Sample records for resin cement relyx

  1. Study of deformation of resin cements used in fixing of root posts through fiber Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, C. A.; Franco, A. P. G. O.; Karam, L. Z.; Kalinowski, H. J.; Gomes, O. M. M.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the polymerization shrinkage "in situ" in resin cements inside the root canal during the fixation of glass fiber posts. For cementation teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the resin cement used: Group1 - resin cement dual Relyx ARC (3M/ESPE), and Group 2 - resin cement dual Relyx U200 (3M/ESPE). Before inserting the resin cement into the root canal, two Bragg grating sensors were recorded and pasted in the region without contact with the canal, one at the apical and other at the coronal thirds of the post. The sensors measured the deformation of the resin cements in coronal and apical root thirds to obtain the values in micro-strain (??).

  2. Retention of gold alloy crowns cemented with traditional and resin cements.

    PubMed

    Pinzón, Lilliam M; Frey, Gary N; Winkler, Mark M; Tate, William H; Burgess, John O; Powers, John M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure in vitro retention of cast gold crowns cemented with traditional and resin cements. Forty-eight human molars were prepared on a lathe to produce complete crown preparations with a consistent taper and split into six groups, eight crowns in each group. Crowns were cast in a high-gold alloy and then cemented. After 24 hours, the retention force (N) was recorded and mean values were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and the Fisher post-hoc least significant difference (PLSD) multiple comparisons test (a = .05). Failure sites were examined under 3100 magnification and recorded. Mean values (SD) for each group in increasing order of retention force were: Harvard Cement: 43 N (27), TempoCem: 59 N (16), PermaCem Dual: 130 N (42), RelyX Luting Cement: 279 N (26), Contax and PermaCem Dual: 286 N (38), and TempoCem with Contax and PermaCem Dual: 340 N (14). The Fisher PLSD interval (P = .05) for comparing cements was 29 N. Zinc-phosphate cement and provisional resin cements had the lowest retention forces. Resin cement with a bonding agent and the hybrid-ionomer cement had similar retention forces. Resin cement with a bonding agent applied after use of a provisional resin cement had a significantly higher retention force than the other cements tested. PMID:19639070

  3. Evaluation of polymerization shrinkage of resin cements through in vitro and in situ experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A. P. G. O.; Karam, L. Z.; Pulido, C. A.; Gomes, O. M. M.; Kalinowski, H. J.

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of two types of resin cements , conventional dual and dual self adhesive, through in vitro and in situ experiments. For the in vitro assay were selected two resin cements that were handled and dispensed over a mylar strip supported by a glass plate. The Bragg grating sensors were positioned and another portion of cement. was placed, covered by another mylar strip. For the in situ experiment 16 single-rooted teeth were selected who were divided into 2 groups: group 1 - conventional dual resin cement Relyx ARC and group 2 - dual self adhesive resin cement Relyx U200 ( 3M/ESPE ). The teeth were treated and prepared to receive the intracanal posts. Two Bragg grating sensors were recorded and introduced into the root canal at different apical and coronal positions. The results showed that the in vitro experiment presented similar values of polymerization shrinkage that the in situ experiment made in cervical position; whereas Relyx ARC resulted lower values compared to Relyx U200; and cervical position showed higher shrinkage than the apical.

  4. Effect of resin cement, aging process and root level on the bond strength of the resin-fiber posts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almuhim, Khalid Salman

    Background. Little is known about the long-term clinical bonding effectiveness of the Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts cemented with self-etch adhesive systems. Bond stability and longevity of the cemented post are adversely affected by physical and chemical factors over time, such as expansion and contraction stresses caused by thermal changes and occlusal load. This clinical condition can be simulated in vitro by thermocyclic loading; and bonding effectiveness can be evaluated by applying the micropush out test. Therefore, more in vitro studies are needed to evaluate the bond strength of the fiber posts cemented with different resin cement systems after simulating the artificial aging induced by thermocycling. The aim of this study was to compare the microtensile bond strength of two different resin cement systems (total etch, and self-etch resin cement system) used for cementation of fiber reinforced composite posts in three different aging periods using thermocycling. Methods. Following IRB approval, sixty freshly extracted bicuspid single rooted natural teeth were endodontically treated, and the post-spaces were prepared to receive a fiber-post cemented with either a total etch resin cement (Rely-X Ultimate) or with a self-etch resin cement (Rely-X Unicem). No thermocycling, 20,000 and 40,000 cycles was used to age the specimens. Teeth were randomly allocated into six different groups: G1 - Control: Rely-X Ultimate cement with no thermocycling. G2: Rely-X Ultimate cement with 20,000 thermocycling. G3: Rely-X Ultimate cement with 40,000 thermocycling. G4: Rely-X Unicem cement. G5: Rely-X Unicem cement. G6: Rely-X Unicem cement. Microtensile bond strength determined using a micropush out test on a universal testing machine (MTS). Additionally, the failure mode of each specimen was observed under a stereomicroscope (Olympus) at 40x magnification. Finally, one representative sample was randomly selected from each of the five failure modes for scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination of the surface morphology in order to obtain SEM images of the failure patterns at 29--70x magnifications. Statistical analysis: Nested general linear and generalized linear model was created to look for statistical significance. Level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. No significant differences were found on the bond strength between the two types of resin cement systems (total etch and self-etch). Regarding the thermocycling effect, the bond strengths of the group of 40,000 cycles was significantly lower than the 20,000 cycle group. In addition, the bond strengths of the specimens collected from the coronal third of the root were significantly lower than the specimens from the apical third. A Fisher's Exact test was applied to evaluate the failure mode differences, and showed statistically significant differences between the groups. Conclusions . The bond strength to the root canal dentin did not vary with the type of resin cement systems (total-etch vs self-etch). The microtensile bond strength values of FRC posts were significantly affected by increasing the thermocycling, and were significantly different among the different longitudinal levels of the root canal.

  5. In vitro comparative bond strength of contemporary self-adhesive resin cements to zirconium oxide ceramic with and without air-particle abrasion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus B. Blatz; Jin-Ho Phark; Fusun Ozer; Francis K. Mante; Najeed Saleh; Michael Bergler; Avishai Sadan

    2010-01-01

    This study compared shear bond strengths of six self-adhesive resin cements to zirconium oxide ceramic with and without air-particle\\u000a abrasion. One hundred twenty zirconia samples were air-abraded (group SB; n?=?60) or left untreated (group NO). Composite cylinders were bonded to the zirconia samples with either BisCem (BC), Maxcem\\u000a (MC), G-Cem (GC), RelyX Unicem Clicker (RUC), RelyX Unicem Applicator (RUA), or

  6. Evaluation of bond strength between leucite-based and lithium disilicate-based ceramics to dentin after cementation with conventional and self-adhesive resin agents.

    PubMed

    Rigolin, Fernando J; Miranda, Milton E; Flório, Flávia M; Basting, Roberta T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the microtensile bond strength of two heat-pressed ceramics (leucite-based--IPS Empress Esthetic/Ivoclar Vivadent, and lithium disilicate-based --IPS e.max Press/Ivoclar Vivadent) to dentin with the use of conventional and self-adhesive resin cements. The occlusal surface of 60 intact human molars was removed and the dentin was exposed. Ceramic blocks were cemented randomly with regard to the cementation systems (n = 10): conventional dual resin cement (Variolink II/Ivoclar Vivadent), conventional self-polymerizing resin cement (Multilink/Ivoclar Vivadent), and dual self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100/3M ESPE). The dual cementation systems were photoactivated with a LED light device (Radii Cal, SDI) for 40 seconds. The specimens were sectioned to obtain sticks of approximately 1 mm2 for microtensile tests on a universal testing machine (EMIC). The type of fracture was analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test (alpha = 0.05) showed that there was no difference between types of ceramic. Average microtensile bond strength was higher for the conventional dual resin cement (Variolink II) and the self-adhesive dual resin cement (RelyX U100), despite greater prevalence of premature loss of the sticks with the latter. Average bond strength was lower when the conventional self-polymerizing resin cement (Multilink) was used. Leucite-based and lithium disilicate-based cements present similar bond strength to the dentin with conventional dual resin cement (Variolink II) and a dual self-adhesive cement (RelyX U100). PMID:25335361

  7. Bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to tooth structure

    PubMed Central

    Hattar, Susan; Hatamleh, Muhanad M.; Sawair, Faleh; Al-Rabab’ah, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the strength of the bond between newly introduced self-adhesive resin cements and tooth structures (i.e., enamel and dentin). Methods Three self-adhesive cements (SmartCem2, RelyX Unicem, seT SDI) were tested. Cylindrical-shaped cement specimens (diameter, 3 mm; height, 3 mm) were bonded to enamel and dentin. Test specimens were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. The shear bond strength (SBS) was tested in a Zwick Roll testing machine. Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and t-test. Statistically significant differences were defined at the ? = 0.05 level. Bond failures were categorized as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed. Results The SBS values ranged from 3.76 to 6.81 MPa for cements bonded to enamel and from 4.48 to 5.94 MPa for cements bonded to dentin (p > 0.05 between surfaces). There were no statistically significant differences between the SBS values to enamel versus dentin for any given cement type. All cements exhibited adhesive failure at the resin/tooth interface. Conclusions Regardless of their clinical simplicity, the self-adhesive resin cements examined in this study exhibit limited bond performance to tooth structures; therefore, these cements must be used with caution.

  8. Durability of the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to human dentin.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Renata Marques; Amaral, Regina; Galhano, Graziela; Vanderlei, Aleska; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2009-01-01

    This study subjected two self-adhesive resin cements and two conventional resin cements to dry and aging conditions, to compare their microtensile bond strengths (microTBS) to dentin. Using four different luting systems (n = 10), 40 composite resin blocks (each 5 x 5 x 4 mm) were cemented to flat human crown dentin surfaces. The specimens were stored in water for 24 hours (37 degrees C), at which point each specimen was sectioned along two axes to obtain beams that were divided randomly into two groups: dry samples, which were tested immediately, and samples that were subjected to accelerated aging conditions (12,000 thermocycles followed by storage for 150 days). The microTBS results were affected significantly by the luting system used (P < 0.0001). Only the microTBS of Rely-X Unicem was reduced significantly after aging; the microTBS remained stable or increased for the other self-adhesive resin cement and the two conventional cements. PMID:19903614

  9. The effect of curing light and chemical catalyst on the degree of conversion of two dual cured resin luting cements.

    PubMed

    Souza-Junior, Eduardo José; Prieto, Lúcia Trazzi; Soares, Giulliana Panfiglio; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different curing lights and chemical catalysts on the degree of conversion of resin luting cements. A total of 60 disk-shaped specimens of RelyX ARC or Panavia F of diameter 5 mm and thickness 0.5 mm were prepared and the respective chemical catalyst (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus or ED Primer) was added. The specimens were light-cured using different curing units (an argon ion laser, an LED or a quartz-tungsten-halogen light) through shade A2 composite disks of diameter 10 mm and thickness 2 mm. After 24 h of dry storage at 37°C, the degree of conversion of the resin luting cements was measured by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. For statistical analysis, ANOVA and the Tukey test were used, with p ? 0.05. Panavia F when used without catalyst and cured using the LED or the argon ion laser showed degree of conversion values significantly lower than RelyX ARC, with and without catalyst, and cured with any of the light sources. Therefore, the degree of conversion of Panavia F with ED Primer cured with the quartz-tungsten-halogen light was significantly different from that of RelyX ARC regardless of the use of the chemical catalyst and light curing source. In conclusion, RelyX ARC can be cured satisfactorily with the argon ion laser, LED or quartz-tungsten-halogen light with or without a chemical catalyst. To obtain a satisfactory degree of conversion, Panavia F luting cement should be used with ED Primer and cured with halogen light. PMID:21104286

  10. The influence of four dual-cure resin cements and surface treatment selection to bond strength of fiber post.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Liu, Hong; Qian, Yue-Tong; Zhu, Song; Zhao, Su-Qian

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we evaluate the influence of post surface pre-treatments on the bond strength of four different cements to glass fiber posts. Eighty extracted human maxillary central incisors and canines were endodontically treated and standardized post spaces were prepared. Four post pre-treatments were tested: (i) no pre-treatment (NS, control), (ii) sandblasting (SA), (iii) silanization (SI) and (iv) sandblasting followed by silanization (SS). Per pre-treatment, four dual-cure resin cements were used for luting posts: DMG LUXACORE Smartmix Dual, Multilink Automix, RelyX Unicem and Panavia F2.0. All the specimens were subjected to micro push-out test. Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests were performed (?=0.05) to analyze the data. Bond strength was significantly affected by the type of resin cement, and bond strengths of RelyX Unicem and Panavia F2.0 to the fiber posts were significantly higher than the other cement groups. Sandblasting significantly increased the bond strength of DMG group to the fiber posts. PMID:24177170

  11. Effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of zirconia to three resin cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadjoo, Nisa

    Statement of problem: There are no standard guidelines for material selection to obtain acceptable bonding to high-strength zirconium oxide ceramic. Studies suggest resin cements in combination with MDP-containing primer is a reasonable choice, however, the other cements cannot be rejected and need further investigation. Objective: The purpose of this in vitro study was the evaluation of the shear bond strength of three composite resin cements to zirconia ceramic after using different surface conditioning methods. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty sintered Y-TZP ceramic (IPS e.max ZirCAD) squares (8 x 8 x 4 mm) were embedded in acrylic molds, then divided into three groups (n=40) based on the type of cement used. Within each group, the specimens were divided into four subgroups (n=10) and treated as follows: (1) Air abrasion with 50microm aluminum oxide (Al2O 3) particles (ALO); (2) Air abrasion + Scotchbond Universal adhesive (SBU); (3) Air abrasion + Monobond Plus (MBP); (4) Air abrasion + Z-Prime Plus (ZPP). Composite cylinders were used as carriers to bond to conditioned ceramic using (1) RelyX Ultimate adhesive resin cement (RX); (2) Panavia SA self-adhesive resin cement (PSA); (3) Calibra esthetic cement (CAL). The bonded specimens were submerged in distilled water and subjected to 24-hour incubation period at 37°C. All specimens were stressed in shear at a constant crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. The bond strength values (MPa), means and standard deviations were calculated and data were analyzed using analysis of variance with Fisher's PLSD multiple comparison test at the 0.05 level of significance. The nature of failure was recorded. Results: The two-way ANOVA showed Panavia SA to have the highest strength at 44.3 +/- 16.9 MPa (p<0.05). The combination of Scotchbond Universal surface treatment with Panavia SA cement showed statistically higher bond strength (p=0.0054). The highest bond strengths for all three cements were observed with Scotchbond Universal surface treatment (p=0.0041). Calibra in combination with aluminum oxide air abrasion resulted in statistically lowest bond strength at 12.0 +/- 3.9 MPa. The predominant mode of failure was cohesive with cement remaining principally on the zirconium oxide samples in 57.5% of the specimens, followed by cement found on both the zirconium oxide samples and composite rods (mixed) in 32.5% of the samples. Only 10% of the specimens were found with cement on the composite rods (adhesive failure). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the MDP-containing resin cement, Panavia SA, yielded the strongest bond to Y-TZP ceramic when compared to adhesive (RelyX Ultimate) or esthetic (Calibra) resin cements. Air abrasion particle + Scotchbond Universal surface treatment demonstrated the highest bond strength regardless of the cement. Significance: The variation of surface conditioning methods yielded different results in accordance with the cement types. Overall, Scotchbond Universal adhesive + air abrasion yielded the highest bond strengths among all three surface treatments. The phosphate monomer-containing luting system, Panavia SA, is acceptable for bonding to zirconia ceramics.

  12. Nanoleakage for Self-Adhesive Resin Cements used in Bonding CAD/CAD Ceramic Material to Dentin

    PubMed Central

    El-Badrawy, Wafa; Hafez, Randa Mohamed; El Naga, Abeer Ibrahim Abo; Ahmed, Doaa Ragai

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine nanoleakage of CAD/CAM ceramic blocks bonded to dentin with self-adhesive resin cement. Methods: Eighteen sound extracted human molars were sterilized and sectioned into 3 mm-thick dentin sections. Trilux Cerec Vitablocks (Vita) were also sectioned into 3 mm sections, surface-treated using 5% hydrofluoric acid-etchant, and then coated with silane primer (Vita). Trilux and dentin sections were cemented together by means of three resin cements: Rely-X Unicem (3M/ESPE), BisCem (Bisco), and Calibra (Dentsply), according to manufacturers’ recommendations. Calibra was used in conjunction with Prime/Bond-NT adhesive (Dentsply), while the other two are self-adhesive. The bonded specimens were stored for 24h in distilled water at 37°C. Specimens were vertically sectioned into 1 mm-thick slabs, yielding up to six per specimen. Two central slabs were randomly chosen from each specimen making up the cement groups (n=12). Each group was subdivided into two subgroups (n=6), a control and a thermocycled subgroup (5–55°C) for 500 cycles. Slabs were coated with nail polish up to 1 mm from the interface, immersed in a 50% silver nitrate solution for 24h, and tested for nanoleakage using Quanta Environmental SEM and EDAX. Data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc tests. Results: Rely-X Unicem and Calibra groups demonstrated no significant difference in the percentage of silver penetration, while the BisCem group revealed a significantly higher percentage (P?.05). Thermocycling (500 cycles) did not have a statistically significant effect on the percentage of silver penetration (P>.05). Conclusions: One self-adhesive-resin cement demonstrated a similar sealing ability when compared with a standard resin cement. Thermo-cycling did not significantly increase dye penetration under the test conditions. PMID:21769269

  13. Light transmittance of zirconia as a function of thickness and microhardness of resin cements under different thicknesses of zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Egilmez, Ferhan; Ergun, Gulfem; Kaya, Bekir M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare microhardness of resin cements under different thicknesses of zirconia and the light transmittance of zirconia as a function of thickness. Study design: A total of 126 disc-shaped specimens (2 mm in height and 5 mm in diameter) were prepared from dual-cured resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Panavia F and Clearfil SA cement). Photoactivation was performed by using quartz tungsten halogen and light emitting diode light curing units under different thicknesses of zirconia. Then the specimens (n=7/per group) were stored in dry conditions in total dark at 37°C for 24 h. The Vicker’s hardness test was performed on the resin cement layer with a microhardness tester. Statistical significance was determined using multifactorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) (alpha=.05). Light transmittance of different thicknesses of zirconia (0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 mm) was measured using a hand-held radiometer (Demetron, Kerr). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test (alpha=.05). Results: ANOVA revealed that resin cement and light curing unit had significant effects on microhardness (p < 0.001). Additionally, greater zirconia thickness resulted in lower transmittance. There was no correlation between the amount of light transmitted and microhardness of dual-cured resin cements (r = 0.073, p = 0.295). Conclusion: Although different zirconia thicknesses might result in insufficient light transmission, dual-cured resin cements under zirconia restorations could have adequate microhardness. Key words:Zirconia, microhardness, light transmittance, resin cement. PMID:23385497

  14. Shear and tensile bond testing for resin cement evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuichi Kitasako; Michael F. Burrow; Toru Nikaido; Naoko Harada; Shigehisa Inokoshi; Toshimoto Yamada; Toshio Takatsu

    1995-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to compare the tensile and shear bond strengths of one experimental and four commercially available resin cements following the ISO document TR 110405 for bond measurement.Methods. Tensile and shear bond tests were performed using bovine enamel and dentin as the tooth substrate with each of the resin cements. Resin composite rods were cemented

  15. Conventional dual-cure versus self-adhesive resin cements in dentin bond integrity

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Renata Andreza Talaveira; COUTINHO, Margareth; CARDOZO, Pedro Igor; da SILVA, Larissa Alves; ZORZATTO, José Roberto

    2011-01-01

    During post preparation, the root canal is exposed to the oral cavity, and endodontic treatment may fail because of coronal leakage, bacterial infection and sealing inability of the luting cement. Objective this study quantified the interfacial continuity produced with conventional dual-cure and self-adhesive resin cements in the cervical (C), medium (M) and apical (A) thirds of the root. Material and methods Forty single-rooted human teeth were restored using Reforpost # 01 conical glass-fiber posts and different materials (N=10 per group): group AC=Adper™ ScotchBond™ Multi-purpose Plus + AllCem; group ARC=Adper™ ScotchBond™ Multi-purpose Plus + RelyX ARC; group U100=RelyX U100; and group MXC=Maxcem Elite. After being kept in 100% humidity at 37ºC for 72 hours, the samples were sectioned parallel to their longitudinal axis and positive epoxy resin replicas were made. The scanning electron micrographs of each third section of the teeth were combined using Image Analyst software and measured with AutoCAD-2002. We obtained percentage values of the interfacial continuity. Results Interfacial continuity was similar in the apical, medium and cervical thirds of the roots within the groups (Friedman test, p>0.05). Comparison of the different cements in a same root third showed that interfacial continuity was lower in MXC (C=45.5%; M=48.5%; A=47.3%) than in AC (C=85.9%, M=81.8% and A=76.0%), ARC (C=83.8%, M=82.4% and A=75.0%) and U100 (C=84.1%, M=82.4% and A=77.3%) (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.05). Conclusions Allcem, Rely X ARC and U100 provide the best cementation; cementation was similar among root portions; in practical terms, U100 is the best resin because it combines good cementation and easy application and none of the cements provides complete interfacial continuity. PMID:21710099

  16. Push-out bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin using glass ionomer and resin modified glass ionomer cements

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Jefferson Ricardo; da ROSA, Ricardo Abreu; SÓ, Marcus Vinícius Reis; AFONSO, Daniele; KUGA, Milton Carlos; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; do VALLE, Accácio Lins; VIDOTTI, Hugo Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin after cementation with glass ionomer (GICs) and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs). Material and Methods Fifty human maxillary canines were transversally sectioned at 15 mm from the apex. Canals were prepared with a step back technique until the application of a #55 K-file and filled. Post spaces were prepared and specimens were divided into five groups according to the cement used for post cementation: Luting & Lining Cement; Fuji II LC Improved; RelyX Luting; Ketac Cem; and Ionoseal. After cementation of the glass fiber posts, all roots were stored at 100% humidity until testing. For push-out test, 1-mm thick slices were produced. The push-out test was performed in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute and the values (MPa) were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene's tests and by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at a significance level of 5%. Results Fiber posts cemented using Luting & Lining Cement, Fuji II LC Improved, and Ketac Cem presented the highest bond strength to root dentin, followed by RelyX Luting. Ionoseal presented the lowest bond strength values (P>0.05). The post level did not influence the bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin (P=0.148). The major cause of failure was cohesive at the cement for all GICs and RMGICs. Conclusions Except for Ionoseal, all cements provided satisfactory bond strength values. PMID:25004052

  17. Effects of dentin moisture on the push-out bond strength of a fiber post luted with different self-adhesive resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Uzuno?lu, Emel; Y?lmaz, Zeliha

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effects of intraradicular moisture on the pushout bond strength of a fibre post luted with several self-adhesive resin cements. Materials and Methods Endodontically treated root canals were treated with one of three luting cements: (1) RelyX U100, (2) Clearfil SA, and (3) G-Cem. Roots were then divided into four subgroups according to the moisture condition tested: (I) dry: excess water removed with paper points followed by dehydration with 95% ethanol, (II) normal moisture: canals blot-dried with paper points until appearing dry, (III) moist: canals dried by low vacuum using a Luer adapter, and (IV) wet: canals remained totally flooded. Two 1-mm-thick slices were obtained from each root sample and bond strength was measured using a push-out test setup. The data were analysed using a two-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni post hoc test with p = 0.05. Results Statistical analysis demonstrated that moisture levels had a significant effect on the bond strength of luting cements (p < 0.05), with the exception of G-Cem. RelyX U100 displayed the highest bond strength under moist conditions (III). Clearfil SA had the highest bond strength under normal moisture conditions (II). Statistical ranking of bond strength values was as follows: RelyX U100 > Clearfil SA > G-Cem. Conclusions The degree of residual moisture significantly affected the adhesion of luting cements to radicular dentine. PMID:24303359

  18. Tensile bond strength of indirect composites luted with three new self-adhesive resin cements to dentin

    PubMed Central

    TÜRKMEN, Cafer; DURKAN, Meral; C?M?LL?, Hale; ÖKSÜZ, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate the tensile bond strengths between indirect composites and dentin of 3 recently developed self-adhesive resin cements and to determine mode of failure by SEM. Material and Methods Exposed dentin surfaces of 70 mandibular third molars were used. Teeth were randomly divided into 7 groups: Group 1 (control group): direct composite resin restoration (Alert) with etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Bond 1 primer/adhesive), Group 2: indirect composite restoration (Estenia) luted with a resin cement (Cement-It) combined with the same etch-and-rinse adhesive, Group 3: direct composite resin restoration with self-etch adhesive system (Nano-Bond), Group 4: indirect composite restoration luted with the resin cement combined with the same self-etch adhesive, Groups 5-7: indirect composite restoration luted with self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Maxcem, and Embrace WetBond, respectively) onto the non-pretreated dentin surfaces. Tensile bond strengths of groups were tested with a universal testing machine at a constant speed of 1 mm/min using a 50 kgf load cell. Results were statistically analyzed by the Student's t-test. The failure modes of all groups were also evaluated. Results The indirect composite restorations luted with the self-adhesive resin cements (groups 5-7) showed better results compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Group 4 showed the weakest bond strength (p>0.05). The surfaces of all debonded specimens showed evidence of both adhesive and cohesive failure. Conclusion The new universal self-adhesive resins may be considered an alternative for luting indirect composite restorations onto non-pretreated dentin surfaces. PMID:21710095

  19. Film Thickness and Flow Properties of Resin-Based Cements at Different Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, R

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: For a luting agent to allow complete seating of prosthetic restorations, it must obtain an appropriate flow rate maintaining a minimum film thickness. The performance of recently introduced luting agents in this regard has not been evaluated. Purpose: To measure and compare the film thickness and flow properties of seven resin-containing luting cements at different temperatures (37°C, 25°C and10°C). Material and Methods: Specimens were prepared from five resin luting cements; seT (SDI), Panavia F (Kuraray), Varioloink II (Ivoclar), Maxcem (Kerr), Nexus2 (Kerr) and two resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cements (RM-GICs); GC Fuji Plus (GC Corporation), and RelyX Luting 2 (3 M/ESPE). The film thickness and flow rate of each cement (n=15) was determined using the test described in ISO at three different temperatures. Results: There was a linear correlation between film thickness and flow rate for most of the materials. Cooling increased fluidity of almost all materials while the effect of temperature on film thickness was material dependent. At 37°C, all products revealed a film thickness of less than 25µm except for GC Fuji Plus. At 25°C, all cements produced a film thickness of less than 27 µm except for seT. At 10°C, apart from seT and Rely X Luting 2, the remaining cements showed a film thickness smaller than 20 µm. Conclusion: Cooling increased fluidity of almost all materials, however. the film thickness did not exceed 35 µm in either condition, in spite of the lowest film thickness being demonstrated at the lowest temperature. PMID:24724120

  20. Qualitative evaluation of scanning electron microscopy methods in a study of the resin cement/dentine adhesive interface.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carolina N D B; Daleprane, Bruno; Barbosa, Paola F; Moreira, Allyson N; de Magalhães, Cláudia S

    2014-02-01

    Sample preparation and imaging techniques for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of dehydrated dental samples can hinder the structural analyses. This study qualitatively evaluated images obtained with two different protocols of SEM preparation and analysis to assess the dentine adhesive interface. The crown and root dentine of 12 bovine incisors were subjected to cementation with the resin cement RelyX U100 or RelyX ARC/SBMP (n = 6). After storage for 7 days in a moist environment at 37 ± 1°C, the dentine samples were dehydrated in an ascending alcohol series, and three specimens from each group were coated with gold or carbon and examined in a high-vacuum (JEOL JSM-6360LV, 10 kV) or low-vacuum (FEI Quanta 200F, 15-30 kV) microscope. Images were obtained at magnifications between 50 and 2,000×, but with different working distances. The use of high vacuum for carbon and gold coating and SEM visualization led to cracks in the samples. A small number of cracks can be described in the specimens subjected to the low-vacuum technique. The protocol for SEM imaging in low vacuum was considered more appropriate for preservation of the integrity of the evaluated structures. PMID:24188716

  1. Resistance to bond degradation between dual-cure resin cements and pre-treated sintered CAD-CAM dental ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Raquel; Monticelli, Francesca; Osorio, Estrella; Toledano, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the bond stability of resin cements when luted to glass-reinforced alumina and zirconia CAD/CAM dental ceramics. Study design: Eighteen glass-infiltrated alumina and eighteen densely sintered zirconia blocks were randomly conditioned as follows: Group 1: No treatment; Group 2: Sandblasting (125 µm Al2O3-particles); and Group 3: Silica-coating (50 µm silica-modified Al2O3-particles). Composite samples were randomly bonded to the pre-treated ceramic surfaces using different resin cements: Subgroup 1: Clearfil Esthetic Cement (CEC); Subgroup 2: RelyX Unicem (RXU); and Subgroup 3: Calibra (CAL). After 24 h, bonded specimens were cut into 1 ± 0.1 mm2 sticks. One-half of the beams were tested for microtensile bond strength (MTBS). The remaining one-half was immersed in 10 % NaOCl aqueous solution (NaOClaq) for 5 h before testing. The fracture pattern and morphology of the debonded surfaces were assessed with a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). A multiple ANOVA was conducted to analyze the contributions of ceramic composition, surface treatment, resin cement type, and chemical challenging to MTBS. The Tukey test was run for multiple comparisons (p < 0.05). Results: After 24 h, CEC luted to pre-treated zirconia achieved the highest MTBS. Using RXU, alumina and zirconia registered comparable MTBS. CAL failed prematurely, except when luted to sandblasted zirconia. After NaOClaq storage, CEC significantly lowered MTBS when luted to zirconia or alumina. RXU decreased MTBS only when bonded to silica-coated alumina. CAL recorded 100 % of pre-testing failures. Micromorphological alterations were evident after NaOClaq immersion. Conclusions: Resin-ceramic interfacial longevity depended on cement selection rather than on surface pre-treatments. The MDP-containing and the self-adhesive resin cements were both suitable for luting CAD/CAM ceramics. Despite both cements being prone to degradation, RXU luted to zirconia or untreated or sandblasted alumina showed the most stable interfaces. CAL experimented spontaneous debonding in all tested groups. Key words:CAD/CAM ceramic, alumina, zirconia, resin cement, surface pre-treatment, sandblasting, silica-coating, chemical aging, bond degradation, microtensile bond strength. PMID:22322517

  2. Cytotoxicity of commonly used luting cements -An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Trumpaite-Vanagiene, Rita; Bukelskiene, Virginija; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta; Puriene, Alina; Baltriukiene, Daiva; Rutkunas, Vygandas

    2015-06-01

    The study aimed to 1) evaluate the cytotoxicity of luting cements: Hoffmann's Zinc Phosphate (Hoffmann's ZP), GC Fuji Plus Resin Modified Glass Ionomer (Fuji Plus RMGI) and 3M ESPE RelyX Unicem Resin Cement (RelyX Unicem RC) and 2) test if pre-washing reduces the cements' cytotoxicity. In vitro human gingival fibroblast (HGF) culture model was chosen. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT test, the cell viability -by staining the cells with AO/EB dye mixture. The means±SD of Cell Survival Ratio (CSR%) were compared among different cement types under two testing conditions, with or without cement pre-washing. The CSR%s were compared by ANOVA and linear multiple regression (LMR). Hoffmann's ZPC was less cytotoxic, while Fuji Plus RMGIC and RelyX Unicem RC were more cytotoxic (ANOVA, p<0.001). The type of cement and cement pre-washing jointly explained 90% of cell survival (LMR, p<0.001, adjusted squared R=0.889). The commonly used luting cements such as Hoffmann's ZP, Fuji Plus RMGI and RelyX Unicem RC may have a cytotoxic potential. PMID:25904168

  3. Effect of filler size on wear resistance of resin cement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Shinkai; Shiro Suzuki; Yoshiroh Katoh

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of filler size on the wear of resin cements. Materials tested included\\u000a four experimental dual-cure resin cements (Kuraray) consisting of different-sized filler particles. A rectangular box cavity\\u000a was prepared on the flattened occlusal surface of extracted human molars. Ceramic inlays for the cavities were fabricated\\u000a using the Cerec 2 system.

  4. Bonding of resin core materials to lithium disilicate ceramics: the effect of resin cement film thickness.

    PubMed

    Cekic-Nagas, Isil; Canay, Senay; Sahin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different resin cement film thicknesses on the shear bond strength of resin core materials to lithium disilicate ceramics. Forty IPS Empress 2 ceramic disks were bonded to the core materials (Bis-core and Smile) with resin cement film thicknesses of 50 or 100 ?m. Shear bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and independent t tests. The core material used and resin cement film thickness had a significant effect on shear bond strength values (P < .001). Greater resin cement film thickness resulted in decreased bond strength of the core materials to lithium disilicate ceramics. PMID:20859565

  5. Statistical failure analysis of adhesive resin cement bonded dental ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaou; Katsube, Noriko; Seghi, Robert R; Rokhlin, Stanislav I.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work is to quantitatively examine the effect of adhesive resin cement on the probability of crack initiation from the internal surface of ceramic dental restorations. The possible crack bridging mechanism and residual stress effect of the resin cement on the ceramic surface are examined. Based on the fracture-mechanics-based failure probability model, we predict the failure probability of glass-ceramic disks bonded to simulated dentin subjected to indentation loads. The theoretical predictions match experimental data suggesting that both resin bridging and shrinkage plays an important role and need to be considered for accurate prognostics to occur. PMID:18670583

  6. Effect of thermal cycling on the bond strength of self-adhesive cements to fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Mazzitelli, Claudia; Monticelli, Francesca; Toledano, Manuel; Ferrari, Marco; Osorio, Raquel

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the push-out bond strengths of self-adhesive resin cements to epoxy resin-based fiber posts after challenging by thermocycling. Thirty-six single-rooted premolars were endodontically treated, and the post-spaces were drilled to receive RelyX Fiber posts #1. Three self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, G-Cem, and Breeze) were used for luting fiber posts. The bonded specimens were either stored for 1 month in a moist field (37°C) or submitted to thermocycling (5,000 times) prior to push-out test. The maximum force required to dislodge the post via an apical-coronal direction was recorded (megapascal). The data were statistically analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p < 0.05). The factors "luting cement" and "thermocycling" significantly influenced bond strengths. The initial push-out values of RelyX Unicem and Breeze were higher than those of G-Cem. After thermocycling, the bond strength of G-Cem increased and no differences were found between groups. RelyX Unicem and Breeze bond strengths were not affected by the thermal challenge. Thermal cycling and cement type differently influence the bond strengths of self-adhesive resin cements. Self-adhesive cements can represent an option for luting fiber posts into root canal. PMID:21670983

  7. Micro-tensile bond testing of resin cements to dentin and an indirect resin composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiu-Fai Mak; Shirley C. N Lai; Gary S. P Cheung; Alex W. K Chan; Franklin R Tay; David H Pashley

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Micro-tensile bond strength (?TBS) evaluation and fractographic analysis were used to compare four resin cement systems (AC: All-Bond 2\\/Choice; RX: Single Bond\\/RelyX ARC; SB: Super-Bond C&B; and PF: Panavia F) in indirect composite\\/dentin adhesive joints.Methods: Flat dentin surfaces were created on extracted human third molars. The resin cements were used according to the manufacturers' instructions for bonding silanized composite

  8. Bonding Effectiveness of Two Adhesive Luting Cements to Glass Fiber Posts: Pull-Out Evaluation of Three Different Post Surface Conditioning Methods

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength at the post/resin-cement interface with 3 different surface treatments of glass fiber posts and with 2 different luting resin cements. Sixty glass fiber posts (RelyX Fiber Post) were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 20) and were luted with a dual-polymerizing self-adhesive universal resin cement (RelyX Unicem) and with a dual-polymerizing resin cement (RelyX ARC). This was carried out in association with a dual-polymerizing adhesive (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus) in simulated plexiglass root canals after receiving three different pretreatment procedures. A pull-out test was performed on each sample to measure bond strengths. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA. Two samples from each group were processed for SEM observations in order to investigate the morphologic aspect of the post/cement interface. Both resin cements demonstrated significant different bond strength values (P < 0.0001). The surface treatment result was also statistically significant (P = 0.0465). SEM examination showed a modification of the post surface after pretreatment with methyl methacrylate. The dual-polymerizing self-adhesive universal resin cement achieved higher MPa bond strength values. The use of methyl methacrylate as a surface treatment of glass fiber posts provided a significant increase in bond strengths between the posts and both luting materials. PMID:24987418

  9. Progress in Solidification of Radioactive Waste Resins Using Specific Cement

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.F.; Ye, Y.C.; Wang, J.L. [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology - INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2006-07-01

    A kind of special cement (Named as ASC) was used in radioactive spent resins solidification in China. A prescription of X ASC cement + 0.5 X waste resins (50% water hold) + 0.35 X water was obtained first. In order to control the temperature rise caused by hydration of cement in 200 L solidification matrix, various supplementary materials were tried. Based on compressive strength tests and center temperature rise, super powered zeolite was selected. In addition, more resins were added to reduce the center temperature rise. A superior combination was obtained as ASC 35 wt.%, zeolite 7 wt.% to mix 42 wt.% of resins (50% water hold) with 16 wt.% of water. The microstructures of hydrated OPC, ASC and ASC with different zeolite addition were compared by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the SEM pictures, the structures of the needles or spines can be seen in ASC matrices and the needles structure of ASC change into flake structure gradually with more zeolite added. The simulated leaching tests showed that inclusion of zeolite in ASC reduced the leaching rates of radionuclides significantly. From 200 L matrix test, the centre temperature curve was measured, and the highest temperature was lower than 90 deg. C. No thermal cracks were found in the final solidified products. (authors)

  10. Cement waste-form development for ion-exchange resins at the Rocky Flats Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Veazey; R. L. Ames

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the development of a cement waste form to stabilize ion-exchange resins at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). These resins have an elevated potential for ignition due to inadequate wetness and contact with nitrates. The work focused on the preparation and performance evaluation of several Portland cement\\/resin formulations. The performance standards were chosen to address Waste Isolation

  11. Combination treatment of tribochemical treatment and phosphoric acid ester monomer of zirconia ceramics enhances the bonding durability of resin-based luting cements.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Kenichiro; Fujishima, Akihiro; Manabe, Atsufumi; Kuriyama, Soichi; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bonding durability of resin-based luting cement to partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) achieved by combination treatment of tribochemical (TBC) treatment and two different phosphate acid ester monomers. Two phosphate acid ester monomers (EP: Epricord opaque primer, AZ: AZ primer) were applied to each surface modification followed by application of resin-based luting cement (Rely-X ARC). Bonding specimens were placed in deionized water at 37 degrees C and stored for 24 h. The other groups were subjected to 30,000 cycles of a thermal stress for the durability test. Shear bond tests were done using a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min. Shear bond strengths of combination treatments using EP and AZ on TBC treatment after thermal stress showed no significant difference (p>0.05) compared with those of storage after 24 h. Combination treatment using phosphoric acid ester monomer could achieve a durable bond. PMID:20484831

  12. Tensile bond strength of a composite resin cement for bonded prosthesis to various dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Rubo, J H; Pegoraro, L F

    1995-09-01

    The development of composite resin cements that chemically bond to dental alloys has improved the construction of resin-bonded prostheses. Composite resins can be selected for various situations, but specific clinical situations may require different alloys. This study evaluated the ability of a composite resin cement to bond to various dental alloys of different compositions. Ten pairs of disks for each alloy (two NiCr, two NiCrBe, one CuAl, one gold type IV, and one gold for metal ceramic) were bonded to a composite resin cement after air abrasion was performed with aluminum oxide. The disks were then rinsed in tap water and were ultrasonically cleaned in distilled water for 2 minutes. The tensile tests exhibited greater values for alloys ultrasonically cleaned, and the best results were recorded by NiCr and NiCrBe alloys. PMID:7473275

  13. The Effect of a Resin-based Sealer Cement on Micropunch Shear Strength of Dentin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angsana Jainaen; Joseph E. A. Palamara; Harold H. Messer

    Dentinal tubules occupy a substantial proportion of total dentin volume, especially of inner dentin. Resin- based sealer cements are known to penetrate deeply into dentinal tubules, but their ability to influence root strength is controversial. In this study, the contribution of dentinal tubules to shear strength and the influence of a resin-based sealer on shear strength were evalu- ated. Coronal

  14. Effects of different surface treatments on bond strength between resin cements and zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Erdem, A; Akar, G C; Erdem, A; Kose, T

    2014-01-01

    This study compares the bond strength of resin cement and yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) ceramic with different surface conditioning methods. Two hundred presintered Y-TZP ceramic specimens were prepared, sintered (4 × 4 × 4 mm), and randomly assigned to four equal groups as control (C, no conditioning); airborne particle abraded (APA, air abrasion with 11 ?m Al2O3); tribochemical silica coating/silane coupling system (TSC, Rocatec, air abrasion with 110 ?m Al2O3, 30 ?m silica-coated Al2O3 and silane); and laser (L, Er:YAG laser irradiation treated at a power setting of 200 mJ). After specimen preparation, composite resin cylinders were prepared and cemented with resin cements (Clearfil Esthetic, Panavia F 2.0, Rely X-U100, Super Bond C&B, and Multilink Automix) on the ceramic surfaces and kept in an incubator at 37°C for 60 days. All specimens were tested for shear bond strength with a universal testing machine, and fractured surfaces were evaluated by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests (?=0.05). The bond strengths for C and L groups were not significantly different according to adhesive resin cement. APA and TSC resulted in increased bond strength for Panavia F 2.0 and Rely X-U100 resin cements. Additionally, TSC presented higher bond strength with Multilink Automix. Adhesive fracture between the ceramic and resin cement was the most common failure. Complete cohesive fracture at the ceramic or composite cylinders was not observed. Regardless of the adhesive resin cement used, laser treatment did not improve resin bond strength. PMID:24299447

  15. Effects of layering technique on the shade of resin overlays and the microhardness of dual cure resin cement.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hoon-Sang; Hong, Sung-Ok

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the color of layered resin overlays and to test the early microhardness of dual cure resin cement (DCRC) light cured through the layered resin overlays. Resin overlays of 1.5 mm thickness were fabricated with the A3 shade of Z350 (Group 1L), the A3B and A3E shades of Supreme XT (Group 2L), and the A3, E3, and T1 shades of Sinfony (Group 3L) using one, two, and three layers, respectively (n=7). Each layer of the resin overlays was set in equal thickness. The color of the resin overlays was measured with a colorimeter and compared with an A3 shade resin denture tooth. DCRC was light cured through the resin overlays, and the early microhardness of the DCRC was measured. The ?E value between the denture tooth and the resin overlays and the Vickers hardness number (VHN) of the DCRC were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. The color differences were 8.9±0.5, 5.3±1.0, and 7.3±0.5 and the VHNs were 19.4±1.1, 21.1±0.9, and 29.3±0.6 for Groups 1L, 2L, and 3L, respectively. Therefore, to match the designated tooth color of resin inlays and to increase the early microhardness of DCRC, layered resin inlays are more appropriate than single-dentin-layer resin inlays. However, the translucent layer should be used cautiously because the color difference of resin inlays with a translucent layer was affected more than those without a translucent layer. PMID:24918368

  16. Effects of mechanical properties of adhesive resin cements on stress distribution in fiber-reinforced composite adhesive fixed partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Daiichiro; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Vallittu, Pekka K; Shinya, Akiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Using finite element analysis (FEA), this study investigated the effects of the mechanical properties of adhesive resin cements on stress distributions in fiber-reinforced resin composite (FRC) adhesive fixed partial dentures (AFPDs). Two adhesive resin cements were compared: Super-Bond C&B and Panavia Fluoro Cement. The AFPD consisted of a pontic to replace a maxillary right lateral incisor and retainers on a maxillary central incisor and canine. FRC framework was made of isotropic, continuous, unidirectional E-glass fibers. Maximum principal stresses were calculated using finite element method (FEM). Test results revealed that differences in the mechanical properties of adhesive resin cements led to different stress distributions at the cement interfaces between AFPD and abutment teeth. Clinical implication of these findings suggested that the safety and longevity of an AFPD depended on choosing an adhesive resin cement with the appropriate mechanical properties. PMID:22447051

  17. Colour matching of composite resin cements with their corresponding try-in pastes.

    PubMed

    Kampouropoulos, D; Gaintantzopoulou, M; Papazoglou, E; Kakaboura, A

    2014-06-01

    Two shades of four resin cements (Calibra, Clearfil Esthetic, Insure, Variolink II), in light- and dual-curing modes, were tested for colour matching with their corresponding try-in pastes, immediately after photopolymerization and after 24-hour dry and dark storage. Colour measurements were performed for 0.8 mm-thick specimens through a 0.8mm-thick ceramic plate. For each resin cement, colour differences (deltaE) were calculated between the two curing modes, and between the corresponding try-in paste, at baseline and after 24h. deltaE>0 values were detected between all resin cements and their try-in pastes, which were brand/shade/curing mode depended. The try-in pastes of the Variolink II system demonstrated the best colour matching (deltaE<2). Try-in pastes of Calibra and Insure, at both curing modes, did not match at an acceptable value, the shade of their corresponding resin cements (deltaE>3.3). Calibra presented the highest colour differences. deltaE values of the Clearfil Esthetic system immediately after photo-activation ranged between 2 and 3 units. A ceramic restoration may fail aesthetically as a result of not acceptable colour match (deltaE>3.3) between the shade of certain resin cements and their relevant try-in pastes. PMID:25134367

  18. Impairment of resin cement application on the bond strength of indirect composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Skupien, Jovito Adiel; Porto, José Augusto Sedrez; Münchow, Eliseu Aldrighi; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of immediate and delayed resin cement application on the microtensile bond strength of indirect composite resin restorations and, to evaluate adhesive strategies (for regular resin cement or humidity parameters for self-adhesive resin cement). Forty-five enamel/dentin discs (0.5 mm height and 10 mm of diameter) obtained from bovine teeth were divided into nine groups (n = 5). For regular cement, the variation factors were cementation technique at three levels (immediate cementation, 5 or 30 min after adhesive system application); and type of adhesive system at two levels (three- or two-step). For self-adhesive cement, the dentin moisture was the source of variation at three levels (normal, dry, or wet cementation). The specimens were submitted to microtensile bond strength (?TBS) testing using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey's test, and linear regression. Regular cement and three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system showed the highest values of bond strength (25.21 MPa-30 min of delay). Only for this condition, three-step adhesive showed higher bond strength than the two-step adhesive. Nevertheless, the linear regression showed that irrespective of the strategy, the use of the two-step approach when compared with three-step adhesive system decreased ?TBS (p < 0.001). The failure analysis showed predominant adhesive failures for all tested groups. All groups had comparable values of bond strength to bovine dentin when the same materials were used, even in suboptimal clinical conditions. PMID:26039908

  19. Cementation of ILW ion exchange resins: Impact of sulfate ions released by radiolysis on hydrated matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frizon, F.; Cau-dit-Coumes, C.

    2006-12-01

    Some of the ion exchange resins used during treatment of spent nuclear fuels are intermediate level radioactive wastes which may be damaged by radiolysis process, releasing sulfate ions directly into the cement-based encapsulating material. This work consists in an experimental study of the resulting sulfate attack on the properties of the hydrated matrix: dimensional stability, mineralogy and microstructure of the samples, as well as variations in the chemical composition of the curing solution, were studied during six months. Three sites of delayed ettringite formation were detected: into the cement matrix near the surface exposed to solution, localized in the interfacial transition zone between cement matrix and resins, or progressively replacing the portlandite that initially fulfilled the cracks of anionic resins. During the experiment period, the ettringite precipitation and the expansion detected were moderate, and did not lead to cracking. The material involved was considered as having a good resistance to sulfate attack.

  20. Preliminary Study Of The Permeability Of Cement-Resin Admixture For Water Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, Ardian; Handayani, Gunawan; Satira, Suparno; Viridi, Sparisoma; Nugraha, Nirwan

    2010-12-01

    Admixtures of cement and polymer resin were prepared for water storage in an aquifer layer. Water to cement (w/c) ratio was in the range of 6/7 to 10/7 and the resin added was between 10 and 60 ml. Samples were formed in two ways: by injecting the admixture into a box of 80×60×60 cm3 with a pressure of 6 bar and by molding to fit a certain dimension based on the requirements of the standard measurement. It was found that the increase of water to cement ratio enhances the coefficient of permeability. In addition, the coefficient of permeability decreases with increasing the volume of resin. An attempt to make a relationship between the permeability and the porosity showed that a power law would hold. However, more data are required for confirming the power law.

  1. Shear bond strengths of three resin cements used with three adhesive primers for metal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiichi Yoshida; Kohji Kamada; Mika Tanagawa; Mitsuru Atsuta

    1996-01-01

    This study compared the durability and shear bond strengths of combinations of three adhesive primers and three resin cements bonded to silver-palladium-copper-gold (Ag-Pd-Cu-Au) and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys. The adhesive luting cements Imperva Dual, Panavia 21, and Super-Bond C&B and the adhesive primers Metal Primer material, V-Primer material, and Cesead Opaque Primer material were used. The application of Metal Primer material

  2. The Effect of a Resin-based Sealer Cement on Micropunch Shear Strength of Dentin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angsana Jainaen; Joseph E. A. Palamara; Harold H. Messer

    2008-01-01

    Dentinal tubules occupy a substantial proportion of total dentin volume, especially of inner dentin. Resin-based sealer cements are known to penetrate deeply into dentinal tubules, but their ability to influence root strength is controversial. In this study, the contribution of dentinal tubules to shear strength and the influence of a resin-based sealer on shear strength were evaluated. Coronal 100-?m sections

  3. Bonding All-Ceramic Restorations with Two Resins Cement Techniques: A Clinical Report of Three-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; de Almeida, Erika Oliveira; Junior, Amilcar Chagas Freitas; Martini, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    Ceramics have been widely used for esthetic and functional improvements. The resin cement is the material of choice for bonding ceramics to dental substrate and it can also dictate the final esthetic appearance and strength of the restoration. The correct use of the wide spectrum of resin luting agents available depends on the dental tooth substrate. This article presents three-year clinical results of a 41 years old female patient B.H.C complaining about her unattractive smile. Two all-ceramic crowns and two laminates veneers were placed in the maxillary incisors and cemented with a self-adhesive resin luting cement and conventional resin luting cement, respectively. After a three-year follow-up, the restorations and cement/teeth interface were clinically perfect with no chipping, fractures or discoloration. Proper use of different resin luting cements shows clinical appropriate behavior after a three-year follow-up. Self-adhesive resin luting cement may be used for cementing all-ceramic crowns with high predictability of success, mainly if there is a large dentin surface available for bonding and no enamel at the finish line. Otherwise, conventional resin luting agent should be used for achieving an adequate bonding strength to enamel. PMID:21912505

  4. Novel fabrication method for zirconia restorations: bonding strength of machinable ceramic to zirconia with resin cements.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Soichi; Terui, Yuichi; Higuchi, Daisuke; Goto, Daisuke; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Manabe, Atsufumi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A novel method was developed to fabricate all-ceramic restorations which comprised CAD/CAM-fabricated machinable ceramic bonded to CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia framework using resin cement. The feasibility of this fabrication method was assessed in this study by investigating the bonding strength of a machinable ceramic to zirconia. A machinable ceramic was bonded to a zirconia plate using three kinds of resin cements: ResiCem (RE), Panavia (PA), and Multilink (ML). Conventional porcelain-fused-to-zirconia specimens were also prepared to serve as control. Shear bond strength test (SBT) and Schwickerath crack initiation test (SCT) were carried out. SBT revealed that PA (40.42 MPa) yielded a significantly higher bonding strength than RE (28.01 MPa) and ML (18.89 MPa). SCT revealed that the bonding strengths of test groups using resin cement were significantly higher than those of Control. Notably, the bonding strengths of RE and ML were above 25 MPa even after 10,000 times of thermal cycling -adequately meeting the ISO 9693 standard for metal-ceramic restorations. These results affirmed the feasibility of the novel fabrication method, in that a CAD/CAM-fabricated machinable ceramic is bonded to a CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia framework using a resin cement. PMID:21597207

  5. UV irradiation improves the bond strength of resin cement to fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Bo; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Jianfeng; Chen, Li; Li, Deli; Tan, Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose is to evaluate the effect of UV irradiation on the bond strength between epoxy-based glass fiber posts and resin cement. Twelve epoxy-based glass fiber posts were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (Cont.): No surface treatment. Group 2 (Low-UV): UV irradiation was conducted from a distance of 10 cm for 10 min. Group 3 (High-UV): UV irradiation was conducted from a distance of 1 cm for 3 min. A resin cement (CLEARFIL SA LUTING) was used for the post cementation to form resin slabs which contained fiber posts in the center. Microtensile bond strengths were tested and the mean bond strengths (MPa) were 18.81 for Cont. group, 23.65 for Low-UV group, 34.75 for High-UV group. UV irradiation had a significant effect on the bond strength (p<0.05). UV irradiation demonstrates its capability to improve the bond strength between epoxy-based glass fiber posts and resin cement. PMID:21778609

  6. Effects of curing mode of resin cements on the bond strength of a titanium post: An intraradicular study

    PubMed Central

    Reza, Fazal; Lim, Siau Peng

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To compare push-out bond strength between self-cured and dual-cured resin cement using a titanium post. Background: Dual-cured resin cements have been found to be less polymerized in the absence of light; thus the bond strength of cements would be compromised due to the absence of light with a metallic post. Materials and Methods: Ten extracted teeth were prepared for cement titanium PARAPOST, of five specimens each, with Panavia F [dual-cured (PF)] and Rely×Luting 2 [self-cured resin-modified glass ionomer luting cement (RL)]; the push-out bond strength (PBS) at three different levels of the sectioned roots was measured. The failure modes were observed and the significance of the differences in bond strength of the two types of cement at each level and at different levels of the same type was analyzed with non-parametric tests. Results: The push-out bond strength of the RL group was greater at all the three levels; with significant differences at the coronal and middle levels (P<0.05). No significant differences in PBS at different levels of the same group were observed. Cement material around the post was obvious in the PF group. The failure mode was mostly adhesive between the post and resin cement in the RL group. Conclusion: Bond strength was greater with self-cured, resin-modified glass ionomer luting cement, using titanium post. PMID:22557808

  7. Bonding of resin cements to a metal substrate: influence of pretreatment on the adherence energy.

    PubMed

    Asmussen, E; Attal, J P; Degrange, M

    1996-01-01

    The adherence of resin cements to restoration as well as tooth structure is of prime importance for the longevity of cemented restorations. It was the aim of the study to investigate the effect of an acid and a base primer on (i) surface polarity of a nonprecious alloy and on (ii) adherence energy of resin cements bonded to the alloy. The beams were pretreated with a 3% acetone solution of either maleic acid or N,N-diethanol-p-toluidine, and the solvent evaporated. The polarity was determined by means of measurements of contact angles. The adherence energy was measured by means of the wedge test, according to which 2 beams were glued together with the resin cement. A wedge was introduced between the joined beams to create a fissure, and on the basis of the length of the fissure, the adherence energy was calculated. It was found that the polar component of the surface free energy of the alloy increased as a consequence of the pretreatments. The results also showed that the pretreatments gave rise to an increase in adherence energy of 11-15 J/m2, equivalent to relative increases of 22-54%. The observed increases in adherence energy may be due to an increase in polar interactions at the interface between adhesive and substrate. PMID:9021331

  8. The effect of a resin-based sealer cement on micropunch shear strength of dentin.

    PubMed

    Jainaen, Angsana; Palamara, Joseph E A; Messer, Harold H

    2008-10-01

    Dentinal tubules occupy a substantial proportion of total dentin volume, especially of inner dentin. Resin-based sealer cements are known to penetrate deeply into dentinal tubules, but their ability to influence root strength is controversial. In this study, the contribution of dentinal tubules to shear strength and the influence of a resin-based sealer on shear strength were evaluated. Coronal 100-microm sections of 12 single-canal premolar teeth were tested in different locations (buccal and proximal) and tubule directions (parallel and perpendicular) using the micropunch shear test (MPSS). Tests were also conducted by using 10 two-canal premolars, with one untreated canal and the other obturated using epoxy resin-based sealer (plus gutta-percha). No difference in MPSS was found because of location or tubule orientation (p > 0.05). Outer dentin had a higher MPSS than middle and inner dentin (p < 0.001). Tubule infiltration by epoxy resin did not increase MPSS. PMID:18793923

  9. Effects of post surface conditioning before silanization on bond strength between fiber post and resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbarian, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Post surface conditioning is necessary to expose the glass fibers to enable bonding between fiber post and resin cement. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different surface conditioning on tensile bond strength (TBS) of a glass fiber reinforced post to resin cement. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this in vitro study, 40 extracted single canal central incisors were endodontically treated and post spaces were prepared. The teeth were divided into four groups according to the methods of post surface treatment (n=10): 1) Silanization after etching with 20% H2O2, 2) Silanization after airborne-particle abrasion, 3) Silanization, and 4) No conditioning (Control). Adhesive resin cement (Panavia F 2.0) was used for cementation of the fiber posts to the root canal dentin. Three slices of 3 mm thick were obtained from each root. A universal testing machine was used with a cross-head speed of 1 mm/minute for performing the push-out tests. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used for analyzing data (?=0.05). RESULTS It is revealed that different surface treatments and root dentin regions had significant effects on TBS, but the interaction between surface treatments and root canal regions had no significant effect on TBS. There was significant difference among H2O2 + Silane Group and other three groups. CONCLUSION There were significant differences among the mean TBS values of different surface treatments. Application of hydrogen peroxide before silanization increased the bond strength between resin cements and fiber posts. The mean TBS mean values was significantly greater in the coronal region of root canal than the middle and apical thirds. PMID:23755337

  10. Evaluation of four cementation strategies on the push-out bond strength between fiber post and root dentin.

    PubMed

    Bergoli, Cesar Dalmolin; Amaral, Marina; Druck, Carolina Ceolin; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2011-01-01

    This trial used push-out testing to evaluate four different fiber post cementation strategies. Specimens of bovine mandibular teeth were randomly allocated into four groups according to cementation strategies (n = 10): ScotchBond MultiPurpose and RelyX ARC (Group 1); AdheSE and Multilink Automix (Group 2); phosphoric acid and RelyX U100 (Group 3); and RelyX U100 (Group 4). Four slices from each specimen (2.0 mm thick) were obtained for the push-out test. All slices were analyzed for failure mode after testing. A one-way ANOVA showed differences between the groups (P = 0.002). A Tukey test indicated that Group 1 had the highest bond strength values (13.96 ± 6.41 MPa). Groups 2 (6.58 ± 2.14 MPa), 3 (5.85 ± 2.57 MPa), and 4 (8.19 ± 2.28 MPa) had similar bond strengths, but all of them were lower than Group 1. A three-step total etching adhesive system, associated with a conventional resin cement, might be a good alternative for fiber post cementation. PMID:22313922

  11. Water-dependent Interfacial Transition Zone in Resin-modified Glass-ionomer Cement\\/Dentin Interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. Tay; S. K. Sidhu; T. F. Watson; D. H. Pashley

    2004-01-01

    The function of the interfacial transition zone (absorption layer) in resin-modified glass-ionomer cements bonded to deep dentin remains obscure. This study tested the hypotheses that the absorption layer is formed only in the presence of water derived from hydrated dentin and allows for better bonding of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements to dentin. Ten percent polyacrylic acid-conditioned, hydrated, and dehydrated deep dentin

  12. Effect of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesive systems on hardness uniformity of resin cements after glass fiber post cementation

    PubMed Central

    Grande da Cruz, Fernanda Zander; Grande, Christiana Zander; Roderjan, Douglas Augusto; Galvão Arrais, César Augusto; Bührer Samra, Adriana Postiglione; Calixto, Abraham Lincoln

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesive systems on Vickers hardness (VHN) uniformity of dual-cured resin cements after fiber post cementation. Methods: Fifty glass fiber posts were cemented into bovine roots using the following cementing systems: Prime&Bond 2.1 Dual Cure and Enforce with light-activation (PBDC-LCEN); Prime&Bond 2.1 and Enforce with light-activation (PB-CLEN); Prime&Bond 2.1 Dual Cure and Enforce without light exposure (PBDC-SCEN); ED Primer and Panavia 21 (ED-SCPN); and Clearfil SE Bond and Panavia 21 (CF-SCPN). The roots were stored in distilled water for 72 h and transversely sectioned into thirds (coronal, medium, and apical). The VHN values of the resin cement layers were measured close to the post and to the dentin wall on the transversely sectioned flat surfaces. The results were analyzed by three-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post-hoc test (pre-set alpha of 5%). Results: Most resin cements presented higher VHN values near the post than near the dentin wall. The ED-SCPN group showed the highest VHN values regardless of the root third, while the self-cured group PBDC-SCEN exhibited the lowest values. The resin cements from the light-activated groups PBDC-LCEN and PB-LCEN showed lower VHN values at the apical third than at the coronal third. The VHN values were not influenced by the root third in self-cured groups PBDC-SCEN, ED-SCPN, and ED-SCPN. Conclusion: Depending on the product, bonding agents might promote changes in hardness uniformity of resin cements after post cementation. PMID:22904652

  13. Using oscillatory squeezing flow to measure the viscoelastic properties of dental composite resin cements during curing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Jiang; H. See; M. V. Swain; N. Phan-Thien

    2003-01-01

    .  \\u000a We have investigated the rheological changes in two particulate-filled dental composite resin cements during the curing process\\u000a using a Micro-Fourier Rheometer (MFR). In the MFR, the sample was sandwiched between two parallel plates, and pseudorandom\\u000a small amplitude squeezing was applied by oscillating the upper plate over a range of frequencies. Fourier transforms of the\\u000a displacement signal and the resulting

  14. Effects of Mechanical and Chemical Pretreatments of Zirconia or Fiber Posts on Resin Cement Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Zhou, Hui; Wei, Wei; Wang, Chen; Sun, Ying Chun; Gao, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The bonding strength between resin cement and posts is important for post and core restorations. An important method of improving the bonding strength is the use of various surface pretreatments of the post. In this study, the surfaces of zirconia (fiber) posts were treated by mechanical and/or chemical methods such as sandblasting and silanization. The bonding strength between the zirconia (fiber) post and the resin cement was measured by a push-out method after thermocycling based on the adhesion to Panavia F 2.0 resin cement. The zirconia and fiber posts exhibited different bonding strengths after sandblasting and/or silanization because of the different strengths and chemical structures. The zirconia post showed a high bonding strength of up to 17.1 MPa after a combined treatment of sandblasting and silanization because of the rough surface and covalent bonds at the interface. This effect was also enhanced by using 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane for the formation of a flexible layer at the interface. In contrast, a high bonding strength of 13.9 MPa was obtained for the fiber post treated by silane agents because the sandblasting treatment resulted in damage to the fiber post, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the improvement in the bonding strength between the post and the resin cement could be controlled by different chemical and/or mechanical treatments. Enhanced bonding strength depended on covalent bonding and the surface roughness. A zirconia post with high bonding strength could potentially be used for the restoration of teeth in the future. PMID:26066349

  15. DESENSITIZING BIOACTIVE AGENTS IMPROVES BOND STRENGTH OF INDIRECT RESIN-CEMENTED RESTORATIONS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    Pires-De-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri; de Marco, Fabíola Fiorezi; Casemiro, Luciana Assirati; Panzeri, Heitor

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the bond strength of indirect composite restorations cemented with a resin-based cement associated with etch-and-rinse and self-etching primer adhesive systems to dentin treated or not with a bioactive material. Materials and Method: Twenty bovine incisor crowns had the buccal enamel removed and the dentin ground flat. The teeth were assigned to 4 groups (n=5): Group I: acid etching + Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply); Group II: application of a bioactive glass (Biosilicato®)+ acid etching + Prime & Bond NT; Group III: One-up Bond F (J Morita); Group IV: Biosilicato® + One-up Bond F. Indirect composite resin (Artglass, Kulzer) cylinders (6x10mm) were fabricated and cemented to the teeth with a dualcure resin-based cement (Enforce, Dentsply). After cementation, the specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37oC for 30 days and thereafter tested in tensile strength in a universal testing machine (EMIC) with 50 kgf load cell at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Failure modes were assessed under scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (95% level of confidence). Results: Groups I, II and III had statistically similar results (p>0.05). Group IV had statistically significant higher bond strength means (p<0.05) than the other groups. The analysis of the debonded surfaces showed a predominance of adhesive failure mode for Group III and mixed failure mode for the other groups. Conclusion: The use of desensitizing agent did not affect negatively the bonding of the indirect composite restorations to dentin, independently of the tested adhesive systems. PMID:19089114

  16. Microtensile bond strength of a newly developed resin cement to dentin.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Shimpei; Fu, Jiale; Saikaew, Pipop; Chowdhury, Afm Almas; Fukuzawa, Naoyuki; Kadowaki, Yoshitaka; Kakuda, Shinichi; Hoshika, Shuhei; Nakaoki, Yasuko; Ikeda, Takatsumi; Tanaka, Toru; Sano, Hidehiko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of a newly developed resin cement, ECD-89 (ECD, Tokuyama Dental, Tokyo, Japan) to dentin and to observe the interfacial micromorphology by comparing with two commercial resin cements, Multilink Automix (MA, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and Panavia F2.0 (PF, Kuraray Noritake Dental, Tokyo, Japan). Flat dentin surfaces of human third molars were exposed using #600 SiC. After application of primer and cement to the dentin surface, each cement was applied and cured with light (light condition) or without light (dark condition). The teeth were sectioned to obtain beams (1 mm×1 mm) after 24 h of water storage. The mean bond strengths and SDs (MPa) were: ECD: 68.6±14.9, MA: 39.2±18.9, PF: 39.4±18.5 and ECD: 54.5±22.4, MA: 36.7±15.6, PF: 13.4±4.46 when cured in light and dark condition, respectively. In both conditions, ECD-89 showed statistically higher µTBS than the others. PMID:25748460

  17. In-vitro study of resin-modified glass ionomer cements for cementation of orthodontic bands. Isolation, surplus removal and humidity as factors influencing the bond strength between enamel, cement and metal.

    PubMed

    Liebmann, S M; Jost-Brinkmann, P G

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate different light-cured and chemically cured resin-modified glass ionomer cements used for the cementation of orthodontic bands and to analyze various factors influencing the adhesive strength between enamel, cement and stainless steel. Four resin-modified glass ionomers (Fuji Ortho LC/GC, Fuji Duet/GC, Unitek Multi-Cure Glass Ionomer Orthodontic Band Cement/3M Unitek, Vitremer/3M) and 1 compomer (Band-Lok/Reliance) were examined. Flattened and polished bovine teeth embedded in polyurethane resin were used as enamel specimens. Before cementation, 50% of the specimens were moistened with the aerosol of an inhalation device, while the rest were dried with compressed air. Stainless steel cylinders (CrNi 18 10) were perpendicularly bonded onto the polished enamel using a custom-made cementation device and immediately topped with a pressure of 0.25 MPa. The cement was isolated with either Ketac Glaze/ESPE, Fuji Coat/GC, Cacao Butter/GC, Dryfoil/Jalenko or Final Varnish/VOCO, or was left uncoated. Eight minutes after the beginning of mixing, either the surplus cement was removed with a scalpel or surplus removal was simulated with ultrasound. After 24 hours storage in a water bath at 37 degrees C and 1,000 thermocycles the shear bond strength was determined. Significant differences with respect to the shear bond strength were found among the following cements, ranking from highest to lowest: Fuji Duet, Unitek cement > Fuji Ortho LC > Vitremer > Band-Lok. The application of a barrier coating significantly increased the shear bond strength of all cements except Fuji Ortho LC. The light-cured resin Ketac Glaze proved to be the most effective barrier coating. A dry enamel surface increased the bond strength of all investigated cements except Unitek cement. The use of ultrasound led to no significant reduction in shear bond strength in comparison with surplus removal with a scalpel. PMID:10546417

  18. Shear bond strength of resin cement to an acid etched and a laser irradiated ceramic surface

    PubMed Central

    Motro, Pelin Fatma Karagoz; Yurdaguven, Haktan

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of hydrofluoric acid etching and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the shear bond strength of resin cement to lithium disilicate ceramic. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty-five ceramic blocks (5 mm × 5 mm × 2 mm) were fabricated and embedded in acrylic resin. Their surfaces were finished with 1000-grit silicon carbide paper. The blocks were assigned to five groups: 1) 9.5% hydrofluoric-acid etching for 60 s; 2-4), 1.5-, 2.5-, and 6-W Er,Cr:YSGG laser applications for 60 seconds, respectively; and 5) no treatment (control). One specimen from each group was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Ceramic primer (Rely X ceramic primer) and adhesive (Adper Single Bond) were applied to the ceramic surfaces, followed by resin cement to bond the composite cylinders, and light curing. Bonded specimens were stored in distilled water at 37? for 24 hours. Shear bond strengths were determined by a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests (?=0.05). RESULTS Adhesion was significantly stronger in Group 2 (3.88 ± 1.94 MPa) and Group 3 (3.65 ± 1.87 MPa) than in Control group (1.95 ± 1.06 MPa), in which bonding values were lowest (P<.01). No significant difference was observed between Group 4 (3.59 ± 1.19 MPa) and Control group. Shear bond strength was highest in Group 1 (8.42 ± 1.86 MPa; P<.01). CONCLUSION Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation at 1.5 and 2.5 W increased shear bond strengths between ceramic and resin cement compared with untreated ceramic surfaces. Irradiation at 6 W may not be an efficient ceramic surface treatment technique. PMID:23755333

  19. Fracture frequency and longevity of fractured resin composite, polyacid-modified resin composite, and resin-modified glass ionomer cement class IV restorations: an up to 14 years of follow-up

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan W. V. van Dijken; Ulla Pallesen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture frequency and longevity of fractured class IV resin composite (RC), polyacid-modified\\u000a resin composite (compomer; PMRC), and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) restorations in a longitudinal long-term\\u000a follow-up. Eighty-five class IV RC (43: Pekafil), PMRC (24: Dyract (D), Hytac (H)), and RMGIC (18: Fuji II LC (F), Photac\\u000a Fil (P)) restorations

  20. Influence of inorganic filler content on the radiopacity of dental resin cements.

    PubMed

    Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Laura; Moldovan, Marioara; Prejmerean, Cristina; Nica, Luminita

    2012-01-01

    Digital radiography was used to measure the radiopacity of 18 resin cements to determine the influence of inorganic filler content on radiopacity. Four disk specimens (n=4) of each light-curing cement were digitally radiographed alongside an aluminum step wedge using an intraoral sensor (XIOS Plus, Sirona, Germany), and their mean gray value measured. Percentage of filler by weight was determined using an analytical combustion furnace. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). All materials were more radiopaque than dentin and 12 materials were more radiopaque than enamel. Filler percentage ranged between 17.36 to 53.56 vol% and radiopacity between 1.02 to 3.40 mm Al. There were no statistically significant differences in inorganic filler percentage and radiopacity among the different shades of the same material (p>0.05), but the highest radiopacity was measured for the material which contained a higher percentage of filler. PMID:22447061

  1. Bond strength of resin cement to CO2 and Er:YAG laser-treated zirconia ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Kasraei, Shahin; Heidari, Bijan; Vafaee, Fariborz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives It is difficult to achieve adhesion between resin cement and zirconia ceramics using routine surface preparation methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CO2 and Er:YAG laser treatment on the bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramics. Materials and Methods In this in-vitro study 45 zirconia disks (6 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) were assigned to 3 groups (n = 15). In control group (CNT) no laser treatment was used. In groups COL and EYL, CO2 and Er:YAG lasers were used for pretreatment of zirconia surface, respectively. Composite resin disks were cemented on zirconia disk using dual-curing resin cement. Shear bond strength tests were performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min after 24 hr distilled water storage. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's HSD tests. Results The means and standard deviations of shear bond strength values in the EYL, COL and CNT groups were 8.65 ± 1.75, 12.12 ± 3.02, and 5.97 ± 1.14 MPa, respectively. Data showed that application of CO2 and Er:YAG lasers resulted in a significant higher shear bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramics (p < 0.0001). The highest bond strength was recorded in the COL group (p < 0.0001). In the CNT group all the failures were adhesive. However, in the laser groups, 80% of the failures were of the adhesive type. Conclusions Pretreatment of zirconia ceramic via CO2 and Er:YAG laser improves the bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramic, with higher bond strength values in the CO2 laser treated samples. PMID:25383349

  2. Evaluation of the shear bond strength of resin cement to Y-TZP ceramic after different surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yoo-Jin; Shin, Yooseok; Yi, Young-Ah; Kim, Jaehoon; Lee, In-Bog; Cho, Byeong-Hoon; Son, Ho-Hyun; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various surface treatments on the shear bond strength of Y-TZP (Yttria-Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystal) ceramics with zirconia primer and two different resin cements both containing 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP). Zirconia blocks (LAVA, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN) were polished and assigned to five groups according to the surface treatment: (1) no further treatment (control); (2) airborne abrasion with Al2 O3 particles; (3) Z-PRIME Plus (Bisco, Schaumburg, IL) applied on polished zirconia; (4) Z-PRIME Plus applied on zirconia after airborne abrasion; and (5) tribochemical silica-coating performed with the CoJet system (3M ESPE) followed by application of ESPE®-Sil (3M ESPE). Each group was further divided into one of two resin cements: Panavia F2.0 (Kuraray, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan) and Clearfil SA Luting (Kuraray). Resin cement placed inside a gel-cap was polymerized on the zirconia surface. Shear bond strength was tested with a universal testing machine at 0.5?mm/min. One-way analysis of variance and paired t-test were done. (p?resin cements. Control groups for both cements showed the weakest value for shear bond strength. No significant differences were found between the shear bond strengths of the individual resin cements applied to zirconia surfaces treated the same way. In conclusion, the combined surface treatment of airborne abrasion followed by a zirconia primer is recommended for zirconia bonding with Panavia F2.0 and Clearfil SA Luting cements. PMID:24676632

  3. Push-out bond strength of a self-adhesive resin cement used as endodontic sealer

    PubMed Central

    Gurgel-Filho, Eduardo Diogo; Lima, Felipe Coelho; Saboia, Vicente de Paula Aragão; Coutinho-Filho, Tauby de Souza; Neves, Aline de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the bond strength of RelyX Unicem (3M) to root canal dentin when used as an endodontic sealer. Materials and Methods Samples of 24 single-rooted teeth were prepared with Gates Glidden drills and K3 files. After that, the roots were randomly assigned to three experimental groups (n = 8) according to the filling material, (1) AH Plus (Dentsply De Trey GmbH)/Gutta-Percha cone; (2) Epiphany SE (Pentron)/Resilon cone; (3) RelyX Unicem/Gutta-Percha cone. All roots were filled using a single cone technique associated to vertical condensation. After the filling procedures, each tooth was prepared for a push-out bond strenght test by cutting 1 mm-thick root slices. Loading was performed on a universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey test for multiple comparisons were used to compare the results among the experimental groups. Results Epiphany SE/Resilon showed significantly lower push-out bond strength than both AH Plus/Gutta-Percha and RelyX Unicem/Gutta-Percha (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in bond strength between AH Plus/Gutta-Percha and RelyX Unicem/Gutta-Percha (p > 0.05). Conclusions Under the present in vitro conditions, bond strength to root dentin promoted by RelyX Unicem was similar to AH Plus. Epiphany SE/Resilon resulted in lower bond strength values when compared to both materials. PMID:25383347

  4. Influence of the interposition of ceramic spacers on the degree of conversion and the hardness of resin cements.

    PubMed

    Calgaro, Patricia Angélica Milani; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Correr, Gisele Maria; Ornaghi, Bárbara Pick; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated: I) the effect of photo-activation through ceramics on the degree of conversion (DC) and on the Knoop hardness (KHN) of light- and dual-cured resin cements; and II) two different protocols for obtaining the spectra of uncured materials, to determine the DC of a dual-cured resin cement. Thin films of cements were photo-activated through ceramics [feldspathic porcelain (FP); lithium disilicate glass-ceramics of low translucency (e.max-LT), medium opacity (e.max-MO) and high translucency (e.max-HT); glass-infiltrated alumina composite (IC) and polycrystalline zirconia (ZR)] with thicknesses of 1.5 and 2.0 mm. DC was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Two protocols were used to obtain the spectra of the uncured materials: I) base and catalyst pastes were mixed, and II) thin films of base and catalyst pastes were obtained separately, and an average was obtained. KHN assessment was performed with cylindrical specimens. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (?= 0.05). The light-cured cement showed higher DC (61.9%) than the dual-cured cement (55.7%). The DC varied as follows: FP (65.4%), e.max-HT (65.1%), e.max-LT (61.8%), e.max-MO (60.9%), ZR (54.8%), and IC (44.9%). The light-cured cement showed lower KHN (22.0) than the dual-cured (25.6) cement. The cements cured under 1.5 mm spacers showed higher KHN (26.2) than when polymerized under 2.0 mm ceramics (21.3). Regarding the two protocols, there were significant differences only in three groups. Thus, both methods can be considered appropriate. The physical and mechanical properties of resin cements may be affected by the thickness and microstructure of the ceramic material interposed during photo-activation. PMID:24036978

  5. Comparison of Microleakage and Thickness of Resin Cement in Ceramic Inlays with Various Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Alaghemand, Homayoun; Abolghasemzadeh, Faezeh; Pakdel, Farzaneh; Judi Chelan, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Microleakage is still one of the major problems of composite-based restorations.This study compared the microleakage and thickness of resin cement in ceramic inlays with various temperatures. Materials and methods. Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual aspects of thirty human molars with occlusal margins in enamel and gingival margins in dentin (3 mm wide, 5 mm long and 2 mm deep). Laboratory-made inlays (LMI) were used for buccal cavities, and CAD/CAM inlays (CMI) were used for lingual cavities. All the cavities were divided into six groups (n=10): 1) LMI at -5°C; 2) LMI at 50°C; 3) LMI at room temperature (25°C); 4) CMI at -5°C; 5) CMI at 50°C; 6) CMI at room temperature (25°C). Inlays were bonded to cavities in a pulp pressure- and temperature-simulating device. After thermocycling and dye penetration, the teeth were divided into two mesiodistal halves. Amount of dye penetration and film thickness were measured under a stereomicroscope and analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon and Spearman's correlation tests ( = 0.05). Results. There were no statistically significant differences in leakage between different inlay temperatures (P > 0.05). The mean cement thickness in laboratory-made inlays (gingival margin, 83.7 ± 11 and occlusal margin, 84.7 ± 19) was greater than that in CAD/CAM inlays (gingival margin, 69 ± 16 and occlusal margin, 84.7 ± 16). No correlation was found be-tween cement thickness and microleakage either in enamel or dentin for any of the ceramic systems. Conclusion. Differences in inlay temperature had no effect on microleakage. CAD/CAM inlays had lower cement thickness than laboratory-made inlays, but this was not related to their microleakage. PMID:25024839

  6. Si-based thin film coating on Y-TZP: Influence of deposition parameters on adhesion of resin cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiroz, José Renato Cavalcanti; Nogueira Junior, Lafayette; Massi, Marcos; Silva, Alecssandro de Moura; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Sobrinho, Argemiro Soares da Silva; Özcan, Mutlu

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of deposition parameters for Si-based thin films using magnetron sputtering for coating zirconia and subsequent adhesion of resin cement. Zirconia ceramic blocks were randomly divided into 8 groups and specimens were either ground finished and polished or conditioned using air-abrasion with alumina particles coated with silica. In the remaining groups, the polished specimens were coated with Si-based film coating with argon/oxygen magnetron discharge at 8:1 or 20:1 flux. In one group, Si-based film coating was performed on air-abraded surfaces. After application of bonding agent, resin cement was bonded. Profilometry, goniometry, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy analysis were performed on the conditioned zirconia surfaces. Adhesion of resin cement to zirconia was tested using shear bond test and debonded surfaces were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Si-based film coating applied on air-abraded rough zirconia surfaces increased the adhesion of the resin cement (22.78 ± 5.2 MPa) compared to those of other methods (0-14.62 MPa) (p = 0.05). Mixed type of failures were more frequent in Si film coated groups on either polished or air-abraded groups. Si-based thin films increased wettability compared to the control group but did not change the roughness, considering the parameters evaluated. Deposition parameters of Si-based thin film and after application of air-abrasion influenced the initial adhesion of resin cement to zirconia.

  7. Influence of simplified silica coating method on the bonding strength of resin cement to dental alloy.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tomonaga; Ino, Satoshi; Okada, Shusaku; Katsumata, Yuki; Hamano, Naho; Hojo, Satoru; Teranaka, Toshio; Toyodo, Minoru

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a simplified silica coating method (CoJet System) on the bonding strength of resin cements to dental alloy. Bonding strength of the specimens treated with metal primer after alumina sandblasting was compared with those treated with silica coating and silane coupling agent after alumina sandblasting. Furthermore, the influence of silane coupling agent on bonding strength was compared between one-liquid and two-liquid silane coupling agents. Measurement of shear bond strength before and after thermal cycling revealed that the group treated with silica coating in one step without alumina sandblasting yielded high bonding strength. As for the influence of silane coupling agent, treatment with two-liquid silane coupling agent achieved higher mean shear bond strength than with one-liquid silane coupling agent. Findings in this study indicated that silicatization by means of this simplified silica coating method was effective in improving the bonding strength to dental alloy. PMID:18309607

  8. Analysis of the interface and bond strength of resin-based endodontic cements to root dentin.

    PubMed

    Haragushiku, Gisele Aihara; Teixeira, Cleonice Silveira; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Sousa, Yara Terezinha Silva; De Sousa Neto, Manoel Damião; Silva, Ricardo Gariba

    2012-05-01

    This study evaluated by scanning electron microscopy the interface between root dentin and resin cements, with or without additional application of a dual-cured one-step self-etching dentin adhesive. In addition, the push-out bond strength of these materials to dentin was evaluated. Root canals of 50 maxillary human canines were subjected to biomechanical preparation and randomly assigned into five groups (n = 10) according to the obturation employed: I. AH Plus/gutta-percha; II. Endo-REZ/gutta-percha; III. Epiphany SE/Resilon; IV. Endo-REZ/gutta-percha + adhesive; and V. Epiphany SE/Resilon + adhesive. After obturation, two cross sections of 1.0 mm of each third of the root were obtained and analyzed by SEM and push-out. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests (? = 5%). Significant differences occurred between scores for gap parameters and tags; greater tag formation resulted for Epiphany SE (P < 0.05). There were also significant differences between groups for the bond strength. AH Plus (1.24 ± 0.70) showed higher values (P < 0.05) compared to groups II (0,17 ± 0.19), III (0.10 ± 0.06), IV (0.09 ± 0.08), and V (0.06 ± 0.03), which were statistically similar (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference between the root thirds (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the use of a self-etching adhesive system did not improve the adhesion of resin-based sealers to dentin and that AH Plus showed better bond strength when compared to other cements. PMID:22505186

  9. Lack of correlation between tubular dentine cement penetration, adhesiveness and leakage in roots filled with gutta percha and an endodontic cement based on epoxy amine resin

    PubMed Central

    MACHADO, Ricardo; da SILVA NETO, Ulisses Xavier; CARNEIRO, Everdan; FARINIUK, Luiz Fernando; WESTPHALEN, Vânia Portela Ditzel; CUNHA, Rodrigo Sanches

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze possible correlations among tubular dentine cement penetration, adhesiveness and apical leakage in fillings performed with gutta percha and an endodontic cement based on epoxy amine resin. Material and Methods Sixty similar, extracted human mandibular central incisors were irrigated, instrumented and filled following the same protocol. First, apical leakage was quantified by fluid filtration tests. Then, these same specimens were sectioned for analysis of tubular dentine cement penetration and the middle thirds were submitted to push-out tests to analyze the adhesiveness of the fillings. Results In brief, the means and standard deviations with a confidence interval of 95% were as follows: tubular dentine cement penetration (8.875±4.540), adhesiveness (4.441±2.683) and apical leakage (0.318±0.215). The data were confronted using the Pearson's test (P>0.05), and it was possible to prove that there was no correlation between (1) tubular dentine cement penetration and apical leakage (r2: 0.08276), (2) tubular dentine cement penetration and adhesiveness (r2: -0.2412) and (3) adhesiveness and apical leakage (r2: 0.1340). Conclusion After analysis of these data, it could be observed that there exists no correlation among the variables analyzed in this study. PMID:24626245

  10. An Investigation on Load Bearing Capacities of Cement and Resin Grouted Rock Bolts Installed in Weak Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyoncu Erguler, Guzide; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal

    2015-04-01

    Rock bolts have been considered one of indispensable support method to improve load bearing capacity of many underground engineering projects, and thus, various types of them have been developed until now for different purposes. Although mechanically anchored rock bolts can be successfully installed to prevent structurally controlled instabilities in hard rocks, in comparison with cement and resin grouted rock bolts, these types of anchors are not so effective in weak rocks characterized by relatively low mechanical properties. In order to investigate the applicability and to measure relative performance of cement and resin grouted rock bolts into weak and heavily jointed rock mass, a research program mainly consisting of pull-out tests was performed in a metal mine in Turkey. The rock materials excavated in this underground mining were described as basalt, tuff, ore dominated volcanic rocks and dacite. To achieve more representative results for rock materials found in this mining and openings excavated in varied dimensions, the pull-out tests were conducted on rock bolts used in many different locations where more convergences were measured and deformation dependent instability was expected to cause greater engineering problems. It is well known that the capacity of rock bolts depends on the length, diameter and density of the bolt pattern, and so considering the thickness of plastic zone in the studied openings, the length and diameter of rock bolts were taken as 2.4 m. and 25 mm., respectively. The spacing between rows changed between 70 and 180 cm. In this study, totally twenty five pull-out tests were performed to have a general understanding about axial load bearing capacity and support reaction curves of cement and resin grouted rock bolts. When pull load-displacement curves belongs to cement and resin grouted rock bolts were compared with each other, it was determined that cement grouted rock bolts carry more load ranging between 115.6 kN and 127.5 kN with a mean value of 119.4 kN. However, the axial pull-load obtained from resin grouted rock bolts ranged from 2.9 to 110.9 kN with a mean value of 45.7 kN. Achieving relatively lower axial pull loads for resin grouted rock bolts were attributed to the tendency of resin to flow easily throughout surfaces of discontinuities. During site investigation, it was concluded that 27 of 72 resin grouted rock bolts and 8 of 56 cement grouted rock bolts were determined to lose their support capacities. According to these observations, it was found that while support recovery of cement grouted increase to 85.7%, this ratio decreased to about 62.5% for resin grouted rock bolts. When these observations and pull-out test results are considered, it can be concluded that installing cement grouted rock bolts can be more effective than resin grouted rock bolts to support mining operated in weak and heavily jointed rock masses.

  11. Histological assessment of pulpal responses to resin modified glass ionomer cements in human teeth

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarizadeh, Ali; Parizi, Molook Torabi; Goroohi, Hossein; Badrian, Hamid; Asadi, Abbas; Khalighinejad, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The biocompatibility of resin-modified glass ionomers (RMGIs) as a lining material is still under question. The present study evaluated the response of the pulp-dentin complex following application of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement, calcium hydroxide and conventional glass-ionomer in deep cavities prepared in human teeth. Materials and Methods: In this controlled clinical trial, 30 deep class V buccal cavities (3 mm × 2 mm × 2 mm) were prepared in human premolars treatment planned to be extracted for orthodontic reasons and divided into 3 groups. Groups were lined by a RMGI (Vivaglass), conventional glass Ionomer (Ionocid) and calcium hydroxide respectively. The cavities were subsequently filled with amalgam. Each group was then divided into two sub-groups according to time intervals 5 and 30 days. The patients were referred to Kerman Dental School and in accordance with orthodontic treatment plan; premolars were extracted and then prepared for histological assessment. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid Schiff techniques. All of the samples were examined using a number of criteria including odontoblastic changes, inflammatory cells response, reactionary dentin formation and presence of microorganisms. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: There was no significant difference among odontoblastic changes, reactionary dentin, presence of bacteria and inflammatory cells response of the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Ionocid and Vivaglass resin-modified glass ionomers can be used as lining materials in human teeth. PMID:25878679

  12. Ceramic primer heat-treatment effect on resin cement/Y-TZP bond strength.

    PubMed

    Silva, L H; Costa, A K F; Queiroz, J R C; Bottino, M A; Valandro, L F

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different heat-treatment strategies for a ceramic primer on the shear bond strength of a 10-methacryloyloxydecyl-dihydrogen-phosphate (MDP)-based resin cement to a yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) ceramic. Specimens measuring 4.5 × 3.5 × 4.5 mm(3) were produced from Y-TZP presintered cubes and embedded in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Following finishing, the specimens were cleaned using an ultrasound device and distilled water and randomly divided into 10 experimental groups (n=14) according to the heat treatment of the ceramic primer and aging condition. The strategies used for the experimental groups were: GC (control), without primer; G20, primer application at ambient temperature (20°C); G45, primer application + heat treatment at 45°C; G79, primer application + heat treatment at 79°C; and G100, primer application + heat treatment at 100°C. The specimens from the aging groups were submitted to thermal cycling (6000 cycles, 5°C/55°C, 30 seconds per bath) after 24 hours. A cylinder of MDP-based resin cement (2.4 mm in diameter) was constructed on the ceramic surface of the specimens of each experimental group and stored for 24 hours at 37°C. The specimens were submitted to a shear bond strength test (n=14). Thermal gravimetric analysis was performed on the ceramic primer. The data obtained were statistically analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test (?=0.05). The experimental group G79 without aging (7.23 ± 2.87 MPa) presented a significantly higher mean than the other experimental groups without aging (GC: 2.81 ± 1.5 MPa; G20: 3.38 ± 2.21 MPa; G100: 3.96 ± 1.57 MPa), showing no difference from G45 only (G45: 6 ± 3.63 MPa). All specimens of the aging groups debonded during thermocycling and were considered to present zero bond strength for the statistical analyses. In conclusion, heat treatment of the metal/zirconia primer improved bond strength under the initial condition but did not promote stable bonding under the aging condition. PMID:22621166

  13. Modelling of the interaction between chemical and mechanical behaviour of ion exchange resins incorporated into a cement-based matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neji, M.; Bary, B.; Burlion, N.; Le Bescop, P.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present a predictive model, based on experimental data, to determine the macroscopic mechanical behavior of a material made up of ion exchange resins solidified into a CEM III cement paste. Some observations have shown that in some cases, a significant macroscopic expansion of this composite material may be expected, due to internal pressures generated in the resin. To build the model, we made the choice to break down the problem in two scale's studies. The first deals with the mechanical behavior of the different heterogeneities of the composite, i.e. the resin and the cement paste. The second upscales the information from the heterogeneities to the Representative Elementary Volume (REV) of the composite. The heterogeneities effects are taken into account in the REV by applying a homogenization method derived from the Eshelby theory combined with an interaction coefficient drawn from the poroelasticity theory. At the first scale, from the second thermodynamic law, a formulation is developed to estimate the resin microscopic swelling. The model response is illustrated on a simple example showing the impact of the calculated internal pressure, on the macroscopic strain.

  14. Influence of alloy microstructure on the microshear bond strength of basic alloys to a resin luting cement.

    PubMed

    Bauer, José; Costa, José Ferreira; Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Souza, Douglas Nesadal de; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of microstructure and composition of basic alloys on their microshear bond strength (µSBS) to resin luting cement. The alloys used were: Supreme Cast-V (SC), Tilite Star (TS), Wiron 99 (W9), VeraBond II (VBII), VeraBond (VB), Remanium (RM) and IPS d.SIGN 30 (IPS). Five wax patterns (13 mm in diameter and 4mm height) were invested, and cast in a centrifugal casting machine for each basic alloy. The specimens were embedded in resin, polished with a SiC paper and sandblasted. After cleaning the metal surfaces, six tygon tubes (0.5 mm height and 0.75 mm in diameter) were placed on each alloy surface, the resin cement (Panavia F) was inserted, and the excess was removed before light-curing. After storage (24 h/37°C), the specimens were subjected to µSBS testing (0.5 mm/min). The data were subjected to a one-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Turkey's test (?=0.05). After polishing, their microstructures were revealed with specific conditioners. The highest µSBS (mean/standard deviation in MPa) were observed in the alloys with dendritic structure, eutectic formation or precipitation: VB (30.6/1.7), TS (29.8/0.9), SC (30.6/1.7), with the exception of IPS (31.1/0.9) which showed high µSBS but no eutectic formation. The W9 (28.1/1.5), VBII (25.9/2.0) and RM (25.9/0.9) showed the lowest µSBS and no eutectic formation. It seems that alloys with eutectic formation provide the highest µSBS values when bonded to a light-cured resin luting cement. PMID:23306223

  15. Do blood contamination and haemostatic agents affect microtensile bond strength of dual cured resin cement to dentin?

    PubMed Central

    K?L?C, Kerem; ARSLAN, Soley; DEMETOGLU, Goknil Alkan; ZARARSIZ, Gokmen; KES?M, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of blood contamination and haemostatic agents such as Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the microtensile bond strength between dual cured resin cement-dentin interface. Material and Methods: Twelve pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramics were luted to flat occlusal dentin surfaces with Panavia F under the following conditions: Control Group: no contamination, Group Blood: blood contamination, Group ABS: ABS contamination Group H2O2: H2O2 contamination. The specimens were sectioned to the beams and microtensile testing was carried out. Failure modes were classified under stereomicroscope. Two specimens were randomly selected from each group, and SEM analyses were performed. Results: There were significant differences in microtensile bond strengths (µTBS) between the control and blood-contaminated groups (p<0.05), whereas there were no significant differences found between the control and the other groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Contamination by blood of dentin surface prior to bonding reduced the bond strength between resin cement and the dentin. Ankaferd Blood Stoper and H2O2 could be used safely as blood stopping agents during cementation of all-ceramics to dentin to prevent bond failure due to blood contamination. PMID:23559118

  16. Influence of glass particle size of resin cements on bonding to glass ceramic: SEM and bond strength evaluation.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Fernanda; Moraes, Rafael R; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Boscato, Noéli

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of the filler particle size (micron or submicron) of experimental resin cements on the microtensile bond strength to a glass-ceramic pretreated with hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching or alumina airborne-particle abrasion (AA). Cements were obtained from a Bis-GMA/TEGDMA mixture filled with 60 mass% micron-sized (1?±?0.2 µm) or submicron-sized (180?±?30 µm) Ba-Si-Al glass particles. Ceramic blocks (PM9; VITA) were treated with 10% HFA for 60 s or AA for 15 s. Silane and adhesive were applied. Ceramic blocks were bonded to resin composite blocks (Z250; 3M ESPE) using one of the cements. Bonded specimens were sectioned into beams (n?=?20/group) and subjected to microtensile bond strength tests. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls' tests (5%). Failure modes were classified under magnification. Morphologies of the treated ceramic surfaces and bonded interfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The HFA-submicron group had lower bond strengths than the other groups. All AA-submicron specimens debonded prematurely. Mixed failures were predominant for HFA groups, whereas interfacial failures predominated for AA groups. SEM revealed a honeycomb-like aspect in the HFA-treated ceramic, whereas the AA-treated groups showed an irregular retentive pattern. Continuity of cement infiltration along the bonded interface was more uniform for HFA-treated compared to AA-treated specimens. Cracks toward the bulk of the ceramic were observed in AA-treated specimens. Particle size significantly influenced the ceramic bond strength, whereas surface treatment had a minor effect. PMID:24610793

  17. An effect of immediate dentin sealing on the shear bond strength of resin cement to porcelain restoration

    PubMed Central

    Cho, In-Ho

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine differences in shear bond strength to human dentin using immediate dentin sealing (IDS) technique compared to delayed dentin sealing (DDS). MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty extracted human molars were divided into 4 groups with 10 teeth each. The control group was light-cured after application of dentin bonding agent (Excite® DSC) and cemented with Variolink® II resin cement. IDS/SE (immediate dentin sealing, Clearfil™ SE Bond) and IDS/SB (immediate dentin sealing, AdapterTM Single Bond 2) were light-cured after application of dentin bonding agent (Clearfil™ SE Bond and Adapter™ Sing Bond 2, respectively), whereas DDS specimens were not treated with any dentin bonding agent. Specimens were cemented with Variolink® II resin cement. Dentin bonding agent (Excite® DSC) was left unpolymerized until the application of porcelain restoration. Shear strength was measured using a universal testing machine at a speed of 5 mm/min and evaluated of fracture using an optical microscope. RESULTS The mean shear bond strengths of control group and IDS/SE group were not statistically different from another at 14.86 and 11.18 MPa. Bond strength of IDS/SE group had a significantly higher mean than DDS group (3.14 MPa) (P < .05). There were no significance in the mean shear bond strength between IDS/SB (4.11 MPa) and DDS group. Evaluation of failure patterns indicates that most failures in the control group and IDS/SE groups were mixed, whereas failures in the DDS were interfacial. CONCLUSION When preparing teeth for indirect ceramic restoration, IDS with Clearfil™ SE Bond results in improved shear bond strength compared with DDS. PMID:21165186

  18. The effect of resin cements and primer on retentive force of zirconia copings bonded to zirconia abutments with insufficient retention

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Mi; Yoon, Ji-Young; Lee, Myung-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resin cements and primer on the retentive force of zirconia copings bonded to zirconia abutments with insufficient retention. MATERIALS AND METHODS Zirconia blocks (Lava, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) were obtained and forty sets of zirconia abutments and copings were fabricated using CAD/CAM technology. They were grouped into 4 categories as follows, depending on the types of resin cements used, and whether the primer is applied or not:Panavia F2.0 (P), Panavia F2.0 using Primer (PRIME Plus, Bisco Inc, Schaumburg, IL, USA) (PZ), Superbond C&B (S), and Superbond C&B using Primer (SZ). For each of the groups, the cementation was conducted. The specimens were kept in sterilized water (37?) for 24 hours. Retentive forces were tested and measured, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The nature of failure was recorded. RESULTS The means and standard deviations of retentive force in Newton for each group were 265.15 ± 35.04 N (P), 318.21 ± 22.24 N (PZ), 445.13 ± 78.54 N (S) and 508.21 ± 79.48 N (SZ). Superbond C&B groups (S & SZ) showed significantly higher retentive force than Panavia F2.0 groups (P & PZ). In Panavia F2.0 groups, the use of primer was found to contribute to the increase of retentive force. On the other hand, in Superbond C&B groups, the use of primer did not influence the retention forces. Adhesive failure was observed in all groups. CONCLUSION This study suggests that cementation of the zirconia abutments and zirconia copings with Superbond C&B have a higher retentive force than Panavia F2.0. When using Panavia F2.0, the use of primer increases the retentive force. PMID:23755347

  19. Evaluation of the Bond Strength of Resin Cements Used to Lute Ceramics on Laser-Etched Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Duzdar, Lale; Oksuz, Mustafa; Tanboga, Ilknur

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength (SBS) of two different adhesive resin cements used to lute ceramics on laser-etched dentin. Background data: Erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation has been claimed to improve the adhesive properties of dentin, but results to date have been controversial, and its compatibility with existing adhesive resin cements has not been conclusively determined. Materials and methods: Two adhesive cements, one “etch-and-rinse” [Variolink II (V)] and one “self-etch” [Clearfil Esthetic Cement (C)] luting cement, were used to lute ceramic blocks (Vita Celay Blanks, Vita) onto dentin surfaces. In total, 80 dentin specimens were distributed randomly into eight experimental groups according to the dentin surface-etching technique used Er,Cr:YSGG laser and Er:YAG laser: (1) 37% orthophosphoric acid+V (control group), (2) Er,Cr:YSGG laser+V, (3) Er,Cr:YSGG laser+acid+V, (4) Er:YAG laser+V, (5) Er:YAG laser+acid+V, (6) C, (7) Er,Cr:YSGG laser+C, and (8) Er:YAG laser+C. Following these applications, the ceramic discs were bonded to prepared surfaces and were shear loaded in a universal testing machine until fracture. SBS was recorded for each group in MPa. Shear test values were evaluated statistically using the Mann–Whitney U test. Results: No statistically significant differences were evident between the control group and the other groups (p>0.05). The Er,Cr:YSGG laser+A+V group demonstrated significantly higher SBS than did the Er,Cr:YSGG laser+V group (p=0.034). The Er,Cr:YSGG laser+C and Er:YAG laser+C groups demonstrated significantly lower SBS than did the C group (p<0.05). Conclusions: Dentin surfaces prepared with lasers may provide comparable ceramic bond strengths, depending upon the adhesive cement used. PMID:24992276

  20. Effect of loading weight on bond durability of composite-type resin cement under cyclic impact test (part 2). Loading with light weight of 100-120g

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro OHSAWA; Mamoru FUJIWARA; Yoshihiko HAYASHI

    2009-01-01

    The bond durability of composite-type resin cement was evaluated by means of cyclic impact tests using three different loads. In terms of experimental setup, a casting alloy, 12%Au-Pd-Ag, was used as the adherend and bonded to a cast block using a composite-type cement (Bistite II). A shear load ? using plungers of three different weights at 100, 110, and 120

  1. Leach studies on cement-solidified ion exchange resins from decontamination processes at operating nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W.; Morcos, N.

    1992-08-01

    The effects of varying pH and leachant compositions on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents were determined for cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small scale waste-form specimens were collected during waste solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station. The collected specimens were leach tested, and their compressive strength was measured in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form`` (Revision 1), from the Low-Level Waste Management Branch. Leachates from these studies were analyzed for radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to assess the leachability of these waste form constituents. Leachants used for the study were deionized water, simulated seawater, and groundwater compositions similar to those found at Barnwell, South Carolina and Hanford, Washington. Results of this study indicate that initial leachant pH does not affect leachate pH or releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms. However, differences in leachant composition and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. In addition, results from this study indicate that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents observed for forms that disintegrated were similar to those for forms that maintained their general physical integrity.

  2. Leach studies on cement-solidified ion exchange resins from decontamination processes at operating nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W.; Morcos, N.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of varying pH and leachant compositions on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents were determined for cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small scale waste-form specimens were collected during waste solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station. The collected specimens were leach tested, and their compressive strength was measured in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Technical Position on Waste Form'' (Revision 1), from the Low-Level Waste Management Branch. Leachates from these studies were analyzed for radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to assess the leachability of these waste form constituents. Leachants used for the study were deionized water, simulated seawater, and groundwater compositions similar to those found at Barnwell, South Carolina and Hanford, Washington. Results of this study indicate that initial leachant pH does not affect leachate pH or releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms. However, differences in leachant composition and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. In addition, results from this study indicate that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents observed for forms that disintegrated were similar to those for forms that maintained their general physical integrity.

  3. Heat treatment of pre-hydrolyzed silane increases adhesion of phosphate monomer-based resin cement to glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Rodrigo Furtado; Cotes, Caroline; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu; Leite, Fabíola Pessoa Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different forms of heat treatment on a pre-hydrolyzed silane to improve the adhesion of phosphate monomer-based (MDP) resin cement to glass ceramic. Resin and feldspathic ceramic blocks (n=48, n=6 for bond test, n=2 for microscopy) were randomly divided into 6 groups and subject to surface treatments: G1: Hydrofluoric acid (HF) 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + MDP resin cement (Panavia F); G2: HF 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + Heat Treatment (oven) + Panavia F; G3: Silane + Heat Treatment (oven) + Panavia F; G4: HF 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + Heat Treatment (hot air) + Panavia F; G5: Silane + Heat Treatment (hot air) + Panavia F; G6: Silane + Panavia F. Microtensile bond strength (MTBS) test was performed using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). After debonding, the substrate and adherent surfaces were analyzed using stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to categorize the failure types. Data were analyzed statistically using two-way test ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). Heat treatment of the silane containing MDP, with prior etching with HF (G2: 13.15 ± 0.89a; G4: 12.58 ± 1.03a) presented significantly higher bond strength values than the control group (G1: 9.16 ± 0.64b). The groups without prior etching (G3: 10.47 ± 0.70b; G5: 9.47 ± 0.32b) showed statistically similar bond strength values between them and the control group (G1). The silane application without prior etching and heat treatment resulted in the lowest mean bond strength (G6: 8.05 ± 0.37c). SEM analysis showed predominantly adhesive failures and EDS analysis showed common elements of spectra (Si, Na, Al, K, O, C) characterizing the microstructure of the glass-ceramic studied. Heat treatment of the pre-hydrolyzed silane containing MDP in an oven at 100 °C for 2 min or with hot air application at 50 ± 5 ºC for 1 min, was effective in increasing the bond strength values between the ceramic and resin cement containing MDP. PMID:25672383

  4. Effect of saliva contamination on the bond of dentin to resin-modified glass-ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Safar, J A; Davis, R D; Overton, J D

    1999-01-01

    This in vitro study compared the shear bond strength of a resin-modified glass-ionomer restorative material (Fuji II LC) bonded to saliva-contaminated dentin versus non-contaminated dentin. Seventy-five extracted human molar teeth were randomly divided into five groups of 15 samples each. The dentin was treated with 10% polyacrylic acid for 20 seconds, rinsed, and dried. The acid-treated dentin surfaces in Groups 1-4 were contaminated with saliva. In Group 1, the saliva was air thinned. In Groups 2-4, saliva was dried completely with compressed air. The saliva-contaminated dentin in Group 3 was rinsed and dried. The saliva-contaminated dentin in Group 4 was rinsed, dried, treated with 10% polyacrylic acid, and dried. Specimens in Group 5 received no contamination. The resin-modified glass-ionomer cement restorative material was mixed and applied to the dentin surfaces. Following placement of the restorative material and 7 days of storage, the specimens were thermo-cycled 300 times. Using the Instron Universal Testing Machine, a shear force was applied to the restorative material. Shear bond strength values were compared among the groups using a one-way ANOVA and Student-Neuman-Keuls Multiple Range Test (alpha = 0.05). The non-contaminated specimens (Group 5) were significantly stronger than the contaminated specimens (Groups 1-4). There were no significant differences in bond strength among the groups containing contaminated specimens. Salivary contamination occurring after dentin etching significantly reduced the bond strength of the resin-modified glass-ionomer restorative material to dentin. Neither rinsing nor rinsing and re-etching resulted in bond strengths as great as to non-contaminated dentin. PMID:10823084

  5. Micromechanical properties of veneer luting resins after curing through ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elif Öztürk; Reinhard Hickel; ?ükran Bolay; Nicoleta Ilie

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of light-cured luting resin after curing under the ceramic restoration\\u000a in comparison to dual-cured luting resin, by evaluating the micromechanical properties. Two hundred seventy thin luting composite\\u000a films of ca. 170 ?m in thickness were prepared by using two light-cured luting resins (Variolink Veneer, Ivoclar Vivadent;\\u000a RelyX Veneer, 3M ESPE) and

  6. Crown retention for non-retentive preparations using adhesive resin cements.

    PubMed

    Osman, Saad A; Walls, A W G; McCabe, John F

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the effect of preparing teeth with six varying convergence angles (ranging between 12 and 120 degrees) and height (1 and 2 mm) on the retention of cast gold crowns. Six groups of 4 human premolar teeth were prepared to give a flat occlusal surface in dentine with very short axial wall heights (1 or 2 mm) and variation in axial wall convergence (between 12 and 120 degrees). Impressions were recorded of the prepared teeth and custom castings made using a high copper content precious metal alloy. The castings were luted with an adhesive resin and stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours prior to determining the pull-off force in an Instron Universal testing Machine at a cross head speed of 1mm min(-1). Twenty two of the twenty four tested specimens failed within the dentine of the tooth, irrespective of preparation orientation. Statistical testing using ANOVA demonstrated that there were no differences between the bond strength values for any of the preparation convergence angles or between preparations with 1 and 2 mm axial wall heights. This suggests that attachment strength of adhesively bonded castings with minimal axial wall height preparations is not influenced by the convergence angle of the preparation. The attachment strength exceeded that cohesive strength of the underlying dentine in nearly all of the adhesively luted restorations. PMID:21265433

  7. Effect of pH on the release of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resins collected from operating nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Data are presented on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small-scale waste--form specimens collected during solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station were leach-tested and subjected to compressive strength testing in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Technical Position on Waste Form'' (Revision 1). Samples of untreated resin waste collected from each solidification vessel before the solidification process were analyzed for concentrations of radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to determine the quantities of these chemicals in the waste-form specimens. The chelating agents included oxalic, citric, and picolinic acids. In order to determine the effect of leachant chemical composition and pH on the stability and leachability of the waste forms, waste-form specimens were leached in various leachants. Results of this study indicate that differences in pH do not affect releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms, but that differences in leachant chemistry and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. Also, this study indicates that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents are similar for waste- form specimens that decomposed and those that retained their general physical form. 36 refs., 60 figs., 28 tabs.

  8. BOND STRENGTH OF RESIN MODIFIED GLASS IONOMER CEMENT TO PRIMARY DENTIN AFTER CUTTING WITH DIFFERENT BUR TYPES AND DENTIN CONDITIONING

    PubMed Central

    Nicoló, Rebeca Di; Shintome, Luciana Keiko; Myaki, Silvio Issáo; Nagayassu, Marcos Paulo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different bur types and acid etching protocols on the shear bond strength (SBS) of a resin modified glass ionomer cement (RM-GIC) to primary dentin. Forty-eight clinically sound human primary molars were selected and randomly assigned to four groups (n=12). In G1, the lingual surface of the teeth was cut with a carbide bur until a 2.0-mm-diameter dentin area was exposed, followed by the application of RM-GIC (Vitremer – 3M/ESPE) prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The specimens of G2, received the same treatment of G1, however the dentin was conditioned with phosphoric acid. In groups G3 and G4 the same procedures of G1 and G2 were conducted respectively, nevertheless dentin cutting was made with a diamond bur. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24h, and then tested in a universal testing machine. SBS. data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA (= 5%) and indicated that SBS values of RM-GIC bonded to primary dentin cut with different burs were not statistically different, but the specimens that were conditioned with phosphoric acid presented SBS values significantly higher that those without conditioning. To observe micromorphologic characteristics of the effects of dentin surface cut by diamond or carbide rotary instruments and conditioners treatment, some specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Smear layer was present in all specimens regardless of the type of rotary instrument used for dentin cutting, and specimens etched with phosphoric acid presented more effective removal of smear layer. It was concluded that SBS of a RM-GIC to primary dentin was affected by the acid conditioning but the bur type had no influence. PMID:19089179

  9. Comparison of Apical Microleakage of Dual-Curing Resin Cements with Fluid-Filtration and Dye Extraction Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Sadullah; Özer, Senem Yi?it; Adigüzel, Özkan; Oruço?lu, Hasan; De?er, Yalç?n; Tümen, Emin Caner; Uysal, ?brahim

    2015-01-01

    Background Endodontically treated teeth with excessive loss of tooth structure are frequently restored using fiber posts. In this in vitro study, the apical leakage of self- and dual-activated curing modes for dual-curing resins cementing a translucent fiber post was evaluated using computerized fluid filtration meter and dye extraction method. Material/Methods One hundred and four extracted human maxillary incisors with single root and canal were used. Experimental samples embedded in a closed system were divided into 4 groups (n=20) according to 2 dual-curing luting systems, with 2 different curing modes (either with self- or light-activation): (1) Panavia F 2.0 with self-cure, (2) Panavia F 2.0 with light-activation, (3) Clearfill SA with self-cure, and (4) Clearfill SA with light activation. Twenty-four teeth served as negative and positive controls. Translucent fiber posts were luted in the roots except in the control groups. Results Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference in leakage among groups (p>0.05) with 4.12×10?4 (Panavia self-cure), 4.55×10?4 (Clearfill SA self-cure), 5.17×10?4 (Panavia dual-cure), and 5.59×10?4 (Clearfill SA dual-cure) in fluid-filtration method. Absorbance values for dye-extraction method were 266 nanometer (nm) (Panavia self-cure), 268 nm (Clearfill SA self-cure), 270 nm (Panavia dual-cure), and 271 nm (Clearfill SA dual-cure), in which difference among the groups were not statistically significant (p>0.05). When comparing the leakage, assessment methods results showed no statistically significant difference between the tested evaluation techniques (p>0.05). Conclusions Light- and self-activation curing modes of Panavia F 2.0 and Clearfill SA perform similar to each other in a closed system. PMID:25824712

  10. Effect of atmospheric plasma versus conventional surface treatments on the adhesion capability between self-adhesive resin cement and titanium surface

    PubMed Central

    Kilicarslan, Mehmet Ali; Deniz, Sule Tugba; Mumcu, Emre; Ozkan, Pelin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of atmospheric plasma (APL) versus conventional surface treatments on the adhesion of self-adhesive resin cement to Ti-6Al-4V alloy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty plates of machined titanium (Ti) discs were divided into five groups (n=12): 1) Untreated (CNT); 2) Sandblasted (SAB); 3) Tribochemically treated (ROC); 4) Tungsten CarbideBur (TCB); 5) APL treated (APL). SEM analysis and surface roughness (Ra) measurements were performed. Self-adhesive resin cement was bonded to the Ti surfaces and shear bond strength (SBS) tests, Ra and failure mode examinations were carried out. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and chi-squared test. RESULTS The lowest SBS value was obtained with CNT and was significantly different from all other groups except for APL. The ROC showed the highest SBS and Ra values of all the groups. CONCLUSION It was concluded that the effect of APL on SBS and Ra was not sufficient and it may not be a potential for promoting adhesion to titanium.

  11. Influence of different power outputs of intraoral Nd:YAG laser on shear bond strength of a resin cement to nickel-chromium dental alloy.

    PubMed

    sadat Madani, Azam; Astaneh, Pedram Ansari; Shahabi, Sima; Nakhaei, Mohammad Reza; Bagheri, Hossein G; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2013-01-01

    Up to now, there is no any experience about the application of dental lasers to bond resin composites to metal surfaces in dentistry. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate if the laser irradiation of ceramic-covered alloy surface would improve the bond strength of resin to metal, and if different parameters of laser output may influence the strength of this bond. Fifty three cylinders (thickness of 5 mm and diameter of 10 mm) were made up of a commercially available nickel-chromium alloy by lost-wax technique. Forty prepared specimens were divided into four groups. Five specimens in each group were covered by slurry of dental opaque porcelain and irradiated by Nd:YAG laser using different output parameters for each group. Other five specimens in each group were treated using the same laser parameters without porcelain covering. Five sandblasted specimen served as control group. Panavia F2.0 was bonded on the metal surfaces using polyethylene tubes. In ceramic-coated specimens, silane was applied to achieve chemical bond between silica particles and resin cement. All specimens were thermocycled and subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) test (50 kgf at 0.5 mm/min). Two specimens of each ceramic-coated laser-treated groups were studied using scanning electron microscopy and wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy which showed stabilization of silica particles on the metal surface. ANOVA procedure showed that although shear bond strength was significantly higher in porcelain-covered laser treated samples, but the effect of power output of laser irradiation was not significant (P = 0.917). There were no statistically significant difference between SBS in control samples and laser treated specimens without porcelain covering. It can be concluded that Nd:YAG laser surface treatment may improve the silica coating of alloy surface to achieve better resin-metal bond. PMID:22588684

  12. Alternative alloys for resin-bonded retainers.

    PubMed

    Lawson, J R

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, resin-bonded fixed partial dentures have been made with nickel-chrome-beryllium alloys and cemented with conventional resin luting cements. However, alternative alloys for resin-bonded retainers offer improved physical and biocompatible properties, and resin-metal bond strengths twice that of traditional methods can be achieved. The superior bonds obtained with etched base metals bonded with adhesive resins and silica-coated alloys bonded with silane-coupling agents make these the most desirable techniques available. PMID:2033556

  13. Bond strength of luting cement to casting and soldering alloy.

    PubMed

    Kumbuloglu, O; Lassila, L V J; User, A; Toksavul, S; Vallittu, P K

    2006-03-01

    Adjustment of metal alloy framework of the porcelain-fused-to-metal crown by soldering minor marginal deficiences prior insertion may sometimes be needed. The aim of this study was to compare shear bond strengths of four luting cements to casting metal alloy and soldering metal alloy. A total of 64 flame cast non-precious metal alloy and flame soldered metal alloy samples were used. Durelon, Panavia F, RelyX Unicem Applicap and RelyX ARC stubs were bonded to the alloy substrate surface. After stored in water at 37 degrees C for 1 week, shear bond strength of the cement to the alloy was measured. Differences were analyzed using one way ANOVA (p<0.05). There were no difference between the cast metal alloy and soldering metal alloy substrate. PMID:16599093

  14. Effect of various surface conditioning methods on the adhesion of dual-cure resin cement with MDP functional monomer to zirconia after thermal aging.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Nijhuis, Henk; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of chairside and laboratory types of surface conditioning methods on the adhesion of dual-cure resin cement with MDP functional monomer to zirconia ceramic after thermocycling. Disk-shaped (diameter: 10 mm, thickness: 2 mm) Y-TZP ceramics (Lava, 3M ESPE) were used (N=40) and finished with wet 1200-grit silicon carbide abrasive paper. Specimens were randomly divided into four experimental groups according to the following surface conditioning methods (n=10 per group): Group 1--Chairside airborne particle abrasion with 50-microm Al2O2 + Alloy Primer (Kuraray); Group 2--Airborne particle abrasion with 50-microm Al2O3 + Cesead II Opaque Primer (Kuraray); Group 3--Airborne particle abrasion with 50-microm A12O3 + Silano-Pen + silane coupling agent (Bredent); Group 4--Laboratory tribochemical silica coating (110-microm Al2O3 + 110-microm SiOx) (Rocatec) + silane coupling agent (ESPE-Sil). Adhesive cement, Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray), was bonded incrementally to the ceramic surfaces using polyethylene molds (diameter: 3.6 mm, height: 5 mm). All specimens were thermocycled (5 and 55 degrees C, 6,000 cycles) and subjected to shear bond strength test (1 mm/min). Data were statistically analyzed (one-way ANOVA, alpha=0.05), whereby no significant differences were found among the four groups (8.43+/-1.3, 8.98+/-3.6, 12.02+/-6.7, and 8.23+/-3.8 MPa) (p=0.1357). Therefore, the performance of chairside conditioning methods used for zirconia was on par with the laboratory alternative tested. PMID:18309618

  15. Influence of air-abrasion executed with polyacrylic acid-Bioglass 45S5 on the bonding performance of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Sauro, Salvatore; Watson, Timothy F; Thompson, Ian; Toledano, Manuel; Nucci, Cesare; Banerjee, Avijit

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the microtensile bond strength (?TBS), after 6 months of storage in PBS, of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) bonded to dentine pretreated with Bioglass 45S5 (BAG) using various etching and air-abrasion techniques. The RMGIC (GC Fuji II LC) was applied onto differently treated dentine surfaces followed by light curing for 30 s. The specimens were cut into matchsticks with cross-sectional areas of 0.9 mm(2). The ?TBS of the specimens was measured after 24 h or 6 months of storage in PBS and the results were statistically analysed using two-way anova and the Student-Newman-Keuls test (? = 0.05). Further RMCGIC-bonded dentine specimens were used for interfacial characterization, micropermeability, and nanoleakage analyses by confocal microscopy. The RMGIC-dentine interface layer showed no water absorption after 6 months of storage in PBS except for the interdiffusion layer of the silicon carbide (SiC)-abraded/polyacrylic acid (PAA)-etched bonded dentine. The RMGIC applied onto dentine air-abraded with BAG/H(2)O only or with BAG/PAA-fluid followed by etching procedures (10% PAA gel) showed no statistically significant reduction in ?TBS after 6 months of storage in PBS. The abrasion procedures performed using BAG in combination with PAA might be a suitable strategy to enhance the bonding durability and the healing ability of RMGIC bonded to dentine. PMID:22409224

  16. Thio-urethanes improve properties of dual-cured composite cements.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, A; Dobson, A; Ferracane, J L; Consani, R; Pfeifer, C S

    2014-12-01

    This study aims at modifying dual-cure composite cements by adding thio-urethane oligomers to improve mechanical properties, especially fracture toughness, and reduce polymerization stress. Thiol-functionalized oligomers were synthesized by combining 1,3-bis(1-isocyanato-1-methylethyl)benzene with trimethylol-tris-3-mercaptopropionate, at 1:2 isocyanate:thiol. Oligomer was added at 0, 10 or 20 wt% to BisGMA-UDMA-TEGDMA (5:3:2, with 25 wt% silanated inorganic fillers) or to one commercial composite cement (Relyx Ultimate, 3M Espe). Near-IR was used to measure methacrylate conversion after photoactivation (700 mW/cm(2) × 60s) and after 72 h. Flexural strength and modulus, toughness, and fracture toughness were evaluated in three-point bending. Polymerization stress was measured with the Bioman. The microtensile bond strength of an indirect composite and a glass ceramic to dentin was also evaluated. Results were analyzed with analysis of variance and Tukey's test (? = 0.05). For BisGMA-UDMA-TEGDMA cements, conversion values were not affected by the addition of thio-urethanes. Flexural strength/modulus increased significantly for both oligomer concentrations, with a 3-fold increase in toughness at 20 wt%. Fracture toughness increased over 2-fold for the thio-urethane modified groups. Contraction stress was reduced by 40% to 50% with the addition of thio-urethanes. The addition of thio-urethane to the commercial cement led to similar flexural strength, toughness, and conversion at 72h compared to the control. Flexural modulus decreased for the 20 wt% group, due to the dilution of the overall filler volume, which also led to decreased stress. However, fracture toughness increased by up to 50%. The microtensile bond strength increased for the experimental composite cement with 20 wt% thio-urethane bonding for both an indirect composite and a glass ceramic. Novel dual-cured composite cements containing thio-urethanes showed increased toughness, fracture toughness and bond strength to dentin while demonstrating reduced contraction stress. All of these benefits are derived without compromising the methacrylate conversion of the resin component. The modification does not require changing the operatory technique. PMID:25248610

  17. Measurement of hydrostatic pressures during simulated post cementation.

    PubMed

    Morando, G; Leupold, R J; Meiers, J C

    1995-12-01

    Tooth sensitivity and fracture after cementation of posts for endodontically treated teeth have been a problem. This investigation developed an in vitro method of measuring intraradicular hydrostatic pressures created during simulated post cementation. The testing apparatus consisted of a pressure transducer and brush recorder connected to precision milled post spaces in a Plexiglas block. Cast post and cores were fabricated and cemented with three different luting agents: resinous cement, glass ionomer cement, and zinc phosphate cement. Mean hydrostatic pressures (psi) recorded during post cementation were zinc phosphate cement, 22.67; resinous cement, 19.77; and glass ionomer cement, 17.66. Zinc phosphate cement created substantially greater hydrostatic pressures than either the resinous or glass ionomer cements. This in vitro system was capable of discriminating intraradicular hydrostatic pressures among different classes of luting agents. PMID:8778381

  18. [Effects of different surface conditioning agents on the bond strength of resin-opaque porcelain composite].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjia; Fu, Jing; Liao, Shuang; Su, Naichuan; Wang, Hang; Liao, Yunmao

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate the effects of different silane coupling agents on the bond strength between Ceramco3 opaque porcelain and indirect composite resin. Five groups of Co-Cr metal alloy substrates were fabricated according to manufacturer's instruction. The surface of metal alloy with a layer of dental opaque porcelain was heated by fire. After the surface of opaque porcelain was etched, five different surface treatments, i.e. RelyX Ceramic Primer (RCP), Porcelain Bond Activator and SE Bond Primer (mixed with a proportion of 1:1) (PBA), Shofu Porcelain Primer (SPP), SE bond primer (SEP), and no primer treatment (as a control group), were used to combine P60 and opaque porcelain along with resin cement. Shear bond strength of specimens was tested in a universal testing machine. The failure modes of specimens in all groups were observed and classified into four types. Selected specimens were subjected to scanning electron microscope and energy disperse spectroscopy to reveal the relief of the fracture surface and to confirm the failure mode of different types. The experimental results showed that the values of the tested items in all the tested groups were higher than that in the control group. Group PBA exhibited the highest value [(37.52 +/- 2.14) MPa] and this suggested a fact that all of the specimens in group PBA revealed combined failures (failure occurred in metal-porcelain combined surface and within opaque porcelain). Group SPP and RCP showed higher values than SEP (P < 0.05) and most specimens of SPP and RCP performed combined failures (failure occurred in bond surface and within opaque porcelain or composite resin) while all the specimens in group SEP and control group revealed adhesive failures. Conclusions could be drawn that silane coupling agents could reinforce the bond strength of dental composite resin to metal-opaque porcelain substrate. The bond strength between dental composite resin and dental opaque porcelain could meet the clinical requirements. PMID:25039143

  19. Cement paste–epoxy adhesive interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatma Djouani; Carole Connan; Michel Delamar; Mohamed M. Chehimi; Karim Benzarti

    2011-01-01

    In the field of civil engineering, the durability of concrete assemblies using adhesives is widely conditioned by the properties of the interface between the resin and the mineral support (concrete). In this context we studied first the molecular interactions at the interface between an epoxy resin and cement pastes by several approaches based on XPS and IR spectroscopies, DSC, and

  20. Micromechanical properties of veneer luting resins after curing through ceramics.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Elif; Hickel, Reinhard; Bolay, Sükran; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of light-cured luting resin after curing under the ceramic restoration in comparison to dual-cured luting resin, by evaluating the micromechanical properties. Two hundred seventy thin luting composite films of ca. 170 ?m in thickness were prepared by using two light-cured luting resins (Variolink Veneer, Ivoclar Vivadent; RelyX Veneer, 3M ESPE) and a dual-cured luting resin (Variolink II, Ivoclar Vivadent). The composites were cured by using a LED-unit (Bluephase®, Ivoclar Vivadent) with three different curing times (10, 20, and 30 s) under two ceramics (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent; IPS Empress® CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) of different thicknesses (0, 0.75, and 2 mm). Forty-five groups were included, each containing six thin films. The samples were stored after curing for 24 h at 37°C by maintaining moisture conditions with distilled water. Micromechanical properties of the composites were measured with an automatic microhardness indenter (Fisherscope H100C, Germany). For each sample, ten indentations were made, thus totalizing 60 measurements per group. Micromechanical properties of the luting resins were statistically analyzed (SPSS 17.0). Significant differences were observed between the micromechanical properties of the luting resins (p < 0.05). Variolink II showed the highest values in modulus of elasticity (E = 11 ± 0.5)* and Vickers hardness (HV = 48.2 ± 3.2)* and the lowest values in creep (Cr = 4.3 ± 0.1)* and elastic-plastic deformation (We/Wtot = 38.6 ± 0.7)* followed by RelyX Veneer (E = 6.9 ± 0.3, HV = 33 ± 2.5, Cr = 4.6 ± 0.2, We/Wtot = 41.8 ± 1.0)* and Variolink Veneer (E = 4.4 ± 0.4, HV = 20.1 ± 2.6, Cr = 5 ± 0.2, We/Wtot = 43.7 ± 1.3)*. Dual-cured luting resin expressed higher values in the micro-mechanical properties compared to the light-cured luting resins. The effect of luting resin type on the micromechanical properties of the luting resins was higher than the effect of curing time, ceramic type and ceramic thickness respectively (*The values of reference without ceramics for 30 s curing time). PMID:21057833

  1. Absence of carious lesions at margins of glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and resin-modified GIC restorations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Tyas, Martin J; Yengopal, Veerasamy; Oliveira, Luciana B; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2010-09-01

    This systematic review sought to quantitatively answer the question as to whether, in tooth cavities of the same size, type of dentition and follow-up period, resin-modified glass-ionomer (GIC) restorations, when compared to conventional GIC restorations, offer a significant caries preventive effect, as measured by the absence of caries lesions at the margin of restorations. Six databases were searched for articles in English, Portuguese or Spanish until 07 May 2009. Four articles were accepted and 22 separate datasets extracted. The difference between both types of material were computed as relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). No meta-analysis was undertaken due to aspects of clinical/methodological heterogeneity. The results of the extracted datasets ranged between RR 0.90 (95% CI 0.81-1.01) and 1.08 (95% CI 0.71-1.63; p > 0.05) indicating no difference in the caries preventive effect between both types of materials. Further high-quality randomized control trials are needed in order to confirm these results. PMID:21077424

  2. An assessment of fracture resistance of three composite resin core build-up materials on three prefabricated non-metallic posts, cemented in endodontically treated teeth: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Bhupinder; Pujari, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Endodontically treated teeth with excessive loss of tooth structure would require to be restored with post and core to enhance the strength and durability of the tooth and to achieve retention for the restoration. The non-metallic posts have a superior aesthetic quality. Various core build-up materials can be used to build-up cores on the posts placed in endodontically treated teeth. These materials would show variation in their bonding with the non-metallic posts thus affecting the strength and resistance to fracture of the remaining tooth structure. Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the fracture resistance of three composite resin core build-up materials on three prefabricated non-metallic posts, cemented in extracted endodontically treated teeth. Material and Methods. Forty-five freshly extracted maxillary central incisors of approximately of the same size and shape were selected for the study. They were divided randomly into 3 groups of 15 each, depending on the types of non-metallic posts used. Each group was further divided into 3 groups (A, B and C) of 5 samples each depending on three core build-up material used. Student’s unpaired ‘t’ test was also used to analyse and compare each group with the other groups individually, and decide whether their comparisons were statistically significant. Results. Luxacore showed the highest fracture resistance among the three core build-up materials with all the three posts systems. Ti-core had intermediate values of fracture resistance and Lumiglass had the least values of fracture resistance. PMID:25755926

  3. Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lad, Pritam P; Kamath, Maya; Tarale, Kavita; Kusugal, Preethi B

    2014-01-01

    The longevity of fixed partial denture depends on the type of luting cement used with tooth preparation. The clinician’s understating of various cements, their advantages and disadvantages is of utmost importance. In recent years, many luting agents cements have been introduced claiming clinically better performance than existing materials due to improved characteristics. Both conventional and contemporary dental luting cements are discussed here. The various agents discussed are: Zinc phosphate, Zinc polycarboxylate, Zinc oxide-eugenol, Glass-ionomer, Resin modified GIC, Compomers and Resin cement. The purpose of this article is to provide a discussion that provides a clinical perspective of luting cements currently available to help the general practitioner make smarter and appropriate choices. How to cite the article: Lad PP, Kamath M, Tarale K, Kusugal PB. Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):116-20. PMID:24653615

  4. Microtensile Bond Strength of Self-Adhesive Luting Cements to Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Abo, Tomoko; Uno, Shigeru; Yoshiyama, Masahiro; Yamada, Toshimoto; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the bond strengths of the self-adhesive luting cements between ceramics and resin cores and examine their relation to the cement thickness. Three self-adhesive luting cements (Smartcem, Maxcem, and G-CEM) and a resin cement (Panavia F 2.0) for control were used in the paper. The thickness of the cements was controlled in approximately 25, 50, 100, or 200??m. Each 10 specimens were made according to the manufacturers' instructions and stored in water at 37°C. After 24 hours, microtensile bond strength (?TBS) was measured. There were significant differences in cements. Three self-adhesive cements showed significantly lower ?TBSs than control that required both etching and priming before cementation (Tukey, P < 0.05). The cement thickness of 50 or 100??m tended to induce the highest ?TBSs for each self-adhesive luting cements though no difference was found. PMID:22606202

  5. Microscopic and energy dispersive x-ray analysis of surface adaptation of dental cements to dental ceramic surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Y. Thompson; M. M. Rapp; A. J. Parker

    1998-01-01

    Statement of problem. Clinical failure rates reported for acid etched\\/resin-bonded ceramic restorations are significantly lower than those reported for restorations luted with traditional cements. This improved clinical performance may be associated with greater adaptation of the resin cements to the ceramic surfaces.Purpose. The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of resin cements accompanied by acid etching

  6. Influence of film thickness on joint bend strength of a ceramic\\/resin composite joint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margareta K. Molin; Stig L. Karlsson; Mette S. Kristiansen

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different film thicknesses of resin composite luting agents on the joint bend strength of a ceramic\\/resin interface.Methods. Mirage FLC (Chamelon Dental Products) and Vita Cerec (Coltène AG) duo cement were used in combination with the ceramic materials, Mirage and Vita Cerec blocks. Cement layers with thicknesses of 20

  7. Retentive strength of luting cements for stainless steel crowns: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Priya; Kondae, Sapna; Gupta, Kamal Kishore

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluated and compared the retentive strength of three luting cements. A total of forty five freshly extracted human primary molars were used in this study. The teeth were prepared to receive stainless steel crowns. They were then randomly divided into three groups, of fifteen teeth each, so as to receive the three different luting cements: conventional glass ionomer resin modified glass ionomer and adhesive resin. The teeth were then stored in artificial saliva for twenty four hours. The retentive strength of the crowns was determined by using a specially designed Instron Universal Testing Machine (Model 1011). The data was statistically analyzed using ANOVA to evaluate retentive strength for each cement and Tukey test for pair wise comparison. It was concluded that retentive strength of adhesive resin cement and resin modified glass ionomer cement was significantly higher than that of the conventional glass ionomer cement. PMID:20831131

  8. [Composite resin inlays and onlays].

    PubMed

    Vougiouklakis, G; Mountouris, G; Adritsakis, D

    1990-08-01

    The establishment and development of composite resins has led to their use as a posterior restorative material. Although posterior composites have evolved considerably, both clinical studies and experience have confirmed that several problems still remain concerning their clinical properties and the relative complexity of handling the material. In order to resolve these problems, two different manufacturers have introduced composite resin systems for the fabrication of direct or indirect resin inlays and onlays which are cemented into the acid-etched preparation with a modified composite resin. Both systems are based on the same concept: the polymerization of the resin takes place out of the mouth in a special oven where a specific heat-curing procedure is followed. There is an essential difference between the two systems. When the direct resin system is used, the inlay is formed and partly light-cured into the tooth preparation, then it is removed for further polymerization. When the indirect system is used the procedure takes place in the lab where the inlay is formed on the die. This article presents both systems, the step-by-step procedure that has been followed in several clinical cases as well as their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:2130341

  9. Characterisation of cement pastes by inverse gas chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Oliva; Béchir Mrabet; Maria Inês Baeta Neves; Mohamed M. Chehimi; Karim Benzarti

    2002-01-01

    Two cement pastes, commonly used in concrete formulations, were characterised by IGC at 35–80°C before and after coating with an epoxy resin and a hardener. The cements are mixtures of hydrates in various proportions, such as calcium silicate hydrate (CaO–SiO2–H2O) and calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2. Apolar and polar probes were used to determine the dispersive and acid–base characteristics of the cement

  10. Performance testing of grout-based waste forms for the solidification of anion exchange resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. L. Morgan; W. D. Bostick

    1990-01-01

    The solidification of spent ion exchanges resins in a grout matrix as a means of disposing of spent organic resins produced in the nuclear fuel cycle has many advantages in terms of process simplicity and economy, but associated with the process is the potential for water\\/cement\\/resins to interact and degrade the integrity of the waste form solidified. Described in this

  11. Grout-based waste forms for the solidification of anion-exchange resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Del Cul; I. L. Morgan; W. D. Bostick; P. E. Osborne

    1991-01-01

    The solidification of spent ion exchange resins in a grout matrix as a means of disposing of spent organic resins produced in the nuclear fuel cycle has many advantages in terms of process simplicity and economy, but associated with the process is the potential for water\\/cement\\/resins to interact and degrade the integrity of the waste form solidified. Summarized in this

  12. Grout-based waste forms for the solidification of anion-exchange resins. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Del Cul; I. L. Morgan; W. D. Bostick; P. E. Osborne

    1991-01-01

    The solidification of spent ion exchange resins in a grout matrix as a means of disposing of spent organic resins produced in the nuclear fuel cycle has many advantages in terms of process simplicity and economy, but associated with the process is the potential for water\\/cement\\/resins to interact and degrade the integrity of the waste form solidified. Summarized in this

  13. Luting of ceramic crowns with a self-adhesive cement: Effect of contamination on marginal adaptation and fracture strength

    PubMed Central

    Slavcheva, Slavena; Krejci, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the percentages of continuous margins (%CM) and fracture strength (FS) of crowns made out from blocs of leucite-reinforced ceramic (IPS Empress CAD) and luted with a representative self-adhesive cement (RelyX Unicem) under four contaminating agents: saliva, water, blood, a haemostatic solution containing aluminium chloride (pH= 0.8) and a control group with no contamination. Study Design: %CM at both tooth-cement (TC) and cement-crown (CC) interfaces were determined before and after a fatigue test consisting of 600’000 chewing loads and 1’500 temperature cycles changing from 5º C to 50º C. Load to fracture was recorded on fatigued specimens. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare %CM and FS between the five groups with a level of confidence of 95%. Results: At the TC interface, no significant differences in marginal adaptation before loading could be detected between groups. After loading, a significant marginal degradation was observed in the group contaminated with aluminium chloride (52 ± 22 %CM) in respect to the other groups. No significant differences in %CM could be detected between the groups contaminated with saliva, water, blood and the control. At the CC interface, no significant differences in marginal adaptation were observed between the groups. The FS on loaded specimens was around 1637N, with no significant differences between groups as well. Conclusions: An adverse interaction of the highly acidic haemostatic agent with either dentin or the self-adhesive cement could explain the specimens’ marginal degradation. The self-adhesive cement tested in this study was no sensitive to moisture contamination either with saliva, water or blood. Key words:Marginal adaptation, RelyX Unicem, contamination, all-ceramic crowns. PMID:23722123

  14. Alternative method for retention and removal of cement-retained implant prostheses.

    PubMed

    Valbao, F P; Perez, E G; Breda, M

    2001-08-01

    This article describes a simple, quick, and economical technique that makes use of a light-polymerized resin system to facilitate the retention and removal of cement-retained implant prostheses. PMID:11514807

  15. Resin Chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis Pilato

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a During the ensuing years since the last phenolic resins book was published, many new and remarkable developments have occurred\\u000a in the realm of phenolic chemistry and are given in this chapter.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a A critical examination of the first step or addition step (methylolation) in the preparation of resoles is described and how\\u000a it can be controlled and compared with the typical

  16. Adhesive properties of modified glass-ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Rusz, J E; Antonucci, J M; Eichmiller, F; Anderson, M H

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of water-soluble polymers and/or vinyl monomers into glass-ionomer cements can yield toughened "hybrid cement-composites". This study compared a commercial water-hardening glass-ionomer cement and seven experimental hybrids in their bonding to both dentin and Silar composite. The cements were sanded and phosphoric-acid-etched or left with an unaltered matrix-formed surface when adhesion to composite was tested. The seven hybrids included: 15% 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) with appropriate initiators/activators, 29% HEMA, 27% HEMA + 0.5% polyacrylic acid (PAA), 0.5% PAA, 1.5% PAA, 2.5% polyvinyl alcohol, and 2.5% gelatin. Acceptable bond strengths to applied composite and to dentin were observed for most of the modified hybrid cements. There were higher bond strengths with composite when the hybrids were left unetched. Bonding of some unetched, HEMA-containing cements achieved bond strengths (29% HEMA, 10.09 MPa) significantly higher than those of the unmodified cement (4.92 MPa). Resin-modified cements may promote better bonding by improved interaction and compatibility with the resin component of the composite. PMID:1387853

  17. In vivo microleakage of luting cements for cast crowns.

    PubMed

    White, S N; Yu, Z; Tom, J F; Sangsurasak, S

    1994-04-01

    Standardized tooth preparations were completed on previously intact human molars in vivo, and castings were made with a precious metal ceramic alloy by conventional techniques. The castings were randomly assigned to the following luting agents: zinc phosphate, composite resin-glass ionomer hybrid, and a composite resin-glass ionomer hybrid with a dentinal bonding agent and were cemented in a standardized manner to periodontally compromised molars. After 6 months the teeth were carefully extracted, stained, embedded, and sectioned, and the in vivo microleakage was measured. ANOVA disclosed significant differences between groups, and a multiple comparisons test revealed that the zinc phosphate group leaked significantly more than other cement groups. PMID:8195995

  18. Long-term monitoring of microleakage of dental cements by radiochemical diffusion.

    PubMed

    Powis, D R; Prosser, H J; Wilson, A D

    1988-06-01

    Radioactive 14C sucrose was found to be an ideal marker for microleakage because it did not penetrate tooth tissue, dental cement, or mounting resin. The main finding is that the adhesive cements--the glass-ionomer and polycarboxylate--are significantly more effective at preventing microleakage than are the traditional phosphate cements--silicate and zinc phosphate. The differences can be as high as two orders of magnitude. The adhesive cements provide almost perfect and reliable seals. By contrast, the nonadhesive cements are erratic sealants with most of the restorations leaking. PMID:3042960

  19. Bond strength between fiber posts and composite resin core: influence of temperature on silane coupling agents.

    PubMed

    Novais, Veridiana Resende; Simamotos Júnior, Paulo Cézar; Rontani, Regina Maria Puppin; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Soares, Carlos José

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of air drying temperature and different silane coupling agents on the bond strength between glass fiber posts and composite resin core. The post surface was cleaned with alcohol and treated with different silane coupling agents, being three prehydrolyzed silanes [Silano (Angelus), Prosil (FGM), RelyX Ceramic Primer (3M ESPE)] and one two-component silane [Silane Coupling Agent (Dentsply)]. Two post-silanization air drying temperatures, 23ºC and 60ºC, were applied. A cylindrical plastic matrix was placed around the silanized post and filled with composite resin. Each bonded post provided 7 slices for push-out testing. Each slice was loaded to failure under compression at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Scott-Knott tests (?=0.05). Dunnett's test was used to compare the mean of the control group with that of each experimental group. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the interface of the fractured slices. For the 23ºC air drying temperature, the use of RelyX Ceramic Primer resulted in significantly lower bond strength than the other silane coupling agents, while the bond strength with Silane Coupling Agent was the highest of all groups. Only with Silane Coupling Agent, the bond strength for the 23ºC air drying temperature was significantly higher than that for 60ºC air drying. In conclusion, the use of warm air drying after silane application produced no increase in the bond strength between the fiber-reinforced composite post and the composite core. The two-component silane produced higher bond strength than all prehydrolyzed silanes when it was used with air drying at room temperature. PMID:22460308

  20. Cement kiln NOx control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. McQueen; S. J. Bortz; M. S. Hatch; H. J. Buening; D. E. Shore; R. L. Leonard; E. F. Bouse

    1993-01-01

    Cement kilns represent an important source of NOx emissions. The results of a critical analysis of the state-of-the-art in cement kiln NOx control are presented. A survey of current and anticipated cement kiln NOx regulations, NOx formation mechanisms and common NOx control technologies (as applied to boilers) is presented. Cement kiln features relating to NO x control, such as combustion

  1. Resin-modified glass ionomers for luting posterior ceramic restorations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birger Thonemann; Marianne Federlin; Gottfried Schmalz; Karl-Anton Hiller

    1995-01-01

    Objectives. Until recently, esthetic inlay restorations in posterior teeth have been limited to cavities surrounded by enamel. Dentin adhesive systems in combination with luting composites and light-cured resin-modified glass ionomer cements offer a possibility for bonding ceramic inlays to cavities when the cervical margin is in dentin. This study was designed to compare in vitro marginal integrity of ceramic inlays

  2. Orthodontic Cements and Demineralization: An In Vitro Comparative Scanning Electron Microscope Study

    PubMed Central

    Prabhavathi, V; Jacob, Josy; Kiran, M Shashi; Ramakrishnan, Murugesan; Sethi, Esha; Krishnan, C S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Comparison of the demineralization potential of four luting cements, i.e. zinc phosphate, conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC), resin-modified GIC and acid modified composite resin. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 75 extracted premolar teeth, which were grouped into five, each group containing 15 teeth. Groups were non-banded control, teeth cemented with the above-mentioned cements. These were incubated at 37°C for 30 days in sealable plastic containers, after which the teeth were debanded, cleaned and placed in acid gelatin solution at 37°C for 4 weeks to simulate the cariogenic solution. Then, the teeth were sectioned and examined under scanning electron microscope. The depth of the carious lesions was measured using image analysis with Digimizer software. Results: The depth of the carious lesions was maximum with non-banded group, followed by zinc phosphate, acid modified composite resin, resin-modified GIC and conventional GIC. Conclusions: Among the four orthodontic banding cements compared, the enamel demineralization potential is least with conventional GIC, followed by resin-modified GIC, acid modified composite resin and zinc phosphate. PMID:25859103

  3. Optimisation of a two-liquid component pre-filled acrylic bone cement system: a design of experiments approach to optimise cement final properties.

    PubMed

    Clements, James; Walker, Gavin; Pentlavalli, Sreekanth; Dunne, Nicholas

    2014-10-01

    The initial composition of acrylic bone cement along with the mixing and delivery technique used can influence its final properties and therefore its clinical success in vivo. The polymerisation of acrylic bone cement is complex with a number of processes happening simultaneously. Acrylic bone cement mixing and delivery systems have undergone several design changes in their advancement, although the cement constituents themselves have remained unchanged since they were first used. This study was conducted to determine the factors that had the greatest effect on the final properties of acrylic bone cement using a pre-filled bone cement mixing and delivery system. A design of experiments (DoE) approach was used to determine the impact of the factors associated with this mixing and delivery method on the final properties of the cement produced. The DoE illustrated that all factors present within this study had a significant impact on the final properties of the cement. An optimum cement composition was hypothesised and tested. This optimum recipe produced cement with final mechanical and thermal properties within the clinical guidelines and stated by ISO 5833 (International Standard Organisation (ISO), International standard 5833: implants for surgery-acrylic resin cements, 2002), however the low setting times observed would not be clinically viable and could result in complications during the surgical technique. As a result further development would be required to improve the setting time of the cement in order for it to be deemed suitable for use in total joint replacement surgery. PMID:25005558

  4. Westinghouse Modular Grinding Process - Enhancement of Volume Reduction for Hot Resin Supercompaction - 13491

    SciTech Connect

    Fehrmann, Henning [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Dudenstr. 44, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany)] [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Dudenstr. 44, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Aign, Joerg [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Global D and D and Waste Management, Tarpenring 6, D-22419 Hamburg (Germany)] [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Global D and D and Waste Management, Tarpenring 6, D-22419 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In nuclear power plants (NPP) ion exchange (IX) resins are used in several systems for water treatment. Spent resins can contain a significant amount of contaminates which makes treatment for disposal of spent resins mandatory. Several treatment processes are available such as direct immobilization with technologies like cementation, bitumisation, polymer solidification or usage of a high integrity container (HIC). These technologies usually come with a significant increase in final waste volume. The Hot Resin Supercompaction (HRSC) is a thermal treatment process which reduces the resin waste volume significantly. For a mixture of powdered and bead resins the HRSC process has demonstrated a volume reduction of up to 75 % [1]. For bead resins only the HRSC process is challenging because the bead resins compaction properties are unfavorable. The bead resin material does not form a solid block after compaction and shows a high spring back effect. The volume reduction of bead resins is not as good as for the mixture described in [1]. The compaction properties of bead resin waste can be significantly improved by grinding the beads to powder. The grinding also eliminates the need for a powder additive.Westinghouse has developed a modular grinding process to grind the bead resin to powder. The developed process requires no circulation of resins and enables a selective adjustment of particle size and distribution to achieve optimal results in the HRSC or in any other following process. A special grinding tool setup is use to minimize maintenance and radiation exposure to personnel. (authors)

  5. A comparison of retentive strength of implant cement depending on various methods of removing provisional cement from implant abutment

    PubMed Central

    Keum, Eun-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE This study evaluated the effectiveness of various methods for removing provisional cement from implant abutments, and what effect these methods have on the retention of prosthesis during the definitive cementation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty implant fixture analogues and abutments were embedded in resin blocks. Forty cast crowns were fabricated and divided into 4 groups each containing 10 implants. Group A was cemented directly with the definitive cement (Cem-Implant). The remainder were cemented with provisional cement (Temp-Bond NE), and classified according to the method for cleaning the abutments. Group B used a plastic curette and wet gauze, Group C used a rubber cup and pumice, and Group D used an airborne particle abrasion technique. The abutments were observed using a stereomicroscope after removing the provisional cement. The tensile bond strength was measured after the definitive cementation. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance test (?=.05). RESULTS Group B clearly showed provisional cement remaining, whereas the other groups showed almost no cement. Groups A and B showed a relatively smooth surface. More roughness was observed in Group C, and apparent roughness was noted in Group D. The tensile bond strength tests revealed Group D to have significantly the highest tensile bond strength followed in order by Groups C, A and B. CONCLUSION A plastic curette and wet gauze alone cannot effectively remove the residual provisional cement on the abutment. The definitive retention increased when the abutments were treated with rubber cup/pumice or airborne particle abraded to remove the provisional cement. PMID:24049563

  6. The Biocompatibility of Porous vs Non-Porous Bone Cements: A New Methodological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Oca, C.; Maluta, T.; Cavani, F.; Morbioli, G.P.; Bernardi, P.; Sbarbati, A.; Degl’Innocenti, D.; Magnan, B.

    2014-01-01

    Composite cements have been shown to be biocompatible, bioactive, with good mechanical properties and capability to bind to the bone. Despite these interesting characteristic, in vivo studies on animal models are still incomplete and ultrastructural data are lacking. The acquisition of new ultrastructural data is hampered by uncertainties in the methods of preparation of histological samples due to the use of resins that melt methacrylate present in bone cement composition. A new porous acrylic cement composed of polymethyl-metacrylate (PMMA) and ?-tricalcium-phosphate (p-TCP) was developed and tested on an animal model. The cement was implanted in femurs of 8 New Zealand White rabbits, which were observed for 8 weeks before their sacrifice. Histological samples were prepared with an infiltration process of LR white resin and then the specimens were studied by X-rays, histology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As a control, an acrylic standard cement, commonly used in clinical procedures, was chosen. Radiographic ultrastructural and histological exams have allowed finding an excellent biocompatibility of the new porous cement. The high degree of osteointegration was demonstrated by growth of neo-created bone tissue inside the cement sample. Local or systemic toxicity signs were not detected. The present work shows that the proposed procedure for the evaluation of biocompatibility, based on the use of LR white resin allows to make a thorough and objective assessment of the biocompatibility of porous and non-porous bone cements. PMID:24998920

  7. Fracture load of implant-supported zirconia all-ceramic crowns luted with various cements.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yoo, Jeong-Min; Park, Sang-Won; Yang, Hong-So

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the fracture load and failure types of implant-supported zirconia all-ceramic crowns cemented with various luting agents. The ceramic frameworks were fabricated from a presintered yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide block using computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing technology, and were then veneered with feldspathic porcelain. Three luting agents were used. Composite resin cement (1,560.78 +/- 39.43 N) showed the highest mean fracture load, followed by acrylic/urethane cement (1,116.20 +/- 77.32 N) and zinc oxide eugenol cement (741.21 +/- 41.95 N) (P < .05). The types of failure varied between groups. PMID:20617227

  8. Effect of cement washout on loosening of abutment screws and vice versa in screw- and cement- retained implant-supported dental prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Gyu; Son, Mee-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine the abutment screw stability of screw- and cement-retained implant-supported dental prosthesis (SCP) after simulated cement washout as well as the stability of SCP cements after complete loosening of abutment screws. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-six titanium CAD/CAM-made implant prostheses were fabricated on two implants placed in the resin models. Each prosthesis is a two-unit SCP: one screw-retained and the other cemented. After evaluating the passive fit of each prosthesis, all implant prostheses were randomly divided into 3 groups: screwed and cemented SCP (Control), screwed and noncemented SCP (Group 1), unscrewed and cemented SCP (Group 2). Each prosthesis in Control and Group 1 was screwed and/or cemented, and the preloading reverse torque value (RTV) was evaluated. SCP in Group 2 was screwed and cemented, and then unscrewed (RTV=0) after the cement was set. After cyclic loading was applied, the postloading RTV was measured. RTV loss and decementation ratios were calculated for statistical analysis. RESULTS There was no significant difference in RTV loss ratio between Control and Group 1 (P=.16). No decemented prosthesis was found among Control and Group 2. CONCLUSION Within the limits of this in vitro study, the stabilities of SCP abutment screws and cement were not significantly changed after simulated cement washout or screw loosening. PMID:26140172

  9. Phenolic resin syntactic foams

    SciTech Connect

    McIlroy, H.M.

    1980-06-01

    Syntactic foams were prepared from blends of six phenolic resins and carbon microbubbles. The compressive strength of the phenolic resin foams is equivalent to the strength of foams made from a polyimide resin. Ammonia evolved during the cure diffuses rapidly and is not bound by the foam.

  10. CHH Cement Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cwirzen, A.; Habermehl-Cwirzen, K.; Nasibulina, L. I.; Shandakov, S. D.; Nasibulin, A. G.; Kauppinen, E. I.; Mudimela, P. R.; Penttala, V.

    The compressive strength and electrical resistivity for hardened pastes produced from nanomodified Portland SR cement (CHH- Carbon Hedge Hog cement) were studied. The nanomodification included growing of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the cement particles. Pastes having water to binder ratio of 0.5 were produced. The obtained hardened material was characterized by increased compressive strength in comparison with the reference specimens made from pristine SR cement, which was attributed to reinforcing action of the CNTs and CNFs. The electrical resistivity of CHH composite was lower by one order of magnitude in comparison with reference Portland cement paste.

  11. Denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Winkler, S

    1984-04-01

    Numerous investigations have concluded that the conventional acrylic resins, processed with the usual technique of compression molding, produce dentures that are just as stable in dimension and as satisfactory as dentures produced with special resins and elaborate processing equipment. The physical properties of injection molded dentures are not superior to those of acrylic resin dentures produced by the usual carefully controlled compression molding techniques. Cold-curing acrylic resins produce dentures that are as satisfactory as those made from heat-curing resins. PMID:6373408

  12. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2002-04-29

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, comparison studies of the three cement systems examined several properties: tensile strength, Young's modulus, and shear bond. Testing to determine the effect of temperature cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. In addition, the stress-strain behavior of the cement types was studied. This report discusses a software program that is being developed to help design ULHS cements and foamed cements.

  13. Characterisation of cement pastes by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Victor; Mrabet, Béchir; Baeta Neves, Maria Inês; Chehimi, Mohamed M; Benzarti, Karim

    2002-09-01

    Two cement pastes, commonly used in concrete formulations, were characterised by IGC at 35-80 degrees C before and after coating with an epoxy resin and a hardener. The cements are mixtures of hydrates in various proportions, such as calcium silicate hydrate (CaO-SiO2-H2O) and calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2. Apolar and polar probes were used to determine the dispersive and acid-base characteristics of the cement pastes. These materials have high surface energy as judged from the dispersive contribution to the surface free energy (gamma(s)d) values lying in the 50-70 mJ/m2 range at 60-80 degrees C. Examination of the specific interactions permitted to show that the cement pastes are strongly amphoteric species with a substantial predominant Lewis basicity that is in line with the basic pH of their aqueous suspensions. Following coating with an epoxy resin (DGEBA) and a hardener (triethylene tetramine), the surface energy of the cements decreases substantially with the mass loading of the organic material. The surface thermodynamic properties were also correlated with the surface chemical composition as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. PMID:12385397

  14. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2001-01-15

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweigh cement using ultralight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Problems, Task 2: Review Russian Ultra-Lightweight Cement Literature, and Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements. Results reported this quarter include a review and summary surface pipe and intermediate casing cementing conditions historically encountered in the US and establishment of average design conditions for ULHS cements. Russian literature concerning development and use of ultra-lightweight cements employing either nitrogen or ULHS was reviewed, and a summary is presented. Quality control testing of materials used to formulate ULHS cements in the laboratory was conducted to establish baseline material performance standards. A testing protocol was developed employing standard procedures as well as procedures tailored to evaluate ULHS. This protocol is presented and discussed. finally, results of initial testing of ULHS cements is presented along with analysis to establish cement performance design criteria to be used during the remainder of the project.

  15. Management of Spent Organic Ion-Exchange Resins by Photochemical Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivas, C.; Sugilal, S.; Wattal, P. K.

    2003-02-26

    Management of spent ion-exchange resin waste arising from nuclear reactor operations by traditional practice of encapsulation in cement is associated with problems such as swelling and disintegration. Complete oxidation (mineralization) is an attractive alternative option. This paper reports the development of photochemical mineralization process for organic ion-exchange resins of poly (styrene-divinyl benzene) type with sulfonic acid and quaternary ammonium functional groups. It is a two-step process consisting of dissolution (conversion of solid resin into water-soluble reaction products) and photo-Fenton mineralization of the dissolved resin. Cation and anion resin dissolution was effected by reaction of the resin with H2O2 at 50-60 C in the presence of ferrous/copper sulphate catalyst. Direct dissolution of mixed resin was not efficient. However, the cation resin portion in the mixed resin could be selectively dissolved without affecting the anion portion. The solid anion resin after separation from the cation resin solution could be dissolved. About 0.5 liters of 50% H2O2 was required for dissolution of one kg of wet resin. The reaction time was 4-5 hours. Dissolution experiments were conducted on up to 8 liters of wet resin. The second step, viz., photo-Fenton mineralization of the dissolved resin was effected at ambient temperature(25-35 C). Kinetic results of laboratory scale experiments in immersion type photo-reactor and pilot scale experiments in tubular flow photo-reactor were presented. These results clearly demonstrated the photo-Fenton mineralization of dissolved resin at ambient temperature with stoichiometric quantity of H2O2 as against 70-200% excess H2O2 requirement in chemical mineralization experiments under Fenton oxidation conditions at 90-95 C. Based on these studies, a treatment scheme was developed and presented in this paper.

  16. The effect of adhesives with various degrees of hydrophilicity on resin ceramic bond durability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed A El Zohairy; Anton J De Gee; Fayez M Hassan; Albert J Feilzer

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the role of different acid surface-treatments and hydrophilic and hydrophobic bonding agents on resin ceramic bond durability. Methods: Two resin cements, Tetric Flow and Nexus 2, were applied to CAD\\/CAM Cerec Vitablocs with six bonding strategies: (1) HF-etching and silanization, (2) HF-etching, silanization and application of a hydrophilic bonding agent, (3) HF-etching, silanization and application of a

  17. Management of Spent Organic Ion-Exchange Resins by Photochemical Oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Srinivas; S. Sugilal; P. K. Wattal

    2003-01-01

    Management of spent ion-exchange resin waste arising from nuclear reactor operations by traditional practice of encapsulation in cement is associated with problems such as swelling and disintegration. Complete oxidation (mineralization) is an attractive alternative option. This paper reports the development of photochemical mineralization process for organic ion-exchange resins of poly (styrene-divinyl benzene) type with sulfonic acid and quaternary ammonium functional

  18. In vitro and in vivo studies on the toxicity of dental resin components: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Goldberg

    2008-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies have clearly identified that some components of restorative composite resins, adhesives, and\\u000a resin-modified glass ionomer cements are toxic. The mechanisms of cytotoxicity are related firstly to the short-term release\\u000a of free monomers occurring during the monomer–polymer conversion. Secondly, long-term release of leachable substances is generated\\u000a by erosion and degradation over time. In addition, ion

  19. Comparison of bond strengths of three denture base resins to treated nickel-chromium-beryllium alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darunee P. NaBadalung; John M. Powers; Mark E. Connelly

    1998-01-01

    Purpose. In-vitro bond strengths of 3 denture base resins (Trutone, Lucitone 199, and Triad) to a nickel-chromium-beryllium removable partial denture alloy (Ticonium) were tested with 3 surface pretreatments: sandblast, acid etch, and Rocatec (silica blasting), with or without primers (Dentsply, CR inlay cement, and Super Bond).Material and methods. Lucitone 199 denture base resin bonded to the nonprimed sandblasted alloy specimen

  20. Oxazoline polyester coating resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. deJarlais; L. E. Gast; J. C. Cowan

    1967-01-01

    Oxazoline polyester resins were prepared by reaction of oxazoline diols from linseed acids and tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane\\u000a with each of five dibasic acids (adipic, dimer, fumaric, itaconic and maleic). Certain resins were dissolved in isopropyl\\u000a alcohol to give solutions infinitely water dilutable when the free carboxyl was neutralized with an amine. Film properties\\u000a of resins cast on steel plates were

  1. CHH Cement Composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cwirzen; K. Habermehl-Cwirzen; L. I. Nasibulina; S. D. Shandakov; A. G. Nasibulin; E. I. Kauppinen; P. R. Mudimela; V. Penttala

    2009-01-01

    The compressive strength and electrical resistivity for hardened pastes produced from nanomodified Portland SR cement (CHH-\\u000a Carbon Hedge Hog cement) were studied. The nanomodification included growing of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers\\u000a (CNFs) on the cement particles. Pastes having water to binder ratio of 0.5 were produced. The obtained hardened material was\\u000a characterized by increased compressive strength in comparison

  2. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2003-01-31

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries. DOE joined the Materials Management Service (MMS)-sponsored joint industry project ''Long-Term Integrity of Deepwater Cement under Stress/Compaction Conditions.'' Results of the project contained in two progress reports are also presented in this report.

  3. Microtensile bond strength testing of luting cements to prefabricated CAD\\/CAM ceramic and composite blocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed A El Zohairy; Anton J De Gee; Mohamed M Mohsen; Albert J Feilzer

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the Microtensile bond strength (?TBS) and failure mode of resin cements bonded to composite and ceramic CAD\\/CAM blocks following various surface treatments.Methods. Paradigm composite blocks and Cerec Vitablocs received three surface treatments following the control treatment of surface grinding with 600 SiC grit. (1) Application of adhesive resin (Adh), (2) etching with hydrofluoric acid and silanization (HF+S)

  4. Solidification and leaching of boric acid and resin LWR wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Arora; R. Dayal

    1984-01-01

    Leach testing was conducted on two types of reactor wastes (resin beads from a BWR and boric acid concentrate from a PWR) solidified in cement. In these wastes, Cs-14,137 isotopes were the most mobile constituents followed by Sr-90. Co-60 was found to be the least mobile. Effective diffusivities of these radionuclides were approx. 10⁻⁹ cm²\\/s for Cs-isotopes, approx. 10⁻¹¹ cm²\\/s

  5. Effect of Abutment Modification and Cement Type on Retention of Cement-Retained Implant Supported Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Farzin, Mitra; Torabi, Kianoosh; Ahangari, Ahmad Hasan; Derafshi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Provisional cements are commonly used to facilitate retrievability of cement-retained fixed implant restorations; but compromised abutment preparation may affect the retention of implant-retained crowns.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of abutment design and type of luting agent on the retentive strength of cement-retained implant restorations. Materials and Method: Two prefabricated abutments were attached to their corresponding analogs and embedded in an acrylic resin block. The first abutment (control group) was left intact without any modifications. The screw access channel for the first abutment was completely filled with composite resin. In the second abutment, (test group) the axial wall was partially removed to form an abutment with 3 walls. Wax models were made by CAD/CAM. Ten cast copings were fabricated for each abutment. The prepared copings were cemented on the abutments by Temp Bond luting agent under standardized conditions (n=20). The assemblies were stored in 100% humidity for one day at 37°C prior to testing. The cast crown was removed from the abutment using an Instron machine, and the peak removal force was recorded. Coping/abutment specimens were cleaned after testing, and the testing procedure was repeated for Dycal luting agent (n=20). Data were analyzed with two- way ANOVA (?=0.05). Results: There was no significant difference in the mean transformed retention (Ln-R) between intact abutments (4.90±0.37) and the abutments with 3 walls (4.83±0.25) using Dycal luting agent. However, in TempBond group, the mean transformed retention (Ln-R) was significantly lower in the intact abutment (3.9±0.23) compared to the abutment with 3 walls (4.13±0.33, P=0.027). Conclusion: The retention of cement-retained implant restoration can be improved by the type of temporary cement used. The retention of cast crowns cemented to implant abutments with TempBond is influenced by the wall removal. PMID:25628660

  6. Marginal gap, cement thickness, and microleakage of 2 zirconia crown systems luted with glass ionomer and MDP-based cements.

    PubMed

    Sener, Isil; Turker, Begum; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the marginal gap, cement thickness, and microleakage of glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and phosphate monomer-containing resin cement (MDP-RC) under 2 zirconia crown systems (Cercon and DC-Zirkon). Forty human premolars were prepared for all-ceramic zirconia crowns with a 1 mm circumferential finish line and a 1.5 mm occlusal reduction. The crowns (n = 10 per group) from each zirconia system were randomly divided into 2 groups and cemented either with GIC (Vivaglass CEM) or MDP-RC (Panavia F 2.0) cement. The cemented crowns were thermocycled 5000 times (5°-55°C). The crowns were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine dye solution for 24 hours and sectioned buccolingually and mesiodistally. Specimens were examined under optical microscope (100X). Data were analyzed using Student t-test and chi-square tests (? = 0.05). Mean marginal gap values for Cercon (85 ± 11.4 ?m) were significantly higher than for DC-Zircon (75.3 ± 13.2 ?m) (P = 0.018). The mean cement thickness values of GIC (81.7 ± 13.9 ?m) and MDP-RC (78.5 ± 12.5 ?m) were not significantly different (P = 0.447). Microleakage scores did not demonstrate significant difference between GIC (P = 0.385) and MDP-RC (P = 0.631) under Cercon or DC-Zircon. Considering the cement thickness values and microleakage scores obtained, both zirconia crown systems could be cemented in combination with either GIC or MDP-RC. PMID:24598500

  7. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-08-12

    Prior art polybismaleimides begin to polymerize at or just above the melting point of the monomer. This patent describes new bismaleimide resins which have an increased pot life and provide longer time periods in which the monomer remains fluid. The resins can be polymerized into molded articles with a high uniformity of properties. (DLC)

  8. Cement kiln NOX control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. McQueen; S. J. Bortz; M. S. Hatch; R. L. Leonard

    1995-01-01

    Control of NOX emissions from combustion sources has become an important issue in recent years, particularly in the ozone nonattainment areas of California. Cement kilns represent an important source of NOX emissions, and they either have already been regulated or are being considered for future regulations. This paper presents the results of a critical analysis of the state-of-the-art in cement

  9. Distribution Coefficients (Kd Values) for Waste Resins Generated from the K and L Disassembly Basin Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2002-12-02

    The objective of this study was to measure 14C, 129I, and 99Tc Kd values of spent resin generated from the K and L Disassembly Basin Facilities. The scope of the work was to conduct Kd measurements of resins combined in the ratio that they are disposed, 42:58 cation:anion. Because it was not known how these spent resins would be buried, it was necessary to measure the Kd values in such a manner as to simulate both trench and vault disposal. This was accomplished by using an acid-rain simulant (a standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency protocol) and a cement leachate simulant .

  10. Bonding of resin-based sealers to root dentin.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Mehdi; Jainaen, Angsana; Parashos, Peter; Messer, Harold H

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the microshear bond strength of three resin-based sealers to root dentin and assessed whether sealer cements behave differently in thin and thick films. Extracted maxillary premolars were sectioned buccolingually, and 45 root halves were randomly allocated for microshear bond testing with the three resin sealers in thin and thick films. The microshear bond strength was then calculated in MPa. Failure modes were examined under light and scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance, with significance set at p < 0.05. Overall, the epoxy resin-based sealers had the highest microshear bond strength to root dentin compared with urethane dimethacrylate-based sealers (p < 0.001). Bond strengths for the thick sealer group were significantly higher than the thin sealer group (p < 0.001) and may reflect different patterns of behavior when the sealer is present as a thin layer. PMID:19084140

  11. Development of resins for composites by resin transfer molding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Edmund P.; Puckett, Paul M.; Maynard, Shawn J.

    1991-01-01

    Designed to cover a wide range of resin technology and to meet the near-term and long-term needs of the aircraft industry, this research has three objectives: to produce resin transfer molding (RES) resins with improved processability, to produce prepreg systems with high toughness and service temperature, and to produce new resin systems. Progress on reaching the objectives is reported.

  12. Interfacial interactions of structural adhesive components with cement pastes - Studies by inverse gas chromatography (IGC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeta Neves, Inês; Chabut, Maud; Perruchot, Christian; Chehimi, Mohamed M.; Benzarti, Karim

    2004-11-01

    The surface energy of hardened cement pastes, before and after treatment by organic coating, and two individual cement paste components (CSH and ettringite) have been characterized by inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at 35 °C, using n-alkanes, 1-alkenes, benzene, chloroform and CCl4 molecular probes. The cement pastes were prepared by mixing an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) with water at a water/cement ratio (W/C) equal to 0.3 and 0.5. They were further coated with an epoxy resin (R) and triethylenetetramine hardener (H), separately, at a mass loading of 1 and 10 wt.%, respectively. Changes in the dispersive contribution to the surface energy (?sd) and Lewis acid-base interaction energies were found to be significantly dependent on the W/C parameter on the one hand, and the adsorption of H and R, on the other hand.

  13. Timing of syntaxial cement

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R.D.

    1985-02-01

    Echinodermal fragments are commonly overgrown in ancient limestones, with large single crystals growing in optical continuity over their skeletal hosts (i.e., syntaxial overgrowths). Such syntaxial cements are usually considered to have precipitated from meteoric pore waters associated with a later stage of subaerial exposure. Although several examples have been reported from ancient carbonates where petrographic relationships may indicate an early submarine formation of syntaxial cement, no occurrences have been noted in Holocene submarine-cemented rocks. Syntaxial cements of submarine origin have been found in Bermuda beachrock where isopachous high-magnesian calcite cements merge with large optically continuous crystals growing on echinodermal debris. Examination of other Holocene sediments cemented by magnesian calcite indicates that echinodermal fragments are not always overgrown syntaxially, but may be rimmed by microcrystalline calcite. The reason for this difference is not clear, although it may be a function of the spacing of nucleation sites and rates of crystal growth. A review of syntaxial cements from several localities in ancient carbonate sequences reveals that many are best interpreted as having formed in the submarine setting, whereas it is more clear that others formed from meteoric precipitation. These occurrences suggest that care should be exercised in inferring meteoric diagenesis from syntaxial overgrowths and that the possibility of submarine formation should be considered.

  14. Biocidal quaternary ammonium resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Activated carbon (charcoal) and polymeric resin sorbents are widely used in the filtration and treatment of drinking water, mainly to remove dissolved organic and inorganic impurities and to improve the taste. Earlier hopes that activated carbon might "disinfect' water proved to be unfounded. The feasibility of protecting against microbial infestation in charcoal and resin beds such as those to be incorporated into total water reuse systems in spacecraft was investigated. The biocidal effect of IPCD (insoluable polymeric contact disinfectants) in combination with a representative charcoal was assessed. The ion exchange resins (IPCD) were shown to adequately protect charcoal and ion exchange beds.

  15. Biocompatibility of composite resins

    PubMed Central

    Mousavinasab, Sayed Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Dental materials that are used in dentistry should be harmless to oral tissues, so they should not contain any leachable toxic and diffusible substances that can cause some side effects. Reports about probable biologic hazards, in relation to dental resins, have increased interest to this topic in dentists. The present paper reviews the articles published about biocompatibility of resin-restorative materials specially resin composites and monomers which are mainly based on Bis-GMA and concerns about their degradation and substances which may be segregated into oral cavity. PMID:23372592

  16. A comparative study of fracture resistance between morphologic dowel and cores and a resin-reinforced dowel system in the intraradicular restoration of structurally compromised roots.

    PubMed

    Saupe, W A; Gluskin, A H; Radke, R A

    1996-07-01

    The intraradicular reinforcement of structurally compromised roots has been advocated for endodontically treated teeth with thin remaining walls. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the validity of intraradicular reinforcement. After the crowns were removed, forty structurally weakened central incisors were divided into two main groups for morphologic dowel rehabilitation or resin reinforcement and dowel rehabilitation. Within both these groupings, half the specimens were ferruled to assess the effects of a ferrule on fracture resistance. All dowels were cemented with resin cements. The resistance to a simulated masticatory load of a resin-reinforced post and core system was significantly greater than that of a morphologic post and core procedure. When a bonded resin reinforcement and dowel cementation was used on structurally weakened roots, there was no statistically significant difference between post and core restorations that used a ferrule and those without a ferrule. PMID:8941826

  17. Bone cement implantation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Razuin, R; Effat, O; Shahidan, M N; Shama, D V; Miswan, M F M

    2013-06-01

    Bone cement implantation syndrome (BCIS) is characterized by hypoxia, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, increased pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac arrest. It is a known cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing cemented orthopaedic surgeries. The rarity of the condition as well as absence of a proper definition has contributed to under-reporting of cases. We report a 59-year-old woman who sustained fracture of the neck of her left femur and underwent an elective hybrid total hip replacement surgery. She collapsed during surgery and was revived only to succumb to death twelve hours later. Post mortem findings showed multiorgan disseminated microembolization of bone marrow and amorphous cement material. PMID:23817399

  18. Environmentally compatible spray cement

    SciTech Connect

    Loeschnig, P. [Heidelberger Baustofftechnik GmbH, Leimen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Within the framework of a European research project, Heidelberger Zement developed a quickly setting and hardening binder for shotcrete, called Chronolith S, which avoids the application of setting accelerators. Density and strength of the shotcrete produced with this spray cement correspond to those of an unaccelerated shotcrete. An increased hazard for the heading team and for the environment, which may occur when applying setting accelerators, can be excluded here. Owing to the special setting properties of a spray cement, the process engineering for its manufacturing is of great importance. The treatment of a spray cement as a dry concrete with kiln-dried aggregates is possible without any problems. The use of a naturally damp pre-batched mixture is possible with Chronolith S but requires special process engineering; spray cement and damp aggregate are mixed with one another immediately before entering the spraying machinery.

  19. Acetylene terminated matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfarb, I. J.; Lee, Y. C.; Arnold, F. E.; Helminiak, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis of resins with terminal acetylene groups has provided a promising technology to yield high performance structural materials. Because these resins cure through an addition reaction, no volatile by-products are produced during the processing. The cured products have high thermal stability and good properties retention after exposure to humidity. Resins with a wide variety of different chemical structures between the terminal acetylene groups are synthesized and their mechanical properties studied. The ability of the acetylene cured polymers to give good mechanical properties is demonstrated by the resins with quinoxaline structures. Processibility of these resins can be manipulated by varying the chain length between the acetylene groups or by blending in different amounts of reactive deluents. Processing conditions similar to the state-of-the-art epoxy can be attained by using backbone structures like ether-sulfone or bis-phenol-A. The wide range of mechanical properties and processing conditions attainable by this class of resins should allow them to be used in a wide variety of applications.

  20. Graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanical properties of neat resin samples and graphite fiber reinforced samples of thermoplastic resins were characterized with particular emphasis directed to the effects of environmental exposure (humidity, temperature and ultraviolet radiation). Tensile, flexural, interlaminar shear, creep and impact strengths were measured for polysulfone, polyarylsulfone and a state-of-the-art epoxy resin samples. In general, the thermoplastic resins exhibited environmental degradation resistance equal to or superior to the reference epoxy resin. Demonstration of the utility and quality of a graphite/thermoplastic resin system was accomplished by successfully thermoforming a simulated compressor blade and a fan exit guide vane.

  1. Effects of blood contamination on resin–resin bond strength

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sigurdur O Eiriksson; Patricia N. R Pereira; Edward J Swift; Harald O Heymann; Asgeir Sigurdsson

    2004-01-01

    Objective. Incremental placement and curing of resin composites has been recommended. However, this requires longer operating time, and therefore, increased risk of contamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of blood contamination on microtensile bond strengths (?TBS) between resin interfaces and to determine the best decontamination method to re-establish the original resin–resin bond strength.Materials. The top

  2. Microscopic evaluation of the human dental pulp after full crown cementation with resin cement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LUIZ CARLOS SANTIAGO; LUIZ FERNANDO PEGORARO; ALBERTO CONSOLARO; LINS DO VALLE; GERSON BONFANTE

    This study evaluated microscopically the dental pulp reactions in human premolars prepared for metaloceramic crowns cemen- ted with different luting agents and also measured the remai- ning dentin thickness (RDT) of the prepared teeth. Twenty-five teeth were selected from patients that needed exodontia for or- thodontic reasons and were randomly divided in three groups: group 1- five teeth were not

  3. Comparison of effect of desensitizing agents on the retention of crowns cemented with luting agents: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Pandharinath, Dange Shankar; Arun, Khalikar; Smita, Vaidya

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Many dentists use desensitizing agents to prevent hypersensitivity. This study compared and evaluated the effect of two desensitizing agents on the retention of cast crowns when cemented with various luting agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ninety freshly extracted human molars were prepared with flat occlusal surface, 6 degree taper and approximately 4 mm axial length. The prepared specimens were divided into 3 groups and each group is further divided into 3 subgroups. Desensitizing agents used were GC Tooth Mousse and GLUMA® desensitizer. Cementing agents used were zinc phosphate, glass ionomer and resin modified glass ionomer cement. Individual crowns with loop were made from base metal alloy. Desensitizing agents were applied before cementation of crowns except for control group. Under tensional force the crowns were removed using an automated universal testing machine. Statistical analysis included one-way ANOVA followed by Turkey-Kramer post hoc test at a preset alpha of 0.05. RESULTS Resin modified glass ionomer cement exhibited the highest retentive strength and all dentin treatments resulted in significantly different retentive values (In Kg.): GLUMA (49.02 ± 3.32) > Control (48.61 ± 3.54) > Tooth mousse (48.34 ± 2.94). Retentive strength for glass ionomer cement were GLUMA (41.14 ± 2.42) > Tooth mousse (40.32 ± 3.89) > Control (39.09 ± 2.80). For zinc phosphate cement the retentive strength were lowest GLUMA (27.92 ± 3.20) > Control (27.69 ± 3.39) > Tooth mousse (25.27 ± 4.60). CONCLUSION The use of GLUMA® desensitizer has no effect on crown retention. GC Tooth Mousse does not affect the retentive ability of glass ionomer and resin modified glass ionomer cement, but it decreases the retentive ability of zinc phosphate cement. PMID:22977719

  4. Retention of crowns cemented on implant abutments with temporary cements.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Yuko; Hibino, Yasushi; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    This study was to examine the retentive force of crowns to implant abutments with commercial temporary cements. Six different temporary cements were investigated. Cast crowns were cemented to the abutments using each cement and their retentive forces to abutments were determined 7 or 28 days after cementing (n=10). The retentive force of the cements to abutments varied widely among the products [27-109 N (7-day), 18-80 N (28-days)]. The retentive force of all the cements was not reduced as the time elapsed, except for two products tested. The polycarboxylate cements and paste-mixing type eugenol-free cements revealed comparable retentive force after 28 days of storage. The powder-liquid type cements showed a positive correlation (p<0.05) between the retentive force and the shear strength, while a negative correlation (p<0.05) was obtained for paste-mixing type cement between the retentive force and compressive strength. Mechanical strength of temporary cements could not be a prominent predicting factor for retention of the crowns on the abutments. PMID:25483383

  5. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  6. Reliability of fiber post bonding to root canal dentin after simulated clinical function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bitter, K; Perdigão, J; Exner, M; Neumann, K; Kielbassa, Am; Sterzenbach, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thermomechanical loading (TML) on the bond strength of fiber posts luted with three different resin cements. Sixty-six extracted human anterior teeth were endodontically treated and restored with fiber posts (RelyX Fiber Posts, 3M ESPE) using three commercially available resin cements and three corresponding core build-up materials (n=22 each): Panavia F 2.0/Clearfil DC Core Automix (Kuraray), Variolink II/Multicore Flow (Ivoclar Vivadent), and RelyX Unicem/Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE). Twelve specimens of each group received all-ceramic crowns and were subjected to TML. The other 10 specimens were stored in saline solution for 24 hours. The roots were sectioned and bond strength was measured using a push-out test. Adhesive interfaces of two specimens of each group subjected to TML were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Bond strengths of fiber posts were significantly affected by the type of resin cement (p<0.0005) and TML (p<0.0005; two-way analysis of variance). TML significantly reduced bond strengths for all materials ((6.0 (6.2) MPa)) compared with initial bond strengths ((14.9 (10.4) MPa)). RelyX Unicem resulted in significantly higher bond strengths before ((18.3 (10.3) MPa)) and after TML ((9.8 (7.5) MPa)) compared with the other materials (p<0.0005; Tukey HSD). Using FESEM, Variolink II and Panavia F demonstrated a hybrid layer partly detached from the underlying resin cement, whereas no hybrid layer was observed for RelyX Unicem. The decrease in bond strength after TML suggests that retention of fiber posts may be reduced after clinical function. Therefore, endodontically treated teeth that are restored using fiber posts may benefit from additional reinforcement via coronal restorations using adequate ferrules and/or adhesive techniques. PMID:22339386

  7. Set retarded cement compositions and methods for well cementing

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, L.E.; Lindsey, D.W.; Terry, D.T.

    1990-07-17

    This patent describes a method of cementing a zone in a subterranean formation penetrated by a wellbore; It comprises: forming a pumpable set retarded cement slurry comprising hydraulic cement, fresh water, particulate silica having a particle size in the range of from about 0.02 to about 0.5 micron and a set retarder comprising a copolymer consisting essentially of 2-acrylamido, 2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) and acrylic acid having an average molecular weight below about 5000 and comprising from about 40 to about 60 mole percent AMPS; pumping the cement slurry into the zone by way of the wellbore, and allowing the cement slurry to set therein.

  8. Initial Sliding Wear Kinetics of Two Types of Glass Ionomer Cement: A Tribological Study

    PubMed Central

    Ponthiaux, Pierre; Pradelle-Plasse, Nelly; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Colon, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the initial wear kinetics of two different types of glass ionomer cement used in dentistry (the conventional glass ionomer cement and the resin-modified glass ionomer cement) under sliding friction after 28-day storing in distilled water or Ringer's solution. Sliding friction was applied through a pin-on-disk tribometer, in sphere-on-plane contact conditions, under 5 N normal load and 120 rotations per minute. The test lasted 7500 cycles and replicas were performed at 2500, 5000 and 7500 cycles. A profilometer was used to evaluate the wear volume. Data were analysed using Student's t-test at a significant level of 5%. There is no statistical significant difference between the results obtained for a given material with the maturation media (P > 0.05). However, for a given maturation medium, there are significant statistical differences between the data obtained for the two materials at each measurement (P < 0.0001). The wear rates of both materials decrease continuously during the running-in period between 0 and 2500 cycles. After 2500 cycles, the wear rate becomes constant and equal for both materials. The resin matrix contained in the resin-modified glass ionomer cement weakens the tribological behaviour of this material. PMID:25093185

  9. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  10. Novel experimental cements for use on the dentin-pulp complex.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Raquel Venâncio Fernandes; Conde, Marcus Cristian Muniz; Sarmento, Hugo Ramalho; Zanchi, Cesar Henrique; Tarquinio, Sandra Beatriz Chaves; Ogliari, Fabrício Aulo; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2012-01-01

    This aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and biological properties of novel experimental cements (Hybrid, Paste and Resin) based on synergistic combinations of existing materials, including pH, diametral tensile strength (DTS) and cytotoxicity comparing them with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA - Angelus®) and a glass ionomer cement (GIC) developed at our laboratory. For the physicochemical and biological tests, specimens with standard dimensions were produced. pH measurements were performed with digital pH meter at the following time intervals: 3, 24, 48 and 72 h. For the DTS test, cylindrical specimens were subjected to compressive load until fracture. The MTT assay was performed for cytotoxicity evaluation. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). Paste group showed pH values similar to MTA, and Hybrid group presented pH values similar to GIC (p>0.05). The tested materials showed pH values ranging from alkaline to near neutrality at the evaluated times. MTA and GIC showed similar DTS values. The lowest and highest DTS values were seen in the Paste and Resin groups, respectively (p<0.05). Cell viability for MTA and experimental Hybrid, Paste and Resin groups was 49%, 93%, 90% and 86%, respectively, when compared with the control group. The photo-cured experimental resin cement showed similar or superior performance compared with the current commercial or other tested experimental materials. PMID:23207847

  11. Nontoxic Resins Advance Aerospace Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year, PETI-330, is a polyimide matrix resin that performs well at high temperatures and is easily processed into composites in a simple, short curing cycle. Invented by scientists at Langley Research Center, PETI-330 is now licensed to Ube Industries, based in Japan with its American headquarters in New York. In addition to being durable and lightweight, the resin is also nontoxic, which makes it safe for workers to handle. PETI-330 was created specifically for heat-resistant composites formed with resin transfer molding and resin infusion, which formerly could only be used with low temperature resin systems.

  12. Gentamicin in bone cement

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Y.; Tai, C-L.; Hsieh, P-H.; Ueng, S. W. N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to determine an optimal antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) for infection prophylaxis in total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Methods We evaluated the antibacterial effects of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cements loaded with vancomycin, teicoplanin, ceftazidime, imipenem, piperacillin, gentamicin, and tobramycin against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Standardised cement specimens made from 40 g PMMA loaded with 1 g antibiotics were tested for elution characteristics, antibacterial activities, and compressive strength in vitro. Results The ALBC containing gentamicin provided a much longer duration of antibiotic release than those containing other antibiotic. Imipenem-loading on the cement had a significant adverse effect on the compressive strength of the ALBC, which made it insufficient for use in prosthesis fixation. All of the tested antibiotics maintained their antibacterial properties after being mixed with PMMA. The gentamicin-loaded ALBC provided a broad antibacterial spectrum against all the test organisms and had the greatest duration of antibacterial activity against MSSA, CoNS, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Conclusion When considering the use of ALBC as infection prophylaxis in TJA, gentamicin-loaded ALBC may be a very effective choice. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:220–6. PMID:24128666

  13. [Radioactivity of bone cement].

    PubMed

    Scherer, M A; Winkler, R; Ascherl, R; Lenz, E

    1993-01-01

    A total of 14 samples of different types of bone cement from five different manufacturers were examined for their radioactivity. Each of the investigated bone cements showed a low radioactivity level, i.e. between < 1 and 100 Bq/kg. The content of U-238 and K-40 always was below the limit of detection (< 1-< 10 Bq/kg). Significant differences were detected in the amount of Ra-226, Pb-210, and Ra-228 detected between different samples of the same product from the same manufacturer, as well as between various types of cements. The highest radioactivity level was measured for Ra-226. Although stochastic radiation effects can not totally be excluded, it is extremely unlikely that the small amount of radioactive substances additionally transferred into the body by the bone cement has negative effects on the recipient's organism or on the fate of the alloplastic implant: "The risk factor and extrapolation in a low dosage range ... do not lead to an underestimation but more likely to an overestimation of the radiation hazard" [18]. PMID:8441806

  14. Quality improvement of photopolimerizable-cement root canal obturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupato Conrado, Luis A.; Frois, Iris M.; Amaro Zangaro, Renato; Munin, Egberto; Kuranaga, Carlos; Dias da Silva, Marcos; do Carmo de Andrade Nono, Maria; Cerquiera Rezende, Mirabel

    2003-06-01

    The sealing cements commonly used for endodontic applications are of the type cured through chemical reactions. During the polymerization process, mechanical contractions are not uncommon, leading to a non-perfect sealing. Photopolymerizable cements usually presents superior performance as compared to those chemically activated. However, difficulties in carrying the light to difficult-to-reach regions like the dental apex preclude those material of being accepted in the dental office routine. This work reports on a novel technique which allow the light curing of photopolymerizable cements in endodontic applications. A special light guide had been developed to allow the curing light to reach and polymerize the sealing cement in the apex region. The technique was tested by using single-root human teeth with normal canal morphology. The Ultradent EndoREZ root canal sealer and a resin-based photopolymerizable filler specially developed for the current application had been used. The cone-shaped light guide was introduced into treated canals filled with the photopolymerizable material, up to the apical region. Light from an argon laser was launched onto the light guide for polymerization. All test samples were immersed in methylene-blue solution for microleakage testing. All samples treated with the self-polymerizable material presented dye penetration to some extent. No sample within the group which had the filling material polymerized by using the light guide presented dye penetration through the canal wall.

  15. Westinghouse Cementation Facility of Solid Waste Treatment System - 13503

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Torsten; Aign, Joerg [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Global Waste Management, Tarpenring 6, D- 22419 Hamburg (Germany)] [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Global Waste Management, Tarpenring 6, D- 22419 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    During NPP operation, several waste streams are generated, caused by different technical and physical processes. Besides others, liquid waste represents one of the major types of waste. Depending on national regulation for storage and disposal of radioactive waste, solidification can be one specific requirement. To accommodate the global request for waste treatment systems Westinghouse developed several specific treatment processes for the different types of waste. In the period of 2006 to 2008 Westinghouse awarded several contracts for the design and delivery of waste treatment systems related to the latest CPR-1000 nuclear power plants. One of these contracts contains the delivery of four Cementation Facilities for waste treatment, s.c. 'Follow on Cementations' dedicated to three locations, HongYanHe, NingDe and YangJiang, of new CPR-1000 nuclear power stations in the People's Republic of China. Previously, Westinghouse delivered a similar cementation facility to the CPR-1000 plant LingAo II, in Daya Bay, PR China. This plant already passed the hot functioning tests successfully in June 2012 and is now ready and released for regular operation. The 'Follow on plants' are designed to package three 'typical' kind of radioactive waste: evaporator concentrates, spent resins and filter cartridges. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the Westinghouse experience to design and execution of cementation facilities. (authors)

  16. High elastic modulus nanopowder reinforced resin composites for dental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yijun

    2007-12-01

    Dental restorations account for more than $3 billion dollars a year on the market. Among them, all-ceramic dental crowns draw more and more attention and their popularity has risen because of their superior aesthetics and biocompatibility. However, their relatively high failure rate and labor-intensive fabrication procedure still limit their application. In this thesis, a new family of high elastic modulus nanopowder reinforced resin composites and their mechanical properties are studied. Materials with higher elastic modulus, such as alumina and diamond, are used to replace the routine filler material, silica, in dental resin composites to achieve the desired properties. This class of composites is developed to serve (1) as a high stiffness support to all-ceramic crowns and (2) as a means of joining independently fabricated crown core and veneer layers. Most of the work focuses on nano-sized Al2O3 (average particle size 47 nm) reinforcement in a polymeric matrix with 50:50 Bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA): triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. Surfactants, silanizing agents and primers are examined to obtain higher filler levels and enhance the bonding between filler and matrix. Silane agents work best. The elastic modulus of a 57.5 vol% alumina/resin composite is 31.5 GPa compared to current commercial resin composites with elastic modulus <15 GPa. Chemical additives can also effectively raise the hardness to as much as 1.34 GPa. Besides>alumina, diamond/resin composites are studied. An elastic modulus of about 45 GPa is obtained for a 57 vol% diamond/resin composite. Our results indicate that with a generally monodispersed nano-sized high modulus filler, relatively high elastic modulus resin-based composite cements are possible. Time-dependent behavior of our resin composites is also investigated. This is valuable for understanding the behavior of our material and possible fatigue testing in the future. Our results indicate that with effective coupling agents and higher filler loading, viscous flow can be greatly decreased due to the attenuation of mobility of polymer chains. Complementary studies indicate that our resin composites are promising for the proposed applications as a stiff support to all-ceramic crowns.

  17. Cleft palate rehabilitation using a resin-bonded split-post prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Ali, A; Lock, J

    1989-04-01

    For the patient described in this report a nonprecious metal alloy that contains neither beryllium nor nickel was used. The retainers were sandblasted with 50 microns alumina and cemented by using a resin that bonds chemically to metal. With good oral hygiene and regular review the resin-bonded split-post prosthesis should provide a long period of service. In contrast to conventional fixed restorations, failure of this type of prosthesis is not highly destructive and other restorative options are still possible if failure occurs. PMID:2656999

  18. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved cement, causing its volume to expand.

  19. Resin composite restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Ilie, N; Hickel, R

    2011-06-01

    This paper surveys the most important developments in resin-based dental composites and focuses on the deficits (e.g. polymerization shrinkage) and strengths of the materials and their clinical implications. Moreover, differences between composite categories, such as hybrid, nanohybrid, microfilled, packable, ormocer-based, silorane-based, polyacid-modified composites (compomers) and flowable composites are highlighted, especially in view of their mechanical behaviour. In addition to the classical dimethacrylate-based composites, special attention is given to alternative monomers, such as siloranes, ormocers or high-molecular-weight dimethacrylate monomers (e.g. dimer acid-based dimethacrylates and tricyclodecane (TCD)-urethane), analysing their advantages, behaviour and abilities. Finally, the paper attempts to establish the needs and wishes of clinicians for further development of resin-based composites. PMID:21564116

  20. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  1. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  2. Design guidelines for steel-reinforced polymer concrete using resins based on recycled PET

    SciTech Connect

    Rebeiz, K.S. [Lafayette Coll., Easton, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Fowler, D.W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Very little research has been done on the structural behavior of steel-reinforced polymer concrete (PC). In all the previous studies, it was generally assumed that the structural behavior of reinforced PC is similar to the structural behavior of reinforced portland cement concrete because both are composite materials consisting of a binder and inorganic aggregates. However, the design equations developed for steel-reinforced portland cement concrete yield very conservative results when applied to reinforced PC. The objective of this paper is to recommend simple, yet effective design guidelines in shear and flexure for steel-reinforced PC. The recommended design procedures are mostly based on test results performed on PC beams using resins based on recycled poly(ethyleneterephthalate), PET, plastic waste (the PET waste is mainly recovered from used beverage bottles). Previous studies have shown that polyester resins based on recycled PET can produce very good quality PC at a potentially lower cost.

  3. Abrasive wear of cemented carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Wilson, Rick D.

    2003-10-01

    Cemented carbides are used for a wide variety of applications where wear is a problem. Usually the wear of the cemented carbides is a combination of metal-to-metal and abrasion. Wear can occur at room or elevated temperatures. This research summarizes initial research to understand the abrasive wear of various cemented carbides (various grain sizes, carbide types, carbide grain sizes and binder compositions) in terms of absolute material removal rates and material removal mechanisms.

  4. Cementing techniques in hip resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Chandler, M; Kowalski, R S Z; Watkins, N D; Briscoe, A; New, A M R

    2006-02-01

    The subject of the cementing technique in hip resurfacing has been poorly studied to date. The hip resurfacing prosthesis is unique in the family of cemented prostheses because the cement mantle is blind (hidden underneath the implant) and is radiographically obscured. This presents an immediate challenge to the surgeon at the time of surgery, but also has a longer-term implication in terms of lack of post-operative clinical observation. This should be compared with total hip replacement or total knee replacement where the cement mantle can at least be partially observed both intra- and post-operatively. With this in mind, the objective of this review is, firstly, to understand the cement mantles typically achieved in current clinical practice and, secondly, to identify those factors affecting the cement mantle and to consolidate them into an improved and reproducible cementing technique. The outcome of this work shows that the low-viscosity technique can commonly lead to excessive cement penetration in the proximal femoral head and an incompletely seated component, whereas a more consistent controlled cement mantle can be achieved with a high-viscosity cementing technique. Consequently, it is recommended that a high-viscosity technique should be used to minimize the build-up of excessive cement, to reduce the temperature created by the exothermic polymerization, and to help to ensure correct seating of the prosthesis. A combination of these factors is potentially critical to the clinical success of some articular surface replacement (ASR) procedures. It is important to note that we specifically studied the DePuy ASR system; therefore only the general principles (and not the specifics) of the cementing technique may apply to other resurfacing prostheses, because of differences in internal geometry, clearance, and surgical technique. PMID:16669398

  5. Vitrification of ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Workman, Rhonda Jackson (North Augusta, SC)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to vitrification of ion exchange resins that have become loaded with hazardous or radioactive wastes, in a way that produces a homogenous and durable waste form and reduces the disposal volume of the resin. The methods of the present invention involve directly adding borosilicate glass formers and an oxidizer to the ion exchange resin and heating the mixture at sufficient temperature to produce homogeneous glass.

  6. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this...

  7. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this...

  8. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this...

  9. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this...

  11. Curing efficiency of various resin-based materials polymerized through different ceramic thicknesses and curing time

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Won; Cha, Hyun-Suk

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the curing efficiency of various resin-based materials polymerized through ceramic restorations with 3 different thicknesses. Curing efficiency was evaluated by determining the surface microhardness (VHN) of the resin specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four kinds of resin materials were used. Z350 (3M ESPE Filtek™ Z350: A2 Shade), Z250 (3M ESPE Filtek™ Z250: A2 Shade) and Variolink® II (VL: Ivoclar vivadent, base: transparent) either with or without a self-curing catalyst (VLC: Ivoclar vivadent, catalyst: low viscosity/transparent) were filled into the silicone mold (10 mm diameter, 1 mm thick). They were cured through ceramic discs (IPS e.max Press MO-0 ingot ivoclar vivadent, 10 mm diameter, 0.5, 1 and 2 mm thicknesses) by LED light-curing units for 20 and 40 seconds. Vicker's microhardness numbers (VHNs) were measured on the bottom surfaces by a microhardness tester. Data were analyzed using a 3- way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS The thickness of ceramic disc increased, the VHNs of all four resin types were decreased (P<.05). The mean VHN values of the resins light cured for 40 seconds were significantly higher than that of LED for 20 seconds in all four resin materials (P<.05). VLC showed significantly higher VHN values than VL regardless of other conditions (P<.05). Z350 and Z250 showed higher values than VL or VLC (P<.01). CONCLUSION Thinner ceramic disc with increased curing time resulted higher VHN values of all resin materials. The use of a catalyst produced a greater hardness with all polymerization methods. Restorative resin materials (Z350, Z250) showed higher VHN values than resin cement materials (VL, VLC). PMID:22053242

  12. Indirect resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Nandini, Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ‘indirect resin composites,’ composite inlays,’ and ‘fiber-reinforced composites.’ PMID:21217945

  13. Evaluation of Adhesive Bonding of Lithium Disilicate Ceramic Material with Duel Cured Resin Luting Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gundawar, Sham M.; Radke, Usha M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this vitro study was to comparatively evaluate the adhesive bonding of dual cured resin luting agents with lithium disilicate ceramic material. Materials and Methods: Porcelain laminate veneers were prepared with lithium disilicate ceramic material i.e. IPS Empress II( E-Max Press). These laminates were bonded with RelyX ARC, Panavia F 2.0, Variolink II, Duolink and Nexus NX3.The porcelain laminates were etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid (Pulpdent Corporation) for one minute, washed for 15 sec with three way syringe and dried for 15 sec with air syringe. The silane (Ultradent) was applied with the help of applicator tip in a single coat and kept undisturbed for one minute. The prepared surfaces of the premolars were treated with 37% phosphoric acid (Prime dent) for 15 sec, thoroughly rinsed and dried as per manufactures instructions. The shear bond test was carried out on all samples with the Universal testing machine (Instron U.S.A.) The scanning electron microscopic study was performed at the fractured interface of representative samples from each group of luting agents. Result: In this study, the highest value of shear bond strength was obtained for NEXUS NX3 and the lowest for VARIOLINK II. Conclusion: The difference in bond strength can be interpreted as the difference in fracture resistance of luting agents, to which shearing load was applied during the shear bond strength test. It is inferred from this study that the composition of the luting agent determines the adhesive characteristics in addition to surface treatment and bonding surface area. PMID:25859514

  14. Sulphate Resistance of Slag Cements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Low

    1980-01-01

    The vulnerability of concrete to sulphate attack has been recognized and studied for at least two centuries. The basic needs that prompted that study were: (a) there are no available Canadian Standards on the sulphate resistance of slag cements; and (b) slag cements in general are not well known in Canada. There were three main phases in the study: Phase

  15. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.; Pater, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    High char yield epoxy using novel bisimide amines (BIA's) as curing agents with a state of the art epoxy resin was developed. Stoichiometric quantities of the epoxy resin and the BIA's were studied to determine the cure cycle required for preparation of resin specimens. The bisimide cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). The physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these novel resins were determined. The levels of moisture absorption exhibited by the bisimide amine cured expoxies (IME's) were considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies. The strain-to-failure of the control resin system was improved 25% by replacement of DDS with 6F-DDS. Each BIA containing resin exhibited twice the char yield of the control resin MY 720/DDS. Graphite fiber reinforced control (C) and IME resins were fabricated and characterized. Two of the composite systems showed superior properties compared to the other Celion 6000/IME composite systems and state of the art graphite epoxy systems. The two systems exhibited excellent wet shear and flexural strengths and moduli at 300 and 350 F.

  16. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Hou, T. H.; Bai, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A chemoviscosity model, which describes viscosity rise profiles accurately under various cure cycles, and correlates viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with structural transformations of the thermosetting resin system during cure, was established. Work completed on chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins is reported.

  17. Dispersion strengthened cemented carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.A.; Alexander, G.B.; Plichta, M.R.

    1983-09-01

    The research studied the feasibility of strengthening WC-CO cermets by adding refractory oxides to the binder phase. Cemented carbides containing 0.06 to 1.5 vol. % finely dispersed oxide particles in cobalt powder, prior to liquid phase sintering, were densified and compared to undoped control powders. Three different processes for dispersing refractory oxides in cobalt metal were investigated. Results suggest that the oxide particles coalesced and/or segregated to WC-CO interfaces during the liquid-phase sintering process.

  18. Cement brand and preparation effects cement-in-cement mantle shear strength.

    PubMed

    Holsgrove, Timothy P; Pentlow, Alanna; Spencer, Robert F; Miles, Anthony W

    2015-01-01

    Creating bi-laminar cement mantles as part of revision hip arthroplasty is well-documented but there is a lack of data concerning the effect of cement brand on the procedure. The aim of this study was to compare the shear strength of bi-laminar cement mantles using various combinations of two leading bone cement brands.Bi-laminar cement mantles were created using Simplex P with Tobramycin, and Palacos R+G: Simplex-Simplex (SS); Simplex-Palacos (SP); Palacos-Simplex (PS); and Palacos-Palacos (PP). Additionally, specimens were produced by rasping (R) the surface of the original mantle, or leaving it unrasped (U), leading to a total of eight groups (n = 10). Specimens were loaded in shear, at 0.1 mm/min, until failure, and the maximum shear strength calculated.The highest mean shear strength was found in the PSU and PSR groups (23.69 and 23.89 MPa respectively), and the lowest in the PPU group (14.70 MPa), which was significantly lower than all but two groups. Unrasped groups generally demonstrated greater standard error than rasped groups.In a further comparison to assess the effect of the new cement mantle brand, irrespective of the brand of the original mantle, Simplex significantly increased the shear strength compared to Palacos with equivalent preparation.It is recommended that the original mantle is rasped prior to injection of new cement, and that Simplex P with Tobramycin be used in preference to Palacos R+G irrespective of the existing cement type. Further research is needed to investigate more cement brands, and understand the underlying mechanisms relating to cement-in-cement procedures. PMID:25044271

  19. High performance phenolic pultrusion resin

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, S.P.; Ingram, W.H. [Georgia-Pacific Resins, Inc., Decatur, GA (United States); Smith, C. [Morrison Molded Fiber Glass, Bristol, VA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Today, Phenol-Formaldehyde (PF) resins are the materials of choice for aerospace interior applications, primarily due to low FST (flame, smoke and toxicity). Since 1990, growth of PF resins has been steadily increasing in non-aerospace applications (which include mass transit, construction, marine, mine ducting and offshore oil) due to low FST and reasonable cost. This paper describes one component phenol-formaldehyde resin that was jointly developed with Morrison Molded Fiber Glass for their pultrusion process. Physical properties of the resin with flame/smoke/toxicity, chemical resistance and mechanical performance of the pultruded RP are discussed. Neat resin screening tests to identify high-temperature formulations are explored. Research continues at Georgia-Pacific to investigate the effect of formulation variables on processing and mechanical properties.

  20. Antibacterial properties of amalgam and composite resin materials used as cores under crowns.

    PubMed

    Al Ghadban, A; Al Shaarani, F

    2012-06-01

    The Aim of this Study was to compare the bacterial growth in the bulk of both amalgam and fluoridated composite resin materials used as cores under crowns at core's surface (in the superficial area of the bulk) and depth levels. With 24 lower premolars, 12 of them were restored with metal posts and amalgam cores (group 1). The rest were restored with glass Fiber-reinforced Composite (FRC) posts and fluoridated composite resin cores (group 2). All specimens were covered with aluminium crowns cemented with resin cement, and then they were soaked in natural saliva for three months. Excoriations abraded from the superficial and the depth areas of the core materials were cultured under aerobic conditions on blood agar plates. After incubation for 2 days, colonies formed on the plates were identified, and the CFU mg(-1) counts were recorded accordingly. Statistical analysis was performed using an independent sample T test. The mean values of CFU mg(-1) counts in group 2 excoriations (surface 39.75, and depth 9.75) were higher than the group 1 excoriations (surface 1.67, and depth 0.42). This study supports the use of amalgam for building up cores due to its antibacterial properties. Composite resin, however, enhanced sizable bacterial growth despite the presence of fluoride. PMID:22852523

  1. Dual setting ?-tricalcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Christel, T; Kuhlmann, M; Vorndran, E; Groll, J; Gbureck, U

    2013-03-01

    An extension of the application of calcium phosphate cements (CPC) to load-bearing defects, e.g. in vertebroplasty, would require less brittle cements with an increased fracture toughness. Here we report the modification of CPC made of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) with 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), which is polymerised during setting to obtain a mechanically stable polymer-ceramic composite with interpenetrating organic and inorganic networks. The cement liquid was modified by the addition of 30-70 % HEMA and ammoniumpersulfate/tetramethylethylendiamine as initiator. Modification of ?-TCP cement paste with HEMA decreased the setting time from 14 min to 3-8 min depending on the initiator concentration. The 4-point bending strength was increased from 9 MPa to more than 14 MPa when using 50 % HEMA, while the bending modulus decreased from 18 GPa to approx. 4 GPa. The addition of ?50 % HEMA reduced the brittle fracture behaviour of the cements and resulted in an increase of the work of fracture by more than an order of magnitude. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the degree of transformation of ?-TCP to calcium deficient hydroxyapatite was lower for polymer modified cements (82 % for polymer free cement and 55 % for 70 % HEMA) after 24 h setting, while the polymerisation of HEMA in the cement liquid was quantitative according to FT-IR spectroscopy. This work demonstrated the feasibility of producing fracture resistant dual-setting calcium phosphate cements by adding water soluble polymerisable monomers to the liquid cement phase, which may be suitable for an application in load-bearing bone defects. PMID:23239262

  2. Corrosion resistant cemented carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, J.

    1990-10-16

    This paper describes a corrosion resistant cemented carbide composite. It comprises: a granular tungsten carbide phase, a semi-continuous solid solution carbide phase extending closely adjacent at least a portion of the grains of tungsten carbide for enhancing corrosion resistance, and a substantially continuous metal binder phase. The cemented carbide composite consisting essentially of an effective amount of an anti-corrosion additive, from about 4 to about 16 percent by weight metal binder phase, and with the remaining portion being from about 84 to about 96 percent by weight metal carbide wherein the metal carbide consists essentially of from about 4 to about 30 percent by weight of a transition metal carbide or mixtures thereof selected from Group IVB and of the Periodic Table of Elements and from about 70 to about 96 percent tungsten carbide. The metal binder phase consists essentially of nickel and from about 10 to about 25 percent by weight chromium, the effective amount of an anti-corrosion additive being selected from the group consisting essentially of copper, silver, tine and combinations thereof.

  3. Resin composite repair: Quantitative microleakage evaluation of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces with different surface treatments

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Cigdem; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Arhun, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of different adhesive systems and surface treatments on the integrity of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces after partial removal of preexisting resin composites using quantitative image analysis for microleakage testing protocol. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 human molar teeth were restored with either of the resin composites (Filtek Z250/GrandioSO) occlusally. The teeth were thermocycled (1000×). Mesial and distal 1/3 parts of the restorations were removed out leaving only middle part. One side of the cavity was finished with course diamond bur and the other was air-abraded with 50 ?m Al2O3. They were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10) to receive: Group 1: Adper Single Bond 2; Group 2: All Bond 3; Group 3: ClearfilSE; Group 4: BeautiBond, before being repaired with the same resin composite (Filtek Z250). The specimens were re-thermocycled (1000×), sealed with nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin, sectioned mesiodistally and photographed digitally. The extent of dye penetration was measured by image analysis software (ImageJ) for both bur-finished and air-abraded surfaces at resin-tooth and resin-resin interfaces. The data were analyzed statistically. Results: BeautiBond exhibited the most microleakage at every site. Irrespective of adhesive and initial composite type, air-abrasion showed less microleakage except for BeautiBond. The type of initial repaired restorative material did not affect the microleakage. BeautiBond adhesive may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention. Conclusions: Surface treatment with air-abrasion produced the lowest microleakage scores, independent of the adhesive systems and the pre-existing resin composite type. Pre-existing composite type does not affect the microleakage issue. All-in-one adhesive resin (BeautiBond) may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention. PMID:25713491

  4. Resin reinforced expansion anchor system

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.A.; Wright, R.L.

    1988-08-16

    An expansion anchor assembly is described in combination with a dual compartment resin and cartridge inserted into a mine roof opening, the anchor assembly including: (a) an elongated bolt having a head at one end and threaded for a portion of its length at the other end; (b) an expansion member engaged with the threaded end of the bolt; (c) the expansion member including an expansion shell having a plurality of leaf segments; (d) a first means for engaging the expansion shell with the elongated bolt; (e) a wedge threaded on the elongated bolt for engagement with the expansion shell to urge the latter into gripping engagement with the mine roof; (f) a first resin passageway means on the outer surface of the wedge for permitting resin to gravitate therethrough; (g) the leaf segments of the expansion shell being separated to form a second resin passageway means aligned with the first resin passageway means, whereby resin may gravitate downwardly through substantially the entire length of the assembly, and (h) a second means within the first passageway and engageable with one of the leaf segments to prevent relative rotation of the wedge member with respect to the expansion shell; (i) the resin being mixed upon rotation of the bolt and expansion member and gravitating downwardly through the first and second passageway means into engagement with that portion of the mine roof defining the mine roof opening.

  5. DIRECT ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING

    E-print Network

    Mamishev, Alexander

    . ABSTRACT Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) is a manufacturing process that involves injection of liquid resin involves injection of a liquid resin into a closed mold cavity containing preset fiber mats (also calledDIRECT ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING B. Minaie1,* , W. Li, J. Gou1 , Y. Chen2 , A

  6. Process analysis of compression resin transfer molding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prabhas Bhat; Justin Merotte; Pavel Simacek; Suresh G. Advani

    2009-01-01

    Compression resin transfer molding process (CRTM) combines features of compression molding with traditional Resin Transfer Molding (RTM). The CRTM process is described in three stages, with resin being injected into the gap in Stage I, closing of the gap in Stage II and actual compression of preform and re-distribution of the resin in Stage III. To fabricate a void free

  7. Constraints on monitoring resin flow in the resin transfer molding (RTM) process by using thermocouple sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goker Tuncol; Murat Danisman; Alper Kaynar; E. Murat Sozer

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a thermocouple sensor system was used to monitor the resin transfer molding (RTM) process. These sensors are low-cost and durable; and they do not disturb the resin flow. They can be used if the inlet resin is either hotter or colder than the mold walls. In experiments of this study, much of the hot resin’s internal energy

  8. Radiofrequency activation of epoxy resins

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, M.; Vallet, Y.; Alazard, P. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Toulouse (France)

    1995-12-01

    A DGEBA epoxy resin in presence of Diaminodiphenylmethane used as curing agent is crosslinked under radiofrequency (27.12 MHz) irradiation, at given electrical power or voltage. The mechanisms of the polymerization reaction are explained through the study of the time dependence of the electrical parameters and of the average temperature of the chemical medium. The determination of the glassy transition temperatures of the polymeric networks, initial and stabilized after intensive postcure, respectively correlated with the extent of conversion of the epoxy resin and the structural homogeneity shows that the radiofrequency irradiation is as efficient as the microwaves as for the activation of the cure of the epoxy resins.

  9. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.; Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    High temperature resin matrices suitable for use in advanced graphite fiber composites for jet engine applications were evaluated. A series of planned, sequential screening experiments with resin systems in composite form were performed to reduce the number of candidates to a single A-type polyimide resin that repetitively produced void-free, high strength and modulus composites acceptable for use in the 550 F range for 1000 hours. An optimized processing procedure was established for this system. Extensive mechanical property studies characterized this single system, at room temperature, 500 F, 550 F and 600 F, for various exposure times.

  10. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Trochimcznk, A.W.; Gatrone, R.C.; Alexandratos, S.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1997-04-08

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorus. The pendent groups have the formula as shown in the patent wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R{sup 1} is hydrogen or an C{sub 1}-C{sub 2} alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

  11. Holocene cemented beach deposits in Belize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eberhard Gischler; Anthony J. Lomando

    1997-01-01

    Two types of cemented beach deposits occur on reef islands off the coast of Belize. These are (1) intertidal beachrock that is dominantly cemented by marine aragonite and high-magnesium-calcite cements, and (2) supratidal cayrock that is cemented mainly by vadose low-magnesium-calcite cements. Besides differences in position relative to present sea level and resulting early diagenesic features, beachrock and cayrock can

  12. Phenoxy Resins Containing Pendent Ethynyl Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    Ethynyl-containing phenoxy resins have excellent shelf life in solution or in bulk. Cured ethynyl-containing phenoxy resins offer lower moisture absorption, higher use temperatures, and better thermal stability over stateof-the-art cross-linked phenoxy resins. Depending upon cross-link density, cured ethynyl-modified phenoxy resins are solvent resistant but still thermoformable and relatively tough. Modified resins show potential for use as adhesives, composite matrices, solvent-resistant coatings, membranes, insulators, and films.

  13. Effects of abutment and screw access channel modification on dislodgement of cement-retained implant-supported restorations.

    PubMed

    Wadhwani, Chandur; Hess, Timothy; Pineyro, Alfonso; Chung, Kwok-Hung

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of implant abutment and screw access channel modification on the retention of copings. Titanium abutment access openings were either left open or modified by placing two vent holes 3 mm from the occlusal edge and 180 degrees apart. Access openings sealed with a resin material were used as controls. Metal copings were cemented and subjected to tensile testing until failure. Access openings with two vent holes resulted in significantly higher mean retention values compared to the opened or sealed screw access groups (P < .05). Cement flow was affected by the internal vent, which increased the area of cementabutment contact. PMID:23342335

  14. Retrofit for Plastic Resin Driers 

    E-print Network

    Joseph, B.; Thuro, G.

    1991-01-01

    Plastic resins used in injection molding have to be dried to specified levels prior to feeding them to the molding machines. Excess moisture if present could cause damage to the injection nozzle and also could cause polymer degradations within...

  15. Silicone resins and their composites

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yuhong, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    Addition cure (X1-2672) and condensation cure (4-3136) silicone resins have been studied for their mechanical property change with temperature. Properties include maximum flexural stress, flexural modulus and fracture ...

  16. Performance Cements Focus on Sustainability

    E-print Network

    - Composite Cement CEM IV - Pozzolanic CEM III - Blast furnace slag CEM II - Portland-composite CEM II - Portland-limestone CEM II - Portland-fly ash CEM II - Portland-pozzolana CEM II - Portland-slag CEM I

  17. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    DOEpatents

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  18. Regenerating Water-Sterilizing Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Iodine-dispensing resin can be regenerated after iodine content has been depleted, without being removed from water system. Resin is used to make water potable by killing bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Regeneration technique may be come basis of water purifier for very long space missions. Enough crystalline iodine for multiple regenerations during mission can be stored in one small cartridge. Cartridge could be inserted in waterline as necessary on signal from iodine monitor or timer.

  19. Guayule resin separation and purification

    E-print Network

    Bajwa, Mohinder P.S.

    1992-01-01

    fraction and reducing the presence of these terpenes to practically non-detectable levels in the polar fraction. A single component, as identified by gas chromatograph (GC) was also effectively extracted from the Texas A&M resins. Saponification... as little as two GC peaks. Chromatography of the resins over silica gel yielded a fraction from which white crystals were obtained. GC analysis showed that these crystals could be a compound of the germacrene family. Column chromatography of the Firestone...

  20. VersaBond bone cement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tore Dalén; Kjell G. Nilsson

    2005-01-01

    VersaBond is a newly developed bone cement. To investigate its clinical performance, VersaBond was compared to Palacos R in a prospective randomized study in total knee replacement. Fifty-nine patients (61 knees) undergoing total knee replacement were randomized to either VersaBond or Palacos R bone cement and followed for 24 months using radiostereometric analysis (RSA).Up to 2 years there were no

  1. Portland cement-blast furnace slag blends in oilwell cementing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.T.; DiLullo, G.; Hibbeler, J. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Recent investigations of blast furnace slag cementing technologies. have been expanded to include Portland cement/blast furnace slag blends. Mixtures of Portland cement and blast furnace slag, while having a long history of use in the construction industry, have not been used extensively in oilwell cementing applications. Test results indicate that blending blast furnace slag with Portland cement produces a high quality well cementing material. Presented are the design guidelines and laboratory test data relative to mixtures of blast furnace slag and Portland cements. Case histories delineating the use of blast furnace slag - Portland cement blends infield applications are also included.

  2. Cement pulmonary embolism after vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sifuentes Giraldo, Walter Alberto; Lamúa Riazuelo, José Ramón; Gallego Rivera, José Ignacio; Vázquez Díaz, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the use of vertebral cementing techniques for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty has spread for the treatment of pain associated with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. This is also associated with the increased incidence of complications related with these procedures, the most frequent being originated by leakage of cementation material. Cement can escape into the vertebral venous system and reach the pulmonary circulation through the azygous system and cava vein, producing a cement embolism. This is a frequent complication, occurring in up to 26% of patients undergoing vertebroplasty but, since most patients have no clinical or hemodynamical repercussion, this event usually goes unnoticed. However, some serious, and even fatal cases, have been reported. We report the case of a 74-year-old male patient who underwent vertebroplasty for persistent pain associated with osteoporotic L3 vertebral fracture and who developed a cement leak into the cava vein and right pulmonary artery during the procedure. Although he developed a pulmonary cement embolism, the patient remained asymptomatic and did not present complications during follow-up. PMID:23481509

  3. Manufacture and properties of fluoride cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malata-Chirwa, Charles David

    This research work aimed at characterising composition, hydration and physical properties of fluoride cement, by studying samples of the cement obtained from Malawi, and comparing them to ordinary Portland cement. By confirming the suitable characteristics of fluoride cement through this work, the results of the research work provide a good basis for the wider adoption of fluoride cement as an alternative to ordinary Portland cement, especially in developing economies. Numerous accounts have been cited regarding the production and use of fluoride cement. Since there have not been conclusive agreement as to its properties, this study was limited to the theories of successful incorporation of fluoride compounds in the manufacture of fluoride cement. Hence, the properties and characteristics reported in this study relate to the cement currently manufactured in Malawi, and, on a comparative basis only, to that manufactured in other parts of the world. Samples of the fluoride cement used in the study were obtained by synthetic manufacture of the cement using common raw materials for the manufacture of fluoride cement that is limestone, silica sand, and fluorspar. These samples were subjected to several comparative tests used to characterise cements including examination under x-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and tests for setting time and compressive strength. Under similar laboratory conditions, it was possible to prove that fluoride cement hardens more rapidly than ordinary Portland cement. Also observed during the experimental work is that fluoride cement develops higher compressive strengths than ordinary Portland cement. The hardening and setting times are significantly different between the two cements. Also the nature of the hydration products, that is the microstructural development is significantly different in the two cements. The differences brought about between the two cements are because of the presence of fluorine during the clinkering process. It was observed in the laboratory simulated production of fluoride cement, that the clinkering temperature is much lower (around 1 170 °C) compared to that for the production of ordinary Portland cement. The other observed differences were attributed to the different mineralogical composition as a result of fluoride incorporation into the cement. While fluorine content is very minimal in fluoride cement, not more than 2 %, the resulting cementitious products are altered significantly as was observed from the study. Part of the experimental results has been used as reference material in the preparation of a draft Malawi Standard on fluoride cement. This draft standard will be submitted to the Malawi Bureau of Standards for further processing before it can be officially endorsed as a Malawi Standard.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF WET-OXIDATION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR FILTER BACKWASH SLUDGE AND ION EXCHANGE RESINS

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, T.; Motoyama, M.; Shibuya, M.; Wada, H.; Yamazaki, K.

    2003-02-27

    Decomposition of organic compounds contained in filter backwash sludge and spent ion exchange resins is considered effective in reducing the waste volume. A system using the wet-oxidation process has been studied for the treatment of the sludge and resins stored at Tsuruga Power Station Unit 1, 357MWe BWR, owned by The Japan Atomic Power Company. Compared with various processes for treating sludge and resin, the wet-oxidation system is rather simple and the process conditions are mild. Waste samples collected from storage tanks were processed by wet-oxidation and appropriate decomposition of the organic compounds was verified. After the decomposition the residue can be solidified with cement or bitumen for final disposal. When compared with direct solidification without decomposition, the number of waste packages can be reduced by a factor of a few dozens for the sludge and three for the resin. Additional measures for conditioning secondary waste products have also been studied, and their applicability to the Tsuruga Power Station was verified. Some of the conditions studied were specific to the Tsuruga Power Station, but it is expected that the system will provide an effective solution for sludge and resin treatment at other NPPs.

  5. Maleimide Functionalized Siloxane Resins

    SciTech Connect

    Loy, D.A.; Shaltout, R.M.

    1999-04-01

    Polyorganosiloxanes are a commercially important class of compounds. They exhibit many important properties, including very low glass transition temperatures, making them useful over a wide temperature range. In practice, the polysiloxane polymer is often mixed with a filler material to help improve its mechanical properties. An alternative method for increasing polymer mechanical strength is through the incorporation of certain substituents on the polymer backbone. Hard substituents such as carbonates and imides generally result in improved mechanical properties of polysiloxanes. In this paper, we present the preparation of novel polysiloxane resins modified with hard maleimide substituents. Protected ethoxysilyl-substituted propyl-maleimides were prepared. The maleimide substituent was protected with a furanyl group and the monomer polymerized under aqueous acidic conditions. At elevated temperatures (>120 C), the polymer undergoes retro Diels-Alder reaction with release of foran (Equation 1). The deprotected polymer can then be selectively crosslinked by a forward Diels-Alder reaction (in the presence of a co-reactant having two or more dime functionalities).

  6. Cusp Fracture Resistance of Maxillary Premolars Restored with the Bonded Amalgam Technique Using Various Luting Agents

    PubMed Central

    Marchan, Shivaughn M.; Coldero, Larry; White, Daniel; Smith, William A. J.; Rafeek, Reisha N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. This in vitro study uses measurements of fracture resistance to compare maxillary premolars restored with the bonded amalgam technique using a new resin luting cement, glass ionomer, and resin-modified glass ionomer as the bonding agents. Materials. Eighty-five sound maxillary premolars were selected and randomly assigned to one of five test groups of 17 teeth each. One group of intact teeth served as the control. The remaining groups were prepared to a standard cavity form relative to the dimensions of the overall tooth and restored with amalgam alone or a bonded amalgam using one of three luting agents: RelyX Arc (a new resin luting cement), RelyX luting (a resin-modified glass ionomer), or Ketac-Cem ? (a glass ionomer) as the bonding agents. Each tooth was then subjected to compressive testing until catastrophic failure occurred. The mean loads at failure of each group were statistically compared using ANOVA with a post hoc Bonferroni test. Results. It was found that regardless of the luting cement used for the amalgam bonding technique, there was little effect on the fracture resistance of teeth. Conclusion. Cusp fracture resistance of premolars prepared with conservative MOD cavity preparations is not improved by using an amalgam-bonding technique compared to similar cavities restored with amalgam alone. PMID:20339450

  7. Elastic properties of resin-based filling materials.

    PubMed

    Gjerdet, N R

    1976-11-01

    Some aspects of the viscoelastic behavior of resin-based filling materials have been studied by the use of a bending test. The specimens, designed as cantilever beams were loaded for 30 sec and then unloaded. The tests were performed at 1/2 h, 1 h, 3h, 24 h, and 1 week after mixing of the materials. The strains were measured by electric strain gauges cemented to the tensile side of the beam. Six products were tested, five of them composites. Different brands of materials showed considerable variation in degree of viscoelastic behavior. The value for elastic after-effect decreased markedly with time, reaching a fairly constant value at 24 h. Elastic moduli showed a similar increase and the stiffest materials exhibited the least elastic after-effect. PMID:1070137

  8. Stage cementing valve

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, H.E.; Adams, R.W.

    1989-11-14

    This patent describes a method for stage cementing a string of pipe in a well bore. The string of pipe includes a stage valve having a tubular valve collar intermediate of its length and has a tubular sleeve valve member slidably received in the stage collar for movement between first and second longitudinal positions relative to the stage collar and where the sleeve valve member has a flange in engagement with an engagement surface on the valve collar in the first longitudinal position. The sleeve valve member has a piston portion located in an annular chamber between the sleeve valve member and the valve collar and where the sleeve valve member has a sleeve valve port with access to one surface of the piston portion in the annular chamber for placing the one surface in fluid communication with the bore of the sleeve valve member. The valve collar has a valve collar port with access to the other surface of the of the piston portion in the annular chamber for placing the other surface in fluid communication with the exterior of the valve collar. The piston portion separates the sleeve valve port from the valve collar in a the first longitudinal position and permits the ports to be in fluid communication with one another in an the second longitudinal position.

  9. Schaumkohle (foam-coal) and Dr. Heinrich Schmitt-Werke A. G. [Coal in phenolic resin with water vaporized

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Jones; R. A. A. Taylor; F. A. Williams

    2008-01-01

    This report was a summary of the interrogation of Heinrich Schmitt and his brothers to obtain information about the foam-coal they developed, in particular its use as aviation fuel. Coal granules of .5 mm to 2.5 mm diameter from bituminous or anthracite coals were cemented together with water-soluble phenolic resin. This mixture was slightly compressed, molded, then heated to vaporize

  10. Effect of fluoride varnish on demineralization adjacent to brackets bonded with RMGI cement.

    PubMed

    Schmit, Jason L; Staley, Robert N; Wefel, James S; Kanellis, Michael; Jakobsen, Jane R; Keenan, Peter J

    2002-08-01

    Far too often a less-than-optimal esthetic result occurs after orthodontic treatment due to demineralization of enamel adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances in patients with inadequate oral hygiene. In vitro studies have shown that a resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) cement and a fluoride varnish might help clinicians combat this problem. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the effect of a fluoride-releasing cavity varnish on inhibition of enamel demineralization adjacent to orthodontic brackets bonded with RMGI and composite resin cements. Brackets were bonded to 48 extracted human third molars. Half were bonded with a composite resin (Transbond, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) and half with an RMGI (Fuji Ortho LC, GC America, Alsip, Ill). Each group was further divided into 2, with half receiving an application of fluoride-releasing varnish (Duraflor, Pharmascience, Montreal, Québec, Canada). The samples were cycled in an artificial caries solution for an hour twice daily for 31 days. After each caries challenge, the teeth were brushed with a soft toothbrush to simulate normal mechanical wear of the varnish. The loss of fluoride varnish was timed. Teeth were sectioned longitudinally and photographed under polarized light microscopy. Mean lesion depth was measured, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) (P resin showed a 35% reduction in mean lesion depth when fluoride varnish was applied. Teeth bonded with RMGI cement showed no significant differences in lesion depth between varnish and nonvarnish groups. Both RMGI groups had 50% smaller mean lesion depths when compared with the composite resin group without fluoride varnish. Samples bonded with RMGI cement illustrated a wedge effect, with lesion depth shallower near the bracket. A chi-square test showed that the fluoride varnish was lost significantly faster in samples bonded with Fuji Ortho LC (P =.013). Although the fluoride varnish could not prevent demineralization, it appears to be beneficial in reducing lesion formation. Clinicians should consider applying fluoride varnish on areas of enamel that exhibit demineralization or are at risk of demineralization in patients with poor oral hygiene. PMID:12165766

  11. Patch microstructure in cement-based materials: Fact or artefact?

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, H.S. [Concrete Durability Group, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: hong.wong@imperial.ac.uk; Buenfeld, N.R. [Concrete Durability Group, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    The appearance of patch microstructure, i.e. broad dense and porous regions separated by sharp and distinct boundaries and occurring randomly in bulk and interfacial transition zones, has been reported previously in various site- and laboratory-mixed concretes and mortars. In this paper, evidence is presented to show that patch microstructure is an artefact of sample preparation and does not reflect the true nature of the hydrated cement paste. The appearance of dense patches comes from paste areas that have been ground and polished beyond the epoxy resin intrusion depth. In a backscattered electron image, pores not filled with epoxy are not visible because the signal is generated from the base or side walls of the pores. A modified method for epoxy impregnation, which can achieve a much deeper epoxy penetration than conventional vacuum impregnation, is presented.

  12. Molecular Self-Assembled Microcapsules Prepared by In Situ Polymerization Technology for Self-Healing Cement Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shenguang Ge; Fuwei Wan; Juanjuan Lu; Jinghua Yu

    Monodisperse core–shell microcapsules have been widely used as self-healing cement materials and paid more attentions. A new\\u000a series of self-assembled microcapsules containing poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) as shell material were prepared by in situ\\u000a polymerization technology. The microencapsulating process of core material using mixture of epoxy resins and benzyl alcohol\\u000a was monitored using optical microscopy (OM). Morphology and shell wall thickness of microcapsule

  13. Set retarded cement compositions and methods for well cementing

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, L.E.; Lindsey, D.W.; Terry, D.T.

    1991-09-17

    This patent describes a retarded cement composition consisting essentially of hydraulic cement, water, a set retarder and a borate compound. It comprises the set retarder, a copolymer consisting of acrylic acid and 2-acrylamido, 2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) present in the copolymer in the range of from about 40 to about 60 mole percent, the copolymer having an average molecular weight below about 5,000 such that a 10 percent aqueous solution of the copolymer has a Brookfield viscosity reading at 20 rpm of the UL Adapter Spindle in the range of from about 2 to less than 5 centipoises, the amount in the range of from about 0.3 percent to about 5.0 percent by weight of the hydraulic cement; and further wherein the borate compound is capable of providing a borate ion species in the composition.

  14. 76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade...resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy...duty orders on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and...

  15. Low Melt Viscosity Resins for Resin Transfer Molding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, resin transfer molding (RTM) has become one of the methods of choice for high performance composites. Its cost effectiveness and ease of fabrication are major advantages of RTM. RTM process usually requires resins with very low melt viscosity (less than 10 Poise). The optimum RTM resins also need to display high thennal-oxidative stability, high glass transition temperature (T(sub g)), and good toughness. The traditional PMR-type polyimides (e.g. PMR-15) do not fit this requirement, because the viscosities are too high and the nadic endcap cures too fast. High T(sub g), low-melt viscosity resins are highly desirable for aerospace applications and NASA s Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. The objective of this work is to prepare low-melt viscosity polyimide resins for RTM or resin film infusion (RFI) processes. The approach involves the synthesis of phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers. These materials have been designed to minimize their melt viscosity so that they can be readily processed. During the cure, the oligomers undergo both chain extension and crosslinking via the thermal polymerization of the phenylethynyl groups. The Phenylethynyl endcap is preferred over the nadic group due to its high curing temperature, which provides broader processing windows. This work involved the synthesis and polymerization of oligomers containing zig-zag backbones and twisted biphenyl structures. Some A-B type precursors which possessed both nitro and anhydride functionality, or both nitro and amine functionality, were also synthesized in order to obtain the well defined oligomers. The resulting zig-zag structured oligomers were then end-capped with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) for further cure. The properties of these novel imide oligomers are evaluated.

  16. Optical properties of composite resins.

    PubMed

    Grajower, R; Wozniak, W T; Lindsay, J M

    1982-09-01

    The translucency and colour of a composite resin are characterized by two wavelength-dependent parameters: the absorption coefficient, K and the scattering coefficient, S. These parameters were calculated according to the Kubelka-Munk (1931) equations for two commercial resins. The calculations were based on reflectance spectra of samples of different thicknesses which were placed on a black and a white background. Employing the values of these parameters, calculated spectra were obtained of samples on the same as well as different backgrounds. The difference between the experimental and the calculated spectra was evaluated in terms of Friele-MacAdam-Chickering (Hemmendinger, 1970) colour differences. The Munsell colour values, corresponding to the spectra were evaluated. It was found that the colour of a resin sample of a specified thickness which is placed on a particular background may be predicted to a fair degree of accuracy from calculations employing the K and S values of the resin and the reflectance spectrum of the background. It has been demonstrated that illuminating the sample at 45 degrees instead of using diffuse illumination, affected the results only to a small extent. The effect of internal reflections at the resin surface on the relfectivity on the sample is discussed. An expression has been derived for computing the reflectivity of a sample on any background from its transmittance and reflectivity on a completely absorbing background. PMID:6957570

  17. Mechanistic modeling of epoxy resins

    SciTech Connect

    Chiao, L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-06-16

    Epoxy resins are an important class of materials, particularly when used as the matrix for advanced fiber composites. Because material performance is directly related to processing, it is useful to study the cure kinetics of these resins for use in process modeling, design and control. Mechanistic modeling of the cure reactions are shown to offer more flexibility than the empirical rate laws currently used, without being cumbersome or impractical. In this work, amine- catalyzed epoxy reactions are studied. A kinetic model is developed, based on an accepted reaction mechanism, and applied to experimental data from the literature. This model is shown to be able to describe the cure of real-world'' systems, and unlike the empirical rate laws, can account for variations in the resin formulations. Moreover, the mechanistic model, unlike the empirical ones, is capable of estimating the concentrations of linkages formed during the cure reactions. These data offer insight into the cured resin morphology, which determines the chemical and physical properties of the material. A composite cure model is developed using the mechanistic kinetics. Results from the model are compared to experimental data from the literature, and the effects of resin formulation and cure cycle changes are investigated. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Degradable borate glass polyalkenoate cements.

    PubMed

    Shen, L; Coughlan, A; Towler, M; Hall, M

    2014-04-01

    Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) containing aluminum-free borate glasses having the general composition Ag2O-Na2O-CaO-SrO-ZnO-TiO2-B2O3 were evaluated in this work. An initial screening study of sixteen compositions was used to identify regions of glass formation and cement compositions with promising rheological properties. The results of the screening study were used to develop four model borate glass compositions for further study. A second round of rheological experiments was used to identify a preferred GPC formulation for each model glass composition. The model borate glasses containing higher levels of TiO2 (7.5 mol %) tended to have longer working times and shorter setting times. Dissolution behavior of the four model GPC formulations was evaluated by measuring ion release profiles as a function of time. All four GPC formulations showed evidence of incongruent dissolution behavior when considering the relative release profiles of sodium and boron, although the exact dissolution profile of the glass was presumably obscured by the polymeric cement matrix. Compression testing was undertaken to evaluate cement strength over time during immersion in water. The cements containing the borate glass with 7.5 mol % TiO2 had the highest initial compressive strength, ranging between 20 and 30 MPa. No beneficial aging effect was observed-instead, the strength of all four model GPC formulations was found to degrade with time. PMID:24435528

  19. Cement plant CKD recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.M.; Prokesch, M.E. [Fuller Co., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A fluid bed system has been developed to produce a low alkali cement clinker from cement plant kiln ducts (CKD). The system is comprised of three main components: feed preparation system, fluid bed reactor and process gas handling system. Cement kiln dust is first pelletized and dried, then processed at 1,300--1,320 C in the fluid bed reactor. The combination of excellent thermal transfer and extended retention time at reaction temperatures provides typical volatilization rates on the order of 90% K{sub 2}O, 70% Na{sub 2}O, 90% SO{sub 3}, and 95% Cl. High concentrations of volatilized alkali compounds in the process off gas stream are cooled and condensed in a specially designed heat exchange system while providing preheated process air for the fluid bed reactor. Condensed alkali compounds are collected at the dust collector in the form of a fine, white powder. This co-product may offer marketable value due to its high concentration of potassium sulfates. The system offers the potential for a 100% recovery of cement kiln dusts to produce cement clinker and an alkali co-product.

  20. The effect of alumina and aluminium nitride coating by reactive magnetron sputtering on the resin bond strength to zirconia core

    PubMed Central

    Külünk, ?afak; Baba, Seniha; Öztürk, Özgür; Dani?man, ?engül; Sava?, Soner

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Although several surface treatments have been recently investigated both under in vitro and in vivo conditions, controversy still exists regarding the selection of the most appropriate zirconia surface pre-treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of alumina (Al) and aluminium nitride (AlN) coating on the shear bond strength of adhesive resin cement to zirconia core. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty zirconia core discs were divided into 5 groups; air particle abrasion with 50 µm aluminum oxide particles (Al2O3), polishing + Al coating, polishing + AlN coating, air particle abrasion with 50 µm Al2O3 + Al coating and air particle abrasion with 50 µm Al2O3 + AlN coating. Composite resin discs were cemented to each of specimens. Shear bond strength (MPa) was measured using a universal testing machine. The effects of the surface preparations on each specimen were examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA (?=.05). RESULTS The highest bond strengths were obtained by air abrasion with 50 µm Al2O3, the lowest bond strengths were obtained in polishing + Al coating group (P<.05). CONCLUSION Al and AlN coatings using the reactive magnetron sputtering technique were found to be ineffective to increase the bond strength of adhesive resin cement to zirconia core. PMID:24353874

  1. Influence of cement and admixture on autogenous shrinkage of cement paste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ei-ichi Tazawa; Shingo Miyazawa

    1995-01-01

    It has recently been proved that autogenous shrinkage is considerably large for highstrength concrete. In this study influences of cement, chemical admixture, mineral admixture and water-cement ratio on autogenous shrinkage of cement paste were experimentally studied. It was proved that autogenous shrinkage could be estimated form mineral composition of cement. Some admixtures which were able to reduce autogenous shrinkage were

  2. Poisoning of resin supported catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, D.L.; Moore, S.E.

    1987-02-10

    A method is described of enhancing performance of a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction of an olefin liquid feed in the presence of a resin-supported transition metal complex catalyst. The method comprises: (a) preparing a resin-supported transition metal complex catalyst for use in a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction substantially free of halides and halide salts in the metal complex catalyst; and (b) introducing an olefin liquid feed to the resin-supported catalyst for conducting a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction, in the presence of CO and H/sub 2/. The olefin feed has a specified maximum limit of halide concentration sufficiently low to enable continued indefinite operation of the combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction process without halide poisoning.

  3. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin...is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin...is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin...is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin...is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin...is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by a...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by...

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of actinide imprinted resins

    E-print Network

    Noyes, Karen Lynn, 1977-

    2003-01-01

    Organic resins have previously shown good results with application to actinide separations. Large portions of recent research have been dedicated to the synthesis and evaluation of resins with phenolic-type functional ...

  14. Neutron Scattering Studies of Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    Despite more than a century of research, basic questions remain regarding both the internal structure and the role of water in Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete, the world's most widely used manufactured material. Most such questions concern the primary hydration product and strength-building phase of OPC paste, the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. When cement and water are mixed, this phase precipitates as clusters of nanoscale (nearly amorphous) colloidal particles with an associated water-filled inter-particle pore system. Most attempts to characterize the C-S-H gel and the behavior of the associated water involve drying or other processes that, themselves, change the bound water content within and around the gel. Neutron scattering methods do not suffer from this disadvantage. Furthermore, the neutron isotope effect and the neutron's sensitivity to molecular motion have enabled considerable progress to be made in recent years by: (i) determining the C-S-H composition, density and gel structure in small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) H/D contrast variation studies; (ii) elucidating the changing state of water within cement as hydration progresses using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS); and (iii) measuring the production and consumption of nanoscale calcium hydroxide (CH), a by-product of cement hydration that co-exists with the C-S-H gel, using inelastic neutron scattering (INS). These experiments have provided new insights into the physics and chemistry of cement hydration, and have implications for the design of new concretes with pozzolanic cement additions that are intended to address environmental concerns and sustainability issues.

  15. Autonomic healing of acrylic bone cement.

    PubMed

    Gladman, A Sydney; Celestine, Asha-Dee N; Sottos, Nancy R; White, Scott R

    2015-01-28

    Self-healing in orthopedic bone cement is demonstrated with a novel thermoplastic solvent-bonding approach. Low toxicity solvent-filled microcapsules, embedded in a commercial acrylic bone cement matrix, enable recovery of up to 80% of the virgin fracture toughness of the cement at room and body temperature conditions without external stimuli or human intervention. PMID:25116439

  16. MICROCALORIMETRIC STUDY ON CALCIUM ALUMINATE CEMENT HYDRATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neven Ukrainczyk; Pero Dabi?

    Calcium aluminate cement (CAC) is very versatile special cement used for specific applications. During the hydration of CAC a large quantity of heat is liberated within one day that causes a considerable increase of temperature in material. This paper examines the hydration of three samples (A, B and aged B) of commercial CAC ISTRA 40 (producer: Istra Cement, Pula, Croatia).

  17. CO 2 Capture in the Cement Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Barker; S. A. Turner; P. A. Napier-Moore; M. Clark; J. E. Davison

    2009-01-01

    Modern cement plants have high energy efficiencies and the scope to reduce CO2 emissions by further efficiency improvements is small. One of the few ways of greatly reducing CO2 production from cement production is CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This paper summarises a study which assessed the technologies that could be used for CO2 capture in cement plants, their costs,

  18. Blended cement using volcanic ash and pumice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khandaker M. Anwar Hossain

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the results of investigation to assess the suitability of volcanic ash (VA) and pumice powder (VPP) for blended cement production. Tests were conducted on cement where Portland cement (PC) was replaced by VA and VPP within the range of 0 to 50%. The physical and chemical properties of VA and VPP were critically reviewed to evaluate the

  19. NEW ION EXCHANGE RESIN FOR URANIUM RECOVERY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Greer; A. B. Mindler; J. P. Termini

    1958-01-01

    A new resin, developed specifically for U recovery from HâSOâ; leach liquors, is available commercially-- Permutit SK for resin-in-column ; operation and Permutite SKB for resin-in-pulp operation. These resins hnve a ; fast U adsorption rate and a fast and a complete U elution rate. They have good ; physical and chemical stability which will mean a minimum of physical

  20. Siloxane-modified epoxy resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Yorkgitis; N. S. Eiss; C. Tran; G. L. Wilkes; J. E. McGrath

    Epoxy resins chemically modified with functionally terminated poly (dimethyl siloxane), poly(dimethyl-co-methyltrifluoropropyl\\u000a siloxane), and poly(dimethyl-co-diphenyl siloxane) oligomers are described in terms of their synthesis, morphology, solid-state\\u000a properties, and friction and wear properties. The compatibility between the epoxy resin and the siloxane modifiers can be\\u000a enhanced by increasing the percentage of methyltrifluoropropyl (TFP) siloxane or diphenyl (DP) siloxane relative to dimethyl\\u000a siloxane.

  1. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  2. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  3. SRM filament wound case resin characterization studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    The amine cured epoxy wet winding resin used in fabrication of the SRM filament wound case is analyzed. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPSC) is utilized extensively to study lot-to-lot variation in both resin and curing agent. The validity of quantitative hplc methodology currently under development in-process resin/catalyst assay is assessed.

  4. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  5. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and...Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used in accordance with...

  6. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and...Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used in accordance with...

  7. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and...Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used in accordance with...

  8. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and...Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used in accordance with...

  9. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and...Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used in accordance with...

  10. Terpene-anhydride resin based coatings II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Giddings; David L. Trumbo

    1997-01-01

    Terpinolene-maleic anhydride or terpinolene-itaconic anhydride resins were used in thermoset coatings crosslinked with an epoxidized soybean oil. As the films produced were brittle, attempts were made to increase the molecular weight of the terpene anhydride resins by using a purer grade of terpinolene monomer or a terpinolene analog, ?-phellandrene, as the terpene part of the resins. The purer grade of

  11. Considering RTM... 1 Considering Resin Transfer Molding?

    E-print Network

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    is closed and clamped; The resin is injected into the mold cavity under pressure. The motive force in RTMConsidering RTM... 1 CFA 1995 Considering Resin Transfer Molding? Here is what you need to know than traditional open molding. Resin Transfer Molding stands in the gap - able to produce mid

  12. Synthesis of improved phenolic resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, C. B.; Mcleod, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty seven addition cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to give char residues comparable to state-of-the-art phenolic resins. Cyanate, epoxy, allyl, acrylate, methacrylate and ethynyl derivatized phenolic oligomers were investigated. The novolac-cyanate and propargyl-novolac resins provided anaerobic char yields at 800 C of 58 percent. A 59 percent char yield was obtained from modified epoxy novolacs. A phosphonitrilic derivative was found to be effective as an additive for increasing char yields. The novolac-cyanate, epoxy-novolac and methacrylate-epoxy-novolac systems were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. All three resins showed good potential as composite matrices. The free radical cured methacrylate-epoxy-novolac graphite composite provided short beam shear strengths at room temperature of 93.3 MPa (13.5 ksi). The novolac-cyanate graphite composite produced a short beam shear strength of 74 MPa (10.7 ksi) and flexural strength of 1302 MPa (189 ksi) at 177 C. Air heat aging of the novolac-cyanate and epoxy novolac based composites for 12 weeks at 204 C showed good property retention.

  13. Resin transfer molding process optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Y. Lin; M. J. Murphy; H. T. Hahn

    2000-01-01

    The art of process optimization requires a clear understanding of the differences between each of the widely different optimization strategies available. Often, a sophisticated method that has been well tested in other fields is not applicable at all to problems in resin transfer molding (RTM). This work discusses the strength and weakness of the genetic algorithm and the gradient based

  14. Influence of endodontic materials on the bonding of composite resin to dentin.

    PubMed

    Macchi, R L; Capurro, M A; Herrera, C L; Cebada, F R; Kohen, S

    1992-02-01

    We assessed the bond strength of a composite resin to dentin that had been in contact with different materials. Flat dentin surfaces in freshly extracted human teeth were covered for 15 min or 48 h with a 1-mm layer of a variety of materials. The products were mechanically removed and a composite resin cylindrical specimen bonded to the dentin surface using the Prisma universal bond system. After 7 days immersion at 37 degrees C in water, the tensile bond strength was tested. The results were compared with those on dentin surfaces not in contact with any endodontic material. Statistical analysis showed that some materials (Grossmans Cement, IRM, Maisto's slowly resorbable paste) reduced the strength of the bond or even precluded bonding. It is necessary to develop techniques that will eliminate this when restoring endodontically treated teeth. PMID:1396358

  15. Cement-Lock for Decontaminating

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    of these tests was to characterize the concrete and establish a mix design for the beneficial use project that an appropriate concrete mix design could be developed for a specific application. Table ES-1. Results for Portland cement in concrete. CTLGroup also prepared a batch of concrete made with Ecomelt (40% replacement

  16. Oxygen index tests of thermosetting resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The flammability characteristics of nine thermosetting resins under evaluation for use in aircraft interiors are described. These resins were evaluated using the Oxygen Index (ASTM 2863) testing procedure. The test specimens consisted of both neat resin and glass reinforced resin. When testing glass-reinforced samples it was observed that Oxygen Index values varied inversely with resin content. Oxygen values were also obtained on specimens exposed to temperatures up to 300 C. All specimens experienced a decline in Oxygen Index when tested at an elevated temperature.

  17. A Method for Characterizing PMR-15 Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, G. D.; Lauver, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative analysis technique based on reverse-phase, highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and paired-ion chromatography (PIC) developed for PMR-15 resins. In reverse-phase HPLC experiment, polar solvent containing material to be analyzed passed through column packed with nonpolar substrate. Composition of PMR-15 Resin of 50 weight percent changes as resin ages at room temperature. Verification of proper resin formulation and analysis of changes in resin composition during storage important to manufacturers of PMR-15 polymer matrix composite parts. Technique especially suitable for commercial use by manufacturers of high-performance composite components.

  18. Integrated system for preparation of bone cement and effects on cement quality and environment.

    PubMed

    Müller-Wille, P; Wang, J S; Lidgren, L

    1997-01-01

    We developed a prepacked mixing system for the preparation of bone cement. The system is based on mixing and collection of bone cement under a vacuum and serves as both the storage and mixing device for the cement components, thereby minimizing the exposure of the operating staff to the monomer and the risk for contamination of the cement during preparation. We evaluated the system using Palacos R and Simplex P. The cement produced was compared with cement obtained from a commercially available mixing system. Temperature evolution during curing, handling characteristics, density, and porosity of the cement obtained were analyzed. The results showed that the experimental system produces cement with physical properties (i.e., setting times and temperature, porosity, and density) equal to or better than those obtained with commercially available systems. Reducing the amount of monomer in the experimental system led to a reduction of the curing temperature without compromising the physical properties of the cements. PMID:9178741

  19. Mechanical resistance of cemented post and core buildups for ITI-Bonefit implants.

    PubMed

    Wiskott, H W; Belser, U C

    1992-09-01

    In order to improve the prosthetic versatility of the ITI-Bonefit implant system, a clinical technique was tested whereby a custom made post and core buildup was cemented into implants. Specially designed threaded and serrated posts were machined in precious metal. After the posts were seated into the threaded channel of the implants, cores were built using autopolymerizing resin. Those were then cast and cemented into the implants. For the remainder of the procedure, the buildups were treated like natural abutments using conventional prosthodontic techniques. Mechanical tests were performed to assess the clinical viability of these buildups. The ultimate tensile strength of annealed posts lies in the 700-800 N range. By comparison, the pull-out resistance of posts cemented into natural roots ranged between 108 and 177 N, and the maximum pull-out resistance of manufactured abutments is about 1040 N. When the resistance against lateral forces was tested, the cemented build-ups ranged between 981 and 1128 N, whereas natural teeth fractured between 206 and 903 N depending on the diameter of the root. Manufactured abutments failed at stress levels of about 1020 N. Considering these favorable results, we conclude that the technique described above can be applied clinically for further investigation. Additionally, we suggest some modifications in implant design that would enhance the versatility of the system. PMID:1290793

  20. Analysis of Bond Strength by Pull Out Test on Fiber Glass Posts Cemented in Different Lengths

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Mariana Benedetti Ferreira; Michida, Silvia Masae de Araújo; Marson, Fabiano Carlos; de Oliveira, Giovani Corrêa; Silva, Cleverson de Oliveira e

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate, by means of pull-out test, the bond strength of fiberglass posts when cemented with different lengths in endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: Sixty single-rooted bovine roots were cut in the cementoenamel junction with 21 mm length. They were endodontically treated and randomly divided into three groups (n = 20). Group 1 - Preparation of 2/3 of the remaining roots; Group 2 - Preparation of ½ of the remaining roots and Group 3 - Preparation of ¼ of remaining roots. For all groups it were used posts n = 3 (Exacto, Angelus, Brazil), and cemented with self-etching resin cement (RelyXU200). After cementing posts, the samples were thermocycled (10.000 cycles/5°C and 55°C). The pull-out test was performed on a universal testing machine (EMIC - DL500) and the values obtained were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (one-factor ANOVA) and multiple comparison test of Tukey, with level of significance of 5%. Results: The mean values ± standard deviation in Newtons (N) were: Group 1 = 120.5 (±42.8) A, Group 2 = 103.1 (±31.2) AB, Group 3 = 41.2 (±22.4) C, P < 0.005. Conclusion: The preparation of ½ of remaining root appears to be a viable alternative when 2/3 of the preparation of the remaining root is not possible, but more results are needed for clinical validation. PMID:25954063

  1. Effects of dentin surface treatments on shear bond strength of glass-ionomer cements

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Scribante, Andrea; Colombo, Marco; Lombardini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aim The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of a conventional glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) to dentin. Materials and methods 80 bovine permanent incisors were used. 40 cylindrical specimens of a GIC (Fuji IX GP Extra) and 40 cylindrical specimens of a RMGIC (Fuji II LC) were attached to the dentin. The teeth were then randomly assigned to 8 groups of equal size (n=10), 4 for every type of glass-ionomer cement, corresponding to type of dentin surface treatments. Group 1: GC Cavity Conditioner; Group 2: 37% phosphoric acid gel; Group 3: Clearfil SE Bond; Group 4: no dentin conditioning (control). The specimens were placed in a universal testing machine (Model 3343, Instron Corp., Canton, Mass., USA) and subsequently tested for shear bond strength (MPa). Results ANOVA showed the presence of significant differences among the various groups. Post hoc Tukey test showed different values of shear bond strength for Fuji IX GP Extra and for Fuji II LC. The different conditioners variably influence the adhesion of the glass-ionomer cements tested. Conclusions. RMGIC shear bond to dentin was higher than GIC. The use of a Self-etch adhesive system improved the shear bond strength values of RMGIC and lowered the shear bond strength values of GIC significantly. PMID:24753797

  2. Comparison of the fit of Procera crowns made from stone with those made from polyurethane resin.

    PubMed

    Rahme, Habib Y; Adib, Salim M; Zebouni, Elie A; Bechara, Boulos B; Rifai, Khaldoun T

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the average marginal gap of Procera crowns fabricated from a definitive cast made from polyurethane resin with those made from type IV stone. A metallic maxillary central incisor and first premolar were prepared according to the Procera guidelines and incorporated into a U-shaped definitive cast. From this definitive cast, 20 primary casts were made in polyurethane resin. Two sets of impressions (10 with type IV stone and 10 with polyurethane resin) were made and poured onto these casts. Forty pure aluminum oxide substructures for Procera crowns were made for these groups, with 10 incisors and 10 premolars in each group. Each substructure was cemented on the respective primary die and sectioned. Using an optical microscope and special software, sections were measured and compared for marginal adaptation. Based on the findings, both materials were equally adequate for producing a Procera crown. However, the mean margin gap was consistently larger for type IV stone dies than for polyurethane resin dies. PMID:19552368

  3. Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J.; Havens, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    As part of an effort on tougher/solvent resistant matrix resins for composites, research was directed towards exploring methods to improve the solvent resistance of linear amorphous thermoplastics. Ethyl reactive groups were placed on the ends of oligomers and pendent along the polymer chain and subsequently thermally reacted to provide crosslinking and thus improvement in solvent resistance. This concept is extended to another thermoplastic, a phenoxy resin. A commercially available phenoxy resin (PKHH) was systematically modified by reaction of the pendent hydroxyl groups on the phenoxy resin with various amounts of 4-ethynylbenzoyl chloride. As the pendent ethynyl group content in the phenoxy resin increased, the cured resin exhibited a higher glass transition temperature, better solvent resistance and less flexibility. The solvent resistance was further improved by correcting a low molecular weight diethynyl compound, 2,2-bis(4-ethynylbenzoyloxy-4'-phenyl)propane, with a phenoxy resin containing pendent ethynyl groups.

  4. Effect of Self-etching Adhesives on the Bond Strength of Glass-Ionomer Cements

    PubMed Central

    Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Panahandeh, Narges; Tabatabaei Shafiei, Zahra Sadat; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Statement of Problem: Adequate bond strength between glass ionomer cements and composite resin is necessary for the success of the sandwich technique. Purpose of Study: This study assessed the micro-shear bond strength of composite resin to glass-ionomer cements (GIC) using self-etch adhesives with different pH values. Materials and Methods: One hundred specimens (6×4×2 mm) were made using Fuji II and Fuji II LC GICs and treated with different adhesives as follows: Group 1:Fuji II+ Adper Prompt L-Pop, Group-2: Fuji II+SE bond, Group-3: Fuji II + AdheSE, Group-4:Fuji II+ Protect bond, Group-5: Fuji II + Single bond, Group-6:Fuji II LC+ Adper Prompt LPop, Group-7: Fuji II LC+SE bond, Group-8:Fuji II LC+ AdheSE, Group-9: Fuji II LC+ Protect bond, and Group-10: Fuji II LC+ Single bond. Each group consisted of 10 specimens. A cylinder of Z100 composite resin was placed on each sample and light cured. After 24 hours of water storage (37°C), the specimens were subjected to micro-shear bond strength tests (0.5 mm/min). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: The mean micro-shear bond strength of groups 1–10 was 11.66±1.79, 16.50±1.85, 18.47±1.77, 13.95±1.77, 15.27±1.49, 15.14±0.90, 20.03±1.19, 17.48±3.00, 16.24±1.98 and 16.03±1.49 MPa, respectively. There were significant differences between groups 1 and 7 (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed between other groups (P>0.05). Fuji II LC showed higher bond strength than Fuji II (P<0.05). Conclusion: Type of self-etch adhesive had no significant effect on micro-shear bond strength of glass-ionomer to composite resin. Resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) exhibited higher bond strength than the conventional GIC. PMID:25628698

  5. Scanning electron microscopic study of teeth restored with fiber posts and composite resin: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sridhara, K. S.; Mankar, Sunil; Jayshankar, C. M.; Vinaya, K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate the thickness of resin dentin interface zones (RDIZ) obtained by luting carbon fiber post to intra-radicular dentin, either with All-Bond 2 bonding agent and C and B composite cement or Panavia F dentin-bonding system and Panavia F resin cement. Materials and Methods: Twenty single rooted mandibular premolars of similar sizes were prepared for the carbon fiber post after biomechanical preparation and obturation. They were divided into two groups, Group 1 and 2 of 10 samples each. Carbon fiber posts used for Group 1 samples were luted using All-Bond 2 and C and B cement. For Group 2 carbon fiber posts were luted using Panavia F dentin-bonding system and Panavia F resin cement. All the 20 samples were sectioned longitudinally and marked at three points on the length of the tooth from the dentin-core interface to the apex at 2 mm, 5 mm, and 8 mm to get coronal, middle, and apical areas, respectively. The formation and thickness (width) of the RDIZ at the marked areas was evaluated by scanning electron microscope using ×1000 magnification. The results were statistical analyzed. Results: Irrespective of the adhesive systems used all specimens showed a RDIZ formation. Microscopic examination of Group 1 showed significantly higher percentage of RDIZ (P < 0.05) than Group 2. RDIZ morphology was easily detectable at coronal and middle areas of all specimens. Conclusion: All-Bond 2 showed denser and wider RDIZ compared with the Panavia F. PMID:25210390

  6. Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

  7. Research of magnesium phosphosilicate cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhu

    Magnesium phosphosilicate cement (MPSC) is a novel phosphate bonded cement, which consists mainly of magnesia, phosphate and silicate minerals. The traditional magnesium phosphate cements (MPCs) usually composed by ammonium phosphate, and gaseous ammonia will emit during mixing and in service. There is no noxious ammonia released from MPSC, furthermore, it can recycle a large volume of the non-hazardous waste. The goal of this research is to investigate the composition, reaction products, reaction mechanism, microstructure, properties, durability and applications of the MPSC. MPSC sets rapidly and has high early strength. It reacts better with solid industrial waste when compared to Portland cement. Many solid industrial wastes, such as fly ash, steel slag, coal gangue, red coal gangue, red mud, barium-bearing slag, copper slag, silica fume, and ground granulated blast furnace slag, have been used as the main component (40% by weight) in MPSC. The research has found that these aluminosilicate (or ironsilicate, or calciumsilicate) minerals with an amorphous or glass structure can enhance the performance of MPSC. The disorganized internal structure of amorphous materials may make it possess higher reactivity compared to the crystalline phases. Chemical reaction between phosphate and these minerals may form an amorphous gel, which is favorable to the cementing. Borax, boric acid and sodium tripolyphosphate have been used as retardants in the MPSC system. It is found that boric acid has a higher retarding effect on the setting of cement, than borax does. However, sodium polyphosphate accelerates the reaction of MPSC. The hydration of MPSC is exothermic reaction. The heat evolution may prompt hydrates formation, and shorten the setting process. Modern materials characterization techniques, XRD, DSC, TG-DTA FTIR, XPS, MAS-NMR, SEM, TEM, MIP, etc. were used to analyze the phase composition, micro morphology, and microstructure of hardened MPSC. The main hydration product in MPSC is MgKPO4·6H2O (MKP), which has both crystalline and amorphous phases. There are many unreacted magnesia grains in the hardened MPSC paste. They act as nucleus of the hardened framework. The hydrates grow around the magnesia grains rims, fill in the voids among the magnesia grains and bond unreacted magnesia part into a solid continuum. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  8. Surface pretreatment for prolonged survival of cemented tibial prosthesis components: full- vs. surface-cementation technique

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Rudolf; Qunaibi, Mutaz; Wirtz, Dieter Christian; Niethard, Fritz Uwe; Mumme, Thorsten

    2005-01-01

    Background One of few persisting problems of cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is aseptic loosening of tibial component due to degradation of the interface between bone cement and metallic tibial shaft component, particularly for surface cemented tibial components. Surface cementation technique has important clinical meaning in case of revision and for avoidance of stress shielding. Degradation of the interface between bone cement and bone may be a secondary effect due to excessive crack formation in bone cement starting at the opposite metallic surface. Methods This study was done to prove crack formation in the bone cement near the metallic surface when this is not coated. We propose a newly developed coating process by PVD layering with SiOx to avoid that crack formation in the bone cement. A biomechanical model for vibration fatigue test was done to simulate the physiological and biomechanical conditions of the human knee joint and to prove excessive crack formation. Results It was found that coated tibial components showed a highly significant reduction of cement cracking near the interface metal/bone cement (p < 0.01) and a significant reduction of gap formation in the interface metal-to-bone cement (p < 0.05). Conclusion Coating dramatically reduces hydrolytic- and stress-related crack formation at the prosthesis interface metal/bone cement. This leads to a more homogenous load transfer into the cement mantle which should reduce the frequency of loosening in the interfaces metal/bone cement/bone. With surface coating of the tibial component it should become possible that surface cemented TKAs reveal similar loosening rates as TKAs both surface and stem cemented. This would be an important clinical advantage since it is believed that surface cementing reduces metaphyseal bone loss in case of revision and stress shielding for better bone health. PMID:16262888

  9. High Temperature Transfer Molding Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    High temperature resins containing phenylethynyl groups that are processable by transfer molding have been prepared. These phenylethynyl containing oligomers were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynlphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form a mixture of imide compounds in one step. This synthetic approach is advantageous since the products are a mixture of compounds and consequently exhibit a relatively low melting temperature. In addition, these materials exhibit low melt viscosities which are stable for several hours at 210-275 C, and since the thermal reaction of the phenylethynyl group does not occur to any appreciable extent at temperatures below 300 C, these materials have a broad processing window. Upon thermal cure at approximately 300-350 C, the phenylethynyl groups react to provide a crosslinked resin system. These new materials exhibit excellent properties and are potentially useful as adhesives, coatings, films, moldings and composite matrices.

  10. Petroleum resins and their production

    SciTech Connect

    Luvinh, Q.

    1989-04-25

    A process is described for the production of petroleum resins compatible with base polymers in hot melt formulations and having a softening point of from about 60/sup 0/C. to about 120/sup 0/C. and Gardner color of about 4 or less, comprising copolymerizing using a Friedel-Crafts catalyst. The mixture is substantially free form cyclopentadiene and dicyclopentadiene. This patent also describes a resin consisting essentially of a copolymer containing from 5 to 80 wt. % of units derived from an olefinically unsaturated aromatic compound form 5 to 80 wt. % of units derived from C/sub 5/ olefines or diolefines or C/sub 6/ olefines diolefines or a mixture of C/sub 5/ and C/sub 6/ olefines or diolefines and from 7 to 45 wt. % of units derived from a terpene.

  11. Photoelastic stress analysis of different designs of cement-retained fixed partial dentures on Morse taper oral implants.

    PubMed

    Menani, Luiz Ricardo; Tiossi, Rodrigo; de Torres, Érica Miranda; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; de Almeida, Rossana Pereira

    2011-03-01

    There is no consensus in literature regarding the best plan for prosthetic rehabilitation with partial multiple adjacent implants to minimize stress generated in the bone-implant interface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical behavior of cemented fixed partial dentures, splinted and nonsplinted, on Morse taper implants and with different types of coating material (ceramic and resin), using photoelastic stress analysis. A photoelastic model of an interposed edentulous space, missing a second premolar and a first molar, and rehabilitated with 4 different types of cemented crowns and supported by 2 adjacent implants was used. Groups were as follows: UC, splinted ceramic crowns; IC, nonsplinted ceramic crowns; UR, splinted resin crowns; and IR, nonsplinted resin crowns. Different vertical static loading conditions were performed: balanced occlusal load, 10 kgf; simultaneous punctiform load on the implanted premolar and molar, 10 kgf; and alternate punctiform load on the implanted premolar and molar, 5 kgf. Changes in stress distribution were analyzed in a polariscope, and digital photographs were taken of each condition to allow comparison of stress pattern distribution around the implants. Cementation of the fixed partial dentures generated stresses between implants. Splinted restorations distributed the stresses more evenly between the implants than nonsplinted when force was applied. Ceramic restorations presented better distribution of stresses than resin restorations. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that splinted ceramic restorations promote better stress distribution around osseointegrated implants when compared with nonsplinted crowns; metal-ceramic restorations present less stress concentration and magnitude than metal-plastic restorations. PMID:21415635

  12. Fixation of magnet assembly to denture base using alternative resins.

    PubMed

    Okayama, Shotaro; Suzuki, Yasunori; Shimpo, Hidemasa; Ohkubo, Chikahiro

    2015-06-01

    The fixation strengths between conventional/modified magnetic assemblies and denture base resins were evaluated using six alternative resins. Magnetic assemblies with three different undercut wings were prepared. Soft lining materials with added PMMA resin polymer, two photopolymerization denture relining resins, an experimental resin, and a temporary filling resin were used to fix the magnetic assemblies to the denture bases. As a control, a commercially available magnetic assembly without undercut wings and a conventional autopolymerized resin were also prepared. After surface treatments, the magnetic assemblies were fixed using fixation resins, and tensile strengths and attractive forces were measured using an autography. The experimental resin and the temporary filling resin showed retentive forces comparable to those of conventional autopolymerized resins. Although the experimental resin demonstrated satisfactory fixation strengths, it should be necessary to improve its mechanical strength. The temporary filling resin could be used as a permanent fixation material. PMID:25904166

  13. Phosphorus-containing imide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (inventors)

    1984-01-01

    Flame-resistant reinforced bodies are disclosed which are composed of reinforcing fibers, filaments or fabrics in a cured body of bis- and tris-imide resins derived from tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides by reaction with maleic anhydride or its derivatives, or of addition polymers of such imides, including a variant in which a mono-imide is condensed with a dianhydride and the product is treated with a further quantity of maleic anhydride.

  14. The density of cement phases

    SciTech Connect

    Balonis, M. [Department of Chemistry, Meston Building, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 3UE, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.balonis@abdn.ac.uk; Glasser, F.P. [Department of Chemistry, Meston Building, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 3UE, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    The densities of principal crystalline phases occurring in Portland cement are critically assessed and tabulated, in some cases with addition of new data. A reliable and self-consistent density set for crystalline phases was obtained by calculating densities from crystallographic data and unit cell contents. Independent laboratory work was undertaken to synthesize major AFm and AFt cement phases, determine their unit cell parameters and compare the results with those recorded in the literature. Parameters were refined from powder diffraction patterns using CELREF 2 software. A density value is presented for each phase, showing literature sources, in some cases describing limitations on the data, and the weighting attached to numerical values where an averaging process was used for accepted data. A brief discussion is made of the consequences of the packing of water to density changes in AFm and AFt structures.

  15. Fracture measurements on cement paste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Higgins; J. E. Bailey

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation into the fracture behaviour of hardened cement paste. Notched specimens of the material\\u000a were tested to failure in flexure and tension. In the initial flexural tests on beams of fixed overall depth, the stress intensity\\u000a factor at failure as calculated from linear-elastic fracture mechanics appeared to be a material constant. However, further\\u000a investigation showed that

  16. Potential problems associated with ion-exchange resins used in the decontamination of light-water reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Soo, P.; Adams, J.W.; Kempf, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    During a typical decontamination event, ion-exchange resin beds are used to remove corrosion products (radioactive and nonradioactive) and excess decontamination reagents from waste streams. The spent resins may be solidified in a binder, such as cement, or sealed in a high-integrity container (HIC) in order to meet waste stability requirements specified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Lack of stability of low-level waste in a shallow land burial trench may lead to trench subsidence, enhanced water infiltration and waste leaching, which would result in accelerated transport of radionuclides and the complexing agents used for decontamination. The current program is directed at investigating safety problems associated with the handling, solidification and containerization of decontamination resin wastes. The three tasks currently underway include freeze-thaw cycling of cementitious and vinyl ester-styrene forms to determine if mechanical integrity is compromised, a study of the corrosion of container materials by spent decontamination waste resins, and investigations of resin degradation mechanisms.

  17. Fracture resistance of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-generated composite resin-based molar crowns.

    PubMed

    Harada, Akio; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Inagaki, Ryoichi; Örtengren, Ulf; Niwano, Yoshimi; Sasaki, Keiichi; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether different fabrication processes, such as the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system or the manual build-up technique, affect the fracture resistance of composite resin-based crowns. Lava Ultimate (LU), Estenia C&B (EC&B), and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic IPS e.max press (EMP) were used. Four types of molar crowns were fabricated: CAD/CAM-generated composite resin-based crowns (LU crowns); manually built-up monolayer composite resin-based crowns (EC&B-monolayer crowns); manually built-up layered composite resin-based crowns (EC&B-layered crowns); and EMP crowns. Each type of crown was cemented to dies and the fracture resistance was tested. EC&B-layered crowns showed significantly lower fracture resistance compared with LU and EMP crowns, although there was no significant difference in flexural strength or fracture toughness between LU and EC&B materials. Micro-computed tomography and fractographic analysis showed that decreased strength probably resulted from internal voids in the EC&B-layered crowns introduced by the layering process. There was no significant difference in fracture resistance among LU, EC&B-monolayer, and EMP crowns. Both types of composite resin-based crowns showed fracture loads of >2000 N, which is higher than the molar bite force. Therefore, CAD/CAM-generated crowns, without internal defects, may be applied to molar regions with sufficient fracture resistance. PMID:25683749

  18. New modified hydrocarbon resins; An alternative to styrenated terpene resins in hot melts

    SciTech Connect

    Carper, J.D. (Hercules Inc., Wilmington, DE (US))

    1990-06-01

    This paper reports on the development of two hydrocarbon-based resin formulations that could be used with different thermoplastic block copolymers to formulate pressure-sensitive adhesives. Results are examined with one of these resins in formulations with styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) and styrene-butadiene (SB) compounds. The new modified hydrocarbon resin, with a softening point of 98{degrees} C, matches the adhesive performance of a terpene resin with a softening point of 105{degrees} C. The resin performs as well as the modified terpene in SIS-, SB-, and EVA-based adhesives. The new hydrocarbon resin is especially well suited for hot-melt adhesives. It exhibits low volatility, good color stability, and excellent melt viscosity stability. Since the new resin is based on petroleum hydrocarbon feedstocks, it should be available at moderate, stable prices. The other hydrocarbon resin, with a softening point of 85{degrees} C, produced comparable results.

  19. Development of tough, moisture resistant laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, R. A.; Harrison, E. S.

    1982-01-01

    Tough, moisture resistant laminating resins for employment with graphite fibers were developed. The new laminating resins exhibited cost, handleability and processing characteristics equivalent to 394K (250 F) curing epoxies. The laminating resins were based on bisphenol A dicyanate and monofunctional cyanates with hydrophobic substituents. These resins sorb only small quantities of moisture at equilibrium (0.5% or less) with minimal glass transition temperature depression and represent an improvement over epoxies which sorb around 2% moisture at equilibrium. Toughening was accomplished by the precipitation of small diameter particles of butadiene nitrile rubber throughout the resin matrix. The rubber domains act as microcrack termini and energy dissipation sites, allowing increased stress accommodation prior to catastrophic failure. A unique blend of amine terminated butadiene nitrile elastomer (MW 2,000) and a high nitrile content butadiene nitrile rubber yielded the desired resin morphology.

  20. Activated fly ash\\/slag blended cement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng-Qing Zhao; Wen Ni; Hui-Jun Wang; Hong-Jie Liu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the preparation of an ecological cementing material from granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS) and Class C fly ash (CCFA). The desulphurization gypsum, calcined at 600–800°C for 0.5–1.5h, works as the main ingredient of the activator in the cementing material. The optimized formulation of the cementing material was obtained with the aid of factorial design method:

  1. Heat evolution in hydrating expansive cement systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Nocu?-Wczelik; A. Stok; Z. Konik

    2010-01-01

    Calorimetry was applied to follow the hydration of special cement mixtures exhibiting expansion or shrinkage compensation.\\u000a The standard, common cements show generally less or more visible shrinkage on setting and hardening but mixed with and expansive\\u000a agent, usually of aluminate and sulfate nature, they can exhibit the increase of volume. The calcium aluminate cement CAC\\u000a 40 was ground together with

  2. General hydration model for portland cement and blast furnace slag cement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Taerwe

    1995-01-01

    This paper focusses on the evolution of the heat of hydration of hardening concrete or cement based materials. Based on isothermal and adiabatic hydration tests a new general hydration model is developed, valid both for portland cement and blast furnace slag cement. This hydration model enables the calculation of the heat production rate as a function of the actual temperature

  3. Use of diatomite as partial replacement for Portland cement in cement mortars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nurhayat Degirmenci; Arin Yilmaz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the use of diatomite as a partial replacement for cement in the production of cement mortar. Diatomite was used at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% replacement by weight for cement while sand and water quantities were kept constant. Compressive and flexural strength, freeze–thaw resistance, sulfate resistance, water absorption and dry unit

  4. Method of producing light weight cement for use of cementation of oil and gas wells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Skjeldal

    1983-01-01

    A cement slurry of low specific density for cementation of oil and gas wells is produced by mixing oil-well cement with finely divided emission products comprising amorphous silica dust which has been obtained during the electrothermal preparation of ferrosilicon and\\/or silicon metal, water, and any desirable dispersion components, the emission products being added in an amount in the range of

  5. Early-Age Properties of Cement-Based Materials. I: Influence of Cement Fineness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale P. Bentz; Gaurav Sant; Jason Weiss

    2008-01-01

    The influence of cement fineness on early-age properties of cement-based materials is investigated using a variety of experimental techniques. Properties that are critical to the early- age performance of these materials are tested, including heat release, temperature rise, chemical shrinkage and autogenous deformation. Measurements of these properties for two cements of widely different fineness are supplemented with other performance measures,

  6. Communication Defect dynamics of cement paste under repeated compression

    E-print Network

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Communication Defect dynamics of cement paste under repeated compression studied by electrical resistivity measurement during repeated compression of cement paste in the elastic regime, are characterized effect; Cement paste 1. Introduction Defects greatly affect the properties of a material, so

  7. Phenolic resin and battery separator impregnated therewith

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1975-01-01

    Battery separators comprising a cellulose substrate thoroughly impregnated with an admixture of resole resin and a polyol antimigratory agent are described. The resole resin is a one-stage resin with a formaldehyde to phenol mol ratio between 1.6:1 and 2.8:1 and a molecular weight in the range of 130 to 300. After the cellulose substrate is impregnated with the admixture, it

  8. Resin selection criteria for tough composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Smith, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    Resin selection criteria are derived using a structured methodology consisting of an upward integrated mechanistic theory and its inverse (top-down structured theory). These criteria are expressed in a "criteria selection space" which are used to identify resin bulk properties for improved composite "toughness". The resin selection criteria correlate with a variety of experimental data including laminate strength, elevated temperature effects and impact resistance.

  9. Porous Ceramic Spheres from Ion Exchange Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred

    2005-01-01

    A commercial cation ion exchange resin, cross-linked polystyrene, has been successfully used as a template to fabricate 20 to 50 micron porous ceramic spheres. Ion exchange resins have dual template capabilities. Pore architecture of the ceramic spheres can be altered by changing the template pattern. Templating can be achieved by utilizing the internal porous structure or the external surface of the resin beads. Synthesis methods and chemical/physical characteristics of the ceramic spheres will be reported.

  10. Comparison of chromatographic ion-exchange resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Staby; Maj-Britt Sand; Ronni G. Hansen; Jan H. Jacobsen; Line A. Andersen; Michael Gerstenberg; Ulla K. Bruus; Inge Holm Jensen

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study was performed on heparin resins and strong and weak cation exchangers to investigate the pH dependence, efficiency, binding strength, particle size distribution, static and dynamic capacity, and scanning electron microscopy pictures of chromatographic resins. The resins tested include: Heparin Sepharose FF, SP Sepharose FF, CM Sepharose FF, Heparin Toyopearl 650m, SP Toyopearl 650m, CM Toyopearl 650m, Ceramic

  11. Control of gas flow through cement column

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguli, K.K.

    1992-03-31

    This patent describes a method of inhibiting gas channeling during the cementing of a casing in a borehole penetrating a high temperature subterranean formation. It comprises: introducing a cementing composition into the annulus between the conduit and the formation, the cementing composition comprising a gas channeling inhibiting additive comprised of a copolymer of 5 to 95 weight percent of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-3-sulphonic acid; 5 to 95 weight percent of a vinylacylamide; and 0 to 80 weight percent of acrylamide; and allowing the cementing composition to set within the space.

  12. About radioactivity in some PMMA bone cements.

    PubMed

    Hopf, W; Hopf, C G; Glöbel, B

    1990-01-01

    Various bone cements containing zirconium oxide (ZrO2) as X-ray contrast medium were tested for radioactivity by means of a gamma spectrometer. All measured bone cements (PALACOS, IMPLAST, SULFIX-6) showed a certain degree of radioactivity. The radiation source in the bone cement is the added zirconium oxide, which is polluted by radioactive elements. As these X-ray contrast media remain in the body for decades as components of the bone cement, the radioactive zirconium oxides should be substituted by high purity radiation-free zirconium oxide or barium sulfate. PMID:2239190

  13. Interferometric study of epoxy resin gelation

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschbuehler, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    The transition of epoxy resins from a mobile liquid to a rubbery gel is a complex process depending on chemical reaction kinetics and both heat and mass transfer. The purpose of this study is to determine the locus of initial gelation in an epoxy resin, and the course of gelatin through both neat resins and glass fiber/epxoy resin composites. This was accomplished by monitoring the local changes in refractive index in transparent epoxy castings using laser interferometry, supplemented by temperature profiles obtained from thermocouple arrays. These experiments were carried out on pure DGEBA epoxy (DOW DER-332) cured with a variety of primary amine, secondary amine, and anhydride curing agents.

  14. Graphite composites with advanced resin matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of processing variables on the flammability and mechanical properties for state-of-the-art and advanced resin matrices for graphite composites were studied. Resin matrices which were evaluated included state-of-the-art epoxy, phenolic-novolac, phenolic-xylok, two types of bismaleimides, benzyl, polyethersulfone, and poly(p-phenylene sulfone). Comparable flammability and thermochemical data on graphite-reinforced laminates prepared with these resin matrices are presented, and the relationship of some of these properties to the anaerobic char yield of the resins is described.

  15. Monitoring of resin flow in the resin transfer molding (RTM) process using point-voltage sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murat Danisman; Goker Tuncol; Alper Kaynar; E. Murat Sozer

    2007-01-01

    Multiple point-voltage sensors were used to monitor the mold filling stage of the resin transfer molding (RTM) process. Both lineal- and point-voltage sensors are electrical circuits in which the two poles of the sensor are closed when liquid thermoset resin arrives at the sensor location in the mold cavity. The electrical conductance of the liquid resin causes an increase in

  16. 76 FR 39896 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ...Review)] Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy Determination On the basis of...order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to continuation...entitled Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Italy: Investigation No....

  17. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

  2. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section...Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely...

  3. 21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...polyacrylamide resin is produced by the copolymerization of acrylamide with not more than 5-mole percent ?-methacrylyloxyethy-ltrimethylammonium...polyacrylamide resin contains not more than 0.05 percent residual acrylamide. (c) The modified polyacrylamide resin is used as...

  4. 21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...polyacrylamide resin is produced by the copolymerization of acrylamide with not more than 5-mole percent ?-methacrylyloxyethy-ltrimethylammonium...polyacrylamide resin contains not more than 0.05 percent residual acrylamide. (c) The modified polyacrylamide resin is used as...

  5. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section...Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely...

  6. 21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...polyacrylamide resin is produced by the copolymerization of acrylamide with not more than 5-mole percent ?-methacrylyloxyethy-ltrimethylammonium...polyacrylamide resin contains not more than 0.05 percent residual acrylamide. (c) The modified polyacrylamide resin is used as...

  7. 21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...polyacrylamide resin is produced by the copolymerization of acrylamide with not more than 5-mole percent ?-methacrylyloxyethy-ltrimethylammonium...polyacrylamide resin contains not more than 0.05 percent residual acrylamide. (c) The modified polyacrylamide resin is used as...

  8. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section...Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely...

  9. Microwave-assisted preparation of functionalized resins for combinatorial synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Yang; Yanqing Peng; Gonghua Song; Xuhong Qian

    2001-01-01

    A series of functionalized resins were synthesized from Merrifield resin by virtue of microwave irradiation. A significant reduction in reaction time was achieved. This method provides a rapid transformation of functionalized resin in solid-phase synthesis.

  10. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). 721.5762 Section...721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). 721.5762 Section...721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5905 Section...Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-441) is...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5908 Section...Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-561) is...

  14. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410 Section...Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified in this section may be...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5905 Section...Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-441) is...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). 721.5762 Section...721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). 721.5762 Section...721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). 721.5762 Section...721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5905 Section...Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-441) is...

  20. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410 Section...Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified in this section may be...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5905 Section...Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-441) is...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5905 Section...Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-441) is...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5908 Section...Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-561) is...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5908 Section...Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-561) is...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5908 Section...Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-561) is...

  6. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410 Section...Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified in this section may be...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5908 Section...Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-561) is...

  8. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section 177.2510...Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles...

  9. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section 177.2510...Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles...

  10. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section 177.2510...Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles...

  11. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section 177.2510...Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles...

  12. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section 177.2510...Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles...

  13. Effect of resin rheology on macro- and micro-flows in resin transfer molding

    SciTech Connect

    Chih-Hsin Shih; Lee, L.J.; Koelling, K. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Resin transfer molding (RTM) is a relatively new and high potential process for near net shape composite manufacturing because of its short cycle time, low labor requirements and low equipment cost. The major material variables in the RTM process are the resin rheology and the fiber reinforcement structure. The presence of low profile additives or fillers tends to change the resin mixture from a Newtonian fluid to a Non-Newtonian fluid. Different fiber architectures may result in different flow patterns that will influence the mold filling and curing processes. This paper will discuss how the resin rheology and fiber structure effect the resin transfer molding process.

  14. Phosphorus-containing imide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (inventors)

    1985-01-01

    Cured polymers of bis and tris-imides derived from tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides by reaction with maleic anhydride or its derivatives, and addition polymers of such imides, including a variant in which a monoimide is condensed with a dianhydride and the product is treated with a further quantity of maleic anhydride prior to curing are disclosed and claimed. Such polymers are flame resistant. Also disclosed are an improved method of producing tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides from the nitro analogues by reduction with hydrazine hydrate using palladized charcoal or Raney nickel as the catalyst and fiber reinforced cured resin composites.

  15. High refractive index photocurable resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morford, Robert V.; Mercado, Ramil L.; Planje, Curtis E.; Flaim, Tony D.

    2005-04-01

    The performance of optoelectronic devices can be increased by incorporating a high refractive index layer into the system. This paper describes several potential high refractive index resin candidates. Our materials include the added advantages over other systems because the new materials are cationically photocurable and free flowing, have low shrinkage upon cure, have no (or little) volatile organic components, are applicable by a variety of methods (dip coating, roller coating, injection molding, or film casting), can be applied in a variety of thicknesses (10-100 m), are fast-curing, and possess robust physical properties. Particular attention focuses on the refractive index in the visible spectrum, light transmission, and formulation viscosity.

  16. Polyimide Resins Resist Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft and aerospace engines share a common threat: high temperature. The temperatures experienced during atmospheric reentry can reach over 2,000 F, and the temperatures in rocket engines can reach well over 5,000 F. To combat the high temperatures in aerospace applications, Dr. Ruth Pater of Langley Research Center developed RP-46, a polyimide resin capable of withstanding the most brutal temperatures. The composite material can push the service temperature to the limits of organic materials. Designed as an environmentally friendly alternative to other high-temperature resins, the RP-46 polyimide resin system was awarded a 1992 "R&D 100" award, named a "2001 NASA Technology of the Year," and later, due to its success as a spinoff technology, "2004 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year." The technology s commercial success also led to its winning the Langley s "Paul F. Holloway Technology Transfer Award" as well as "Richard T. Whitcom Aerospace Technology Transfer Award" both for 2004. RP-46 is relatively inexpensive and it can be readily processed for use as an adhesive, composite, resin molding, coating, foam, or film. Its composite materials can be used in temperatures ranging from minus 150 F to 2,300 F. No other organic materials are known to be capable of such wide range and extreme high-temperature applications. In addition to answering the call for environmentally conscious high-temperature materials, RP-46 provides a slew of additional advantages: It is extremely lightweight (less than half the weight of aluminum), chemical and moisture resistant, strong, and flexible. Pater also developed a similar technology, RP-50, using many of the same methods she used with RP-46, and very similar in composition to RP-46 in terms of its thermal capacity and chemical construction, but it has different applications, as this material is a coating as opposed to a buildable composite. A NASA license for use of this material outside of the Space Agency as well as additional government-funded testing proved that RP-46 is even more exceptional than originally thought.

  17. MOLD FILLING PARAMETERS IN RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING OF COMPOSITES

    E-print Network

    MOLD FILLING PARAMETERS IN RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING OF COMPOSITES by Charles William Hedley A thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Pultrusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Resin Transfer Molding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Compression Molding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Filament Winding

  18. Liquid antibiotics in bone cement

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Y. H.; Tai, C. L.; Hsu, H. Y.; Hsieh, P. H.; Lee, M. S.; Ueng, S. W. N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to compare the elution characteristics, antimicrobial activity and mechanical properties of antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) loaded with powdered antibiotic, powdered antibiotic with inert filler (xylitol), or liquid antibiotic, particularly focusing on vancomycin and amphotericin B. Methods Cement specimens loaded with 2 g of vancomycin or amphotericin B powder (powder group), 2 g of antibiotic powder and 2 g of xylitol (xylitol group) or 12 ml of antibiotic solution containing 2 g of antibiotic (liquid group) were tested. Results Vancomycin elution was enhanced by 234% in the liquid group and by 12% in the xylitol group compared with the powder group. Amphotericin B elution was enhanced by 265% in the liquid group and by 65% in the xylitol group compared with the powder group. Based on the disk-diffusion assay, the eluate samples of vancomycin-loaded ALBC of the liquid group exhibited a significantly larger inhibitory zone than samples of the powder or the xylitol group. Regarding the ALBCs loaded with amphotericin B, only the eluate samples of the liquid group exhibited a clear inhibitory zone, which was not observed in either the xylitol or the powder groups. The ultimate compressive strength was significantly reduced in specimens containing liquid antibiotics. Conclusions Adding vancomycin or amphotericin B antibiotic powder in distilled water before mixing with bone cement can significantly improve the efficiency of antibiotic release than can loading ALBC with the same dose of antibiotic powder. This simple and effective method for preparation of ALBCs can significantly improve the efficiency of antibiotic release in ALBCs. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:246–51. PMID:25104836

  19. Direct Encapsulation of Spent Ion-exchange Resins at the Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant, Czech Republic - 12367

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, Paul [AMEC Nuclear UK, Knutsford (United Kingdom); Rima, Steve [AMEC USA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    At the Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant there are large amounts of spent ion exchange resins contained within storage tanks. These resins are a product of the operation of an Active Water Purification System within the Power Plant. Activity levels of the resins are in the range of 105 to 10{sup 6} Bq/l and the main isotopes present are Co-60, Cs-137, Mn-54 and Ag-110m. In order to maintain storage tank availability throughout the planned lifetime of the Power Plant these resins must be removed and disposed of safely. The storage tanks do not have an effective retrieval route for the resins and the installed agitation system is inoperable. A proven system for retrieving and directly encapsulating these resins to a standard required for the Czech repository is described, together with an overview of operational performance. Experience gained from this and other projects has highlighted some common challenges relating to the treatment of ion-exchange resins and sludges. There are common approaches that can assist in overcoming these challenges. 1. Transport resin / sludge type waste over as short a distance as possible to avoid issues with line plugging. 2. Transport these wastes once and once only wherever possible. 3. Try to keep the treatment process as simple as possible. With sludge or resin handling equipment consider the physical properties foremost - radiological issues can be addressed within any subsequent design. 4. Consider the use of dry-mix technologies. This avoids the requirement for expensive and complicated grouting plant. 5. Avoid the use of make up water for transport purposes if at all possible - it introduces secondary waste that needs to be treated at additional cost. 6. Consider alternative disposal techniques. SIAL{sup R} is AMEC's preferred technology as we developed it and understand it well - additionally the waste loading factors are much higher than for cement. 7. Consider final waste volumes when selecting the disposal technique. Disposal costs will probably make up the bulk of the total life-time cost for any retrieval / encapsulation project. 8. Have a selection of ion-exchange resin/sludge retrieval techniques available - it is difficult and time consuming to develop a technique that will cope with all eventualities, particularly when there are unknown conditions. It is much more productive to switch retrieval techniques as appropriate to deal with evolving conditions. (authors)

  20. Fatigue Behavior of Geopolymer Cemente Concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. R. Silva; C. Thaumaturgo

    In this work, a Geopolymeric Cement Concrete (GCC) was developed through adequate portions of geopolymer components. Its characteristics were compared with Portland Cement Concrete (PCC), through of the establishment of some parameters of design, as consumption of binders, water\\/aggregates ratio and mortar content. The concrete mechanical performance was evaluated with emphasis to the fatigue behavior. Were tested the effects of

  1. HPMC and HEMC influence on cement hydration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pourchez; A. Peschard; P. Grosseau; R. Guyonnet; B. Guilhot; F. Vallée

    2006-01-01

    Cellulose ethers such as hydroxyethylmethyl cellulose (HEMC) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) are common admixtures in factory made mortars. Nevertheless, their use principally remains empirical, and no cement–admixture interaction mechanism has ever been rigorously demonstrated. The main issue of this publication deals with the control of secondary effects generated by these admixtures such as the retardation of cement hydration. In this

  2. Acrylic bone cement: current concept review.

    PubMed

    Magnan, B; Bondi, M; Maluta, T; Samaila, E; Schirru, L; Dall'Oca, C

    2013-08-01

    Acrylic bone cement has had for years an important role in orthopedic surgery. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) has been extended from the ophthalmological and dental fields to orthopedics, as acrylic cement used for fixation of prosthetic implants, for remodeling osteoporotic, neoplastic and vertebral fractures repair. The PMMA bone cement is a good carrier for sustained antibiotic release in the site of infection. Joint prostheses chronic infection requires surgical removal of the implant, in order to eradicate the infection process. This can be performed in the same surgical time (one-stage procedure) or in two separate steps (two-stage procedure, which involves the use of an antibiotic-loaded cement spacer). The mechanical and functional characteristics of the spacers allow a good joint range of motion, weight-bearing in selected cases and a sustained release of antibiotic at the site of infection. The improvement of fixation devices in recent years was not accompanied by the improvement of elderly bone quality. Some studies have tested the use of PMMA bone cement or calcium phosphate as augmentation support of internal fixation of these fractures. Over the past 20 years, experimental study of acrylic biomaterials (bone cement, bioglass ceramic, cement additives, absorbable cement, antibiotic spacers) has been of particular importance, offering numerous models and projects. PMID:23893506

  3. Engineering properties of cement with coal gangue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Zhang; Jun Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Engineering properties of cement with coal gangue was studied to determine the compressive strength, freeze-thaw and shrinkage characteristics of the material. The composition of coal gangue was determined using the screening test; the liquid limit, plastic limit and water ratio of the cement with coal gangue were measured using the Liquid and Plastic Limit Joint Detector. The optimal water ratio

  4. Topics in cement and concrete research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. H. Brouwers

    2007-01-01

    The present paper addresses several topics in regard to the sustainable design and use of concrete. First, major features concerning the sustainable aspects of the material concrete are summarised. Then the major constituent, from an environmental point of view, cement is discussed in detail, particularly the hydration and application of slag cement. The intelligent combining of mineral oxides, which are

  5. Characterization of a Linear Melamine Formaldehyde Resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela Leidl; Werner F. Huber; Clemens Schwarzinger; Andreas Endesfelder

    2007-01-01

    A novel linear melamine formaldehyde resin on the basis of the bifunctional tetramethylmelamine was created. It was found to posses several promising properties for industrial applications. Structural characterization of the material at its various production states was achieved with different mass spectrometric techniques. Liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to completely separate the resins and identify the individual components.

  6. Disinfection of denture base acrylic resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Lin; Stephen M. Cameron; Dennis A. Runyan; David W. Craft

    1999-01-01

    Statement of problem. During repair or adjustments of acrylic resin removable complete and partial dentures, particles of the acrylic resin from the interior of the prosthesis may expose dental personnel to microbial health hazards if the prosthesis has not been thoroughly disinfected. Purpose. This study investigates the efficacy of a commercially prepared microbial disinfectant (Alcide) on the external and internal

  7. Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Gene W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01

    By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

  8. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins...1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not less than 104 poises at 380...ibr_locations.html. The melt viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins...1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not less than 104 poises at 380...ibr_locations.html. The melt viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins...1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not less than 104 poises at 380...ibr_locations.html. The melt viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins...

  11. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Six silicone modified resins were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 6-63%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 1,220 MPa and a modulus of 105 GPa. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 72 MPa.

  12. Sand control with resin and explosive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Dees; W. J. Begnaud; N. L. Sahr

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for treating a well having perforated casing to prevent solids movement through the perforations and into the wellbore. It comprises positioning a quantity of liquid resin solution such that the solution occupies the interval of the casing having perforations; positioning an explosive in proximity with the liquid resin solution; detonating the explosive; displacing the liquid

  13. A Fundamental Approach to Resin Cure Kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leroy Chiao; Richard E. Lyon

    1990-01-01

    Thermoset polymer resins are an important class of materials, particularly when used as the matrix for advanced fiber composites. Because material performance is directly related to processing, it is useful to study the cure kinetics of these resins for use in process modeling, design and control. Several workers have attacked this problem using empirical rate laws. However, a fundamental approach

  14. Feasibility of vitrifying EPICOR II organic resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Buelt

    1982-01-01

    Funded by the US Department of Energy under the EG and G\\/TMI Waste Immobilization Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has completed the first phase of a program in which a process designed to destroy EPICOR II resins was tested for its feasibility. These resins were utilized to remove cesium and strontium from radioactively contaminated water in the Auxiliary Building at

  15. Gold recovery with ion exchange used resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen P. Gomes; Manuel F. Almeida; José M. Loureiro

    2001-01-01

    In this paper one strong acidic, one strong basic and one weak basic ion-exchange resins, considered as exhausted in an industrial demineralizing plant, are screened for gold recovery from cyanide solutions. Based on the observed ability for the recovery and on the ease of regeneration, the weak base anion exchanger Purolite A-100 is selected. This spent resin is stable until

  16. FLUORESCENCE EFFECTS IN ION EXCHANGE RESINS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Flint; G. G. Eichholz

    1961-01-01

    Available as Can. Dept. Mines and Tech. Surveys, Mines Branch ; Resesrch Report R-91, 25. Fluorescence under ultraviolet illumination was ; observed in anion and cation exchange resins when in the unloaded state. The ; fluorescence decreases rapidly in intensity as the resin is loaded and this ; process is shown to offer a practical method for controlling the loading

  17. Phenolic-resin-derived activated carbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Tennison

    1998-01-01

    A novel binderless preparative route is described for the production of phenolic-resin-derived carbons for use as catalyst supports and adsorbents. The carbons can be produced in a wide variety of physical forms ranging from simple granules to large monolithic structures. The fully interconnected macropore structure of the carbons, which derives from the interconnected voids between the primary resin particles, can

  18. Advances in addition-cure phenolic resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Reghunadhan Nair

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in the area of addition curable phenolic resins are reviewed. The article highlights the chemistry of addition-cure phenolic resins and discusses the different strategies involved in their molecular design. Structural modification through incorporation of thermally stable, addition curable groups on the novolac backbone is one strategy. The transformation of phenolic hydroxyl groups to addition curable functions forms an

  19. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Allen

    2010-01-01

    An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system,

  20. Prophylaxis with resin in wood ants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregoire Castella; Michel Chapuisat; Philippe Christe

    2008-01-01

    Animals may use plant compounds to defend themselves against parasites. Wood ants, Formica paralugub- ris, incorporate pieces of solidified conifer resin into their nests. This behaviour inhibits the growth of bac- teria and fungi in nest material and protects the ants against some detrimental microorganisms. Here, we studied the resin-collecting behaviour of ants under field and laboratory conditions. First, we

  1. Cement analysis using d + D neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, Phillip C.; Paschal, Jon; Moore, Ryan

    2005-12-01

    In the cement industry, the primary concern is quality control. The earlier the cement industry can institute quality control upon their product, the more significant their savings in labor, energy and material. We are developing a prototype cement analyzer using pulsed neutrons from a d-D electronic neutron generator with the goal of ensuring quality control of cement in an on-line manner. By utilizing a low intensity d-D neutron source and a specially-designed moderator assembly, we are able to produce one of the safest neutron-based systems in the market. Also, this design includes some exciting new methods of data acquisition which may substantially reduce the final installation costs. In our proof-of-principle measurements, we were able to measure the primary components of cement (Al, Si, Ca and Fe) to limits required for the raw materials, the derived mixes and the clinkers utilizing this neutron generator.

  2. Continuous metal removal technique for resist resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanat, Stan F.; McKenzie, Douglas S.; Rahman, M. D.

    2001-08-01

    Modern resists require very pure raw materials to insure highest quality images. Many methods have been developed to reduce metals in resins used to make photoresists. Extractive washing techniques and ion exchange methods have been the predominant methods used to reduce metal levels for these critical raw materials. This has been especially important for the novolak resins because of the generally poor quality of the starting materials used to make them and by the nature of the resin isolation steps traditionally used. Both of the commonly used cleaning methods are time consuming and are predominantly batch processes. Based upon techniques developed to efficiently fractionate resins, we have developed a technique for the rapid, continuous reduction of metal contaminants in film forming resin solutions by an extractive method using a double inlet liquid/liquid centrifuge.

  3. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new analytical model for simulating chemoviscosity of thermosetting resin was formulated. The model is developed by modifying the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) theory in polymer rheology for thermoplastic materials. By assuming a linear relationship between the glass transition temperature and the degree of cure of the resin system under cure, the WLF theory can be modified to account for the factor of reaction time. Temperature dependent functions of the modified WLF theory constants were determined from the isothermal cure data of Lee, Loos, and Springer for the Hercules 3501-6 resin system. Theoretical predictions of the model for the resin under dynamic heating cure cycles were shown to compare favorably with the experimental data reported by Carpenter. A chemoviscosity model which is capable of not only describing viscosity profiles accurately under various cure cycles, but also correlating viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with the structural transformations of the thermosetting resin systems during cure was established.

  4. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques were developed that provided thermo-oxidatively stable A-type polyimide/graphite fiber composites using the approach of in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on reinforcing fibers, rather than employing separately prepared prepolymer varnish. This was accomplished by simply mixing methylene dianiline and two ester-acids and applying this solution to the fibers for subsequent molding. Five different formulated molecular weight resins were examined, and an optimized die molding procedure established for the 1500 formulated molecular weight system. Extensive ultrasonic inspection of composites was successfully utilized as a technique for monitoring laminate quality. Composite mechanical property studies were conducted with this polyimide resin at room temperature and after various time exposures in a thermo-oxidative environment at 561 K (550 F), 589 K (600 F) and 617 K (650 F). It was determined that such composites have a long term life in the temperature range of 561 K to 589 K. The final phase involved the fabrication and evaluation of a series of demonstration airfoil specimens.

  5. The marginal leakage of some dental cements in humans: a PIXE-microbeam approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zadro, A.; Passi, P. [Dental School, Department of Dental Materials, University of Padua (Italy); Cavalleri, G. [Dental School, Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Verona (Italy); Galassini, S.; Moschini, G.; Rossi, P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy)

    1999-06-10

    The marginal leakage and water absorption of dental cements and restorative materials has been investigated by many authors with several techniques, some of which led to valid results. However, no technique could give, by itself, information both on leakage and water absorption, as these measurements usually need different investigations. PIXE micro beam offers the possibility of investigating these two aspects at the same time, since it is possible to map a proper marker element. In the present study, cavities were made on 50 extracted human molars, then filled with five different temporary cements (IRM, Cavit W, Kalsogen, Fermit N, SuperEBA). The filled teeth were placed into a 5% silver nitrate solution, and after three days, one, two, three and four weeks were examined. The samples for microPIXE were prepared after embedding the teeth in epoxy resin, and sectioning and grinding them down to a thickness of about 1 mm. The sections were placed on metal holders, and examined with a scanning proton {mu}beam, in Legnaro (Italy) at the AN2000 LAB of INFN National Laboratories. The beam consisted of 2.4 MeV protons, it had a cross section of 1.5 micron in diameter and typical currents of the order of some {mu}A were used. The maps were obtained by an 'ad hoc' software with a McIntosh personal computer. Mapping of silver allowed to evaluate both the marginal leakage and the water absorption for each cement. The samples filled with Cavit W showed a great infiltration, as the tracing element was found in the cement bulk, along the margins and inside the cavity, while those filled with IRM and Kalsogen presented only a deposition of the tracing solution on the cement surface. SuperEBA showed a poor resistance against microleakage, because the marker element was only detected along the cavity margins. Fermit N showed the best marginal integrity, and on its surface no traces of siver were found. In this case the better resistance may be due to the resin present in the composition of the material.

  6. Relationship between filler and matrix resin characteristics and the properties of uncured composite pastes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D F; Kalachandra, S; Sankarapandian, M; McGrath, J E

    1998-01-01

    The relationships between filler type, filler content, matrix resin composition and viscosity and the flow characteristics of composite paste formulations have been investigated. BIS-GMA and 10 experimental BIS-GMA analogues were diluted as needed with TEGDMA to produce 1000 and 2000 cp solutions corresponding to the viscosity range of commercial composite matrices. All of these resins were mixed with a silanated hybrid-filler and a silanated micro-filler. For each combination the maximum filler content was determined, as well as the paste consistencies (plasticities) at a series of filler contents. Paste consistencies were measured by a modification of the ADA specification methods developed for determining standard test consistencies for zinc phosphate and silicate cements. For each monomer-filler combination increasing filler contents resulted in monotonically reduced plasticities. The maximum filler contents appeared to be an attribute of the particular filler rather than matrix resin characteristics. For the materials used, the maximum contents were approximately 86 wt% (83 vol%) filler for the hybrid filler, and 36% wt% (24 vol%) for the microfilled material. At lower filler contents, plasticity differences unexpectedly existed even at equal filler contents and matrix viscosities. Evidence was found that the plasticity varied both with the base monomer composition and the amount of TEGDMA present. The results imply that compositional interactions between the filler and matrix influence the results when all known mechanical factors are controlled. PMID:9678868

  7. Shear bond strength of novel calcium aluminate-based cement (EndoBinder) to root dentine

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Rossetto, Hebert Luis; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the shear bond strength of a novel calcium aluminate-based cement, EndoBinder (EB), to dentine in comparison with Grey and White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA). Materials and Methods: Root canal hemi-sections obtained from 30 extracted molar teeth were embedded in self-polymerized acrylic resin and were grounded wet in order to obtain a flat dentine surface. Next, the roots were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 10), according to the cement used, as follows: EB: EndoBinder; WMTA: White MTA and GMTA: Grey MTA. The shear bond strength test was performed using a Universal Testing Machine (0.5 mm/min) and the data were submitted to statistical analysis (1-way ANOVA and Tukey tests, P < 0.05). Results: EB presented the highest shear bond strength values; however, there was no statistically significant difference in comparison with GMTA (P > 0.05). WMTA presented the lowest mean values, which were significant in comparison with EB (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The novel calcium aluminate-based cement presented higher shear bond strength than WMTA, and should be considered as a promising alternative in endodontic therapy. PMID:25512731

  8. Microscale investigation of arsenic distribution and species in cement product from cement kiln coprocessing wastes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yufei; Xue, Jingchuan; Huang, Qifei

    2013-01-01

    To improve the understanding of the immobilization mechanism and the leaching risk of Arsenic (As) in the cement product from coprocessing wastes using cement kiln, distribution and species of As in cement product were determined by microscale investigation methods, including electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In this study, sodium arsenate crystals (Na3AsO412H2O) were mixed with cement production raw materials and calcined to produce cement clinker. Then, clinker was mixed water to prepare cement paste. EPMA results showed that As was generally distributed throughout the cement paste. As content in calcium silicate hydrates gel (C-S-H) was in low level, but higher than that in other cement mineral phases. This means that most of As is expected to form some compounds that disperse on the surfaces of cement mineral phases. Linear combination fitting (LCF) of the X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra revealed that As in the cement paste was predominantly As(V) and mainly existed as Mg3(AsO4)2, Ca3(AsO4)2, and Na2HAsO4. PMID:24223030

  9. Guide to Cement-Based Integrated Pavement Solutions

    E-print Network

    Cement- Modified Soils Roller- Com- pacted Con- crete EXTERNAL COMPACTION Concrete Recycling Full with cement, cement-modified soils, recycled concrete aggregates, and repair and restoration. Each application Conventional Overlays CRCP VIBRATORY COMPACTION Pervious Concrete Full-Depth Reclamation Cement- Treat- ed Base

  10. High-performance concretes from calcium aluminate cements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen L. Scrivener; Jean-Louis Cabiron; Roger Letourneux

    1999-01-01

    Calcium aluminate cements have a radically different chemistry to Portland cements. Due principally to their higher cost, they do not compete directly with Portland cements. Nevertheless, concretes based on these cements have very high performance in specific applications. Two of these are discussed in this article: resistance to acid attack and particularly biogenic corrosion and abrasion resistance in hydraulic structures.

  11. Onset of cohesion in cement paste B. Jnsson1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Onset of cohesion in cement paste B. Jönsson1 , H. Wennerström2 , A. Nonat3 , B. Cabane4 1 Abstract It is generally agreed that the cohesion of cement paste occurs through the formation of a network) or multivalent (Al or Fe hydroxide) ions. #12;2 Introduction Cohesion of cement paste When Portland cement

  12. EPICOR-II resin degradation results from first resin samples of PF-8 and PF-20

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Sanders, R.D. Sr.

    1985-12-01

    The 28 March 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 released approximately 560,000 gallons of contaminated water to the Auxiliary and Fuel Handling Buildings. The water was decontaminated using a demineralization system called EPICOR-II developed by Epicor, Inc. The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Project is studying the chemical and physical conditions of the synthetic ion exchange resins found in several EPICOR-II prefilters. This report summarizes results and analyses of the first sampling of ion exchange resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PE-8 and -20. Results are compared with baseline data from tests performed on unirradiated Epicor, Inc. resins to determine if degradation has occurred due to the high internal radiation dose received by the EPICOR-II resins. Results also are compared with recent findings on resin degradation by Battelle Columbus Laboratories and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Analyses comparing test results of resins from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 with unirradiated resins obtained from Epicor, Inc. show resin degradation has occurred in some of the EPICOR-II resins examined. The mechanism of degradation is compared with work of other researchers and is consistent with their findings. The strong acid cation resins (divinylbenzene, styrene base structure) are losing effective cross-linking along with scission of functional groups and are experiencing first an increase and eventually a decrease in total exchange capacity as the absorbed radiation dose increases. The phenolic cation resins (phenol-formaldehyde base structure) show a loss of effective cross-linking and oxidation of the polymer chain. Analyses of resins removed from EPICOR-II prefilters PF-8 and -20 over the next several years should show a further increase in degradation.

  13. Tc-99 Ion Exchange Resin Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2010-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by CHPRC to evaluate the release of 99Tc from spent resin used to treat water from well 299-W15-765 and stored for several years. The key questions to be answered are: 1) does 99Tc readily release from the spent ion exchange resin after being in storage for several years; 2) if hot water stripping is used to remove the co-contaminant carbon tetrachloride, will 99Tc that has been sequestered by the resin be released; and 3) can spent resin be encapsulated into a cementitious waste form; if so, how much 99Tc would be released from the weathering of the monolith waste form? The results from the long term stability leach test results confirm that the resin is not releasing a significant amount of the sequestered 99Tc, evident by the less than 0.02% of the total 99Tc loaded being identified in the solution. Furthermore, it is possible that the measured 99Tc concentration is the result of 99Tc contained in the pore spaces of the resin. In addition to these results, analyses conducted to examine the impact of hot water on the release of 99Tc suggest that only a small percentage of the total is being released. This suggest that hot water stripping to remove carbon tetrachloride will not have a significant affect on the resin’s ability to hold-on to sequestered 99Tc. Finally, encapsulation of spent resin in a cementitious material may be a viable disposal option, but additional tests are needed to examine the extent of physical degradation caused by moisture loss and the effect this degradation process can have on the release of 99Tc.

  14. Recycling of epoxy resin compounds for moulding electronic components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MASATOSHI Iji

    1998-01-01

    This study reports the recycling of the cured epoxy resin compounds containing silica filler and additives for moulding electronic components, which is generated as a mould residue in moulding process. The pulverized residue (moulding resin powder) showed good surface reactivity due to the functional groups contained (silanol, hydroxy and epoxy) and reacted with polar resins such as epoxy resin and

  15. Monitoring of Resin Transfer Molding Processes with Distributed Dielectric Sensors

    E-print Network

    Mamishev, Alexander

    Monitoring of Resin Transfer Molding Processes with Distributed Dielectric Sensors Michael Campbell___________________________________ #12;University of Washington Abstract Monitoring of Resin Transfer Molding Processes with Distributed-situ sensing in resin transfer molding (RTM) and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is designed

  16. Optimal control of accelerator concentration for resin transfer molding process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun K. Kim; Dae-Hwan Kim; Isaac M. Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Resin cure following mold filling is an essential element in resin transfer molding. To fabricate a composite part with high dimensional stability and minimize residual stress, uniform resin cure should be achieved. This study considers a three-part resin system composed of epoxy, hardener and accelerator. The cure kinetics can be controlled by the accelerator concentration at the injection gate. A

  17. Analysis of vacuum bag resin transfer molding process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Kang; W. I. Lee; H. T. Hahn

    2001-01-01

    An analytical model is developed to analyze the resin flow through a deformable fiber preform during vacuum bag resin transfer molding (VBRTM) process. The force balance between the resin and the fiber preform is used to account for the swelling of fiber preform inside a flexible vacuum bag. Mold filling through multiple resin inlets is analyzed under different vacuum conditions.

  18. Solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in masonry cement. [Masonry cement-boric acid waste forms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Zhou; P. Colombo

    1987-01-01

    Portland cements are widely used as solidification agents for low-level radioactive wastes. However, it is known that boric acid wastes, as generated at pressurized water reactors (PWR's) are difficult to solidify using ordinary portland cements. Waste containing as little as 5 wt % boric acid inhibits the curing of the cement. For this purpose, the suitability of masonry cement was

  19. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1993-09-21

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

  20. Sulfate attack on hardened cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.G. (Shenzhen Univ. (China). Dept. of Applied Chemistry)

    1994-01-01

    Hardened cement paste specimens made with different cement types and varying water-cement ratios (w/c) were immersed in 5% sodium sulfate solution maintained at constant pH value of 6. The distribution curves for ettringite, gypsum, and portlandite phases were obtained by using layer by layer XRD analysis and interpreted in terms of material damage due to sulfate attack. The mechanism of sulfate attack is evaluated in regard to the leaching of Ca(OH)[sub 2] and formation of gypsum and ettringite.

  1. Sialite technology—sustainable alternative to portland cement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henghu Sun; Ravi Jain; Kennedy Nguyen; John Zuckerman

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the current state of the cement industry, its sustainability, and how it compares\\u000a to alternative cement technologies—specifically Sialite technology. The process for creating the most widely used cement,\\u000a portland cement, is an energy intensive process, which consumes considerable natural resources, such as limestone. In addition,\\u000a portland cement production releases harmful air pollutants,

  2. Interfacial interactions of structural adhesive components with cement pastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inês Baeta Neves; Maud Chabut; Christian Perruchot; Mohamed M. Chehimi; Karim Benzarti

    2004-01-01

    The surface energy of hardened cement pastes, before and after treatment by organic coating, and two individual cement paste components (CSH and ettringite) have been characterized by inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at 35°C, using n-alkanes, 1-alkenes, benzene, chloroform and CCl4 molecular probes. The cement pastes were prepared by mixing an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) with water at a water\\/cement ratio

  3. In-depth disinfection of acrylic resins.

    PubMed

    Chau, V B; Saunders, T R; Pimsler, M; Elfring, D R

    1995-09-01

    This study demonstrated that bacteria penetrate three kinds of dental acrylic resin after a short time period. Samples of acrylic resin were contaminated with a variety of bacteria and were then placed in three different disinfecting solutions as directed by the manufacturers. After the specific dilution and immersion time, cultures were made from the resin samples. The only effective disinfectant was a 0.525% solution of sodium hypochlorite at a 10-minute immersion. It disinfected not only the surfaces but also the bacteria that penetrated the surfaces to a depth of 3 mm. PMID:7473287

  4. Resin flow/fiber deformation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gutowski, T.G.; Cai, Z.; Kingery, J.; Wineman, S.J.

    1986-07-01

    This paper reports on recent consolidation experiments taken on special prepregs made of aligned graphite fibers and constant viscosity oils. Three types of experiments are reported here: (1) Fiber Deformation, (2) Axial Permeability, and (3) Resin Pressure. Results show that the fibers carry a finite load at typical fiber volume fractions for advanced composites. Also, the axial permeability can be modeled by the Carman-Kozeny Theory, and Resin Flow/Fiber Deformation Theory can be used to model the resin pressure history. 5 references, 7 figures.

  5. General hydration model for portland cement and blast furnace slag cement

    SciTech Connect

    De Schutter, G.; Taerwe, L. [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Ghent (Belgium)] [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Ghent (Belgium)

    1995-04-01

    This paper focuses on the evolution of the heat of hydration of hardening concrete or cement based materials. Based on isothermal and adiabatic hydration tests a new general hydration model is developed, valid both for portland cement and blast furnace slag cement. This hydration model enables the calculation of the heat production rate as a function of the actual temperature and the degree of hydration.

  6. Factors affecting cement strains near the tip of a cemented femoral component

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel M. Estok; Tracy E. Orr; William H. Harris

    1997-01-01

    A generic three-dimensional finite-element model of the upper half of the femur containing a cemented femoral stem of a total hip arthroplasty was developed to study those factors influencing cement strains near the tip of a cemented femoral component. This generic model was verified through another three-dimensional finite-element model that had been created based on the precise geometry of a

  7. Increased Antibiotic Release from a Bone Cement Containing Bacterial Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, Takahisa; Enomoto, Koichi; Uchio, Yuji; Yoshino, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    Background Major disadvantages of antibiotic bone cements include limited drug release and reduced strength resulting from the addition of high doses of antibiotics. Bacterial cellulose, a three-dimensional hydrophilic mesh, may retain antibiotics and release them gradually. We hypothesized that the addition of cellulose to antibiotic bone cement would improve mechanical strength and antibiotic release. Questions/purposes We therefore examined the mechanical strength and antibiotic release of cellulose antibiotic cement. Methods A high dose of antibiotics (5 g per 40 g cement powder) was incorporated into bacterial cellulose and then mixed with bone cement. We compared the compression strength, fracture toughness, fatigue life, and elution kinetics of this formulation with those of plain cement and a traditional antibiotic cement. Results The average values for compression strength, fracture toughness, and fatigue life of the cellulose antibiotic cement were 97%, 97%, and 78% of the values obtained for plain cement, respectively. The corresponding values for the traditional antibiotic cement were 79%, 82%, and 17%, respectively. The cumulative elution over 35 days was 129% greater from the cellulose antibiotic cement than from the traditional antibiotic cement. Conclusions With a high dose of antibiotics, incorporating cellulose into the bone cement prevented compression and fracture fragility, improved fatigue life, and increased antibiotic elution. Clinical Relevance Antibiotic cements containing cellulose may have applications in clinical situations that require high levels of antibiotic release and preservation of the mechanical properties of the cement. PMID:20945120

  8. New modified hydrocarbon resins; An alternative to styrenated terpene resins in hot melts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carper

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of two hydrocarbon-based resin formulations that could be used with different thermoplastic block copolymers to formulate pressure-sensitive adhesives. Results are examined with one of these resins in formulations with styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) and styrene-butadiene (SB) compounds. The new modified hydrocarbon resin, with a softening point of 98° C, matches the adhesive performance of a terpene

  9. Curing kinetics of phenol formaldehyde resin and wood-resin interactions in the presence of wood substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangbo He; Bernard Riedl

    2004-01-01

    The curing kinetics of resol PF resin and resin–wood interactions in the presence of wood substrates have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The activation energy of cure of PF resin generally increases when PF resin is mixed with wood, mainly due to the decrease of the pH values resulting from the presence

  10. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at Hanford and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A recirculating test loop with a small ion exchange column was used to measure the effect of oxygen uptake and radiation exposure on the permeability of a packed bed of the RF resin. The lab-scale column was designed to be prototypic of the proposed Hanford columns at the WTP. Although the test equipment was designed to model the Hanford ion exchange columns, the data on changes in the hydraulic permeability of the resin will also be valuable for determining potential pressure drops through the proposed SCIX system. The superficial fluid velocity in the lab-scale test (3.4-5.7 cm/s) was much higher than is planned for the full-scale Hanford columns to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in those columns (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity produced forces on the resin in the lab-scale tests that matched the design basis of the full-scale Hanford column. Any changes in the resin caused by the radiation exposure and oxygen uptake were monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and the physical properties of the resin. Three hydraulic test runs were completed, the first using fresh RF resin at 25 C, the second using irradiated resin at 25 C, and the third using irradiated resin at 45 C. A Hanford AP-101 simulant solution was recirculated through a test column containing 500 mL of Na-form RF resin. Known amounts of oxygen were introduced into the primary recirculation loop by saturating measured volumes of the simulant solution with oxygen and reintroducing the oxygenated simulant into the feed tank. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the recirculating simulant was monitored, and the amount of oxygen that reacted with the resin was determined from the change in the DO concentration of the recirculating simulant solution. Prior to hydraulic testing the resin for runs 2 and 3 was covered with the simulant solution and irradiated in a spent fuel element at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Both batches of resin were irradiated to a total gamma dose of 177 Mrad, but the resin for run 2 reached a maximum temperature during irradiation of 51 C, while the resin for run 3 reached a temperature of 38 C. The different temperatures were the result of the operating status of HFIR at the time of the irradiation and were not part of the test plan; however, the results clearly show the impact of the higher-temperature exposure during irradiation. The flow rate and pressure drop data from the test loop runs show that irradiating the RF resin reduces both the void fraction and the permeability of the resin bed. The mechanism for the reduction in permeability is not clear because irradiation increases the particle size of the resin beads and makes them deform less under pressure. Microscopic examination of the resin beads shows that they are all smooth regular spheres and that irradiation or oxygen uptake did not change the shape of the beads. The resin reacts rapidly with DO in the simulant solution, and the reaction with oxygen reduces the permeability of a bed of new resin by about 10% but has less impact on the permeability of irradiated resin. Irradiation increases the toughness of the resin beads, probably by initiating cross-linking reactions in them. Oxygen uptake reduces the crush strength of both new and irradiated resin; however, the pressures that caused the beads to crush are much higher than would be expected during the operation of an ion exchange column. There was no visible evidence of broken beads in any of the resin samples taken from the test loop. Reaction with oxygen red

  11. Comparative in vitro evaluation of internal adaptation of resin-modified glass ionomer, flowable composite and bonding agent applied as a liner under composite restoration: A scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Soubhagya, M; Goud, K Mallikarjun; Deepak, B S; Thakur, Sophia; Nandini, T N; Arun, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of resin-modified glass Ionomer cement in sandwich technique is widely practiced with the advent of various newer generation of composites the bond between resin-modified glass Ionomer and these resins should be validated. This study is done to evaluate the interfacial microgaps between different types of liners and dentin, liners and composite (Filtek p60 [FLp60]) using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Standardized Class V preparations were performed in buccal/lingual surfaces of 30 caries, crack and defect-free extracted human third molars. The prepared teeth were divided into three groups. Group I: Single bond (SB), Group II: SB + synergy flow, Group III: SB + vitrebond. They were restored with composite resin FLp60, according to the manufacturer instructions. The SB + vitrebond, cross-sectioned through the canter of the restoration. The specimens were fixed, dehydrated, polished, and processed for SEM. The internal adaptation of the materials to the axial wall was analyzed under SEM with ×1000 magnification. Results: The data obtained were analyzed with nonparametric tests (Kruskal–Wallis, P < 0.05). flowable composite or resin-modified glass ionomer applied in conjunction with adhesive resulted in statistically wider microgaps than occurred when the dentin was only hybridized prior to the restoration. Conclusion: Hybridization of dentin only provides superior sealing of the dentin-restoration interface than does flowable resin or resin-modified glass ionomer. PMID:25954067

  12. A modified technique for extraoral cementation of implant retained restorations for preventing excess cement around the margins

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The major drawback of cement-retained restorations is the extrusion of the excess cement into the peri-implant sulcus, with subsequent complications. Insufficient removal of the excess cement may initiate a local inflammatory process, which may lead to implant failure. This article presents a method of controlling cement flow on implant abutments, minimizing the excess cement around implant-retained restorations. PMID:24843401

  13. Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups and cured resins obtained therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M. (inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups, the process for preparing the same, and the cured resin products obtained therefrom are disclosed. Upon the application of heat, the ethynyl groups react to provide branching and crosslinking with the cure temperature being lowered by using a catalyst if desired but not required. The cured phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups have improved solvent resistance and higher use temperature than linear uncrosslinked phenoxy resins and are applicable for use as coatings, films, adhesives, composited matrices and molding compounds.

  14. Resin Flow Analysis in the Injection Cycle of a Resin Transfer Molded Radome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golestanian, Hossein; Poursina, Mehrdad

    2007-04-01

    Resin flow analysis in the injection cycle of an RTM process was investigated. Fiberglass and carbon fiber mats were used as reinforcements with EPON 826 epoxy resin. Numerical models were developed in ANSYS finite element software to simulate resin flow behavior into a mold of conical shape. Resin flow into the woven fiber mats is modeled as flow through porous media. The injection time for fiberglass/epoxy composite is found to be 4407 seconds. Required injection time for the carbon/epoxy composite is 27022 seconds. Higher injection time for carbon/epoxy part is due to lower permeability value of the carbon fibers compared to glass fiber mat.

  15. A nanochemomechanical investigation of carbonated cement paste

    E-print Network

    Vanzo, James (James F.)

    2009-01-01

    Concrete, and in particular its principal component, cement paste, has an interesting relation with carbon dioxide. Concrete is a carbon dioxide generator-- it is estimated that 5-10% of atmospheric CO? comes from this ...

  16. Supply chain management in the cement industry

    E-print Network

    Agudelo, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally supply chain management has played an operational role within cement and mineral extraction commodity companies. Recently, cost reduction projects have brought supply chain management into the limelight. In ...

  17. Improved high-temperature resistant matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, H. E.; Chang, G. E.; Wright, W. F.; Ueda, K.; Orell, M. K.

    1989-01-01

    A study was performed with the objective of developing matrix resins that exhibit improved thermo-oxidative stability over state-of-the-art high temperature resins for use at temperatures up to 644 K (700 F) and air pressures up to 0.7 MPa (100 psia). The work was based upon a TRW discovered family of polyimides currently licensed to and marketed by Ethyl Corporation as EYMYD(R) resins. The approach investigated to provide improved thermo-oxidative properties was to use halogenated derivatives of the diamine, 2, 2-bis (4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl) hexafluoropropane (4-BDAF). Polyimide neat resins and Celion(R) 12,000 composites prepared from fluorine substituted 4-BDAF demonstrated unexpectedly lower glass transition temperatures (Tg) and thermo-oxidative stabilities than the baseline 4-BDAF/PMDA polymer.

  18. Passifloricins, polyketides ?-pyrones from Passiflora foetida resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Echeverri; Victor Arango; Winston Quiñones; Fernando Torres; Gustavo Escobar; Yoni Rosero; Rosendo Archbold

    2001-01-01

    Three polyketides ?-pyrones, named passifloricins, were isolated from Passiflora foetida resin; their structures and relative configurations were assigned through 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. These types of compounds were not detected in other passion flowers.

  19. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of silicon modified resins for graphite fiber laminates which will prevent the dispersal of graphite fibers when the composites are burned is discussed. Eighty-five silicone modified resins were synthesized and evaluated including unsaturated polyesters, thermosetting methacrylates, epoxies, polyimides, and phenolics. Neat resins were judged in terms of Si content, homogeneity, hardness, Char formation, and thermal stability. Char formation was estimated by thermogravimetry to 1,000 C in air and in N2. Thermal stability was evaluated by isothermal weight loss measurements for 200 hrs in air at three temperatures. Four silicone modified epoxies were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 25 to 50%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 140 kpsi and a modulus of 10 Mpsi. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 5.3 kpsi.

  20. Synthesis of improved phenolic and polyester resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-seven cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to provide improved char residues and moisture resistance over state of the art epoxy resin composite matrices. Cyanate, epoxy novolac and vinyl ester resins were investigated. Char promoter additives were found to increase the anaerobic char yield at 800 C of epoxy novolacs and vinyl esters. Moisture resistant cyanate and vinyl ester compositions were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. A cyanate composite matrix provided state of the art composite mechanical properties before and after humidity exposure and an anaerobic char yield of 46 percent at 800 C. The outstanding moisture resistance of the matrix was not completely realized in the composite. Vinyl ester resins showed promise as candidates for improved composite matrix systems.

  1. Radiation testing of organic ion exchange resins

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, C.D.; Bray, L.A.; Bryan, S.A. [and others

    1995-09-01

    A number of ion exchange materials are being evaluated as part of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Pretreatment Project for the removal of {sup 137}Cs from aqueous tank wastes. Two of these materials are organic resins; a phenol-formaldehyde resin (Duolite CS-100) produced by Rohm and Haas Co. (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) and a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin produced by Boulder Scientific Co. (Mead, Colorado). One of the key parameters in the assessment of the organic based ion exchange materials is its useful lifetime in the radioactive and chemical environment that will be encountered during waste processing. The focus of the work presented in this report is the radiation stability of the CS-100 and the RF resins. The scope of the testing included one test with a sample of the CS-100 resin and testing of two batches of the RF resin (BSC-187 and BSC-210). Samples of the exchangers were irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source to a total absorbed dose of 10{sup 9} R over a period of 5 months in a static (no flow) and a flowing configuration with neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) simulant as a feed. Based on a maximum concentration of {sup 137}Cs on the resin that would result from processing NCAW, this dose represents an operational period of at least 150 days for the RF resin and at least 1260 days for the CS-100 resin. Gas generation in the static experiment was continuously monitored and G values (molecules of gas per 100 eV) were determined for each species. Resin samples were obtained periodically and the equilibrium behavior of the resins was assessed by determining the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}s). Structural information was also obtained by {sup 13}C cross polarization magic angle (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy so that changes to the chemical structure could be correlated with changes in K{sub d}.

  2. Cemented backfilling performance of yellow phosphorus slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia-sheng Chen; Bin Zhao; Xin-min Wang; Qin-li Zhang; Li Wang

    2010-01-01

    The experiments on the cemented backfilling performance of yellow phosphorus slag, including physical-mechanical properties,\\u000a chemical compositions, optimized proportion, and cementation mechanisms, were carried out to make good use of yellow phosphorus\\u000a slag as well as tackle with environment problems, safety problems, geological hazards, and high-cost issues during mining\\u000a in Kaiyang Phosphorus Mine Group, Guizhou. The results show that yellow phosphorus

  3. Shrinkage of steel fibre reinforced cement composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Mangat; M. Motamedi Azari

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents results of an experimental investigation on the influence of steel fibres on the free shrinkage of cement-based\\u000a matrices. Shrinkage tests were carried out on cement paste, mortar and two types of concrete mixes for a period of up to 520\\u000a days. Melt extract, crimped and hooked steel fibres were used for reinforcement at volume fractions ranging between

  4. Field results of liner rotation during cementing

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, H.E.; Durham, K.S.

    1984-09-01

    Improving liner cementing success has been a constant objective of the industry for years. Recent developments in rotating liner hanger technology have made this primary cementing technique applicable to more wells than before. Presented here is an analysis of the results of 45 jobs over a year and a half. The study examines success ratios in light of liner size, depth, length, method of rotation, setting tool types, deviation, casing hardware (centralizers, scratchers, etc.), and bearing load.

  5. Analysis of rheological properties of bone cements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. D. Nicholas; M. G. J. Waters; K. M. Holford; G. Adusei

    2007-01-01

    The rheological properties of three commercially available bone cements, CMW 1, Palacos R and Cemex ISOPLASTIC, were investigated.\\u000a Testing was undertaken at both 25 and 37 C using an oscillating parallel plate rheometer. Results showed that the three high\\u000a viscosity cements exhibited distinct differences in curing rate, with CMW 1 curing in 8.7 min, Palacos R and Cemex ISOPLASTIC\\u000a in 13 min at

  6. Durability study of steel slag cement

    SciTech Connect

    Li Dongxue, Fu Xinhua; Wu Xuequan; Tang Mingshu [Nanjing Univ. of Chemical Technology, Jiangsu (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering] [Nanjing Univ. of Chemical Technology, Jiangsu (China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-07-01

    The properties of 525{number_sign} grade steel slag cements were investigated in the present research, including: long-term strength, sulphate attack, carbonation, sea water attack, and alkali-aggregate reaction. The study shows that steel slag cement is characterized by high later strength, slight expansion, good resistance to harmful materials such as sulphate, carbon dioxide, and sea water, reducing the alkali-aggregate reaction. Its pore structures have also been studied.

  7. Computational fluid dynamics improves liner cementing operation

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, N.A.; Archer, G.L. (British Gas plc, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)); Seymour, D.A. (British Gas plc, Reading (United Kingdom))

    1994-09-26

    The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), an analytical tool for studying fluid mechanics, helped plan the successful cementing of a critical liner in a North Sea extended reach well. The results from CFD analysis increased the confidence in the primary cementing of the liner. CFD modeling was used to quantify the effects of increasing the displacement rate and of rotating the liner on the mud flow distribution in the annulus around the liner.

  8. Impedance spectra of hydrating cement pastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Scuderi; T. O. Mason; H. M. Jennings

    1991-01-01

    Complex impedance spectra were obtained over the frequency range 5 Hz to 13 MHz on Portland cement pastes with water\\/cement ratios of 0.3, 0.35, and 0.4 at various hydration times from 6 h to 24 days. Features of the spectra which could be associated with the bulk material and which could be separated from the electrode arc, were studied. The

  9. Mercury porosimetry of hardened cement pastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond A. Cook; Kenneth C. Hover

    1999-01-01

    Mercury porosimetry was performed on 92 hardened cement paste specimens of water\\/cement (w\\/c) ratios 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7 and curing times of 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 days. This paper presents the experimental techniques, results, and their possible implications with respect to pore connectivity. As expected, longer curing times and lower w\\/c ratios resulted in smaller

  10. Yield stress of cemented tungsten carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, A. L.; Wanagel, J.

    1975-01-01

    Cemented tungsten carbide yields plastically at room temperature in the presence of a large hydrostatic pressure component. By approximate analysis of the state of stress in supported opposed anvils and by measurement of the pressure at which the anvil tips exhibit a permanent deviation from planarity, we have obtained the yield stress of such materials. Our value for the yield stress of a 3% cobalt cemented tungsten carbide is 86 kbar.

  11. Comparison of chromatographic ion-exchange resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Staby; Randi Holm Jensen; Matthias Bensch; Jürgen Hubbuch; Dorte L. Dünweber; Janus Krarup; Jacob Nielsen; Mette Lund; Steffen Kidal; Thomas Budde Hansen; Inge Holm Jensen

    2007-01-01

    A comparative study on weak anion exchangers was performed to investigate the pH dependence, binding strength, particle size distribution, and static and dynamic capacity of the chromatographic resins. The resins tested included: DEAE Sepharose FF, Poros 50 D, Fractogel EMD DEAE (M), MacroPrep DEAE Support, DEAE Ceramic HyperD 20, and Toyopearl DEAE 650 M. Testing was performed with five different

  12. Comparison of chromatographic ion-exchange resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Staby; Inge Holm Jensen; Inger Mollerup

    2000-01-01

    A comparative study has been undertaken on various strong anion-exchangers to investigate the pH dependence, titration curves, efficiency, binding strength, and dynamic capacity of the chromatographic resins. The resins tested included: Macro-Prep 25Q, TSK-Gel Q-5PW-HR, Poros QE\\/M, Q Sepharose FF, Q HyperD 20, Q Zirconia, Source 30Q, Fractogel EMD TMAE 650s, and Express-Ion Q. Testing was performed with five different

  13. Comparison of chromatographic ion-exchange resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Staby; Inge Holm Jensen

    2001-01-01

    A comparative study was performed on strong anion exchangers to investigate the pH dependence, titration curves, efficiency, binding strength, particle size distribution, and static and dynamic capacity of the chromatographic resins. The resins tested included Q Sepharose XL, UNO Q-1, Poros 50 HQ, Toyopearl QAE 550c, Separon HemaBio 1000Q, Q-Cellthru Bigbeads Plus, Q Sepharose HP and Toyopearl SuperQ 650s. Testing

  14. Studies on Cesium Uptake by Phenolic Resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Samanta; M. Ramaswamy; B. M. Misra

    1992-01-01

    The selective removal of cesium by phenolic ion-exchange resins from highly salted alkaline radioactive solutions was studied. The resins were synthesized by alkaline polycondensation of phenol, resorcinol, catechol, and a resorcinol-catechol mixture with formaldehyde and characterized for their moisture regain, ion-exchange (H?Na) capacity, and distribution coefficient (KD) for cesium. The effects of open and sealed curing of the polymers on

  15. Reducing the greenhouse effect through new cements

    SciTech Connect

    Malek, R.I.A.; Roy, D.M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A novel approach to synthesize aluminosilicate cementitious materials according to the formula: has been developed. The new cement can reduce CO{sub 2} emission resulting from manufacture of Portland cement. In addition to its use as replacement for normal cement, the zeolitic nature of the new materials makes them particularly useful in trapping hazardous ions as in the case of radioactive waste disposal and tie-in of the alkali metal ions responsible for the alkali-silica reaction. The new cement utilizes large volume waste materials and industrial by products such as slags and fly ash and should provide significant economic and environmental benefits. Two systems were studied, namely, K-activated system composed of metakaolinite, class-F fly ash, potassium silicate and potassium hydroxide and K, Ca-activated system composed of metakaolinite, class-C fly ash, slag, potassium silicate and potassium hydroxide. Isothermal calorimetry experiments indicated an acceleration of hydration reaction and the compressive strength at 14 days is nearly equivalent to that of neat cement pastes. The pore structures of the new systems are finer than normal cement pastes and their reactivities towards alkali-silica reaction are minimal. The magic angle NMR studies indicate that Si/Al ratios are 1 and 1.3 for K, Ca-activated and K-activated systems, respectively.

  16. Analysis of rheological properties of bone cements.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, M K D; Waters, M G J; Holford, K M; Adusei, G

    2007-07-01

    The rheological properties of three commercially available bone cements, CMW 1, Palacos R and Cemex ISOPLASTIC, were investigated. Testing was undertaken at both 25 and 37 degrees C using an oscillating parallel plate rheometer. Results showed that the three high viscosity cements exhibited distinct differences in curing rate, with CMW 1 curing in 8.7 min, Palacos R and Cemex ISOPLASTIC in 13 min at 25 degrees C. Furthermore it was found that these curing rates were strongly temperature dependent, with curing rates being halved at 37 degrees C. By monitoring the change of viscosity with time over the entire curing process, the results showed that these cements had differing viscosity profiles and hence exhibit very different handling characteristics. However, all the cements reached the same maximum viscosity of 75 x 10(3) Pa s. Also, the change in elastic/viscous moduli and tan delta with time, show the cements changing from a viscous material to an elastic solid with a clear peak in the viscous modulus during the latter stages of curing. These results give valuable information about the changes in rheological properties for each commercial bone cement, especially during the final curing process. PMID:17277981

  17. Thermal properties of glass ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Inoue, T; Saitoh, M; Nishiyama, M

    1993-12-01

    Five currently available glass ionomer cements (BASE CEMENT, DENTIN CEMENT, HY-BOND GLAS IONOMER-F, KETAC CEM, TOKUSO IONOMER) were studied with regard to the relationship between thermal properties and powder-liquid ratio (P/L ratio). The experiments were performed using five different P/L ratio of 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, 1.1 and 1.2 (P/L = 1.0: manufacturer's instruction) and measured with a xenon flash thermal-constant measuring device. Thermal diffusivity of the glass ionomer cements ranged from 0.212 to 0.303 x 10(-2) cm2 s-1; it increased according to the increase in the P/L ratio. The specific thermal capacity of the glass ionomer cements ranged from 1.011 to 1.369 Jg-1 K-1; it decreased with the increase in the P/L ratio. Thermal conductivity of the glass ionomer cements ranged from 0.505 to 0.712 Wm-1 K-1; it increased according to the increase in the P/L ratio. PMID:8158286

  18. Cleanup of TMI-2 demineralizer resins

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, W.D.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Thompson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Radiocesium is being removed from Demineralizers A and B (DA and DB by a process that was developed from laboratory tests on small samples of resin from the demineralizers. The process was designed to elute the radiocesium from the demineralizer resins and then to resorb it onto the zeolite ion exchangers contained in the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS). The process was also required to limit the maximum cesium activities in the resin eluates (SDS feeds) so that the radiation field surrounding the pipelines would not be excessive. The process consists of 17 stages of batch elution. In the initial stage, the resin is contacted with 0.18 M boric acid. Subsequent stages subject the resin to increasing concentrations of sodium in NaH/sub 2/BO/sub 3/-H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ solution (total B = 0.35 M) and then 1 M sodium hydroxide in the final stages. Results on the performance of the process in the cleanup of the demineralizers at TMI-2 are compared to those obtained from laboratory tests with small samples of the DA and DB resins. To date, 15 stages of batch elution have been completed on the demineralizers at TMI-2 which resulted in the removal of about 750 Ci of radiocesium from DA and about 3300 Ci from DB.

  19. Ion Exchange Temperature Testing with SRF Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Brown, Garrett N.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2012-03-01

    Ion exchange using the Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection for use in the Pretreatment Facility of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in an at-tank deployment for removing 137Cs. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that higher temperatures (50°C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues prior to reaching the ion exchange columns may be required. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of SRF resin performance under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes. This research examined the impact of elevated temperature on resin loading and resin degradation during extended solution flow using elevated temperature (45°, 50°, 55°, 60°, 65°, 75°C). Testing for extended times at elevated temperatures showed that the resin does degrade and loading capacity is reduced at and above 45°C. Above 60°C the resin appears to not load at all.

  20. Retention of a resin-based sealant and a glass ionomer used as a fissure sealant in children with special needs

    PubMed Central

    Nualart-Grollmus, Zacy-Carola

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this research is to evaluate the retention of sealants of resin and resin-modified ionomeric glass pits and fissures, on first permanent molars of special patients. Material and Methods: The sample was comprised by 32 children. The ages were between 7 and 18 years. The sealing procedure was made with the relative isolation of the molars to be sealed, through the use of cotton rolls. Two molars were sealed with Clinpro Sealant 3M Dental and the others with Vitremer. Checking of the sealants was made after 3 and 6 months of their placement, evaluating with 3 values: TR: Totally Restrained; PR: Partially Restrained; and CL: Completely Lost. Results: 67.18% of the resinous sealants, and 70.31% of the glass ionomer sealants were successful after three months. After six months, 57.81% of the resin-based sealants and 51.56% of the glass ionomer sealants were successful. When performing the Chi-square statistical analysis (P<0.05) no statistical significance was observed after 6 months. Conclusions: The retention of the resin sealant was similar to that of the glass ionomer cement at the end of six months and the retention of sealants on maxillary teeth was higher than on mandibular teeth. Key words:Sealant, glass ionomer, retention, caries, special needs. PMID:25674325

  1. Hydration and properties of novel blended cements based on cement kiln dust and blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria S. Konsta-Gdoutos; Surendra P. Shah

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to address the key technical issues pertaining to the utilization of cement kiln dust (CKD) as an activator for ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) to create nonconventional cementitious binders for concrete. The relatively high alkaline content of CKD is the predominant factor preventing its recycling in cement manufacture. However, it was observed

  2. Cement clinker: A environmental sink for residues from hazardous waste treatment in cement kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Kleppinger, E.W. (EWK Consultants Inc., Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    About 70% of all of the liquid and solid hazardous wastes commercially incinerated in the United States is being burned in cement kilns. The process inevitably results in residues, primarily heavy metals, entering the clinker and waste dusts (cement kiln dust, CKD) produced by these kilns. The effects of this trend on the nature and chemical composition of cement, actual and future, are discussed. The wastes burned by cement kilns are expected to increasingly have higher levels of heavy metals per Btu. In general, the effects are very simple to describe but have as yet unknown consequences. The present American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard does not effectively control hazardous waste burning residues in Portland Cement. The regulatory and economic pressures on CKD disposal suggest that much of it, and its heavy metal residues, will, in time, end up in the clinker and the resultant cement. The end point to the trend is the ability to make cement that passes the performance specifications while containing high levels of heavy metals. The only other alternative is to maximize the levels of heavy metals in the CKD, minimize the amount of CKD, and dispose of it as a hazardous waste. It is recommended that an effort to correlate heavy metal levels in clinker with adverse effects by undertaken, a new standard for cement containing hazardous and other waste residuals be developed, and labeling be required.

  3. Analysis of CCRL proficiency cements 151 and 152 using the Virtual Cement and Concrete Testing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bullard, Jeffrey W. [Materials and Construction Research Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 20899-8615 (United States)]. E-mail: jeffrey.bullard@nist.gov; Stutzman, Paul E. [Materials and Construction Research Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 20899-8615 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    To test the ability of the Virtual Cement and Concrete Testing Laboratory (VCCTL) software to predict cement hydration properties, characterization of mineralogy and phase distribution is necessary. Compositional and textural characteristics of Cement and Concrete Reference Laboratory (CCRL) cements 151 and 152 were determined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis followed by computer modeling of hydration properties. The general procedure to evaluate a cement is as follows: (1) two-dimensional SEM backscattered electron and X-ray microanalysis images of the cement are obtained, along with a measured particle size distribution (PSD); (2) based on analysis of these images and the measured PSD, three-dimensional microstructures of various water-to-cement ratios are created and hydrated using VCCTL, and (3) the model predictions for degree of hydration under saturated conditions, heat of hydration (ASTM C186), setting time (ASTM C191), and strength development of mortar cubes (ASTM C109) are compared to experimental measurements either performed at NIST or at the participating CCRL proficiency sample evaluation laboratories. For both cements, generally good agreement is observed between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  4. LIME AND CEMENT INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT. VOLUME 2. CEMENT INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume of the report gives results of the development of particulate emission factors, based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the cement industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from cement plants, the data were summariz...

  5. A thermodynamic model for blended cements. II: Cement hydrate phases; thermodynamic values and modelling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, D. G.; Read, D.; Atkins, M.; Glasser, F. P.

    1992-08-01

    Blended Portland cements are likely to form a substantial proportion of repository materials for the disposal of radioactive waste in the UK. A thermodynamic model has been developed therefore in order to predict the composition of the solid and aqueous phases in blended cements as a function of the bulk cement composition. The model is based on simplifying cement to the system CaO sbnd SiO 2sbnd Al 2O 3sbnd SO 4sbnd MgO sbnd H 2O, which constitutes 95% of most cement formulations. Solubility data for hydrogarnet and ettringite suggest that they dissolve congruently and that conventional solubility products can be used to model their dissolution. A solubility model for the siliceous hydrogarnet series, based on ideal solid solution on either side of an immiscibility gap, closely matches experimental solubility data. Solubility data for hydrotalcite and gehlenite hydrate are less consistent and indicative of more complex dissolution processes. On the basis of earlier work, an accurate solubility model is described for hydrated calcium silicate gels in the CaO sbnd SiO 2sbnd H 2O system. Together, these solubility models form a relatively complete thermodynamic model for blended cements. Model predictions for fully matured cement blends are compared to the compositions of pore fluids extracted from aged cement blends. Departures from expected behaviour occur in alkali-bearing systems and are discussed.

  6. Epoxy resin system for in situ rehabilitation of pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, G.D.; Wilson, B.S.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes a process for in situ pipe rehabilitation. It comprises: impregnating a fibrous substrate with a liquid epoxy resin composition comprising at least one liquid epoxy resin having epoxide equivalent weight within the range of about 165 to about 195; a minor amount, relative to the liquid epoxy resin, of an epoxide functional reactive diluent; a minor amount, relative to the liquid epoxy resin, of a thixotroping agent; and an effective amount of a liquid curing agent comprising a polyamide resin, a polyoxalkylenediamine, and from about 35 to about 55 weight percent, based on the weight of component, of 2-ethyl-4-methyl imidazole or derivatives thereof; positioning the resin-impregnated fibrous substrate within a pipe to be rehabilitated so that a surface of the resin-impregnated fibrous substrate is in contact with the interior surface of the pipe; and subjecting the thus-positioned resin-impregnated fibrous substrate to conditions effective to cure the liquid epoxy resin.

  7. Method of producing light weight cement for use of cementation of oil and gas wells

    SciTech Connect

    Skjeldal, S.

    1983-05-31

    A cement slurry of low specific density for cementation of oil and gas wells is produced by mixing oil-well cement with finely divided emission products comprising amorphous silica dust which has been obtained during the electrothermal preparation of ferrosilicon and/or silicon metal, water, and any desirable dispersion components, the emission products being added in an amount in the range of 1-50% of the total weight of dry material. The emission products can either be mixed with the cement while both components are in the dry state whereupon there is added a sufficient quantity of water in order to obtain a desired specific weight of the slurry or first mixed with water and any other desired dispersion components and this slurry is mixed with the oil-well cement.

  8. Antibacterial properties of dentin bonding systems, polyacid-modified composite resins and composite resins.

    PubMed

    Karanika-Kouma, A; Dionysopoulos, P; Koliniotou-Koubia, E; Kolokotronis, A

    2001-02-01

    This study examined the antibacterial activities of the bonding systems Syntac, EBS and Scotchbond 1, the polyacid-modified composite resins Hytac and Compoglass, and the composite resins Tetric, Z100 and Scalp-it. They were evaluated using the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus salivarius, Streptococcus sorbinus and Actinomyces viscosus in vitro with a modified cylinder drop plate agar diffusion assay. All adhesives of the dentin bonding systems and the polyacid-modified composite resins exhibited various degrees of antibacterial activity against all of the test bacteria. On the contrary, composite resins did not affect bacterial growth. The data suggest that the use of these adhesives and polyacid-modified composite resins may reduce the consequences of microleakage owing to their antibacterial properties. PMID:11298264

  9. Wellbore cement fracture evolution at the cement–basalt caprock interface during geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Carson, James P.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Um, Wooyong; Martin, Paul F.; Dahl, Michael E.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Varga, Tamas; Stephens, Sean A.; Arey, Bruce W.; Carroll, KC; Bonneville, Alain; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2014-08-01

    Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock cores with fractures, as well as neat Portland cement columns, were prepared to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores with defects during geologic carbon sequestration. The samples were reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater at 50 ºC and 10 MPa for 3 months under static conditions, while one cement-basalt core was subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. Micro-XRD and SEM-EDS data collected along the cement-basalt interface after 3-month reaction with CO2-saturated groundwater indicate that carbonation of cement matrix was extensive with the precipitation of calcite, aragonite, and vaterite, whereas the alteration of basalt caprock was minor. X-ray microtomography (XMT) provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnection of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling further revealed that this stress led to the increase in fluid flow and hence permeability. After the CO2-reaction, XMT images displayed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along the fracture located at the cement-basalt interface. The 3-D visualization and CFD modeling also showed that the precipitation of calcium carbonate within the cement fractures after the CO2-reaction resulted in the disconnection of cement fractures and permeability decrease. The permeability calculated based on CFD modeling was in agreement with the experimentally determined permeability. This study demonstrates that XMT imaging coupled with CFD modeling represent a powerful tool to visualize and quantify fracture evolution and permeability change in geologic materials and to predict their behavior during geologic carbon sequestration or hydraulic fracturing for shale gas production and enhanced geothermal systems.

  10. Effect of Metal Extension of Crown in Screw Access Channel of Posterior Implant Abutment on Retention of Cement Retained Prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Biyani, Rashmi; Ali, Mohsin; Belles, Donald; Powers, John

    2013-08-27

    Abstract Purpose: Reducing the height of the implant abutment due to limited inter-arch space decreases the surface area for retention of cemented restorations. The purpose of this in vitro study was to see whether engaging the screw access channel with metal extension compensates for the loss of retention of posterior crowns cemented on shorter abutments.Material and Methods: Four identical prefabricated abutments were mounted on implant replicas embedded in acrylic resin blocks. Three of these abutments were reduced in height by 1mm, 2mm and 3mm respectively and one was left unmodified. Two sets of base metal crowns were fabricated for each abutment, one without and one with the metal extension inside the screw access channel. The crowns were cemented using Tempbond NE. The tensile forces required to separate the cemented crowns from abutments were measured using an Instron testing machine. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using a 2-way analysis of variance and Fisher's PLSD at 0.05 level of significance.Results: An increase of 24%-261% in retentive forces was observed for the group having metal extension in the screw access channel. Statistically significant differences (p<0.001) were found among two types of crowns and four heights of abutments. Generally, the retentive forces were reduced in magnitude as the abutment height was reduced.Conclusion: The retention of a casting cemented to posterior implant abutments is influenced by the height of the abutment and the metal extension engaging the screw access channel. The crowns made with a metal extension showed superior retention values. PMID:23981084

  11. New bismaleimide matrix resins for graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, M.-T. S.; Chen, T. S.; Parker, J. A.; Heimbuch, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Two new bismaleimide resins based on the N,N'-m-phenylene-bis(m-amino-benzamide) structure have been synthesized and characterized. The mixtures of the two resins gave better handling, processing, mechanical, and thermal properties in graphite composites than did the individual resins. The mechanical strength of the cured graphite composites prepared from the 1:1 copolymer of the two bismaleimide resins was excellent at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The physical and mechanical properties of the composites from the new bismaleimide matrix resin systems are compared with conventional composites based on epoxy and other bismaleimide systems. The copolymer system provides another method for improving bismaleimide resins.

  12. New bismaleimide matrix resins for graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, M.-T. S.; Chen, T. S.; Parker, J. A.; Heimbuch, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Two new bismaleimide resins based on the N, N'-m-phenylene-bis(m-amino-benzamide) structure have been synthesized and characterized. The mixtures of the two resins gave better handling, processing, mechanical, and thermal properties in graphite composites than did the individual resins. The mechanical strength of the cured graphite composites prepared from the 1:1 copolymer of the two bismaleimide resins was excellent at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The physical and mechanical properties of the composites from the new bismaleimide matrix resin systems are compared with conventional composites based on epoxy and other bismaleimide systems. The copolymer system provides another method for improving bismaleimide resins.

  13. Resin flow monitoring in vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding using optical fiber distributed sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eum, Soohyun; Kageyama, Kazuro; Murayama, Hideaki; Ohsawa, Isamu; Uzawa, Kiyoshi; Kanai, Makoto; Igawa, Hirotaka

    2007-04-01

    In this study, we implemented resin flow monitoring by using an optical fiber sensor during vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VaRTM).We employed optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor for distributed sensing. Especially, long gauge FBGs (about 100mm) which are 10 times longer than an ordinary FBG were employed for more effective distributed sensing. A long gauge FBG was embedded in GFRP laminates, and other two ones were located out of laminate for wavelength reference and temperature compensation, respectively. During VaRTM, the embedded FBG could measure how the preform affected the sensor with vacuum pressure and resin was flowed into the preform. In this study, we intended to detect the gradient of compressive strain between impregnated part and umimpregnated one within long gauge FBG. If resin is infused to preform, compressive strain which is generated on FBG is released by volume of resin. We could get the wavelength shift due to the change of compressive strain along gauge length of FBG by using short-time Fourier transformation for signal acquired from FBG. Therefore, we could know the resin flow front with the gradient of compressive strain of FBG. In this study, we used silicon oil which has same viscosity with resin substitute for resin in order to reuse FBG. In order to monitor resin flow, the silicon oil was infused from one edge of preform, the silicon oil was flowed from right to left. Then, we made dry spot within gauge length by infusing silicon oil to both sides of preform to prove the ability of dry spot monitoring with FBG. We could monitor resin flow condition and dry spot formation successfully using by FBG based on OFDR.

  14. Surgical repair of invasive cervical root resorption with calcium-enriched mixture cement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption (ICR) occurs in the cervical area of the teeth due to the formation of a soft tissue that progressively resorbs dentin. The disease is asymptomatic unless the pulp is exposed. This article presents a case involving a mandibular canine that was treated with a calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. After a full mucoperiosteal flap was performed, the soft tissue was curetted away and the cavity filled with CEM biomaterial. One week later, the supragingival surface of the CEM was polished and covered with composite resin. At a 1-year follow-up visit, the pulp was healthy and the gingival probing depth decreased from >3 mm to 1 mm, showing attachment gain. As a biocompatible material, CEM has proven its ability in dentinogenesis, cementogenesis, and osteogenesis; it may prove to be a suitable biomaterial for treating ICR cases. PMID:25574717

  15. The management of an edentulous maxilla using a CAD/CAM-guided immediately loaded provisional implant prosthesis with screw-retained and cement-retained abutments: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Tee-Khin, Neo; Cheng, Ansgar C; Lee, Helena; Wee, Alvin G

    2009-12-01

    Functional rehabilitation of edentulous jaws using a CAD/CAM-guided implant protocol is commonly recommended as a definitive treatment modality. A patient with an edentulous maxilla received 7 endosseous implants using a CAD/CAM surgical template. A provisional maxillary acrylic resin fixed complete denture was connected immediately after implant placement using a combination of screw-retained and cement-retained abutments. PMID:19961990

  16. 76 FR 42114 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order...polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Italy would likely lead to a continuation or...antidumping duty order on PTFE resin from Italy, pursuant to section 751(c)(2)...

  17. 76 FR 12939 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review...polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Italy. The Department has conducted an expedited...antidumping duty order on PTFE resin from Italy pursuant to section 751(c) of the...

  18. Diffusion of residual monomer in polymer resins.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1976-01-01

    A simplified mathematical model which made use of Fick's laws of diffusion written in spherical coordinates was developed to describe the rate of diffusion of residual monomers from polymer resins. The properties of the monomer-polymer system which influenced the amount of monomer remaining in the polymer as a function of time were the diffusivity and solubility of the monomer in the polymer, and the particle size of the polymer resin. This model was used to analyze literature data on the diffusion of residual vinyl chloride monomer in polyvinyl chloride resins made by the suspension process. It was concluded that particle size of the resin was a significant parameter which should be taken advantage of in process equipment designed to remove residual monomer from PVC resins. The diffusivity of the monomer in the polymer was a function of the solubility of the monomer in the polymer. Monomer solubility can be determined from Henry's law. It was suggested that this model could be adapted to describe diffusion of monomers from any monomer-polymer system, and would be a useful approach to modeling the transport of nonreactive chemical additives from plastics. PMID:1026410

  19. Development of a heterogeneous laminating resin system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, T. F.; Hopper, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    The factors which effect the impact resistance of laminating resin systems and yet retain equivalent performance with the conventional 450 K curing epoxy matrix systems in other areas were studied. Formulation work was conducted on two systems, an all-epoxy and an epoxy/bismaleimide, to gain fundamental information on the effect formulation changes have upon neat resin and composite properties. The all-epoxy work involved formulations with various amounts and combinations of eight different epoxy resins, four different hardeners, fifteen different toughening agents, a filler, and a catalyst. The epoxy/bismaleimide effort improved formulations with various amounts and combinations of nine different resins, four different hardeners, eight different toughening agents, four different catalysts, and a filler. When a formulation appeared to offer the proper combination of properties required for a laminating resin Celion 3K-70P fabric was prepregged. Initial screening tests on composites primarily involved Gardner type impact and measurement of short beam shear strengths under dry and hot/wet conditions.

  20. Evaluation of the Effect of Axial Wall Modification and Coping Design on the Retention of Cement-retained Implant-supported Crowns.

    PubMed

    Derafshi, Reza; Ahangari, Ahmad Hasan; Torabi, Kianoosh; Farzin, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Because of compromised angulations of implants, the abutments are sometimes prepared. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of removing one wall of the implant abutment on the retention of cement-retained crowns. Materials and methods. Four prefabricated abutments were attached to analogues and embedded in acrylic resin blocks. The first abutment was left intact. Axial walls were partially removed from the remaining abutments to produce abutments with three walls. The screw access channel for the first and second abutments were completely filled with composite resin. For the third and fourth abutments, only partial filling was done. Wax-up models were made by CAD/CAM. Ten cast copings were fabricated for each abutment. The copings of fourth abutment had an extension into the screw access channel. Copings were cemented with Temp Bond. The castings were removed from the abutment using an Instron machine, and the peak removal force was recorded. A one-way ANOVA was used to test for a significant difference followed by the pairwise comparisons. Results. The abutments with opened screw access channel had a significantly higher retention than the two other abutments. The abutment with removed wall and no engagement into the hole by the castings exhibited the highest retention. Conclusion. Preserving the opening of screw access channel significantly increases the retention where one of the axial walls of implant abutments for cement-retained restorations is removed during preparation. PMID:25973152

  1. Evaluation of the Effect of Axial Wall Modification and Coping Design on the Retention of Cement-retained Implant-supported Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Derafshi, Reza; Ahangari, Ahmad Hasan; Torabi, Kianoosh; Farzin, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Because of compromised angulations of implants, the abutments are sometimes prepared. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of removing one wall of the implant abutment on the retention of cement-retained crowns. Materials and methods. Four prefabricated abutments were attached to analogues and embedded in acrylic resin blocks. The first abutment was left intact. Axial walls were partially removed from the remaining abutments to produce abutments with three walls. The screw access channel for the first and second abutments were completely filled with composite resin. For the third and fourth abutments, only partial filling was done. Wax-up models were made by CAD/CAM. Ten cast copings were fabricated for each abutment. The copings of fourth abutment had an extension into the screw access channel. Copings were cemented with Temp Bond. The castings were removed from the abutment using an Instron machine, and the peak removal force was recorded. A one-way ANOVA was used to test for a significant difference followed by the pairwise comparisons. Results. The abutments with opened screw access channel had a significantly higher retention than the two other abutments. The abutment with removed wall and no engagement into the hole by the castings exhibited the highest retention. Conclusion. Preserving the opening of screw access channel significantly increases the retention where one of the axial walls of implant abutments for cement-retained restorations is removed during preparation. PMID:25973152

  2. Surface studies on acrylic bone cement.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, A; Calado, A; Amaral, J; Alfaia, A; Vale, F M; Monteiro, J; Montemor, M F; Ferreira, M G S; Castro, M

    2004-06-18

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is used to fill the gap between the prosthesis and the surrounding bone in cemented arthroplasties. Biocompatibility problems related to bone cement application limit the clinical success of these cemented arthroplasties. Being the cement surface in close connection with the living bone, it is reasonable to assume that surface properties such as, surface composition and surface energy, will play a role in the biomaterial performance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis and surface energy studies were carried out during 4 months, in order to assess a possible correlation between aging time and surface changes. The aging of PMMA, in a biological model fluid, strongly influences the composition and wettability of the cement surface. These changes may be explained through the hydrolysis of PMMA ester groups and the subsequent hydrogen bonding. Although our study does not exactly reproduce the in vivo environment surrounding a prosthesis, it suggests that the changes in the composition and wettability of the surface may modulate the host response towards the implant, thus contributing to its loosening. PMID:15158960

  3. New technology improves cement-slurry design

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    A promising geothermal concession is located in a tea plantation on the island of Java. A drilling project was undertaken to evaluate and harness this resource for geothermal electricity generation. The program used two slimhole rigs to drill appraisal wells to establish the potential of the field. Geothermal wells present the most severe conditions to which cements are exposed. As a result, their performance requirements are among the most stringent. Geothermal cements are usually designed to provide at least 1,000 psi compressive strength and no more than 1.0-md water permeability. While casings with tight annular clearances require that good cementing practices be observed, they also create conditions that demand much greater care and control in slurry and procedure design than regular casing cementation. Free-water and thickening-time requirements are similar for geothermal and slimhole conditions, but the use of perlite and silica flour complicate the rheology required for geothermal wells. The paper describes liquid-cement premix, applications, laboratory testing, field pilot testing, and field operations.

  4. Reinforcing of Cement Composites by Estabragh Fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merati, A. A.

    2014-04-01

    The influence of Estabragh fibres has been studied to improve the performance characteristics of the reinforced cement composites. The concrete shrinkage was evaluated by counting the number of cracks and measuring the width of cracks on the surface of concrete specimens. Although, the Estabragh fibres lose their strength in an alkali environment of cement composites, but, the ability of Estabragh fibres to bridge on the micro cracks in the concrete matrix causes to decrease the width of the cracks on the surface of the concrete samples in comparison with the plain concrete. However, considering the mechanical properties of specimens such as bending strength and impact resistance, the specimens with 0.25 % of Estabragh fibre performed better in all respects compared to the physical and mechanical properties of reinforced cement composite of concrete. Consequently, by adding 0.25 % of Estabragh fibres to the cement composite of concrete, a remarkable improvement in physical and mechanical properties of fibre-containing cement composite is achieved.

  5. Sulfate attack on cement-stabilized sand

    SciTech Connect

    Rollings, R.S.; Burkes, J.P.; Rollings, M.P. [Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States)] [Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

    1999-05-01

    A 3.5-km (2.2 mi) section of a road in Georgia developed unexpected transverse bumps within 6 months after construction. The source of the bumps appeared to be expansion within the cement-stabilized base course. Laboratory examination of samples from areas showing distress revealed the presence of ettringite, a calcium sulfoaluminate the formation of which can be accompanied by severe expansion. This expansive materials was the probable cause of the volume changes causing the transverse bumps. The calcium and alumina needed to form ettringite ware available from the portland cement and the stabilized soil`s clay minerals. The source of the sulfur was identified as the well water that was mixed with the cement-stabilized base. Sulfate attack of cement-stabilized soils is a relatively infrequent problem, but it is highly destructive when it occurs. Currently, there are no firm criteria for identifying when sulfate attack of a cement-stabilized soil is a potential problem nor are there established methods of preventing the attack.

  6. Identification of Concrete Incompatibilities Using Cement Paste Rheology 

    E-print Network

    Jang, Se Hoon

    2010-07-14

    as well as heat evolution abnormalities. The objectives of the present study were to examine the applicability of the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) to measure cement paste rheology, and to identify cement and mineral/chemical admixture incompatibilities...

  7. Comparison of the Strength of Barnacle and Commercial Dental Cements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Despain; K. L. De Vries; R. D. Luntz; M. L. Williams

    1973-01-01

    The strength of barnacle cement was compared with commercial dental polymeric restorative materials and cements by use of a fracture mechanics approach in conjunction with a blister technique. Barnacles were \\

  8. Microemulsions for use as spaces in well cementation

    SciTech Connect

    Carriay, J.; De Lautrec, J.

    1980-09-23

    New application of microemulsions as buffers between the slurry and the cement in the cementation of oil wells. The microemulsions contain an amphoteric surfactant selected from the group of alkyl dimethyl betaines.

  9. FLUID FLOW MODELING OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING FOR COMPOSITE MATERIAL WIND TURBINE BLADE STRUCTURES

    E-print Network

    FLUID FLOW MODELING OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING FOR COMPOSITE MATERIAL WIND TURBINE BLADE STRUCTURES.................................................................................................8 Resin Systems

  10. Bone Cement Dislodgement: One of Complications Following Bone Cement Augmentation Procedures for Osteoporotic Spinal Fracture.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kee-Yong; Kim, Young-Hoon; Yoo, Sung-Rim; Molon, Jan Noel

    2015-05-01

    Bone cement augmentation procedures have been getting more position as a minimally invasive surgical option for osteoporotic spinal fractures. However, complications related to these procedures have been increasingly reported. We describe a case of bone cement dislodgement following cement augmentation procedure for osteoporotic spinal fracture by reviewing the patient's medical records, imaging results and related literatures. A 73-year-old woman suffering back and buttock pain following a fall from level ground was diagnosed as an osteoporotic fracture of the 11th thoracic spine. Percutaneous kyphoplasty was performed for this lesion. Six weeks later, the patient complained of a recurrence of back and buttock pain. Radiologic images revealed superior dislodgement of bone cement through the 11th thoracic superior endplate with destruction of the lower part of the 10th thoracic spine. Staged anterior and posterior fusion was performed. Two years postoperatively, the patient carries on with her daily living without any significant disability. Delayed bone cement dislodgement can occur as one of complications following bone cement augmentation procedure for osteoporotic spinal fracture. It might be related to the presence of intravertebral cleft, lack of interdigitation of bone cement with the surrounding trabeculae, and possible damage of endplate during ballooning procedure. PMID:26113965

  11. Bone Cement Dislodgement: One of Complications Following Bone Cement Augmentation Procedures for Osteoporotic Spinal Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kee-Yong; Yoo, Sung-Rim; Molon, Jan Noel

    2015-01-01

    Bone cement augmentation procedures have been getting more position as a minimally invasive surgical option for osteoporotic spinal fractures. However, complications related to these procedures have been increasingly reported. We describe a case of bone cement dislodgement following cement augmentation procedure for osteoporotic spinal fracture by reviewing the patient's medical records, imaging results and related literatures. A 73-year-old woman suffering back and buttock pain following a fall from level ground was diagnosed as an osteoporotic fracture of the 11th thoracic spine. Percutaneous kyphoplasty was performed for this lesion. Six weeks later, the patient complained of a recurrence of back and buttock pain. Radiologic images revealed superior dislodgement of bone cement through the 11th thoracic superior endplate with destruction of the lower part of the 10th thoracic spine. Staged anterior and posterior fusion was performed. Two years postoperatively, the patient carries on with her daily living without any significant disability. Delayed bone cement dislodgement can occur as one of complications following bone cement augmentation procedure for osteoporotic spinal fracture. It might be related to the presence of intravertebral cleft, lack of interdigitation of bone cement with the surrounding trabeculae, and possible damage of endplate during ballooning procedure.

  12. Magnesia modification of alkali-activated slag fly ash cement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiguo Shen; Yiheng Wang; Tao Zhang; Mingkai Zhou; Jiasheng Li; Xiaoyu Cui

    2011-01-01

    A new type of magnesia modification alkali-activated cement was prepared, the strength, setting time, shrinkage ratio and\\u000a cracking behavior, as well as the composition and structure of the hydration product were investigated. The results indicate\\u000a that the setting time of this cement is similar to that of the ordinary commercial cements; its strength reaches the standard\\u000a of 42.5 degree cement,

  13. Stability evaluation for cement package containing radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Chino, K.; Kawamura, F.

    1988-04-01

    In order to provide stable cement packages, ettringite formation, a major cause of cement deterioration, was studied theoretically and experimentally. A computer program was developed to calculate the chemical equilibrium compositions of a complex cement system. Higher curing temperature and the addition of NaOH were identified as effective methods to avoid ettringite formation. These findings were confirmed by measuring the amount of ettringite in solidified cement by an X-ray diffraction method.

  14. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT ADHESIVE SYSTEMS ON THE PULL-OUT BOND STRENGTH OF GLASS FIBER POSTS

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luciana Mendonça; de Andrade, Andréa Mello; Machuca, Melissa Fernanda Garcia; da Silva, Paulo Maurício Batista; da Silva, Ricardo Virgolino C.; Veronezi, Maria Cecília

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the tensile bond strength of glass fiber posts (Reforpost – Angelus-Brazil) cemented to root dentin with a resin cement (RelyX ARC – 3M/ESPE) associated with two different adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond - 3M/ESPE and Adper Scotchbond Multi Purpose (MP) Plus – 3M/ESPE), using the pull-out test. Twenty single-rooted human teeth with standardized root canals were randomly assigned to 2 groups (n=10): G1- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel (3M/ESPE) + Adper Single Bond + #1 post (Reforpost – Angelus) + four #1 accessory posts (Reforpin – Angelus) + resin cement; G2- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel + Adper Scotchbond MP Plus + #1 post + four #1 accessory posts + resin cement. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days and submitted to the pull-out test in a universal testing machine (EMIC) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean values of bond strength (kgf) and standard deviation were: G1- 29.163 ± 7.123; G2- 37.752 ±13.054. Statistical analysis (Student's t-test; ?=0.05 showed no statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the groups. Adhesive bonding failures between resin cement and root canal dentin surface were observed in both groups, with non-polymerized resin cement in the apical portion of the post space when Single Bond was used (G1). The type of adhesive system employed on the fiber post cementation did not influence the pull-out bond strength. PMID:19089224

  15. Hydration kinetics of cement composites with varying water-cement ratio using terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Shaumik; Dash, Jyotirmayee; Devi, Nirmala; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Pesala, Bala

    2015-03-01

    Cement is mixed with water in an optimum ratio to form concrete with desirable mechanical strength and durability. The ability to track the consumption of major cement constituents, viz., Tri- and Dicalcium Silicates (C3S, C2S) reacting with water along with the formation of key hydration products, viz., Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (C-S-H) which gives the overall strength to the concrete and Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), a hydration product which reduces the strength and durability, using an efficient technique is highly desirable. Optimizing the amount of water to be mixed with cement is one of the main parameters which determine the strength of concrete. In this work, THz spectroscopy has been employed to track the variation in hydration kinetics for concrete samples with different water-cement ratios, viz., 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6. Results show that for the sample with water-cement ratio of 0.3, significant amount of the C3S and C2S remain unreacted even after the initial hydration period of 28 days while for the cement with water-cement ratio of 0.6, most of the constituents get consumed during this stage. Analysis of the formation of Ca(OH)2 has been done which shows that the concrete sample with water-cement ratio of 0.6 produces the highest amount of Ca(OH)2 due to higher consumption of C3S/C2S in presence of excess water which is not desirable. Samples with water-cement ratio of 0.4 and 0.5 show more controlled reaction during the hydration which can imply formation of an optimized level of desired hydration products resulting in a more mechanically strong and durable concrete.

  16. Improved resin infiltration of natural caries lesions.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lueckel, H; Paris, S

    2008-12-01

    In artificial lesions, improved penetration and the caries-inhibiting properties of infiltrating resins could be observed with increasing penetration coefficients (PCs). The aim of the present study was to compare the penetration abilities of an experimental 'infiltrant' into natural lesions with those of an adhesive in vitro. Extracted human molars and premolars showing proximal white spots were cut across the lesions perpendicular to the surface. Corresponding lesion halves were etched for 120 sec with 15% hydrochloric acid gel and were subsequently treated with either an adhesive (PC: 31 cm/sec) or an infiltrant (PC: 273 cm/sec). Specimens were observed by confocal microscopy and transverse microradiography. Penetration depths of the adhesive were significantly lower compared with those of the infiltrant (p < 0.001; Wilcoxon). It can be concluded that resins with higher PCs (infiltrants) show superior ability to penetrate natural lesions compared with resins with lower PCs. PMID:19029077

  17. Novel strontium-selective extraction chromatographic resin

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The effect of nitric acid concentration on the selectivity of a novel extraction chromatographic resin consisting of an octanol solution of 4,4`(5`)-bis(t-butyl-cyclohexano)-18-crown-6 sorbed on an inert polymeric support for strontium over a number of alkali, alkaline earth, and other metal cations was evaluated. The effect of macro quantities of selected elements on strontium retention by the resin was also examined. The resin is shown to exhibit excellent selectivity for strontium over nearly all of the test elements; only lead and tetravalent neptunium, polonium, and plutonium show significant affinity for the material. In addition, concentrations of calcium or sodium ion up to approx.0.1 M are shown not to diminish the sorption of strontium appreciably. Several useful radiochemical separation schemes devised on the basis of the results obtained are described. 35 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. The Creep of Laminated Synthetic Resin Plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkuhn, H

    1941-01-01

    The long-time loading strength of a number of laminated synthetic resin plastics was ascertained and the effect of molding pressure and resin content determined. The best value was observed with a 30 to 40 percent resin content. The long-time loading strength also increases with increasing molding pressure up to 250 kg/cm(exp 2); a further rise in pressure affords no further substantial improvement. The creep strength is defined as the load which in the hundredth hour of loading produces a rate of elongation of 5 X 10(exp -4) percent per hour. The creep strength values of different materials were determined and tabulated. The effect of humidity during long-term tests is pointed out.

  19. Studies on cesium uptake by phenolic resins

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, S.K.; Ramaswamy, M.; Misra, B.M. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

    1992-02-01

    The selective removal of cesium by phenolic ion-exchange resins from highly salted alkaline radioactive solutions was studied. The resins were synthesized by alkaline polycondensation of phenol, resorcinol, catechol, and resorcinol-catechol mixture with formaldehyde and characterized for their moisture regain, ion-exchange (H{sup +} {yields} Na{sup +}) capacity, and distribution coefficient (K{sub D}) for cesium. The effects of open and sealed curing of the polymers on their properties were studied. The effect of Na{sup +}, NaOH, and Cs{sup +} concentration on the uptake of cesium by resorcinol-formaldehyde resin was investigated, in particular. The chemical, thermal, and radiation stabilities of the polymers were also studied.

  20. Hospital waste ashes in Portland cement mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Genazzini, C.; Zerbino, R.; Ronco, A.; Batic, O.; Giaccio, G

    2003-10-01

    Nowadays, most concretes incorporate mineral additions such as pozzolans, fly ash, silica fume, blast furnace slag, and calcareous filler among others. Although the technological and economical benefits were the main reasons for the use of mineral additions, the prevention of environmental contamination by means of proper waste disposal becomes a priority. The chance of incorporating hospital waste ashes in Portland cement-based materials is presented here. Ash characterization was performed by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, radioactive material detection, and fineness and density tests. Conduction calorimetry and setting time tests were developed on pastes including ash contents from 0% to 100%. Mortars were prepared including ash contents up to 50% of cement. The results of setting time, temperature development, flexural and compressive strengths, water absorption, density, and leachability are analyzed. Results indicate that Portland cement systems could become an alternative for the disposal of this type of ashes.

  1. Standard tests for toughened resin composites, revised edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Several toughened resin systems are evaluated to achieve commonality for certain kinds of tests used to characterize toughened resin composites. Specifications for five tests were standardized; these test standards are described.

  2. Reactivity of Trametes laccases with fatty and resin acids.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, S; Holmbom, B; Spetz, P; Mustranta, A; Buchert, J

    2001-04-01

    Lipophilic extractives commonly referred to as wood pitch or wood resin can have a negative impact on paper machine runnability and product quality. The lipophilic extractives are composed mainly of fatty acids, resin acids, sterols, steryl esters and triglycerides. In this work, the suitability of laccases for the modification of fatty and resin acids was studied, using two model fractions. In the treatments, resin and fatty acid dispersions were treated with two different laccases, i.e. laccases from Trametes hirsuta and T. villosa. Different chromatographic methods were used to elucidate the effects of laccase treatments on the chemistry of the fatty and resin acids. Both laccases were able to modify the fatty and resin acids to some extent. In the case of fatty acids, a decrease in the amount of linoleic, oleic and pinolenic acids was observed, whereas the modification of resin acids resulted in a reduced amount of conjugated resin acids. PMID:11341313

  3. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...731-TA-386 (Third Review)] Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...the antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  4. Taste masking of Etoricoxib by using ion-exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Patra, Sradhanjali; Samantaray, Rakesh; Pattnaik, Saswat; Barik, B B

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to mask the bitter taste of the Etoricoxib by complexation with cation-exchange resin, Indion 204. The drug resin complexes (DRC) were prepared by batch process and efficient drug loading was obtained by using inactivated form of resin in the drug-resin ratio 1:3.3 with 30 min swelling time of resin in 25 mL of water with 5 min stirring time. Drug-resin complexes were characterized for dissolution studies and spectral studies. Drug release from drug-resin complex in salivary pH was insufficient to impart bitter taste. Volunteers rated the drug resin complex as tasteless and agreeable. PMID:19845450

  5. Resin additive improves performance of high-temperature hydrocarbon lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Loomis, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Paraffinic resins, in high temperature applications, improve strength of thin lubricant film in Hertzian contacts even though they do not increase bulk oil viscosity. Use of resin circumvents corrosivity and high volatility problems inherent with many chemical additives.

  6. 21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...of the calcium silicate. (b) The mineral reinforced nylon resins may contain up to 0.2 percent by weight of titanium dioxide as an optional adjuvant substance. (c) The mineral reinforced nylon resins with or without the optional...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) intended to restore carious lesions or structural defects in teeth. (b)...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) intended to restore carious lesions or structural defects in teeth. (b)...

  9. Influence of resin coating materials on Porphyromonas gingivalis attachment.

    PubMed

    Kumada, Ai; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Mine, Atsushi; Ono, Mitsuaki; Uehara, Junji; Sonoi, Norihiro; Ito, Takashi; Takashiba, Shogo; Kuboki, Takuo

    2012-02-01

    Resin coating materials have been used for composite resin or provisional restoration in order to prevent plaque accumulation on their surfaces. However, it is not clear whether the coating materials influence attachment of periodontal bacteria. Therefore, we investigated the effect of resin coating materials on the attachment of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg). The polymerized auto cure resin plates were coated with two resin coating materials. To estimate the Pg attachment, each plate was immersed in brain heart infusion medium containing Pg. The quantity of bacteria attached on each plate was evaluated by crystal violet quantification. Morphological change of Pg was recorded using scanning electron microscopy. Both coating groups presented significantly lower Pg attachment compared to the control. The Pg shapes on the plates with resin coating materials were similar to the non-treated control plates. The resin coating materials clearly prevent Pg attachment on the polymerized auto cure resin plate. PMID:22277610

  10. Performance Properties of Graphite Reinforced Composites with Advanced Resin Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1980-01-01

    This article looks at the effect of different resin matrices on thermal and mechanical properties of graphite composites, and relates the thermal and flammability properties to the anaerobic char yield of the resins. The processing parameters of graphite composites utilizing graphite fabric and epoxy or other advanced resins as matrices are presented. Thermoset resin matrices studied were: aminecured polyfunctional glycidyl aminetype epoxy (baseline), phenolicnovolac resin based on condensation of dihydroxymethyl-xylene and phenol cured with hexamine, two types of polydismaleimide resins, phenolic resin, and benzyl resin. The thermoplastic matrices studied were polyethersulfone and polyphenylenesulfone. Properties evaluated in the study included anaerobic char yield, limiting oxygen index, smoke evolution, moisture absorption, and mechanical properties at elevated temperatures including tensile, compressive, and short-beam shear strengths. Generally, it was determined that graphite composites with the highest char yield exhibited optimum fire-resistant properties.

  11. Biphenyl liquid crystalline epoxy resin as a low-shrinkage resin-based dental restorative nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Chang, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Min-Huey; Cheng, Kuo-Chung; Su, Wei-Fang

    2012-11-01

    Low-shrinkage resin-based photocurable liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite has been investigated with regard to its application as a dental restoration material. The nanocomposite consists of an organic matrix and an inorganic reinforcing filler. The organic matrix is made of liquid crystalline biphenyl epoxy resin (BP), an epoxy resin consisting of cyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ECH), the photoinitiator 4-octylphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate and the photosensitizer champhorquinone. The inorganic filler is silica nanoparticles (?70-100 nm). The nanoparticles were modified by an epoxy silane of ?-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to be compatible with the organic matrix and to chemically bond with the organic matrix after photo curing. By incorporating the BP liquid crystalline (LC) epoxy resin into conventional ECH epoxy resin, the nanocomposite has improved hardness, flexural modulus, water absorption and coefficient of thermal expansion. Although the incorporation of silica filler may dilute the reinforcing effect of crystalline BP, a high silica filler content (?42 vol.%) was found to increase the physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposite due to the formation of unique microstructures. The microstructure of nanoparticle embedded layers was observed in the nanocomposite using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This unique microstructure indicates that the crystalline BP and nanoparticles support each other and result in outstanding mechanical properties. The crystalline BP in the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite was partially melted during exothermic photopolymerization, and the resin expanded via an order-to-disorder transition. Thus, the post-gelation shrinkage of the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite is greatly reduced, ?50.6% less than in commercialized methacrylate resin-based composites. This LC epoxy nanocomposite demonstrates good physical and chemical properties and good biocompatibility, comparable to commercialized composites. The results indicate that this novel LC nanocomposite is worthy of development and has potential for further applications in clinical dentistry. PMID:22842038

  12. Effect of silica coating combined to a MDP-based primer on the resin bond to Y-TZP ceramic.

    PubMed

    May, Liliana Gressler; Passos, Sheila Pestana; Capelli, Diana Barca; Ozcan, Mutlu; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of silica coating and 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP)-based primer applications upon the bonding durability of a MDP-based resin cement to a yttrium stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramic. Ninety-six Y-TZP tabs were embedded in an acrylic resin (free surface for adhesion: 5 × 5 mm(2)), ground finished and randomly divided into four groups (N = 24) according to the ceramic surface conditioning: (1) cleaning with isopropanol (ALC); (2) ALC + phosphoric acid etching + MDP-based primer application (MDP-primer); (3) silica coating + 3-methacryloyloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (MPS)-based coupling agent application (SiO2 + MPS-Sil); and (4) SiO2 + MDP-primer. The MDP-based resin cement was applied on the treated surface using a cylindrical mold (diameter= 3 mm). Half of the specimens from each surface conditioning were stored in distilled water (37 °C, 24 h) before testing. Another half of the specimens were stored (90 days) and thermo-cycled (12,000 x) during this period (90 d/TC) before testing. A shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Two factors composed the experimental design: ceramic conditioning strategy (in four levels) and storage condition (in two levels), totaling eight groups. After 90 d/TC (Tukey; p < 0.05), SiO2 + MDP-primer (24.40 MPa) promoted the highest SBS. The ALC and MDP-primer groups debonded spontaneously during 90 d/TC. Bonding values were higher and more stable in the SiO2 groups. The use of MDP-primer after silica coating increased the bond strength. PMID:20690176

  13. Does vacuum mixing of bone cement affect heat generation? Analysis of four cement brands.

    PubMed

    Wang, J S; Franzén, H; Toksvig-Larsen, S; Lidgren, L

    1995-01-01

    Four different brands of bone cement (Palacos R, Simplex P, Sulfix, CMW 1) were tested for exothermic changes during polymerization at atmospheric pressure and under partial vacuum of 0.2 bar. Palacos R was also mixed at four pressure levels (1.0, 0.2, 0.12, and 0.05 bar). The peak temperature in the bone cement was 46 to 124 degrees C, depending on the measuring point. There was no difference in peak temperature or duration of temperature increase above 50 degrees C during the curing of cement whether mixed at atmospheric pressure or under partial vacuum at different pressure levels. PMID:7640436

  14. Adsorption characteristics of superplasticizers on cement component minerals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiro Yoshioka; Ei-ichi Tazawa; Kenji Kawai; Tomoyuki Enohata

    2002-01-01

    Adsorption characteristics of various superplasticizers on portland cement component minerals were investigated. Adsorption isotherms of various types of superplasticizers and ?-potentials of cement component minerals at the maximum adsorption of the superplasticizers were measured. The value of the adsorption isotherm was calculated from the amount of the superplasticizer adsorbed on a cement component mineral in an equilibrated solution. The maximum

  15. Control of in vivo mineral bone cement degradation.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Britta; Geffers, Martha; Ignatius, Anita; Gbureck, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    The current study aimed to prevent the formation of hydroxyapatite reprecipitates in brushite-forming biocements by minimizing the availability of free Ca(2+) ions in the cement matrix. This was achieved by both maximizing the degree of cement setting to avoid unreacted, calcium-rich cement raw materials which can deliver Ca(2+) directly to the cement matrix after dissolution, and by a reduction in porosity to reduce Ca(2+) diffusion into the set cement matrix. In addition, a biocement based on the formation of the magnesium phosphate mineral struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) was tested, which should prevent the formation of low-solubility hydroxyapatite reprecipitates due to the high magnesium content. Different porosity levels were fabricated by altering the powder-to-liquid ratio at which the cements were mixed and the materials were implanted into mechanically unloaded femoral defects in sheep for up to 10 months. While the higher-porosity brushite cement quantitatively transformed into crystalline octacalcium phosphate after 10 months, slowing down cement resorption, a lower-porosity brushite cement modification was found to be chemically stable with the absence of reprecipitate formation and minor cement resorption from the implant surface. In contrast, struvite-forming cements were much more degradable due to the absence of mineral reprecipitates and a nearly quantitative cement degradation was found after 10 months of implantation. PMID:24769112

  16. Properties of volcanic pumice based cement and lightweight concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khandaker M Anwar Hossain

    2004-01-01

    The results of investigations on the suitability of using volcanic pumice (VP) as cement replacement material and as coarse aggregate in lightweight concrete production are reported. Tests were conducted on cement by replacing 0% to 25% of cement by weight and on concrete by replacing 0% to 100% of coarse aggregate by volume. The physical and chemical properties of VP

  17. A Novel Oil Well Cementing Technology Using Natural Fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Al-Darbi; N. O. Saeed; L. O. Ajijolaiya; M. R. Islam

    2006-01-01

    In many industrial processes, the pipeline systems are lined with a protective layer of cement mortar. In petroleum wells, cement slurry is placed in a wellbore to be hardened into an impermeable mass that seals the annulus from fluid flow and protects the casing from corrosion for the life of the well. When uniform linings of neat cement fail in

  18. Durability of gamma irradiated polymer-impregnated blended cement pastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdy M. Khattab; H. A. Abdel-Rahman; M. M. Younes

    2011-01-01

    This study is focusing on durability of the neat blended cement paste as well as those of the polymer-impregnated paste towards seawater and various concentrations of magnesium sulfate solutions up to 6months of curing. The neat blended cement paste was prepared by a partial substitution of ordinary Portland cement with 5% of active rice husk ash (RHA). These samples were

  19. Model for the developing microstructure in Portland cement pastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamlin M. Jennings; Paul D. Tennis

    1994-01-01

    A method is proposed for quantitatively predicting the volume of the major phases in hydrated cement pastes as a function of (1) the composition of the cement, (2) the degree of reaction, and (3) the initial water: cement ratio. This procedure is then used to develop a quantitative model for the surface area and volume of porosity that is accessible

  20. Delayed ettringite formation in 4-year old cement pastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Yang; C. D. Lawrence; J. H. Sharp

    1996-01-01

    Cement paste prisms (40 × 40 × 160 mm) made from portland cement have been cured at 100 °C for 3 hours, followed by extended water storage at room temperature. Large expansions have been observed after 212 years for prisms made with a certain portland cement. Backscattered electron imaging (bse) in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), combined with x-ray microanalysis