 mL/min/month/1.73 m² in the icodextrin group, while it was -0.155 mL/min/month/1.73 m² in the glucose solution group (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.06 to 0.10; P = 0.701). Daily urine volume decreased faster in the glucose solution group than in the icodextrin group (-31.02 vs -11.88 mL per month; 95% CI, -35.85 to -2.44; P = 0.025). Results were consistent when we analyzed using intention-to-treat and per protocol principles. There were no differences in fluid status, peritoneal ultrafiltration, and peritoneal transport between groups during follow-up.This study clearly showed that icodextrin solution preserves residual urine volume better than glucose solution. PMID:27043667

  14. Analysis of Six β-Lactam Residues in Milk and Egg by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography with Large-Volume Sample Stacking and Polarity Switching.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yu-Xiu; Chen, Guan-Hua; Fang, Rou; Zhang, Li; Yi, Ling-Xiao; Meng, Hong-Lian

    2016-05-01

    A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography method with large-volume sample stacking and polarity switching was developed to analyze amoxicllin, cephalexin, oxacillin, penicillin G, cefazolin, and cefoperazone in milk and egg. The important parameters influencing separation and enrichment factors were optimized. The optimized running buffer consisted of 10 mM phosphate and 22 mM SDS at pH 6.7. The sample size was 1.47 kPa × 690 s, the reverse voltage was 20 kV, and the electric current recovery was 95%. Under these optimum conditions, the enrichment factors of six β-lactams were 193-601. Their LODs were <0.26 ng/g, and LOQs were all 2 ng/g, which was only 1/50-1/2 of the maximum residual limits demanded by U.S. and Japanese regulations. The intraday and interday RSDs of method were lower than 3.70 and 3.91%, respectively. The method can be applied to determine these six antibiotic residues in egg and milk. PMID:27088652

  15. NEW COLUMN SEPARATION METHOD FOR EMERGENCY URINE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S; Brian Culligan, B

    2007-08-28

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2007 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2007. A new rapid column separation method was applied directly to the NRIP 2007 emergency urine samples, with only minimal sample preparation to reduce preparation time. Calcium phosphate precipitation, previously used to pre-concentrate actinides and Sr-90 in NRIP 2006 urine and water samples, was not used for the NRIP 2007 urine samples. Instead, the raw urine was acidified and passed directly through the stacked resin columns (TEVA+TRU+SR Resins) to separate the actinides and strontium from the NRIP urine samples more quickly. This improvement reduced sample preparation time for the NRIP 2007 emergency urine analyses significantly. This approach works well for small volume urine samples expected during an emergency response event. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and strontium-90 analyses for NRIP 2007 urine samples.

  16. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  17. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  18. CHROMagar Orientation Medium Reduces Urine Culture Workload

    PubMed Central

    Manickam, Kanchana; Karlowsky, James A.; Adam, Heather; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R. S.; Rendina, Assunta; Pang, Paulette; Murray, Brenda-Lee

    2013-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories continually strive to streamline and improve their urine culture algorithms because of the high volumes of urine specimens they receive and the modest numbers of those specimens that are ultimately considered clinically significant. In the current study, we quantitatively measured the impact of the introduction of CHROMagar Orientation (CO) medium into routine use in two hospital laboratories and compared it to conventional culture on blood and MacConkey agars. Based on data extracted from our Laboratory Information System from 2006 to 2011, the use of CO medium resulted in a 28% reduction in workload for additional procedures such as Gram stains, subcultures, identification panels, agglutination tests, and biochemical tests. The average number of workload units (one workload unit equals 1 min of hands-on labor) per urine specimen was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5326 to 1.047) from 2.67 in 2006 (preimplementation of CO medium) to 1.88 in 2011 (postimplementation of CO medium). We conclude that the use of CO medium streamlined the urine culture process and increased bench throughput by reducing both workload and turnaround time in our laboratories. PMID:23363839

  19. Challenges in urine bioanalytical assays: overcoming nonspecific binding.

    PubMed

    Ji, Allena Ji; Jiang, Zhiping; Livson, Yuliya; Davis, Jennifer Ann; Chu, Jasper Xuegong; Weng, Naidong

    2010-09-01

    Dr Allena Ji is the Director of Bioanalytical Services, XenoBiotic Laboratories, Inc., NJ, USA. She has worked in the bioanalytical field for many years and accumulated rich experience in LC-MS/MS method development, method validation and sample analysis under GLP compliance in large pharmaceutical company and contract laboratory settings. In the past 10 years, Allena worked at Pfizer (Legacy of Wyeth) and investigated many small-molecule drug candidates for their nonspecific binding in urine assays. Nonspecific binding of compounds results in a severe underestimation of the compounds' concentrations and poor precision and accuracy in urine bioanalytical assays. To overcome nonspecific binding in urine assays, Allena and her colleagues developed a series of practical approaches for urine method development. By adding an appropriate anti-adsorptive agent at its optimum concentration to the urine collection containers, the nonspecific binding can be blocked. Urine assays have much higher hurdles than plasma assays due to nonspecific binding and variability of urine pH, salt concentration, volume and solubility of drug(s) in urine. A simple and systematic approach for urine method development is emphasized in this paper. Nonspecific binding is a very serious issue in bioanalytical urine assays where a compound(s) adsorbs to the container wall. The adsorption happens frequently in urine assays because urine lacks proteins and lipids that can bind to the analytes or solubilize lipophilic analytes. Therefore, urine bioanalytical assays tend to suffer from analyte losses more often than plasma assays. In the past decade, there have been many methods described to overcome nonspecific adsorption in urine assays based on individual analyte characteristics. However, a common and simple method development approach for various analytes has not been discussed and summarized. In this article we demonstrate, discuss and summarize a common approach to urine method development with

  20. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  1. Optimisation of programmable temperature vaporizer-based large volume injection for determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Stajnbaher, Darinka; Zupancic-Kralj, Lucija

    2008-05-01

    The applicability of programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) solvent vent injection to the gas chromatographic (GC) determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables was evaluated with the aim of miniaturizing the current multiresidue method. For that purpose 24 pesticides representing different chemical classes were initially chosen for optimisation of the large volume injection (LVI) parameters. Various parameters related to the optimum injector performance were tested for several types of packed and empty liners using both fast (at-once) and speed-controlled PTV solvent vent injection of standard solutions in ethyl acetate. In the next step, several packed and empty liners were evaluated for their suitability for pesticide multiresidue analysis. Parameters identified as optimal were then applied for PTV solvent vent injection of sample extracts prepared using the miniaturized multiresidue method to assess the long-term stability of the system. The combined use of large volume injection of 10 microl ethyl acetate extract into an empty multi-baffled or a CarboFrit packed liner using PTV injectors and GC-MS analysis enabled the detection and quantification of 124 pesticides in fruit and vegetable samples at the 0.01 mg/kg level using miniaturized reversed-phase solid-phase extraction (RP-SPE) of diluted acetone extract and clean-up on a small anion-exchange SPE column. PMID:18367194

  2. Development of an In-line Urine Monitoring System for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during space flight causes bone loss when calcium and other metabolic by-products are excreted in urine voids. Frequent and accurate measurement of urine void volume and constituents is thus essential in determining crew bone loss and the effectiveness of the countermeasures that are taken to minimize this loss. Earlier space shuttle Urine Monitoring System (UMS) technology was unable to accurately measure urine void volumes due to the cross-contamination that took place between users, as well as to fluid system instabilities. Crew urine voids are currently collected manually in a flexible plastic bag that contains a known tracer quantity. A crew member must completely mix the contents of this bag before withdrawing a representative syringe sample for later ground analysis. The existing bag system accuracy is therefore highly dependent on mixing technique. The International Space Station (ISS) UMS has been developed as an automated device that collects urine from the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) urinal funnel interface, separates the urine, measures void volume, and allows for syringe sampling. After the ISS UMS has been used by a crew member, it delivers urine to the WHC for normal processing. The UMS plumbing is then flushed with a small volume of water. The current ISS UMS design incorporates an innovative rotary separator that minimizes foaming, consequently greatly reducing cross-contamination among urine voids (less than 0.5 mL urine) while also providing accurate volume measurements (less than 2 percent error for 100 to 1,000 mL void volumes). ISS UMS performance has been validated through extensive ground tests and reduced-gravity aircraft flights. The locker-sized ISS UMS is currently undergoing a design modification that will permit it to interface with the ISS Node 3 WHC Russian toilet (ACY) hardware. The operating principles, characteristics, and results of this design modification are outlined here.

  3. Development of an Inline Urine Monitoring System for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Cibuzar, Banelle R.

    2008-01-01

    Human exposure to microgravity during spaceflight causes bone loss. Calcium and other metabolic byproducts are excreted in urine voids. Frequent and accurate measurement of urine void volume and constituents is essential to determining crew bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. Previous US Space Shuttle (SS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) technology was unable to accurately measure urine void volumes due to cross contamination between users and fluid system instabilities. Currently, urine voids must be collected manually in a flexible plastic bag containing a known tracer quantity. The crew member must completely mix the bag then withdraw a representative syringe sample for later ground analysis. The current bag system accuracy is highly dependent on mixing technique. The International Space Station (ISS) UMS has been developed as an automated device that collects urine from the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) urinal funnel interface, separates the urine, measures the void volume, and allows for syringe sampling. After operations, the ISS UMS delivers the urine to the WHC for normal processing then flushes its plumbing with a small water volume. The current ISS UMS design incorporates an innovative rotary separator that minimizes foaming, greatly reduces cross contamination between urine voids (< 0.5 ml urine), and provides accurate volume measurements (< +/- 2% error for 100 to 1000 ml void volumes). The system performance has been validated with extensive ground tests and reduced gravity aircraft flights. The lockersized ISS UMS is currently being modified to interface with the ISS Node 3 WHC Russian ACY hardware. The operation principles, characteristics, and results are outlined in the paper.

  4. Advances in Urine Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Becker, Gavin J; Garigali, Giuseppe; Fogazzi, Giovanni B

    2016-06-01

    Urine microscopy is an important tool for the diagnosis and management of several conditions affecting the kidneys and urinary tract. In this review, we describe the automated instruments, based either on flow cytometry or digitized microscopy, that are currently in use in large clinical laboratories. These tools allow the examination of large numbers of samples in short periods. We also discuss manual urinary microscopy commonly performed by nephrologists, which we encourage. After discussing the advantages of phase contrast microscopy over bright field microscopy, we describe the advancements of urine microscopy in various clinical conditions. These include persistent isolated microscopic hematuria (which can be classified as glomerular or nonglomerular on the basis of urinary erythrocyte morphology), drug- and toxin-related cystalluria (which can be a clue for the diagnosis of acute kidney injury associated with intrarenal crystal precipitation), and some inherited conditions (eg, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, which is associated with 2,8-dihydroxyadenine crystalluria, and Fabry disease, which is characterized by unique urinary lamellated fatty particles). Finally, we describe the utility of identifying "decoy cells" and atypical malignant cells, which can be easily done with phase contrast microscopy in unfixed samples. PMID:26806004

  5. Inactivation and Anion Selectivity of Volume-regulated Anion Channels (VRACs) Depend on C-terminal Residues of the First Extracellular Loop.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Florian; Reincke, S Momsen; Voss, Felizia K; Stauber, Tobias; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2016-08-12

    Canonical volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) are crucial for cell volume regulation and have many other important roles, including tumor drug resistance and release of neurotransmitters. Although VRAC-mediated swelling-activated chloride currents (ICl,vol) have been studied for decades, exploration of the structure-function relationship of VRAC has become possible only after the recent discovery that VRACs are formed by differently composed heteromers of LRRC8 proteins. Inactivation of ICl,vol at positive potentials, a typical hallmark of VRACs, strongly varies between native cell types. Exploiting the large differences in inactivation between different LRRC8 heteromers, we now used chimeras assembled from isoforms LRRC8C and LRRC8E to uncover a highly conserved extracellular region preceding the second LRRC8 transmembrane domain as a major determinant of ICl,vol inactivation. Point mutations identified two amino acids (Lys-98 and Asp-100 in LRRC8A and equivalent residues in LRRC8C and -E), which upon charge reversal strongly altered the kinetics and voltage dependence of inactivation. Importantly, charge reversal at the first position also reduced the iodide > chloride permeability of ICl,vol This change in selectivity was stronger when both the obligatory LRRC8A subunit and the other co-expressed isoform (LRR8C or -E) carried such mutations. Hence, the C-terminal part of the first extracellular loop not only determines VRAC inactivation but might also participate in forming its outer pore. Inactivation of VRACs may involve a closure of the extracellular mouth of the permeation pathway. PMID:27325695

  6. Development of online NIR urine analyzing system based on AOTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Feng; Sun, Zhendong; Li, Xiaoxia

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, some key techniques on development of on-line MR urine analyzing system based on AOTF (Acousto - Optics Tunable Filter) are introduced. Problems about designing the optical system including collimation of incident light and working distance (the shortest distance for separating incident light and diffracted light) are analyzed and researched. DDS (Direct Digital Synthesizer) controlled by microprocessor is used to realize the wavelength scan. The experiment results show that this MR urine analyzing system based on. AOTF has 10000 - 4000cm -1 wavelength range and O.3ms wavelength transfer rate. Compare with the conventional Fourier Transform NIP. spectrophotometer for analyzing multi-components in urine, this system features low cost, small volume and on-line measurement function. Unscrambler software (multivariate statistical software by CAMO Inc. Norway) is selected as the software for processing the data. This system can realize on line quantitative analysis of protein, urea and creatinine in urine.

  7. Residual Tumor Volume as Best Outcome Predictor in Low Grade Glioma - A Nine-Years Near-Randomized Survey of Surgery vs. Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Roelz, Roland; Strohmaier, David; Jabbarli, Ramazan; Kraeutle, Rainer; Egger, Karl; Coenen, Volker A; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Reinacher, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse low grade gliomas (DLGG) are continuously progressive primary brain neoplasms that lead to neurological deficits and death. Treatment strategies are controversial. Randomized trials establishing the prognostic value of surgery do not exist. Here, we report the results of a nine-year near-randomized patient distribution between resection and biopsy. Until 2012, the Department of Neurosurgery and the Department of Stereotactic Neurosurgery at the University Medical Center Freiburg were organized as separate administrative units both coordinating DLGG patient treatment independently. All consecutive adult patients with a new diagnosis of DLGG by either stereotactic biopsy or resection were included. Pre- and post-operative tumor volumetry was performed. 126 patients, 87 men (69%), 39 women (31%), median age 41 years, were included. 77 (61%) were initially managed by biopsy, 49 (39%) by resection. A significant survival benefit was found for patients with an initial management by resection (5-year OS 82% vs. 54%). The survival benefit of patients with initial resection was reserved to patients with a residual tumor volume of less than 15 cm(3). Maximum safe resection is the first therapy of choice in DLGG patients if a near-complete tumor removal can be achieved. Accurate prediction of the extent-of-resection is required for selection of surgical candidates. PMID:27574036

  8. Residual Tumor Volume as Best Outcome Predictor in Low Grade Glioma – A Nine-Years Near-Randomized Survey of Surgery vs. Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Roelz, Roland; Strohmaier, David; Jabbarli, Ramazan; Kraeutle, Rainer; Egger, Karl; Coenen, Volker A.; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Reinacher, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse low grade gliomas (DLGG) are continuously progressive primary brain neoplasms that lead to neurological deficits and death. Treatment strategies are controversial. Randomized trials establishing the prognostic value of surgery do not exist. Here, we report the results of a nine-year near-randomized patient distribution between resection and biopsy. Until 2012, the Department of Neurosurgery and the Department of Stereotactic Neurosurgery at the University Medical Center Freiburg were organized as separate administrative units both coordinating DLGG patient treatment independently. All consecutive adult patients with a new diagnosis of DLGG by either stereotactic biopsy or resection were included. Pre- and post-operative tumor volumetry was performed. 126 patients, 87 men (69%), 39 women (31%), median age 41 years, were included. 77 (61%) were initially managed by biopsy, 49 (39%) by resection. A significant survival benefit was found for patients with an initial management by resection (5-year OS 82% vs. 54%). The survival benefit of patients with initial resection was reserved to patients with a residual tumor volume of less than 15 cm3. Maximum safe resection is the first therapy of choice in DLGG patients if a near-complete tumor removal can be achieved. Accurate prediction of the extent-of-resection is required for selection of surgical candidates. PMID:27574036

  9. Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles.

    PubMed

    Mattelaer, J J

    1999-06-01

    In the history of mankind the first receptacles for urine were made and employed for diagnostic purposes and developed over centuries to a sophisticated matula. In ancient Greek and Roman history, chamber pots existed and urine was collected to bleach sheets, but it was only in the late medieval and renaissance times that a real urine receptacle or urinal for daily use was developed. We give a short description of the materials used, including clay, pewter, copper, and silver, but more sophisticated receptacles made of china, such as the bourdaloue, and of glass, such as the Kuttrolf, were also developed for use during long church ceremonies. Less known are the wooden "pipes" from Turkestan, used to keep babies dry. In the long history of mankind, urinals sometimes became very original objects. PMID:10418087

  10. Tryptophan glycoconjugates in food and human urine.

    PubMed Central

    Gutsche, B; Grun, C; Scheutzow, D; Herderich, M

    1999-01-01

    Evaluating the formation of tryptophan glycoconjugates other than well-established Amadori rearrangement products, HPLC-tandem MS (MS/MS) analysis of human urine collected from several healthy individuals proved the presence of one distinct tryptophan C-glycosyl compound [Horiuchi, Yonekawa, Iwahara, Kanno, Kurihara and Fujise (1994) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 115, 362-366]. After isolation, unambiguous identification of this novel tryptophan metabolite as 2-(alpha-mannopyranosyl)-l-tryptophan was achieved by tandem MS combined with NMR spectroscopy including homonuclear COSY, heteronuclear multiple-bond connectivity and (1)H-detected heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence experiments. Remarkably, a thorough evaluation of vicinal proton-proton coupling constants in different solvents and nuclear Overhauser effect experiments demonstrate the predominant axial orientation of the hydroxymethyl group of the hexopyranosyl residue. Likewise this spatial arrangement indicates that the respective alpha-anomeric C-mannosylhexopyranose is preferentially adopting a (1)C(4) conformation in acidic methanol. Whereas only one distinct tryptophan mannoconjugate could be observed in human urine, HPLC-MS/MS analysis of food samples for the first time led to the identification of numerous N(1)-(beta-d-hexopyranosyl)-l-tryptophan, 2-(beta-d-hexopyranosyl)-l-tryptophan and 1-(1,2,3,4,5-pentahyd- roxypent-1-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives derived from the condensation of tryptophan with aldohexoses. Taking into consideration the significant differences between profiles and configurations of tryptophan glycoconjugates originating from dietary sources and human urine, C-2 mannosylation of tryptophan residues [de Beer, Vliegenthart, Loeffler and Hofsteenge (1995) Biochemistry 34, 11785-11789] represents a novel enzymic pathway in tryptophan metabolism in humans. PMID:10493906

  11. Hematuria (Blood in the Urine)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract is the body’s drainage system for removing wastes and extra water. The urinary tract includes two kidneys, two ureters, ... 1 to 2 quarts of urine, composed of wastes and extra water. The urine flows from the kidneys to the ...

  12. Protein Thermostability Is Owing to Their Preferences to Non-Polar Smaller Volume Amino Acids, Variations in Residual Physico-Chemical Properties and More Salt-Bridges

    PubMed Central

    Panja, Anindya Sundar; Bandopadhyay, Bidyut; Maiti, Smarajit

    2015-01-01

    <0.001, respectively) in thermophilic and GLU-ARG is higher in the mesophilic proteins. The Ramachandran plot/ data suggest a higher abundance of the helix, left-handed helix, sheet, nonplanar peptide and lower occurrence of cis peptide, loop/ turn and outlier in thermophiles. Pearson’s correlation result suggests that the isoelectric points of mesophilic and thermophilic proteins are positively correlated (r = 0.93 and 0.84, respectively; p<0.001) to their corresponding charges. And their hydrophilicity is negatively associated with the corresponding hydrophobicity (r = -0.493, p<0.001 and r = -0.324, p<0.05) suggesting their reciprocal evolvement. Conclusions Present results for the first time with this large amount of datasets and multiple contributing factors suggest the greater occurrence of hydrophobicity, salt-bridges and smaller volume nonpolar residues (Gly, Ala and Val) and lesser occurrence of bulky polar residues in the thermophilic proteins. A more stoichiometric relationship amongst these factors minimized the hindrance due to side chain burial and increased compactness and secondary structural stability in thermophilic proteins. PMID:26177372

  13. Low-volume application by mist-blower compared with conventional compression sprayer treatment of houses with residual pyrethroid to control the malaria vector Anopheles albimanus in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, C; Rodriguez, M H; Bown, D N; Arredondo-Jiménez, J I

    1995-04-01

    Village-scale trials were carried out in southern Mexico to compare the efficacy of indoor-spraying of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin applied either as low-volume (LV) aqueous emulsion or as wettable-powder (WP) aqueous suspension for residual control of the principal coastal malaria vector Anopheles albimanus. Three indoor spray rounds were conducted at 3-month intervals using back-pack mist-blowers to apply lambda-cyhalothrin 12.5 mg a.i./m2 by LV, whereas the WP was applied by conventional compression sprayer at a mean rate of 26.5 mg a.i./m2. Both treatments caused mosquito mortality indoors and outdoors (collected inside house curtains) as a result of contact with treated surfaces before and after feeding, but had no significant impact on overall population density of An. albimanus resting indoors or assessed by human bait collections. Contact bioassays showed that WP and LV treatments with lambda-cyhalothrin were effective for 12-20 weeks (> 75% mortality) without causing excito-repellency. Compared to the WP treatment (8 houses/man/day), LV treatment (25 houses/man/day) was more than 3 times quicker per house, potentially saving 68% of labour costs. This is offset, however, by the much lower unit price of a compression sprayer (e.g. Hudson 'X-pert' at US$120) than a mist-blower (e.g. 'Super Jolly' at US$350), and higher running costs for LV applications. It was calculated, therefore, that LV becomes more economical than WP after 18.8 treatments/100 houses/10 men at equivalent rates of application, or after 7.6 spray rounds with half-rate LV applications. PMID:7787228

  14. [Pastel in the urine bag].

    PubMed

    Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. PMID:22414392

  15. Electrochemically driven extraction and recovery of ammonia from human urine.

    PubMed

    Luther, Amanda K; Desloover, Joachim; Fennell, Donna E; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-12-15

    Human urine contains high concentrations of nitrogen, contributing about 75% of the nitrogen in municipal wastewaters yet only 1% of the volume. Source separation of urine produces an ideal waste stream for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery, reducing downstream costs of nutrient treatment at wastewater treatment facilities. We examined the efficiency and feasibility of ammonia extraction and recovery from synthetic and undiluted human urine using an electrochemical cell (EC). EC processing of synthetic urine produced an ammonium flux of 384 ± 8 g N m(-2) d(-1) with a 61 ± 1% current efficiency at an energy input of 12 kWh kg(-1) N removed. EC processing of real urine displayed similar performance, with an average ammonium flux of 275 ± 5 g N m(-2) d(-1) sustained over 10 days with 55 ± 1% current efficiency for ammonia and at an energy input of 13 kWh kg(-1) N removed. With the incorporation of an ammonia stripping and absorption unit into the real urine system, 57 ± 0.5% of the total nitrogen was recovered as ammonium sulfate. A system configuration additionally incorporating stripping of the influent headspace increased total nitrogen recovery to 79% but led to reduced performance of the EC as the urine ammonium concentration decrease. Direct stripping of ammonia (NH3) from urine with no chemical addition achieved only 12% total nitrogen recovery at hydraulic retention times comparable with the EC systems. Our results demonstrate that ammonia can be extracted via electrochemical means at reasonable energy inputs of approximately 12 kWh kg(-1) N. Considering also that the hydrogen generated is worth 4.3 kWh kg(-1) N, the net electrical input for extraction becomes approximately 8 kWh kg(-1) N if the hydrogen can be used. Critical for further development will be the inclusion of a passive means for ammonia stripping to reduce additional energy inputs. PMID:26453942

  16. A New Method to Make 24-Hour Urine Collection More Convenient: A Validity Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives. This study proposes a novel urine collection device that can divide each urine collection into 20 parts and store and cool just one part. The aim of the current study is to compare measured biomarkers from the proposed urine collection device to those of conventional 24-hour sampling method. We also hypothesized that the new method would significantly increase patients' adherence to the timed urine collection. Methods. Two 24-hour urine samples with the conventional method and with the new automated urine collection device that uses just one-twentieth of each void were obtained from 40 healthy volunteers. Urine parameters including volume, creatinine, and protein levels were compared between the two methods and the agreement of two measurements for each subject was reported through Bland-Altman plots. Results. Our results confirmed that for all three variables, there is a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between the two measurements and high degree of agreement could be seen in Bland-Altman plots. Moreover, more subjects reported the new method as “more convenient” for 24-hour urine collection. Conclusions. Our results clearly indicate that a fixed proportion of each void may significantly reduce the urine volume in timed collections and this, in turn, may increase subjects' adherence to this difficult sampling. PMID:24963405

  17. Urine collection apparatus. [feminine hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females comprises an interface body with an interface surface for engagement with the user's body. The interface body comprises a forward portion defining a urine-receiving bore which has an inlet in the interface surface adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. The interface body also has a rear portion integrally adjoining the forward portion and a non-invasive vaginal seal on the interface surface for sealing the vagina of the user from communication with the urine-receiving bore. An absorbent pad is removably supported on the interface body and extends laterally therefrom. A garment for supporting the urine collection is also disclosed.

  18. Treating urine by Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

    In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

  19. Phosphate recovery using hybrid anion exchange: applications to source-separated urine and combined wastewater streams.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Jeremy A; Boyer, Treavor H

    2013-09-15

    There is increasing interest in recovering phosphorus (P) from various wastewater streams for beneficial use as fertilizer and to minimize environmental impacts of excess P on receiving waters. One such example is P recovery from human urine, which has a high concentration of phosphate (200-800 mg P/L) and accounts for a small volume (≈ 1%) of total wastewater flow. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to evaluate the potential to recover P from source-separated and combined wastewater streams that included undiluted human urine, urine diluted with tap water, greywater, mixture of urine and greywater, anaerobic digester supernatant, and secondary wastewater effluent. A hybrid anion exchange (HAIX) resin containing hydrous ferric oxide was used to recover P because of its selectivity for phosphate and the option to precipitate P minerals in the waste regeneration solution. The P recovery potential was fresh urine > hydrolyzed urine > greywater > biological wastewater effluent > anaerobic digester supernatant. The maximum loading of P on HAIX resin was fresh urine > hydrolyzed urine > anaerobic digester supernatant ≈ greywater > biological wastewater effluent. Results indicated that the sorption capacity of HAIX resin for phosphate and the total P recovery potential were greater for source-separated urine than the combined wastewater streams of secondary wastewater effluent and anaerobic digester supernatant. Dilution of urine with tap water decreased the phosphate loading on HAIX resin. The results of this work advance the current understanding of nutrient recovery from complex wastewater streams by sorption processes. PMID:23866131

  20. Strategies for preserving residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Nongnuch, Arkom; Assanatham, Montira; Panorchan, Kwanpeemai; Davenport, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Although there have been many advancements in the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) over the last 50 years, in terms of reducing cardiovascular risk, mortality remains unacceptably high, particularly for those patients who progress to stage 5 CKD and initiate dialysis (CKD5d). As mortality risk increases exponentially with progressive CKD stage, the question arises as to whether preservation of residual renal function once dialysis has been initiated can reduce mortality risk. Observational studies to date have reported an association between even small amounts of residual renal function and improved patient survival and quality of life. Dialysis therapies predominantly provide clearance for small water-soluble solutes, volume and acid-base control, but cannot reproduce the metabolic functions of the kidney. As such, protein-bound solutes, advanced glycosylation end-products, middle molecules and other azotaemic toxins accumulate over time in the anuric CKD5d patient. Apart from avoiding potential nephrotoxic insults, observational and interventional trials have suggested that a number of interventions and treatments may potentially reduce the progression of earlier stages of CKD, including targeted blood pressure control, reducing proteinuria and dietary intervention using combinations of protein restriction with keto acid supplementation. However, many interventions which have been proven to be effective in the general population have not been equally effective in the CKD5d patient, and so the question arises as to whether these treatment options are equally applicable to CKD5d patients. As strategies to help preserve residual renal function in CKD5d patients are not well established, we have reviewed the evidence for preserving or losing residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients, as urine collections are routinely collected, whereas few centres regularly collect urine from haemodialysis patients, and haemodialysis dialysis

  1. Effect of Icodextrin Solution on the Preservation of Residual Renal Function in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tae Ik; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Hyung Jong; Kang, Ea Wha; Kim, Hyunwook; Chang, Jae Hyun; Kim, Dong Ki; Moon, Sung Jin; Yoon, Soo Young; Han, Seung Hyeok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although icodextrin solution has been highlighted in the fluid management compared to glucose-based solutions, proof of a beneficial effect of icodextrin solution on residual renal function (RRF) is lacking. We conducted a multicenter prospective randomized controlled open-label trial to investigate whether icodextrin solution can preserve RRF. One hundred patients with urine volume ≥750 mL/day from 8 centers in Korea were randomly assigned to receive 1 exchange of icodextrin solution for a ≥8 hour-dwell time and 2 exchanges of 1.5% glucose-based biocompatible neutral pH solution or 1 exchange of ≥2.5% and 2 exchanges of 1.5% glucose-based biocompatible solutions. Using mixed-effects general linear models, we analyzed changes in residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and daily urine volume at 1 year. Forty-nine patients were assigned to the icodextrin group and 51 to the glucose solution group. During follow-up, the slope of the decline in residual GFR was −0.170 mL/min/month/1.73 m2 in the icodextrin group, while it was −0.155 mL/min/month/1.73 m2 in the glucose solution group (95% confidence interval [CI], −0.06 to 0.10; P = 0.701). Daily urine volume decreased faster in the glucose solution group than in the icodextrin group (−31.02 vs −11.88 mL per month; 95% CI, −35.85 to −2.44; P = 0.025). Results were consistent when we analyzed using intention-to-treat and per protocol principles. There were no differences in fluid status, peritoneal ultrafiltration, and peritoneal transport between groups during follow-up. This study clearly showed that icodextrin solution preserves residual urine volume better than glucose solution. PMID:27043667

  2. Uncertainties of Mayak urine data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Guthrie; Vostrotin, Vadim; Vvdensky, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    For internal dose calculations for the Mayak worker epidemiological study, quantitative estimates of uncertainty of the urine measurements are necessary. Some of the data consist of measurements of 24h urine excretion on successive days (e.g. 3 or 4 days). In a recent publication, dose calculations were done where the uncertainty of the urine measurements was estimated starting from the statistical standard deviation of these replicate mesurements. This approach is straightforward and accurate when the number of replicate measurements is large, however, a Monte Carlo study showed it to be problematic for the actual number of replicate measurements (median from 3 to 4). Also, it is sometimes important to characterize the uncertainty of a single urine measurement. Therefore this alternate method has been developed. A method of parameterizing the uncertainty of Mayak urine bioassay measmements is described. The Poisson lognormal model is assumed and data from 63 cases (1099 urine measurements in all) are used to empirically determine the lognormal normalization uncertainty, given the measurement uncertainties obtained from count quantities. The natural logarithm of the geometric standard deviation of the normalization uncertainty is found to be in the range 0.31 to 0.35 including a measurement component estimated to be 0.2.

  3. Defining urine output criterion for acute kidney injury in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Etienne; Malhotra, Rakesh; Claure-Del Granado, Rolando; Fedullo, Peter; Mehta, Ravindra L.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The widespread use of RIFLE and AKIN classification systems for acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis and staging has established the association between AKI severity and adverse outcomes. However, as a result of the difficulties in measuring and recording the urine output every hour, a few prospective studies have validated the urine output criterion as stated in these classification systems. We assessed hourly urine output in ICU patients using an automated and accurate device to determine if changes in urine flow and volume could be a sensitive marker of AKI. Additionally, we assessed various definitions of oliguria to determine whether measurement of urine output using a fixed 6-h interval that matches nurses’ shifts would be equivalent to the current standard for AKI diagnosis and staging. Methods. Hourly urine output was recorded continuously using a digital monitor in a medical ICU. Serum creatinine measurements were done at least once per 24 h. We assessed changes in urine output by four different definitions of oliguria. Patients with no AKI by either criterion were compared with patients diagnosed exclusively by the urine output criterion, exclusively by serum creatinine criterion and by both criteria. Results. Fifty-five percent of patients had an episode of oliguria during the ICU stay. There was no significant difference assessing urine output every hour or the total urine volume in a 6-h period for the detection of episodes of oliguria. Twenty-one patients (28%) were diagnosed as AKI using the serum creatinine criterion, whereas additional 24 (32%) were identified by the urine output criterion. Conclusions. Episodes of oliguria occur frequently in ICU patients and identify a higher percentage of AKI patients compared to serum creatinine criterion. Alterations in urine flow may be a sensitive marker of renal dysfunction and need to be validated in larger cohorts. PMID:20562094

  4. [Chronic monstrous urine retention].

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Frederik Gustav; Holm, Mette Lind

    2015-01-26

    A 75-year-old male was diagnosed with renal mass at a computed tomography during an examination for extended abdominal girth. A large mesenterical cyst was also detected. The patient had infrequent voiding, which he had trained over many years as a taxi driver. A basic physical examination led to suspect urinary retention. His creatinine level was normal and he had no hydronephrosis. A renography showed equal function, but prolonged bilateral outflow. The volume extracted by urethral catheter passed 15 l. Absence of hydronephrosis and normal S-creatinine level has not been described in chronic urinary retention of this extent. Hydronephrosis is seen, but in much smaller volume of retention. Infrequent voiding is easily diagnosed. Urinary retention should be suspected when finding median cystic processes. PMID:25612956

  5. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  6. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  7. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  8. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  9. Stagewise processing of yellow water using clinoptilolite for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery and higher residual quality.

    PubMed

    Allar, A D; Beler Baykal, B

    2015-01-01

    Source-separated human urine may be used as a source of fertilizers indirectly through processing with clinoptilolite. The suggested form of fertilizer is clinoptilolite loaded with plant nutrients from urine, where nitrogen and phosphorus will be released upon contact with water. Triggered by the need for handling high concentrations remaining in the liquid phase to be disposed of, this paper aims to present the option of improving the residual nutrient quality through stagewise processing with clinoptilolite, while investigating any improvement in nutrient removal. Two sets of experiments, stagewise operation under (i) constant loadings and (ii) variable loadings in each stage, are discussed. Stagewise operation has been observed to be successful for attaining reduced residual liquid phase concentrations as well as improvements in nitrogen recovery as compared to single-stage operation. Comparing constant and variable stagewise loadings, the final concentration is 10 times lower with variable loadings. The latter is comparable to a level found in only 1% of conventional domestic wastewater volume. Stagewise operation was beneficial from the standpoint of both additional nutrient recovery and for residuals control, with more pronounced benefits for attaining higher quality residual liquid phase concentrations to be disposed of. PMID:26067508

  10. Microanalyzer for Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Blood and Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-01-01

    Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. The state-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turn around time, and are expensive. In response to the growing need for metal analyzer for on-site, real-time monitoring of trace metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/adsorptive stripping voltammetry and used it to analyze Pb in rat blood and urine. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with the suitable sample pretreatment and the turbulent flowing of Pb contained blood and urine onto the glassy electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. There was no matrix effect on the voltammetric Pb signals even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration range relevant to Pb exposure levels in human (0-20 ppb in 10%-blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50%-urine samples). The device had excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.54 ppb and 0.42 ppb, and % RSDs were 4.9 and 2.4 in 50%-urine and 10%-blood samples, respectively. It offered a high throughput (3 min per sample) and had economical use of samples (60 ?L per measurement), making the collection of blood being less invasive especially to children, and had low reagent consumption (1 ?g of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing the health concerns of mercury use. Being miniaturized in size, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it has a great potential to be the next-generation analyzer for biomonitoring of toxic metals.

  11. Creating a urine black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Randy; Pan, Zhao; Meritt, Andrew; Belden, Jesse; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    Since the mid-nineteenth century, both enlisted and fashion-conscious owners of khaki trousers have been plagued by undesired speckle patterns resulting from splash-back while urinating. In recent years, industrial designers and hygiene-driven entrepreneurs have sought to limit this splashing by creating urinal inserts, with the effectiveness of their inventions varying drastically. From this large assortment of inserts, designs consisting of macroscopic pillar arrays seem to be the most effective splash suppressers. Interestingly this design partially mimics the geometry of the water capturing moss Syntrichia caninervis, which exhibits a notable ability to suppress splash and quickly absorb water from impacting rain droplets. With this natural splash suppressor in mind, we search for the ideal urine black hole by performing experiments of simulated urine streams (water droplet streams) impacting macroscopic pillar arrays with varying parameters including pillar height and spacing, draining and material properties. We propose improved urinal insert designs based on our experimental data in hopes of reducing potential embarrassment inherent in wearing khakis.

  12. International Space Station Urine Monitoring System Functional Integration and Science Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Branelle R.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity during human spaceflight needs to be better understood as the human exploration of space requires longer duration missions. It is known that long term exposure to microgravity causes bone loss. Measuring the calcium and other metabolic byproducts in a crew member s urine can evaluate the effectiveness of bone loss countermeasures. The International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is an automated urine collection device designed to collect urine, separate the urine and air, measure the void volume, and allow for syringe sampling. Accurate measuring and minimal cross-contamination is essential to determine bone loss and the effectiveness of countermeasures. The ISS UMS provides minimal cross-contamination (<0.7 mL urine) and has volume accuracy of 2% between 100 to 1000 mL urine voids. Designed to provide a non-invasive means to collect urine samples from crew members, the ISS UMS operates in-line with the Node 3 Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). The ISS UMS has undergone modifications required to interface with the WHC, including material changes, science algorithm improvements, and software platform revisions. Integrated functional testing was performed to determine the pressure drop, air flow rate, and the maximum amount of fluid capable of being discharged from the UMS to the WHC. This paper will detail the results of the science and the functional integration tests.

  13. Mutagenicity in Salmonella of hazardous wastes and urine from rats fed these wastes

    SciTech Connect

    DeMarini, D.M.; Inmon, J.P.; Simmons, J.E.; Berman, E.; Pasley, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    15 hazardous industrial-waste samples were evaluated for mutagenicity in the Salmonella plate-incorporation assay using strains TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver S9. Dichloromethane/methanol extracts of the crude wastes were also evaluated. 7 of the crude wastes were mutagenic, but only 2 of the extracts of these 7 wastes were mutagenic; extracts of 2 additional wastes also were mutagenic. In addition, 10 of the crude wastes were administered by gavage to F-344 rats, and 24-h urine samples were collected. Of the 10 raw urines evaluated, 3 were mutagenic in strain TA98 in the presence of S9 and beta-glucuronidase. The 3 crude wastes that produced these 3 mutagenic urines were, themselves, mutagenic. Adequate volumes of 6 of the 10 raw urines were available for extraction/concentration. These 6 urines were incubated with beta-glucuronidase and eluted through Sep-Pak C18 columns; the methanol eluates of 3 of the urines were mutagenic, and these were the same 3 whose raw urines also were mutagenic. In general, the C18/methanol extraction procedure reduced the cytotoxicity and increased the mutagenic potency of the urines. To the authors knowledge, this is the first report of the mutagenicity of urine from rodents exposed to hazardous wastes.

  14. Effects of human urine on aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals.

    PubMed

    Springmann, K E; Drach, G W; Gottung, B; Randolph, A D

    1986-01-01

    The importance of aggregation in calcium oxalate urolithiasis, although not fully understood, has long been postulated. Previous investigators of calcium oxalate crystal aggregation have applied static crystallization rather than continuous flow techniques to their studies. We describe the use of a Couette agglomerator in series with our previously reported continuous flow mixed suspension-mixed product removal crystallization system. We compared synthetic urine controls with 5 per cent volume-in-volume human urine additions from normal persons or patients with calcium oxalate stones. There was no significant difference in nucleation, linear crystal growth rate or total crystal mass between normal persons and those with stones. Control nucleation rate was significantly higher than in either human urine addition group. Comparison of aggregator particle size distributions revealed significant differences in aggregation among the control, normal and stone groups. We concluded that urine inhibitors to aggregation are somewhat deficient in patients with stones, resulting in the generation of larger particle masses or eventually stones. PMID:3941471

  15. Direct colorimetric method for determination of organophosphates in human urine.

    PubMed

    Namera, A; Utsumi, Y; Yashiki, M; Ohtani, M; Imamura, T; Kojima, T

    2000-01-20

    A simple and sensitive method for determination of organophosphorus pesticides in human urine was developed by detecting the color complexes which resulted from reactions of organophosphorus pesticides and 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine (NBP) in urine. Based on studies of reaction conditions, e.g. reaction temperature and time, and reagent concentration, a colorimetric method was established. A 0.1-ml volume of NBP (45% in acetone) was added to a 1.0-ml volume of a urine sample, and the mixture was heated at 100 degrees C for 20 min. After cooling, 0.1 ml of tetraethylenepentamine was added. The organophosphorus pesticides showed a characteristic purplish blue color and the coloring complexes which were produced were stable for several hours. Furthermore, these complexes could be determined spectrophotometrically. The detection limits were 0.10-10 microg/ml in urine. The required time for analysis was approximately 30 min for one sample. Comparing the result of the proposed method with those of the GC-MS method, the results were similar for the 12 poisoning cases studied. Thus, the proposed method is useful for detection of these pesticides in critical care practices. PMID:10612713

  16. Measurement uncertainty for the determination of amphetamines in urine by liquid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Franco de Oliveira, Sarah Carobini Werner de Souza Eller; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2016-08-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of amphetamines in urine samples by means of liquid-phase microextraction was validated, including calculation of measurement uncertainty. After extraction in the three-phase mode, acceptor phase was withdrawn from the fiber and the residue was derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride. The method showed to be very simple, rapid and it required a significantly low amount of organic solvent for extraction. The limits of detection were 10 and 20μg/L for amphetamine and methamphetamine, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the specified range (20μg/L to 1400μg/L; r(2)>0.99). The method showed to be both precise and accurate and a relative combined uncertainty of 2% was calculated. In order of importance, the factors which were more determinant for the calculation of method uncertainty were: analyte concentration, sample volume, trueness and method precision. PMID:26836147

  17. The Clinical Urine Culture: Enhanced Techniques Improve Detection of Clinically Relevant Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Price, Travis K; Dune, Tanaka; Hilt, Evann E; Thomas-White, Krystal J; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Brincat, Cynthia; Brubaker, Linda; Wolfe, Alan J; Mueller, Elizabeth R; Schreckenberger, Paul C

    2016-05-01

    Enhanced quantitative urine culture (EQUC) detects live microorganisms in the vast majority of urine specimens reported as "no growth" by the standard urine culture protocol. Here, we evaluated an expanded set of EQUC conditions (expanded-spectrum EQUC) to identify an optimal version that provides a more complete description of uropathogens in women experiencing urinary tract infection (UTI)-like symptoms. One hundred fifty adult urogynecology patient-participants were characterized using a self-completed validated UTI symptom assessment (UTISA) questionnaire and asked "Do you feel you have a UTI?" Women responding negatively were recruited into the no-UTI cohort, while women responding affirmatively were recruited into the UTI cohort; the latter cohort was reassessed with the UTISA questionnaire 3 to 7 days later. Baseline catheterized urine samples were plated using both standard urine culture and expanded-spectrum EQUC protocols: standard urine culture inoculated at 1 μl onto 2 agars incubated aerobically; expanded-spectrum EQUC inoculated at three different volumes of urine onto 7 combinations of agars and environments. Compared to expanded-spectrum EQUC, standard urine culture missed 67% of uropathogens overall and 50% in participants with severe urinary symptoms. Thirty-six percent of participants with missed uropathogens reported no symptom resolution after treatment by standard urine culture results. Optimal detection of uropathogens could be achieved using the following: 100 μl of urine plated onto blood (blood agar plate [BAP]), colistin-nalidixic acid (CNA), and MacConkey agars in 5% CO2 for 48 h. This streamlined EQUC protocol achieved 84% uropathogen detection relative to 33% detection by standard urine culture. The streamlined EQUC protocol improves detection of uropathogens that are likely relevant for symptomatic women, giving clinicians the opportunity to receive additional information not currently reported using standard urine culture

  18. A simple method for quantitating the propensity for calcium oxalate crystallization in urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, C. L.; Pak, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    To assess the propensity for spontaneous crystallization of calcium oxalate in urine, the permissible increment in oxalate is calculated. The previous method required visual observation of crystallization with the addition of oxalate, this warranted the need for a large volume of urine and a sacrifice in accuracy in defining differences between small incremental changes of added oxalate. Therefore, this method has been miniaturized and spontaneous crystallization is detected from the depletion of radioactive oxalate. The new "micro" method demonstrated a marked decrease (p < 0.001) in the permissible increment in oxalate in urine of stone formers versus normal subjects. Moreover, crystallization inhibitors added to urine, in vitro (heparin or diphosphonate) or in vivo (potassium citrate administration), substantially increased the permissible increment in oxalate. Thus, the "micro" method has proven reliable and accurate in discriminating stone forming from control urine and in distinguishing changes of inhibitory activity.

  19. Dispersive solid-phase extraction procedure coupled to UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis for the simultaneous determination of thirteen cytotoxic drugs in human urine.

    PubMed

    Fabrizi, Giovanni; Fioretti, Marzia; Mainero Rocca, Lucia

    2016-08-01

    A fast and easy tailored dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) procedure has been developed for the determination of 13 cytostatic drugs. Combined with a rapid and simultaneous ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for residue identification and quantification in urine, it has been fully validated and tested to study a realistic situation in working environment. The target compounds were chosen from the most common classes used in hospitals. The d-SPE adsorbent was obtained mixing Oasis HLB® with C18 and applied to a large volume of sample (10 mL). The electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry acquisition was conducted in a mixed period mode: six acquisition windows were in positive ionization and one in negative (for 5-fluorouracil). The lowest limit of quantification was found at 0.04 μg/L urine for methotrexate. The absolute recovery of cytotoxic drugs was assessed at two concentrations levels and ranged from 67.1% (cytarabine) to 102.3% (etoposide) and from 65.3% (cytarabine) to 101.2% (methotrexate) for the lower and higher levels, respectively, with the relative standard deviation always <12%. This method gives the opportunity to analyze drugs in a wide molecular weight range (from 130 to 853 a.m.u.) and in a complex matrix, such as urine, without losing any of the features that a method intended for trace quantification must have. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26762960

  20. Preservation of residual kidney function in hemodialysis patients: reviving an old concept.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Anna T; Fishbane, Steven; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2016-08-01

    Residual kidney function (RKF) may confer a variety of benefits to patients on maintenance dialysis. RKF provides continuous clearance of middle molecules and protein-bound solutes. Whereas the definition of RKF varies across studies, interdialytic urine volume may emerge as a pragmatic alternative to more cumbersome calculations. RKF preservation is associated with better patient outcomes including survival and quality of life and is a clinical parameter and research focus in peritoneal dialysis. We propose the following practical considerations to preserve RKF, especially in newly transitioned (incident) hemodialysis patients: (1) periodic monitoring of RKF in hemodialysis patients through urine volume and including residual urea clearance with dialysis adequacy and outcome markers such as anemia, fluid gains, minerals and electrolytes, nutritional, status and quality of life; (2) avoidance of nephrotoxic agents such as radiocontrast dye, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and aminoglycosides; (3) more rigorous hypertension control and minimizing intradialytic hypotensive episodes; (4) individualizing the initial dialysis prescription with consideration of an incremental/infrequent approach to hemodialysis initiation (e.g., twice weekly) or peritoneal dialysis; and (5) considering a lower protein diet, especially on nondialysis days. Because RKF appears to be associated with better patient outcomes, it requires more clinical and research focus in the care of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:27182000

  1. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size en ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  2. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Urination Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... nurse if you have any of these changes: l A strong urge to urinate more often l Urine that is cloudy, or is a different ... such as orange, red, green, or dark yellow l Urine that has a strong smell l Trouble ...

  3. Quantification of chromatographic effects of vitamin B supplementation in urine and implications for hydration assessment.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Heavens, K R; Dennis, W E; Caruso, E M; Guerriere, K I; Charkoudian, N; Cheuvront, S N

    2015-07-15

    Changes in body water elicit reflex adjustments at the kidney, thus maintaining fluid volume homeostasis. These renal adjustments change the concentration and color of urine, variables that can, in turn, be used as biomarkers of hydration status. It has been suggested that vitamin supplementation alters urine color; it is unclear whether any such alteration would confound hydration assessment via colorimetric evaluation. We tested the hypothesis that overnight vitamin B2 and/or B12 supplementation alters urine color as a marker of hydration status. Thirty healthy volunteers were monitored during a 3-day euhydrated baseline, confirmed via first morning nude body mass, urine specific gravity, and urine osmolality. Volunteers then randomly received B2 (n = 10), B12 (n = 10), or B2 + B12 (n = 10) at ∼200 × recommended dietary allowance. Euhydration was verified on trial days (two of the following: body mass ± 1.0% of the mean of visits 1-3, urine specific gravity < 1.02, urine osmolality < 700 mmol/kg). Vitamin purity and urinary B2 concentration ([B2]) and [B12] were quantified via ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Two independent observers assessed urine color using an eight-point standardized color chart. Following supplementation, urinary [B2] was elevated; however, urine color was not different between nonsupplemented and supplemented trials. For example, in the B2 trial, urinary [B2] increased from 8.6 × 10(4) ± 7.7 × 10(4) to 5.7 × 10(6) ± 5.3 × 10(6) nmol/l (P < 0.05), and urine color went from 4 ± 1 to 5 ± 1 (P > 0.05). Both conditions met the euhydrated color classification. We conclude that a large overnight dose of vitamins B2 and B12 does not confound assessment of euhydrated status via urine color. PMID:25977447

  4. The Impact of Preradiation Residual Disease Volume on Time to Locoregional Failure in Cutaneous Merkel Cell Carcinoma—A TROG Substudy

    SciTech Connect

    Finnigan, Renee; Hruby, George; Wratten, Chris; Keller, Jacqui; Tripcony, Lee; Dickie, Graeme; Rischin, Danny; Poulsen, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of margin status and gross residual disease in patients treated with chemoradiation therapy for high-risk stage I and II Merkel cell cancer (MCC). Methods and Materials: Data were pooled from 3 prospective trials in which patients were treated with 50 Gy in 25 fractions to the primary lesion and draining lymph nodes and 2 schedules of carboplatin based chemotherapy. Time to locoregional failure was analyzed according to the burden of disease at the time of radiation therapy, comparing patients with negative margins, involved margins, or macroscopic disease. Results: Analysis was performed on 88 patients, of whom 9 had microscopically positive resection margins and 26 had macroscopic residual disease. The majority of gross disease was confined to nodal regions. The 5-year time to locoregional failure, time to distant failure, time to progression, and disease-specific survival rates for the whole group were 73%, 69%, 62%, and 66% respectively. The hazard ratio for macroscopic disease at the primary site or the nodes was 1.25 (95% confidence interval 0.57-2.77), P=.58. Conclusions: No statistically significant differences in time to locoregional failure were identified between patients with negative margins and those with microscopic or gross residual disease. These results must, however, be interpreted with caution because of the limited sample size.

  5. Nitrous oxide emissions from soil due to urine deposition by grazing cattle in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barneze, A. S.; Mazzetto, A. M.; Zani, C. F.; Misselbrook, T.; Cerri, C. C.

    2014-08-01

    Urine deposition to the soil can result in nitrous oxide emissions through the microbial processes of nitrification and denitrification. The objective of this experiment was to estimate N2O emissions from urine depositions to grassland during summer in Southeast Brazil. A field experiment was conducted in which N2O emissions were measured from known volumes of urine applied to the soil, using the static chamber method. Measurements continued for one month after application. Application of urine to soil increased N2O fluxes compared to those from the control site. There were two significant N2O emission peaks for the urine treatment at around the 3rd and 13th days after application, the first in response to the urine application and the second most likely in response to a rainfall event. The N2O emissions accounted for 0.2% of the applied urine N. These represent the first data relating to emissions from urine depositions by grazing cattle in Brazil. Further measurements across a range of soil and weather conditions in Brazil are required to develop national and regional specific emission factors for inventory development.

  6. Characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from equine urine.

    PubMed

    Veeraragavan, K; Singh, K; Wachter, E; Hochstrasser, K

    1992-03-01

    A trypsin inhibitor was isolated from pregnant mares' urine by adsorption on bentonite and elution with aqueous pyridine followed by batch DEAE-cellulose treatment and column chromatography. Final purification to an electrophoretically homogenous glycoprotein was achieved by gel permeation chromatography. This equine urinary trypsin inhibitor (E-UTI) is acid- and heat-stable, has a molecular weight of 22 to 23 kDa, an isoelectric point of 4.55, forms a 1:1 molar complex with trypsin and has serine as its N-terminal amino acid. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein is almost identical with that of EI-14, the inhibitor obtained from horse serum by tryptic treatment, except for two extra amino acid residues, Ser-Lys- on the N-terminal end of E-UTI. In its isoelectric point E-UTI differs from EI-14 and the inhibitor from human urine. PMID:1627153

  7. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  8. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

  9. Effect of injected rotenone on the production and composition of urine from the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, D.A.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Renal function was evaluated in adult rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) dosed i.a. with rotenone at 225 and 275 μg/kg. The chemical composition of urine samples and urine flow rates collected over a 5-h pretreatment period were compared with hourly urine samples collected over a 5-h posttreatment period. Significant increases in osmolality and in concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, and total protein were observed in the urine of treated fish. Urine solute concentrations reached maximum values within 1 to 3 h after treatment and decreased thereafter, indicating that the effects were reversible. Concentrations of sodium and chloride were highly correlated in 2-h posttreatment urine samples at the low (r = 0.922) and high (r = 0.981) rotenone treatments. Urine flow rates were reduced in trout at each dose of rotenone but the decrease in volume of urine voided was not dose-dependent. In a separate study, [14C]polyethylene glycol was used as a filtration marker to determine the effect of rotenone treatment (225 &mu:g/kg) on urine flow rate, glomerular filtration rate, and renal water reabsorption. We showed that posttreatment urine flow rates were reduced partly by reduced glomerular filtration and partly by increased water reabsorption. Transient increases in plasma osmolality and hematocrit also were observed 0.5 h after rotenone treatment.

  10. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric quantitation of sulfamethazine and its metabolites: direct analysis of swine urine by triple quadrupole and by ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bartolucci, G; Pieraccini, G; Villanelli, F; Moneti, G; Triolo, A

    2000-01-01

    This work describes a new method for the quantitation of trace amounts of sulfamethazine (SMZ) and its main metabolite, N4-acetylsulfamethazine (Ac-SMZ), in swine urine, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometric analysis of crude urine after addition of internal standard and simple dilution with water. The aim was to determine whether residues of this sulfamidic drug, normally administered to swine in order to prevent infectious diseases, were present in urine at levels lower than those permitted by regulatory authorities before human consumption (EU Project SMT, contract number CT 96-2092). A 10 microL volume of diluted urine was injected into a very short, narrow-bore chromatographic column (Zorbax SB-C18 2.1 i. d. x30 mm length, 3.5 microm pore size). Elution of the analytes of interest was achieved in less than seven minutes using a rapid gradient (from 20 to 80% methanol in 3 minutes). Either a PE Sciex API 365 triple quadrupole (QqQ), operated in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, or a Finnigan LCQ ion trap (IT) mass spectrometer, operated in narrow-range product ion scan, was used as the final detector. Electrospray (ESI) was used as the ionization technique. A comparison of the two tandem mass spectrometers was performed by analyzing the same set of test samples, at three concentration levels, on three different days. Linearity of responses of the calibration standards, intra- and inter-assay precision of the samples, specificity and limits of detection were evaluated for both systems. Both the QqQ and the IT instrument was suitable for rapid, sensitive and specific determination of the analytes, although the overall performance of the QqQ was slightly superior in terms of linearity, precision and sensitivity. PMID:10844733

  11. Difference in 24-Hour Urine Composition between Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Adults without Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jing; Duan, Xiaolu; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Zhijian; Yuan, Jian; Wan, Shaw P.; Zeng, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetic patients are more likely to develop kidney stones than the general population. The underlying mechanisms for this disparity remain to be elucidated. Little is known about the relationship between urine composition and diabetes mellitus in non-stone-forming individuals. We sought to examine the differences in the 24-hour (24-h) urine composition between diabetic and non-diabetic adults who were not stone formers. Methods A convenience sample of 538 individuals without a history of nephrolithiasis, gout, hyperparathyroidism, or gastroenteric diseases participated in this study. The 24-h urine profiles of 115 diabetic adults were compared with those of 423 non-diabetic adults. Diabetes was defined by self-reported physician diagnosis or medication use. All participants were non-stone formers confirmed by urinary tract ultrasonography. Participants provided a fasting blood sample and a single 24-h urine collection for stone risk analysis. Student’s t-test was used to compare mean urinary values. Linear regression models were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, fasting serum glucose, serum total cholesterol, estimated creatinine clearance rate and urinary factors. Results Univariable analysis showed that the diabetic participants had significantly higher 24-h urine volumes and lower urine calcium and magnesium excretions than non-diabetic participants (all P < 0.05). After multivariate adjustment, no significant differences in 24-h urine composition were observed between diabetic and non-diabetic participants except for a slightly increased 24-h urine volume in diabetic participants (all P > 0.05). The main limitation of this study is that the convenience samples and self-reported data may have been sources of bias. Conclusion Our data showed that there were no differences in 24-h urine composition between diabetic and non-diabetic adults who are not stone formers. The reason for it might be the improved glycemic control in

  12. Amino acid sequence of the nonsecretory ribonuclease of human urine.

    PubMed

    Beintema, J J; Hofsteenge, J; Iwama, M; Morita, T; Ohgi, K; Irie, M; Sugiyama, R H; Schieven, G L; Dekker, C A; Glitz, D G

    1988-06-14

    The amino acid sequence of a nonsecretory ribonuclease isolated from human urine was determined except for the identity of the residue at position 7. Sequence information indicates that the ribonucleases of human liver and spleen and an eosinophil-derived neurotoxin are identical or very closely related gene products. The sequence is identical at about 30% of the amino acid positions with those of all of the secreted mammalian ribonucleases for which information is available. Identical residues include active-site residues histidine-12, histidine-119, and lysine-41, other residues known to be important for substrate binding and catalytic activity, and all eight half-cystine residues common to these enzymes. Major differences include a deletion of six residues in the (so-called) S-peptide loop, insertions of two, and nine residues, respectively, in three other external loops of the molecule, and an addition of three residues at the amino terminus. The sequence shows the human nonsecretory ribonuclease to belong to the same ribonuclease superfamily as the mammalian secretory ribonucleases, turtle pancreatic ribonuclease, and human angiogenin. Sequence data suggest that a gene duplication occurred in an ancient vertebrate ancestor; one branch led to the nonsecretory ribonuclease, while the other branch led to a second duplication, with one line leading to the secretory ribonucleases (in mammals) and the second line leading to pancreatic ribonuclease in turtle and an angiogenic factor in mammals (human angiogenin). The nonsecretory ribonuclease has five short carbohydrate chains attached via asparagine residues at the surface of the molecule; these chains may have been shortened by exoglycosidase action.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3166997

  13. Proteomic characterization of novel serum amyloid P component variants from human plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, Urban A; Nedelkov, Dobrin; Tubbs, Kemmons A; Niederkofler, Eric E; Nelson, Randball W

    2004-06-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a human plasma protein that has been widely studied for its influence on amyloid plaque formation and stabilization. SAP was characterized directly from human plasma and urine samples via novel affinity mass spectrometry-based proteomic technology that is able to readily discriminate between mass-altered protein variants. These analyses were able to identify several variants of SAP that have not been previously reported. These variants include microheterogeneity of the glycan structure, from the loss of one or both terminal sialic acid residues, as well as the loss of the C-terminal valine residue. Moreover, the analysis of urine allowed for the consistent identification of serum amyloid P component as a normal constituent of the urine proteome. PMID:15174148

  14. [Determining thorium level in urine with its preliminary chromatographic extraction].

    PubMed

    Kononykina, N N; Astafurov, V I; Zablotskaia, I D; Popov, V I

    1990-01-01

    The contributors propose a radiometric technique of detecting thorium in urine. The technique is based on a prior concentrating of the nuclide on phosphate residues, with its further separation in extraction-chromatographic vessel filled with diethylhexylphosphorus acid, and reextraction with oxalic acid. Measurements were made in the hard scintillator layer at 90 percent effectiveness. Thorium chemical output was at 85 +/- 3 percent, sensitivity at 5 mBk for a sample. If the sample contained an equal quantity of uranium, the percentage of cleaning thorium from uranium was 100. The proposed technique is economical, simple to perform, and is designed for natural thorium content measurements in human organism. PMID:2086364

  15. Determination of penicillin G in heavy sow urine using immunochromatographic assay and microbial inhibition swab tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Penicillin is a commonly used antibiotic in food animals. Unfortunately, violative penicillin residues in animal carcasses are sometimes identified by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service. Ante-mortem matrices such as urine could prove valuable for predicting possible violativ...

  16. PROFILES OF GREAT LAKES CRITICAL POLLUTANTS: A SENTINEL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the contaminants that should be studied further in the subsequent population-based study, a profile of Great Lakes (GL) sport fish contaminant residues were studied in human blood and urine specimens from 32 sport fish consumers from three Great Lakes: Lake Michigan ...

  17. A history of urine microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J Stewart

    2015-11-01

    The naked-eye appearance of the urine must have been studied by shamans and healers since the Stone Age, and an elaborate interpretation of so-called Uroscopy began around 600 AD as a form of divination. A 1000 years later, the first primitive monocular and compound microscopes appeared in the Netherlands, and along with many other objects and liquids, urine was studied from around 1680 onwards as the enlightenment evolved. However, the crude early instruments did not permit fine study because of chromatic and linear/spherical blurring. Only after complex multi-glass lenses which avoided these problems had been made and used in the 1820s in London by Lister, and in Paris by Chevalier and Amici, could urinary microscopy become a practical, clinically useful tool in the 1830s. Clinical urinary microscopy was pioneered by Rayer and his pupils in Paris (especially Vigla), in the late 1830s, and spread to UK and Germany in the 1840s, with detailed descriptions and interpretations of cells and formed elements of the urinary sediment by Nasse, Henle, Robinson and Golding Bird. Classes were held, most notably by Donné in Paris. After another 50 years, optical microscopy had reached its apogee, with magnifications of over 1000 times obtainable free of aberration, using immersion techniques. Atlases of the urinary sediment were published in all major European countries and in the US. Polarised light and phase contrast was used also after 1900 to study urine, and by the early 20th century, photomicroscopy (pioneered by Donné and Daguerre 50 years previously, but then ignored) became usual for teaching and recording. In the 1940s electron microscopy began, followed by detection of specific proteins and cells using immunofluorescent antibodies. All this had been using handheld methodology. Around 1980, machine-assisted observations began, and have dominated progress since. PMID:26079823

  18. Analysis of goldenseal, Hydrastis canadensis L., and related alkaloids in urine using HPLC with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Michelle L; Brettell, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A screening method was developed to extract and detect berberine and hydrastine alkaloids from goldenseal root powder and urine samples using HPLC with UV detection. The isocratic method was developed to detect alkaloids in 5 mL of urine prior to drug screening. Urine samples were spiked with the alkaloids at varying concentrations and extracted twice with 3:1 chloroform:2-propanol (CHCl(3):2-propanol). The extracts were combined, concentrated using nitrogen gas and the residue was then reconstituted with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:buffer (32:68). A 17 min isocratic run time was performed with a flow rate of 2.0 mL/min, and UV detection at 230 nm using a C(18) (250 mm × 4.6 mm) column at room temperature. The method showed good linearity for berberine (r(2)=0.9990) and hydrastine (r(2)=0.9983) over a range of 11.80 ng/mL to 17.64 μg/mL. The LOD for berberine in urine was 12.74 ng/mL and the LOD for hydrastine in urine was 54.48 ng/mL. Urine samples were spiked with goldenseal root powder and liquid extract as part of a blinded study to determine whether berberine and hydrastine alkaloids could also be extracted in vitro from goldenseal and show a presence in urine samples. Out of the 37 blinded urine samples extracted the two spiked samples were correctly identified based on the presence or absence of berberine and hydrastine. The results demonstrated that this method will enable laboratories to test for the herbal supplement in submitted urine samples prior to drug testing, avoiding false negative results. PMID:22177787

  19. Understanding Measurements of Intestinal Permeability in Healthy Humans with Urine Lactulose and Mannitol Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Nadeau, Ashley; Lamsam, Jesse; Nord, Sara Linker; Ryks, Michael; Burton, Duane; Sweetser, Seth; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Singh, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to understand the information from differential two-sugar excretion (2-SE) in measuring intestinal permeability. In a crossover study in 12 healthy volunteers, we compared urinary excretion ratios of lactulose (L) to mannitol [(M) LMR] after ingestion in liquid formulation (LF) or in delayed-release, methacrylate-coated capsules (CAP). Both formulations were radiolabeled. Urine was collected every 2 hours from 0–8h, and from 8–24h. Two hours after LF, gastric residual was 15.9 ± 6.2 % (SEM), and the percentage in colon was 49.6 ± 7.8 %; in 11/12 participants, liquid had entered colon within 2h. Average CAP arrival time in colon was 5.16 ± 0.46h (mode 6 h). After LF, mannitol was extensively absorbed in the first 8h; lactulose absorption was low thoughout the 24h. After the LF, the LMR (geometric mean, 95% CI/hour) in the 0–2h urine was 0.08 [0.05, 0.11]), which was lower than in 8–24h urine (0.32,[0.16, 0.46]; p<0.05). Urine LMRs at 8–24h were similar after LF or CAP. We concluded that, after LF, sugar excretion in 0–2h urine may reflect both SI and colon permeability. Colonic permeability is reflected by urine sugar excretion between 6 and 24h. CAP delivery reduces mannitol excreted at 0–6h, compared to LF. The 0 to 5 or 6h 2-SE urine likely reflects both SI and colon permeability; the higher LMR in the 8–24h urine relative to 0–2h urine should be interpreted with caution and does not mean that colon is more permeable than SI. PMID:19614866

  20. Nitrous Oxide Fluxes, Soil Oxygen, and Denitrification Potential of Urine- and Non-Urine-Treated Soil under Different Irrigation Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Owens, Jen; Clough, Tim J; Laubach, Johannes; Hunt, John E; Venterea, Rodney T; Phillips, Rebecca L

    2016-07-01

    Despite increased use of irrigation to improve forage quality and quantity for grazing cattle ( Linnaeus), there is a lack of data that assess how irrigation practices influence nitrous oxide (NO) emissions from urine-affected soils. Irrigation effects on soil oxygen (O) availability, a primary controller of NO fluxes, is poorly understood. It was hypothesized that increased irrigation frequency would result in lower NO emissions by increasing soil moisture and decreasing soil O concentrations. This would favor more NO reduction to dinitrogen (N). We examined effects of high (3-d) versus low (6-d) irrigation frequency with and without bovine urine addition to pasture. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured daily for 35 d. Soil O, temperature, and water content were continuously measured at multiple depths. Inorganic nitrogen, organic carbon, and soil pH were measured at 6-d intervals. Measurements of denitrification enzyme activity with and without acetylene inhibition were used to infer the NO/(NO + N) ratio. The NO/(NO + N) ratio was lower under high- compared with low-frequency irrigation, suggesting greater potential for NO reduction to N with more frequent irrigation. Although NO fluxes were increased by urine addition, they were not affected by irrigation frequency. Soil O decreased temporarily after urine deposition, but O dynamics did not explain NO dynamics. Relative soil gas diffusivity (/) was a better predictor of NO fluxes than O concentration. On a free-draining soil, increasing irrigation frequency while providing the same total water volume did not enhance NO emissions under ruminant urine patches in a grazed pasture. PMID:27380064

  1. Estimators and Characteristics of Logging Residue in California : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, James O.; Bulgrin, Julianne K.

    1985-04-19

    This study, designed to meet the needs of site-specific analysis of logging residue throughout the State of California, has two primary objectives. First was to develop analytical tools for estimating the volume of logging residue for any uniquely defined supply zone in California. Volume estimators developed in this study relate residue volume to both timber harvest volume and acreage. Second was to describe and classify residue by characteristics that affect utilization. Residue materials were classified as to gross and net volume of logging residue by diameter and length, for live, and dead and cull; to number of pieces of residue per acre, by diameter and length; to volume of residue by percent sound (chippability), in cubic feet per acre; to accessibility of residue on cutover areas, by slope and distance to road; and to volume by softwoods and hardwoods. Residue ratios and characteristics data are displayed for eight sample strata in California, based on geographic area, owner class - harvest method, and forest type. Within geographical areas owner class - harvest method strata were selected on the basis of expected differences in residue volume, availability of data, and land management objectives. A separate stratum was selected for the Ponderosa pine forest type in eastern California based on expected differences in residue volume and characteristics. Study results are based on measurements of logging residue on 220 cutover areas allocated across the eight strata. 12 refs., 8 figs., 47 tabs.

  2. Optimization of screening for radioactivity in urine by liquid scintillation.

    SciTech Connect

    Shanks, Sonoya Toyoko; Reese, Robert P.; Preston, Rose T.

    2007-08-01

    Numerous events have or could have resulted in the inadvertent uptake of radionuclides by fairly large populations. Should a population receive an uptake, valuable information could be obtained by using liquid scintillation counting (LSC) techniques to quickly screen urine from a sample of the affected population. This study investigates such LSC parameters as discrimination, quench, volume, and count time to yield guidelines for analyzing urine in an emergency situation. Through analyzing variations of the volume and their relationships to the minimum detectable activity (MDA), the optimum ratio of sample size to scintillating chemical cocktail was found to be 1:3. Using this optimum volume size, the alpha MDA varied from 2100 pCi/L for a 30-second count time to 35 pCi/L for a 1000-minute count time. The typical count time used by the Sandia National Laboratories Radiation Protection Sample Diagnostics program is 30 minutes, which yields an alpha MDA of 200 pCi/L. Because MDA is inversely proportional to the square root of the count time, count time can be reduced in an emergency situation to achieve the desired MDA or response time. Note that approximately 25% of the response time is used to prepare the samples and complete the associated paperwork. It was also found that if the nuclide of interest is an unknown, pregenerated discriminator settings and efficiency calibrations can be used to produce an activity value within a factor of two, which is acceptable for a screening method.

  3. Measurement of Menadione in urine by HPLC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Menadione may be an important metabolite of vitamin K that is excreted in urine. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with a C30 column, fluorescence detection and post-column zinc reduction was developed to measure menadione in urine. The mobile phase was composed of 95% methanol...

  4. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41...

  5. 10 CFR 429.31 - Urinals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Urinals. 429.31 Section 429.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.31 Urinals. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing....

  6. 10 CFR 429.31 - Urinals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Urinals. 429.31 Section 429.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.31 Urinals. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing....

  7. 10 CFR 429.31 - Urinals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Urinals. 429.31 Section 429.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.31 Urinals. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing....

  8. Radioscintigraphic demonstration of unsuspected urine extravasation

    SciTech Connect

    Bocchini, T.; Williams, W.; Patton, D.

    1989-06-01

    Three cases of unsuspected urine extravasation first detected by radionuclide scintigraphy are presented with subsequent confirmation by CT and, retrograde pyelograms. A renal study done to rule out acute transplant rejection demonstrates gallbladder uptake which was initially thought to be consistent with urine extravasation.

  9. [The Bourdaloue urinal in all its forms].

    PubMed

    Mathieu, F

    1996-01-01

    The author draws the attention of his urologist as well as nonurologist colleagues to the "Bourdaloue" urinal describing its dual aspect of a utilitarian and artistic object. A rapid study situates it in its particular historical context and in the more general context of urine collection bottles. PMID:8924944

  10. Chemistry and kinetics of I2 loss in urine distillate and humidity condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James E.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Olivadoti, J. T.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Time-resolved molecular absorption spectrophotometry of iodinated ersatz humidity condensates and iodinated ersatz urine distillates across the UV and visible spectral regions are used to investigate the chemistry and kinetics of I2 loss in urine distillate and humidity condensate. Single contaminant systems at equivalent concentrations are also employed to study rates of iodine. Pseudo-first order rate constants are identified for ersatz contaminant model mixtures and for individual reactive constituents. The second order bimolecular reaction of elemental iodine with formic acid, producing carbon dioxide and iodine anion, is identified as the primary mechanism underlying the decay of residual I2 in ersatz humidity concentrate.

  11. [Micelle-mediated extraction for concentrating conjugated bilirubin in urine].

    PubMed

    Matsudo, T; Saitoh, T; Matsubara, C

    2001-02-01

    An extraction method based on the phase separation of aqueous micellar solutions of n-octyl-beta-D-thioglucoside (OTG) was applied to the concentrating conjugated bilirubin in urine. The analyte in sample solutions could be efficiently concentrated into a small volume of surfactant-rich phase, while hydrophilic matrix components including urinary protein, ascorbic acid, and saccharide remained in the aqueous phase. The concentrated OTG negligibly affected the diazo reaction and the subsequent spectrophotometric detection. Conjugated bilirubin was successfully determined in the concentration range from 0.05 microgram/ml to 5 micrograms/ml with a 96-well microplate reader absorption spectrophotometer. PMID:11218735

  12. Duration of urination does not change with body size

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Patricia J.; Pham, Jonathan; Choo, Jerome; Hu, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Many urological studies rely on models of animals, such as rats and pigs, but their relation to the human urinary system is poorly understood. Here, we elucidate the hydrodynamics of urination across five orders of magnitude in body mass. Using high-speed videography and flow-rate measurement obtained at Zoo Atlanta, we discover that all mammals above 3 kg in weight empty their bladders over nearly constant duration of 21 ± 13 s. This feat is possible, because larger animals have longer urethras and thus, higher gravitational force and higher flow speed. Smaller mammals are challenged during urination by high viscous and capillary forces that limit their urine to single drops. Our findings reveal that the urethra is a flow-enhancing device, enabling the urinary system to be scaled up by a factor of 3,600 in volume without compromising its function. This study may help to diagnose urinary problems in animals as well as inspire the design of scalable hydrodynamic systems based on those in nature. PMID:24969420

  13. Family with intermittent maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Valman, H. B.; Patrick, A. D.; Seakins, J. W. T.; Platt, J. W.; Gompertz, D.

    1973-01-01

    A family is described in which the 3 children presented with episodes of severe metabolic acidosis secondary to minor infections. 2 of them died, and 1 of these was severely retarded. The sole surviving child is 6 years old and is normal with respect to physical and mental development. Gas chromatography of the urine obtained during episodes of ketoacidosis showed the keto and hydroxy acids characteristic of maple syrup urine disease, and thin layer chromatography of the plasma and urine showed greatly increased concentrations of the branched chain amino acids. The urine and plasma of the surviving child was chromatographically normal between episodes. The leucocyte branched chain keto acid decarboxylase activity in this patient and her father was reduced. The range of features in this family with intermittent maple syrup urine disease illustrates the necessity for prompt and careful investigation of metabolic acidosis of unknown aetiology. PMID:4693464

  14. Quantitation of proteinuria by spot urine sampling.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Indira; Kirubakaran, Chellam; Markandeyulu; Selvakumar

    2004-07-01

    Few studies have shown that calculation of protein/creatinine ratio in a spot urine sample correlates well with the 24-hour urine collection. A study was conducted to compare the accuracy of a spot urinary protein/creatinine ratio (P/C ratio) and urinary dipstick (albustix) with the 24-hour urine protein (24-HUP). Fifty samples from 26 patients were collected. This included a 24-hour urine sample followed by the next voided spot sample. The protein/creatinine ratio was calculated and dipstick (albustix) was performed on the spot sample. This was compared with the 24-hour urine protein excretion. The correlation between the three samples was statistically highly significant (p=<0.001) for all levels of proteinuria. The normal value of protein/creatinine ratio in Indian children was also estimated on 100 normal children attending the OPD and was calculated to be 0.053 (S.E of mean±0.003). PMID:23105455

  15. Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis: Detection of parasite-derived DNA in urine.

    PubMed

    Lodh, Nilanjan; Caro, Reynaldo; Sofer, Shterna; Scott, Alan; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Shiff, Clive

    2016-11-01

    Detecting infections of Strongyloides stercoralis is arduous and has low sensitivity. Clinically this is a major problem because chronic infections may disseminate in the host and lead to a life threatening condition. Epidemiologically, S. stercoralis is often missed in surveys as it is difficult to identify by standard stool examination procedures. We present, for the first time, evidence that the infection can be detected in filtered urine samples collected and processed in the field and subsequently assayed for the presence of parasite DNA. Urine specimens (∼40mL) were collected from 125 test and control individuals living in rural and peri-urban regions of Northern Argentina. From the same individuals, fresh stool specimens were processed using three different copropological methods. Urine specimens were filtered in the field through a 12.5cm Whatman No. 3 filter. The filters were dried and packed individually in sealable plastic bags with desiccant and shipped to a laboratory where DNA was recovered from the filter and PCR-amplified with primers specific to a dispersed repetitive sequence. Prevalence of S. stercoralis infection by stool culture and direct examination was 35/125 (28%), In contrast, PCR-based detection of parasite-specific trans-renal DNA in urine indicated that 56/125 (44.8%) carried the parasite. Of the patients that tested positive for urine-based parasite DNA, approximately half also tested positive in their stool specimens. There were 6.4% of cases where parasite larvae were seen in the stool but no DNA was amplified from the urine. As proof of principle, DNA amplification from urine residue reveals significantly more cases of S. stercoralis infection than the current standard stool examination techniques. Additional work is required to establish the relative utility, sensitivity and specificity of urine-based analysis compared to parasitological and nucleic acid detection from stool for clinical and epidemiological detection for S

  16. Phenylbutyrate therapy for maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Lanpher, Brendan; Erez, Ayelet; Ananieva, Elitsa A.; Islam, Mohammad; Marini, Juan C.; Sun, Qin; Yu, Chunli; Hegde, Madhuri; Li, Jun; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, David T.; Hutson, Susan; Lee, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate in urea cycle disorder patients has been associated with a selective reduction in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in spite of adequate dietary protein intake. Based on this clinical observation, we investigated the potential of phenylbutyrate treatment to lower BCAA and their corresponding α-keto acids (BCKA) in patients with classic and variant late-onset forms of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). We also performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to elucidate the mechanism for this effect. We found that BCAA and BCKA are both significantly reduced following phenylbutyrate therapy in control subjects and in patients with late-onset, intermediate MSUD. In vitro treatment with phenylbutyrate of control fibroblasts and lymphoblasts resulted in an increase in the residual enzyme activity, while treatment of MSUD cells resulted in the variable response which did not simply predict the biochemical response in the patients. In vivo phenylbutyrate increases the proportion of active hepatic enzyme and unphosphorylated form over the inactive phosphorylated form of the E1α subunit of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC). Using recombinant enzymes, we show that phenylbutyrate prevents phosphorylation of E1α by inhibition of the BCKDC kinase to activate BCKDC overall activity, providing a molecular explanation for the effect of phenylbutyrate in a subset of MSUD patients. Phenylbutyrate treatment may be a valuable treatment for reducing the plasma levels of neurotoxic BCAA and their corresponding BCKA in a subset of MSUD patients and studies of its long-term efficacy are indicated. PMID:21098507

  17. Assessment of Logging Residue in Montana : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, James O.; Fiedler, Carl E.

    1983-05-31

    This study addresses the need for a data base with the capability to provide information on residue volume and characteristics for any location in Montana. Gaps in existing data sources made clear the need for development of a logging residue data base for Montana. The first objective of this study was to develop analytical tools for estimating the volume of logging residue for any uniquely defined supply zone in Montana. Ratios developed in this study relate residue volume to both timber harvest volume and acreage. One ratio gives the cubic foot volume of residues associated with the harvest of 1000 board feet of timber (CF/MBF). The other ratio provides an estimate of cubic foot volume of residue per acre harvested (CF/AC). The second objective was to describe and classify residue by characteristics that affect utilization. Characterization of residue was by: gross and net volume of logging residue by diameter and length, for live and dead or cull material; number of pieces of residue per acre, by diameter and length; volume of residue by percent sound (chippability), in cubic feet per acre; accessibility of residue on cutover areas, by slope and distance to road; and volume by product potential class. 15 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Levetiracetam: Probably Associated Diurnal Frequent Urination.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jun; Zou, Li-Ping; Shi, Xiu-Yu; Hu, Lin-Yan; Pang, Ling-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Diurnal frequent urination is a common condition in elementary school children who are especially at risk for associated somatic and behavioral problems. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug that has been used in both partial and generalized seizures and less commonly adverse effects including psychiatric and behavioral problems. Diurnal frequent urination is not a well-known adverse effect of LEV. Here, we reported 2 pediatric cases with epilepsy that developed diurnal frequent urination after LEV administration. Case 1 was a 6-year-old male patient who presented urinary frequency and urgency in the daytime since the third day after LEV was given as adjunctive therapy. Symptoms increased accompanied by the raised dosage of LEV. Laboratory tests and auxiliary examinations did not found evidence of organic disease. Diurnal frequent urination due to LEV was suspected, and then the drug was discontinued. As expected, his frequency of urination returned to normal levels. Another 13-year-old female patient got similar clinical manifestations after oral LEV monotherapy and the symptoms became aggravated while in stress state. Since the most common causes of frequent micturition had been ruled out, the patient was considered to be diagnosed with LEV-associated psychogenic frequent urination. The dosage of LEV was reduced to one-third, and the frequency of urination was reduced by 60%. Both patients got the Naranjo score of 6, which indicated that LEV was a "probable" cause of diurnal frequent urination. Although a definite causal link between LEV and diurnal urinary frequency in the 2 cases remains to be established, we argue that diurnal frequent urination associated with LEV deserves clinician's attention. PMID:26938751

  19. Rapid detection of E. coli cells in urine samples using a self-capacitance touchscreen device.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, Jennifer Panugan; Tao Dong

    2015-08-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the main causes of urinary tract infections (UTIs). E. coli is commonly detected from urine using standard culture method. However, the urine sampling and analysis required for these methods can be costly, time consuming (requires 24 to 48 hours) and labor-intensive. This work proposes a capacitive touch screen sensor concept as possible alternative device for rapid detection of E. coli in urine samples. E. coli solutions prepared at different concentrations and urine samples (with spiked and nor spike E. coli) obtained from healthy women participants, have been analyzed using a capacitance evaluation kit. It has been demonstrated in this study that the use of this evaluation kit provides a low-cost and simple alternative system for detecting E. coli present in urine. Several experimental tests were performed to determine the optimal testing volume, the sensitivity of the sensor, limit of detection and repeatability. The optimal testing volume was 80 microliters and the analytical sensitivity was 17 counts per picofarad (pF). The lowest detectable concentration is around 3.98 × 10(5) CFU/ml. The repeatability (r) was found to be 7.2 or 6.2 % (in r%). The capacitive touch sensor gave promising results that could be used to design and realize a portable diagnostic device for early-stage detection of UTIs. PMID:26737548

  20. Crop residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues [e.g., corn (Zea mays) stover and small grain straw] are sometimes excluded when discussing cellulosic energy crops per se, but because of the vast area upon which they are grown and their current role in the development of cellulosic energy systems. This chapter focuses on current cor...

  1. Correlation of Urine Biomarkers: Microalbuminuria and Spot Urine Protein among Diabetic Patients. Application of Spot Urine Protein in Diabetic Kidney Disease, Nephropathy, Proteinuria Estimation, Diagnosing and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Kamran M A

    2015-01-01

    Current study has invented a new method for utilizing spot urine protein among diabetic patients. There have been various efforts and strategies in research internationally to detect, diagnose and monitor nephropathy/DKD. Although 24-hour urine studies are gold standard, however, there exist some controversies about microalbuminuria and spot urine protein. The current study was designed to utilize spot urine protein among diabetic patients and to find its association with routine dipstick urine test for albumin, and microalbuminuria. The study demonstrated significant association of spot urine protein with urine dipstick albumin, and has demonstrated increasing spot urine protein with increasing albumin in urine (p-value < 0.0001). This study also demonstrated significantly higher levels of spot urine protein between the groups with nephropathy/DKD as compared to those without nephropathy/DKD (p-value < 0.0001). Similarly, spot urine protein and spot urine protein/creatinine were also significantly associated with microalbumin and microalbumin/creatinine in urine. Significant regression models for spot urine protein and microalbuminuria were also developed and proposed to detect and estimate microalbumin in urine while utilizing spot urine protein (< 0.0001). Synthesized regression equations and models can be used confidently to detect, rule out and monitor proteinuria and DKD. ROC curves were utilized to detect spot urine protein cutoff points for nephropathy and DKD with high specificity and sensitivity. Some important patents were also discussed in the paper regarding albuminuria/proteinuria detection and management. Current study has demonstrated and concluded, for the first time, that there exists a significant association of spot urine protein with routine dipstick albumin in urine and microalbuminuria. It is also essential to detect early, monitor and manage proteinuria, hypertension and dyslipidemia with good glycemic control to prevent diabetes

  2. Comparison of Uriswab to alternative methods for urine culture collection and transport: confirmation of standard culture methodology for investigation of urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Rennie, Robert P; Turnbull, Lee-Ann; Gauchier-Pitts, Kaylee; Bennett, Tracy; Dyrland, Debbie; Blonski, Susan

    2016-08-01

    The ability to isolate and identify causative agents of urinary tract infections relies primarily on the quality of the urine sample that is submitted to the microbiology. The most important factors are the method of collection, the maintenance of viability of the potential pathogens during transport, and standardization of the culturing of the urine sample. This report is a composite of several investigations comparing collection and transport on urine culture paddles, with a preservative urine sponge (Uriswab), and a comparison of Uriswab with the BD preservative transport tube as methods of preservation of urinary pathogens. Primary studies showed that Uriswab maintained significantly more urinary pathogens than the urine culture paddle with fewer mixed or contaminated cultures. The two preservative transport systems were comparable for maintenance of viability of the pathogens, but there were fewer mixed cultures when samples were collected with Uriswab. This study confirms the importance of a standard volume of 1 μL of urine for culture. PMID:27233427

  3. Measurement of mercury in human urine.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D M; Clarke, A D

    1970-03-01

    Four methods of determining the concentration of mercury in human urine have been studied. A simple method suitable for general laboratory use is recommended and the requirements for accurate results are defined. The method employs mild oxidation with permanganate and HS(2)O(4) followed by dithizone extraction and measurement of absorbance at 485 nm and 620 nm.No mercury was detected in any of 74 urines from unexposed laboratory controls and hospital patients. A random urine sample seems adequate for the investigation of clinical or industrial mercury poisoning. Two individuals, free of symptoms, but subjected to moderate exposure, excreted 3.0-9.7 mug of mercury per 100 ml of urine. After the administration of an organic mercurial to two volunteers, urinary excretion was rapid and virtually complete within 48 hours. PMID:5423951

  4. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, M S; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum

    2016-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recurrent urinary tract infection developed burning micturition of urine with purple discoloration of urine bag. After proper antibiotic and catheter changed, discoloration subsided. In India, as life expectancy and geriatric care is improving, more patients are on PUC for various diseases. So, the incidence of PUBS will increase and awareness is required about the condition and its management. PMID:27042522

  5. Vitamin A in the urine of carnivores.

    PubMed

    Schweigert, F J; Thomann, E; Zucker, H

    1991-01-01

    Vitamin A levels (retinol equivalents) in the urine of canines were between 423 ng/ml (dog) and 6304 ng/ml (silver fox). Neither vitamin A nor vitamin E was found in the urine of herbivores, omnivorous and rodents. No vitamin A but low levels of vitamin E were detected in cats. Vitamin A in the urine was present as retinol and retinyl esters (basically retinyl palmitate/oleate). The total excretion of vitamin A represented 15 to 63% of the daily uptake in dogs, while less than 4% of vitamin E was excreted. Results after precipitation and ultracentrifugation indicate that similar carrier proteins may exist for retinol, retinyl esters and alpha-tocopherol in the urine. The biological significance of this phenomenon is discussed with regard to the high concentrations of retinyl esters in the blood plasma of carnivores bound to lipoproteins. PMID:1917346

  6. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation.

    PubMed

    Faridi, M S; Rahman, Md Jawaid; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum

    2016-02-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recurrent urinary tract infection developed burning micturition of urine with purple discoloration of urine bag. After proper antibiotic and catheter changed, discoloration subsided. In India, as life expectancy and geriatric care is improving, more patients are on PUC for various diseases. So, the incidence of PUBS will increase and awareness is required about the condition and its management. PMID:27042522

  7. Application of duckweed for human urine treatment in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    The object of the study was the common duckweed Lemna minor L. Thanks to the ability to assimilate mineral and organic substances, duckweed is used to purify water in sewage lagoons. In addition, duckweed biomass is known to be a potential high-protein feed resource for domestic animals and fish. The aim of the study was to estimate an application of duckweed in a two-stage treatment of human urine in Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). At the first stage, the urine’s organic matter is oxidized by hydrogen peroxide. Diluted solution of oxidized urine is used for cultivation of duckweed. The appointment of duckweed is the assimilation of mineralized substances of urine. Part of the duckweed biomass yield directly or after composting could be embedded in the soil-like substrate as organic fertilizer to compensate the carry-over in consequence of plant growing. The rest duckweed biomass could be used as a feed for animals in BLSS. Then, the residual culture liquid is concentrated and used as a source of dietary salt. It takes 10-15 m2 of duckweed culture per crewmember to treat oxidized urine. The BLSS configuration including two-component subsystem of urine treatment is presented.

  8. Should the Functional Residual Capacity be Ignored?

    PubMed Central

    Selvi E, Chandra; K.V Rao, Kuppu; Malathi

    2013-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: The functional residual capacity was given the least importance than the other lung volume parameters. Studies have revealed the restrictive pattern of lung disease in patients with liver cirrhosis. We aimed to analyze the importance of the functional residual capacity and other lung volumes of cirrhotic patients. Subjects and Methods: Forty (40) patients with cirrhosis (Child’s-B) were enrolled in this study. The vital capacity was measured by an instrument called V02 Max 22. The other lung volumes which were measured were derived parameters. The functional residual capacity was measured by the nitrogen wash-out method. Results: The measured value of the functional residual capacity was below normal as compared to the reference value. The total lung capacity and the vital capacity were positively correlated with the functional residual capacity. The residual volume was found to be increased in twelve out of forty cirrhotic patients. Conclusion: The functional residual capacity can be determined by the compliance of the lung and the chest wall. The patients with a reduced functional residual capacity may be suffering from dyspnoea, probably due to the restrictive pattern of the lung disease. Hence, the reduced lung volumes of the subjects may be due to the abnormalities in the mechanics of ventilation. PMID:23450122

  9. Validation of a Novel Collection Device for Non-Invasive Urine Sampling from Free-Ranging Animals

    PubMed Central

    Danish, Lisa Michelle; Heistermann, Michael; Agil, Muhammad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in non-invasively collected samples have opened up new and exciting opportunities for wildlife research. Different types of samples, however, involve different limitations and certain physiological markers (e.g., C-peptide, oxytocin) can only be reliably measured from urine. Common collection methods for urine to date work best for arboreal animals and large volumes of urine. Sufficient recovery of urine is thus still difficult for wildlife biologists, particularly for terrestrial and small bodied animals. We tested three collection devices (two commercially available saliva swabs, Salivette synthetic and cotton, and cotton First aid swabs) against a control to permit the collection of small volumes of urine from the ground. We collected urine samples from captive and wild macaques, and humans, measured volume recovery, and analyzed concentrates of selected physiological markers (creatinine, C-peptide, and neopterin). The Salivette synthetic device was superior to the two alternative devices. Concentrations of creatinine, absolute C-peptide, C-peptide per creatinine, absolute neopterin, and neopterin per creatinine measured in samples collected with this device did not differ significantly from the control and were also strongly correlated to it. Fluid recovery was also best for this device. The least suitable device is the First aid collection device; we found that while absolute C-peptide and C-peptide per creatinine concentrations did not differ significantly from the control, creatinine concentrations were significantly lower than the control. In addition, these concentrations were either not or weakly correlated to the control. The Salivette cotton device provided intermediate results, although these concentrations were strongly correlated to the control. Salivette synthetic swabs seem to be useful devices for the collection of small amounts of urine from the ground destined for the assessment of physiological parameters. They thus provide new

  10. Weekend versus weekday urine collections in assessment of stone-formers.

    PubMed Central

    Norman, R W

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour urine collections are an important part of the metabolic evaluation of stone-formers, but are difficult for patients at work. At weekends the results might be different. Forty-five stone-formers who worked at day jobs from Monday to Friday collected urine for 24 h on a normal working day and also on a Saturday or Sunday and the differences were evaluated. Average 24 h urine volume was higher on weekdays than at weekends. Calcium, oxalate, and uric acid excretion did not differ. These results imply an increased risk of crystalluria at the weekend. Therefore weekend collections are most likely to show abnormalities and should be acceptable to clinicians. PMID:8976890