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1

Evaluation of polymerization shrinkage of resin cements through in vitro and in situ experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of two types of resin cements , conventional dual and dual self adhesive, through in vitro and in situ experiments. For the in vitro assay were selected two resin cements that were handled and dispensed over a mylar strip supported by a glass plate. The Bragg grating sensors were positioned and another portion of cement. was placed, covered by another mylar strip. For the in situ experiment 16 single-rooted teeth were selected who were divided into 2 groups: group 1 - conventional dual resin cement Relyx ARC and group 2 - dual self adhesive resin cement Relyx U200 ( 3M/ESPE ). The teeth were treated and prepared to receive the intracanal posts. Two Bragg grating sensors were recorded and introduced into the root canal at different apical and coronal positions. The results showed that the in vitro experiment presented similar values of polymerization shrinkage that the in situ experiment made in cervical position; whereas Relyx ARC resulted lower values compared to Relyx U200; and cervical position showed higher shrinkage than the apical.

Franco, A. P. G. O.; Karam, L. Z.; Pulido, C. A.; Gomes, O. M. M.; Kalinowski, H. J.

2014-08-01

2

Bond Strength of Resin Cements to Noble and Base Metal Alloys with Different Surface Treatments  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The bond strength of resin cements to metal alloys depends on the type of the metal, conditioning methods and the adhesive resins used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of resin cements to base and noble metal alloys after sand blasting or application of silano-pen. Materials and Method: Cylinders of light cured Z 250 composite were cemented to “Degubond 4” (Au Pd) and “Verabond” (Ni Cr) alloys by either RelyX Unicem or Panavia F2, after sandblasting or treating the alloys with Silano-Pen. The shear bond strengths were evaluated. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and t tests at a significance level of P<0.05. Results: When the alloys were treated by Silano-Pen, RelyX Unicem showed a higher bond strength for Degubond 4 (P=0.021) and Verabond (P< 0.001). No significant difference was observed in the bond strength of Panavia F2 to the alloys after either of surface treatments, Degubond 4 (P=0.291) and Verabond (P=0.899). Panavia F2 showed a higher bond strength to sandblasted Verabond compared to RelyX Unicem (P=0.003). The bond strength of RelyX Unicem was significantly higher to Silano-Pen treated Verabond (P=0.011). The bond strength of the cements to sandblasted Degubond 4 showed no significant difference (P=0.59). RelyX Unicem had a higher bond strength to Silano-Pen treated Degubond 4 (P=0.035). Conclusion: The bond strength of resin cements to Verabond alloy was significantly higher than Degubond 4. RelyX Unicem had a higher bond strength to Silano-Pen treated alloys. Surface treatments of the alloys did not affect the bond strength of Panavia F2.

Raeisosadat, Farkhondeh; Ghavam, Maryam; Hasani Tabatabaei, Masoomeh; Arami, Sakineh; Sedaghati, Maedeh

2014-01-01

3

Evaluation of Tensile Retention of Y-TZP Crowns Cemented on Resin Composite Cores: Effect of the Cement and Y-TZP Surface Conditioning.  

PubMed

SUMMARY This study evaluated the effect of the cement type (adhesive resin, self-adhesive, glass ionomer, and zinc phosphate) on the retention of crowns made of yttria-stabilized polycrystalline tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP). Therefore, 108 freshly extracted molars were embedded in acrylic resin, perpendicular to their long axis, and prepared for full crowns: the crown preparations were removed and reconstructed using composite resin plus fiber posts with dimensions identical to the prepared dentin. The preparations were impressed using addition silicone, and Y-TZP copings were produced, which presented a special setup for the tensile testing. Cementation was performed with two adhesive resin cements (Multilink Automix, Ivoclar-Vivadent; RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA), one self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100, 3M ESPE), one glass ionomer based cement (RelyX Luting, 3M ESPE), and one zinc phosphate cement (Cimento de Zinco, SS White, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). For the resin cement groups, the inner surfaces of the crowns were subjected to three surface treatments: cleaning with isopropyl alcohol, tribochemical silica coating, or application of a thin low-fusing glass porcelain layer plus silanization. After 24 hours, all groups were subjected to thermocycling (6000 cycles) and included in a special device for tensile testing in a universal testing machine to test the retention of the infrastructure. After testing, the failure modes of all samples were analyzed under a stereomicroscope. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the surface treatment and cement type (?=0.05) affected the tensile retention results. The Multilink cement presented the highest tensile retention values, but that result was not statistically different from RelyX ARC. The surface treatment was statistically relevant only for the Multilink cement. The cement choice was shown to be more important than the crown surface treatment for cementation of a Y-TZP crown to a composite resin substrate. PMID:25162722

Rippe, Mp; Amaral, R; Amaral, Regina; Oliveira, Fs; Cesar, Pf; Scotti, R; Valandro, Lf; Bottino, Ma

2014-08-27

4

Restoration of Strip Crown with a Resin-Bonded Composite Cement in Early Childhood Caries  

PubMed Central

Background. Early childhood caries is a widely prevalent disease throughout the world. It is necessary to treat this condition in early childhood; however, child behavior management may be particularly challenging during treatment. To overcome this challenge, we used Carigel to remove caries and RelyX Unicem resin cement for strip crown restoration. It not only has the desired aesthetic effect but is also more effective for primary teeth, which are used for a shorter period than permanent teeth are. Case Presentation. We report a case of three pediatric patients with early childhood caries, in whom caries was removed by using Carigel to avoid the risk of pulpal exposure associated with high-speed handpieces. Subsequently, aesthetic restoration was performed using strip crown with RelyX Unicem self-adhesive resin cement. Conclusion. RelyX Unicem has the following advantages: (1) not requiring have any special skills for the dentist for performing the procedure, (2) decreased occurrence of bubbles during injection of the cement, and (3) overall short duration of the procedure. Thus, it is appropriate for the treatment of pediatric patients whose behavior is difficult to manage. However, further studies are required in order to establish the use of RelyX Unicem as a stable restorative material in early childhood caries. PMID:24490090

Jeong, Mi-ae; Kim, Ah-hyeon; Shim, Youn-soo; An, So-youn

2013-01-01

5

Restoration of strip crown with a resin-bonded composite cement in early childhood caries.  

PubMed

Background. Early childhood caries is a widely prevalent disease throughout the world. It is necessary to treat this condition in early childhood; however, child behavior management may be particularly challenging during treatment. To overcome this challenge, we used Carigel to remove caries and RelyX Unicem resin cement for strip crown restoration. It not only has the desired aesthetic effect but is also more effective for primary teeth, which are used for a shorter period than permanent teeth are. Case Presentation. We report a case of three pediatric patients with early childhood caries, in whom caries was removed by using Carigel to avoid the risk of pulpal exposure associated with high-speed handpieces. Subsequently, aesthetic restoration was performed using strip crown with RelyX Unicem self-adhesive resin cement. Conclusion. RelyX Unicem has the following advantages: (1) not requiring have any special skills for the dentist for performing the procedure, (2) decreased occurrence of bubbles during injection of the cement, and (3) overall short duration of the procedure. Thus, it is appropriate for the treatment of pediatric patients whose behavior is difficult to manage. However, further studies are required in order to establish the use of RelyX Unicem as a stable restorative material in early childhood caries. PMID:24490090

Jeong, Mi-Ae; Kim, Ah-Hyeon; Shim, Youn-Soo; An, So-Youn

2013-01-01

6

Comparison of the push-out strength of two fiber post systems dependent on different types of resin cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the push-out strength of glass fiber posts dependent on the resin cement. One hundred\\u000a human teeth were divided into five groups (n?=?20). Two glass fiber post systems (DT Light SL (DTSL) and RelyX Fiber Post (RF)) were used. DTSL posts were cemented with\\u000a one “etch & rinse” system (ER) or one of

Maria Dimitrouli; Werner Geurtsen; Anne-Katrin Lührs

7

Surface roughness and wear of resin cements after toothbrush abrasion.  

PubMed

Increased surface roughness and wear of resin cements may cause failure of indirect restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the surface roughness change and the vertical wear of four resin cements subjected to mechanical toothbrushing abrasion. Ten rectangular specimens (15 × 5 × 4 mm) were fabricated according to manufacturer instructions for each group (n = 10): Nexus 3, Kerr (NX3); RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE (ARC); RelyX U100, 3M ESPE (U100); and Variolink II, Ivoclar/Vivadent (VL2). Initial roughness (Ra, µm) was obtained through 5 readings with a roughness meter. Specimens were then subjected to toothbrushing abrasion (100,000 cycles), and further evaluation was conducted for final roughness. Vertical wear (µm) was quantified by 3 readings of the real profile between control and brushed surfaces. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, followed by Tukey's test (p < 0.05). The Pearson correlation test was performed between the surface roughness change and wear (p < 0.05). The mean values of initial/final roughness (Ra, µm)/wear (µm) were as follows: NX3 (0.078/0.127/23.175); ARC (0.086/0.246/20.263); U100 (0.296/0.589/16.952); and VL2 (0.313/0.512/22.876). Toothbrushing abrasion increased surface roughness and wear of all resin cements tested, although no correlation was found between those variables. Vertical wear was similar among groups; however, it was considered high and may lead to gap formation in indirect restorations. PMID:25466330

Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi; Ordoñéz-Aguilera, Juan Fernando; Maenosono, Rafael Massunari; Volú, Fernanda Lessa Amaral; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia

2015-01-01

8

Bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to composite submitted to different surface pretreatments  

PubMed Central

Objectives Extensively destroyed teeth are commonly restored with composite resin before cavity preparation for indirect restorations. The longevity of the restoration can be related to the proper bonding of the resin cement to the composite. This study aimed to evaluate the microshear bond strength of two self-adhesive resin cements to composite resin. Materials and Methods Composite discs were subject to one of six different surface pretreatments: none (control), 35% phosphoric acid etching for 30 seconds (PA), application of silane (silane), PA + silane, PA + adhesive, or PA + silane + adhesive (n = 6). A silicone mold containing a cylindrical orifice (1 mm2 diameter) was placed over the composite resin. RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE) or BisCem (Bisco Inc.) self-adhesive resin cement was inserted into the orifices and light-cured. Self-adhesive cement cylinders were submitted to shear loading. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). Results Independent of the cement used, the PA + Silane + Adhesive group showed higher microshear bond strength than those of the PA and PA + Silane groups. There was no difference among the other treatments. Unicem presented higher bond strength than BisCem for all experimental conditions. Conclusions Pretreatments of the composite resin surface might have an effect on the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to this substrate. PMID:24516824

dos Santos, Victor Hugo; Griza, Sandro; de Moraes, Rafael Ratto

2014-01-01

9

Film thickness of resin cements used with adhesive systems.  

PubMed

The final film thickness of a resin adhesive and a resin cement could be affected by previous polymerization of the adhesive systems on dentin surfaces. The aim of this work was to evaluate changes in the film thickness of dual resin based cements with their adhesives as a function of polymerization of the latter on dentin surfaces. The materials used were: RelyX ARC (R) + Single Bond (SB) and Variolink base (VB) and high (HV) or low (LV) viscosity catalyst + Syntac Classic (S) or Excite DSC (E); 56 human dentin discs and 56 composite resin discs (Z250). Dentin disc surfaces were treated with 35% phosphoric acid (except for S) and the adhesive system was either polymerized or not polymerized. A 0.05 ml increment of cement mixture was placed on the dentin disc and covered with the resin disc. A 25 N load was applied for ten minutes and then, the combined thickness was measured with a digital micrometer. Sample size (n) was 4 for each cement or condition. A two-way analysis of variance was performed with a level of significance of p < 0.05. The mean film thickness (and standard deviations) in microm, with and without previous polymerization of the adhesive layer, were: R+SB: 16.50 (2.64) and 17.00 (1.41); VB+S: 21.75 (5.37) and 62.25 (0.95); VB LV+S: 24.50 (3.87) and 72.75 (1.89); VB HV+S: 28.75 (8.46) and 93.00 (53.63); VB+E: 31.75 (8.38) and 42.75 (4.34); VB LV+E: 47.75 (2.50) and 45.75 (3.20); VB HV+E: 49.25 (25.50) and 45.75 (2.75). Significant differences (p < 0.01) were found for the cements and polymerization condition as well as for the interaction between them. Instructions regarding polymerization of the adhesive layer must be followed when adhesive systems are used in combination with dual polymerized resin based cements. Otherwise, final film thickness of the adhesive and the resin cement could be affected. PMID:18841743

Zahra, Vivian N; Abate, Pablo F; Macchi, Ricardo L

2008-01-01

10

In vitro evaluation of the film thickness of self-etching resin cements.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the film thickness of selfetching resin cement. The following materials were used: Group1, Relyx U100 (3M /ESPE); Group 2, BisCem (Bisco); Group 3, Max Cem (Kerr); Group 4, Set (SDI) and Group 5, Relyx ARC (3M/ESPE) as control. Two 5.4 x 76.2 x 1 mm glass slides were marked in the center to identify the area where the material would be placed. A volume of 0.05 ml was used for each specimen material. After 1, 3 and 6 minutes, a 50 N load was applied for one minute. The thickness of each specimen was then measured using a digital micrometer to the nearest 1 ?m; (Digimatic, Mitutoyo Corporation, Japan.). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests. No significant difference was found between the materials tested (p = 0.0921) or material/time interaction (p = 0.0864), but there were differences in the time factor (p = 0.0001). At one minute, the thinnest film was Relyx ARC (control) (14 ?m), followed by Relyx U100 (17 ?m), and Maxcem and SeT (19 ?m). At 3 minutes, Group 5 (control) was also the thinnest film (19 ?m), followed by Group 1 (21 ?m), Group 3 (25 ?m), Group 2 (29 ?m), and Group 4 (31 ?m). At 6 minutes, Group 4 was the thinnest (34 ?m), followed by Group 1 (38 ?m), Group 5 (40 ?m), Group 2 (41 ?m) and Group 3 (42 ?m). The film thickness of resin cements was influenced by time and polymerization reaction. The film thickness of self-etching cements was low. PMID:25560694

Chávez-Lozada, Julio; Urquía-Morales, María Del Carmen

2014-01-01

11

Do Resin Cements Alter Action Potentials of Isolated Rat Sciatic Nerve?  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects dual-cure resin cements on nerve conduction. Methods: Panavia F, RelyX ARC, and Variolink II polymerized either by light-emitting diode (LED) or quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) were used in the study (n=10). The conductance of sciatic nerves of 50 rats were measured before and after contact with the specimens for 1 h. Results: The time-dependent change in nerve conductance and the comparison of LED versus QTH showed that differences between groups are significant (P<.05). For both polymerization techniques, pair-wise comparisons of resin cements showed that the nerve conductance between groups is different (P<.05). RelyX ARC elicited irreversible inhibition of compound action potentials (more than 50% change) and Panavia F and Variolink II polymerized by LED and QTH did not alter nerve conduction beyond physiologic limits. Conclusions: Resin cements may alter nerve conductance and even lead to neurotoxic effects. PMID:21494389

Ertan, Ahmet Atila; Beriat, Nilufer Celebi; Onur, Mehmet Ali; Tan, Gamze; Cehreli, Murat Cavit

2011-01-01

12

Radiopacity Evaluation of Contemporary Luting Cements by Digitization of Images  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of two conventional cements (Zinc Cement and Ketac Cem Easymix), one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RelyX Luting 2) and six resin cements (Multilink, Bistite II DC, RelyX ARC, Fill Magic Dual Cement, Enforce and Panavia F) by digitization of images. Methods. Five disc-shaped specimens (10 × 1.0?mm) were made for each material, according to ISO 4049. After setting of the cements, radiographs were made using occlusal films and a graduated aluminum stepwedge varying from 1.0 to 16?mm in thickness. The radiographs were digitized, and the radiopacity of the cements was compared with the aluminum stepwedge using the software VIXWIN-2000. Data (mmAl) were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (? = 0.05). Results. The Zinc Cement was the most radiopaque material tested (P < 0.05). The resin cements presented higher radiopacity (P < 0.05) than the conventional (Ketac Cem Easymix) or resin-modified glass ionomer (RelyX Luting 2) cements, except for the Fill Magic Dual Cement and Enforce. The Multilink presented the highest radiopacity (P < 0.05) among the resin cements. Conclusion. The glass ionomer-based cements (Ketac Cem Easymix and RelyX Luting 2) and the resin cements (Fill Magic Dual Cement and Enforce) showed lower radiopacity values than the minimum recommended by the ISO standard. PMID:23008777

Reis, José Maurício dos Santos Nunes; Jorge, Érica Gouveia; Ribeiro, João Gustavo Rabelo; Pinelli, Ligia Antunes Pereira; Abi-Rached, Filipe de Oliveira; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

2012-01-01

13

In vitro evaluation of the bonding durability of self-adhesive resin cement to titanium using highly accelerated life test.  

PubMed

The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bonding durability of three self-adhesive resin cements to titanium using the Highly Accelerated Life Test (HALT). The following self-adhesive resin cements were used to bond pairs of titanium blocks together according to manufacturers' instructions: RelyX Unicem, Breeze, and Clearfil SA Luting. After storage in water at 37°C for 24 h, bonded specimens (n=15) immersed in 37°C water were subjected to cyclic shear load testing regimes of 20, 30, or 40 kg using a fatigue testing machine. Cyclic loading continued until failure occurred, and the number of cycles taken to reach failure was recorded. The bonding durability of a self-adhesive resin cement to titanium was largely influenced by the weight of impact load. HALT showed that Clearfil SA Luting, which contained MDP monomer, yielded the highest median bonding lifetime to titanium. PMID:22123007

Lin, Jie; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka; Shinya, Akiyoshi

2011-11-25

14

The effect of curing light and chemical catalyst on the degree of conversion of two dual cured resin luting cements.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different curing lights and chemical catalysts on the degree of conversion of resin luting cements. A total of 60 disk-shaped specimens of RelyX ARC or Panavia F of diameter 5 mm and thickness 0.5 mm were prepared and the respective chemical catalyst (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus or ED Primer) was added. The specimens were light-cured using different curing units (an argon ion laser, an LED or a quartz-tungsten-halogen light) through shade A2 composite disks of diameter 10 mm and thickness 2 mm. After 24 h of dry storage at 37°C, the degree of conversion of the resin luting cements was measured by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. For statistical analysis, ANOVA and the Tukey test were used, with p ? 0.05. Panavia F when used without catalyst and cured using the LED or the argon ion laser showed degree of conversion values significantly lower than RelyX ARC, with and without catalyst, and cured with any of the light sources. Therefore, the degree of conversion of Panavia F with ED Primer cured with the quartz-tungsten-halogen light was significantly different from that of RelyX ARC regardless of the use of the chemical catalyst and light curing source. In conclusion, RelyX ARC can be cured satisfactorily with the argon ion laser, LED or quartz-tungsten-halogen light with or without a chemical catalyst. To obtain a satisfactory degree of conversion, Panavia F luting cement should be used with ED Primer and cured with halogen light. PMID:21104286

Souza-Junior, Eduardo José; Prieto, Lúcia Trazzi; Soares, Giulliana Panfiglio; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini

2012-01-01

15

The influence of four dual-cure resin cements and surface treatment selection to bond strength of fiber post.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluate the influence of post surface pre-treatments on the bond strength of four different cements to glass fiber posts. Eighty extracted human maxillary central incisors and canines were endodontically treated and standardized post spaces were prepared. Four post pre-treatments were tested: (i) no pre-treatment (NS, control), (ii) sandblasting (SA), (iii) silanization (SI) and (iv) sandblasting followed by silanization (SS). Per pre-treatment, four dual-cure resin cements were used for luting posts: DMG LUXACORE Smartmix Dual, Multilink Automix, RelyX Unicem and Panavia F2.0. All the specimens were subjected to micro push-out test. Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests were performed (?=0.05) to analyze the data. Bond strength was significantly affected by the type of resin cement, and bond strengths of RelyX Unicem and Panavia F2.0 to the fiber posts were significantly higher than the other cement groups. Sandblasting significantly increased the bond strength of DMG group to the fiber posts. PMID:24177170

Liu, Chang; Liu, Hong; Qian, Yue-Tong; Zhu, Song; Zhao, Su-Qian

2014-03-01

16

Color stability of composite resin cements.  

PubMed

This study sought to determine the difference in color stability of resin cements after one year of storage in water. Three commercial resin cements (Nexus 3, Calibra, Variolink 2) were evaluated under three different curing conditions (photo-, dual-, and self-cure) over three storage time periods (3, 6, and 12 months). A plastic mold was used to prepare cylindrical specimens of each of the three resin cements. For the phototcured specimens, only the base component of the resin cement was cured. For the dual- and self-cure specimens, the base and catalyst of the cements were mixed according to the manufacturer's instructions, syringed into the mold, and either photocured as before (dual-cure) or allowed to chemically set (self-cure). The total amount of color change (delta E) was calculated using a spectrophotometer after 24 hours (baseline) and after 3, 6, and 12 months of storage in distilled water. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA and a Tukey test. After one year of storage, Nexus 3 demonstated the lowest color change values (delta E) under all curing conditions, although it was not significantly different from Variolink 2 when photocured or Calibra when self-cured. New resin cements without a traditional benzoyl peroxide/amine redox initiator system, such as Nexus 3, could be more color-stable over time. PMID:22313825

Smith, Darrell S; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Whisler, Gerry

2011-01-01

17

Push-out bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin using glass ionomer and resin modified glass ionomer cements  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin after cementation with glass ionomer (GICs) and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs). Material and Methods Fifty human maxillary canines were transversally sectioned at 15 mm from the apex. Canals were prepared with a step back technique until the application of a #55 K-file and filled. Post spaces were prepared and specimens were divided into five groups according to the cement used for post cementation: Luting & Lining Cement; Fuji II LC Improved; RelyX Luting; Ketac Cem; and Ionoseal. After cementation of the glass fiber posts, all roots were stored at 100% humidity until testing. For push-out test, 1-mm thick slices were produced. The push-out test was performed in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute and the values (MPa) were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene's tests and by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at a significance level of 5%. Results Fiber posts cemented using Luting & Lining Cement, Fuji II LC Improved, and Ketac Cem presented the highest bond strength to root dentin, followed by RelyX Luting. Ionoseal presented the lowest bond strength values (P>0.05). The post level did not influence the bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin (P=0.148). The major cause of failure was cohesive at the cement for all GICs and RMGICs. Conclusions Except for Ionoseal, all cements provided satisfactory bond strength values. PMID:25004052

PEREIRA, Jefferson Ricardo; da ROSA, Ricardo Abreu; SÓ, Marcus Vinícius Reis; AFONSO, Daniele; KUGA, Milton Carlos; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; do VALLE, Accácio Lins; VIDOTTI, Hugo Alberto

2014-01-01

18

Influence of ultrasound application on inlays luting with self-adhesive resin cements.  

PubMed

The study was aimed at assessing the influence of the cement manipulation and ultrasounds application on the bonding potential of self-adhesive resin cements to dentin by microtensile bond strength testing and microscopic observations of the interface. Fifty-six standardized mesio-occlusal class II cavities were prepared in extracted third molars. Class II inlays were made using the nano-hybrid resin composite Gradia Forte (GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan), following the manufacturer's instruction. The sample was randomly divided into two groups (n = 28) according to the luting technique. Half of the specimens were luted under a static seating pressure (P), while the other ones were cemented under vibration (V). The inlays were luted using the following self-adhesive resin cements: G-Cem (G, GC Corp., Tokyo, Japan) Automix (GA) and Capsule (GC); RelyX Unicem (RU, 3 M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) Clicker (RUC) and Aplicap (RUA). Microtensile sticks and specimens for scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations were obtained from the luted teeth. The interfacial strengths measured for the cements under static pressure or ultrasonic vibration were [median (interquartile range)]: GC/V 4 (2.3-7.9); GC/P 6.8 (4.1-10.1); GA/V 3 (1.9-6.7); GA/P 1.9 (0-5.1); RUC/V 6.6 (4.6-9.8); RUC/P 4.1 (1.8-6.4); RUA/V 6.2 (2.4-10.4); RUA/P 3.4 (0-5.4). The cement formulation influenced dentin bond strength of G. RU bond strength was affected by the luting technique. SEM analysis revealed a homogeneous structure and reduced porosities for both cements as a result of ultrasonic vibration. RU benefited from the application of ultrasounds, while GC achieved higher bond strengths than GA. PMID:20694567

Cantoro, Amerigo; Goracci, Cecilia; Coniglio, Ivanovic; Magni, Elisa; Polimeni, Antonella; Ferrari, Marco

2011-10-01

19

Effects of dentin moisture on the push-out bond strength of a fiber post luted with different self-adhesive resin cements  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study evaluated the effects of intraradicular moisture on the pushout bond strength of a fibre post luted with several self-adhesive resin cements. Materials and Methods Endodontically treated root canals were treated with one of three luting cements: (1) RelyX U100, (2) Clearfil SA, and (3) G-Cem. Roots were then divided into four subgroups according to the moisture condition tested: (I) dry: excess water removed with paper points followed by dehydration with 95% ethanol, (II) normal moisture: canals blot-dried with paper points until appearing dry, (III) moist: canals dried by low vacuum using a Luer adapter, and (IV) wet: canals remained totally flooded. Two 1-mm-thick slices were obtained from each root sample and bond strength was measured using a push-out test setup. The data were analysed using a two-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni post hoc test with p = 0.05. Results Statistical analysis demonstrated that moisture levels had a significant effect on the bond strength of luting cements (p < 0.05), with the exception of G-Cem. RelyX U100 displayed the highest bond strength under moist conditions (III). Clearfil SA had the highest bond strength under normal moisture conditions (II). Statistical ranking of bond strength values was as follows: RelyX U100 > Clearfil SA > G-Cem. Conclusions The degree of residual moisture significantly affected the adhesion of luting cements to radicular dentine. PMID:24303359

Uzuno?lu, Emel; Y?lmaz, Zeliha

2013-01-01

20

Tensile bond strength of indirect composites luted with three new self-adhesive resin cements to dentin  

PubMed Central

Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate the tensile bond strengths between indirect composites and dentin of 3 recently developed self-adhesive resin cements and to determine mode of failure by SEM. Material and Methods Exposed dentin surfaces of 70 mandibular third molars were used. Teeth were randomly divided into 7 groups: Group 1 (control group): direct composite resin restoration (Alert) with etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Bond 1 primer/adhesive), Group 2: indirect composite restoration (Estenia) luted with a resin cement (Cement-It) combined with the same etch-and-rinse adhesive, Group 3: direct composite resin restoration with self-etch adhesive system (Nano-Bond), Group 4: indirect composite restoration luted with the resin cement combined with the same self-etch adhesive, Groups 5-7: indirect composite restoration luted with self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Maxcem, and Embrace WetBond, respectively) onto the non-pretreated dentin surfaces. Tensile bond strengths of groups were tested with a universal testing machine at a constant speed of 1 mm/min using a 50 kgf load cell. Results were statistically analyzed by the Student's t-test. The failure modes of all groups were also evaluated. Results The indirect composite restorations luted with the self-adhesive resin cements (groups 5-7) showed better results compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Group 4 showed the weakest bond strength (p>0.05). The surfaces of all debonded specimens showed evidence of both adhesive and cohesive failure. Conclusion The new universal self-adhesive resins may be considered an alternative for luting indirect composite restorations onto non-pretreated dentin surfaces. PMID:21710095

TÜRKMEN, Cafer; DURKAN, Meral; C?M?LL?, Hale; ÖKSÜZ, Mustafa

2011-01-01

21

Push-out bond strengths of fiber-reinforced composite posts with various resin cements according to the root level  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine whether the push-out bond strengths between the radicular dentin and fiber reinforced-composite (FRC) posts with various resin cements decreased or not, according to the coronal, middle or apical level of the root. MATERIALS AND METHODS FRC posts were cemented with one of five resin cement groups (RelyX Unicem: Uni, Contax with activator & LuxaCore-Dual: LuA, Contax & LuxaCore-Dual: Lu, Panavia F 2.0: PA, Super-Bond C&B: SB) into extracted human mandibular premolars. The roots were sliced into discs at the coronal, middle and apical levels. Push-out bond strength tests were performed with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min, and the failure aspect was analyzed. RESULTS There were no significant differences (P>.05) in the bond strengths of the different resin cements at the coronal level, but there were significant differences in the bond strengths at the middle and apical levels (P<.05). Only the Uni and LuA cements did not show any significant decrease in their bond strengths at all the root levels (P>.05); all other groups had a significant decrease in bond strength at the middle or apical level (P<.05). The failure aspect was dominantly cohesive at the coronal level of all resin cements (P<.05), whereas it was dominantly adhesive at the apical level. CONCLUSION All resin cement groups showed decreases in bond strengths at the middle or apical level except LuA and Uni. PMID:24049569

Chang, Hoon-Sang; Noh, Young-Sin; Lee, Yoon; Min, Kyung-San

2013-01-01

22

Effect of thermal cycling on the bond strength of self-adhesive cements to fiber posts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the push-out bond strengths of self-adhesive resin cements to epoxy resin-based fiber\\u000a posts after challenging by thermocycling. Thirty-six single-rooted premolars were endodontically treated, and the post-spaces\\u000a were drilled to receive RelyX Fiber posts #1. Three self-adhesive resin cements (RelyX Unicem, G-Cem, and Breeze) were used\\u000a for luting fiber posts. The bonded specimens

Claudia Mazzitelli; Francesca Monticelli; Manuel Toledano; Marco Ferrari; Raquel Osorio

23

Evaluation of TEGDMA leaching from four resin cements by HPLC  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the elution of TEGDMA from dual cured resin cements, used for bonding of ceramic restoration by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: Forty freshly extracted caries and restoration free molar teeth used in this study. Standardized Class I preparations were prepared in all teeth. Ceramic inlays were cemented with one of the dual cured resin cements (Variolink II, Rely X ARC, Rely X Unicem and Resilute). After cementation, specimens were stored in 75% ethanol solution. HPLC was used to analyze the amounts of TEGDMA in different time intervals. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were used to evaluate the results (P<.05). Results: The amount of TEGDMA eluted from Resilute was the highest and the amount of TEG-DMA eluted from Rely X Unicem was the lowest (P<.05). The total amount of monomers was the highest after 21 days (P<.05). Conclusion: In the case of resin cements, elution of TEGDMA was the highest in Resilute and lowest in Rely X Unicem. The amount of TEGDMA eluted from resin cements was influenced by the time. PMID:22904653

Altintas, Subutay Han; Usumez, Aslihan

2012-01-01

24

Effect of different light curing methods on mechanical and physical properties of resin-cements polymerized through ceramic discs  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to compare the polimerization ability of three different light-curing units (quartz tungsten halogen, light-emitting diodes and plasma arc) and their exposure modes (high-intensity and soft-start) by determination of microhardness, water sorption and solubility, and diametral tensile strength of 5 dual-curing resin cements. Material and methods A total of 720 disc-shaped samples (1 mm height and 5 mm diameter) were prepared from different dual-curing resin cements (Duolink, Nexus, Bifix-QM, Panavia F and RelyX Unicem). Photoactivation was performed by using quartz tungsten halogen (high-power and soft-up modes), light-emitting diode (standard and exponential modes) and plasma arc (normal and ramp-curing modes) curing units through ceramic discs. Then the samples (n=8/per group) were stored dry in the dark at 37ºC for 24 h. The Vickers hardness test was performed on the resin cement layer with a microhardness tester (Shimadzu HMV). For sorption and solubility tests; the samples were stored in a desiccator at 37ºC and weighed to a constant mass. The samples were weighed both before and after being immersed in deionized water for different periods of time (24 h and 7 days) and being desiccated. The diametral tensile strength of the samples was tested in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically by nonparametric Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at 5% significance level. Results Resin cement and light-curing unit had significant effects (p<0.05) on microhardness, diametral tensile strength, water solubility and sorption. However, no significant differences (p>0.05) were obtained with different modes of LCUs. Conclusion The study indicates that polymerization of resin cements with different light-curing units may result in various polymer structures, and consequently different mechanical and physical properties. PMID:21710093

CEKIC-NAGAS, Isil; ERGUN, Gulfem

2011-01-01

25

Bond strength of a new universal self-adhesive resin luting cement to dentin and enamel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the bonding performance of a new universal self-adhesive cement RelyX Unicem (RXU) to dentin and enamel compared to four currently used luting systems, using a shear bond strength test with and without thermocycling. Median bond strengths were determined after 24 h storage, and after thermocycling (6,000 cycles, 5–55°C) for RXU and compared to

Sahar E. Abo-Hamar; Karl-Anton Hiller; Heike Jung; Marianne Federlin; Karl-Heinz Friedl; Gottfried Schmalz

2005-01-01

26

Occupational contact allergy to unsaturated polyester resin cements.  

PubMed

6 men contracted occupational allergic contact dermatitis from unsaturated polyester (UP) cements. 4 of the men were employed in car repair painting and the remaining 2 in mold manufacturing. The exposure time to UP cements ranged from 6 to 32 years before onset of skin symptoms. All patients had eczema on their hands; in addition, 4 had skin symptoms on airborne areas, i.e., wrists, neck and face. All 6 patients developed allergic reactions when patch tested with UP resin at 0.5-10% in petrolatum (pet.). None of the tested patients reacted to auxiliary or cross-linking chemicals of the cements. Diethylene glycol maleate (DGM) was purified and identified from the UP resin of a cement. 1 patient reacting to UP resin was also patch test positive to DGM and he produced an allergic reaction to DGM down to a concentration of 0.0032% pet. DGM was found in both uncured and cured UP resin. None of the patients could continue their work with UP cements after their sensitization. PMID:8508632

Tarvainen, K; Jolanki, R; Estlander, T

1993-04-01

27

Effect of Resin Coating and Chlorhexidine on Microleakage of Two Resin Cements after Storage  

PubMed Central

Objective: Evaluating the effect of resin coating and chlorhexidine on microleakage of two resin cements after water storage. Materials and Methods: Standardized class V cavities were prepared on facial and lingual surfaces of one hundred twenty intact human molars with gingival margins placed 1 mm below the cemento-enamel junction. Indirect composite inlays were fabricated and the specimens were randomly assigned into 6 groups. In Groups 1 to 4, inlays were cemented with Panavia F2.0 cement. G1: according to the manufacturer’s instruction. G2: with light cured resin on the ED primer. G3: chlorhexidine application before priming. G4: with chlorhexidine application before priming and light cured resin on primer. G5: inlays were cemented with Nexus 2 resin cement. G6: chlorhexidine application after etching. Each group was divided into two subgroups based on the 24-hour and 6-month water storage time. After preparation for microleakage test, the teeth were sectioned and evaluated at both margins under a 20× stereomicroscope. Dye penetration was scored using 0–3 criteria. The data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and complementary Dunn tests. Results: There was significantly less leakage in G2 and G4 than the Panavia F2.0 control group at gingival margins after 6 months (P<0.05). There was no significant differences in leakage between G1 and G3 at both margins after 24 hours and 6 months storage. After 6 months, G6 revealed significantly less leakage than G5 at gingival margins (P=0.033). In general, gingival margins showed more leakage than occlusal margins. Conclusion: Additionally, resin coating in self-etch (Panavia F2.0) and chlorhexidine application in etch-rinse (Nexus) resin cement reduced microleakage at gingival margins after storage. PMID:21998773

Shafie, F.; Doozandeh, M.; Alavi, A.

2010-01-01

28

Bonding Effectiveness of Two Adhesive Luting Cements to Glass Fiber Posts: Pull-Out Evaluation of Three Different Post Surface Conditioning Methods  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength at the post/resin-cement interface with 3 different surface treatments of glass fiber posts and with 2 different luting resin cements. Sixty glass fiber posts (RelyX Fiber Post) were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 20) and were luted with a dual-polymerizing self-adhesive universal resin cement (RelyX Unicem) and with a dual-polymerizing resin cement (RelyX ARC). This was carried out in association with a dual-polymerizing adhesive (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus) in simulated plexiglass root canals after receiving three different pretreatment procedures. A pull-out test was performed on each sample to measure bond strengths. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA. Two samples from each group were processed for SEM observations in order to investigate the morphologic aspect of the post/cement interface. Both resin cements demonstrated significant different bond strength values (P < 0.0001). The surface treatment result was also statistically significant (P = 0.0465). SEM examination showed a modification of the post surface after pretreatment with methyl methacrylate. The dual-polymerizing self-adhesive universal resin cement achieved higher MPa bond strength values. The use of methyl methacrylate as a surface treatment of glass fiber posts provided a significant increase in bond strengths between the posts and both luting materials. PMID:24987418

Calabrese, Marco

2014-01-01

29

Laboratory evaluation of a compomer and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement for orthodontic bonding.  

PubMed

The mean shear debonding force of stainless steel orthodontic brackets with microetched bases bonded with either a compomer or a resin-modified glass ionomer cement was assessed. In addition, the amount of cement remaining on the enamel surface following bracket removal was evaluated. Finally, survival time of orthodontic brackets bonded with these materials was assessed following simulated mechanical stress in a ball mill. Debonding force and survival time data were compared with those obtained for brackets bonded with a chemically cured resin adhesive, a light-cured resin adhesive, and a conventional glass ionomer cement. There were no significant differences in mean shear debonding force of brackets bonded with the compomer, resin-modified glass ionomer, chemically cured resin adhesive, or the light-cured resin adhesive. Brackets bonded with a conventional glass ionomer cement had a significantly lower mean shear debonding force than that recorded for the other materials. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) mode score indicated that significantly less cement remained on the enamel following debonding of brackets cemented with resin-modified or conventional glass ionomers compared with other adhesives. The median survival time for brackets cemented with the compomer, resin-modified glass ionomer, chemically cured resin, or light-cured resin were significantly longer than for brackets cemented with conventional glass ionomer. The compomer and the resin-modified glass ionomer adhesive appear to offer viable alternatives to the more commonly used resin adhesives for bracket bonding. PMID:10022186

Millett, D T; Cattanach, D; McFadzean, R; Pattison, J; McColl, J

1999-02-01

30

The influence of ultrasound on removal of prefabricated metal post cemented with different resin cements  

PubMed Central

Background: Ultrasonic vibrations are used to remove a cemented post from a root canal requiring endodontic retreatment. Various results have been reported from the studies that evaluated the effect of ultrasonic instruments in removing the posts cemented with resin cements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ultrasonic energy on the retention of prefabricated metal post cemented with Panavia or Maxcem Elite cements. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, forty eight extracted single root premolars were decoronated with a diamond disc leaving a 13 mm long root and endodontically treated. The root canals were obturated by gutta-percha up to 5 mm with vertical condensation method and the 8 mm post-space was prepared to receive a no. 2 long Dentorama post. The roots were placed in an incubator for 48 h in 37°C and 100% humidity. After mounting the teeth in acrylic blocks, posts were cemented in the root canals using Panavia F2.0 in 24 specimens and Maxcem Elite in 24 others. For half of the specimens in each subgroup, an ultrasonic device was applied for 4 min. Universal testing machine was used to measure the force needed to remove the posts with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until the post came out of the canal. Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis at 5% level of significance. Results: The removal force was not significantly different among the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Ultrasonic energy did not decrease the retention of posts cemented with Panavia or Maxcem Elite cements. Furthermore, it seems that there is no significant difference between removal force of self-etch (Panavia) and the self-etch self-adhesive (Maxcem Elite) resin cements. PMID:24379864

Feiz, Atiyeh; Barekatain, Behnaz; Naseri, Roohollah; Zarezadeh, Hossein; Askari, Navid; Nasiri, Saman

2013-01-01

31

Bond Durability of Different Resin Cements to Caries-Affected Dentin Under Simulated Intrapulpal Pressure.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Objective: To evaluate the durability of the bond of different resin cement systems to normal dentin (ND) and caries-affected dentin (CAD) with and without simulated intrapulpal pressure (IPP). Methods and Materials : Molars with midcoronal caries were used. Occlusal enamel was cut to expose both dentin substrates (ND and CAD). Dentin substrates were differentiated using visual, tactile, caries-detecting dye, and dye-permeability methods. Prepared crown segments were equally divided according to the tested resin cement systems: etch-and-rinse resin cement, self-etch resin cement containing methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP), and self-adhesive resin cement. In addition to the dentin substrates and the resin cement types, the effect of application/storage conditions (with or without simulated IPP and with or without thermocycling) were tested. A microtensile bond strength test was done using a universal testing machine. Failure modes were determined using a scanning electron microscope. Results : Etch-and-rinse resin cement strength values were significantly affected by the difference in the dentin substrates as well as the different application/storage conditions. Self-etch adhesive containing MDP bonded equally to ND and CAD and remained stable under all tested conditions. Self-adhesive resin cement revealed a similar bond to ND and CAD; however, its values were the lowest, especially when IPP and thermocycling were combined. Mixed failure was the predominant failure mode. Conclusions : Etch-and-rinse resin cement was sensitive to dentin substrate and application/storage conditions. Resin cement with self-etch adhesive containing MDP revealed more reliable bonding to ND/CAD even when IPP and thermocycling were combined. The bonding of the self-adhesive resin cement could not compete with other resin cements. PMID:25405902

Mohamed, Mf; El Deeb, Ha; Gomaa, Ie; Mobarak, Eh

2014-11-18

32

In vitro shear bond strength of resin-based luting cements to dentin.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine how resin cement, self-adhesive resin cement, and resin-modified glass ionomer cement affected shear bond strength to dentin. Sixty composite resin disks (3 mm in diameter x 3 mm in length) were prepared and divided into four groups (n = 15): Group 1, composite disk bonded to dentin with composite resin and a bonding agent; Group 2, composite disk bonded to dentin with a self-adhesive resin cement; Group 3, composite disk bonded to dentin with a different self-adhesive resin cement; and Group 4, composite disk bonded to dentin with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement. The composite resin was loaded into a syringe (internal diameter 3 mm), photocured in an oven, and cut into 3 mm slices with a low-speed saw. The samples were bonded to dentin per the manufacturer's instructions. All specimens were stored in distilled water (at 37 degrees C) for 24 hours. The shear bond strength test was conducted using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. Conventional resin cement and a bonding agent exhibited significantly higher shear bond strength values than all other materials tested. PMID:22782054

Santos, Maria Jacinta Moraes Coelho; Driessen, Cornel H; de Freitas, Anderson Pinheiro; Rizkalla, Amin S; Santos, Gildo C

2012-01-01

33

Resin-modified glass ionomer cements: fluoride release and uptake.  

PubMed

The aim was to study the short- and long-term fluoride release from resin-modified glass ionomer cements (GIC). The aim was also to determine the effect of fluoride treatment of 9-month-old specimens, consistency of the mix, and pH of the environment on the fluoride release. GIC test specimens were continually exposed to running water, and the fluoride release was measured periodically by storing the specimens in 5 ml deionized water for 1 week and measuring the fluoride content of the solution. After 24 h, 1 month, 9 months, and 11 months in running water four of the six resin-modified GICs released as much as or more fluoride than the auto-curing GIC tested for comparison. Fluoride treatment after 9 months also increased the fluoride release of these four brands, as was the case with the conventional GIC. At 24 h and 1 month two of the resin-modified GICs released smaller amounts of fluoride than the other materials, and the fluoride treatment used on those had no or only a minimal effect. Thin consistency of a mix resulted in higher fluoride release for one resin-modified material than a thick mix. Low pH increased the fluoride release for all materials. PMID:7484103

Forsten, L

1995-08-01

34

Influence of cement thickness on resin-zirconia microtensile bond strength  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of resin cement thickness on the microtensile bond strength between zirconium-oxide ceramic and resin cement. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-two freshly extracted molars were transversely sectioned at the deep dentin level and bonded to air-abraded zirconium oxide ceramic disks. The specimens were divided into 8 groups based on the experimental conditions (cement type: Rely X UniCem or Panavia F 2.0, cement thickness: 40 or 160 µm, storage: thermocycled or not). They were cut into microbeams and stored in 37? distilled water for 24 h. Microbeams of non-thermocycled specimens were submitted to a microtensile test, whereas those of thermocycled groups were thermally cycled for 18,000 times immediately before the microtensile test. Three-way ANOVA and Sheffe's post hoc tests were used for statistical analysis (?=95%). RESULTS All failures occurred at the resin-zirconia interface. Thermocycled groups showed lower microtensile bond strength than non-thermocycled groups (P<.001). Differences in cement thickness did not influence the resin-zirconia microtensile bond strength given the same resin cement or storage conditions (P>.05). The number of adhesive failures increased after thermocycling in all experimental conditions. No cohesive failure was observed in any experimental group. CONCLUSION When resin cements of adhesive monomers are applied over air-abraded zirconia restorations, the degree of fit does not influence the resin-zirconia microtensile bond strength. PMID:22053241

Lee, Tae-Hoon; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Shim, June-Sung; Han, Chong-Hyun

2011-01-01

35

Curing time effect on the fraction of {sup 137}Cs from cement-ion exchange resins-bentonite clay composition  

SciTech Connect

To assess the safety of disposal of radioactive waste material in cement, curing conditions and time of leaching radionuclides {sup 137}Cs have been studied. Leaching tests in cement-ion exchange resins-bentonite matrix, were carried out in accordance with a method recommended by IAEA. Curing conditions and curing time prior to commencing the leaching test are critically important in leach studies since the extent of hydration of the cement materials determines how much hydration product develops and whether it is available to block the pore network, thereby reducing leaching. Incremental leaching rates R{sub n}(cm/d) of {sup 137}Cs from cement ion exchange resins-bentonite matrix after 180 days were measured. The results presented in this paper are examples of results obtained in a 20-year concrete testing project which will influence the design of the engineer trenches system for future central Serbian radioactive waste storing center. (authors)

Plecas, Ilija; Dimovic, Slavko [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O.BOX 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

2007-07-01

36

[Dentin bonding of cements. The bonding of cements with dentin in combination with various indirect restorative materials].  

PubMed

The number of both luting agents and restorative materials available on the market has rapidly increased. This study compared various types of luting agents when used to bond different indirect, laboratory restorative materials to dentin. Cylinders were produced of six restorative materials (gold alloy, titanium, feldspathic porcelain, leucite-glass ceramic, zirconia, and an indirect resin composite). Following relevant pretreatment, the end surface of the cylinders were luted to ground, human dentin with eight different luting agents (DeTrey Zinc [zinc phosphate cement], Fuji I [conventional glass ionomer cement], Fuji Plus [resin-modified glass ionomer cement], Variolink II [conventional etch-and-rinse resin cement], Panavia F2.0 and Multilink [self-etch resin cements], RelyX Unicem Aplicap and Maxcem [self-adhesive resin cements]). After water storage at 37 °C for one week, the shear bond strength of the specimens was measured and the fracture mode was examined stereo-microscopically. Restorative material and luting agent both had a significant effect on bond strength and there was a significant interaction between the two variables. The zinc phosphate cement and the glass ionomer cements resulted in the lowest bond strengths, whereas the highest bond strengths were found with the two self-etch and one of the self-adhesive resin cements. PMID:22203577

Peutzfeldt, Anne; Sahafi, Alireza; Flury, Simon

2011-01-01

37

Resin cement to indirect composite resin bonding: Effect of various surface treatments.  

PubMed

Debonding at the composite-adhesive interface is a major problem for indirect composite restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength (BS) of an indirect composite resin after various surface treatments (air-abrasion with Al2O3, phosphoric acid-etchig and different applications of NdYAG laser irradiations). Fifty composite disks were subjected to secondary curing to complete polymerization and randomly divided into five experimental groups (n?=?10) including Group 1, untreated (control); Group 2, phosphoric acid-etched; Group 3, air-abrasion with Al2 O3 ; Group 4, Nd:YAG laser irradiated with non-contact and Group 5, Nd:YAG laser irradiated with contact. They were then bonded to resin cement and shear BS was determined in a universal testing device at a crosshead speed of 1?mm/min. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post-hoc tests were used to analyze the BS values. The highest BS value was observed in Group 4 and followed by Group 3. Tukey test showed that there was no statistical difference between Group1, 2 and 5. Furthermore, differences in BSs between Group 4 and the other groups except Group 3 were significant (p?resin cement. SCANNING 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25488400

Kirmali, Omer; Barutcugil, Cagatay; Harorli, Osman; Kapdan, Alper; Er, Kursat

2014-12-01

38

Influence of viscosity and curing mode on degree of conversion of dual-cured resin cements  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the viscosities and curing modes on the degree of conversion (DC) of two resin cements. Methods: Eight experimental groups were evaluated (n=5), according to the dual-cured resin cements (Nexus 2/Variolink II), viscosity (low and high) and evaluation time (5 minutes and 24 hours). The resin cements were applied to surface of a horizontal attenuated-total-reflectance unit and were polymerized either with self-cure (SC) or light exposure (XL3000/3M ESPE) for 40 seconds. Infrared spectra were obtained after 5 minutes and 24 hours (Nicolet 520 FT-IR/Thermo Scientific Inc.). DC was calculated according to changes in aliphatic-to-aromatic peak ratios pre- and post-curing. Data (%) were analyzed by 3-way repeated measure ANOVA (curing mode, viscosity and time interval) and Tukey’s post-hoc test (P<.05). Results: The dual-polymerizing mode provided higher DC than auto-polymerization. The DC mean values increased for both resin cements after 24 hours. The low-viscosity resin cements from light-activated or self-cured groups exhibited higher DC than high viscosity version. Conclusion: The DC of resin cements was higher for the low viscosity version, following the light-polymerization and when were tested after 24 hours. PMID:23407604

Di Francescantonio, Marina; Aguiar, Thaiane Rodrigues; Arrais, César Augusto Galvão; Cavalcanti, Andrea Nóbrega; Davanzo, Celso Ulysses; Giannini, Marcelo

2013-01-01

39

The effect of tooth-preparation cleansing protocol on the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement to dentin contaminated with a hemostatic agent.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effect of tooth-preparation cleansing protocols on the bond strength of a self-adhesive resin cement to dentin contaminated with two different types of hemostatic agents. The occlusal surface of extracted third molars was flattened to expose the dentin surface and prepared for a full crown. Acrylic temporary crowns were fabricated and placed using temporary cement. The specimens were stored at 100% relative humidity for seven days. Following removal of the temporary crowns, the specimens were surface debrided using aluminum oxide abrasion with a particle size of 27 ?m at 40 psi. The specimens were randomly assigned to three groups, according to the hemostatic agents: Group I–an agent containing aluminum chloride was applied to the tooth surface; Group II–an agent containing ferric sulfate was applied to the tooth surface and Group III–uncontaminated (control). The contaminated specimens were then further subdivided into three subgroups (A–C; n=12): Group A–tooth surface cleansing with water spray; Group B–tooth surface cleansing with phosphoric acid etch and Group C–tooth surface cleansing with aluminum oxide abrasion with a particle size of 27 ?m at 40 psi. Ceramic blocks were treated with a 9.5% hydrofluoric acid-etch and silanized prior to being cemented with self-adhesive resin luting agent (RelyX Unicem) to the prepared dentin. The shear bond strength was determined at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. The data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA, followed by the Duncan multiple range test, to determine any significant differences between the testing groups. The microstructure morphology of the tooth surface was evaluated using SEM analysis. The results revealed that there was a significant difference between the bond strength of the control and the contaminated testing groups (p<0.05). A tooth preparation cleansing protocol using particle abrasion with low-pressure aluminum oxide particles provided a significant improvement in bond strength to contaminated dentin, while rinsing with water spray resulted in the lowest mean bond strength of the self-adhesive resin cement to dentin (p<0.05). PMID:21488725

Chaiyabutr, Y; Kois, J C

2011-01-01

40

Effects of different surface treatments on bond strength between resin cements and zirconia ceramics.  

PubMed

This study compares the bond strength of resin cement and yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) ceramic with different surface conditioning methods. Two hundred presintered Y-TZP ceramic specimens were prepared, sintered (4 × 4 × 4 mm), and randomly assigned to four equal groups as control (C, no conditioning); airborne particle abraded (APA, air abrasion with 11 ?m Al2O3); tribochemical silica coating/silane coupling system (TSC, Rocatec, air abrasion with 110 ?m Al2O3, 30 ?m silica-coated Al2O3 and silane); and laser (L, Er:YAG laser irradiation treated at a power setting of 200 mJ). After specimen preparation, composite resin cylinders were prepared and cemented with resin cements (Clearfil Esthetic, Panavia F 2.0, Rely X-U100, Super Bond C&B, and Multilink Automix) on the ceramic surfaces and kept in an incubator at 37°C for 60 days. All specimens were tested for shear bond strength with a universal testing machine, and fractured surfaces were evaluated by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests (?=0.05). The bond strengths for C and L groups were not significantly different according to adhesive resin cement. APA and TSC resulted in increased bond strength for Panavia F 2.0 and Rely X-U100 resin cements. Additionally, TSC presented higher bond strength with Multilink Automix. Adhesive fracture between the ceramic and resin cement was the most common failure. Complete cohesive fracture at the ceramic or composite cylinders was not observed. Regardless of the adhesive resin cement used, laser treatment did not improve resin bond strength. PMID:24299447

Erdem, A; Akar, G C; Erdem, A; Kose, T

2014-01-01

41

Treatment of a Vertical Root Fracture Using Dual-Curing Resin Cement: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Vertical root fracture (VRF) is one of the most frustrating complications of root canal treatment. The prognosis of the root with VRF is poor therefore tooth extraction and root amputation are usually the only treatment options. However, bonding of the fracture line with adhesive resin cement during the intentional replantation procedure was recently suggested as an alternative to tooth extraction. Methods. A vertically fractured left maxillary incisor was carefully extracted, fracture line was treated with adhesive resin cement, a retrograde cavity was produced and filled with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, and tooth was replanted. Results. After 12 months the tooth was asymptomatic. The size of periapical radiolucency was noticeably reduced and there was no clinical sign of ankylosis. Conclusion. Using adhesive resin cement to bond the fracture lines extraorally in roots with VRF and intentional replantation of the reconstructed teeth could be considered as an alternative to tooth extraction, especially for anterior teeth. PMID:23316397

Moradi Majd, Nima; Akhtari, Farshid; Araghi, Solmaz; Homayouni, Hamed

2012-01-01

42

Influence of post and resin cement on stress distribution of maxillary central incisors restored with direct resin composite.  

PubMed

The current study evaluated the influence of two endodontic post systems and the elastic modulus and film thickness of resin cement on stress distribution in a maxillary central incisor (MCI) restored with direct resin composite using finite element analysis (FEA). A three-dimensional model of an MCI with a coronary fracture and supporting structures was performed. A static chewing pressure of 2.16 N/mm2 was applied to two areas on the palatal surface of the composite restoration. Zirconia ceramic (ZC) and glass fiber (GF) posts were considered. The stress distribution was analyzed in the post, dentin and cement layer when ZC and GF posts were fixed to the root canals using resin cements of different elastic moduli (7.0 and 18.6 GPa) and different layer thicknesses (70 and 200 microm). The different post materials presented a significant influence on stress distribution with lesser stress concentration when using the GF post. The higher elastic modulus cement created higher stress levels within itself. The cement thicknesses did not present significant changes. PMID:19363979

Spazzin, A O; Galafassi, D; de Meira-Júnior, A D; Braz, R; Garbin, C A

2009-01-01

43

Effect of blastfurnace slag addition to Portland cement for cationic exchange resins encapsulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the nuclear industry, cement-based materials are extensively used to encapsulate spent ion exchange resins (IERs) before their final disposal in a repository. It is well known that the cement has to be carefully selected to prevent any deleterious expansion of the solidified waste form, but the reasons for this possible expansion are not clearly established. This work aims at filling the gap. The swelling pressure of IERs is first investigated as a function of ions exchange and ionic strength. It is shown that pressures of a few tenths of MPa can be produced by decreases in the ionic strength of the bulk solution, or by ion exchanges (2Na+ instead of Ca2+, Na+ instead of K+). Then, the chemical evolution of cationic resins initially in the Na+ form is characterized in CEM I (Portland cement) and CEM III (Portland cement + blastfurnace slag) cements at early age and an explanation is proposed for the better stability of CEM III material.

Lafond, E.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Gauffinet, S.; Chartier, D.; Le Bescop, P.; Stefan, L.; Nonat, A.

2013-07-01

44

Effects of mechanical properties of adhesive resin cements on stress distribution in fiber-reinforced composite adhesive fixed partial dentures.  

PubMed

Using finite element analysis (FEA), this study investigated the effects of the mechanical properties of adhesive resin cements on stress distributions in fiber-reinforced resin composite (FRC) adhesive fixed partial dentures (AFPDs). Two adhesive resin cements were compared: Super-Bond C&B and Panavia Fluoro Cement. The AFPD consisted of a pontic to replace a maxillary right lateral incisor and retainers on a maxillary central incisor and canine. FRC framework was made of isotropic, continuous, unidirectional E-glass fibers. Maximum principal stresses were calculated using finite element method (FEM). Test results revealed that differences in the mechanical properties of adhesive resin cements led to different stress distributions at the cement interfaces between AFPD and abutment teeth. Clinical implication of these findings suggested that the safety and longevity of an AFPD depended on choosing an adhesive resin cement with the appropriate mechanical properties. PMID:22447051

Yokoyama, Daiichiro; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Vallittu, Pekka K; Shinya, Akiyoshi

2012-01-01

45

Effects of surface treatments, thermocycling, and cyclic loading on the bond strength of a resin cement bonded to a lithium disilicate glass ceramic.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Objectives : The aim of this present study was to investigate the effect of two surface treatments, fatigue and thermocycling, on the microtensile bond strength of a newly introduced lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) and a dual-cured resin cement. Methods : A total of 18 ceramic blocks (10 mm long × 7 mm wide × 3.0 mm thick) were fabricated and divided into six groups (n=3): groups 1, 2, and 3-air particle abraded for five seconds with 50-?m aluminum oxide particles; groups 4, 5, and 6-acid etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 20 seconds. A silane coupling agent was applied onto all specimens and allowed to dry for five seconds, and the ceramic blocks were bonded to a block of composite Tetric N-Ceram (Ivoclar Vivadent) with RelyX ARC (3M ESPE) resin cement and placed under a 500-g static load for two minutes. The cement excess was removed with a disposable microbrush, and four periods of light activation for 40 seconds each were performed at right angles using an LED curing unit (UltraLume LED 5, Ultradent) with a final 40 second light exposure from the top surface. All of the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. Groups 2 and 5 were submitted to 3,000 thermal cycles between 5°C and 55°C, and groups 3 and 6 were submitted to a fatigue test of 100,000 cycles at 2 Hz. Specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the bonding area to obtain beams with a cross-sectional area of 1 mm(2) (30 beams per group) and submitted to a microtensile bond strength test in a testing machine (EZ Test) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test (p?0.05). Results : The microtensile bond strength values (MPa) were 26.9 ± 6.9, 22.2 ± 7.8, and 21.2 ± 9.1 for groups 1-3 and 35.0 ± 9.6, 24.3 ± 8.9, and 23.9 ± 6.3 for groups 4-6. For the control group, fatigue testing and thermocycling produced a predominance of adhesive failures. Fatigue and thermocycling significantly decreased the microtensile bond strength for both ceramic surface treatments when compared with the control groups. Etching with 10% hydrofluoric acid significantly increased the microtensile bond strength for the control group. PMID:22856682

Guarda, G B; Correr, A B; Gonçalves, L S; Costa, A R; Borges, G A; Sinhoreti, M A C; Correr-Sobrinho, L

2013-01-01

46

Effect of Self-adhesive Resin Cement and Tribochemical Treatment on Bond Strength to Zirconia  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the interactive effects of different self-adhesive resin cements and tribochemical treatment on bond strength to zirconia. Methodology The following self-adhesive resin cements for bonding two zirconia blocks were evaluated: Maxcem (MA), Smartcem (SM), Rely X Unicem Aplicap (UN), Breeze (BR), Biscem (BI), Set (SE), and Clearfil SA luting (CL). The specimens were grouped according to conditioning as follows: Group 1, polishing with 600 grit polishing paper; Group 2, silica coating with 110 µm Al2O3 particles which modified with silica; and, Group 3, tribochemical treatment - silica coating + silanization. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours before testing shear bond strength. Results Silica coating and tribochemical treatment significantly increased the bond strength of the MA, UN, BR, BI, SE and CL to zirconia compared to #600 polishing. For both #600 polished and silica coating treatments, MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cement CL had the highest bond strengths to zirconia. Conclusion Applying silica coating and tribochemical treatment improved the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement to zirconia, especially for CL. PMID:20690416

Lin, Jie; Shinya, Akikazu; Gomi, Harunori; Shinya, Akiyoshi

2010-01-01

47

Radiopacity of different resin-based and conventional luting cements compared to human and bovine teeth.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the radiopacity of different resin-based luting materials and compared the results to human and bovine dental hard tissues. Disc specimens (N=130, n=10 per group) (diameter: 6 mm, thickness: 1 mm) were prepared from 10 resin-based and 3 conventional luting cements. Human canine dentin (n=10), bovine enamel (n=10), bovine dentin (n=10) and Aluminium (Al) step wedge were used as references. The optical density values of each material were measured from radiographic images using a transmission densitometer. Al step wedge thickness and optical density values were plotted and equivalent Al thickness values were determined for radiopacity measurements of each material. The radiopacity values of conventional cements and two resin luting materials (Rely X Unicem and Variolink II), were significantly higher than that of bovine enamel that could be preferred for restorations cemented on enamel. Since all examined resin-based luting materials showed radiopacity values equivalent to or greater than that of human and bovine dentin, they could be considered suitable for the restorations cemented on dentin. PMID:22277608

Pekkan, Gürel; Ozcan, Mutlu

2012-02-01

48

Effects of curing mode of resin cements on the bond strength of a titanium post: An intraradicular study  

PubMed Central

Aim: To compare push-out bond strength between self-cured and dual-cured resin cement using a titanium post. Background: Dual-cured resin cements have been found to be less polymerized in the absence of light; thus the bond strength of cements would be compromised due to the absence of light with a metallic post. Materials and Methods: Ten extracted teeth were prepared for cement titanium PARAPOST, of five specimens each, with Panavia F [dual-cured (PF)] and Rely×Luting 2 [self-cured resin-modified glass ionomer luting cement (RL)]; the push-out bond strength (PBS) at three different levels of the sectioned roots was measured. The failure modes were observed and the significance of the differences in bond strength of the two types of cement at each level and at different levels of the same type was analyzed with non-parametric tests. Results: The push-out bond strength of the RL group was greater at all the three levels; with significant differences at the coronal and middle levels (P<0.05). No significant differences in PBS at different levels of the same group were observed. Cement material around the post was obvious in the PF group. The failure mode was mostly adhesive between the post and resin cement in the RL group. Conclusion: Bond strength was greater with self-cured, resin-modified glass ionomer luting cement, using titanium post. PMID:22557808

Reza, Fazal; Lim, Siau Peng

2012-01-01

49

Controlled, prospective, randomized, clinical evaluation of partial ceramic crowns inserted with RelyX Unicem with or without selective enamel etching. Results after 2 years.  

PubMed

Among the materials used for luting indirect restorations, growing interest has been directed towards the use of self-adhesive resin cements. The aim of this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical performance of the self-adhesive resin cement RelyX Unicem (RXU) for luting partial ceramic crowns (PCCs). In addition, the influence of selective enamel etching prior to luting (RXU+E) was assessed. Two-year results are reported. Thirty-four patients (68 PCCs) had originally received the intended treatment at baseline (BL). Twenty-nine patients (14 male, 15 female) with a total of 58 PCCs participated in the 2-year recall. In each patient, one PCC had been placed with RXU, one PCC with RXU+E. Restorations were evaluated at BL and 24 months after placement using modified United States Public Health Service criteria for postoperative hypersensitivity, anatomic form, marginal adaptation, marginal discoloration, surface texture and recurrent caries. Additionally, the "percentage failure" within the 2-year recall period for all restorations (n?=?68) was calculated according to ADA Program Guidelines. Target value for acceptability of each procedure was <5% failure within 24 m. For statistical analysis of the data, the chi-square test was applied (??=?0.05). The median patient age was 41 years (24-59 years). Median PBI was 8% (5-10%). Twenty-two RXU PCCs were placed in molars, seven in premolars. Twenty-one RXU+E PCCs were placed in molars, eight in premolars. Statistically significant changes were observed for marginal adaptation (MA) and marginal discoloration (MD) between BL and 2 years but not between the two groups (RXU, RXU+E). Percentage of alfa values at BL for MA (RXU, 97% and RXU+E, 100%) and for MD (RXU, 97% and RXU+E, 97%) decreased to RXU, 14% and RXU+E, 28% for MA and to RXU, 50% and RXU+E, 59% for MD after 24 months. Within the observation period, three failures were recorded with RXU (5.1% failure), one failure was recorded for RXU+E (1.7% failure), but a significant influence of selective enamel etching on failure could not be verified. Although the results of the present study reveal a slight tendency for more favourable results if selective enamel etching is applied prior to insertion of ceramic PCCs with a self-adhesive luting material, longer-term evaluation is needed to confirm this. Additional selective enamel etching with a self-adhesive luting material does not considerably improve clinical performance of the restorations within the observation period reported, neither does it impose a hazard with respect to postoperative hypersensitivity. PMID:21431338

Schenke, Frederike; Federlin, Marianne; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Moder, Daniel; Schmalz, Gottfried

2012-04-01

50

Adhesion of conventional and simplified resin-based luting cements to superficial and deep dentin.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the bond strengths of conventional (chemically and dual-polymerized) and simplified resin-based luting cements with their corresponding adhesives to superficial dentin (SD) and deep dentin (DD). Recently extracted third molars (N = 70, n = 10 per group) were obtained and prepared for testing procedures. After using their corresponding etchants, primers, and/or adhesive systems, the conventional and simplified cements (Variolink II [group A, conventional], Bifix QM [group B, conventional], Panavia F2.0 [group C, conventional], Multilink Automix [group D, simplified], Superbond C&B [group E, conventional], Clearfil Esthetic Cement [group F, simplified], Ketac-Fil [group G, conventional]) were adhered incrementally onto the dentin surfaces using polyethylene molds (inner diameter 3.5 mm, height 5 mm) and polymerized accordingly. Resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) acted as the control material. Shear bond strengths (1 mm/min) were determined after 500 times of thermocycling. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze the data (? = 0.05). Bond strength (MPa) results were significantly affected by the cement types and their corresponding adhesive systems (p ? 0.05). The shear bond strengths (MPa ± SD) for groups A-G were 14.6 ± 3.8, 18.9 ± 3.9, 5.5 ± 4.5, 3.1 ± 3.6, 1.1 ± 2.5, 15.5 ± 2.6, 7 ± 4.3 and 7.1 ± 5.8, 15.1 ± 7.8, 8.4 ± 7.3, 7.5 ± 7.3, 4.9 ± 5.1, 12.5 ± 2.1, 6 ± 2.6 for SD and DD, respectively. The level of dentin depth did not decrease the bond strength significantly (p > 0.05) for all cements, except for Variolink II (p < 0.05). On the SD, bond strength of resin cements with "etch-and-rinse" adhesive systems (Variolink II, Bifix QM, Super-Bond C&B) showed similar results being higher than those of the simplified ones. Simplified cements and RMGIC as control material showed inferior adhesion to superficial and deep dentin compared to conventional resin cements tested. PMID:21833482

Özcan, Mutlu; Mese, Ayse

2012-08-01

51

Effects of post surface conditioning before silanization on bond strength between fiber post and resin cement  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Post surface conditioning is necessary to expose the glass fibers to enable bonding between fiber post and resin cement. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different surface conditioning on tensile bond strength (TBS) of a glass fiber reinforced post to resin cement. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this in vitro study, 40 extracted single canal central incisors were endodontically treated and post spaces were prepared. The teeth were divided into four groups according to the methods of post surface treatment (n=10): 1) Silanization after etching with 20% H2O2, 2) Silanization after airborne-particle abrasion, 3) Silanization, and 4) No conditioning (Control). Adhesive resin cement (Panavia F 2.0) was used for cementation of the fiber posts to the root canal dentin. Three slices of 3 mm thick were obtained from each root. A universal testing machine was used with a cross-head speed of 1 mm/minute for performing the push-out tests. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used for analyzing data (?=0.05). RESULTS It is revealed that different surface treatments and root dentin regions had significant effects on TBS, but the interaction between surface treatments and root canal regions had no significant effect on TBS. There was significant difference among H2O2 + Silane Group and other three groups. CONCLUSION There were significant differences among the mean TBS values of different surface treatments. Application of hydrogen peroxide before silanization increased the bond strength between resin cements and fiber posts. The mean TBS mean values was significantly greater in the coronal region of root canal than the middle and apical thirds. PMID:23755337

Ranjbarian, Parisa

2013-01-01

52

Bonding of hybrid ionomers and resin cements to modified orthodontic band materials.  

PubMed

Orthodontic bands often fail clinically at the band-cement interface. Hybrid ionomer and resin cements and a glass ionomer control were bonded to photo-etched and standard band materials, both of which were tested in as-received and air-abraded conditions. Cements were placed in a 3 mm diameter mold at the bonding interface and bonded to 6 x 6 mm stainless steel band specimens mounted to acrylic blocks. Specimens were stored in water for 24 hours at 37 degreesC and debonded in tension on a testing machine at 0.05 cm/minutes. Bond strengths (MPa) were calculated and data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Bond strengths to as-received bands were less than 3.4 MPa for cements tested, whereas bond strengths to air-abraded bands ranged from 7.1 to 17.7 MPa, except for the glass ionomer control. Air abrasion of band materials provides highly increased bond strength of hybrid ionomer and resin cements. PMID:9971924

Mennemeyer, V A; Neuman, P; Powers, J M

1999-02-01

53

Effect of curing mode on the micro-mechanical properties of dual-cured self-adhesive resin cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light supplying to luting resin cements is impeded in several clinical situations, causing us to question whether materials\\u000a can properly be cured to achieve adequately (or adequate) mechanical properties. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse\\u000a the effect of light on the micro-mechanical properties of eight popular dual-cured self-adhesive resin cements by comparing\\u000a them with two conventional, also

Nicoleta Ilie; Alexander Simon

54

Bond strength of selected composite resin-cements to zirconium-oxide ceramic  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate bond strengths of zirconium-oxide (zirconia) ceramic and a selection of different composite resin cements. Study Design: 130 Lava TM cylinders were fabricated. The cylinders were sandblasted with 80 µm aluminium oxide or silica coated with CoJet Sand. Silane, and bonding agent and/or Clearfil Ceramic Primer were applied. One hundred thirty composite cement cylinders, comprising two dual-polymerizing (Variolink II and Panavia F) and two autopolymerizing (Rely X and Multilink) resins were bonded to the ceramic samples. A shear test was conducted, followed by an optical microscopy study to identify the location and type of failure, an electron microscopy study (SEM and TEM) and statistical analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis test for more than two independent samples and Mann-Whitney for two independent samples. Given the large number of combinations, Bonferroni correction was applied (?=0.001). Results: Dual-polymerizing cements provided better adhesion values (11.7 MPa) than the autopolymerizing (7.47 MPa) (p-value M-W<0.001). The worst techniques were Lava TM + sandblasting + Silane + Rely X; Lava TM + sandblasting + Silane + Multilink and Lava TM + CoJet + silane + Multilink. Adhesive failure (separation of cement and ceramic) was produced at a lesser force than cohesive failure (fracture of cement) (p-value M-W<0.001). Electron microscopy confirmed that the surface treatments modified the zirconium-oxide ceramic, creating a more rough and retentive surface, thus providing an improved micromechanical interlocking between the cement and the ceramic. Key words:Shear bond strength, silica coating, surface treatment, zirconia ceramics, phosphate monomer. PMID:22926485

Fons-Font, Antonio; Amigó-Borrás, Vicente; Granell-Ruiz, María; Busquets-Mataix, David; Panadero, Rubén A.; Solá-Ruiz, Maria F.

2013-01-01

55

Priming the tooth surface with chlorhexidine and antibacterial activity of resin cement  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the effect of priming the tooth surface with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate on antibacterial activity of resin cement. METHODS: Ten patients in whom a single missing tooth was present on both the right and left side in the upper or lower arch were selected. Two fixed partial dentures (FPDs) in each patient on the right and left side were planned. Each FPD was assigned either to the control or test group. In the control group, FPD was luted with resin cement and in the test group, the tooth surface was primed with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate before luting with resin cement. Bacteriological samples were collected at base line level, as the patient came to the outpatient department before the start of any treatment, 5 wk prior to cementation of FPD and at 13 wk (8 wk after final cementation). Microbiological processing of all samples was done and the results were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: In the test group, a predominance of aerobic/facultative gram positive cocci rod was seen which indicates a healthy periodontal site, whereas in the control group, a predominance of anaerobic gram negative rods was present which indicates an unhealthy periodontal condition. This is evident by the fact that the anaerobic bacteria percentage in the control sample is 57% and 15% in the test sample after 13 wk, whereas the aerobic/facultative bacteria percentage is 43% in the control sample and 85% in the test sample after 13 wk. The percentage of gram negative bacteria in the control sample is 61% and in the test sample is 20% after 13 wk, whereas the percentage of gram positive bacteria in the control sample is 39% and in the test sample is 80% after 13 wk. The shift from anaerobic gram negative bacteria to aerobic gram positive bacteria is clearly seen from the control to test sample after 13 wk. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that priming the tooth surface with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate may enhance antibacterial activity of the resin cement. PMID:24340277

Saini, Monika; Singh, Yashpal; Garg, Rishabh; Pandey, Anita

2013-01-01

56

Effects of coronal substrates and water storage on the microhardness of a resin cement used for luting ceramic crowns  

PubMed Central

Composite resin and metallic posts are the materials most employed for reconstruction of teeth presenting partial or total destruction of crowns. Resin-based cements have been widely used for cementation of ceramic crowns. The success of cementation depends on the achievement of adequate cement curing. Objectives To evaluate the microhardness of Variolink® II (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), used for cementing ceramic crowns onto three different coronal substrate preparations (dentin, metal, and composite resin), after 7 days and 3 months of water storage. The evaluation was performed along the cement line in the cervical, medium and occlusal thirds on the buccal and lingual aspects, and on the occlusal surface. Material and Methods Thirty molars were distributed in three groups (N=10) according to the type of coronal substrate: Group D- the prepared surfaces were kept in dentin; Groups M (metal) and R (resin)- the crowns were sectioned at the level of the cementoenamel junction and restored with metallic cast posts or resin build-up cores, respectively. The crowns were fabricated in ceramic IPS e.max® Press (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and luted with Variolink II. After 7 days of water storage, 5 specimens of each group were sectioned in buccolingual direction for microhardness measurements. The other specimens (N=5) were kept stored in deionized water at 37ºC for three months, followed by sectioning and microhardness measurements. Results Data were first analyzed by three-way ANOVA that did not reveal significant differences between thirds and occlusal surface (p=0.231). Two-way ANOVA showed significant effect of substrates (p<0.001) and the Tukey test revealed that microhardness was significantly lower when crowns were cemented on resin cores and tested after 7 days of water storage (p=0.007). Conclusion The type of material employed for coronal reconstruction of preparations for prosthetic purposes may influence the cement properties. PMID:25141200

de MENDONÇA, Luana Menezes; PEGORARO, Luiz Fernando; LANZA, Marcos Daniel Septímio; PEGORARO, Thiago Amadei; de CARVALHO, Ricardo Marins

2014-01-01

57

Shear bond strength of resin cement to an acid etched and a laser irradiated ceramic surface  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of hydrofluoric acid etching and Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the shear bond strength of resin cement to lithium disilicate ceramic. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty-five ceramic blocks (5 mm × 5 mm × 2 mm) were fabricated and embedded in acrylic resin. Their surfaces were finished with 1000-grit silicon carbide paper. The blocks were assigned to five groups: 1) 9.5% hydrofluoric-acid etching for 60 s; 2-4), 1.5-, 2.5-, and 6-W Er,Cr:YSGG laser applications for 60 seconds, respectively; and 5) no treatment (control). One specimen from each group was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Ceramic primer (Rely X ceramic primer) and adhesive (Adper Single Bond) were applied to the ceramic surfaces, followed by resin cement to bond the composite cylinders, and light curing. Bonded specimens were stored in distilled water at 37? for 24 hours. Shear bond strengths were determined by a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests (?=0.05). RESULTS Adhesion was significantly stronger in Group 2 (3.88 ± 1.94 MPa) and Group 3 (3.65 ± 1.87 MPa) than in Control group (1.95 ± 1.06 MPa), in which bonding values were lowest (P<.01). No significant difference was observed between Group 4 (3.59 ± 1.19 MPa) and Control group. Shear bond strength was highest in Group 1 (8.42 ± 1.86 MPa; P<.01). CONCLUSION Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation at 1.5 and 2.5 W increased shear bond strengths between ceramic and resin cement compared with untreated ceramic surfaces. Irradiation at 6 W may not be an efficient ceramic surface treatment technique. PMID:23755333

Motro, Pelin Fatma Karagoz; Yurdaguven, Haktan

2013-01-01

58

Effect of curing mode on the micro-mechanical properties of dual-cured self-adhesive resin cements.  

PubMed

Light supplying to luting resin cements is impeded in several clinical situations, causing us to question whether materials can properly be cured to achieve adequately (or adequate) mechanical properties. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse the effect of light on the micro-mechanical properties of eight popular dual-cured self-adhesive resin cements by comparing them with two conventional, also dual-cured, resin cements. Four different curing procedures were applied: auto-polymerisation (dark curing) and light curing (LED unit, Freelight 2, 20 s) by applying the unit directly on the samples' surface, at a distance of 5 and 10 mm. Twenty minutes after curing, the samples were stored for 1 week at 37°C in a water-saturated atmosphere. The micro-mechanical properties-Vickers hardness, modulus of elasticity, creep and elastic/plastic deformation-were measured. Data were analysed with multivariate ANOVA followed by Tukey's test and partial eta-squared statistics (p?cement-conventional or self-adhesive-was generally low. The influence of light on the polymerisation process was material dependent, with four different behaviour patterns to be distinguished. As a material category, significantly higher micro-mechanical properties were measured for the conventional compared to the self-adhesive resin cements, although this difference was low. Within the self-adhesive resin cements group, the variation in micro-mechanical properties was high. The selection of suitable resin cements should be done by considering, besides its adhesive properties, its micro-mechanical properties and curing behaviour also. PMID:21350865

Ilie, Nicoleta; Simon, Alexander

2012-04-01

59

In-vitro evaluation of an experimental method for bonding of orthodontic brackets with self-adhesive resin cements  

PubMed Central

Background Self-adhesive resin cements do not require the surface treatment of teeth and are said to release fluoride, which makes them suitable candidates for bonding of orthodontic brackets. The objectives of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength (SBS) of self-adhesive resin cements on etched on non-etched surfaces in vitro and to assess their fluoride release features. Materials and Methods Four fluoride-releasing dual-cure self-adhesive resin cements were investigated. For SBS experiment, 135 freshly extracted human maxillary premolars were used and divided into nine groups of 15 teeth. In the control group, brackets were cemented by Transbond XT (3M Unitek, USA), in four groups self-adhesive resin cements were used without acid-etching and in four groups self-adhesive cements were applied on acid-etched surfaces and the brackets were then deboned in shear with a testing machine. Adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were also calculated. For fluoride release investigation, 6 discs were prepared for each self-adhesive cement. Transbond XT and Fuji Ortho LC (GC, Japan) served as negative and positive control groups, respectively. The fluoride release of each disc into 5 ml of deionized water was measured at days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 using a fluoride ion-selective electrode connected to an ion analyzer. To prevent cumulative measurements, the storage solutions were changed daily. Results The SBS of brackets cemented with Transbond XT were significantly higher compared to self-adhesives applied on non-etched surfaces (P<0.001). However, when the self-adhesive resin cements were used with enamel etching, no significant differences was found in the SBS compared to Transbond XT, except for Breeze. The comparisons of the ARI scores indicated that bracket failure modes were significantly different between the etched and non-etched groups. All self-adhesive cements released clinically sufficient amounts of fluoride for an extended period of time. Conclusion For the tested cements, the strongest bonds were obtained by enamel acid-etching prior to bracket bonding. All the self-adhesive resin cements had significant long-term fluoride release and could be recommended as suitable fluoride-releasing orthodontic bonding materials. PMID:24163808

Ramazanzadeh, Barat Ali; Merati, Mohsen; Shafaee, Hooman; Dogon, Leon; Sohrabi, Keyvan

2013-01-01

60

Factors responsible for pulp cell cytotoxicity induced by resin-modified glass ionomer cements.  

PubMed

Resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RM-GICs) are the last generation of GICs commonly used in restorative dentistry. They contain various resins that improve their mechanical properties. These modifications, however, may also affect their biocompatibility. We compared the cytotoxicity of seven biomaterials (five RM-GICs, one metal-reinforced GIC (M-GIC), and a zinc-oxyphosphate cement) using an assay of pulp cell viability in vitro (MTT assay). The most toxic materials appeared to be the M-GIC Hi-Dense and the RM-GIC Vitremer. The less toxic ones appeared to be the RM-GICs Compoglass and Photac-Fil. Attempts made to identify the factors responsible for their cytotoxicity indicated that in vitro cytotoxicity did not seem to be caused by any change in pH of the biomaterial eluates. Adsorption of biomaterial eluates on dentin powder significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of all biomaterials. The concentration of F-, Sr2+, and Al3+ (major ionic elements present in GICs) in the eluate of six glass ionomer containing biomaterials was too low to be cytotoxic. However, Cu2+ and Ag+ (present in alloys of M-GIC) were present in toxic concentrations in Hi-Dense eluates. Unpolymerized monomers leached from resins were identified by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy in biomaterial eluates. The monomers hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), and poly(acrylic) acid were identified in eluates of Vitremer, Compoglass, and Hi-Dense, respectively. After ethanol elution of HEMA and TEGDMA from Vitremer and Compoglass, respectively, the cytotoxicity of these two RM-GICs was drastically reduced. Our results suggest that the principal compounds responsible for cytotoxicity are unpolymerized resin monomers in the two RM-GICs and Cu2+ and Ag+ in the M-GIC. PMID:10398031

Stanislawski, L; Daniau, X; Lauti, A; Goldberg, M

1999-01-01

61

Bonding of Resin Cement to Zirconia with High Pressure Primer Coating  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the effect of air-drying pressure during ceramic primer coating on zirconia/resin bonding and the surface characteristics of the primed zirconia. Methods Two ceramic primers (Clearfil Ceramic Primer, CCP, Kuraray Medical Inc. and Z-Prime Plus, ZPP, Bisco Inc.) were applied on the surface of air-abraded zirconia (Katana zirconia, Noritake) and dried at 4 different air pressures (0.1–0.4 MPa). The primed zirconia ceramic specimens were bonded with a resin-based luting agent (SA Luting Cement, Kuraray). Micro-shear bond strengths of the bonded specimens were tested after 3 days of water storage or 5,000× thermocycling (n?=?12). Failure modes of the fractured specimens were examined with scanning electron miscopy. The effects of air pressure on the thickness of the primer layers and the surface roughness (Sa) of primed zirconia were evaluated using spectroscopic ellipsometry (n?=?6), optical profilometry and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) (n?=?6), respectively. Results Clearfil Ceramic Primer air-dried at 0.3 and 0.4 MPa, yielding significantly higher µSBS than gentle air-drying subgroups (p<0.05). Compared to vigorous drying conditions, Z-Prime Plus air-dried at 0.2 MPa exhibited significantly higher µSBS (p<0.05). Increasing air-drying pressure reduced the film thickness for both primers. Profilometry measurements and ESEM showed rougher surfaces in the high pressure subgroups of CCP and intermediate pressure subgroup of ZPP. Conclusion Air-drying pressure influences resin/zirconia bond strength and durability significantly. Higher air-drying pressure (0.3-0.4 MPa) for CCP and intermediate pressure (0.2 MPa) for ZPP are recommended to produce strong, durable bonds between resin cement and zirconia ceramics. PMID:24992678

Wang, Ying-jie; Jiao, Kai; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Wei; Shen, Li-juan; Fang, Ming; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiang; Tay, Franklin R.; Chen, Ji-hua

2014-01-01

62

Push-out bond strength of a self-adhesive resin cement used as endodontic sealer  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the bond strength of RelyX Unicem (3M) to root canal dentin when used as an endodontic sealer. Materials and Methods Samples of 24 single-rooted teeth were prepared with Gates Glidden drills and K3 files. After that, the roots were randomly assigned to three experimental groups (n = 8) according to the filling material, (1) AH Plus (Dentsply De Trey GmbH)/Gutta-Percha cone; (2) Epiphany SE (Pentron)/Resilon cone; (3) RelyX Unicem/Gutta-Percha cone. All roots were filled using a single cone technique associated to vertical condensation. After the filling procedures, each tooth was prepared for a push-out bond strenght test by cutting 1 mm-thick root slices. Loading was performed on a universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey test for multiple comparisons were used to compare the results among the experimental groups. Results Epiphany SE/Resilon showed significantly lower push-out bond strength than both AH Plus/Gutta-Percha and RelyX Unicem/Gutta-Percha (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in bond strength between AH Plus/Gutta-Percha and RelyX Unicem/Gutta-Percha (p > 0.05). Conclusions Under the present in vitro conditions, bond strength to root dentin promoted by RelyX Unicem was similar to AH Plus. Epiphany SE/Resilon resulted in lower bond strength values when compared to both materials. PMID:25383347

Gurgel-Filho, Eduardo Diogo; Lima, Felipe Coelho; Saboia, Vicente de Paula Aragão; Coutinho-Filho, Tauby de Souza; Neves, Aline de Almeida

2014-01-01

63

Effect of imaging powders on the bond strength of resin cement.  

PubMed

The application and incomplete removal of a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture imaging powder may affect the dentin surface prior to bonding a ceramic restoration. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of imaging powder residue on the shear bond strength of a self-adhesive resin cement to dentin. Mounted human third molars were sectioned coronally with a diamond saw to expose the dentin, which was then prepared with a diamond bur mounted in a custom jig. The dentin surface was sprayed with 3 different imaging powders. The 3 powder groups were then divided into 3 subgroups based on the method of powder removal: no rinse, 1-second rinse, and 10-second rinse. A control group was created that had no application of imaging powder. A self-adhesive resin cement was bonded to the surfaces and loaded to failure in a universal testing machine after 24 hours of storage. Data was analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney nonparametric tests. The bonding to dentin surfaces of the powder groups that were rinsed for 1 or 10 seconds were not significantly different from each other or the nonpowdered control. The type of imaging powder did not significantly affect the bond strength. The nonrinsed powdered dentin surface had a significant reduction in bond strength compared to both the control and the rinsed powdered surfaces. PMID:25574724

Jordan, Christopher R; Bailey, Clifton W; Ashcraft-Olmscheid, Deborah L; Vandewalle, Kraig S

2015-01-01

64

Adhesion of 10-MDP containing resin cements to dentin with and without the etch-and-rinse technique  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE This study evaluated the adhesion of 10-MDP containing self-etch and self-adhesive resin cements to dentin with and without the use of etch-and-rinse technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS Human third molars (N=180) were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=30 per group). Conventional (Panavia F2.0, Kuraray-PAN) and self-adhesive resin cements (Clearfil SA, Kuraray-CSA) were bonded to dentin surfaces either after application of 3-step etch-and-rinse (35% H3PO4 + ED Primer) or two-step self-etch adhesive resin (Clearfil SE Bond). Specimens were subjected to shear bond strength test using the universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min). The failure types were analyzed using a stereomicroscope and quality of hybrid layer was observed under a scanning electron microscope. The data (MPa) were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (?=.05). RESULTS Overall, PAN adhesive cement showed significantly higher mean bond strength (12.5 ± 2.3 - 14.1 ± 2.4 MPa) than CSA cement (9.3 ± 1.4 - 13.9 ± 1.9 MPa) (P<.001). Adhesive failures were more frequent in CSA cement groups when used in conjunction with two-step self-adhesive (68%) or no adhesive at all (66%). Hybrid layer quality was inferior in CSA compared to PAN cement in all conditions. CONCLUSION In clinical situations where bonding to dentin substrate is crucial, both conventional and self-adhesive resin cements based on 10-MDP can benefit from etch-and-rinse technique to achieve better quality of adhesion in the early clinical period. PMID:24049562

Sen, Deniz; Tuncelli, Betul; Özcan, Mutlu

2013-01-01

65

Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate, glass ionomer cement and composite resin when repairing large furcal perforations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the sealing ability of different repair materials and the pathway of bacterial penetration after closure of large pulp chamber floor perforations. Materials and methods Perforations were made in the furcation area of extracted human molars and sealed with either mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), glass ionomer cement or resin composite. The bacterial leakage method was used with Enterococcus

M. Kleivmyr; E. Bruzell; D. Ørstavik; G. Lodiene

2011-01-01

66

Comparison of Microleakage and Thickness of Resin Cement in Ceramic Inlays with Various Temperatures  

PubMed Central

Background and aims. Microleakage is still one of the major problems of composite-based restorations.This study compared the microleakage and thickness of resin cement in ceramic inlays with various temperatures. Materials and methods. Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual aspects of thirty human molars with occlusal margins in enamel and gingival margins in dentin (3 mm wide, 5 mm long and 2 mm deep). Laboratory-made inlays (LMI) were used for buccal cavities, and CAD/CAM inlays (CMI) were used for lingual cavities. All the cavities were divided into six groups (n=10): 1) LMI at -5°C; 2) LMI at 50°C; 3) LMI at room temperature (25°C); 4) CMI at -5°C; 5) CMI at 50°C; 6) CMI at room temperature (25°C). Inlays were bonded to cavities in a pulp pressure- and temperature-simulating device. After thermocycling and dye penetration, the teeth were divided into two mesiodistal halves. Amount of dye penetration and film thickness were measured under a stereomicroscope and analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon and Spearman's correlation tests ( = 0.05). Results. There were no statistically significant differences in leakage between different inlay temperatures (P > 0.05). The mean cement thickness in laboratory-made inlays (gingival margin, 83.7 ± 11 and occlusal margin, 84.7 ± 19) was greater than that in CAD/CAM inlays (gingival margin, 69 ± 16 and occlusal margin, 84.7 ± 16). No correlation was found be-tween cement thickness and microleakage either in enamel or dentin for any of the ceramic systems. Conclusion. Differences in inlay temperature had no effect on microleakage. CAD/CAM inlays had lower cement thickness than laboratory-made inlays, but this was not related to their microleakage. PMID:25024839

Alaghemand, Homayoun; Abolghasemzadeh, Faezeh; Pakdel, Farzaneh; Judi Chelan, Reza

2014-01-01

67

The adhesive system and root canal region do not influence the degree of conversion of dual resin cement  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of two adhesive systems and the post space region on the degree of conversion of dual resin cement and its bond strength to root dentin. Material and Methods One three-step etch-andrinse (All-bond 2, Bisco) and another one-step self-etch (Xeno III, Dentsply) adhesive systems were applied on 20 (n=10) crownless bovine incisors, at 12-mm-deep post space preparation, and a fiber post (DT Light Post, Bisco) was cemented using a dual cure resin cement (Duo-Link, Bisco). Three transverse sections (3 mm) were obtained, being one from each study region (cervical, middle and apical). The degree of conversion of the dual cure resin cement was determined by a micro-Raman spectrometer. The data (%) were submitted to repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results For both groups, the degree of conversion means (%) (All bond 2cervical = 69.3; All bond 2middle = 55.1; All bond 2apical= 56; Xeno IIIcervical = 68.7; Xeno IIImiddle = 68.8; Xeno IIIapical = 54.3) were not significantly different along the post space regions (p<0.05). Conclusion Neither the adhesive nor the post space region influenced the degree of conversion of the cement layer. PMID:21085803

PEREIRA, Priscilla Cristoforides; de MELO, Renata Marques; CHAVES, Carolina; GALHANO, Graziela A. P.; BOTTINO, Marco Antonio; BALDUCCI, Ivan

2010-01-01

68

Effect of silane activation on shear bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite post to resin cement  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Among the surface treatment methods suggested to enhance the adhesion of resin cement to fiber-reinforced composite posts, conflicting results have been obtained with silanization. In this study, the effects of silanization, heat activation after silanization, on the bond strength between fiber-reinforced composite post and resin cement were determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS Six groups (n=7) were established to evaluate two types of fiber post (FRC Postec Plus, D.T. Light Post) and three surface treatments (no treatment; air drying; drying at 38?). Every specimen were bonded with dual-curing resin cement (Variolink N) and stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37?. Shear-bond strength (MPa) between the fiber post and the resin cement were measured using universal testing device. The data were analyzed with 1-way ANOVA and by multiple comparisons according to Tukey's HSD (?=0.05). The effect of surface treatment, fiber post type, and the interactions between these two factors were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and independent sample T-tests. RESULTS Silanization of the FRC Postec Plus significantly increased bond strength compared with the respective non-treated control, whereas no effect was determined for the D.T. Light Post. Heat drying the silane coupling agent on to the fiber-reinforced post did not significantly improve bond strength compared to air-syringe drying. CONCLUSION The bond strength between the fiber-reinforced post and the resin cement was significantly increased with silanization in regards to the FRC Postec Plus post. Bond strength was not significantly improved by heat activation of the silane coupling agent. PMID:23755334

Kim, Hyun-Dong; Lee, Joo-Hee; Ahn, Kang-Min; Kim, Hee-Sun

2013-01-01

69

Effects of enamel deproteinization on bracket bonding with conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to test the effects of enamel deproteinization on bracket bonding with conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC). One hundred premolars, extracted for orthodontic reasons, were divided into five groups (n = 20). Group 1 (control): enamel was etched with 35 per cent phosphoric acid, a thin layer of adhesive was applied, and the brackets were bonded with Transbond XT. Group 2: enamel was etched with 10 per cent polyacrylic acid and the brackets were bonded with conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC). Group 3: enamel was treated with 5.25 per cent NaOCl, etched with 10 per cent polyacrylic acid, and the brackets were bonded with conventional GIC. Group 4: enamel was etched with 10 per cent polyacrylic acid and the brackets were bonded with RMGIC. Group 5: enamel was treated with 5.25 per cent NaOCl, etched with 10 per cent polyacrylic acid, and the brackets were bonded with RMGIC. The teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 hours before they were submitted to shear testing. The results demonstrated that bond strength values of group 1 (17.08 ± 6.39 MPa) were significantly higher in comparison with the other groups. Groups 2 (3.43 ± 1.94 MPa) and 3 (3.92 ± 1.57 MPa) presented values below the average recommended in the literature. With regard to adhesive remnant index, the groups in which the enamel was treated with NaOCl showed a behaviour similar to that of the resin composite. It is conclude with enamel treatment with NaOCl increased bonding strength of brackets bonded with GIC and RMGIC, but increased bond strength was not statistically significant when compared to the untreated groups. PMID:22379131

Pereira, Tatiana Bahia Junqueira; Jansen, Wellington Corrêa; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Souki, Bernardo Quiroga; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

2013-08-01

70

Fluoride release and uptake from glass ionomer cements and composite resins.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to evaluate fluoride release and uptake from 4 glass ionomer cements (GICs)--Vitremer (VIT), Fuji II LC (FII LC), Fuji IX (FIX), Chelon Fill (CHE)--and 2 composite resins (CRs)--Heliomolar (H) and Zeta-100 (Z-100). Eight discs (8 mm x 2 mm) were made of each material and were stored in plastic vials containing artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. In group 1 (N = 3), the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva which was changed daily for 25 days. In group 2 (N = 5), besides receiving the same treatment as group 1, the specimens were immersed, after 24 hours, in a fluoride solution (1% NaF) for 1 min before daily saliva change. An ion-specific electrode (9609 BN-Orion) connected to an ion analyzer (SA-720 Procyon) was used to determine the amount of fluoride released at days 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25. Data were analyzed using two way ANOVA and Friedman's test. GICs released more fluoride during the first day and after this period the mean fluoride released decreased. Composite resin H released fluoride during the first day only and Z-100 did not release fluoride. In terms of NaF treatment, CRs did not show fluoride uptake, whereas the GICs showed fluoride uptake (VIT = FII LC = CHE > FIX). PMID:11210268

Weidlich, P; Miranda, L A; Maltz, M; Samuel, S M

2000-01-01

71

Bonding of dual-cured resin cement to zirconia ceramic using phosphate acid ester monomer and zirconate coupler.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the shear bond strength between dual-cured resin luting cement and pure zirconium (99.9%) and industrially manufactured yttrium-oxide-partially-stabilized zirconia ceramic, and the effect of MDP (10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate) primer (MP) and zirconate coupler (ZC) on bond strength. Two different-shaped pure zirconium and zirconia ceramic specimens were untreated or treated with various primers, including different concentrations of MP containing phosphoric acid ester monomer (MDP) in ethanol, ZC containing a zirconate coupling agent in ethanol, or a mixture of MP and ZC. The specimens were then cemented together with dual-cured resin luting cement (Clapearl DC). Half of the specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 h and the other half were thermocycled 10,000 times before shear bond strength testing. The bond strengths of resin luting cement to both the zirconium and zirconia ceramic were enhanced by the application of most MPs, ZCs, and the mixtures of MP and ZC. For the group (MP2.0+ZC1.0) containing 2.0 wt % MP and 1.0 wt % ZC, no significant difference was observed between in shear bond strength before and after thermal cycling for both zirconium and zirconia ceramic (p > 0.05). For the other primers, statistically significant differences in shear bond strength before and after thermal cycling were observed (p < 0.05). The application of the mixture of MP and ZC (MP2.0+ZC1.0) was effective for bonding between zirconia ceramic and dual-cured resin luting cement. This primer may be clinically useful as an adhesive primer for zirconia ceramic restoration. PMID:16193486

Yoshida, Keiichi; Tsuo, Yukiko; Atsuta, Mitsuru

2006-04-01

72

Shear Bond Strength of Calcium Enriched Mixture Cement and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate to Composite Resin with Two Different Adhesive Systems  

PubMed Central

Objective: Immediate restoration after vital pulp therapy is essential in order to create and maintain effective coronal seal. Purpose of Study: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of recently used pulp capping materials: white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and calcium enriched mixture cement (CEM) to composite resin with the use of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems and compare them with the bond strength of commonly used resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) cement. Materials and Methods: Forty specimens from each test material were fabricated, measuring 4 mm in diameter and 2 mm in depth. The specimens of each material were divided into 2 groups of 20 specimens according to the adhesive system (Single Bond vs. Clearfil SE Bond) used for bonding of resin composite. The shear bond strength values were measured at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min and fractured surfaces were examined. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey’s test (P<0.05). Results: Analysis of data showed a significantly higher bond strength for RMGI compared to MTA and CEM (P<0.001); however, no significant differences were observed in the bond strength values of MTA and CEM (P=0.9). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in relation to the type of the adhesive system irrespective of the type of the material used (P=0.95) All the failures were of cohesive type in RMGI, MTA and CEM. Conclusion: Bond strength of RMGI cement to composite resin was higher than that of MTA or CEM cement irrespective of the type of the adhesive system.

Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Bahari, Mahmoud; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Motahhari, Paria; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Asgary, Saeed

2014-01-01

73

Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Self Adhesive Composite Resin Cements by Dentin Barrier Test on 3D Pulp Cells  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of five self-etch dental composite resin cements on the cell viability of bovine dental papilla-derived cells. Methods: The cytotoxicity of composite resin cements (Rely X Unicem Clicker, 3M ESPE; MaxCem; KERR, Panavia F 2.0; Kuraray, BisCem; Bisco and Bistite II DC; Tokuyama) was analyzed in a dentin barrier test device using three-dimensional (3D) pulp cell cultures. A commercially available cell culture perfusion chamber was separated into two compartments by 500 ?m dentin disc. The three dimensional cultures placed on a dentin disk held in place by a special biocompatible stainless-steel holder. Test materials were introduced into the upper compartment in direct contact with the cavity side of the dentin disks according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Subsequently, the pulpal part of the perfusion chamber containing the cell cultures was perfused with medium (2 ml/h). After an exposure period of 24 h, the cell survival was determined by the MTT assay. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: In dentin barrier test, cell survival was similar with Maxcem and negative control group (P>.05), and all other tested materials were cytotoxic for the three dimensional cell cultures (P>.05). Conclusions: The significance of composite resin cements is being more important in dentistry. The cytotoxic potencies demonstrated by these materials might be of clinical relevance. Some composite resin cements include biologically active ingredients and may modify pulp cell metabolism when the materials are used in deep cavities or directly contact pulp tissue. PMID:19421392

Ulker, Hayriye Esra; Sengun, Abdulkadir

2009-01-01

74

Modelling of the interaction between chemical and mechanical behaviour of ion exchange resins incorporated into a cement-based matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a predictive model, based on experimental data, to determine the macroscopic mechanical behavior of a material made up of ion exchange resins solidified into a CEM III cement paste. Some observations have shown that in some cases, a significant macroscopic expansion of this composite material may be expected, due to internal pressures generated in the resin. To build the model, we made the choice to break down the problem in two scale's studies. The first deals with the mechanical behavior of the different heterogeneities of the composite, i.e. the resin and the cement paste. The second upscales the information from the heterogeneities to the Representative Elementary Volume (REV) of the composite. The heterogeneities effects are taken into account in the REV by applying a homogenization method derived from the Eshelby theory combined with an interaction coefficient drawn from the poroelasticity theory. At the first scale, from the second thermodynamic law, a formulation is developed to estimate the resin microscopic swelling. The model response is illustrated on a simple example showing the impact of the calculated internal pressure, on the macroscopic strain.

Neji, M.; Bary, B.; Burlion, N.; Le Bescop, P.

2013-07-01

75

Effect of antioxidants on push-out bond strength of hydrogen peroxide treated glass fiber posts bonded with two types of resin cement  

PubMed Central

Objectives Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) surface treatment of fiber posts has been reported to increase bond strength of fiber posts to resin cements. However, residual oxygen radicals might jeopardize the bonding procedure. This study examined the effect of three antioxidant agents on the bond strength of fiber posts to conventional and self-adhesive resin cements. Materials and Methods Post spaces were prepared in forty human maxillary second premolars. Posts were divided into five groups of 8 each: G1 (control), no pre-treatment; G2, 10% H2O2 pre-treatment; G3, G4 and G5. After H2O2 application, Hesperidin (HES), Sodium Ascorbate (SA) or Rosmarinic acid (RA) was applied on each group respectively. In each group four posts were cemented with Duo-Link conventional resin cement and the others with self-adhesive BisCem cement. Push-out test was performed and data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and tukey's post-hoc test (? = 0.05). Results There was a statistically significant interaction between the cement type and post surface treatment on push-out bond strength of fiber posts (p < 0.001, F = 16). Also it was shown that different posts' surface treatments significantly affect the push-out bond strength of fiber posts (p = 0.001). H2O2 treated posts (G2) and control posts (G1) cemented with Duo-link showed the highest (15.96 ± 5.07MPa) and lowest bond strengths (6.79 ± 3.94) respectively. Conclusions It was concluded that H2O2 surface treatment might enhance the bond strength of fiber posts cemented with conventional resin cements. The effect of antioxidants as post's surface treatment agents depends on the characteristics of resin cements used for bonding procedure. PMID:25383350

Khoroushi, Maryam; Mazaheri, Hamid; Tarighi, Pardis; Samimi, Pouran

2014-01-01

76

Efficiency of the Dual-Cured Resin Cement Polymerization Induced by High-Intensity LED Curing Units Through Ceramic Material.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Objective : This study aimed to evaluate the ability of high-intensity light-emitting diode (LED) and other curing units to cure dual-cured resin cement through ceramic material. Methods : A halogen curing unit (Jetlite 3000, Morita), a second-generation LED curing unit (Demi, Kerr), and two high-intensity LED curing units (PenCure 2000, Morita; Valo, Ultradent) were tested. Feldspathic ceramic plates (VITABLOCS Mark II, A3; Vita Zahnfabrik) with thicknesses of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mm were prepared. Dual-cured resin cement samples (Clearfil Esthetic Cement, Kuraray Noritake Dental) were irradiated directly or through one of the ceramic plates for different periods (5, 10, 15, or 20 seconds for the high-intensity LED units and 20, 40, 60, or 80 seconds for the others). The Knoop hardness test was used to determine the level of photopolymerization that had been induced in the resin cement. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Dunnett's post-hoc test to identify test-control (maximum irradiation without a ceramic plate) differences for each curing unit (p<0.05). Results : For all curing units, the curing conditions had a statistically significant effect on the Knoop hardness numbers (KHNs) of the irradiated cement samples (p<0.001). In general, the KHN decreased with increasing plate thickness and increased as the irradiation period was extended. Jetlite 3000 achieved control-level KHN values only when the plate thickness was 1.0 mm. At a plate thickness ?2.0 mm, the LED units (except for PenCure 2000 at 3.0 mm) were able to achieve control-level KHN values when the irradiation time was extended. At a plate thickness of 3.0 mm, irradiation for 20 seconds with the Valo or for 80 seconds with the Demi were the only methods that produced KHN values equivalent to those produced by direct irradiation. Conclusion : Regardless of the type of curing unit used, indirect irradiation of dual-cured resin cement through a ceramic plate resulted in decreased KHN values compared with direct irradiation. When the irradiation period was extended, only the LED units were able to achieve similar KHN values to those observed under direct irradiation in the presence of plates ?2.0-mm thick. High-intensity LED units require a shorter irradiation period than halogen and second-generation LED curing units to obtain KHN values similar to those observed during direct irradiation. PMID:25136906

Watanabe, H; Kazama, Re; Asai, T; Kanaya, F; Ishizaki, H; Fukushima, M; Okiji, T

2014-08-19

77

Do blood contamination and haemostatic agents affect microtensile bond strength of dual cured resin cement to dentin?  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of blood contamination and haemostatic agents such as Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the microtensile bond strength between dual cured resin cement-dentin interface. Material and Methods: Twelve pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramics were luted to flat occlusal dentin surfaces with Panavia F under the following conditions: Control Group: no contamination, Group Blood: blood contamination, Group ABS: ABS contamination Group H2O2: H2O2 contamination. The specimens were sectioned to the beams and microtensile testing was carried out. Failure modes were classified under stereomicroscope. Two specimens were randomly selected from each group, and SEM analyses were performed. Results: There were significant differences in microtensile bond strengths (µTBS) between the control and blood-contaminated groups (p<0.05), whereas there were no significant differences found between the control and the other groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Contamination by blood of dentin surface prior to bonding reduced the bond strength between resin cement and the dentin. Ankaferd Blood Stoper and H2O2 could be used safely as blood stopping agents during cementation of all-ceramics to dentin to prevent bond failure due to blood contamination. PMID:23559118

K?L?C, Kerem; ARSLAN, Soley; DEMETOGLU, Goknil Alkan; ZARARSIZ, Gokmen; KES?M, Bulent

2013-01-01

78

Degree of conversion of two dual-cured resin cements light-irradiated through zirconia ceramic disks  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The aim of this Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic study was to measure the degree of conversion (DC) of dual-cured resin cements light-irradiated through zirconia ceramic disks with different thicknesses using various light-curing methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS Zirconia ceramic disks (KT12) with three different thicknesses (1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mm) were prepared. The light transmittance of the disks was measured using ultraviolet visible near-infrared spectroscopy. Four different light-curing protocols were used by combining two curing light modes (Elipar TriLight (standard mode) and bluephase G2 (high power mode)) with light-exposure times of 40 and 120 seconds. The DCs of the two dual-cured resin cements (Duo-Link and Panavia F2.0) light-irradiated through the disks was analyzed at three time intervals (3, 7, and 10 minutes) by FTIR spectroscopy. The data was analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA (?=.05).Two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test were used to analyze the 10 minute DC results. RESULTS The 1.0 mm thick disk exhibited low light transmittance (<25%), and the transmittance decreased considerably with increasing disk thickness. All groups exhibited significantly higher 10 minute DC values than the 3 or 7 minute values (P<.05), but some exceptions were observed in Duo-Link. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the influence of the zirconia disk thickness on the 10 minute DC was dependent on the light-curing methods (P<.001). This finding was still valid even at 4.0 mm thickness, where substantial light attenuation took place. CONCLUSION The curing of the dual-cured resin cements was affected significantly by the light-curing technique, even though the additional chemical polymerization mechanism worked effectively. PMID:24353887

Kim, Min-Jeong; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kim, Young-Kyung

2013-01-01

79

Influence of glass particle size of resin cements on bonding to glass ceramic: SEM and bond strength evaluation.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of the filler particle size (micron or submicron) of experimental resin cements on the microtensile bond strength to a glass-ceramic pretreated with hydrofluoric acid (HFA) etching or alumina airborne-particle abrasion (AA). Cements were obtained from a Bis-GMA/TEGDMA mixture filled with 60 mass% micron-sized (1?±?0.2 µm) or submicron-sized (180?±?30 µm) Ba-Si-Al glass particles. Ceramic blocks (PM9; VITA) were treated with 10% HFA for 60 s or AA for 15 s. Silane and adhesive were applied. Ceramic blocks were bonded to resin composite blocks (Z250; 3M ESPE) using one of the cements. Bonded specimens were sectioned into beams (n?=?20/group) and subjected to microtensile bond strength tests. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls' tests (5%). Failure modes were classified under magnification. Morphologies of the treated ceramic surfaces and bonded interfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The HFA-submicron group had lower bond strengths than the other groups. All AA-submicron specimens debonded prematurely. Mixed failures were predominant for HFA groups, whereas interfacial failures predominated for AA groups. SEM revealed a honeycomb-like aspect in the HFA-treated ceramic, whereas the AA-treated groups showed an irregular retentive pattern. Continuity of cement infiltration along the bonded interface was more uniform for HFA-treated compared to AA-treated specimens. Cracks toward the bulk of the ceramic were observed in AA-treated specimens. Particle size significantly influenced the ceramic bond strength, whereas surface treatment had a minor effect. PMID:24610793

Valentini, Fernanda; Moraes, Rafael R; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Boscato, Noéli

2014-05-01

80

An effect of immediate dentin sealing on the shear bond strength of resin cement to porcelain restoration  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine differences in shear bond strength to human dentin using immediate dentin sealing (IDS) technique compared to delayed dentin sealing (DDS). MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty extracted human molars were divided into 4 groups with 10 teeth each. The control group was light-cured after application of dentin bonding agent (Excite® DSC) and cemented with Variolink® II resin cement. IDS/SE (immediate dentin sealing, Clearfil™ SE Bond) and IDS/SB (immediate dentin sealing, AdapterTM Single Bond 2) were light-cured after application of dentin bonding agent (Clearfil™ SE Bond and Adapter™ Sing Bond 2, respectively), whereas DDS specimens were not treated with any dentin bonding agent. Specimens were cemented with Variolink® II resin cement. Dentin bonding agent (Excite® DSC) was left unpolymerized until the application of porcelain restoration. Shear strength was measured using a universal testing machine at a speed of 5 mm/min and evaluated of fracture using an optical microscope. RESULTS The mean shear bond strengths of control group and IDS/SE group were not statistically different from another at 14.86 and 11.18 MPa. Bond strength of IDS/SE group had a significantly higher mean than DDS group (3.14 MPa) (P < .05). There were no significance in the mean shear bond strength between IDS/SB (4.11 MPa) and DDS group. Evaluation of failure patterns indicates that most failures in the control group and IDS/SE groups were mixed, whereas failures in the DDS were interfacial. CONCLUSION When preparing teeth for indirect ceramic restoration, IDS with Clearfil™ SE Bond results in improved shear bond strength compared with DDS. PMID:21165186

Cho, In-Ho

2010-01-01

81

Long Term Water Storage Deteriorates Bonding of Composite Resin to Alumina and Zirconia Short Communication  

PubMed Central

Objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of long term water storage and ageing on the bond strength of resin composite cement to yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide (zirconia) and dialuminium trioxide (alumina). Substrate specimens of alumina and zirconia were air particle abraded with dialuminium trioxide before priming and application of composite resin. Priming was made with gamma metharyloxy-trimethoxysilane or acryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane monomer after which the intermediate dimethacrylate resin was applied and photopolymerized. This was followed by curing particulate composite resin cement (Relyx ARC) to the substrate as a resin stub. The ageing methods of the specimens (n=6) were: (1) they stored four years in 37±1ºC distilled water, (2) thermocycled 8000 times between 55±1ºC and 5±1ºC, (3) stored first in water for four years and then thermocycled. Specimens which were stored dry, were used as controls. Bonding of composite resin was measured by shear-bond strength test set-up. Both thermocycling and long-term water storage decreased significantly shear bond strength values compared to the control group (from the level of 20 MPa to 5 MPa) regardless of the used primer or the type of the substrate. Combination of four years water storage and thermocyling reduced the bond strength even more, to the level of two to three megapascals. In can be concluded that water storage and thermocycling itselves, and especially combination of water storage and thermocycling can cause considerable reduction in the bond strength of composite resin cement to alumina and zirconia. PMID:24167535

Heikkinen, T.T.; Matinlinna, J.P; Vallittu, P.K.; Lassila, L.V.J.

2013-01-01

82

Effect of Light Intensity on the Degree of Conversion of Dual-cured Resin Cement at Different Depths with the use of Translucent Fiber Posts  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of different light intensities on the degree of conversion (DC) of dual-cured resin cement at different depths of translucent fiber posts. Materials and Methods: Thirty translucent fiber posts were randomly assigned into three (n=10) groups. They were cemented in the simulated canal spaces using Duo-Link dual-cured resin cement. The cement was light-cured under 600, 800 and 1100 mW/cm2 light intensities for 40 seconds. DC of the resin cement was calculated at cervical, middle and apical thirds using the spectra of FT-Raman spectrometer. Data were analyzed by repeated measurement ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc tests (?=0.05). Results: In all the groups, the least DC was obtained at the apical region. There were no significant differences in the DC with different light intensities between the cervical and middle regions (p>0.05). However, in the apical region, the DC in both 800 and 1100 mw/cm2 was similar (p>0.05), but greater with 600 mW/cm2 light intensity (p=0.02 and p<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: In comparison with the light intensity of 600 mW/cm2, the light intensity of 800 mW/cm2 significantly increased the DC of dual-cured resin cement in the apical region. However, DC was not significantly different between 800 and 1100 mw/cm2 light intensities. If the resin cement, especially in the apical areas is not sufficiently cured, microleakage might increase and post retention might be jeopardized. In comparison with 600 mW/cm2 light intensity, 800 mW/cm2 significantly increases DC at the apical third that might be clinically beneficial.

Bahari, Mahmoud; Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Mohammadi, Narmin; Saati Khosroshahi, Elmira

2014-01-01

83

THE USE OF GLYCOL-PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE RESIN AS A HIGH-VACUUM CEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using ethylene glycol-phthalic anhydride resin to seal the top of a camera box in a magnetic spectrograph it was found that a high vacuum could be obtained after pumping a short time. The preparation of the resin and its characteristics are described.

T. P. Sager; R. G. Kennedy

1931-01-01

84

Extraction of heavy metal ions from leachate of cement-based stabilized waste using purpurin functionalized resin.  

PubMed

A new chelating resin was synthesized by functionalization of a polymer support, Amberlite XAD-2 with purpurin through an azo linkage (NN). The products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The optimum conditions for the extraction of Cd(II), Cr(III) and Pb(II) in two matrices; leachate from cement-based material and de-ionized water, were studied by batch and column methods. The determination of the metal ions was carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimum pH for the extraction of all metal ions in both matrices were at 4.0. Their sorption equilibrium was reached within 1h. The sorbed Cd(II) and Pb(II) were eluted by 1% HNO3 within 10 min with the desorption recovery of >90%. The elution of Cr(III) by 3% H2O2 in 0.1 M NaOH was achieved within 30 min with the desorption recovery of >80%. The sorption capacity of Cd(II), Cr(III) and Pb(II) onto the resin was 75.0, 68.2, 82.7 micromol g(-1) resin in DI water and 54.1, 46.5 and 55.7 micromol g(-1) resin in leachate, respectively. The extraction efficiency in the column method can be improved using the recirculation system. This new method gave a good accuracy in batch system with the recovery of 86.5 and 89.9% for Cd(II) and Pb(II) and R.S.D. less than 2.3% (n=14). PMID:18055108

Wongkaew, Marisa; Imyim, Apichat; Eamchan, Ponwason

2008-06-15

85

The effect of disk type and cutting speed on the micro-tensile bond strength of ceramic specimens to resin cement.  

PubMed

The bond strength of dental materials has been evaluated by tensile testing of micro-specimens. The cutting process used to obtain specimens may influence the results. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different types of diamond disks and cutting speeds on the bond strength of ceramic specimens and on specimen integrity. Lithium disilicate-based ceramic cubes were bonded with resin cement to composite resin cubes, according to the manufacturers' instructions. The ceramic/cement/resin blocks thus obtained were divided into two groups to be cut with Buehler(®) or Extec(®) disks and then sectioned at cutting speeds of 200 rpm and 400 rpm. The results showed that the bond strength values were affected by the cutting speed and disk/speed interaction (p<0.05). SEM analysis revealed better specimen properties when the blocks were cut at 200 rpm. It was concluded that ceramic specimens must be cut at low speeds. PMID:25311334

Castro, Martha C C; Sadek, Fernanda T; Batitucci, Eduardo; Miranda, Mauro S

2014-12-01

86

Effects of multipurpose, universal adhesives on resin bonding to zirconia ceramic.  

PubMed

SUMMARY This study evaluated the effects of single-bottle, multipurpose, universal adhesives on the bond strength of resin cement to zirconia ceramic. Polished zirconia ceramic (Cercon base) discs were randomly divided into four groups (n=40) according to the applied surface-conditioning agent: Single Bond 2, Single Bond Universal, All-Bond Universal, and Alloy Primer. Cured composite cylinders (Ø 0.8 mm × 1 mm) were cemented to the conditioned zirconia specimens with resin cement (RelyX ARC). The bonded specimens were subjected to a microshear bond-strength test after 24 hours of water storage and after 10,000 cycles of thermocycling. The surface-conditioning agent significantly influenced the bond strength (p<0.05). Single Bond Universal showed the highest initial bond strength (37.7 ± 5.1 MPa), followed by All-Bond Universal (31.3 ± 5.6 MPa), Alloy Primer (26.9 ± 5.1 MPa), and Single Bond 2 (8.5 ± 4.6 MPa). Artificial aging significantly reduced the bond strengths of all the test groups (p<0.05). After 10,000 cycles of thermocycling, All-Bond Universal showed the highest bond-strength value (26.9 ± 6.4 MPa). Regardless of artificial aging, Single Bond Universal and All-Bond Universal showed significantly higher bond strengths than Alloy Primer, a conventional metal primer. PMID:25084107

Kim, J-H; Chae, S-Y; Lee, Y; Han, G-J; Cho, B-H

2015-01-01

87

Effect of reduced exposure times on the cytotoxicity of resin luting cements cured by high-power led  

PubMed Central

Objective Applications of resin luting agents and high-power light-emitting diodes (LED) light-curing units (LCUs) have increased considerably over the last few years. However, it is not clear whether the effect of reduced exposure time on cytotoxicity of such products have adequate biocompatibility to meet clinical success. This study aimed at assessing the effect of reduced curing time of five resin luting cements (RLCs) polymerized by high-power LED curing unit on the viability of a cell of L-929 fibroblast cells. Material and Methods Disc-shaped samples were prepared in polytetrafluoroethylene moulds with cylindrical cavities. The samples were irradiated from the top through the ceramic discs and acetate strips using LED LCU for 20 s (50% of the manufacturer's recommended exposure time) and 40 s (100% exposure time). After curing, the samples were transferred into a culture medium for 24 h. The eluates were obtained and pipetted onto L-929 fibroblast cultures (3x104 per well) and incubated for evaluating after 24 h. Measurements were performed by dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium assay. Statistical significance was determined by two-way ANOVA and two independent samples were compared by t-test. Results Results showed that eluates of most of the materials polymerized for 20 s (except Rely X Unicem and Illusion) reduced to a higher extent cell viability compared to samples of the same materials polymerized for 40 s. Illusion exhibited the least cytotoxicity for 20 s exposure time compared to the control (culture without samples) followed by Rely X Unicem and Rely X ARC (90.81%, 88.90%, and 83.11%, respectively). For Rely X ARC, Duolink and Lute-It 40 s exposure time was better (t=-1.262 p=0,276; t=-9.399 p=0.001; and t=-20.418 p<0.001, respectively). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that reduction of curing time significantly enhances the cytotoxicity of the studied resin cement materials, therefore compromising their clinical performance. PMID:21625748

ERGUN, Gulfem; EGILMEZ, Ferhan; YILMAZ, Sukran

2011-01-01

88

An in vitro Comparative Evaluation of Micro Tensile Bond Strength of Two metal bonding Resin Cements bonded to Cobalt Chromium alloy  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the micro tensile bond strength of two metal bonding resin cements to sandblasted cobalt chromium alloy. Materials & Methods: Eight, Cobalt chromium alloy blocks of dimensions 10x5x5 mm were cast, finished and polished. One of the faces of each alloy block measuring 5x5mm was sandblasted with 50 ?m grit alumina particles. The alloy blocks were then cleaned in an ultrasonic cleaner for 1 min and then air dried with an air stream. The Sandblasted surfaces of the two alloy blocks were bonded together with 2 different metal bonding resin systems (Panavia F Kuraray and DTK Kleber – Bredent). The samples were divided into 2 groups (n=4). Group 1- Two Co-Cr blocks were luted with Panavia cement. Group 2- Two Co-Cr blocks were luted with DTK Kleber-Bredent cement. The bonded samples were cut with a diamond saw to prepare Microtensile bars of approximately 1mm x 1mm x 6mm. Thirty bars from each group were randomly separated into 2 subgroups (n=15) and left for 3hrs (baseline) as per manufacturer's instructions while the other group was aged for 24hrs in 370C water, prior to loading to failure under tension at a cross head speed of 1mm/min. Failure modes were determined by means of stereomicroscopy (sm). Statistical analysis was performed through one way – ANOVA. Results: Significant variation in micro-tensile bond strength was observed between the two metal bonding resin systems. Conclusion: DTK showed higher mean bond strength values than Panavia F cement both at baseline and after aging. How to cite this article: Musani S, Musani I, Dugal R, Habbu N, Madanshetty P, Virani D. An in vitro Comparative Evaluation of Micro Tensile Bond Strength of Two metal bonding Resin Cements bonded to Cobalt Chromium alloy. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(5):73-8. PMID:24324308

Musani, Smita; Musani, Iqbal; Dugal, Ramandeep; Habbu, Nitin; Madanshetty, Pallavi; Virani, Danish

2013-01-01

89

Bond Strength of Two Resin Cements to Dentin After Disinfection Pretreatment: Effects of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Compared with Chemical Antibacterial Agent  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective: This study compared the effects of two disinfection procedures (2% chlorhexidine [CHX] solution versus Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation) on the shear bond strength of ED primer II/Panavia F2.0 (ED/P) and Excite DSC/Variolink N (Ex/V). Background data: Different methods are used for cavity disinfection prior to adhesive cementation, which may influence the bonding ability of resin cements. Methods: Flat dentin surfaces were prepared on 100 extracted premolars and randomly divided into 10 groups. In the eight experimental groups, indirect composite samples were cemented with either ED/P or Ex/V under three disinfecting conditions on the dentin surface as follows: (1) CHX application before ED primer II/ after etching, (2) wet laser irradiation (Er,Cr:YSGG laser, 20?Hz, 0.75?W, 15% water +15% air), (3) dry laser irradiation with no water and air cooling. The control groups had no disinfectant application. After 24?h water storage, bond strength test was performed. The data (MPa) were analyzed using two way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The lowest and highest bond strengths were obtained by dry laser and wet laser (10.18±2.67 and 17.36±2.94 for ED/P, 9.64±2.66 and 20.07±3.36 for Ex/V, respectively). For each cement, two-by-two comparisons of four groups revealed significant differences only for dry laser with others (p<0.001). Conclusions: The use of CHX and Er,Cr:YSGG laser at the low fluences with water/air cooling as the antibacterial agents does not adversely influence the bonding ability of the etch-and-rinse and the self-etch cements. PMID:23600378

Shafiei, Fereshteh; Fekrazad, Reza; Shafiei, Ehsan

2013-01-01

90

Effect of Four Surface Treatment Methods on the Shear Bond Strength of Resin Cement to Zirconia Ceramics- A Comparative in Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Improving the retention of zirconia-based ceramics is desirable in order to avoid the failure of crowns and fixed partial dentures .This can be achieved by creating micromechanical retention using surface treatments. Therefore, it becomes necessary to constantly compare and re-evaluate the influence of different surface treatment methods on the bond strength . Aim: To evaluate the effect of four different surface treatments on shear bond strength between zirconia surface and resin cements. Settings and Design: Observational study. Materials and Methods: Twenty five zirconia plate samples were prepared based on ISO standards and were divided into five groups and each group was subjected to following five different surface treatments : no treatment, sandblasting with 110 ?m alumina, sandblasting with 250 ?m alumina, acid etching with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid and laser radiation on the surface. All the samples were surface disinfected and were embedded in blocks of autopolymerising resin to check shear bond strength on the universal testing machine. Statistical analysis used-data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and a Post Hoc Bonferroni test. Results: Analysis of the data showed that the highest shear bond strength values were obtained with laser treatment (18.120 ± 0.8159 Mpa). The lowest values were obtained with control group (9.166 ± 0.569 Mpa). Laser treatment increased the shear bond strength values significantly (p<0.05). Conclusion: Surface treatments increased the bond strength between zirconia and resin cement and carbon dioxide laser could be an effective surface treatment for increasing bond strength. PMID:25386526

Manoharan; Balaji; Livingstone, David

2014-01-01

91

Degree of conversion of luting resins around ceramic inlays in natural deep cavities: a micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the degree of conversion (%DC) of luting agents around ceramic inlays placed in deep natural cavities. Thirty-six cylindrical Class I cavities (diameter = 4 mm, depth = 4 mm) were prepared in freshly extracted human teeth and randomly divided according to the luting materials used for luting CAD/CAM fabricated inlays (Empress CAD). The dual-cure resin cements Clearfil Esthetic Cement and Variolink II Low and the light-cure composites Grandio Flow and Grandio were luted using the total-etch technique. The self-adhesive dual-cure cements RelyX Unicem and Maxcem Elite were used as recommended by the manufacturer. All of the restorations were photo-activated using a quartz halogen unit (Elipar TriLight; 750 mW/cm2) for 40 seconds. After 24 hour dry-storage in the dark, all the teeth were vertically sectioned into two halves (n = 12 per group) using a slow-speed diamond-saw in the bucco-vestibular direction under constant water lubrication to avoid specimen heating. The DC of the luting materials was measured by vibrational spectroscopy using a micro-Raman spectrometer at depths of 1, 3 and 4 mm on each side of the tooth halves (n = 24). Disc-shaped samples were produced for measurement of the maximum %DC of each material. Two-way ANOVA and the Student-Newman-Keuls post-hoc test were used in the statistical analysis (alpha = 0.05). All the materials showed no statistical differences in degree of conversion at all tested depths, except for Grandio Flow and Maxcem Elite. Dual-cure and light-cure luting materials showed polymerization homogeneity around ceramic inlays, although dual-cure conventional resin cements tended to show an overall higher conversion. PMID:20945750

Lohbauer, Ulrich; Pelka, Matthias; Belli, Renan; Schmitt, Johannes; Mocker, Eike; Jandt, Klaus D; Müller, Frank A

2010-01-01

92

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of a Novel Resin-Based Pulp Capping Material Containing the Quaternary Ammonium Salt MAE-DB and Portland Cement  

PubMed Central

Background Vital pulp preservation in the treatment of deep caries is challenging due to bacterial infection. The objectives of this study were to synthesize a novel, light-cured composite material containing bioactive calcium-silicate (Portland cement, PC) and the antimicrobial quaternary ammonium salt monomer 2-methacryloxylethyl dodecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-DB) and to evaluate its effects on Streptococcus mutans growth in vitro. Methods The experimental material was prepared from a 2?1 ratio of PC mixed with a resin of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, bisphenol glycerolate dimethacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (4?3?1) containing 5 wt% MAE-DB. Cured resin containing 5% MAE-DB without PC served as the positive control material, and resin without MAE-DB or PC served as the negative control material. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium hydroxide (Dycal) served as commercial controls. S. mutans biofilm formation on material surfaces and growth in the culture medium were tested according to colony-forming units (CFUs) and metabolic activity after 24 h incubation over freshly prepared samples or samples aged in water for 6 months. Biofilm formation was also assessed by Live/Dead staining and scanning electron microscopy. Results S. mutans biofilm formation on the experimental material was significantly inhibited, with CFU counts, metabolic activity, viability staining, and morphology similar to those of biofilms on the positive control material. None of the materials affected bacterial growth in solution. Contact-inhibition of biofilm formation was retained by the aged experimental material. Significant biofilm formation was observed on MTA and Dycal. Conclusion The synthesized material containing HEMA-BisGMA-TEGDMA resin with MAE-DB as the antimicrobial agent and PC to support mineralized tissue formation inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation even after aging in water for 6 months, but had no inhibitory effect on bacteria in solution. Therefore, this material shows promise as a pulp capping material for vital pulp preservation in the treatment of deep caries. PMID:25389975

Zhang, Hongchen; Zhou, Wei; Ban, Jinghao; Wei, Jingjing; Liu, Yan; Gao, Jing; Chen, Jihua

2014-01-01

93

The Effect of Sandblasting and Different Primers on Shear Bond Strength Between Yttria-tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystal Ceramic and a Self-adhesive Resin Cement.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Purpose : To evaluate the effect of zirconia primers, air-abrasion, and tribochemical surface treatment methods on the shear bond strength between yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) ceramic and self-adhesive resin cement. Methods and Materials : Y-TZP ceramic surfaces were ground flat with 600-grit silicon carbide paper and then divided into seven groups of 10 and treated as follows: untreated (control), Monobond Plus, Z-PRIME Plus, ESPE Sil with CoJet, air-abrasion, Monobond Plus with air-abrasion, and Z-PRIME Plus with air-abrasion. Self-adhesive resin cement was placed onto the treated Y-TZP specimens for each group. All specimens were thermocycled and subjected to a shear bond strength test. Scanning electron microscope images of the fractured areas and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the surface-treated Y-TZP specimens were performed. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test (p<0.05). Results : The Z-PRIME Plus treatment in combination with air-abrasion produced the highest bond strength (16.50±2.26 MPa), followed by air-abrasion (10.56±3.32 MPa), and then Monobond Plus combined with air-abrasion (8.93±3.13 MPa), ESPE Sil after CoJet application (8.54±3.98 MPa), and the Z-PRIME Plus group (8.27±2.79 MPa). The control (3.91±0.72 MPa) and Monobond Plus (4.86±1.77 MPa) groups indicated the lowest results (p<0.05). The XRD results showed the peaks of the monoclinic phase for the air-abrasion and CoJet treatment groups compared with the Y-TZP control. Conclusion : Z-PRIME Plus primer application after air-abrasion presented the best results for improving the bond strength between Y-TZP ceramic and self-adhesive resin cement. PMID:25084110

Yi, Y-A; Ahn, J-S; Park, Y-J; Jun, S-H; Lee, I-B; Cho, B-H; Son, H-H; Seo, D-G

2015-01-01

94

Residual HEMA and TEGDMA release and cytotoxicity evaluation of resin-modified glass ionomer cement and compomers cured with different light sources.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was first to evaluate the elution of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers from resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) and compomers cured with halogen and light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing units (LCUs). The effect of cured materials on the viability of L929 fibroblast cells was also evaluated. One RMGIC (Ketac N100) and two compomers (Dyract Extra and Twinkystar) were tested. Materials were prepared in teflon disks and light-cured with LED or halogen LCUs. The residual monomers of resin materials in solution were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. The fibroblast cells' viability was analyzed using MTT assay. The type of LCU did not have a significant effect on the elution of HEMA and TEGDMA. A greater amount of HEMA than TEGMDA was eluted. The amount of TEGDMA eluted from Twinkystar was greater than Dyract Extra (P < 0.05) when cured with a halogen LCU. All material-LCU combinations decreased the fibroblast cells' viability more than the control group (P < 0.01), except for Dyract Extra cured with a halogen LCU (P > 0.05). Curing with the LED LCU decreased the cells' viability more than curing with the halogen LCU for compomers. For Ketac N100, the halogen LCU decreased the cells' viability more than the LED LCU. PMID:24592149

Botsali, Murat Selim; Ku?göz, Adem; Altinta?, Subutay Han; Ülker, Hayriye Esra; Tanriver, Mehmet; Kiliç, Serdar; Ba?ak, Feridun; Ülker, Mustafa

2014-01-01

95

Residual HEMA and TEGDMA Release and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement and Compomers Cured with Different Light Sources  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was first to evaluate the elution of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers from resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) and compomers cured with halogen and light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing units (LCUs). The effect of cured materials on the viability of L929 fibroblast cells was also evaluated. One RMGIC (Ketac N100) and two compomers (Dyract Extra and Twinkystar) were tested. Materials were prepared in teflon disks and light-cured with LED or halogen LCUs. The residual monomers of resin materials in solution were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. The fibroblast cells' viability was analyzed using MTT assay. The type of LCU did not have a significant effect on the elution of HEMA and TEGDMA. A greater amount of HEMA than TEGMDA was eluted. The amount of TEGDMA eluted from Twinkystar was greater than Dyract Extra (P < 0.05) when cured with a halogen LCU. All material-LCU combinations decreased the fibroblast cells' viability more than the control group (P < 0.01), except for Dyract Extra cured with a halogen LCU (P > 0.05). Curing with the LED LCU decreased the cells' viability more than curing with the halogen LCU for compomers. For Ketac N100, the halogen LCU decreased the cells' viability more than the LED LCU. PMID:24592149

Botsali, Murat Selim; Ku?göz, Adem; Altinta?, Subutay Han; Ülker, Hayriye Esra; Kiliç, Serdar; Ba?ak, Feridun; Ülker, Mustafa

2014-01-01

96

Evaluation of shear bond strength of two resin-based composites and glass ionomer cement to pure tricalcium silicate-based cement (Biodentine®)  

PubMed Central

Objectives Tricalcium silicate is the major constituent phase in mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). It is thus postulated that pure tricalcium silicate can replace the Portland cement component of MTA. The aim of this study was to evaluate bond strength of methacrylate-based (MB) composites, silorane-based (SB) composites, and glass ionomer cement (GIC) to Biodentine® and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Material and Methods Acrylic blocks (n=90, 2 mm high, 5 mm diameter central hole) were prepared. In 45 of the samples, the holes were fully filled with Biodentine® and in the other 45 samples, the holes were fully filled with MTA. The Biodentine® and the MTA samples were randomly divided into 3 subgroups of 15 specimens each: Group-1: MB composite; Group-2: SB composite; and Group-3: GIC. For the shear bond strength (SBS) test, each block was secured in a universal testing machine. Results The highest (17.7±6.2 MPa) and the lowest (5.8±3.2 MPa) bond strength values were recorded for the MB composite-Biodentine® and the GIC-MTA, respectively. Although the MB composite showed significantly higher bond strength to Biodentine (17.7±6.2) than it did to MTA (8.9±5.7) (p<0.001), the SB composite (SB and MTA=7.4±3.3; SB and Biodentine®=8.0±3,6) and GIC (GIC and MTA=5.8±3.2; GIC and Biodentine=6.7±2.6) showed similar bond strength performance with MTA compared with Biodentine (p=0.73 and p=0.38, respectively). Conclusions The new pure tricalcium-based pulp capping, repair, and endodontic material showed higher shear bond scores compared to MTA when used with the MB composite. PMID:25141202

CANTEK?N, Kenan; AVC?, Serap

2014-01-01

97

Benefits of a two-step cementation procedure for prefabricated fiber posts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine whether two-step cementation of prefabricated fiber posts leads to higher bond strengths. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight human canine teeth were divided into six groups and fiber posts were cemented with DC Core, RelyX Unicem and Panavia F2.0, according to a one-step or two-step procedure. Per root, four cross-sections were prepared. The differences in push-out strength between procedure,

L. A. Jongsma; P. B. Bolhuis; P. Pallav; A. J. Feilzer; C. J. Kleverlaan

2010-01-01

98

Effect of various surface conditioning methods on the adhesion of dual-cure resin cement with MDP functional monomer to zirconia after thermal aging.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effect of chairside and laboratory types of surface conditioning methods on the adhesion of dual-cure resin cement with MDP functional monomer to zirconia ceramic after thermocycling. Disk-shaped (diameter: 10 mm, thickness: 2 mm) Y-TZP ceramics (Lava, 3M ESPE) were used (N=40) and finished with wet 1200-grit silicon carbide abrasive paper. Specimens were randomly divided into four experimental groups according to the following surface conditioning methods (n=10 per group): Group 1--Chairside airborne particle abrasion with 50-microm Al2O2 + Alloy Primer (Kuraray); Group 2--Airborne particle abrasion with 50-microm Al2O3 + Cesead II Opaque Primer (Kuraray); Group 3--Airborne particle abrasion with 50-microm A12O3 + Silano-Pen + silane coupling agent (Bredent); Group 4--Laboratory tribochemical silica coating (110-microm Al2O3 + 110-microm SiOx) (Rocatec) + silane coupling agent (ESPE-Sil). Adhesive cement, Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray), was bonded incrementally to the ceramic surfaces using polyethylene molds (diameter: 3.6 mm, height: 5 mm). All specimens were thermocycled (5 and 55 degrees C, 6,000 cycles) and subjected to shear bond strength test (1 mm/min). Data were statistically analyzed (one-way ANOVA, alpha=0.05), whereby no significant differences were found among the four groups (8.43+/-1.3, 8.98+/-3.6, 12.02+/-6.7, and 8.23+/-3.8 MPa) (p=0.1357). Therefore, the performance of chairside conditioning methods used for zirconia was on par with the laboratory alternative tested. PMID:18309618

Ozcan, Mutlu; Nijhuis, Henk; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

2008-01-01

99

Structural and spatially resolved studies on the hardening of a commercial resin-modified glass-ionomer cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial photopolymerizable resin-modified glass-ionomer (Fuji II LC) was studied using a variety of nuclear magnetic\\u000a resonance (NMR) techniques. 1H and 19F stray-field imaging (STRAFI) enabled to follow the acid–base reaction kinetics in self-cured (SC) samples. Gelation and\\u000a maturation processes with 25 min and 40 h average time constants, respectively, were distinguished. In self- & photo-cured\\u000a (SPC) samples, two processes were also

Ricardo A. Pires; Christian Fernandez; Teresa G. Nunes

2007-01-01

100

Influence of air-abrasion executed with polyacrylic acid-Bioglass 45S5 on the bonding performance of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to test the microtensile bond strength (?TBS), after 6 months of storage in PBS, of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) bonded to dentine pretreated with Bioglass 45S5 (BAG) using various etching and air-abrasion techniques. The RMGIC (GC Fuji II LC) was applied onto differently treated dentine surfaces followed by light curing for 30 s. The specimens were cut into matchsticks with cross-sectional areas of 0.9 mm(2). The ?TBS of the specimens was measured after 24 h or 6 months of storage in PBS and the results were statistically analysed using two-way anova and the Student-Newman-Keuls test (? = 0.05). Further RMCGIC-bonded dentine specimens were used for interfacial characterization, micropermeability, and nanoleakage analyses by confocal microscopy. The RMGIC-dentine interface layer showed no water absorption after 6 months of storage in PBS except for the interdiffusion layer of the silicon carbide (SiC)-abraded/polyacrylic acid (PAA)-etched bonded dentine. The RMGIC applied onto dentine air-abraded with BAG/H(2)O only or with BAG/PAA-fluid followed by etching procedures (10% PAA gel) showed no statistically significant reduction in ?TBS after 6 months of storage in PBS. The abrasion procedures performed using BAG in combination with PAA might be a suitable strategy to enhance the bonding durability and the healing ability of RMGIC bonded to dentine. PMID:22409224

Sauro, Salvatore; Watson, Timothy F; Thompson, Ian; Toledano, Manuel; Nucci, Cesare; Banerjee, Avijit

2012-04-01

101

Crown and bridge cements: clinical applications.  

PubMed

Cement selection can be confusing because factors such as substrate, the type of restoration, and patient needs must be considered. Some substrates require additional treatment before cementation. This article describes the most commonly used traditional crown and bridge cements (GI and RMGI) used for metal and metal-ceramic restorations, and resin cements used for all-ceramic restorations. Advantages, disadvantages, indications, and contraindications of cements have been reviewed. Recommended uses of cements for metal, ceramic, and laboratory composite restorations have been presented. General guidelines for surface treatment ot silica- and zirconia-based restorations when using resin cements have been discussed. PMID:23350265

Bunek, Sabiha S; Powers, John M

2012-12-01

102

Retentive characteristics of dental cementation materials.  

PubMed

Glass ionomer, polycarboxylate, zinc phosphate, and two resin cements were tested in vitro to cement base and noble metal crowns to prepared extracted teeth. The cements had different retentive characteristics. Among cements, statistically significant tensile resistance to dislodgment in order of decreasing strength was: (1) C & B Metabond (resin); (2) Panavia (resin); (3) Fuji I (glass ionomer); (4) Durelon (polycarboxylate); and (5) Fleck's (zinc phosphate). Tensile resistance to dislodgment did not differ statistically among base and noble metal crowns cemented with glass ionomer, polycarboxylate, or zinc phosphate cements. Tensile resistance to dislodgment differed statistically among base and noble crowns cemented with the resin cements (C & B Metabond and Panavia); the base metal crowns had the highest rate of retention. PMID:23087930

Hunsaker, K J; Christensen, G J; Christensen, R P; Cao, D; Lewis, R G

1993-11-01

103

Thio-urethanes improve properties of dual-cured composite cements.  

PubMed

This study aims at modifying dual-cure composite cements by adding thio-urethane oligomers to improve mechanical properties, especially fracture toughness, and reduce polymerization stress. Thiol-functionalized oligomers were synthesized by combining 1,3-bis(1-isocyanato-1-methylethyl)benzene with trimethylol-tris-3-mercaptopropionate, at 1:2 isocyanate:thiol. Oligomer was added at 0, 10 or 20 wt% to BisGMA-UDMA-TEGDMA (5:3:2, with 25 wt% silanated inorganic fillers) or to one commercial composite cement (Relyx Ultimate, 3M Espe). Near-IR was used to measure methacrylate conversion after photoactivation (700 mW/cm(2) × 60s) and after 72 h. Flexural strength and modulus, toughness, and fracture toughness were evaluated in three-point bending. Polymerization stress was measured with the Bioman. The microtensile bond strength of an indirect composite and a glass ceramic to dentin was also evaluated. Results were analyzed with analysis of variance and Tukey's test (? = 0.05). For BisGMA-UDMA-TEGDMA cements, conversion values were not affected by the addition of thio-urethanes. Flexural strength/modulus increased significantly for both oligomer concentrations, with a 3-fold increase in toughness at 20 wt%. Fracture toughness increased over 2-fold for the thio-urethane modified groups. Contraction stress was reduced by 40% to 50% with the addition of thio-urethanes. The addition of thio-urethane to the commercial cement led to similar flexural strength, toughness, and conversion at 72h compared to the control. Flexural modulus decreased for the 20 wt% group, due to the dilution of the overall filler volume, which also led to decreased stress. However, fracture toughness increased by up to 50%. The microtensile bond strength increased for the experimental composite cement with 20 wt% thio-urethane bonding for both an indirect composite and a glass ceramic. Novel dual-cured composite cements containing thio-urethanes showed increased toughness, fracture toughness and bond strength to dentin while demonstrating reduced contraction stress. All of these benefits are derived without compromising the methacrylate conversion of the resin component. The modification does not require changing the operatory technique. PMID:25248610

Bacchi, A; Dobson, A; Ferracane, J L; Consani, R; Pfeifer, C S

2014-12-01

104

Retention of adhesive cement on the tooth surface after crown cementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of problem. Adhesive cements increase crown retention, but it is unknown if traces of cement remain undetected on the tooth surface after clinical removal of excess cement, which could exacerbate plaque retention. Purpose. This study measured the surface area, volume, mean depth, and maximum depth of a resin composite and a compomer luting cement left adherent on the tooth

Christina A. Mitchell; Maria R. Pintado; Lindsay Geary; William H. Douglas

1999-01-01

105

Comparison of shear bond strength of resin reinforced chemical cure glass ionomer, conventional chemical cure glass ionomer and chemical cure composite resin in direct bonding systems: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

The acid pretreatment and use of composite resins as the bonding medium has disadvantages like scratching and loss of surface enamel, decalcification, etc. To overcome disadvantages of composite resins, glass ionomers and its modifications are being used for bonding. The study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of resin reinforced glass ionomer as a direct bonding system with conventional glass ionomer cement and composite resin. The study showed that shear bond strength of composite resin has the higher value than both resin reinforced glass ionomer and conventional glass ionomer cement in both 1 and 24 hours duration and it increased from 1 to 24 hours in all groups. The shear bond strength of resin reinforced glass ionomer cement was higher than the conventional glass ionomer cement in both 1 and 24 hours duration. Conditioning with polyacrylic acid improved the bond strength of resin reinforced glass ionomer cement significantly but not statistically significant in the case of conventional glass ionomer cement. PMID:23579887

Rao, Kolasani Srinivasa; Reddy, T Praveen Kumar; Yugandhar, Garlapati; Kumar, B Sunil; Reddy, S N Chandrasekhar; Babu, Devatha Ashok

2013-01-01

106

Microleakage and marginal gap of adhesive cements for noble alloy full cast crowns.  

PubMed

Very limited comparative information about the microleakage in noble alloy full cast crowns luted with different types of adhesive resin cements is available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage and marginal gap of two self-adhesive resin cements with that of other types of adhesive luting cements for noble alloy full cast crowns. Fifty noncarious human premolars and molars were prepared in a standardized manner for full cast crown restorations. Crowns were made from a noble alloy using a standardized technique and randomly cemented with five cementing agents as follows: 1) GC Fuji Plus resin-modified glass ionomer cement, 2) Panavia F 2.0 resin cement, 3) Multilink Sprint self-adhesive resin cement, 4), Rely X Unicem self-adhesive resin cement with pretreatment, and 5) Rely X Unicem with no pretreatment. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for two weeks and then subjected to thermocycling. They were then placed in a silver nitrate solution, vertically cut in a mesiodistal direction and evaluated for microleakage and marginal gap using a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn multiple range test at a p<0.05 level of significance. The Rely X Unicem (with or with no pretreatment) exhibited the smallest degree of microleakage at both tooth-cement and cement-crown interfaces. The greatest amount of microleakage was found for Panavia F 2.0 resin cement followed by GC Fuji Plus at both interfaces. No statistically significant difference in the marginal gap values was found between the cementing agents evaluated (p>0.05). The self-adhesive resin cements provided a much better marginal seal for the noble alloy full cast crowns compared with the resin-modified glass ionomer or dual-cured resin-based cements. PMID:21740242

Hooshmand, T; Mohajerfar, M; Keshvad, A; Motahhary, P

2011-01-01

107

Combined effect of mineral admixtures with superplasticizers on the fluidity of the blended cement paste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new concrete often incorporates several organic and mineral admixtures which interact with the various constituents of the cements and cause some problems of hardness and workability. In the present study, limestone cement (C1) and pozzolanic cement (C2) were used to make cement paste with two types of superplasticizer; SP1 based on polynaphthalene sulphonate (PNS); and SP2 based on resins

A. Hallal; E. H. Kadri; K. Ezziane; A. Kadri; H. Khelafi

2010-01-01

108

Limited Decalcification\\/Diffusion of Self-adhesive Cements into Dentin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resin cement diffusion into dentin may differ as a function of the pre-treatment regimen. Since self-adhesive cements do not require substrate pre-treatment for luting, penetration of and interaction with the underlying dentin are questioned. We hypothesized that differences in the resin cement diffusion into dentin may exist among current commercial adhesive cements. Composite cylinders were luted on mid-coronal dentinal surfaces

F. Monticelli; R. Osorio; C. Mazzitelli; M. Ferrari; M. Toledano

2008-01-01

109

Asphalt cement  

MedlinePLUS

... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. This is ... Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Note: This list may not include all uses of asphalt.

110

Bone cement  

PubMed Central

The knowledge about the bone cement is of paramount importance to all Orthopaedic surgeons. Although the bone cement had been the gold standard in the field of joint replacement surgery, its use has somewhat decreased because of the advent of press-fit implants which encourages bone in growth. The shortcomings, side effects and toxicity of the bone cement are being addressed recently. More research is needed and continues in the field of nanoparticle additives, enhanced bone–cement interface etc.

Vaishya, Raju; Chauhan, Mayank; Vaish, Abhishek

2013-01-01

111

Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review.  

PubMed

The longevity of fixed partial denture depends on the type of luting cement used with tooth preparation. The clinician's understating of various cements, their advantages and disadvantages is of utmost importance. In recent years, many luting agents cements have been introduced claiming clinically better performance than existing materials due to improved characteristics. Both conventional and contemporary dental luting cements are discussed here. The various agents discussed are: Zinc phosphate, Zinc polycarboxylate, Zinc oxide-eugenol, Glass-ionomer, Resin modified GIC, Compomers and Resin cement. The purpose of this article is to provide a discussion that provides a clinical perspective of luting cements currently available to help the general practitioner make smarter and appropriate choices. How to cite the article: Lad PP, Kamath M, Tarale K, Kusugal PB. Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):116-20. PMID:24653615

Lad, Pritam P; Kamath, Maya; Tarale, Kavita; Kusugal, Preethi B

2014-02-01

112

Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review  

PubMed Central

The longevity of fixed partial denture depends on the type of luting cement used with tooth preparation. The clinician’s understating of various cements, their advantages and disadvantages is of utmost importance. In recent years, many luting agents cements have been introduced claiming clinically better performance than existing materials due to improved characteristics. Both conventional and contemporary dental luting cements are discussed here. The various agents discussed are: Zinc phosphate, Zinc polycarboxylate, Zinc oxide-eugenol, Glass-ionomer, Resin modified GIC, Compomers and Resin cement. The purpose of this article is to provide a discussion that provides a clinical perspective of luting cements currently available to help the general practitioner make smarter and appropriate choices. How to cite the article: Lad PP, Kamath M, Tarale K, Kusugal PB. Practical clinical considerations of luting cements: A review. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):116-20. PMID:24653615

Lad, Pritam P; Kamath, Maya; Tarale, Kavita; Kusugal, Preethi B

2014-01-01

113

A study on provisional cements, cementation techniques, and their effects on bonding of porcelain laminate veneers.  

PubMed

Minimal tooth preparation is required for porcelain laminate veneers, but interim restorations are a must to protect their teeth against thermal insult, chemical irritation, and to provide aesthetics. Cement remaining after the removal of the provisional restoration can impair the etching quality of the tooth surface and fit and final bonding of the porcelain laminate veneer. This in vitro study examined the tooth surface for remaining debris of cement after removal of a provisional restoration. Determine the presence of cement debris on prepared tooth surface subsequent to the removal of provisional restoration. Determine the cement with the least residue following the cleansing procedures. Determine the effect of smear layer on the amount of residual luting cement. Eighty-four extracted natural anterior teeth were prepared for porcelain laminate veneers. For half of the teeth, the smear layer was removed before luting provisional restorations. Veneer provisional restorations were fabricated and luted to teeth with six bonding methods: varnish combined with glass ionomer cement (GIC), varnish combined with resin modified GIC, varnish, spot etching combined with dual-cure luting cement, adhesive combined with GIC, adhesive combined with resin modified GIC, and adhesive, spot etching combined with dual-cure luting cement. After removal of provisional restorations 1 week later, the tooth surface was examined for residual luting material with SEM. Traces of cement debris were found on all the prepared teeth surfaces for all six groups which were cemented with different methods. Cement debris was seen on teeth subsequent to the removal of provisional's. Dual-cure cement had the least residue following the cleansing procedures. Presence of smear layer had no statistical significance in comparison with cement residue. With the use of adhesive the cement debris was always found to be more than with the use of varnish. GIC showed maximum residual cement followed by dual-cure. PMID:24604997

Vinod Kumar, G; Soorya Poduval, T; Bipin Reddy; Shesha Reddy, P

2014-03-01

114

The properties of cement mortars modified by emulsified epoxy and micro-fine slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epoxy resin polymer cement mortars with excellent performances were made up through modifying ordinary Portland cement\\u000a with emulsified epoxy and micro-fine slag. The microstructure of the epoxy resin polymer cement materials was studied and\\u000a their hydration and hardening characteristics were discussed by means of modern analysis measures such as SEM, XRD and Hg-intrusion\\u000a micromeritics. The experimental results indicate that

Chen You-zhi; Wang Hong-xi; Ma Zhi-yong; Li Qing-hua

2003-01-01

115

Amino acid containing glass-ionomer cement for orthopedic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acid containing glass-ionomer cements were synthesized, formulated, and evaluated for orthopedic application. The formulation of different amino acid containing glass-ionomer bone cements was optimized, and conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer bone cements were compared. Properties of interest included handling characteristics, physical and chemical properties, and mechanical strength of the bone cement. The study was based on the synthesis of different vinyl containing amino acids, different polyelectrolytes containing these amino acid residues, and different resin-modified polyelectrolytes, as well as formulation and evaluation of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer bone cements using these polyelectrolytes. Systematic preparation of polyelectrolytes and formulation of glass-ionomer bone cements were essential features of this work, since we anticipated that the mechanical properties of the glass-ionomer bone cements could be strongly affected by the nature of the polyelectrolytes and formulation. Mechanical properties were evaluated in a screw driven mechanical testing machine, and structure-property relationships were determined by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation of the fracture surface of the specimens. How the structure of polyelectrolytes, such as different amino acid residues, molecular weight, different modifying resin, and formulation of glass-ionomer bone cement, affected the mechanical properties was also studied.

Wu, Wei

116

Processing of Spent Ion Exchange Resins in a Rotary Calciner - 12212  

SciTech Connect

Processing Russian nuclear ion exchange resin KU-2 using a 'Rotary' calciner was conducted. The resulting product is a dry free flowing powder (moisture content 3 wt.%, Angle of repose of ? 20 deg.). Compared with the original exchange resin the volume of the final product is about 3 times less.. Rotary calciner product can be stored in metal drums or in special reinforced concrete cubicles. After thermal treatment in a rotary calciner, the spent resin product can be solidified in cement yielding the following attributes: - The cemented waste is only a 35% increase over the volume of powder product; - The volume of cement calciner product is almost 9 times less (8.7) than the volume of cement solidified resin; - The mechanical strength of cemented calciner product meets the radioactive waste regulations in Russia. (authors)

Kascheev, Vladimir; Musatov, Nikolay [Joint Stock Company 'A.A. Bochvar High-Technology Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials' (VNIINM), Rogova st., 5A (Russian Federation)

2012-07-01

117

Luting of ceramic crowns with a self-adhesive cement: Effect of contamination on marginal adaptation and fracture strength  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study evaluated the percentages of continuous margins (%CM) and fracture strength (FS) of crowns made out from blocs of leucite-reinforced ceramic (IPS Empress CAD) and luted with a representative self-adhesive cement (RelyX Unicem) under four contaminating agents: saliva, water, blood, a haemostatic solution containing aluminium chloride (pH= 0.8) and a control group with no contamination. Study Design: %CM at both tooth-cement (TC) and cement-crown (CC) interfaces were determined before and after a fatigue test consisting of 600’000 chewing loads and 1’500 temperature cycles changing from 5º C to 50º C. Load to fracture was recorded on fatigued specimens. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare %CM and FS between the five groups with a level of confidence of 95%. Results: At the TC interface, no significant differences in marginal adaptation before loading could be detected between groups. After loading, a significant marginal degradation was observed in the group contaminated with aluminium chloride (52 ± 22 %CM) in respect to the other groups. No significant differences in %CM could be detected between the groups contaminated with saliva, water, blood and the control. At the CC interface, no significant differences in marginal adaptation were observed between the groups. The FS on loaded specimens was around 1637N, with no significant differences between groups as well. Conclusions: An adverse interaction of the highly acidic haemostatic agent with either dentin or the self-adhesive cement could explain the specimens’ marginal degradation. The self-adhesive cement tested in this study was no sensitive to moisture contamination either with saliva, water or blood. Key words:Marginal adaptation, RelyX Unicem, contamination, all-ceramic crowns. PMID:23722123

Slavcheva, Slavena; Krejci, Ivo

2013-01-01

118

Biocompatibility of resin-modified filling materials.  

PubMed

Increasing numbers of resin-based dental restorations have been placed over the past decade. During this same period, the public interest in the local and especially systemic adverse effects caused by dental materials has increased significantly. It has been found that each resin-based material releases several components into the oral environment. In particular, the comonomer, triethyleneglycol di-methacrylate (TEGDMA), and the 'hydrophilic' monomer, 2-hydroxy-ethyl-methacrylate (HEMA), are leached out from various composite resins and 'adhesive' materials (e.g., resin-modified glass-ionomer cements [GICs] and dentin adhesives) in considerable amounts during the first 24 hours after polymerization. Numerous unbound resin components may leach into saliva during the initial phase after polymerization, and later, due to degradation or erosion of the resinous restoration. Those substances may be systemically distributed and could potentially cause adverse systemic effects in patients. In addition, absorption of organic substances from unpolymerized material, through unprotected skin, due to manual contact may pose a special risk for dental personnel. This is borne out by the increasing numbers of dental nurses, technicians, and dentists who present with allergic reactions to one or more resin components, like HEMA, glutaraldehyde, ethyleneglycol di-methacrylate (EGDMA), and dibenzoyl peroxide (DPO). However, it must be emphasized that, except for conventional composite resins, data reported on the release of substances from resin-based materials are scarce. There is very little reliable information with respect to the biological interactions between resin components and various tissues. Those interactions may be either protective, like absorption to dentin, or detrimental, e.g., inflammatory reactions of soft tissues. Microbial effects have also been observed which may contribute indirectly to caries and irritation of the pulp. Therefore, it is critical, both for our patients and for the profession, that the biological effects of resin-based filling materials be clarified in the near future. PMID:11021634

Geurtsen, W

2000-01-01

119

In vivo microleakage of luting cements for cast crowns.  

PubMed

Standardized tooth preparations were completed on previously intact human molars in vivo, and castings were made with a precious metal ceramic alloy by conventional techniques. The castings were randomly assigned to the following luting agents: zinc phosphate, composite resin-glass ionomer hybrid, and a composite resin-glass ionomer hybrid with a dentinal bonding agent and were cemented in a standardized manner to periodontally compromised molars. After 6 months the teeth were carefully extracted, stained, embedded, and sectioned, and the in vivo microleakage was measured. ANOVA disclosed significant differences between groups, and a multiple comparisons test revealed that the zinc phosphate group leaked significantly more than other cement groups. PMID:8195995

White, S N; Yu, Z; Tom, J F; Sangsurasak, S

1994-04-01

120

Lunar cement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

Agosto, William N.

1992-01-01

121

Influence of Luting Material Filler Content on Post Cementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luting of fiber posts to intra-radicular dentin represents the worst-case scenario in terms of control of polymerization shrinkage. This study tested the hypothesis that filler content of resin cements does not influence luting of fiber posts to intra-radicular dentin, by assaying polymerization stress, push-out bond strength, and nanoleakage expression. The polymerization stress of experimental cements containing 10%, 30%, 50%, or

M. Ferrari; C. A. Carvalho; C. Goracci; F. Antoniolli; A. Mazzoni; G. Mazzotti; M. Cadenaro; L. Breschi

2009-01-01

122

Sculpting with Cement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cement offers many creative possibilities for school art programs. Instructions are given for sculpting with fiber-cement and sand-cement, as well as for finishing processes and the addition of color. Safety is stressed. (IS)

Olson, Lynn

1983-01-01

123

The effect of various primers on shear bond strength of zirconia ceramic and resin composite  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine the in vitro shear bond strengths (SBS) of zirconia ceramic to resin composite after various primer treatments. Materials and Methods: Forty zirconia ceramic (Zeno, Wieland Dental) specimens (10 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick) were prepared, sandblasted with 50 ?m alumina, and divided into four groups (n = 10). Three experimental groups were surface treated with three primers; CP (RelyX Ceramic Primer, 3M ESPE), AP (Alloy Primer, Kuraray Medical), and MP (Monobond Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent AG). One group was not treated and served as the control. All specimens were bonded to a resin composite (Filtek Supreme XT, 3M ESPE) cylinder with an adhesive system (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus Adhesive, 3M ESPE) and then stored in 100% humidity at 37°C for 24 h before SBS testing in a universal testing machine. Mean SBS (MPa) were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test (? = 0.05). Results: Group AP yielded the highest mean and standard deviation (SD) value of SBS (16.8 ± 2.5 MPa) and Group C presented the lowest mean and SD value (15.4 ± 1.6 MPa). The SBS did not differ significantly among the groups (P = 0.079). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the SBS values between zirconia ceramic to resin composite using various primers and untreated surface were not significantly different. PMID:24347881

Sanohkan, Sasiwimol; Kukiattrakoon, Boonlert; Larpboonphol, Narongrit; Sae-Yib, Taewalit; Jampa, Thibet; Manoppan, Satawat

2013-01-01

124

Brushing abrasion of luting cements under neutral and acidic conditions.  

PubMed

Four resin based materials (Compolute Aplicap, ESPE; Variolink Ultra, Vivadent; C&B Metabond, Parkell and Panavia 21, Kuraray), two carboxylate cements (Poly-F Plus, Dentsply DeTrey and Durelon Maxicap, ESPE), two glass-ionomer cements (Fuji I, GC and Ketac-Cem Aplicap, ESPE), one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer, 3M) one polyacid-modified resin composite (Dyract Cem, Dentsply DeTrey) and one zinc phosphate cement (Harvard, Richter & Hoffmann) were investigated according to their brushing resistance after storage in neutral and acidic buffer solutions. For this purpose 24 cylindrical acrylic molds were each filled with the materials. After hardening, the samples were stored for seven days in 100% relative humidity and at 37 degrees C. Subsequently, they were ground flat and polished. Then each specimen was covered with an adhesive tape leaving a 4 mm wide window on the cement surface. Twelve samples of each material were stored for 24 hours in a buffer solution with a pH of 6.8. The remaining 12 samples were placed in a buffer with a pH of 3.0. All specimens were then subjected to a three media brushing abrasion (2,000 strokes) in an automatic brushing machine. Storage and brushing were performed three times. After 6,000 brushing strokes per specimen, the tape was removed. Brushing abrasion was measured with a computerized laser profilometer and statistically analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey's Standardized Range Test (p < or = 0.05). The highest brushing abrasion was found for the two carboxylate cements. The lowest brushing abrasion was found for one resin based material, Compolute Aplicap. With the exception of three resin-based materials, a lower pH led to a higher brushing abrasion. PMID:11203860

Buchalla, W; Attin, T; Hellwig, E

2000-01-01

125

Shear bond strength of resin teeth to heat-cured and light-cured denture base resin.  

PubMed

The failure of the bond between acrylic resin teeth and denture base material remains a considerable problem. Previous research has indicated that the introduction of a bonding agent to the tooth-resin interface significantly increased the tensile bond strength. To further investigate this finding, and to complement the earlier study, a shear strength assessment was carried out. Both a commercial and an experimental bonding agent were evaluated for tooth retention when applied to heat-cured and visible light-cured (VLC) resin. A significant increase in shear bond strength was obtained when bonding agents were applied. The experimental cement gave the greatest increase in strength, although the VLC resin failed to achieve the same degree of tooth attachment as the heat-cured resin. PMID:10792592

Cunningham, J L

2000-04-01

126

Portland cements characterized, evaluated  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses behavior during placement in the well and longterm stability after the cement has set, with emphasis on the chemical and physical nature of the cement itself. Presents graphs showing particle size distribution and hydration of CâS vs. time. Summarizes the current understanding of cement chemistry as applied to oil well cementing. Points out that the principal deficiencies

1983-01-01

127

Alex Benson Cement Plants  

E-print Network

Alex Benson ATOC 3500 Cement Plants 4 Step Production Line: o Mine the Limestone: Cement plants usually located near quarries to lower transportation costs. o Cement Kiln: Limestone is mixed with sand with steel balls which grind mix into a fine powder -> Final Cement Product Associated Air Pollution: o From

Toohey, Darin W.

128

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, a comparison study of the three cement systems examined the effect that cement drillout has on the three cement systems. Testing to determine the effect of pressure cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. This report discusses testing that was performed to analyze the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries.

Fred Sabins

2002-07-30

129

CEMENT RELATED RESEARCH HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY GROUP  

E-print Network

CEMENT RELATED RESEARCH HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY GROUP Josep M. Soler Jordi Cama Carles Ayora Ana Trapote.soler@idaea.csic.es #12;NOMECLATURE cement + water = hardened cement paste cement + water + sand = mortar cement + waterC) clinker + gypsum portland cement PORTLAND CEMENT #12;GTS-HPF Core Infiltration Experiment Experimental

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

130

Westinghouse Modular Grinding Process - Enhancement of Volume Reduction for Hot Resin Supercompaction - 13491  

SciTech Connect

In nuclear power plants (NPP) ion exchange (IX) resins are used in several systems for water treatment. Spent resins can contain a significant amount of contaminates which makes treatment for disposal of spent resins mandatory. Several treatment processes are available such as direct immobilization with technologies like cementation, bitumisation, polymer solidification or usage of a high integrity container (HIC). These technologies usually come with a significant increase in final waste volume. The Hot Resin Supercompaction (HRSC) is a thermal treatment process which reduces the resin waste volume significantly. For a mixture of powdered and bead resins the HRSC process has demonstrated a volume reduction of up to 75 % [1]. For bead resins only the HRSC process is challenging because the bead resins compaction properties are unfavorable. The bead resin material does not form a solid block after compaction and shows a high spring back effect. The volume reduction of bead resins is not as good as for the mixture described in [1]. The compaction properties of bead resin waste can be significantly improved by grinding the beads to powder. The grinding also eliminates the need for a powder additive.Westinghouse has developed a modular grinding process to grind the bead resin to powder. The developed process requires no circulation of resins and enables a selective adjustment of particle size and distribution to achieve optimal results in the HRSC or in any other following process. A special grinding tool setup is use to minimize maintenance and radiation exposure to personnel. (authors)

Fehrmann, Henning [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Dudenstr. 44, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany)] [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Dudenstr. 44, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Aign, Joerg [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Global D and D and Waste Management, Tarpenring 6, D-22419 Hamburg (Germany)] [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Global D and D and Waste Management, Tarpenring 6, D-22419 Hamburg (Germany)

2013-07-01

131

Research of magnesium phosphosilicate cement.  

E-print Network

??Magnesium phosphosilicate cement (MPSC) is a novel phosphate bonded cement, which consists mainly of magnesia, phosphate and silicate minerals. The traditional magnesium phosphate cements (MPCs)… (more)

Ding, Zhu

2005-01-01

132

The Biocompatibility of Porous vs Non-Porous Bone Cements: A New Methodological Approach  

PubMed Central

Composite cements have been shown to be biocompatible, bioactive, with good mechanical properties and capability to bind to the bone. Despite these interesting characteristic, in vivo studies on animal models are still incomplete and ultrastructural data are lacking. The acquisition of new ultrastructural data is hampered by uncertainties in the methods of preparation of histological samples due to the use of resins that melt methacrylate present in bone cement composition. A new porous acrylic cement composed of polymethyl-metacrylate (PMMA) and ?-tricalcium-phosphate (p-TCP) was developed and tested on an animal model. The cement was implanted in femurs of 8 New Zealand White rabbits, which were observed for 8 weeks before their sacrifice. Histological samples were prepared with an infiltration process of LR white resin and then the specimens were studied by X-rays, histology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As a control, an acrylic standard cement, commonly used in clinical procedures, was chosen. Radiographic ultrastructural and histological exams have allowed finding an excellent biocompatibility of the new porous cement. The high degree of osteointegration was demonstrated by growth of neo-created bone tissue inside the cement sample. Local or systemic toxicity signs were not detected. The present work shows that the proposed procedure for the evaluation of biocompatibility, based on the use of LR white resin allows to make a thorough and objective assessment of the biocompatibility of porous and non-porous bone cements. PMID:24998920

Dall’Oca, C.; Maluta, T.; Cavani, F.; Morbioli, G.P.; Bernardi, P.; Sbarbati, A.; Degl’Innocenti, D.; Magnan, B.

2014-01-01

133

Effect of Different Luting Cements on Fracture Resistance in Endodontically Treated Teeth  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of three types of luting cements used for post cementation on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars, restored with resin composite. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred intact single-rooted human maxillary premolars were randomly divided into 5 groups of 20 each. In groups 2-5, post spaces were prepared after root canal treatment and clinical crown reduction up to 1.5 mm above the CEJ. Teeth were divided in groups as follows: Group 1: intact teeth, Group 2: active prefabricated metallic posts (PMP), Group 3: PMP cemented with zinc phosphate luting cement, Group 4: PMP cemented with glass ionomer luting cement and Group 5: PMP cemented with resin luting cement. In groups 2-5 the teeth were restored with resin composite. Following thermocycling, the palatal cusp of each specimen was loaded to compression at an angle of 150? to its longitudinal axis at a strain rate of 2 mm/min until fracture occurred. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey test. Chi-square test was used for comparison of failure mode. RESULTS: There were significant differences in fracture resistance between the test groups (P<0.001). The differences between group 2 with groups 1, 4 and 5 were statistically significant (P<0.05); whereas there were no significant differences in fracture resistance between the two other groups (P>0.05). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the mode of failure between the 5 groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Zinc phosphate, glass ionomer and resin luting cements showed similar behaviors and achieved fracture resistance comparable to intact teeth. However, the use of active post (without cement) adversely affected the fracture resistance of root canal treated teeth. PMID:24082900

Mohammadi, Narmin; Ajami, Amir Ahmad; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Rezaei Aval, Mojdeh

2008-01-01

134

Resin-Powder Dispenser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resin-powder dispenser used at NASA's Langley Research Center for processing of composite-material prepregs. Dispenser evenly distributes powder (resin polymer and other matrix materials in powder form) onto wet uncured prepregs. Provides versatility in distribution of solid resin in prepreg operation. Used wherever there is requirement for even, continuous distribution of small amount of powder.

Standfield, Clarence E.

1994-01-01

135

Influence of multiwall carbon nanotube functionality and loading on mechanical properties of PMMA\\/MWCNT bone cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement—multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites with weight loadings ranging\\u000a from 0.1 to 1.0 wt% were prepared. The MWCNTs investigated were unfunctionalised, carboxyl and amine functionalised MWCNTs.\\u000a Mechanical properties of the resultant nanocomposite cements were characterised as per international standards for acrylic\\u000a resin cements. These mechanical properties were influenced by the type and wt% loading of

Ross Ormsby; Tony McNally; Christina Mitchell; Nicholas Dunne

2010-01-01

136

Do cement nanotubes exist?  

PubMed

Using atomistic simulations, this work indicates that cement nanotubes can exist. The chemically compatible nanotubes are constructed from the two main minerals in ordinary Portland cement pastes, namely calcium hydroxide and a calcium silicate hydrate called tobermorite. These results show that such nanotubes are stable and have outstanding mechanical properties, unique characteristics that make them ideally suitable for nanoscale reinforcements of cements. PMID:22589176

Manzano, H; Enyashin, A N; Dolado, J S; Ayuela, A; Frenzel, J; Seifert, G

2012-06-26

137

Thermcoat Cement INSTRUCTION  

E-print Network

CO and COL Thermcoat Cement INSTRUCTION SHEET M0101/0801 OMEGA® Thermcoat CO and COL consists of a powder (CO) and a liquid (COL) which, upon proper mixing, will yield a strong, insoluble cement. It has, which means it generates heat. For this reason, the heat must be dissipated or the cement will set too

Kleinfeld, David

138

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultralight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Problems and Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements. Results reported this quarter include a review and summary of Halliburton Energy Services (HES) and BJ Services historical performance data for lightweight cement applications. These data are analyzed and compared to ULHS cement and foamed cement performances. Similar data is expected from Schlumberger, and an analysis of this data will be completed in the following phases of the project. Quality control testing of materials used to formulate ULHS cements in the laboratory was completed to establish baseline material performance standards. A testing protocol was developed employing standard procedures as well as procedures tailored to evaluate ULHS and foamed cement. This protocol is presented and discussed. Results of further testing of ULHS cements are presented along with an analysis to establish cement performance design criteria to be used during the remainder of the project. Finally, a list of relevant literature on lightweight cement performance is compiled for review during the next quarter.

Fred Sabins

2001-04-15

139

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Issues, Task 2: Review Russian Ultra-Lightweight Cement Literature, Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements, and Task 8: Develop Field ULHS Cement Blending and Mixing Techniques. Results reported this quarter include: preliminary findings from a literature review focusing on problems associated with ultra-lightweight cements; summary of pertinent information from Russian ultra-lightweight cement literature review; laboratory tests comparing ULHS slurries to foamed slurries and sodium silicate slurries for two different applications; and initial laboratory studies with ULHS in preparation for a field job.

Fred Sabins

2001-07-18

140

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, comparison studies of the three cement systems examined several properties: tensile strength, Young's modulus, and shear bond. Testing to determine the effect of temperature cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. In addition, the stress-strain behavior of the cement types was studied. This report discusses a software program that is being developed to help design ULHS cements and foamed cements.

Fred Sabins

2002-04-29

141

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, a comparison study of the three cement systems examined the effect that cement drillout has on the three cement systems. Testing to determine the effect of pressure cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. This report discusses testing that will be performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries, as well as the results of Field Tests 1 and 2.

Fred Sabins

2002-10-31

142

Mineral of the month: cement  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydraulic cement is a virtually ubiquitous construction material that, when mixed with water, serves as the binder in concrete and most mortars. Only about 13 percent of concrete by weight is cement (the rest being water and aggregates), but the cement contributes all of the concrete’s compressional strength. The term “hydraulic” refers to the cement’s ability to set and harden underwater through the hydration of the cement’s components.

van Oss, Hendrik G.

2006-01-01

143

Marginal leakage in class V composite resin restorations with glass ionomer liners in vitro.  

PubMed

This in vitro study evaluated the use of a glass ionomer lining cement in conjunction with composite resin in class V preparations in terms of marginal sealing ability. Two preparations, the occlusal walls in enamel (etched) and the gingival walls in dentin, were place in each tooth. One contained the etched glass ionomer liner, a dentin bonding agent, and a microfill composite resin. The second contained the dentin bonding agent and the microfill composite resin. The teeth were thermocycled, stained with methylene blue dye, sectioned, and evaluated for leakage at the occlusal and gingival margins on a scale of 0 to 3. No significant leakage was recorded at the occlusal margin for either restoration. Leakage at the gingival margin was significantly reduced for the lined restorations, and in no instance did the dye penetrate beyond the liner, which suggests that the lining cement may significantly decrease leakage at the gingival aspect of composite resins in class V restorations. PMID:2338665

Mathis, R S; DeWald, J P; Moody, C R; Ferracane, J L

1990-05-01

144

Management of Spent Organic Ion-Exchange Resins by Photochemical Oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Management of spent ion-exchange resin waste arising from nuclear reactor operations by traditional practice of encapsulation in cement is associated with problems such as swelling and disintegration. Complete oxidation (mineralization) is an attractive alternative option. This paper reports the development of photochemical mineralization process for organic ion-exchange resins of poly (styrene-divinyl benzene) type with sulfonic acid and quaternary ammonium functional groups. It is a two-step process consisting of dissolution (conversion of solid resin into water-soluble reaction products) and photo-Fenton mineralization of the dissolved resin. Cation and anion resin dissolution was effected by reaction of the resin with H2O2 at 50-60 C in the presence of ferrous/copper sulphate catalyst. Direct dissolution of mixed resin was not efficient. However, the cation resin portion in the mixed resin could be selectively dissolved without affecting the anion portion. The solid anion resin after separation from the cation resin solution could be dissolved. About 0.5 liters of 50% H2O2 was required for dissolution of one kg of wet resin. The reaction time was 4-5 hours. Dissolution experiments were conducted on up to 8 liters of wet resin. The second step, viz., photo-Fenton mineralization of the dissolved resin was effected at ambient temperature(25-35 C). Kinetic results of laboratory scale experiments in immersion type photo-reactor and pilot scale experiments in tubular flow photo-reactor were presented. These results clearly demonstrated the photo-Fenton mineralization of dissolved resin at ambient temperature with stoichiometric quantity of H2O2 as against 70-200% excess H2O2 requirement in chemical mineralization experiments under Fenton oxidation conditions at 90-95 C. Based on these studies, a treatment scheme was developed and presented in this paper.

Srinivas, C.; Sugilal, S.; Wattal, P. K.

2003-02-26

145

The effect of adhesives with various degrees of hydrophilicity on resin ceramic bond durability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate the role of different acid surface-treatments and hydrophilic and hydrophobic bonding agents on resin ceramic bond durability. Methods: Two resin cements, Tetric Flow and Nexus 2, were applied to CAD\\/CAM Cerec Vitablocs with six bonding strategies: (1) HF-etching and silanization, (2) HF-etching, silanization and application of a hydrophilic bonding agent, (3) HF-etching, silanization and application of a

Ahmed A El Zohairy; Anton J De Gee; Fayez M Hassan; Albert J Feilzer

2004-01-01

146

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweigh cement using ultralight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Problems, Task 2: Review Russian Ultra-Lightweight Cement Literature, and Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements. Results reported this quarter include a review and summary surface pipe and intermediate casing cementing conditions historically encountered in the US and establishment of average design conditions for ULHS cements. Russian literature concerning development and use of ultra-lightweight cements employing either nitrogen or ULHS was reviewed, and a summary is presented. Quality control testing of materials used to formulate ULHS cements in the laboratory was conducted to establish baseline material performance standards. A testing protocol was developed employing standard procedures as well as procedures tailored to evaluate ULHS. This protocol is presented and discussed. finally, results of initial testing of ULHS cements is presented along with analysis to establish cement performance design criteria to be used during the remainder of the project.

Fred Sabins

2001-01-15

147

Alternative complete-arch cement-retained implant-supported fixed partial denture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early implant prostheses designs, which used screw-retained metal and acrylic resin structures, frequently left a space between the prosthesis and the soft tissue. Common deficiencies of this design included phonetic and esthetic problems and screw loosening. Cement-retained implant prostheses are also used in partially and completely edentulous patients, and are thought to have optimal occlusion and esthetics. Moreover, cement-retained prostheses

Theresa M. Hofstede; Carlo Ercoli; Michael E. Hagan

1999-01-01

148

Method of adhering bone to a rigid substrate using a graphite fiber reinforced bone cement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for adhering bone to the surface of a rigid substrate such as a metal or resin prosthesis using an improved surgical bone cement. The bone cement has mechanical properties more nearly matched to those of animal bone and thermal curing characteristics which result in less traumatization of body tissues and comprises a dispersion of short high modulus graphite fibers within a bonder composition including polymer dissolved in reactive monomer such as polymethylmethacrylate dissolved in methylmethacrylate monomer.

Knoell, A. C.; Maxwell, H. G. (inventors)

1977-01-01

149

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries. DOE joined the Materials Management Service (MMS)-sponsored joint industry project ''Long-Term Integrity of Deepwater Cement under Stress/Compaction Conditions.'' Results of the project contained in two progress reports are also presented in this report.

Fred Sabins

2003-01-31

150

Cement grinding optimisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current world consumption of cement is about 1.5 billion tonnes per annum and it is increasing at about 1% per annum. The electrical energy consumed in cement production is approximately 110kWh\\/tonne, and around 40% of this energy is consumed for clinker grinding. There is potential to optimise conventional cement clinker grinding circuits and in the last decade significant progress

Alex Jankovic; Walter Valery; Eugene Davis

2004-01-01

151

Delayed cure bismaleimide resins  

DOEpatents

Prior art polybismaleimides begin to polymerize at or just above the melting point of the monomer. This patent describes new bismaleimide resins which have an increased pot life and provide longer time periods in which the monomer remains fluid. The resins can be polymerized into molded articles with a high uniformity of properties. (DLC)

Not Available

1982-08-12

152

Influence of endodontic sealer composition and time of fiber post cementation on sealer adhesiveness to bovine root dentin.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the influence of the type of endodontic sealer (salicylate resin-based sealer vs. two endodontic sealers) and the time of fiber post cementation after root filling on the post adhesion to bovine root dentin. Sixty bovine roots were assigned to six groups (n=10), considering an experimental design with two factors (factorial 3x2): endodontic sealer factor in three levels [epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus), eugenol-based sealer (Endofill), and salicylate resin-based sealer plus mineral trioxide aggregate - MTA (MTA Fillapex)] and time for post cementation factor in two levels (immediate post cementation or 15 days after root canal filling). After post cementation, 2-mm-thick slices were produced and submitted to push-out test. The failure modes were analyzed under a 40× stereomicroscope and scored as: adhesive at cement/dentin interface; adhesive at cement/post interface; cement cohesive; post cohesive; dentin cohesive; or mixed. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (?=0.05). When the fiber posts were cemented immediately after the root canal filling, the bond strengths were similar, independent of the endodontic sealer type. However, after 15 days, the epoxy resin-based sealer presented higher bond strength than the other sealers (p<0.05). Comparison between each sealer in different experimental times did not reveal any differences. The main failure type was adhesive at dentin/cement interface (89.4%). The time elapsed between the root canal filling and post cementation has no influence on post/root dentin adhesion. On the contrary, the type of endodontic sealer can influence the adhesion between fiber posts and root dentin. PMID:23969913

Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; Moraes, Rafael do Amaral; Broch, Juliana; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

2013-01-01

153

Biomimetic Remineralization of Resin-bonded Acid-etched Dentin  

PubMed Central

Degradation of denuded collagen within adhesive resin-infiltrated dentin is a pertinent problem in dentin bonding. A biomimetic remineralization scheme that incorporates non-classic crystallization pathways of fluidic amorphous nanoprecursors and mesoscopic transformation has been successful in remineralizing resin-free, acid-etched dentin, with evidence of intrafibrillar and interfibrillar remineralization. This study tested the hypothesis that biomimetic remineralization provides a means for remineralizing incompletely infiltrated resin-dentin interfaces created by etch-and-rinse adhesives. The remineralization medium consists of a Portland cement/simulated body fluid that includes polyacrylic acid and polyvinylphosphonic acid biomimetic analogs for amorphous calcium phosphate dimension regulation and collagen targeting. Both interfibrillar and intrafibrillar apatites became readily discernible within the hybrid layers after 2-4 months. In addition, intra-resin apatite clusters were deposited within the porosities of the adhesive resin matrices. The biomimetic remineralization scheme provides a proof-of-concept for the adoption of nanotechnology as an alternative strategy to extend the longevity of resin-dentin bonds. PMID:19734458

Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.

2009-01-01

154

EP-toxicity testing of mercury removal resin grout  

SciTech Connect

To determine which category a waste will fit into, the EPA requires a classification test. The test, EP-toxicity, consists of a physical integrity test followed by an extraction. For the case of the mercury removal resin grout, the mercury concentration in the extract cannot exceed 0.2 mg/L if the waste is to be classified as ``solid waste.`` Otherwise, the waste is classified as ``hazardous.`` Simulated process solutions were used to load the mercury removal resin. The resin was solidified with the addition of cement and water using a formulation based on grout formulations typically used to solidify power reactor ion exchange resins. Envirodyne Engineers of St. Louis, Missouri, an EPA sanctioned laboratory, performed the EP-toxicity test for the two samples. One sample was a blank which was made with unloaded resin. For the formulation tested, the EP-toxicity test results showed that the mercury removal resin grout does not fit into the ``hazardous waste`` category.

Mersman, K.E.

1984-07-18

155

Effect of Abutment Modification and Cement Type on Retention of Cement-Retained Implant Supported Crowns  

PubMed Central

Objective: Provisional cements are commonly used to facilitate retrievability of cement-retained fixed implant restorations; but compromised abutment preparation may affect the retention of implant-retained crowns.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of abutment design and type of luting agent on the retentive strength of cement-retained implant restorations. Materials and Method: Two prefabricated abutments were attached to their corresponding analogs and embedded in an acrylic resin block. The first abutment (control group) was left intact without any modifications. The screw access channel for the first abutment was completely filled with composite resin. In the second abutment, (test group) the axial wall was partially removed to form an abutment with 3 walls. Wax models were made by CAD/CAM. Ten cast copings were fabricated for each abutment. The prepared copings were cemented on the abutments by Temp Bond luting agent under standardized conditions (n=20). The assemblies were stored in 100% humidity for one day at 37°C prior to testing. The cast crown was removed from the abutment using an Instron machine, and the peak removal force was recorded. Coping/abutment specimens were cleaned after testing, and the testing procedure was repeated for Dycal luting agent (n=20). Data were analyzed with two- way ANOVA (?=0.05). Results: There was no significant difference in the mean transformed retention (Ln-R) between intact abutments (4.90±0.37) and the abutments with 3 walls (4.83±0.25) using Dycal luting agent. However, in TempBond group, the mean transformed retention (Ln-R) was significantly lower in the intact abutment (3.9±0.23) compared to the abutment with 3 walls (4.13±0.33, P=0.027). Conclusion: The retention of cement-retained implant restoration can be improved by the type of temporary cement used. The retention of cast crowns cemented to implant abutments with TempBond is influenced by the wall removal. PMID:25628660

Farzin, Mitra; Torabi, Kianoosh; Ahangari, Ahmad Hasan; Derafshi, Reza

2014-01-01

156

Marginal gap, cement thickness, and microleakage of 2 zirconia crown systems luted with glass ionomer and MDP-based cements.  

PubMed

This in vitro study evaluated the marginal gap, cement thickness, and microleakage of glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and phosphate monomer-containing resin cement (MDP-RC) under 2 zirconia crown systems (Cercon and DC-Zirkon). Forty human premolars were prepared for all-ceramic zirconia crowns with a 1 mm circumferential finish line and a 1.5 mm occlusal reduction. The crowns (n = 10 per group) from each zirconia system were randomly divided into 2 groups and cemented either with GIC (Vivaglass CEM) or MDP-RC (Panavia F 2.0) cement. The cemented crowns were thermocycled 5000 times (5°-55°C). The crowns were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine dye solution for 24 hours and sectioned buccolingually and mesiodistally. Specimens were examined under optical microscope (100X). Data were analyzed using Student t-test and chi-square tests (? = 0.05). Mean marginal gap values for Cercon (85 ± 11.4 ?m) were significantly higher than for DC-Zircon (75.3 ± 13.2 ?m) (P = 0.018). The mean cement thickness values of GIC (81.7 ± 13.9 ?m) and MDP-RC (78.5 ± 12.5 ?m) were not significantly different (P = 0.447). Microleakage scores did not demonstrate significant difference between GIC (P = 0.385) and MDP-RC (P = 0.631) under Cercon or DC-Zircon. Considering the cement thickness values and microleakage scores obtained, both zirconia crown systems could be cemented in combination with either GIC or MDP-RC. PMID:24598500

Sener, Isil; Turker, Begum; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Ozcan, Mutlu

2014-01-01

157

Distribution Coefficients (Kd Values) for Waste Resins Generated from the K and L Disassembly Basin Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to measure 14C, 129I, and 99Tc Kd values of spent resin generated from the K and L Disassembly Basin Facilities. The scope of the work was to conduct Kd measurements of resins combined in the ratio that they are disposed, 42:58 cation:anion. Because it was not known how these spent resins would be buried, it was necessary to measure the Kd values in such a manner as to simulate both trench and vault disposal. This was accomplished by using an acid-rain simulant (a standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency protocol) and a cement leachate simulant .

Kaplan, D.I.

2002-12-02

158

Development of resins for composites by resin transfer molding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designed to cover a wide range of resin technology and to meet the near-term and long-term needs of the aircraft industry, this research has three objectives: to produce resin transfer molding (RES) resins with improved processability, to produce prepreg systems with high toughness and service temperature, and to produce new resin systems. Progress on reaching the objectives is reported.

Woo, Edmund P.; Puckett, Paul M.; Maynard, Shawn J.

1991-01-01

159

Well cementing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a method of cementing a pipe by jetting a slurry of cement against the well bore wall while continuously moving the pipe in the well bore. After a jetting tool is placed on the drill pipe, tubing, casing, first string of multiple casing settings or other pipe, it is then positioned below the deepest possible production zone in

Havens

1968-01-01

160

Biocompatibility of composite resins  

PubMed Central

Dental materials that are used in dentistry should be harmless to oral tissues, so they should not contain any leachable toxic and diffusible substances that can cause some side effects. Reports about probable biologic hazards, in relation to dental resins, have increased interest to this topic in dentists. The present paper reviews the articles published about biocompatibility of resin-restorative materials specially resin composites and monomers which are mainly based on Bis-GMA and concerns about their degradation and substances which may be segregated into oral cavity. PMID:23372592

Mousavinasab, Sayed Mostafa

2011-01-01

161

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems: foamed and sodium silicate slurries. Comparison studies of the three cement systems examined several properties: tensile strength, Young's modulus, water permeability, and shear bond. Testing was also done to determine the effect that temperature cycling has on the shear bond properties of the cement systems. In addition, analysis was carried out to examine alkali silica reactivity of slurries containing ULHS. Data is also presented from a study investigating the effects of mixing and pump circulation on breakage of ULHS. Information is also presented about the field application of ULHS in cementing a 7-in. intermediate casing in south Texas.

Fred Sabins

2002-01-23

162

Matrix control cementing slurry  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of cementing a well bore. The method consists of 1.) mixing together at ambient temperatures at the well surface a hydraulic cement, water, in an effective amount to produce a pumpable slurry, and a polyvinyl acetate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer, which is insoluble in the slurry at ambient temperatures. The polymer has a greater than about 95 percent acetate groups converted to hydroxyl groups. The polymer is heated to actuable solubilization in the cement slurry at temperatures above about 120/sup 0/F. The solubilizing of the polyvinyl acetate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer in the slurry prior to the setting of the slurry by pumping the cement slurry to a desired location in the well bore. This action increases the temperature of the slurry; and 2.) allows the cement slurry to harden to a solid mass.

Arpenter, R.B.

1986-02-11

163

Modified sulfur cement solidification of low-level wastes  

SciTech Connect

This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in modified sulfur cement. The work was performed as part of the Waste Form Evaluation Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program. Modified sulfur cement is a thermoplastic material developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Processing of waste and binder was accomplished by means of both a single-screw extruder and a dual-action mixing vessel. Waste types selected for this study included those resulting from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste type and method of processing. Property evaluation testing was carried out on laboratory scale specimens in order to compare with waste form performance for other potential matrix materials. Waste form property testing included compressive strength, water immersion, thermal cycling and radionuclide leachability. Recommended waste loadings of 40 wt. % sodium sulfate and boric acid salts and 43 wt. % incinerator ash, which are based on processing and performance considerations, are reported. Solidification efficiencies for these waste types represent significant improvements over those of hydraulic cements. Due to poor waste form performance, incorporation of ion exchange resin waste in modified sulfur cement is not recommended.

Not Available

1985-10-01

164

Interfacial interactions of structural adhesive components with cement pastes - Studies by inverse gas chromatography (IGC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface energy of hardened cement pastes, before and after treatment by organic coating, and two individual cement paste components (CSH and ettringite) have been characterized by inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at 35 °C, using n-alkanes, 1-alkenes, benzene, chloroform and CCl4 molecular probes. The cement pastes were prepared by mixing an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) with water at a water/cement ratio (W/C) equal to 0.3 and 0.5. They were further coated with an epoxy resin (R) and triethylenetetramine hardener (H), separately, at a mass loading of 1 and 10 wt.%, respectively. Changes in the dispersive contribution to the surface energy (?sd) and Lewis acid-base interaction energies were found to be significantly dependent on the W/C parameter on the one hand, and the adsorption of H and R, on the other hand.

Baeta Neves, Inês; Chabut, Maud; Perruchot, Christian; Chehimi, Mohamed M.; Benzarti, Karim

2004-11-01

165

Thermally stable laminating resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved thermally stable laminating resins were developed based on the addition-type pyrolytic polymerization. Detailed monomer and polymer synthesis and characterization studies identified formulations which facilitate press molding processing and autoclave fabrication of glass and graphite fiber reinforced composites. A specific resin formulation, termed P10P was utilized to prepare a Courtaulds HMS reinforced simulated airfoil demonstration part by an autoclave molding process.

Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.; Burns, E. A.

1972-01-01

166

Phosphate based oil well cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main application of the cement in an oil well is to stabilize the steel casing in the borehole and protect it from corrosion. The cement is pumped through the borehole and is pushed upwards through the annulus between the casing and the formation. The cement will be exposed to temperature and pressure gradients of the borehole. Modified Portland cement

Ramkumar Natarajan

2005-01-01

167

Cement penetration after patella venting  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a high rate of patellofemoral complications following total knee arthroplasty. Optimization of the cement–bone interface by venting and suction of the tibial plateau has been shown to improve cement penetration. Our study was designed to investigate if venting the patella prior to cementing improved cement penetration.Ten paired cadaver patellae were allocated prior to resurfacing to be vented or

Christopher W. Jones; Li-On Lam; Adam Butler; David J. Wood; William R. Walsh

2009-01-01

168

Finite element analysis estimates of cement microfracture under complete veneer crowns.  

PubMed

Long-term clinical failures of complete veneer crowns are commonly attributed to microleakage of the cement. Excessive stress or fatigue cycling may create cement microfractures and promote microleakage. Two-dimensional (2D) finite element analysis (FEA) was selected to determine stress levels and distributions on dental cements resulting from 10 MPa occlusal loads on single-unit complete artificial veneer crowns during various clinical conditions. Sixteen 2D-FEA computer models were generated for a mandibular first premolar to study the effects of (1) marginal configuration (shoulder for all-ceramic crown versus chamfer for type III gold alloy crown), (2) four types of cement (zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate, glass ionomer and composite resin), and (3) two thicknesses of cement (25 and 100 microns) for single-cycle loads and fatigue loading. There was almost no difference between a chamfer and shoulder marginal configuration except at the edge of the margin where the chamfer finish lines reached 2 to 8 times greater stresses. There were minimal effects for thickness of cement and marginal configurations. Stresses were slightly less for thicker cement. Fatigue analysis was based on estimated stress versus number of cycle curves for cements and resulted in stresses below the estimated endurance limit. If the average occlusal loading levels were 10 MPa, there did not appear to be a risk of microfracture in dental cement because of mechanical loading. PMID:8006836

Kamposiora, P; Papavasilious, G; Bayne, S C; Felton, D A

1994-05-01

169

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries. Laboratory testing during the eleventh quarter focused on evaluation of the alkali-silica reaction of eight different cement compositions, four of which contain ULHS. This report provides a progress summary of ASR testing. The original laboratory procedure for measuring set cement expansion resulted in unacceptable erosion of the test specimens. In subsequent tests, a different expansion procedure was implemented and an alternate curing method for cements formulated with TXI Lightweight cement was employed to prevent sample failure caused by thermal shock. The results obtained with the modified procedure showed improvement over data obtained with the original procedure, but data for some compositions were still questionable. Additional modification of test procedures for compositions containing TXI Lightweight cement were implemented and testing is ongoing.

Fred Sabins

2003-07-31

170

Timing of syntaxial cement  

SciTech Connect

Echinodermal fragments are commonly overgrown in ancient limestones, with large single crystals growing in optical continuity over their skeletal hosts (i.e., syntaxial overgrowths). Such syntaxial cements are usually considered to have precipitated from meteoric pore waters associated with a later stage of subaerial exposure. Although several examples have been reported from ancient carbonates where petrographic relationships may indicate an early submarine formation of syntaxial cement, no occurrences have been noted in Holocene submarine-cemented rocks. Syntaxial cements of submarine origin have been found in Bermuda beachrock where isopachous high-magnesian calcite cements merge with large optically continuous crystals growing on echinodermal debris. Examination of other Holocene sediments cemented by magnesian calcite indicates that echinodermal fragments are not always overgrown syntaxially, but may be rimmed by microcrystalline calcite. The reason for this difference is not clear, although it may be a function of the spacing of nucleation sites and rates of crystal growth. A review of syntaxial cements from several localities in ancient carbonate sequences reveals that many are best interpreted as having formed in the submarine setting, whereas it is more clear that others formed from meteoric precipitation. These occurrences suggest that care should be exercised in inferring meteoric diagenesis from syntaxial overgrowths and that the possibility of submarine formation should be considered.

Perkins, R.D.

1985-02-01

171

40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ketone-Formaldehyde Resins *Melamine Resins *Phenolic Resins *Polyacetal Resins Polyacrylamide *Polyurethane Prepolymers *Polyurethane Resins *Urea Formaldehyde Resins *Urea Resins [52 FR 42568, Nov. 5, 1987, as amended...

2013-07-01

172

40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Ketone-Formaldehyde Resins *Melamine Resins *Phenolic Resins *Polyacetal Resins Polyacrylamide *Polyurethane Prepolymers *Polyurethane Resins *Urea Formaldehyde Resins *Urea Resins [52 FR 42568, Nov. 5, 1987, as amended...

2011-07-01

173

40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Ketone-Formaldehyde Resins *Melamine Resins *Phenolic Resins *Polyacetal Resins Polyacrylamide *Polyurethane Prepolymers *Polyurethane Resins *Urea Formaldehyde Resins *Urea Resins [52 FR 42568, Nov. 5, 1987, as amended...

2014-07-01

174

40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Ketone-Formaldehyde Resins *Melamine Resins *Phenolic Resins *Polyacetal Resins Polyacrylamide *Polyurethane Prepolymers *Polyurethane Resins *Urea Formaldehyde Resins *Urea Resins [52 FR 42568, Nov. 5, 1987, as amended...

2012-07-01

175

Cement and concrete  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To produce lunar cement, high-temperature processing will be required. It may be possible to make calcium-rich silicate and aluminate for cement by solar heating of lunar pyroxene and feldspar, or chemical treatment may be required to enrich the calcium and aluminum in lunar soil. The effects of magnesium and ferrous iron present in the starting materials and products would need to be evaluated. So would the problems of grinding to produce cement, mixing, forming in vacuo and low gravity, and minimizing water loss.

Corley, Gene; Haskin, Larry A.

1992-01-01

176

Improvement of casing cementation of deep and ultradeep wells. Part 2: Oilfield cements and cement additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oilfield cements and cement additives were investigated in order to improve the casing cementation of deep and ultradeep wells. Characterization and evaluation of the main oil field cements commercially available were studied. The testing was carried out according to American Petroleum Institute API standards and nonstandardized test methods (dynamic modulus of elasticity, expansion\\/shrinkage), especially the rheology, thickening time and the

K. H. Arens; M. Akstinat

1982-01-01

177

Evaluation of Resin Dissolution Using an Advanced Oxidation Process - 13241  

SciTech Connect

The ion-exchange resin is widely used in nuclear reactors, in cooling water purification and removing radioactive elements. Because of the long periods of time inside the reactor system, the resin becomes radioactive. When the useful life of them is over, its re-utilization becomes inappropriate, and for this reason, the resin is considered radioactive waste. The most common method of treatment is the immobilization of spent ion exchange resin in cement in order to form a solid monolithic matrix, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. However, the characteristic of contraction and expansion of the resin limits its incorporation in 10%, resulting in high cost in its direct immobilization. Therefore, it is recommended the utilization of a pre-treatment, capable of reducing the volume and degrading the resin, which would increase the load capacity in the immobilization. This work aims to develop a method of degradation of ion spent resins from the nuclear research reactor of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil, using the Advanced Oxidative Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagent (hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulphate as catalyst). The resin evaluated was a mixture of cationic (IR 120P) and anionic (IRA 410) resins. The reactions were conducted by varying the concentration of the catalyst (25, 50, 100 e 150 mM) and the volume of the hydrogen peroxide, at three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg. C. The time of reaction was three hours. Total organic carbon content was determined periodically in order to evaluate the degradation as a function of time. The concentration of 50 mM of catalyst was the most effective in degrading approximately 99%, using up to 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide. The most effective temperature was about 60 deg. C, because of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in higher temperatures. TOC content was influenced by the concentration of the catalyst, interfering in the beginning of the degradation process. It was possible to correlate it with the final amount of non-degraded resins. These results show that these conditions were favorable to destroy the resins, indicating to be the AOP an effective technique to reduce the volume of the waste. (authors)

Goulart de Araujo, Leandro; Vicente de Padua Ferreira, Rafael; Takehiro Marumo, Julio [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242., Sao Paulo, SP. (Brazil)] [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242., Sao Paulo, SP. (Brazil); Passos Piveli, Roque; Campos, Fabio [The Polytechnic School of the University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado, 83, trav.2. Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)] [The Polytechnic School of the University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado, 83, trav.2. Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-07-01

178

Thermodynamics and cement science  

SciTech Connect

Thermodynamics applied to cement science has proved to be very valuable. One of the most striking findings has been the extent to which the hydrate phases, with one conspicuous exception, achieve equilibrium. The important exception is the persistence of amorphous C-S-H which is metastable with respect to crystalline calcium silicate hydrates. Nevertheless C-S-H can be included in the scope of calculations. As a consequence, from comparison of calculation and experiment, it appears that kinetics is not necessarily an insuperable barrier to engineering the phase composition of a hydrated Portland cement. Also the sensitivity of the mineralogy of the AFm and AFt phase compositions to the presence of calcite and to temperature has been reported. This knowledge gives a powerful incentive to develop links between the mineralogy and engineering properties of hydrated cement paste and, of course, anticipates improvements in its performance leading to decreasing the environmental impacts of cement production.

Damidot, D., E-mail: damidot@ensm-douai.fr [Universite Lille Nord de France (France); EM Douai, LGCgE-MPE-GCE, Douai (France); Lothenbach, B. [Empa, Lab. Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Herfort, D. [Cementir Holding (Denmark); Glasser, F.P. [Chemistry Department, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

2011-07-15

179

Graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical properties of neat resin samples and graphite fiber reinforced samples of thermoplastic resins were characterized with particular emphasis directed to the effects of environmental exposure (humidity, temperature and ultraviolet radiation). Tensile, flexural, interlaminar shear, creep and impact strengths were measured for polysulfone, polyarylsulfone and a state-of-the-art epoxy resin samples. In general, the thermoplastic resins exhibited environmental degradation resistance equal to or superior to the reference epoxy resin. Demonstration of the utility and quality of a graphite/thermoplastic resin system was accomplished by successfully thermoforming a simulated compressor blade and a fan exit guide vane.

Novak, R. C.

1975-01-01

180

Effect of curing mode on the hardness of dual-cured composite resin core build-up materials.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the Knoop Hardness (KHN) values of two dual-cured composite resin core build-up materials and one resin cement exposed to different curing conditions. Two dual-cured core build-up composite resins (LuxaCore-Dual, DMG; and FluoroCore2, Dentsply Caulk), and one dual-cured resin cement (Rely X ARC, 3M ESPE) were used in the present study. The composite materials were placed into a cylindrical matrix (2 mm in height and 3 mm in diameter), and the specimens thus produced were either light-activated for 40 s (Optilux 501, Demetron Kerr) or were allowed to self-cure for 10 min in the dark (n = 5). All specimens were then stored in humidity at 37 degrees C for 24 h in the dark and were subjected to KHN analysis. The results were submitted to 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test at a pre-set alpha of 5%. All the light-activated groups exhibited higher KHN values than the self-cured ones (p = 0.00001), regardless of product. Among the self-cured groups, both composite resin core build-up materials showed higher KHN values than the dual-cured resin cement (p = 0.00001). LuxaCore-Dual exhibited higher KHN values than FluoroCore2 (p = 0.00001) when they were allowed to self-cure, while no significant differences in KHN values were observed among the light-activated products. The results suggest that dual-cured composite resin core build-up materials may be more reliable than dual-cured resin cements when curing light is not available. PMID:20658046

Arrais, César Augusto Galvão; Kasaz, Aline de Cerqueira; Albino, Luís Gustavo Barrote; Rodrigues, José Augusto; Reis, Andre Figueiredo

2010-01-01

181

Grout-based waste forms for the solidification of anion-exchange resins. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The solidification of spent ion exchange resins in a grout matrix as a means of disposing of spent organic resins produced in the nuclear fuel cycle has many advantages in terms of process simplicity and economy, but associated with the process is the potential for water/cement/resins to interact and degrade the integrity of the waste form solidified. Summarized in this document are the results of our previous investigation{sup 1} along with new results on the encapsulation of beaded anion-exchange resins in grout formulations containing ground, granulated blast furnace slag; Type 1-2 (mixed) portland cement; and additives (clays, amorphous silica, silica fume, and fly ash). The results of the studies show that the cured waste forms tested have a low leach rate for nitrate ions from the resin, a very low leach rate for {sup 99}{Tc}, and acceptable durability. The results also suggest that a surrogate waste form prepared in vinyl ester styrene binder performs satisfactorily against the wetting/drying criterion, and it should offer additional insight into future work on the solidification of spent organic resins.

Del Cul, G.D.; Morgan, I.L.; Bostick, W.D.; Osborne, P.E.

1991-12-01

182

Grout-based waste forms for the solidification of anion-exchange resins  

SciTech Connect

The solidification of spent ion exchange resins in a grout matrix as a means of disposing of spent organic resins produced in the nuclear fuel cycle has many advantages in terms of process simplicity and economy, but associated with the process is the potential for water/cement/resins to interact and degrade the integrity of the waste form solidified. Summarized in this document are the results of our previous investigation{sup 1} along with new results on the encapsulation of beaded anion-exchange resins in grout formulations containing ground, granulated blast furnace slag; Type 1-2 (mixed) portland cement; and additives (clays, amorphous silica, silica fume, and fly ash). The results of the studies show that the cured waste forms tested have a low leach rate for nitrate ions from the resin, a very low leach rate for {sup 99}{Tc}, and acceptable durability. The results also suggest that a surrogate waste form prepared in vinyl ester styrene binder performs satisfactorily against the wetting/drying criterion, and it should offer additional insight into future work on the solidification of spent organic resins.

Del Cul, G.D.; Morgan, I.L.; Bostick, W.D.; Osborne, P.E.

1991-12-01

183

Phosphonic acid based exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

1995-09-12

184

Phosphonic acid based exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

1995-01-01

185

Foamed cement: A second generation. [Foamed cement slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced technology in design and implementation of stable foamed cement systems now offers new solutions to critical oil-field cementing problems well beyond the original utility of lightweight slurries in reducing hydrostatic pressure across fracture-sensitive zones. Implications of new high-performance foamed cement capabilities are discussed for specialized applications such as thermal recovery, deep cementing in a narrow annular gap, lost-circulation control

Loeffler

1984-01-01

186

Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

187

Cement composition and method of cement casing in a well  

SciTech Connect

A novel cement composition for the preparation of a novel aqueous slurry useful in cementing casing in the borehole of a well comprising cement, a hydroxyethylcellulose ether or a mixture of a hydroxyethylcellulose ether and a hydroxypropylcellulose ether a polysaccharide produced as a result of microbial action and a dispersant.

Baker, W.S.; Harrison, J.J.

1984-07-31

188

Cement composition and method of cement casing in a well  

SciTech Connect

A novel cement composition for the preparation of a novel aqueous slurry useful in cementing casing in the borehole of a well comprising cement, a hydroxyethylcellulose ether having a critical viscosity or a mixture of a hydroxyethylcellulose ether having a critical viscosity and of a hydroxypropylcellulose ether having a critical viscosity and a dispersant.

Baker, W.S.; Harrison, J.J.

1984-07-31

189

Resin composite contours.  

PubMed

When placing posterior composite resin restorations, clinicians often struggle to achieve good contacts. Frequently contacts that are successful are only confined to the occlusal aspect of the proximal wall. A clinical technique is discussed which achieves the correct contour as well as tight contacts. The technique is also minimally invasive and highly aesthetic. PMID:20448605

Sidelsky, H

2010-05-01

190

Effects of cement-curing mode and light-curing unit on the bond durability of ceramic cemented to dentin.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different light-curing units and resin cement curing types on the bond durability of a feldspathic ceramic bonded to dentin. The crowns of 40 human molars were sectioned, exposing the dentin. Forty ceramic blocks of VITA VM7 were produced according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The ceramic surface was etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid / 60s and silanized. The dentin was treated with 37% phosphoric acid / 15s, and the adhesive was applied. The ceramic blocks were divided and cemented to dentin according to resin cement / RC curing type (dual- and photo-cured), light-curing unit (halogen light / QTH and LED), and storage conditions (dry and storage / 150 days + 12,000 cycles / thermocycling). All blocks were stored in distilled water (37°C / 24h) and sectioned (n = 10): G1 - QTH + RC Photo, G2 - QTH + RC Dual, G3 - LED + RC Photo, G4 - LED + RC Dual. Groups G5, G6, G7, and G8 were obtained exactly as G1 through G4, respectively, and then stored and thermocycled. Microtensile bond strength tests were performed (EMIC), and data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). The bond strength values (MPa) were: G1 - 12.95 (6.40)ab; G2 - 12.02 (4.59)ab; G3 - 13.09 (5.62)ab; G4 - 15.96 (6.32)a; G5 - 6.22 (5.90)c; G6 - 9.48 (5.99)bc; G7 - 12.78 (11.30)ab; and G8 - 8.34 (5.98)bc. The same superscript letters indicate no significant differences. Different light-curing units affected the bond strength between ceramic cemented to dentin when the photo-cured cement was used, and only after aging (LED > QTH). There was no difference between the effects of dual- and photo-cured resin-luting agents on the microtensile bond strength of the cement used in this study. PMID:23459773

Passos, Sheila Pestana; Souza, Rodrigo Othávio Assunção; Michida, Silvia Masae Araújo; Zamboni, Sandra Costa; Oliveira, Simone Helena Gonçalves de

2013-01-01

191

Cement Mason's Curriculum. Instructional Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assist cement mason instructors in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the skills and information necessary for cement masons in commercial and industrial construction. Ten sections are included, as follow: related information, covering orientation, safety, the history of cement, and applying…

Hendirx, Laborn J.; Patton, Bob

192

High temperature lightweight foamed cements  

DOEpatents

Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Sugama, Toshifumi.

1989-10-03

193

Communication Cement-based thermocouples  

E-print Network

Communication Cement-based thermocouples Sihai Wen, D.D.L. Chung* Composite Materials Research Received 31 May 2000; accepted 4 August 2000 Abstract A cement-based thermocouple in the form of a junction between dissimilar cement pastes and exhibiting thermocouple sensitivity 70 7 mV/°C is provided

Chung, Deborah D.L.

194

Reducing cement's CO2 footprint  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

van Oss, Hendrik G.

2011-01-01

195

High temperature lightweight foamed cements  

DOEpatents

Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

1989-01-01

196

Cement-Lock for Decontaminating  

E-print Network

Cement-Lock® Technology for Decontaminating Dredged Estuarine Sediments Topical Report N O L O G Y I N S T I T U T E Cement-Lock Demo Plant Prepared by: Michael C. Mensinger GAS conducted as part of the overall program "Cement-Lock®1 Technology for Decontaminating Dredged Estuarine

Brookhaven National Laboratory

197

Research of magnesium phosphosilicate cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium phosphosilicate cement (MPSC) is a novel phosphate bonded cement, which consists mainly of magnesia, phosphate and silicate minerals. The traditional magnesium phosphate cements (MPCs) usually composed by ammonium phosphate, and gaseous ammonia will emit during mixing and in service. There is no noxious ammonia released from MPSC, furthermore, it can recycle a large volume of the non-hazardous waste. The

Zhu Ding

2005-01-01

198

Performance Cements Focus on Sustainability  

E-print Network

. Production and quality control of limestone cements Limestone grinds more easily than clinker OverallPerformance Cements Focus on Sustainability Tim Cost, P.E. Senior Technical Service Engineer tim.cost@holcim.com NCC Meeting Baton Rouge April 9, 2008 #12;2 High Limestone Cements 5/21/08 Cost Holcim (US) Inc

199

Initial sliding wear kinetics of two types of glass ionomer cement: a tribological study.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to characterize the initial wear kinetics of two different types of glass ionomer cement used in dentistry (the conventional glass ionomer cement and the resin-modified glass ionomer cement) under sliding friction after 28-day storing in distilled water or Ringer's solution. Sliding friction was applied through a pin-on-disk tribometer, in sphere-on-plane contact conditions, under 5 N normal load and 120 rotations per minute. The test lasted 7500 cycles and replicas were performed at 2500, 5000 and 7500 cycles. A profilometer was used to evaluate the wear volume. Data were analysed using Student's t-test at a significant level of 5%. There is no statistical significant difference between the results obtained for a given material with the maturation media (P > 0.05). However, for a given maturation medium, there are significant statistical differences between the data obtained for the two materials at each measurement (P < 0.0001). The wear rates of both materials decrease continuously during the running-in period between 0 and 2500 cycles. After 2500 cycles, the wear rate becomes constant and equal for both materials. The resin matrix contained in the resin-modified glass ionomer cement weakens the tribological behaviour of this material. PMID:25093185

Villat, Cyril; Ponthiaux, Pierre; Pradelle-Plasse, Nelly; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Colon, Pierre

2014-01-01

200

High elastic modulus nanopowder reinforced resin composites for dental applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dental restorations account for more than $3 billion dollars a year on the market. Among them, all-ceramic dental crowns draw more and more attention and their popularity has risen because of their superior aesthetics and biocompatibility. However, their relatively high failure rate and labor-intensive fabrication procedure still limit their application. In this thesis, a new family of high elastic modulus nanopowder reinforced resin composites and their mechanical properties are studied. Materials with higher elastic modulus, such as alumina and diamond, are used to replace the routine filler material, silica, in dental resin composites to achieve the desired properties. This class of composites is developed to serve (1) as a high stiffness support to all-ceramic crowns and (2) as a means of joining independently fabricated crown core and veneer layers. Most of the work focuses on nano-sized Al2O3 (average particle size 47 nm) reinforcement in a polymeric matrix with 50:50 Bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA): triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. Surfactants, silanizing agents and primers are examined to obtain higher filler levels and enhance the bonding between filler and matrix. Silane agents work best. The elastic modulus of a 57.5 vol% alumina/resin composite is 31.5 GPa compared to current commercial resin composites with elastic modulus <15 GPa. Chemical additives can also effectively raise the hardness to as much as 1.34 GPa. Besides>alumina, diamond/resin composites are studied. An elastic modulus of about 45 GPa is obtained for a 57 vol% diamond/resin composite. Our results indicate that with a generally monodispersed nano-sized high modulus filler, relatively high elastic modulus resin-based composite cements are possible. Time-dependent behavior of our resin composites is also investigated. This is valuable for understanding the behavior of our material and possible fatigue testing in the future. Our results indicate that with effective coupling agents and higher filler loading, viscous flow can be greatly decreased due to the attenuation of mobility of polymer chains. Complementary studies indicate that our resin composites are promising for the proposed applications as a stiff support to all-ceramic crowns.

Wang, Yijun

2007-12-01

201

Novel experimental cements for use on the dentin-pulp complex.  

PubMed

This aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and biological properties of novel experimental cements (Hybrid, Paste and Resin) based on synergistic combinations of existing materials, including pH, diametral tensile strength (DTS) and cytotoxicity comparing them with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA - Angelus®) and a glass ionomer cement (GIC) developed at our laboratory. For the physicochemical and biological tests, specimens with standard dimensions were produced. pH measurements were performed with digital pH meter at the following time intervals: 3, 24, 48 and 72 h. For the DTS test, cylindrical specimens were subjected to compressive load until fracture. The MTT assay was performed for cytotoxicity evaluation. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). Paste group showed pH values similar to MTA, and Hybrid group presented pH values similar to GIC (p>0.05). The tested materials showed pH values ranging from alkaline to near neutrality at the evaluated times. MTA and GIC showed similar DTS values. The lowest and highest DTS values were seen in the Paste and Resin groups, respectively (p<0.05). Cell viability for MTA and experimental Hybrid, Paste and Resin groups was 49%, 93%, 90% and 86%, respectively, when compared with the control group. The photo-cured experimental resin cement showed similar or superior performance compared with the current commercial or other tested experimental materials. PMID:23207847

Dantas, Raquel Venâncio Fernandes; Conde, Marcus Cristian Muniz; Sarmento, Hugo Ramalho; Zanchi, Cesar Henrique; Tarquinio, Sandra Beatriz Chaves; Ogliari, Fabrício Aulo; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

2012-01-01

202

Effectiveness of surface protection for glass-ionomer, resin-modified glass-ionomer and polyacid-modified composite resins.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of several surface protectors for a glass-ionomer, a resin-modified glass-ionomer, and a polyacid-modified resin cement by determining dye uptake spectrophotometrically. 378 samples, made up of Ionofil U, Vitremer, and Dyract, were prepared and divided into groups of seven each. Positive and negative control specimens remained unprotected while the experimental specimens were protected with Finishing Gloss, Protect-It, LC Varnish, Adper Single Bond, or a nail varnish. The experimental groups and positive controls were immersed in 0.05% methylene blue solution, while the negative controls were immersed in deionized water. Results were evaluated using variance analysis. Of the Ionofil U group, Adper Single Bond exhibited the least effective surface coating among the materials tested, while the best surface protection was obtained with LC Varnish in the Dyract group. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in the Vitremer group. PMID:19280974

Karao?lano?lu, Serpil; Akgül, Nilgün; Ozdabak, Hatice Nur; Akgül, Hayati Murat

2009-01-01

203

Modelling cement grinding circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling and simulation studies were carried out at 26 cement clinker grinding circuits including tube mills, air separators and high pressure grinding rolls in 8 plants. The results reported earlier have shown that tube mills can be modelled as several mills in series, and the internal partition in tube mills can be modelled as a screen which must retain coarse

H. Benzer; L. Ergun; A. J. Lynch; M. Oner; A. Gunlu; I. B. Celik; N. Aydogan

2001-01-01

204

Waiting Time for Coronal Preparation and the Influence of Different Cements on Tensile Strength of Metal Posts  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to assess the effect of post-cementation waiting time for core preparation of cemented cast posts and cores had on retention in the root canal, using two different luting materials. Sixty extracted human canines were sectioned 16?mm from the root apex. After cast nickel-chromium metal posts and cores were fabricated and luted with zinc phosphate (ZP) cement or resin cement (RC), the specimens were divided into 3 groups (n = 10) according to the waiting time for core preparation: no preparation (control), 15 minutes, or 1 week after the core cementation. At the appropriate time, the specimens were subjected to a tensile load test (0.5?mm/min) until failure. Two-way ANOVA (time versus cement) and the Tukey tests (P < 0.05) showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) tensile strength values for the ZP cement groups than for the RC groups. Core preparation and post-cementation waiting time for core recontouring did not influence the retention strength. ZP was the best material for intraradicular metal post cementation. PMID:22291705

Oliveira, Ilione Kruschewsky Costa Sousa; Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira Lima; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

2012-01-01

205

An in-vitro comparative study of the retention of grooved and flat endodontic posts in treated root canals using two different types of cements.  

PubMed

This study evaluated and compared the retentive capability of performed cast posts in endodontically treated premolar teeth using the following: 1--smooth versus grooved post design 2--surface treatment of the root canals with either 17% EDTA followed by 2.25% Naocl or using Naocl only. 3--cementation of the posts with either polycarboxylate cement or C & B Metabond. Cast metal posts were made, cemented in root canals and divided into groups representing combinations of variables. The force required for post removal were recorded and statistically analysed. The results indicated that cementation of the grooved cast metal post with polycarboxylate cement after removal of the smear layer was the most retentive system. More over C & B Metabond resin cement with any post design in presence or absence of smear layer gave high retentive values. PMID:9497698

Mohammed, A N; Seif, R E; Wahbi, M

1995-10-01

206

Silorane resin supports proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of MLO-A5 bone cells in vitro and bone formation in vivo.  

PubMed

Methyl methacrylate used in bone cements has drawbacks of toxicity, high exotherm, and considerable shrinkage. A new resin, based on silorane/oxirane chemistry, has been shown to have little toxicity, low exotherm, and low shrinkage. We hypothesized that silorane-based resins may also be useful as components of bone cements as well as other bone applications and began testing on bone cell function in vitro and in vivo. MLO-A5, late osteoblast cells, were exposed to polymerized silorane (SilMix) resin (and a standard polymerized bisGMA/TEGDMA methacrylate (BT) resin and compared to culture wells without resins as control. A significant cytotoxic effect was observed with the BT resin resulting in no cell growth, whereas in contrast, SilMix resin had no toxic effects on MLO-A5 cell proliferation, differentiation, nor mineralization. The cells cultured with SilMix produced increasing amounts of alkaline phosphatase (1.8-fold) compared to control cultures. Compared to control cultures, an actual enhancement of mineralization was observed in the silorane resin-containing cultures at days 10 and 11 as determined by von Kossa (1.8-2.0 fold increase) and Alizarin red staining (1.8-fold increase). A normal bone calcium/phosphate atomic ratio was observed by elemental analysis along with normal collagen formation. When used in vivo to stabilize osteotomies, no inflammatory response was observed, and the bone continued to heal. In conclusion, the silorane resin, SilMix, was shown to not only be non cytototoxic, but actually supported bone cell function. Therefore, this resin has significant potential for the development of a nontoxic bone cement or bone stabilizer. PMID:22278990

Eick, J David; Barragan-Adjemian, Cielo; Rosser, Jennifer; Melander, Jennifer R; Dusevich, Vladimir; Weiler, Rachel A; Miller, Bradley D; Kilway, Kathleen V; Dallas, Mark R; Bi, Lianxing; Nalvarte, Elisabet L; Bonewald, Lynda F

2012-04-01

207

Advanced thermoplastic resins, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight thermoplastic polyimide resin systems were evaluated as composite matrix materials. Two resins were selected for more extensive mechanical testing and both were versions of LaRC-TPI (Langley Research Center - Thermoplastic Polyimide). One resin was made with LaRC-TPI and contained 2 weight percent of a di(amic acid) dopant as a melt flow aid. The second system was a 1:1 slurry of semicrystalline LaRC-TPI powder in a polyimidesulfone resin diglyme solution. The LaRC-TPI powder melts during processing and increases the melt flow of the resin. Testing included dynamic mechanical analysis, tension and compression testing, and compression-after-impact testing. The test results demonstrated that the LaRC-TPI resins have very good properties compared to other thermoplastics, and that they are promising matrix materials for advanced composite structures.

Hendricks, C. L.; Hill, S. G.; Falcone, A.; Gerken, N. T.

1991-01-01

208

76 FR 76760 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...No. 731-TA-461 (Third Review)] Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan Determination On the basis of the...revocation of the antidumping duty order on gray Portland cement and cement clinker from Japan would be likely to...

2011-12-08

209

Vitrification of ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to vitrification of ion exchange resins that have become loaded with hazardous or radioactive wastes, in a way that produces a homogenous and durable waste form and reduces the disposal volume of the resin. The methods of the present invention involve directly adding borosilicate glass formers and an oxidizer to the ion exchange resin and heating the mixture at sufficient temperature to produce homogeneous glass.

Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Workman, Rhonda Jackson (North Augusta, SC)

2001-01-01

210

Mineral resource of the month: hydraulic cement  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydraulic cements are the binders in concrete and most mortars and stuccos. Concrete, particularly the reinforced variety, is the most versatile of all construction materials, and most of the hydraulic cement produced worldwide is portland cement or similar cements that have portland cement as a basis, such as blended cements and masonry cements. Cement typically makes up less than 15 percent of the concrete mix; most of the rest is aggregates. Not counting the weight of reinforcing media, 1 ton of cement will typically yield about 8 tons of concrete.

van Oss, Hendrik G.

2012-01-01

211

Cement from magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite.  

PubMed

Brushite cement may be used as a bone graft material and is more soluble than apatite in physiological conditions. Consequently it is considerably more resorbable in vivo than apatite forming cements. Brushite cement formation has previously been reported by our group following the mixture of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and phosphoric acid. In this study, brushite cement was formed from the reaction of nanocrystalline magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite with phosphoric acid in an attempt to produce a magnesium substituted brushite cement. The presence of magnesium was shown to have a strong effect on cement composition and strength. Additionally the presence of magnesium in brushite cement was found to reduce the extent of brushite hydrolysis resulting in the formation of HA. By incorporating magnesium ions in the apatite reactant structure the concentration of magnesium ions in the liquid phase of the cement was controlled by the dissolution rate of the apatite. This approach may be used to supply other ions to cement systems during setting as a means to manipulate the clinical performance and characteristics of brushite cements. PMID:15875256

Lilley, K J; Gbureck, U; Knowles, J C; Farrar, D F; Barralet, J E

2005-05-01

212

A new polyimide laminatine resin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addition polyimide for composite materials is based on liquid monomers and has significant advantages over most existing high-temperature resins. Essentially solventless prepreg has improved drape, tack.

Barrick, J. D. W.; Jewell, R. A.; Stclair, T. L.

1977-01-01

213

Phosphorus-containing bisimide resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The production of fire-resistant resins particularly useful for making laminates with inorganic fibers such as graphite fibers is discussed. The resins are by (1) condensation of an ethylenically unsaturated cyclic anhydride with a bis(diaminophenyl) phosphine oxide, and (2) by addition polymerization of the bisimide so obtained. Up to about 50%, on a molar basis, of benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid anhydride can be substituted for some of the cyclic anhydride to alter the properties of the products. Graphite cloth laminates made with these resins show 800 C char yields greater than 70% by weight in nitrogen. Limiting oxygen indexes of more than 100% are determined for these resins.

Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (inventors)

1981-01-01

214

Thermal Shock-resistant Cement  

SciTech Connect

We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved cement, causing its volume to expand.

Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

2012-02-01

215

Design guidelines for steel-reinforced polymer concrete using resins based on recycled PET  

SciTech Connect

Very little research has been done on the structural behavior of steel-reinforced polymer concrete (PC). In all the previous studies, it was generally assumed that the structural behavior of reinforced PC is similar to the structural behavior of reinforced portland cement concrete because both are composite materials consisting of a binder and inorganic aggregates. However, the design equations developed for steel-reinforced portland cement concrete yield very conservative results when applied to reinforced PC. The objective of this paper is to recommend simple, yet effective design guidelines in shear and flexure for steel-reinforced PC. The recommended design procedures are mostly based on test results performed on PC beams using resins based on recycled poly(ethyleneterephthalate), PET, plastic waste (the PET waste is mainly recovered from used beverage bottles). Previous studies have shown that polyester resins based on recycled PET can produce very good quality PC at a potentially lower cost.

Rebeiz, K.S. [Lafayette Coll., Easton, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Fowler, D.W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-10-01

216

Comparison of rotary cement kiln identified models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotary cement kiln is the main part of a cement plant that clinker is produced in it. Clinker is the main ingredient of cement. Continual and prolonged operation of rotary cement kiln is vital in cement factories. However, prolonged operation of the kiln is not possible and periodic repairs of the refractory lining would become necessary, due to non-linear phenomena

G. Noshirvani; A. Fatehi; B. Araabi; M. Shirvani; M. Azizi

2009-01-01

217

40 CFR 721.9495 - Acrylosilane resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Acrylosilane resins. 721.9495 Section 721.9495 ...Substances § 721.9495 Acrylosilane resins. (a) Chemical substance and significant...chemical substances identified as acrylosilane resins (PMNs P-95-1024/1040) are...

2010-07-01

218

21 CFR 177.1380 - Fluorocarbon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fluorocarbon resins. 177.1380 Section 177.1380 Food and Drugs...Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1380 Fluorocarbon resins. Fluorocarbon resins may be safely used as articles or components...

2010-04-01

219

21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin applicator. 872.3140 Section 872.3140...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin applicator. (a) Identification. A resin applicator is a brushlike device intended...

2010-04-01

220

Effect of Hygroscopic Expansion on the Push-Out Resistance of Glass Ionomer-Based Cements Used for the Luting of Glass Fiber Posts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contribution of hygroscopic expansion of glass-ionomer (GIC) and resin modified glass-ionomer (RMGIC) luting cements to the push-out resistance of fiber posts. Glass fiber posts were luted to post spaces using different cements. Experimental specimens were stored in water, while control specimens were desiccated and stored in mineral oil to eliminate water from intraradicular dentinal tubules and\\/or

Álvaro H. Cury; Cecilia Goracci; Maria Fidela de Lima Navarro; Ricardo M. Carvalho; Fernanda T. Sadek; Franklin R. Tay; Marco Ferrari

2006-01-01

221

Indirect resin composites  

PubMed Central

Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ‘indirect resin composites,’ composite inlays,’ and ‘fiber-reinforced composites.’ PMID:21217945

Nandini, Suresh

2010-01-01

222

Cement penetration after patella venting.  

PubMed

There is a high rate of patellofemoral complications following total knee arthroplasty. Optimization of the cement-bone interface by venting and suction of the tibial plateau has been shown to improve cement penetration. Our study was designed to investigate if venting the patella prior to cementing improved cement penetration. Ten paired cadaver patellae were allocated prior to resurfacing to be vented or non-vented. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by DEXA scanning. In vented specimens, a 1.6 mm Kirschner wire was used to breach the anterior cortex at the center. Specimens were resurfaced with standard Profix instrumentation and Versabond bone cement (Smith and Nephew PLC, UK). Cement penetration was assessed from Faxitron and sectioned images by a digital image software package (ImageJ V1.38, NIH, USA). Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess the difference in cement penetration between groups. The relationship between BMD and cement penetration was analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient. There was a strong negative correlation between peak BMD and cement penetration when analyzed independent of experimental grouping (r(2)=-0.812, p=0.004). Wilcoxon rank sum testing demonstrated no significant difference (rank sum statistic W=27, p=0.579) in cement penetration between vented (10.53%+/-4.66; mean+/-std dev) and non-vented patellae (11.51%+/-6.23; mean+/-std dev). Venting the patella using a Kirschner wire does not have a significant effect on the amount of cement penetration achieved in vitro using Profix instrumentation and Versabond cement. PMID:19010682

Jones, Christopher W; Lam, Li-On; Butler, Adam; Wood, David J; Walsh, William R

2009-01-01

223

Inflammatory studies on bone cement.  

E-print Network

?? Simvastatin, a cholesterol lowering drug, has the capacity to stimulate bone formation along with having anti-inflammatory effects. Incorporating simvastatin to the calcium phosphate cement… (more)

Modugu, Asha

2012-01-01

224

Speciality cements with advanced properties  

SciTech Connect

The subject matter, specialty cements with advanced properties, highlight some of the recent progress in the non-standard cementitious systems. The topic was intended to be broad enough to include MDF and DSP cement, as well as phosphate-based and other binders. The response to this broad request resulted in a wide variational sampling of potential binder systems, which included calcium phosphates, magnesium phosphates, silica systems derived from sodium fluosilicates, stratlingite glasses, alkali-activated blended cements, and aluminophosphates. Presentations also addressed in depth, the underlying processing and fundamental insight into macro defect cements and DSP.

Scheetz, B.E. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)); Landers, A.G. (Armstrong World Industries, Lancaster, PA (US)); Odler, I. (Technische Univ., Clausthal (DE)); Jennings, H. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States))

1991-01-01

225

Imide modified epoxy matrix resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High char yield epoxy using novel bisimide amines (BIA's) as curing agents with a state of the art epoxy resin was developed. Stoichiometric quantities of the epoxy resin and the BIA's were studied to determine the cure cycle required for preparation of resin specimens. The bisimide cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). The physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these novel resins were determined. The levels of moisture absorption exhibited by the bisimide amine cured expoxies (IME's) were considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies. The strain-to-failure of the control resin system was improved 25% by replacement of DDS with 6F-DDS. Each BIA containing resin exhibited twice the char yield of the control resin MY 720/DDS. Graphite fiber reinforced control (C) and IME resins were fabricated and characterized. Two of the composite systems showed superior properties compared to the other Celion 6000/IME composite systems and state of the art graphite epoxy systems. The two systems exhibited excellent wet shear and flexural strengths and moduli at 300 and 350 F.

Scola, D. A.; Pater, R. H.

1981-01-01

226

Study of two MTA cements  

PubMed Central

Introduction: To determine and compare the pH, conductivity and calcium release of an experimental Portland cement (PE) consisting of trioxid mineral aggregate and a comercially available modified Portland cement (C.P.M.) after 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 15 and 30 days. Material and Methods: Cements were mixed following the manufacturer’s instructions, with a powder: liquid ratio of 3:1. Each cement was placed in 12 PVC tubes 1 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length and allowed to set. Four empty tubes were used as negative controls. Tubes were submerged in plastic flasks containing 10 ml deionized water and stored at 37ºC and 100% humidity. After 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 15 and 30 days tubes were removed from the flasks and these were refilled with deionized water. We measured pH, conductivity and calcium content of the recovered solution. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: pH was 0.3 units more alkaline with PE cement (p=0.023). pH experienced a slight decrease with time (p<0.001), independently of the cement type (p>0.05). Conductivity of PE and CPM cements diminished at 4 days and almost recovered at 30 days (p<0.001). PE cement had a higher conductivity (p<0.001). Calcium release diminished from the first day and recovered at 30 days (p<0.001) similarly for both cements (p>0.05). Conclusions: PE cement raised pH slightly more and had higher conductivity than CPM. Calcium release diminished after the first day and recovered at 30 days, similarly for both cements. Key words:Mineral trioxide aggregate, pH, electrical conductivity, periapical surgery. PMID:25350596

Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Faus, Vicente; Ballester, María-Luisa; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo

2014-01-01

227

Phosphate based oil well cements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main application of the cement in an oil well is to stabilize the steel casing in the borehole and protect it from corrosion. The cement is pumped through the borehole and is pushed upwards through the annulus between the casing and the formation. The cement will be exposed to temperature and pressure gradients of the borehole. Modified Portland cement that is being used presently has several shortcomings for borehole sealant. The setting of the Portland cement in permafrost regions is poor because the water in it will freeze even before the cement sets and because of high porosity and calcium oxide, a major ingredient it gets easily affected by the down hole gases such as carbon dioxide. The concept of phosphate bonded cements was born out of considerable work at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on their use in stabilization of radioactive and hazardous wastes. Novel cements were synthesized by an acid base reaction between a metal oxide and acid phosphate solution. The major objective of this research is to develop phosphate based oil well cements. We have used thermodynamics along with solution chemistry principles to select calcined magnesium oxide as candidate metal oxide for temperatures up to 200°F (93.3°C) and alumina for temperatures greater than 200°F (93.3°C). Solution chemistry helped us in selecting mono potassium phosphate as the acid component for temperatures less than 200°F (93.3°C) and phosphoric acid solution greater than 200°F (93.3°C). These phosphate cements have performance superior to common Portland well cements in providing suitable thickening time, better mechanical and physical properties.

Natarajan, Ramkumar

228

The apical seal of root canal sealing cements using a radionuclide detection technique.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical seal obtained with various root canal sealing cements using a new method based on the use of a radionuclide and an external detection technique. A total of 150 maxillary incisors and canines, which had been kept in saline solution, were used. The root canals were instrumented with a stepback technique and circumferential filing. Six experimental groups and two control groups were randomly formed. Each experimental group was obturated by a lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha points and a different sealing cement (two based on zinc oxide-eugenol cement, two based on resins and two on calcium hydroxide); the positive control used gutta-percha without sealing cement, while in the negative control the apex was covered with nail varnish, leaving the root canal empty. The apical leakage was measured using an external detection technique after submerging the root apices in a solution containing the radioisotope metastable 99Tc. No leakage was observed in the negative control group. There was a large difference between the leakage observed in the positive control group and the experimental groups. The best seal was obtained using Sealapex cement, which differed significantly from AH26, Tubli-Seal and Diaket; there was no significant difference between the latter. The poorest results were obtained with Endomethasone and CRCS; there was a significant difference between these and the previous three sealing cements. PMID:1337901

Canalda-Sahli, C; Brau-Aguade, E; Sentis-Vilalta, J; Aguade-Bruix, S

1992-09-01

229

Effect of ultrasonic vibration and various sealer and cement combinations on titanium post removal.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ultrasonic vibration on the force required to remove prefabricated posts. Ninety-six extracted human canines were divided into eight groups, which were prepared and obturated with gutta-percha and either a eugenol-containing (Roth's 801 Elite) or eugenol-free (AH26) sealer. Titanium #6 Parapost XH posts were cemented with either zinc phosphate or Panavia 21 resin cement. One half of the sample was subjected to ultrasonic vibration for 16 min at the post-dentin interface, whereas the other half received no vibration (controls). Each combination of sealer, cement, and vibration status was subjected to tensile load to failure using an Instron testing machine. Posts cemented in teeth obturated with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer demonstrated significantly greater resistance to dislodgement, compared with teeth obturated with gutta-percha and Roth's 801 Elite sealer. There was no statistical difference in retention of posts cemented with either zinc phosphate or Panavia 21, regardless of the sealer used. Additionally ultrasonic vibration increased post retention for both cements. PMID:11487157

Bergeron, B E; Murchison, D F; Schindler, W G; Walker, W A

2001-01-01

230

An ex vivo assessment of resin-modified glass ionomer bonding systems in relation to ceramic bracket debond.  

PubMed

This ex vivo study assessed three new resin-modified glass ionomer cements (Fuji ORTHO LC, Vitremer, and Dyract-Cem) in relation to ceramic bracket removal. It was hypothesized that the use of these cements would facilitate bracket removal and eliminate debond complications Eighty extracted premolar teeth were divided into four groups of 20 teeth and bonded with Intrigue brackets using each of the resin-modified cements (groups 1, 2, and 3), the control group 4 was bonded with Concise chemically-cured adhesive. The teeth were debonded by applying a shear load using an Instron universal testing machine. The mean force to debond was calculated for each group and each tooth was examined under the stereomicroscope to record the site of bond failure and the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). The results showed that the resin-modified cements were very effective at eliminating ceramic bracket debond problems. Bracket fracture was eliminated compared with a 40 per cent fracture rate with the control and the ARI scores were all reduced. The elimination of debond problems appears to be related to the significantly reduced (P < 0.001 using ANOVA and Tukey tests) mean and maximal debond forces compared with the control. PMID:11099572

Larmour, C J; McCabe, J F; Gordon, P H

2000-12-01

231

Speciality cements with advanced properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject matter, specialty cements with advanced properties, highlight some of the recent progress in the non-standard cementitious systems. The topic was intended to be broad enough to include MDF and DSP cement, as well as phosphate-based and other binders. The response to this broad request resulted in a wide variational sampling of potential binder systems, which included calcium phosphates,

B. E. Scheetz; A. G. Landers; I. Odler; H. Jennings

1991-01-01

232

Calculator programs replace cementing tables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two programs written for use on the two most popular programmable calculators solve routine volume and fill problems using data available on the drill floor. And while those familiar books of cementing tables should be kept for special jobs, the programs given here provide quick solutions to everyday cementing problems. Programs are presented for the solution of annular volume and

Landry

1987-01-01

233

[Thermal diffusivity of dental cements].  

PubMed

Thermal insulative efficiency, is one of the desirable properties of the dental cements. In this study, the thermal diffusivity of three types of dental cements, were measured. Thermal diffusivity was determined by the following method. Two thermo-couples were used and connected to a chart record, the first was embedded in the cylindrical block of the cement specimen and the other in a mixing of ice and water (reference thermocouple). All them were set in a apparatus consisting of a double cooling bath. Calculation of thermal diffusivity were based on the curve provided of the record during cooling of the cement and a theoretical mathematic model. Values were ranged from 2,985 to 3,934 cm2.sec-1. ZOE cement exhibited the highest value, the glass-ionomers the lowest and the poly-carboxylates were average. The results showed that the thermal diffusivity of the cements is dependent from the type of the cement but the differences between them were not statistically significant. Additionally, the values obtained were about the same as the dentin, so the dental cements may consider as good thermal insulators. PMID:2130338

Paroussis, D; Kakaboura, A; Chrysafidis, C; Mauroyiannakis, E

1990-08-01

234

Al-organic matter associations as cementing substances of ochreous brown soil aggregates: Preliminary examination  

SciTech Connect

The resistance of soil structural units to breakdown in water, Na resin, or H resin suspension was determined kinetically for a very water-stable organic soil. Aggregate stability to Na or H resin was mainly a function of the more or less hydrophobic nature of Al-organic matter associations. Soil organic matter dissolution was a good tracer of the wetting process, and this study shows that two kinds of Al-organic matter associations act as cementing substances in such very water-stable, temperate, organic soils. The first association was organic matter similar to fulvic acids but richer in polysaccharides and peptides, weakly associated with exchangeable Al. The second association was organic matter also similar to fulvic acids but much richer in oxygenated functional groups and in nitrogenous compounds, probably strongly associated with porrly-ordered hydrous Al oxides. They were disrupted by Na and H resin, respectively. In both kinetic treatments, correlations among soil disaggregation, exchanged or/and dissolved Al, and dissolved organic matter were observed and interpreted as follows: breakup of soil aggregates into smaller units could have been caused by the pressure of entrapped air which increased as a function of the soil wettability state from water treatment to Na resin treatment and finally to H resin treatment.

Bartoli, F.; Philippy, R. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Nancy (France))

1990-10-01

235

Validation of the small-punch test as a technique for characterizing the mechanical properties of acrylic bone cement.  

PubMed

This paper examines the validity of using the small-punch test technique as a means of quantifying the mechanical properties of acrylic bone cement under different test conditions. The elastic moduli calculated using the small-punch test method were compared with data measured using the international standard for acrylic bone resin, ISO 5833. Conclusions from the study indicate that the small-punch test is a reproducible miniature specimen test method that can be used to characterize the mechanical properties of retrieved acrylic bone cement as used in total joint replacement surgery. Moreover, the test conditions were found to influence the elastic modulus of acrylic bone cement. The test temperature had a greater effect on the elastic behaviour of the bone cement than the test medium. PMID:16459442

Dunne, N J; Leonard, D; Daly, C; Buchanan, F J; Orr, J F

2006-01-01

236

Cement brand and preparation effects cement-in-cement mantle shear strength.  

PubMed

Creating bi-laminar cement mantles as part of revision hip arthroplasty is well-documented but there is a lack of data concerning the effect of cement brand on the procedure. The aim of this study was to compare the shear strength of bi-laminar cement mantles using various combinations of two leading bone cement brands.Bi-laminar cement mantles were created using Simplex P with Tobramycin, and Palacos R+G: Simplex-Simplex (SS); Simplex-Palacos (SP); Palacos-Simplex (PS); and Palacos-Palacos (PP). Additionally, specimens were produced by rasping (R) the surface of the original mantle, or leaving it unrasped (U), leading to a total of eight groups (n = 10). Specimens were loaded in shear, at 0.1 mm/min, until failure, and the maximum shear strength calculated.The highest mean shear strength was found in the PSU and PSR groups (23.69 and 23.89 MPa respectively), and the lowest in the PPU group (14.70 MPa), which was significantly lower than all but two groups. Unrasped groups generally demonstrated greater standard error than rasped groups.In a further comparison to assess the effect of the new cement mantle brand, irrespective of the brand of the original mantle, Simplex significantly increased the shear strength compared to Palacos with equivalent preparation.It is recommended that the original mantle is rasped prior to injection of new cement, and that Simplex P with Tobramycin be used in preference to Palacos R+G irrespective of the existing cement type. Further research is needed to investigate more cement brands, and understand the underlying mechanisms relating to cement-in-cement procedures. PMID:25044271

Holsgrove, Timothy P; Pentlow, Alanna; Spencer, Robert F; Miles, Anthony W

2015-02-10

237

Chromatography resin support  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

Dobos, James G. (North Augusta, SC)

2002-01-01

238

Reduction of polyester resin shrinkage by means of epoxy resin—I. Epoxy resin modified with acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt was made to decrease the shrinkage of unsaturated polyester resin, taking place during radiation-induced curing, by the addition of epoxy resin. In order to combine chemically both resins, the epoxy component was modified with cinnamic and acrylic acids. A composition of 90 parts of polyesster resin, 10 parts of epoxy resin modified with cinnamic acid, and 150 parts of a silica filler showed a volume shrinkage of 1.2%.

Pietrzak, M.; Brzostowski, A.

239

Dual setting ?-tricalcium phosphate cements.  

PubMed

An extension of the application of calcium phosphate cements (CPC) to load-bearing defects, e.g. in vertebroplasty, would require less brittle cements with an increased fracture toughness. Here we report the modification of CPC made of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) with 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), which is polymerised during setting to obtain a mechanically stable polymer-ceramic composite with interpenetrating organic and inorganic networks. The cement liquid was modified by the addition of 30-70 % HEMA and ammoniumpersulfate/tetramethylethylendiamine as initiator. Modification of ?-TCP cement paste with HEMA decreased the setting time from 14 min to 3-8 min depending on the initiator concentration. The 4-point bending strength was increased from 9 MPa to more than 14 MPa when using 50 % HEMA, while the bending modulus decreased from 18 GPa to approx. 4 GPa. The addition of ?50 % HEMA reduced the brittle fracture behaviour of the cements and resulted in an increase of the work of fracture by more than an order of magnitude. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the degree of transformation of ?-TCP to calcium deficient hydroxyapatite was lower for polymer modified cements (82 % for polymer free cement and 55 % for 70 % HEMA) after 24 h setting, while the polymerisation of HEMA in the cement liquid was quantitative according to FT-IR spectroscopy. This work demonstrated the feasibility of producing fracture resistant dual-setting calcium phosphate cements by adding water soluble polymerisable monomers to the liquid cement phase, which may be suitable for an application in load-bearing bone defects. PMID:23239262

Christel, T; Kuhlmann, M; Vorndran, E; Groll, J; Gbureck, U

2013-03-01

240

Resin/graphite fiber composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature resin matrices suitable for use in advanced graphite fiber composites for jet engine applications were evaluated. A series of planned, sequential screening experiments with resin systems in composite form were performed to reduce the number of candidates to a single A-type polyimide resin that repetitively produced void-free, high strength and modulus composites acceptable for use in the 550 F range for 1000 hours. An optimized processing procedure was established for this system. Extensive mechanical property studies characterized this single system, at room temperature, 500 F, 550 F and 600 F, for various exposure times.

Cavano, P. J.; Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.

1972-01-01

241

Flammability screening tests of resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selected flammability characteristics of glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins are evaluated. A protocol for the evaluation of the flammability hazards presented by glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins and the usefulness of that protocol with two laminates are presented. The glass laminates of an epoxy resin, M-751 are evaluated for: (1) determination of smoke generation from the laminates; (2) analysis of products of oxidative degradation of the laminates; (3) determination of minimum oxygen necessary to maintain flaming oxidation; (4) evaluation of toxicological hazards.

Arhart, R. W.; Farrar, D. G.; Hughes, B. M.

1979-01-01

242

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange-resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, Andrzej W. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Plymouth, PA); Alexandratos, Spiro (Knoxville, TN); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

1998-01-27

243

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorus. The pendent groups have the formula as shown in the patent wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R{sup 1} is hydrogen or an C{sub 1}-C{sub 2} alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, A.W.; Gatrone, R.C.; Alexandratos, S.; Horwitz, E.P.

1997-04-08

244

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, Andrzej W. (Knoxbille, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Plymouth, PA); Alexandratos, Spiro (Knoxville, TN); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01

245

Corrosion resistant cemented carbide  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a corrosion resistant cemented carbide composite. It comprises: a granular tungsten carbide phase, a semi-continuous solid solution carbide phase extending closely adjacent at least a portion of the grains of tungsten carbide for enhancing corrosion resistance, and a substantially continuous metal binder phase. The cemented carbide composite consisting essentially of an effective amount of an anti-corrosion additive, from about 4 to about 16 percent by weight metal binder phase, and with the remaining portion being from about 84 to about 96 percent by weight metal carbide wherein the metal carbide consists essentially of from about 4 to about 30 percent by weight of a transition metal carbide or mixtures thereof selected from Group IVB and of the Periodic Table of Elements and from about 70 to about 96 percent tungsten carbide. The metal binder phase consists essentially of nickel and from about 10 to about 25 percent by weight chromium, the effective amount of an anti-corrosion additive being selected from the group consisting essentially of copper, silver, tine and combinations thereof.

Hong, J.

1990-10-16

246

A Comparative Study of Color Stability and Fluoride Release from Glass Ionomer Cements Combined with Chlorhexidine  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: Restoring carious teeth is one of the major treatment needs of young children. Glass ionomer cement (GIC) systems had become the most important dental restorative and luting materials for use in preschoolers, children and teenagers. Several attempts in developing GIC with antibacterial effects by addition of bactericides, such as chlorhexidine, have been reported. Aim: Aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the color and fluoride ion release of conventional and resin-modified GICs in combination with 1.25 and 2.5% chlorhexidine diacetate. Materials and methods: The control groups consisted of conventional GIC and resin-modified GIC. The experimental groups consisted of conventional and resin-modified GIC groups, consisting of 1.25 and 2.5% chlorhexidine. A total of six groups were included with each group being allotted 20 specimens for the evaluation of color stability and 10 specimens each were allotted for the evaluation of fluoride release. Color and fluoride release were recorded using spectrophoto-meter and fluoride selective electrode respectively at 24 hours 7 days and 1 month. Results: Resin-modified GIC groups showed less color stability and better fluoride release at the end of the study compared to conventional GIC groups. Conclusion: There was no significant change in color and fluoride release between 1.25 and 2.5% conventional GIC and also between 1.25 and 2.5% resin-modified GIC combined with chlorhexidine diacetate at the end of the study. Conventional GIC showed better color stability and less fluoride release compared to resin-modified GIC. How to cite this article: Prabhakar AR, Pattanshetti K, Sugandhan S. A Comparative Study of Color Stability and Fluoride Release from Glass Ionomer Cements Combined with Chlorhexidine. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(1):26-29. PMID:25206183

Pattanshetti, Kirti; Sugandhan, S

2013-01-01

247

Transport in Cement:Transport in Cement: Relating Permeability and PoreRelating Permeability and Pore  

E-print Network

Transport in Cement:Transport in Cement: Relating Permeability and PoreRelating Permeability, 2004 #12;OutlineOutline Cement Manufacturing and StructureCement Manufacturing and Structure ofofCalcinated in rotaryin rotary kiln at 1500 C for 30kiln at 1500 C for 30-- 40 minutes40 minutes Produces Cement

Petta, Jason

248

Reduction of load-bearing capacity of all-ceramic crowns due to cement aging.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate how water aging of the resin cement influences the stress distribution in all-ceramic crowns and if there is an increase in the propensity for crown failure. The failure of all-ceramic crowns attributed to cement degradation was explored using a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Sectioned all-ceramic crown specimens were fabricated of IPS e.max Ceram/e.max Press (CP) and Vita VM9/Cercon zirconia (VZ), and then stored in either air or distilled water for 30 days. Monotonic contact loads were applied to fracture near the buccal cusp ridge of each sample. Deformation within the crown layers during loading was analyzed by means of Digital Image Correlation (DIC). A 3D finite element model of the restoration including veneer, core, cement and tooth substrate was developed to evaluate the stress distribution in the crowns before and after cement degradation. There was a significant decrease (p<0.001) in the critical fracture load and a change in the fracture mode after cement water absorption in the CP crowns. In contrast, there was no significant influence of cement aging on fracture modes and fracture loads (p>0.05) in the VZ crowns. Finite element analysis showed that regardless of the crown types, the stress distribution is identical by degradation in Young's modulus of the cement. However, core/substrate debonding results in a change of the stress distribution and a significant increase in the magnitude. Water aging causes reduction of stiffness and bonding strength of cement agents. Degradation in bonding strength and stiffness could potentially lead to stress redistribution in the restored crown and reduce the load-bearing capacity of all-ceramic restorations after years of service. PMID:23127630

Lu, Chenglin; Wang, Raorao; Mao, Shuangshuang; Arola, Dwayne; Zhang, Dongsheng

2013-01-01

249

Marginal Integrity of CAD/CAM Fixed Partial Dentures  

PubMed Central

Objectives Computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM) allows the milling of high strength zirconia fixed partial dentures (FPD), however bonding to an inert ZrO2 ceramic surface may effect the marginal integrity of the FPDs. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of zirconia FPDs at the interfaces between zirconia, cement, and tooth. Methods 32 3-unit FPDs were fabricated of the CAD/CAM Y-TZP zirconia (Lava, 3M Espe, Germany) according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Resin cements with corresponding primer and bonding systems were used to lute the FPDs: Compolute/EBS multi (3M Espe, Germany), Panavia F/ED (Kuraray, Japan), Variolink 2/Syntac classic (Ivoclar-Vivadent, FL) and RelyX Unicem/without treatment (3M Espe, Germany). Aualloy FPDs (BioPontostar, Bego, Germany) were cemented with RelyX Unicem and Harvard (Harvard, Germany) as the control. Marginal adaptation was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy using replica specimen before and after artificial aging. After aging, microleakage tests were performed with fuchsine solution. The interfaces between cement-tooth and cement-FPD were examined. Results At the interfaces (cement-tooth and cement-FPD), the systems showed a 95% or higher perfect margin before and after aging. Only Variolink2/Syntac had a marginal adaptation, lower than a 70% perfect margin. Generally, the fuchsine penetration was below 20%, only BioPontstar/Harvard andLava/Variolink2 showed penetration results between 80% and 100%. Conclusion The success of the adhesive cementation of zirconia FPDs depends on the cement system. Under the conditions of this study, zirconia FPDs showed good to sufficient marginal integrity in combination with Panavia/ED, Compolute/EBS and RelyX Unicem. PMID:19212494

Rosentritt, Martin; Behr, Michael; Kolbeck, Carola; Handel, Gerhard

2007-01-01

250

Guidelines for ultrasonic cement-sheath evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of cement-sheath evaluation devices is to define the presence of set cement in the annulus, regardless of its density, compressive strength, or quality. Accepting the premise that any set cement in the annulus with a compressive strength greater than 0 psi cannot be replaced by squeeze cementing emphasizes that necessity of recognizing ultralow-compressive-strength cement ({lt}100 psi) from cement-sheath evaluation devices. Typically, most bond logging instruments cannot define satisfactorily the presence of these generally low-density, low-compressive-strength cements (such as foamed cement, cements filled with sponge-like microspheres, cements containing hydrogen for control of annular influx, or any cement contaminated with gas percolation). The ultrasonic cement evaluation instruments can define these gas contaminated, unset, or low-quality cements, provided the computing parameters are set and the tools calibrated correctly. This paper provides the mechanisms and data required to calibrate the ultrasonic cement evaluation devices correctly and the correct computing parameters for cement-sheath evaluation. Correct interpretation of the cement quality and quantity in the annulus permits the formulation of intelligent annular squeeze decisions.

Goodwin, K.J. (Mobil E and P Services Inc. (US))

1992-08-01

251

Epoxy hydantoins as matrix resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tensile strength and fracture toughness of castings of the hydantoin resins cured with methylenedianiline are significantly higher than MY 720 control castings. Water absorption of an ethyl, amyl hydantoin formulation is 2.1 percent at equilibrium and Tg's are about 160 C, approximately 15 deg below the final cure temperature. Two series of urethane and ester-extended hydantoin epoxy resins were synthesized to determine the effect of crosslink density and functional groups on properties. Castings cured with methylenedianiline or with hexahydrophthalic anhydride were made from these compounds and evaluated. The glass transition temperatures, tensile strengths and moduli, and fracture toughness values were all much lower than that of the simple hydantoin epoxy resins. Using a methylene bishydantoin epoxy with a more rigid structure gave brittle, low-energy fractures, while a more flexible, ethoxy-extended hydantoin epoxy resin gave a very low Tg.

Weiss, J.

1983-01-01

252

Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

2014-10-07

253

Cement pressurisation in the acetabulum  

PubMed Central

Cement pressurisation is an important step in total hip arthroplasty that determines the long-term integration at the cement-bone interface. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of a new pressuriser designed by us against the standard existing pressurisers in an in vitro experimental set-up using two parameters: cement penetration and cement pressurisation. A polypropylene cup model was designed to represent the acetabulum. DePuy’s T-handle, Exeter and our own plunger type pressuriser were each tested for cement pressurisation in this acetabular model. Cement penetration and pressures were measured. The cement intrusion into the capillaries with the DePuy pressuriser was found to vary between 2 and 8 mm (mean: 5 mm at the pole and 4.6 mm at the rim), with the Exeter pressuriser it varied between 3 and 9 mm (mean: 5.8 mm at the pole and 7.8 mm at the rim) and with the plunger type pressuriser it varied between 4 and 6 mm (mean 5.2 mm at the pole and 4.8 mm at the rim). The peak pressure achieved with the DePuy pressuriser was 60 kPa whereas it was 70 kPa with the plunger type pressuriser. The mean penetration with the plunger type pressuriser was found to be better than the other types. The penetration was found to be more uniform with equal penetration at the rim as well as at the pole. PMID:16639594

Wadia, F.; Leonard, D.; Porter, M. L.

2006-01-01

254

21 CFR 178.3610 - ?-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... α-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated. 178.3610 Section... ?-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated. Hydrogenated ?-methylstyrene-vinyltoluene copolymer resins having a molar ratio of 1...

2010-04-01

255

21 CFR 888.3027 - Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. 888.3027 Section 888.3027... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. (a) Identification. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a device intended to be...

2010-04-01

256

21 CFR 888.3027 - Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. 888.3027 Section 888.3027... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. (a) Identification. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a device intended to be...

2014-04-01

257

21 CFR 888.3027 - Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. 888.3027 Section 888.3027... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. (a) Identification. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a device intended to be...

2012-04-01

258

21 CFR 888.3027 - Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. 888.3027 Section 888.3027... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. (a) Identification. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a device intended to be...

2013-04-01

259

21 CFR 888.3027 - Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. 888.3027 Section 888.3027... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. (a) Identification. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a device intended to be...

2011-04-01

260

Different surface preparation techniques of porcelain repaired with composite resin and fracture resistance  

PubMed Central

Background: Porcelain from prosthesis such as crown or bridge can be fractured if exposed to trauma; and, can be repaired at chairside using composite resin. Aim: To investigate the fracture resistance of few techniques of surface preparation in repairing fractured porcelain using composite resin. Materials and Methods: Eighty samples of porcelain blocks were divided into 4 groups for different surface preparations, such as, Cimara repairing kit; porcelain etch kit containing hydrofluoric acid; Panavia F resin cement; and, sandblasting using aluminium oxide, before composite resin (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) was bonded to the prepared porcelain blocks. Twenty others samples in the control group comprised of pure porcelain blocks. The fracture resistance of each sample was tested using Instron machine (UK). Results: With the exception of the group repaired using hydrofluoric acid (3.04±1.04 Mpa), all the other groups showed significant difference in the fracture resistance values when compared to the control group (3.05 ± 1.42 MPa) at P<0.05. Conclusions: Etching of the porcelain blocks with hydrofluoric acid holds promise in the repair of fractured porcelain with composite resin at chairside. PMID:22144809

Abd Wahab, Mohd Helmy Khalid; Bakar, Wan Zaripah Wan; Husein, Adam

2011-01-01

261

[Photoelastic stress analysis of root dentin with different composite resin post and core systems and crowns].  

PubMed

Much research has been reported about post and core systems with composite resin, but the influence of the different types of prefabricated posts on the distribution of stress in the root has not yet been elucidated. It is necessary to clarify the influence of the relationship between core and crown materials to obtain combined restorations. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of the combination of various post and core systems and different kinds of crown material on the stress distribution in the root. Six 2-dimensional photoelastic premolar models were designed. Three types of post and core systems (composite resin post and core, composite resin core with the fiber post, and composite resin core with a prefabricated stainless steel post) and two kinds of crown materials (metal and hybrid-type hard composite resin) were fabricated and cemented to each model. In these models, we applied a load of 200 N at an angle of 45 degrees to the tooth axis and analyzed the fringe order using a transmission polariscope. As a result, it has been clarified that the combination of the post and core and the crown plays an important role in preventing stress concentration within root Stress concentration can be prevented using a crown fabricated with a high-elastic modulus for the post and core with a high-elastic modulus, and a crown fabricated with a low-elastic modulus for the post and core with a low-elastic modulus. PMID:20415253

Takei, Hidenori

2010-03-01

262

DEVELOPMENT OF WET-OXIDATION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR FILTER BACKWASH SLUDGE AND ION EXCHANGE RESINS  

SciTech Connect

Decomposition of organic compounds contained in filter backwash sludge and spent ion exchange resins is considered effective in reducing the waste volume. A system using the wet-oxidation process has been studied for the treatment of the sludge and resins stored at Tsuruga Power Station Unit 1, 357MWe BWR, owned by The Japan Atomic Power Company. Compared with various processes for treating sludge and resin, the wet-oxidation system is rather simple and the process conditions are mild. Waste samples collected from storage tanks were processed by wet-oxidation and appropriate decomposition of the organic compounds was verified. After the decomposition the residue can be solidified with cement or bitumen for final disposal. When compared with direct solidification without decomposition, the number of waste packages can be reduced by a factor of a few dozens for the sludge and three for the resin. Additional measures for conditioning secondary waste products have also been studied, and their applicability to the Tsuruga Power Station was verified. Some of the conditions studied were specific to the Tsuruga Power Station, but it is expected that the system will provide an effective solution for sludge and resin treatment at other NPPs.

Miyamoto, T.; Motoyama, M.; Shibuya, M.; Wada, H.; Yamazaki, K.

2003-02-27

263

Contact allergy to phenol-formaldehyde resins.  

PubMed

Adverse reactions to phenol-formaldehyde resins include depigmentation, irritant dermatitis, chemical burns and allergic contact dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis from phenol-formaldehyde resin has mainly been ascribed to resins based on paratertiary-butyl phenol and formaldehyde, and such a resin is included in the ICDRG standard patch test series. When 1220 patients were patch tested with this resin as well as with 2 other phenol-formaldehyde resins, based on phenol and formaldehyde, 26 patients were positive to at least 1 resin. The figures for positive reactions to paratertiary-butyl phenol-formaldehyde resin and the 2 other resins were 0.8%, 1.0% and 3.0% (440 tested subjects), respectively. Therefore, a battery of phenol-formaldehyde resins should be used for screening purposes, since patch testing with the paratertiary-butyl phenol-formaldehyde resin is not sufficient to identify patients with contact allergy to phenol-formaldehyde resins. Several of the 26 patients were patch tested with the basic substances phenol, formaldehyde and paratertiary-butyl phenol, but only 1 positive reaction to formaldehyde was noted. The sensitizing capacity of 2-methylol phenol, 4-methylol phenol and 2,4,6-trimethylol phenol, all 3 compounds being possible ingredients of resins based on phenol and formaldehyde, was demonstrated; 5 of 14 resin positive patients reacted to at least 1 of these methylol phenols. PMID:3987261

Bruze, M; Fregert, S; Zimerson, E

1985-02-01

264

Graphite-reinforced bone cement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chopped graphite fibers added to surgical bone cement form bonding agent with mechanical properties closely matched to those of bone. Curing reaction produces less heat, resulting in reduced traumatization of body tissues. Stiffness is increased without affecting flexural strength.

Knoell, A. C.

1976-01-01

265

Magnesium substitution in brushite cements.  

PubMed

The use of magnesium-doped ceramics has been described to modify brushite cements and improve their biological behavior. However, few studies have analyzed the efficiency of this approach to induce magnesium substitution in brushite crystals. Mg-doped ceramics composed of Mg-substituted ?-TCP, stanfieldite and/or farringtonite were reacted with primary monocalcium phosphate (MCP) in the presence of water. The cement setting reaction has resulted in the formation of brushite and newberyite within the cement matrix. Interestingly, the combination of SAED and EDX analyses of single crystal has indicated the occurrence of magnesium substitution within brushite crystals. Moreover, the effect of magnesium ions on the structure, and mechanical and setting properties of the new cements was characterized as well as the release of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions. Further research would enhance the efficiency of the system to incorporate larger amounts of magnesium ions within brushite crystals. PMID:25428098

Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Cabrejos-Azama, Jatsue; Rodríguez, Carmen Rueda; Jerez, Luis Blanco; Cabarcos, Enrique López

2013-01-01

266

Bi-axial flexural strength of dual-polymerizing agents cemented to human dentin after photo-activation with different light-curing systems  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to assess the bi-axial flexural strength of two dual-polymerizing resin luting agents cemented to human dentin when photo-activated with different light-curing units. Materials and methods Two dual-cured resin cements: choice (CH) and Variolink II (VL) were tested. Hybrid composite resin (Z-250) discs (12 × 1.5 mm) were fabricated. Three types of light-curing units were used halogen-curing unit (QTH), light-emitting diode (LED) and plasma arc (PAC). Sixty dentin discs of 0.5 mm thickness were prepared from extracted human teeth. A circular mold (2.5 mm in height and 12 mm diameter) was utilized to create supporting structure for dentin, resin cement complex. The resin luting cement (0.5 mm) was placed on the previously prepared dentin discs and covered with the prefabricated composite discs. Photo-activation of cements was performed for 40 s with QTH and LED units and for 3 s with PAC. The specimens were divided into 12 groups (20 specimens for each light source). Six groups were kept in distilled water for 24 h and the rest were stored for 6 weeks. Bi-axial flexural strength was determined using Instron machine. The data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test for comparison. Results The findings indicated that the bi-axial flexural strength values for both cements CH and VL were higher for 24 h over 6 weeks but not statistically significant when cured with QTH. Meanwhile, when LED light was used for photo-activation the cements, the flexural strength values reported were statistically higher of 24 h over 6 weeks storage at P = 0.4E?6 However, PAC light did not record any statistically significant difference between two duration for the CH cement although when used for polymerization of VL the reported value for 6 weeks were statistically significantly higher value than 24 h duration at P = 0.002. Conclusion When high immediate flexural strength is preferred in clinical situation photo-activation the cements with LED reported the greatest value. PMID:23960484

Taher, Nadia Malek A.

2010-01-01

267

Low Melt Viscosity Resins for Resin Transfer Molding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, resin transfer molding (RTM) has become one of the methods of choice for high performance composites. Its cost effectiveness and ease of fabrication are major advantages of RTM. RTM process usually requires resins with very low melt viscosity (less than 10 Poise). The optimum RTM resins also need to display high thennal-oxidative stability, high glass transition temperature (T(sub g)), and good toughness. The traditional PMR-type polyimides (e.g. PMR-15) do not fit this requirement, because the viscosities are too high and the nadic endcap cures too fast. High T(sub g), low-melt viscosity resins are highly desirable for aerospace applications and NASA s Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. The objective of this work is to prepare low-melt viscosity polyimide resins for RTM or resin film infusion (RFI) processes. The approach involves the synthesis of phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers. These materials have been designed to minimize their melt viscosity so that they can be readily processed. During the cure, the oligomers undergo both chain extension and crosslinking via the thermal polymerization of the phenylethynyl groups. The Phenylethynyl endcap is preferred over the nadic group due to its high curing temperature, which provides broader processing windows. This work involved the synthesis and polymerization of oligomers containing zig-zag backbones and twisted biphenyl structures. Some A-B type precursors which possessed both nitro and anhydride functionality, or both nitro and amine functionality, were also synthesized in order to obtain the well defined oligomers. The resulting zig-zag structured oligomers were then end-capped with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) for further cure. The properties of these novel imide oligomers are evaluated.

Harris, Frank W.

2002-01-01

268

76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade...resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy...duty orders on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and...

2011-01-27

269

The effect of cement creep and cement fatigue damage on the micromechanics of the cement-bone interface  

PubMed Central

The cement-bone interface provides fixation for the cement mantle within the bone. The cement-bone interface is affected by fatigue loading in terms of fatigue damage, or micro cracks, and creep, both mostly in the cement. This study investigates how fatigue damage and cement creep separately affect the mechanical response of the cement-bone interface at various load levels in terms of plastic displacement and crack formation. Two FEA models were created, which were based on micro-computed tomography data of two physical cement-bone interface specimens. These models were subjected to tensile fatigue loads with four different magnitudes. Three deformation modes of the cement were considered; ‘only creep’, ‘only damage’ or ‘creep and damage’. The interfacial plastic deformation, the crack reduction as a result of creep and the interfacial stresses in the bone were monitored. The results demonstrate that, although some models failed early, the majority of plastic displacement was caused by fatigue damage, rather than cement creep. However, cement creep does decrease the crack formation in the cement up to 20%. Finally, while cement creep hardly influences the stress levels in the bone, fatigue damage of the cement considerably increases the stress levels in the bone. We conclude that at low load levels the plastic displacement is mainly caused by creep. At moderate to high load levels, however, the plastic displacement is dominated by fatigue damage and is hardly affected by creep, although creep reduced the number of cracks in moderate to high load region. PMID:20692663

Waanders, Daan; Janssen, Dennis; Mann, Kenneth A.; Verdonschot, Nico

2010-01-01

270

Injectable bone cement based on mineralized collagen.  

PubMed

A novel injectable bone cement based on mineralized collagen was reported in this paper. The cement was fabricated by introducing calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO(4).1/2H(2)O, CSH) into nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen (nHAC). The workability, in vitro degradation, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of the cement (nHAC/CSH) were studied. The comparative tests via in vitro and in vivo showed that the nHAC/CSH composite cement processed better biocompatibiltiy than that of pure CSH cement. The results implied that this new injectable cement should be very promising for bone repair. PMID:20336741

Liu, Xi; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Chen, Zonggang; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Liu, Huan-Ye; Mao, Keya; Wang, Yan

2010-07-01

271

The effect of alumina and aluminium nitride coating by reactive magnetron sputtering on the resin bond strength to zirconia core  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Although several surface treatments have been recently investigated both under in vitro and in vivo conditions, controversy still exists regarding the selection of the most appropriate zirconia surface pre-treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of alumina (Al) and aluminium nitride (AlN) coating on the shear bond strength of adhesive resin cement to zirconia core. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty zirconia core discs were divided into 5 groups; air particle abrasion with 50 µm aluminum oxide particles (Al2O3), polishing + Al coating, polishing + AlN coating, air particle abrasion with 50 µm Al2O3 + Al coating and air particle abrasion with 50 µm Al2O3 + AlN coating. Composite resin discs were cemented to each of specimens. Shear bond strength (MPa) was measured using a universal testing machine. The effects of the surface preparations on each specimen were examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA (?=.05). RESULTS The highest bond strengths were obtained by air abrasion with 50 µm Al2O3, the lowest bond strengths were obtained in polishing + Al coating group (P<.05). CONCLUSION Al and AlN coatings using the reactive magnetron sputtering technique were found to be ineffective to increase the bond strength of adhesive resin cement to zirconia core. PMID:24353874

Külünk, ?afak; Baba, Seniha; Öztürk, Özgür; Dani?man, ?engül; Sava?, Soner

2013-01-01

272

Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

1994-01-25

273

Process for Molding Nonreinforced (Neat) Resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Void free moldings obtained for neat, condensation, thermosetting resins. Thermally and mechanically treat resin prior to molding to reduce amount of volatiles. With volatiles reduced molding temperature and pressure are applied in way to drive out remaining volatiles during molding.

Dickerson, G. E.

1983-01-01

274

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by...

2012-04-01

275

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by...

2011-04-01

276

Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

1996-07-23

277

Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

1996-01-01

278

Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene disphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

1994-01-01

279

Guayule resin separation and purification  

E-print Network

as a yellow oil, where the neunnls are the compounds which are not affected by the base treatment and 20 ml xylene resin solution + 10 ml hexane solid black precipitate washed with hexane liquid solution liquid rmscard predpltate+ 20 ml MeOH+ 20... frequency of 500 Hz 14. Carbon black concentration in transformer oil vs. time for A. C. and half wave rectified filtered signals at 300 volts, and a frequency of 500 Hz 15. GC of the fluffy white residue obtained from the Firestone resins, analyzed...

Bajwa, Mohinder P.S.

1992-01-01

280

Retrofit for Plastic Resin Driers  

E-print Network

of drying (for one side) it can produce 1200 lbs. of resin, while the llsage based on shot size is only 613 Ibs. In spite of this excess capacity, a simple lock out system for the regenerator could result logistical problems due to level switches... structure. CVL..8 f-+-:--i),CI--;---j The dryer has a through-put rate of 300 Ibs/hour. During the four hour cycle of drying (for one side) it can produce 1200 lbs. of resin, while the usage based on shot size is only 613 Ibs. In spite of this excess...

Joseph, B.; Thuro, G.

281

Improved Fire-Resistant Resins for Laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fire-resistant resins for fabricating laminates with inorganic fibers, especially graphite fibers, are formed from bisimides containing main-chain phosphorus and olefinic end groups. Bisimides are thermally polymerized to form resins and laminates virtually imcombustible in pure oxygen at 300 degrees C. New resins are suitable for many applications requiring good adhesion and excellent resistance to heat, fire, solvents and chemicals.

Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Varma, I. K.

1982-01-01

282

DIRECT ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING  

E-print Network

DIRECT ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING B. Minaie1,* , W. Li, J. Gou1 , Y. Chen2 , A. ABSTRACT Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) is a manufacturing process that involves injection of liquid resin into a closed mold cavity containing preset fiber mats and a subsequent curing stage. Mold filling is a crucial

Mamishev, Alexander

283

Hydrogen Peroxide as a Resin Cure Accelerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with conventional resin adhesives was sufficiently exothermic for the heat to accelerate and improve resin cure in the hotpress. As a consequence, pressing times for medium density fibreboard, particleboard, and plywood could be reduced by up to 30% and, in some cases, better resin cure permitted a reduction in binder level. Differences in the interaction

K. M. Chapman; D. J. Jenkin

1986-01-01

284

21 CFR 177.1555 - Polyarylate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyarylate resins. 177.1555 Section 177.1555 Food and Drugs...Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1555 Polyarylate resins. Polyarylate resins (CAS Reg. No. 51706-10-6) may be...

2010-04-01

285

21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 true Polyaryletherketone resins. 177.1556 Section 177.1556 ...Surfaces § 177.1556 Polyaryletherketone resins. The poly(oxy-1,4-phenylenecarbonyl-1...4-phenylenecarbonyl-1,4-phenylene) resins (CAS Reg. No. 55088-54-5 and...

2010-04-01

286

Communication Damage monitoring of cement paste by electrical resistance measurement  

E-print Network

.D.L. Chung* Composite Materials Research Laboratory, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY cement paste (consisting of just cement and water), (ii) silica-fume cement paste (consisting of cement, water, and silica fume), and (iii) latex cement paste (consisting of cement, water, latex, and antifoam

Chung, Deborah D.L.

287

Identification of sensitizing diethyleneglycol maleate in a two-component polyester cement.  

PubMed

Unsaturated polyester (UP) cement caused allergic contact dermatitis in car repair work. The resin was a condensate of polyols and maleic anhydride with reactive solvent, auxiliary substances, and inorganic reinforcement substances. To identify the causative chemicals, the cement was tested on a sensitized patient. For analysis, samples of the resin were eluted with acetone and eluted with hexane to precipitate inorganic material and large polyester molecules. The eluate was evaporated. The remainder, dissolved in acetone, was separated into fractions on silica plates by thin layer chromatography (TLC). On the developed (hexane/chloroform, 15/85) plates, 20 bands were obtained under UV-light at 254 nm. Samples of the bands were scraped and used for patch testing. The scraping at a retention factor (Rf) of 0.24 caused a skin reaction. The bands at this retention were removed from six plates, combined, eluted with acetone and purified again by TLC. The purified fraction mixed in petrolatum in the dilution series was used for conclusive patch testing on the patient. An allergic reaction was induced at down to 0.003% wt/wt. According to MS and IR analyses, the isolated compound was diethyleneglycol maleate (DEGM, MW204). In addition to the resin part, the sanding dust also contained this monomer. PMID:12000327

Pfäffli, Pirkko; Jolanki, Riitta; Estlander, Tuula; Tarvainen, Kyllikki; Kanerva, Lasse

2002-03-01

288

Bone-cement interface of the glenoid component: Stress analysis for varying cement thickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Although shoulder arthroplasty is an accepted treatment for osteoarthritis, loosening of the glenoid component, which mainly occurs at the bone-cement interface, remains a major concern. Presently, the mechanical effect of the cement mantel thickness on the bone-cement interface is still unclear. Methods. Finite element analysis of a prosthetic scapula was used to evaluate the effect of cement thickness on

Alexandre Terrier; Philippe Buchler; Alain Farron

2005-01-01

289

Influence of cement and admixture on autogenous shrinkage of cement paste  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been proved that autogenous shrinkage is considerably large for highstrength concrete. In this study influences of cement, chemical admixture, mineral admixture and water-cement ratio on autogenous shrinkage of cement paste were experimentally studied. It was proved that autogenous shrinkage could be estimated form mineral composition of cement. Some admixtures which were able to reduce autogenous shrinkage were

Ei-ichi Tazawa; Shingo Miyazawa

1995-01-01

290

Synthesis of improved phenolic resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twenty seven addition cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to give char residues comparable to state-of-the-art phenolic resins. Cyanate, epoxy, allyl, acrylate, methacrylate and ethynyl derivatized phenolic oligomers were investigated. The novolac-cyanate and propargyl-novolac resins provided anaerobic char yields at 800 C of 58 percent. A 59 percent char yield was obtained from modified epoxy novolacs. A phosphonitrilic derivative was found to be effective as an additive for increasing char yields. The novolac-cyanate, epoxy-novolac and methacrylate-epoxy-novolac systems were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. All three resins showed good potential as composite matrices. The free radical cured methacrylate-epoxy-novolac graphite composite provided short beam shear strengths at room temperature of 93.3 MPa (13.5 ksi). The novolac-cyanate graphite composite produced a short beam shear strength of 74 MPa (10.7 ksi) and flexural strength of 1302 MPa (189 ksi) at 177 C. Air heat aging of the novolac-cyanate and epoxy novolac based composites for 12 weeks at 204 C showed good property retention.

Delano, C. B.; Mcleod, A. H.

1979-01-01

291

Emission Factors of Cement Industry in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

PM, SO2, NO2 and CO emissions were measured by Turkish Cement Manufacturers' Association (TCMA) in cement plants by using standard techniques and equipment since 1997.Emission factors (EF) were calculated by using these availabledata for the cement sector. The emission factors were found bothfor cement and grinding-packing plants separately. The results of the study were compared with international emission factors.It was

Baris R. Canpolat; Aysel T. Atimtay; Ismet Munlafalioglu; Ersan Kalafatoglu; Ekrem Ekinci

2002-01-01

292

Cementing oil and gas wells  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a cement composition for cementing in a well penetrating subterranean formations and having an aqueous drilling fluid containing at least one cement retarder. It comprises a major proportion of the drilling fluid from the well as it was drilled the fluid having a density in the range of about 9.0 - 18.0 ppg; water; a lesser proportion of dry cementitious material; about 0.5 to about 10.0 ppb of a dispersant selected from the group consisting of sulfonated styrene maleic anhydride, sulfonated styrene imide, and sulfonate styrene itaconic acid; and a compatible accelerator selected from the group consisting of acetic acid; the first 4 carbon esters thereof; acetamide; monoethanolamine; and diethanolamine.

Bloys, J.B.; Wilson, W.N.; Bradshaw, R.D.

1991-12-31

293

Use of resin composites for cryogenic tankage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resurgence in development of hypersonic vehicles has led to the evaluation of lightweight materials and structures for cryogenic tankage. Over the past 20 years, resin composites have replaced conventional metallic structures in improving aircraft and spacecraft performance. Previous attempts to develop resin matrix composites for cryogenic tankage were unsuccessful, due to the brittle nature of the matrix or the need for metallic liners to prevent permeation. With the development of new tougher resins and improved processing techniques, resin composites are once again being considered. This paper addresses the advancements made in resin composite technology and their potential advantages and drawbacks for use as cryogenic tankage.

Callaghan, M. T.

294

Cement equivalence factors for fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation has been carried out into the cement equivalence factors for fly ash in concrete. The work was part of a prenormative research aimed at taking the contribution of fly ash to strength development and the other properties of concrete into account on the minimum cement content and maximum water-cement ratio required to achieve these properties as by the

J. Bijen; R. van Selst

1993-01-01

295

Basic Chemistry for the Cement Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This combined student workbook and instructor's guide contains nine units for inplant classes on basic chemistry for employees in the cement industry. The nine units cover the following topics: chemical basics; measurement; history of cement; atoms; bonding and chemical formulas; solids, liquids, and gases; chemistry of Portland cement

Turner, Mason

296

SCHEDULING CEMENT PLANTS WITH ENERGY CONSTRAINTS  

E-print Network

SCHEDULING CEMENT PLANTS WITH ENERGY CONSTRAINTS Pedro M. Castro Ignacio E. Grossmann Iiro K Meeting 4 #12;5 ABB PROJECT #12;INTRODUCTION Cement producers currently under pressure to produce Contracts agreed between electricity supplier and cement plants (planning level) Energy cost [$/k

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

297

21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 ...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol ...a temporary tooth filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth...

2011-04-01

298

21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 ...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol ...a temporary tooth filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth...

2012-04-01

299

21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 ...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol ...a temporary tooth filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth...

2010-04-01

300

Economic analysis of the European cement industry  

E-print Network

Economic analysis of the European cement industry Marcel Boyer1 and JeanPierre Ponssard2 December 2013. The methodology is applied to the European cement industry over the period 20042012 (Part I) and over the next and industry experts. Key words: return on assets, capital intensive industry, business cycle, European cement

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

301

Undesired drying of concrete and cement paste  

E-print Network

Undesired drying of concrete and cement paste is a nightmare for any construction engineer of the concrete or cement paste surface. Inspired by the art of molecular cooking a team of TU Delft scientists for instance sodium alginates. When sprayed on the surface of concrete or cement paste, a rapid chemical

Langendoen, Koen

302

21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 ...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol ...a temporary tooth filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth...

2013-04-01

303

21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 ...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol ...a temporary tooth filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth...

2014-04-01

304

Blended cement using volcanic ash and pumice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of investigation to assess the suitability of volcanic ash (VA) and pumice powder (VPP) for blended cement production. Tests were conducted on cement where Portland cement (PC) was replaced by VA and VPP within the range of 0 to 50%. The physical and chemical properties of VA and VPP were critically reviewed to evaluate the

Khandaker M. Anwar Hossain

2003-01-01

305

Autonomic healing of acrylic bone cement.  

PubMed

Self-healing in orthopedic bone cement is demonstrated with a novel thermoplastic solvent-bonding approach. Low toxicity solvent-filled microcapsules, embedded in a commercial acrylic bone cement matrix, enable recovery of up to 80% of the virgin fracture toughness of the cement at room and body temperature conditions without external stimuli or human intervention. PMID:25116439

Gladman, A Sydney; Celestine, Asha-Dee N; Sottos, Nancy R; White, Scott R

2015-01-01

306

The fracture properties of glass polyalkenoate cements as a function of cement age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fracture properties of two glass polyalkenoate cements based on a short chain-length and on a long chain-length poly (acrylic acid) have been studied as a function of the cement age. The stress intensity factor, KI, increases with cement age for both cements. The un-notched fracture strength sf increases with cement age, largely as a result of an increase in

R. G. Hill

1993-01-01

307

ADVANCED CEMENTS FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS  

SciTech Connect

Using the conventional well cements consisting of the calcium silicate hydrates (CaO-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) and calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) for the integrity of geothermal wells, the serious concern confronting the cementing industries was their poor performance in mechanically supporting the metallic well casing pipes and in mitigating the pipe's corrosion in very harsh geothermal reservoirs. These difficulties are particularly acute in two geological regions: One is the deep hot downhole area ({approx} 1700 m depth at temperatures of {approx} 320 C) that contains hyper saline water with high concentrations of CO{sub 2} (> 40,000 ppm) in conjunction with {approx} 100 ppm H{sub 2}S at a mild acid of pH {approx} 5.0; the other is the upper well region between the well's surface and {approx} 1000 m depth at temperatures up to 200 C. The specific environment of the latter region is characterized by highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (pH < 1.5) brine containing at least 5000 ppm CO{sub 2}. When these conventional cements are emplaced in these harsh environments, their major shortcoming is their susceptibility to reactions with hot CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO4, thereby causing their deterioration brought about by CO{sub 2}-catalyzed carbonation and acid-initiated erosion. Such degradation not only reduced rapidly the strength of cements, lowering the mechanical support of casing pipes, but also increased the extent of permeability of the brine through the cement layer, promoting the rate of the pipe's corrosion. Severely carbonated and acid eroded cements often impaired the integrity of a well in less than one year; in the worst cases, casings have collapsed within three months, leading to the need for costly and time-consuming repairs or redrilling operations. These were the reasons why the geothermal well drilling and cementing industries were concerned about using conventional well cements, and further their deterioration was a major impediment in expediting the development of geothermal energy resources.

SUGAMA,T.

2007-01-01

308

Solidification of “Cement-Glass”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cement-glass, which is a mixture of sodium silicate (kNa2O·mSiO2nH2O), silicon phosphate (P2O5·2SiO2) and cement, was developed to solidify radioactive waste pellets in containers. The optimum molar ratio of Si(OH)4, NaOH and P2O52SiO2 was found to be 2:2:1, based on compressive strength measurement of solidified samples. The compressive strength of solidified sodium silicate with silicon phosphate was increased when the amount

Susumu HORIUCHI; Makoto KIKUCHI; Koichi CHINO; Tsutomu BABA; Hideo YUSA; Hiroyuki NAITOH

1989-01-01

309

Observation of a network structure in asphalt cements  

SciTech Connect

Paving asphalts are often judged and selected based on their rheological behavior at prescribed temperatures or aging response. Asphalts are considered as a colloidal mixture, where clusters of polar, aromatic molecules are dispersed in a less polar solvent. Thus, the extent to which the solvent phase disperses the associating molecules will determine many of the fundamental asphalt properties. Asphalts are typically divided into four major groups, namely: asphaltenes, resins, aromatics, ans saturates. Asphaltenes are the highest molecular weight group and constitute {approximately}25% of the total asphalt. Resins are very polar in nature and act as a dispersing agent or peptisers for the asphaltenes. The solvent or oily phase (aromatics and saturates) are the lightest molecular weight group and are the bulk of the total asphalt (40-50%). The dispersion of the asphaltenes within the oily solvent is an important property and has been studied by separation and titration methods. In this study, asphalt cements were examined using an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) (ElectroScan 2020), and confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (LSM) (Zeiss 10).

Rozeveld, J.; Shin, E.E.; Bhurke, A.; Drzal, L.T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

1996-12-31

310

Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of an effort on tougher/solvent resistant matrix resins for composites, research was directed towards exploring methods to improve the solvent resistance of linear amorphous thermoplastics. Ethyl reactive groups were placed on the ends of oligomers and pendent along the polymer chain and subsequently thermally reacted to provide crosslinking and thus improvement in solvent resistance. This concept is extended to another thermoplastic, a phenoxy resin. A commercially available phenoxy resin (PKHH) was systematically modified by reaction of the pendent hydroxyl groups on the phenoxy resin with various amounts of 4-ethynylbenzoyl chloride. As the pendent ethynyl group content in the phenoxy resin increased, the cured resin exhibited a higher glass transition temperature, better solvent resistance and less flexibility. The solvent resistance was further improved by correcting a low molecular weight diethynyl compound, 2,2-bis(4-ethynylbenzoyloxy-4'-phenyl)propane, with a phenoxy resin containing pendent ethynyl groups.

Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J.; Havens, S. J.

1984-01-01

311

Inclined cement tests improve measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the effects of free water on setting cement, a free water test procedure was added to API Specification 10 in 1964. The API free water test placed more emphasis on the evaluation and control of free water rather than on all aspects of slurry stability (such as particle settling). For particle settling (density segregation), the procedure used only

R. P. Matson; M. Rogers; V. G. Boncan; R. G. Gandy

1993-01-01

312

Process for cementing geothermal wells  

DOEpatents

A pumpable slurry of coal-filled furfuryl alcohol, furfural, and/or a low molecular weight mono- or copolymer thereof containing, preferably, a catalytic amount of a soluble acid catalyst is used to cement a casing in a geothermal well.

Eilers, Louis H. (Inola, OK)

1985-01-01

313

Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

314

Photoelastic analysis of cemented or screwed implant-supported prostheses with different prosthetic connections.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution of different retention systems (screwed or cemented) associated with different prosthetic connections (external hexagon, internal hexagon, and Morse taper) in 3-unit implant-supported fixed partial dentures through photoelasticity. Six models were fabricated with photoelastic resin PL-2, and each model contained two implants of 4.0 × 10.0 mm. The models presented different retention systems (screwed and cemented) and different connections (external hexagon, internal hexagon, and Morse taper). The prostheses were standardized and fabricated in Ni-Cr alloy. A circular polariscope was used and axial and oblique (45°) loads of 100 N were applied in a universal testing machine. The results were photographed and analyzed qualitatively with a graphic software (Adobe Photoshop). The screwed retention system exhibited higher number of fringes for both axial and oblique loadings. The internal hexagon implant presented better and lower stress distribution for both cemented and screwed prostheses. The oblique loading increased the number of fringes in all models tested. The cemented retention system presented better stress distribution. The internal hexagon implant was more favorable according to the biomechanical standpoint. The oblique load increased stress in all systems and connections tested. PMID:21851260

Tonella, Bianca Piccolotto; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Ferraço, Renato; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary; Carvalho, Paulo S Perri de; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho

2011-08-01

315

Lightweight Cement Slurries based on vermiculite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of the research is to study the lightweight cement slurry based on vermiculite and its parameters in accordance with GOST 1581-96 requirements as well as improvement of its formulation by polymer additives. Analysis of vermiculite-containing mixture providing the lowest density while maintaining other required parameters was conducted. As a cement base, cement PTscT-I-G-CC-1, cement PTscT - 100 and vermiculite M200 and M150 were used. Vermiculite content varied from 10 to 15 %; and water-to-cement-ratio ranged from 0.65 to 0.8. To sum up, despite the fact that lightweight cement slurry based on vermiculite satisfies GOST 1581-96 requirements under laboratory conditions, field studies are necessary in order to make a conclusion about applicability of this slurry for well cementing.

Minaev, K.; Gorbenko, V.; Ulyanova, O.

2014-08-01

316

Advanced thermoplastic resins, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature structural resins are required for use on advanced aerospace vehicles as adhesives and composite matrices. NASA-Langley developed polyimide resins were evaluated as high temperature structural adhesives for metal to metal bonding and as composite matrices. Adhesive tapes were prepared on glass scrim fabric from solutions of polyamide acids of the semicrystalline polyimide LARC-CPI, developed at the NASA-Langley Research Center. Using 6Al-4V titanium adherends, high lap shear bond strengths were obtained at ambient temperature (45.2 MPa, 6550 psi) and acceptable strengths were obtained at elevated temperature (14.0 MPa, 2030 psi) using the Pasa-Jell 107 conversion coating on the titanium and a bonding pressure of 1.38 MPa (200 psi). Average zero degree composite tensile and compressive strengths of 1290 MPa (187 ksi) and 883 MPa (128 ksi) respectively were obtained at ambient temperature with unsized AS-4 carbon fiber reinforcement.

Brown, A. M.; Hill, S. G.; Falcone, A.

1991-01-01

317

High Temperature Transfer Molding Resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature resins containing phenylethynyl groups that are processable by transfer molding have been prepared. These phenylethynyl containing oligomers were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynlphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form a mixture of imide compounds in one step. This synthetic approach is advantageous since the products are a mixture of compounds and consequently exhibit a relatively low melting temperature. In addition, these materials exhibit low melt viscosities which are stable for several hours at 210-275 C, and since the thermal reaction of the phenylethynyl group does not occur to any appreciable extent at temperatures below 300 C, these materials have a broad processing window. Upon thermal cure at approximately 300-350 C, the phenylethynyl groups react to provide a crosslinked resin system. These new materials exhibit excellent properties and are potentially useful as adhesives, coatings, films, moldings and composite matrices.

Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

318

Scanning electron microscopic study of teeth restored with fiber posts and composite resin: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate the thickness of resin dentin interface zones (RDIZ) obtained by luting carbon fiber post to intra-radicular dentin, either with All-Bond 2 bonding agent and C and B composite cement or Panavia F dentin-bonding system and Panavia F resin cement. Materials and Methods: Twenty single rooted mandibular premolars of similar sizes were prepared for the carbon fiber post after biomechanical preparation and obturation. They were divided into two groups, Group 1 and 2 of 10 samples each. Carbon fiber posts used for Group 1 samples were luted using All-Bond 2 and C and B cement. For Group 2 carbon fiber posts were luted using Panavia F dentin-bonding system and Panavia F resin cement. All the 20 samples were sectioned longitudinally and marked at three points on the length of the tooth from the dentin-core interface to the apex at 2 mm, 5 mm, and 8 mm to get coronal, middle, and apical areas, respectively. The formation and thickness (width) of the RDIZ at the marked areas was evaluated by scanning electron microscope using ×1000 magnification. The results were statistical analyzed. Results: Irrespective of the adhesive systems used all specimens showed a RDIZ formation. Microscopic examination of Group 1 showed significantly higher percentage of RDIZ (P < 0.05) than Group 2. RDIZ morphology was easily detectable at coronal and middle areas of all specimens. Conclusion: All-Bond 2 showed denser and wider RDIZ compared with the Panavia F. PMID:25210390

Sridhara, K. S.; Mankar, Sunil; Jayshankar, C. M.; Vinaya, K.

2014-01-01

319

Alkyd-based-thermosetting resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the rate of cure of different oxidative drying oil modified alkyd resins are investigated by DSC measurements.\\u000a We determine, from the Kissinger equation, the apparent activation energy of the curing process. We show that this activation\\u000a energy depends on the curing duration and that these variations lead to the determination of a time constant, characteristic\\u000a of the

J. M. Saiter; N. Delahaye; M. Liziard; L. Podgorski

1994-01-01

320

Phosphorus-containing imide resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flame-resistant reinforced bodies are disclosed which are composed of reinforcing fibers, filaments or fabrics in a cured body of bis- and tris-imide resins derived from tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides by reaction with maleic anhydride or its derivatives, or of addition polymers of such imides, including a variant in which a mono-imide is condensed with a dianhydride and the product is treated with a further quantity of maleic anhydride.

Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (inventors)

1984-01-01

321

Centrifugal impact milling of resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of phenol formaldehyde resins milling in centrifugal impact mills is presented. The particle size distribution,\\u000a energy consumption and size reduction ratio were observed at different material loads, grinding rotor velocities and air flow\\u000a rates. Experimentally measured data were modelled using previously developed Rosin–Rammler formula and two parameters; the\\u000a mean particle size and the width of distribution were calculated for

Iztok Hace

2010-01-01

322

Effect of Self-etching Adhesives on the Bond Strength of Glass-Ionomer Cements  

PubMed Central

Objective: Statement of Problem: Adequate bond strength between glass ionomer cements and composite resin is necessary for the success of the sandwich technique. Purpose of Study: This study assessed the micro-shear bond strength of composite resin to glass-ionomer cements (GIC) using self-etch adhesives with different pH values. Materials and Methods: One hundred specimens (6×4×2 mm) were made using Fuji II and Fuji II LC GICs and treated with different adhesives as follows: Group 1:Fuji II+ Adper Prompt L-Pop, Group-2: Fuji II+SE bond, Group-3: Fuji II + AdheSE, Group-4:Fuji II+ Protect bond, Group-5: Fuji II + Single bond, Group-6:Fuji II LC+ Adper Prompt LPop, Group-7: Fuji II LC+SE bond, Group-8:Fuji II LC+ AdheSE, Group-9: Fuji II LC+ Protect bond, and Group-10: Fuji II LC+ Single bond. Each group consisted of 10 specimens. A cylinder of Z100 composite resin was placed on each sample and light cured. After 24 hours of water storage (37°C), the specimens were subjected to micro-shear bond strength tests (0.5 mm/min). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: The mean micro-shear bond strength of groups 1–10 was 11.66±1.79, 16.50±1.85, 18.47±1.77, 13.95±1.77, 15.27±1.49, 15.14±0.90, 20.03±1.19, 17.48±3.00, 16.24±1.98 and 16.03±1.49 MPa, respectively. There were significant differences between groups 1 and 7 (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed between other groups (P>0.05). Fuji II LC showed higher bond strength than Fuji II (P<0.05). Conclusion: Type of self-etch adhesive had no significant effect on micro-shear bond strength of glass-ionomer to composite resin. Resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) exhibited higher bond strength than the conventional GIC.

Jaberi Ansari, Zahra; Panahandeh, Narges; Tabatabaei Shafiei, Zahra Sadat; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza

2014-01-01

323

Synthesis of Portland cement and calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement for sustainable development and performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Portland cement concrete, the most widely used manufactured material in the world, is made primarily from water, mineral aggregates, and portland cement. The production of portland cement is energy intensive, accounting for 2% of primary energy consumption and 5% of industrial energy consumption globally. Moreover, portland cement manufacturing contributes significantly to greenhouse gases and accounts for 5% of the global CO2 emissions resulting from human activity. The primary objective of this research was to explore methods of reducing the environmental impact of cement production while maintaining or improving current performance standards. Two approaches were taken, (1) incorporation of waste materials in portland cement synthesis, and (2) optimization of an alternative environmental friendly binder, calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement. These approaches can lead to less energy consumption, less emission of CO2, and more reuse of industrial waste materials for cement manufacturing. In the portland cement part of the research, portland cement clinkers conforming to the compositional specifications in ASTM C 150 for Type I cement were successfully synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals with 0% to 40% fly ash and 0% to 60% slag incorporation (with 10% intervals), 72.5% limestone with 27.5% fly ash, and 65% limestone with 35% slag. The synthesized portland cements had similar early-age hydration behavior to commercial portland cement. However, waste materials significantly affected cement phase formation. The C3S--C2S ratio decreased with increasing amounts of waste materials incorporated. These differences could have implications on proportioning of raw materials for cement production when using waste materials. In the calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement part of the research, three calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement clinkers with a range of phase compositions were successfully synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals. The synthesized calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement that contained medium C4A3 S¯ and C2S contents showed good dimensional stability, sulfate resistance, and compressive strength development and was considered the optimum phase composition for calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement in terms of comparable performance characteristics to portland cement. Furthermore, two calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement clinkers were successfully synthesized from natural and waste materials such as limestone, bauxite, flue gas desulfurization sludge, Class C fly ash, and fluidized bed ash proportioned to the optimum calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals. Waste materials composed 30% and 41% of the raw ingredients. The two calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cements synthesized from natural and waste materials showed good dimensional stability, sulfate resistance, and compressive strength development, comparable to commercial portland cement.

Chen, Irvin Allen

324

Research of magnesium phosphosilicate cement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium phosphosilicate cement (MPSC) is a novel phosphate bonded cement, which consists mainly of magnesia, phosphate and silicate minerals. The traditional magnesium phosphate cements (MPCs) usually composed by ammonium phosphate, and gaseous ammonia will emit during mixing and in service. There is no noxious ammonia released from MPSC, furthermore, it can recycle a large volume of the non-hazardous waste. The goal of this research is to investigate the composition, reaction products, reaction mechanism, microstructure, properties, durability and applications of the MPSC. MPSC sets rapidly and has high early strength. It reacts better with solid industrial waste when compared to Portland cement. Many solid industrial wastes, such as fly ash, steel slag, coal gangue, red coal gangue, red mud, barium-bearing slag, copper slag, silica fume, and ground granulated blast furnace slag, have been used as the main component (40% by weight) in MPSC. The research has found that these aluminosilicate (or ironsilicate, or calciumsilicate) minerals with an amorphous or glass structure can enhance the performance of MPSC. The disorganized internal structure of amorphous materials may make it possess higher reactivity compared to the crystalline phases. Chemical reaction between phosphate and these minerals may form an amorphous gel, which is favorable to the cementing. Borax, boric acid and sodium tripolyphosphate have been used as retardants in the MPSC system. It is found that boric acid has a higher retarding effect on the setting of cement, than borax does. However, sodium polyphosphate accelerates the reaction of MPSC. The hydration of MPSC is exothermic reaction. The heat evolution may prompt hydrates formation, and shorten the setting process. Modern materials characterization techniques, XRD, DSC, TG-DTA FTIR, XPS, MAS-NMR, SEM, TEM, MIP, etc. were used to analyze the phase composition, micro morphology, and microstructure of hardened MPSC. The main hydration product in MPSC is MgKPO4·6H2O (MKP), which has both crystalline and amorphous phases. There are many unreacted magnesia grains in the hardened MPSC paste. They act as nucleus of the hardened framework. The hydrates grow around the magnesia grains rims, fill in the voids among the magnesia grains and bond unreacted magnesia part into a solid continuum. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Ding, Zhu

325

Surface pretreatment for prolonged survival of cemented tibial prosthesis components: full- vs. surface-cementation technique  

PubMed Central

Background One of few persisting problems of cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is aseptic loosening of tibial component due to degradation of the interface between bone cement and metallic tibial shaft component, particularly for surface cemented tibial components. Surface cementation technique has important clinical meaning in case of revision and for avoidance of stress shielding. Degradation of the interface between bone cement and bone may be a secondary effect due to excessive crack formation in bone cement starting at the opposite metallic surface. Methods This study was done to prove crack formation in the bone cement near the metallic surface when this is not coated. We propose a newly developed coating process by PVD layering with SiOx to avoid that crack formation in the bone cement. A biomechanical model for vibration fatigue test was done to simulate the physiological and biomechanical conditions of the human knee joint and to prove excessive crack formation. Results It was found that coated tibial components showed a highly significant reduction of cement cracking near the interface metal/bone cement (p < 0.01) and a significant reduction of gap formation in the interface metal-to-bone cement (p < 0.05). Conclusion Coating dramatically reduces hydrolytic- and stress-related crack formation at the prosthesis interface metal/bone cement. This leads to a more homogenous load transfer into the cement mantle which should reduce the frequency of loosening in the interfaces metal/bone cement/bone. With surface coating of the tibial component it should become possible that surface cemented TKAs reveal similar loosening rates as TKAs both surface and stem cemented. This would be an important clinical advantage since it is believed that surface cementing reduces metaphyseal bone loss in case of revision and stress shielding for better bone health. PMID:16262888

Marx, Rudolf; Qunaibi, Mutaz; Wirtz, Dieter Christian; Niethard, Fritz Uwe; Mumme, Thorsten

2005-01-01

326

Photoelastic stress analysis of different designs of cement-retained fixed partial dentures on Morse taper oral implants.  

PubMed

There is no consensus in literature regarding the best plan for prosthetic rehabilitation with partial multiple adjacent implants to minimize stress generated in the bone-implant interface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical behavior of cemented fixed partial dentures, splinted and nonsplinted, on Morse taper implants and with different types of coating material (ceramic and resin), using photoelastic stress analysis. A photoelastic model of an interposed edentulous space, missing a second premolar and a first molar, and rehabilitated with 4 different types of cemented crowns and supported by 2 adjacent implants was used. Groups were as follows: UC, splinted ceramic crowns; IC, nonsplinted ceramic crowns; UR, splinted resin crowns; and IR, nonsplinted resin crowns. Different vertical static loading conditions were performed: balanced occlusal load, 10 kgf; simultaneous punctiform load on the implanted premolar and molar, 10 kgf; and alternate punctiform load on the implanted premolar and molar, 5 kgf. Changes in stress distribution were analyzed in a polariscope, and digital photographs were taken of each condition to allow comparison of stress pattern distribution around the implants. Cementation of the fixed partial dentures generated stresses between implants. Splinted restorations distributed the stresses more evenly between the implants than nonsplinted when force was applied. Ceramic restorations presented better distribution of stresses than resin restorations. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that splinted ceramic restorations promote better stress distribution around osseointegrated implants when compared with nonsplinted crowns; metal-ceramic restorations present less stress concentration and magnitude than metal-plastic restorations. PMID:21415635

Menani, Luiz Ricardo; Tiossi, Rodrigo; de Torres, Érica Miranda; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; de Almeida, Rossana Pereira

2011-03-01

327

Performance of Concrete Made With Slag Cement and  

E-print Network

Performance of Concrete Made With Slag Cement and Portland-Limestone Blended Cement Philadelphia;Today's Discussion ! The materials ! Slag cement ! Portland-limestone cement ! Use in concrete is slag cement? #12;! Non-metallic product of an iron blast furnace ! Granulated ! Ground ! Cementitious

328

Mud to cement technology proven in offshore drilling project  

Microsoft Academic Search

One problem with conventional cements is the incompatibility of Portland cement and the drilling mud. Expensive preflushes and spacer fluids have been used, often with limited success, to attempt to separate mud and Portland cement effectively. Under downhole conditions, most spacers are ineffective in preventing high viscosities and cement contamination problems which lead to poor primary cement jobs. One solution

K. Javanmardi; K. D. Flodberg; J. J. Nahm

1993-01-01

329

Characterization of PMR polyimide resin and prepreg  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures for the chemical characterization of PMR-15 resin solutions and graphite-reinforced prepregs were developed, and a chemical data base was established. In addition, a basic understanding of PMR-15 resin chemistry was gained; this was translated into effective processing procedures for the production of high quality graphite composites. During the program the PMR monomers and selected model compounds representative of postulated PMR-15 solution chemistry were acquired and characterized. Based on these data, a baseline PMR-15 resin was formulated and evaluated for processing characteristics and composite properties. Commercially available PMR-15 resins were then obtained and chemically characterized. Composite panels were fabricated and evaluated.

Lindenmeyer, P. H.; Sheppard, C. H.

1984-01-01

330

Lunar cement and lunar concrete  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a study to investigate methods of producing cements from lunar materials are presented. A chemical process and a differential volatilization process to enrich lime content in selected lunar materials were identified. One new cement made from lime and anorthite developed compressive strengths of 39 Mpa (5500 psi) for 1 inch paste cubes. The second, a hypothetical composition based on differential volatilization of basalt, formed a mineral glass which was activated with an alkaline additive. The 1 inch paste cubes, cured at 100C and 100 percent humidity, developed compressive strengths in excess of 49 Mpa (7100 psi). Also discussed are tests made with Apollo 16 lunar soil and an ongoing investigation of a proposed dry mix/steam injection procedure for casting concrete on the Moon.

Lin, T. D.

1991-01-01

331

Calculator programs replace cementing tables  

SciTech Connect

Two programs written for use on the two most popular programmable calculators solve routine volume and fill problems using data available on the drill floor. And while those familiar books of cementing tables should be kept for special jobs, the programs given here provide quick solutions to everyday cementing problems. Programs are presented for the solution of annular volume and pipe and hole capacity problems using the TI-59 or any of the Hewlett-Packard programmable calculators. The TI program was written for use with the PC-100C printer to prompt for input data and label output. A procedure is presented to modify this for hand-held operation using storage register numbers for prompts and to recall output information from storage registers. The program using the printer is discussed first.

Landry, W.E.

1987-01-01

332

The density of cement phases  

SciTech Connect

The densities of principal crystalline phases occurring in Portland cement are critically assessed and tabulated, in some cases with addition of new data. A reliable and self-consistent density set for crystalline phases was obtained by calculating densities from crystallographic data and unit cell contents. Independent laboratory work was undertaken to synthesize major AFm and AFt cement phases, determine their unit cell parameters and compare the results with those recorded in the literature. Parameters were refined from powder diffraction patterns using CELREF 2 software. A density value is presented for each phase, showing literature sources, in some cases describing limitations on the data, and the weighting attached to numerical values where an averaging process was used for accepted data. A brief discussion is made of the consequences of the packing of water to density changes in AFm and AFt structures.

Balonis, M. [Department of Chemistry, Meston Building, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 3UE, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.balonis@abdn.ac.uk; Glasser, F.P. [Department of Chemistry, Meston Building, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 3UE, Scotland (United Kingdom)

2009-09-15

333

Characterization of cement minerals, cements and their reaction products at the atomic and nano scale   

E-print Network

Recent advances and highlights in characterization methods are reviewed for cement minerals, cements and their reaction products. The emphasis is on X-ray and neutron diffraction, and on nuclear magnetic resonance methods, although X-ray absorption...

Skibsted, Joergen; Hall, Christopher

334

New radiopaque acrylic bone cement. II. Acrylic bone cement with bromine-containing monomer.  

PubMed

Bromine-containing methacrylate, 2-(2-bromopropionyloxy) ethyl methacrylate (BPEM), had been used in the formulation of acrylic radiopaque cements. The effect of this monomer incorporated into the liquid phase of acrylic bone cement, on the curing parameters, thermal properties, water absorption, density, compression tests and radiopacity was studied. A decrease of maximum temperature and an increase of the setting time were observed with the addition of the bromine-containing monomer in the radiolucent cement composition. Adding BPEM in radiolucent acrylic bone cements composition results in the decrease of glass transition temperature and increase of its thermal stability. Acrylic bone cements modified with bromine-containing comonomer are characterized by polymerization shrinkage lower than the radiolucent cement. Addition of bromine-containing comonomer in radiolucent acrylic bone cement composition determines the increase of compressive strength. Acrylic bone cements modified with bromine-containing comonomer proved to be radiopaque. PMID:18197369

Rusu, M C; Ichim, I C; Popa, M; Rusu, M

2008-07-01

335

Bagasse-reinforced cement composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bagasse is abundantly available in many countries as a by-product from sugar mills and is being mostly used as fuel or disposed of by incineration. An attempt has been made to convert this byproduct into useful eco-friendly cement-bonded composites, which can be used for various internal and external applications in buildings. The investigations include optimization of parameters such as bagasse

L. K. Aggarwal

1995-01-01

336

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices...3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device...

2014-04-01

337

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices...3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device...

2011-04-01

338

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices...3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device...

2013-04-01

339

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices...3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device...

2012-04-01

340

76 FR 39896 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...731-TA-385 (Third Review)] Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy Determination...antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely...June 2011), entitled Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Italy:...

2011-07-07

341

40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721...Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a...identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418...present a risk of injury to human health, the...

2014-07-01

342

40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721...Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a...identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418...present a risk of injury to human health, the...

2013-07-01

343

40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721...Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a...identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418...present a risk of injury to human health, the...

2011-07-01

344

40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721...Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a...identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418...present a risk of injury to human health, the...

2012-07-01

345

40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721...Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a...identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418...present a risk of injury to human health, the...

2010-07-01

346

21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600 Section 177...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT...Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may...

2014-04-01

347

21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573.120 Food...Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin (hydrolized polyacrylamide),...

2010-04-01

348

40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

2012-07-01

349

40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

2014-07-01

350

40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

2013-07-01

351

40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

2011-07-01

352

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device...

2010-04-01

353

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device...

2013-04-01

354

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device...

2012-04-01

355

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device...

2014-04-01

356

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device...

2011-04-01

357

21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310 Section 872...Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be...

2010-04-01

358

21 CFR 872.3300 - Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. 872.3300 ...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3300 Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic resin coating for dentures is a device...

2010-04-01

359

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770 Food...872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2010-04-01

360

21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin impression tray material. 872.3670...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3670 Resin impression tray material. (a) Identification. Resin impression tray material is a device...

2010-04-01

361

40 CFR 721.2673 - Aromatic epoxide resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). 721.2673 Section 721...Substances § 721.2673 Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as aromatic epoxide resin (PMN P-99-1399) is subject to...

2010-07-01

362

40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5908 Section 721...Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-561) is subject to...

2010-07-01

363

21 CFR 177.2500 - Polyphenylene sulfone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 true Polyphenylene sulfone resins. 177.2500 Section 177.2500 Food and...Repeated Use § 177.2500 Polyphenylene sulfone resins. The polyphenylene sulfone resins (CAS Reg. No. 31833-61-1)...

2010-04-01

364

21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 true Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section 177.2510 Food and...Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or...

2010-04-01

365

21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872.3690...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of...

2010-04-01

366

Fluid flow after resin-composite restoration in extracted carious teeth.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate fluid flow in dentin after restoration of carious teeth with resin composite bonded with a total-etching adhesive, with or without glass-ionomer cement lining. The roots of extracted third molars were removed and the crowns were connected to a fluid flow-measuring device. Each carious lesion was stained with caries detector dye and caries was removed using slow-speed burs and spoon excavators. Caries-excavated teeth were divided into two groups for restoration with resin composite bonded with a total-etch adhesive: (i) without lining; and (ii) lined with glass-ionomer cement before bonding. In non-carious teeth, cavities of similar dimensions were prepared, divided into two groups, and restored in the same manner. Fluid flow was recorded, after restoration, for up to 1 month. Caries-affected dentin was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the bonded interfaces were observed using a confocal laser scanning microscope. No significant difference in fluid flow was observed between the two restorative procedures or between the carious and non-carious groups. The SEM images showed that the dentinal tubules of acid-etched, caries-affected dentin were usually still occluded, while some were patent. Limited penetration of fluorescent dye into dentin and into the bonded interfaces of restored carious teeth was observed. PMID:19583764

Banomyong, Danuchit; Palamara, Joseph E A; Messer, Harold H; Burrow, Michael F

2009-06-01

367

Sustainable cement production-present and future  

SciTech Connect

Cement will remain the key material to satisfy global housing and modern infrastructure needs. As a consequence, the cement industry worldwide is facing growing challenges in conserving material and energy resources, as well as reducing its CO{sub 2} emissions. According to the International Energy Agency, the main levers for cement producers are the increase in energy efficiency and the use of alternative materials, be it as fuel or raw materials. Accordingly, the use of alternative fuels has already increased significantly in recent years, but potential for further increases still exists. In cement, the reduction of the clinker factor remains a key priority: tremendous progress has already been made. Nevertheless, appropriate materials are limited in their regional availability. New materials might be able to play a role as cement constituents in the future. It remains to be seen to what extent they could substitute Portland cement clinker to a significant degree.

Schneider, M., E-mail: sch@vdz-online.de [VDZ, Duesseldorf (Germany); Romer, M.; Tschudin, M. [Holcim Group Support Ltd, Holderbank (Switzerland); Bolio, H. [CEMEX, Monterrey (Mexico)

2011-07-15

368

Imide modified epoxy matrix resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy (IME) resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are presented. State of the art epoxy resin, MY720, was used. Three aromatic bisimide amines and one aromatic aliphatic BIA were evaluated. BIA's derived from 6F anhydride (3,3 prime 4,4 prime-(hexafluoro isopropyl idene) bis (phthalic anhydride) and diamines, 3,3 prime-diam nodiphenyl sulfone (3,3 prime-DDS), 4,4 prime-diamino diphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS), 1.12-dodecane diamine (1,12-DDA) were used. BIA's were abbreviated 6F-3,3 prime-DDS, 6F-4,4 prime-DDS, 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime DDS, and 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA corresponding to 6F anhydride and diamines mentioned. Epoxy resin and BIA's (MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA and a 50:50 mixture of a BIA and parent diamine, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA/3,3 prime-DDS were studied to determine effect of structure and composition. Effect of the addition of two commercial epoxies, glyamine 200 and glyamine 100 on the properties of several formulations was evaluated. Bisimide amine cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). Physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these resins were determined. Moisture absorption in boiling water exhibited by several of the IME's was considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies (from 3.2% for the control and state of the art to 2.0 wt% moisture absorption). Char yields are increased from 20% for control and state of the art epoxies to 40% for IME resins. Relative toughness characteristics of IME resins were measured by 10 deg off axis tensile tests of Celion 6000/IME composites. Results show that IME's containing 6F-3,3 prime-DDS or 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA improved the "toughness" characteristics of composites by about 35% (tensile strength), about 35% (intralaminar shear strength), and about 78% (shear strain to failure) relative to the control composite.

Scola, D. A.

1982-01-01

369

Cement compositions containing a polysaccharide and a salt and method of cementing casing in a well  

SciTech Connect

A cement composition is described for the preparation of an aqueous cement slurry useful in cementing casing in the borehole of a well comprising a cement selected from Class A through Class H; at least one polysaccharide or mixture of polysaccharides having a solution time greater than about 10 minutes; and at least one salt and wherein the amount of the polysaccharide or mixture of polysaccharides is sufficient so that the viscosity of the aqueous slurry increases with an increase in temperature.

Baker, W.S.; Harrison, J.J.

1987-05-05

370

Cement-in-cement revision hip arthroplasty: an analysis of clinical and biomechanical literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The number of revision hip arthroplasties is increasing but several aspects of this procedure could be improved. One method\\u000a of reducing intra-operative complications is the cement-in-cement technique. This procedure entails cementing a smaller femoral\\u000a prosthesis into the existing stable cement mantle. The aim of this systematic review is to provide a concise overview of the\\u000a existing historical, operative, biomechanical and

P. Keeling; P. J. Prendergast; A. B. Lennon; P. J. Kenny

2008-01-01

371

A cementation method of loose particles based on microbe-based cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbe-based cement has been widely reported in recent literatures. It is a new method of consolidating loose fine particles,\\u000a which relies on the bacterially induced formation of a compatible carbonate precipitation around individual particles and\\u000a at particle-particle contacts. Materials and cementation procedure are two major factors that influence the cementation performance\\u000a of microbe-based cement. Besides, there are some other factors

Hui Rong; ChunXiang Qian; RuiXing Wang

2011-01-01

372

Seebeck effect in steel fiber reinforced cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cement pastes containing short steel fibers, which contribute to electron conduction, exhibit positive values (up to 68 ?V\\/°C) of the absolute thermoelectric power. A steel fiber content of 1.0% by mass of cement gives a higher value of the absolute thermoelectric power than a content of 0.5% by mass cement, in addition to yielding more reversibility and linearity in the

Sihai Wen; D. D. L Chung

2000-01-01

373

Modification of cement systems with oxalic aldehyde  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental results of physical-chemical properties of composite materials on the basis of cement and wood waste modified by an aquatic solution of oxalic aldehyde are presented in this paper. The injection of a chemical addition agent being in optimal concentration is shown to result in the increase of compressive strength of a cement stone by 30%, that of wood-cement composition – in 7 times. IR spectroscopy investigations, microphotographs of structures, kinetics of samples strength changes are shown.

Subbotina, N. V.; Gorlenko, N. P.; Sarkisov, Ju S.; Naumova, L. B.; Minakova, T. S.

2015-01-01

374

The nature of CSH in hardened cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) are the main binding phases in all Portland cement-based systems. This paper considers the morphology, composition, and nanostructure of C-S-H in a range of hardened cements. Inner product (Ip) C-S-H present in larger Portland cement grains typically has a fine-scale and homogeneous morphology with pores somewhat under 10 nm in diameter. Ip from larger slag grains

I. G Richardson

1999-01-01

375

Cement industry: sustainability, challenges and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cement-based materials, such as concrete and mortars, are used in extremely large amounts. For instance, in 2009 concrete\\u000a production was superior to 10 billion tons. Cement plays an important role in terms of economic and social relevance since\\u000a it is fundamental to build and improve infrastructure. On the other hand, this industry is also a heavy polluter. Cement production\\u000a releases

F. A. Rodrigues; I. Joekes

2011-01-01

376

Pulmonary Cement Embolism following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a minimal invasive procedure that is applied for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. During vertebroplasty, the leakage of bone cement outside the vertebral body leads to pulmonary cement embolism, which is a serious complication of this procedure. Here we report a 48-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with dyspnea after percutaneous vertebroplasty and diagnosed as pulmonary cement embolism.

Co?kun, Tuba; Acat, Murat; Onaran, Hilal; Gül, ?ule; Çetinkaya, Erdo?an

2014-01-01

377

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE  

SciTech Connect

Low cost material is needed for grouting abandoned retorts. Experimental work has shown that a hydraulic cement can be produced from Lurgi spent shale by mixing it in a 1:1 weight ratio with limestone and heating one hour at 1000°C. With 5% added gypsum, strengths up to 25.8 MPa are obtained. This cement could make an economical addition up to about 10% to spent shale grout mixes, or be used in ordinary cement applications.

Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

1980-06-01

378

Tensile peel failure of resin-bonded Ni/Cr beams: an experimental and finite element study.  

PubMed

Tensile bond strength data for resin-bonded bridge cements would predict failure loads in excess of 1000 N when based on available bonded surface area. Such loads are unlikely to be encountered clinically, yet these bridges frequently fail. Loading conditions resulting in a peeling action at the adhesive interface may provide a more probable explanation for failure rather than being attributable to poor clinical or laboratory technique. This hypothesis was investigated by bonding grit-blasted Ni/Cr alloy beams of different thicknesses to a block of the same alloy using a resin-bonded bridge cement, leaving half the length of the beam free. Beams were pulled off the block with a peeling action by applying a tensile load to the free end of the beam and load at failure recorded. Fractured surfaces were examined under SEM. A two-dimensional finite element model of a section through the peel test arrangement was used to produce data of the stress distribution in the adhesive layer. Load at failure was closely correlated to beam thickness. Using this data and known tensile bond strength values it was possible to predict the loads necessary to cause adhesive failure of the beam, which were found to correlate closely with the experimental measurements. It was concluded that design and the stiffness of the retainers can have a potentially profound effect on the adhesive quality of resin-bonded bridges. PMID:7962902

Northeast, S E; van Noort, R; Shaglouf, A S

1994-08-01

379

Phosphorus-containing imide resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cured polymers of bis and tris-imides derived from tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides by reaction with maleic anhydride or its derivatives, and addition polymers of such imides, including a variant in which a monoimide is condensed with a dianhydride and the product is treated with a further quantity of maleic anhydride prior to curing are disclosed and claimed. Such polymers are flame resistant. Also disclosed are an improved method of producing tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides from the nitro analogues by reduction with hydrazine hydrate using palladized charcoal or Raney nickel as the catalyst and fiber reinforced cured resin composites.

Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (inventors)

1985-01-01

380

Acoustic evaluation of cementing quality using obliquely incident ultrasonic signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic cement bond logging is a widely used method for evaluating cementing quality. Conventional ultrasonic cement bond logging uses vertical incidence and cannot accurately evaluate lightweight cement bonding. Oblique incidence is a new technology for evaluating cement quality with improved accuracy for lightweight cements. In this study, we simulated models of acoustic impedance of cement and cementing quality using ultrasonic oblique incidence, and we obtained the relation between cementing quality, acoustic impedance of cement, and the acoustic attenuation coefficient of the A0-mode and S0-mode Lamb waves. Then, we simulated models of different cement thickness and we obtained the relation between cement thickness and the time difference of the arrival between the A0 and A0' modes.

Duan, Wen-Xing; Qiao, Wen-Xiao; Che, Xiao-Hua; Xie, Hui

2014-09-01

381

21 CFR 888.4210 - Cement mixer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cement mixer for clinical use. 888.4210...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4210 Cement mixer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A cement mixer for clinical use is a device...

2011-04-01

382

21 CFR 888.4210 - Cement mixer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cement mixer for clinical use. 888.4210...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4210 Cement mixer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A cement mixer for clinical use is a device...

2013-04-01

383

21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a...

2011-04-01

384

21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a...

2012-04-01

385

21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a...

2014-04-01

386

21 CFR 888.4210 - Cement mixer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cement mixer for clinical use. 888.4210...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4210 Cement mixer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A cement mixer for clinical use is a device...

2014-04-01

387

21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a...

2010-04-01

388

21 CFR 888.4210 - Cement mixer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement mixer for clinical use. 888.4210...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4210 Cement mixer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A cement mixer for clinical use is a device...

2010-04-01

389

21 CFR 888.4210 - Cement mixer for clinical use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cement mixer for clinical use. 888.4210...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4210 Cement mixer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A cement mixer for clinical use is a device...

2012-04-01

390

21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a...

2013-04-01

391

21 CFR 888.4230 - Cement ventilation tube.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cement ventilation tube. 888.4230 Section 888.4230...Surgical Devices § 888.4230 Cement ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A cement ventilation tube is a tube-like device...

2012-04-01

392

21 CFR 888.4230 - Cement ventilation tube.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cement ventilation tube. 888.4230 Section 888.4230...Surgical Devices § 888.4230 Cement ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A cement ventilation tube is a tube-like device...

2013-04-01

393

21 CFR 888.4230 - Cement ventilation tube.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cement ventilation tube. 888.4230 Section 888.4230...Surgical Devices § 888.4230 Cement ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A cement ventilation tube is a tube-like device...

2014-04-01

394

21 CFR 888.4230 - Cement ventilation tube.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement ventilation tube. 888.4230 Section 888.4230...Surgical Devices § 888.4230 Cement ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A cement ventilation tube is a tube-like device...

2010-04-01

395

21 CFR 888.4230 - Cement ventilation tube.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cement ventilation tube. 888.4230 Section 888.4230...Surgical Devices § 888.4230 Cement ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A cement ventilation tube is a tube-like device...

2011-04-01

396

New polymer additives for mortar cement  

SciTech Connect

Mortar cement is a hydraulic cement similar to masonry cement in use and function, introduced to enhance one or more of the latter's properties, such as workability, durability, and water retention. In addition, mortar cement must have lower air content and it has minimum flexural bond strength requirements. In response to fulfilling these needs, a new family of water soluble polymers has been developed. The new polymer additives are designed to optimize air void distribution and rheology of wet mortar, allowing improved workability with low air content. Furthermore, these polymers impart high water retention to the mortar, and allow the production of mortar with enhanced board life and flexural bond strength.

Chu, S.G.; Podlas, T.J.; Young, T.S.

1999-07-01

397

Supply chain management in the cement industry .  

E-print Network

??Traditionally supply chain management has played an operational role within cement and mineral extraction commodity companies. Recently, cost reduction projects have brought supply chain management… (more)

Agudelo, Isabel

2009-01-01

398

21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600 Section 177.1600...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified...

2012-04-01

399

21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600 Section 177.1600...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified...

2010-04-01

400

21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600 Section 177.1600...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified...

2013-04-01

401

21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600 Section 177.1600...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified...

2011-04-01

402

Modified resins for solid-phase extraction  

DOEpatents

A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

Fritz, James S. (Ames, IA); Sun, Jeffrey J. (Ames, IA)

1991-12-10

403

REMOVING RADIUM-226 ION EXCHANGE RESINS  

E-print Network

Water Sanitary Sewer System Radium Compliant Water Waterways or On-site WW Disposal System Landfill period of time 11 Objective 1 - Resin Exhaustion Study Site Location & Layout Water Treatment Building alternate well site 5 Radium-226 Treatment Using Ion Exchange Resin · Raw water flows through treatment unit

404

Modified resins for solid-phase extraction  

DOEpatents

A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

Fritz, James S. (Ames, IA); Sun, Jeffrey J. (Ames, IA)

1993-07-27

405

Novel silica-based ion exchange resin  

SciTech Connect

Shortcomings of chelating resins have been addressed by a new class of ion exchange resins called dual mechanism bifunctional polymers (DMBPs). DMBPs use hydrophilic cation exchange ligands with rapid uptake kinetics and use chelating ligands for selectivity for one or more metals; result is a resin that quickly recognizes and removes targeted metals from waste, remediation, and process streams. Eichrom`s Diphonix {reg_sign} resin is the first DMBP to be widely released as a commercial product; it is polystyrene based. Objective of this work is to synthesize commercial quantities of a silica-based ion exchange resin with the same or better metal ion selectivity, metal uptake kinetics, and acid stability as Diphonix. Feasibility was determined, however the process needs to be optimized. Studies at Eichrom and ANL of the performance of Diphonix resin over a broad range of HNO3 and HCl conditions and inorganic salt loadings are discussed together with the proposed method of incorporating similar characteristics into a silica-based resin. The new, silica-based resin functionalized with diphosphonic acid ligands can be used in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving processing of low-level, transuranic, and high-level radioactive wastes; it can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste including wastes contaminated with organic compounds.

Gula, M.; Harvey, J.

1996-12-31

406

21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins...1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not less than 104 poises at 380...ibr_locations.html. The melt viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins...

2013-04-01

407

21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins...1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not less than 104 poises at 380...ibr_locations.html. The melt viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins...

2012-04-01

408

21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins...1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not less than 104 poises at 380...ibr_locations.html. The melt viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins...

2014-04-01

409

Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin  

DOEpatents

By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

Taylor, Gene W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1982-01-01

410

Experimental investigation of second interface cement bond evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cement bond model wells (1:10 scaled-down) were made with a gradually degrading cement annulus for cement bond evaluation\\u000a of the first interface (between the casing and the cement annulus) and the second interface (between the cement annulus and\\u000a the formation). Experimental simulation on cement bond logging was carried out with these model wells. The correlation of\\u000a acoustic waveforms, casing wave

Che Xiaohua; Qiao Wenxiao

2007-01-01

411

Direct Encapsulation of Spent Ion-exchange Resins at the Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant, Czech Republic - 12367  

SciTech Connect

At the Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant there are large amounts of spent ion exchange resins contained within storage tanks. These resins are a product of the operation of an Active Water Purification System within the Power Plant. Activity levels of the resins are in the range of 105 to 10{sup 6} Bq/l and the main isotopes present are Co-60, Cs-137, Mn-54 and Ag-110m. In order to maintain storage tank availability throughout the planned lifetime of the Power Plant these resins must be removed and disposed of safely. The storage tanks do not have an effective retrieval route for the resins and the installed agitation system is inoperable. A proven system for retrieving and directly encapsulating these resins to a standard required for the Czech repository is described, together with an overview of operational performance. Experience gained from this and other projects has highlighted some common challenges relating to the treatment of ion-exchange resins and sludges. There are common approaches that can assist in overcoming these challenges. 1. Transport resin / sludge type waste over as short a distance as possible to avoid issues with line plugging. 2. Transport these wastes once and once only wherever possible. 3. Try to keep the treatment process as simple as possible. With sludge or resin handling equipment consider the physical properties foremost - radiological issues can be addressed within any subsequent design. 4. Consider the use of dry-mix technologies. This avoids the requirement for expensive and complicated grouting plant. 5. Avoid the use of make up water for transport purposes if at all possible - it introduces secondary waste that needs to be treated at additional cost. 6. Consider alternative disposal techniques. SIAL{sup R} is AMEC's preferred technology as we developed it and understand it well - additionally the waste loading factors are much higher than for cement. 7. Consider final waste volumes when selecting the disposal technique. Disposal costs will probably make up the bulk of the total life-time cost for any retrieval / encapsulation project. 8. Have a selection of ion-exchange resin/sludge retrieval techniques available - it is difficult and time consuming to develop a technique that will cope with all eventualities, particularly when there are unknown conditions. It is much more productive to switch retrieval techniques as appropriate to deal with evolving conditions. (authors)

Fletcher, Paul [AMEC Nuclear UK, Knutsford (United Kingdom); Rima, Steve [AMEC USA (United States)

2012-07-01

412

Pullout strength of pedicle screws with cement augmentation in severe osteoporosis: A comparative study between cannulated screws with cement injection and solid screws with cement pre-filling  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pedicle screws with PMMA cement augmentation have been shown to significantly improve the fixation strength in a severely osteoporotic spine. However, the efficacy of screw fixation for different cement augmentation techniques, namely solid screws with retrograde cement pre-filling versus cannulated screws with cement injection through perforation, remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the difference in pullout strength between

Lih-Huei Chen; Ching-Lung Tai; De-Mei Lee; Po-Liang Lai; Yen-Chen Lee; Chi-Chien Niu; Wen-Jer Chen

2011-01-01

413

Overcoming interpretation problems of gas-contaminated cement using ultrasonic cement logs  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of cement sheath evaluation logs is to determine whether the production or injection zones, as well as other critical zones, are hydraulically isolated. Ultrasonic measurements have been used in cement evaluation since the early 1980s. Ultrasonic tools evaluate the cement sheath by measuring the acoustic impedance of the material outside the casing. Cement has a higher acoustic impedance than drilling fluids or water, and gas has an acoustic impedance near zero. Gas-contaminated cement poses the main problem in interpretation of ultrasonic cement tools. To understand the problem, the acoustic impedance of what might be in the casing-to-formation annulus must be considered. The acoustic impedance of cement can range from slightly over 3.0 MRayl to about 7.0 MRayl. Drilling fluids can be 1.5 MRayl to 3.0 MRayl. Water has an acoustic impedance of 1.5, and gas has an acoustic impedance of less than 0.04 MRayl. As long as there is sufficient difference between the acoustic impedance of the cement and the acoustic impedance of the liquid phase, channels in the cement can quickly be identified. In the case of gas-cut cement the texture of the material tends to be that of a honeycomb. This paper proposes a technique for using high-resolution ultrasonic data to identify gas-contaminated cement, while maintaining nearly the same vertical and radial resolution, thus allowing the identification of liquid-and gas-filled channels. The proposed technique allows improved interpretation of the high-resolution ultrasonic data when gas-contaminated cement is encountered. Even when attenuation-type logs are run, this technique will aid the interpretation. The results to date indicate that this technique can be applied to eliminate unnecessary cement squeeze jobs caused by misinterpretation of the ultrasonic data. Examples are shown to compare the technique to other cement log data and cement squeeze results.

Butsch, R.J.

1995-12-31

414

Reduction of polyester resin shrinkage by means of epoxy resin—II. Epoxy resin modified with acrylamide and N-hydroxymethyloloacrylamide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility was investigated of reducing the shrinkage of unsaturated polyester resin taking place in radiation-induced curing, by the addition of epoxy resin. In order to combine chemically both resins, the epoxy component was modified by introducing unsaturated bonds via acrylamide and N-hydroxymethyloloacrylamide. A composition of 90% unsaturated polyester resin and 10% acrylamide-modified epoxy resin, filled with silica (1:1.5), showed a volume shrinkage below 2%.

Pietrzak, M.; Brzostowski, A.

415

Resin/graphite fiber composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques were developed that provided thermo-oxidatively stable A-type polyimide/graphite fiber composites using the approach of in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on reinforcing fibers, rather than employing separately prepared prepolymer varnish. This was accomplished by simply mixing methylene dianiline and two ester-acids and applying this solution to the fibers for subsequent molding. Five different formulated molecular weight resins were examined, and an optimized die molding procedure established for the 1500 formulated molecular weight system. Extensive ultrasonic inspection of composites was successfully utilized as a technique for monitoring laminate quality. Composite mechanical property studies were conducted with this polyimide resin at room temperature and after various time exposures in a thermo-oxidative environment at 561 K (550 F), 589 K (600 F) and 617 K (650 F). It was determined that such composites have a long term life in the temperature range of 561 K to 589 K. The final phase involved the fabrication and evaluation of a series of demonstration airfoil specimens.

Cavano, P. J.

1974-01-01

416

Release and toxicity of dental resin composite  

PubMed Central

Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies have clearly identified that these components of restorative composite resins are toxic. But there is a large gap between the results published by research laboratories and clinical reports. The objective of this manuscript was to review the literature on release phenomenon as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity of dental resin composite. Interpretation made from the recent data was also outlined. PMID:23293458

Gupta, Saurabh K.; Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana A.; Pant, Aditya B.

2012-01-01

417

Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made to determine the physical properties of synthetic resins having paper, canvas, and linen reinforcements, and of laminated wood impregnated with a resin varnish. The results show that commercial resins have moduli of elasticity that are too low for structural considerations. Nevertheless, there do exist plastics that have favorable mechanical properties and, with further development, it should be possible to produce resin products that compare favorably with the light-metal alloys. The results obtained from tests on Compound 1840, resin-impregnated wood, show that this material can stand on its own merit by virtue of a compressive strength four times that of the natural wood. This increase in compressive strength was accomplished with an increase of density to a value slightly below three times the normal value and corrected one of the most serious defects of the natural product.

Fishbein, Meyer

1939-01-01

418

Quartz cement in sandstones: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quartz cement as syntaxial overgrowths is one of the two most abundant cements in sandstones. The main factors that control the amount of quartz cement in sandstones are: framework composition; residence time in the "silica mobility window"; and fluid composition, flow volume and pathways. Thus, the type of sedimentary basin in which a sand was deposited strongly controls the cementation process. Sandstones of rift basins (arkoses) and collision-margin basins (litharenites) generally have only a few percent quartz cement; quartzarenites and other quartzose sandstones of intracratonic, foreland and passive-margin basins have the most quartz cement. Clay and other mineral coatings on detrital quartz grains and entrapment of hydrocarbons in pores retard or prevent cementation by quartz, whereas extremely permeable sands that serve as major fluid conduits tend to sequester the greatest amounts of quartz cement. In rapidly subsiding basins, like the Gulf Coast and North Sea basins, most quartz cement is precipitated by cooling, ascending formation water at burial depths of several kilometers where temperatures range from 60° to 100° C. Cementation proceeds over millions of years, often under changing fluid compositions and temperatures. Sandstones with more than 10% imported quartz cement pose special problems of fluid flux and silica transport. If silica is transported entirely as H 4SiO 4, convective recycling of formation water seems to be essential to explain the volume of cement present in most sandstones. Precipitation from single-cycle, upward-migrating formation water is adequate to provide the volume of cement only if significant volumes of silica are transported in unidentified complexes. Modeling suggests that quartz cementation of sandstones in intracratonic basins is effected by advecting meteoric water, although independent petrographic, isotopic or fluid inclusion data are lacking. Silica for quartz cement comes from both shale and sandstone beds within the depositional basin, including possibly deeply buried rocks undergoing low-grade metamorphism, but the relative importance of potential sources remains controversial and likely differs for different formations. The most likely important silica sources within unmetamorphosed shales include clay transformation (chiefly illitization of smectite), dissolution/pressure solution of detrital grains, and dissolution of opal skeletal grains; the most likely important sources of silica within unmetamorphosed sandstones include pressure solution of detrital quartz grains at grain contacts and at stylolites, feldspar alteration/dissolution, and perhaps carbonate replacement of silicate minerals and the margins of some quartz grains. Silica released by pressure solution in many sandstones post-dates the episode of cementation by quartz; thus, this silica must migrate and cement shallower sandstones in the basin or escape altogether. Some quartz-cemented sandstones are separated vertically from potential silica source beds by a kilometer or more, requiring silica transport over long distances. The similarity of diagenetic sequences in sandstones of different composition and ages apparently is the result of the normal temperature and time-dependent maturation of sediments, organic matter and pore fluids during burial in sedimentary basins. Silica that forms overgrowths is released by one or more diagenetic processes that apparently are controlled by temperature and time. Most cementation by quartz takes place when sandstone beds were in the silica mobility window specific to a particular sedimentary basin. Important secondary controls are introduced by compartmentalized domains produced by faults (e.g., North Sea) or overpressure boundaries (e.g., Gulf Coast Tertiary). Shallow meteoric water precipitates only small amounts of silica cement (generally less than 5% in most fluvial and colian sandstones), except in certain soils and at water tables in high-flux sand aquifers. Soil silcretes are chiefly cemented by opal and microcrystalline quartz, whereas water-tab

McBride, Earle F.

419

In-vitro Comparison of the Antimicrobial Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements with Zinc Phosphate Cements  

PubMed Central

White spot lesions are observed in nearly 50% of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Long-lasting antibacterial properties of orthodontic cements can reduce this phenomenon. The aim of this research was to compare antimicrobial activity of three commercial glass ionomer cements with three commercial zinc phosphate cements, over time, against streptococcus mutans and candida albicans. Direct contact test (DCT) was used to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of products after 48 h and 7 days of incubation. The results demonstrated that all the cements presented antibacterial activity but the antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements was more than that of zinc phosphate cements. Counts of C. albicans after 48 h were lower and statistically different in the GIC group in relation to the control groups. But no differences were observed between GIC and control groups at 7 days. Based on the results of this study, the antimicrobial and mainly antifungal effects of all the cements were so short. PMID:25317187

Vahid Dastjerdie, Elaheh; Oskoui, Mahvash; Sayanjali, Elham; Tabatabaei, Fahimeh Sadat

2012-01-01

420

Liquid antibiotics in bone cement  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study was to compare the elution characteristics, antimicrobial activity and mechanical properties of antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) loaded with powdered antibiotic, powdered antibiotic with inert filler (xylitol), or liquid antibiotic, particularly focusing on vancomycin and amphotericin B. Methods Cement specimens loaded with 2 g of vancomycin or amphotericin B powder (powder group), 2 g of antibiotic powder and 2 g of xylitol (xylitol group) or 12 ml of antibiotic solution containing 2 g of antibiotic (liquid group) were tested. Results Vancomycin elution was enhanced by 234% in the liquid group and by 12% in the xylitol group compared with the powder group. Amphotericin B elution was enhanced by 265% in the liquid group and by 65% in the xylitol group compared with the powder group. Based on the disk-diffusion assay, the eluate samples of vancomycin-loaded ALBC of the liquid group exhibited a significantly larger inhibitory zone than samples of the powder or the xylitol group. Regarding the ALBCs loaded with amphotericin B, only the eluate samples of the liquid group exhibited a clear inhibitory zone, which was not observed in either the xylitol or the powder groups. The ultimate compressive strength was significantly reduced in specimens containing liquid antibiotics. Conclusions Adding vancomycin or amphotericin B antibiotic powder in distilled water before mixing with bone cement can significantly improve the efficiency of antibiotic release than can loading ALBC with the same dose of antibiotic powder. This simple and effective method for preparation of ALBCs can significantly improve the efficiency of antibiotic release in ALBCs. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:246–51. PMID:25104836

Chang, Y. H.; Tai, C. L.; Hsu, H. Y.; Hsieh, P. H.; Lee, M. S.; Ueng, S. W. N.

2014-01-01

421

Development of corn cob ash blended cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to convert waste product into useful material for the construction industry, this research considered the use of corn cob ash (CCA) as a pozzolan in cement production. The study investigated the chemical composition of CCA. Factory production of the CCA – blended cement was carried out by replacing 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 15%, 20% and

D. A. Adesanya; A. A. Raheem

2009-01-01

422

Delaware Basin Cementing - Problems and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probably the most important decision facing the drilling engineer on Delaware basin wells is the selection of casing points. After the casing points have been chosen, the next problem is designing an effective cementing program. Careful evaluation of formation conditions, integrated design of slurry properties and mechanical methods, and complete control of placement are necessary for successful cementing design in

Max Gibbs

1966-01-01

423

Cardiovascular Effects of Implanted Acrylic Bone Cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot study has shown that there is usually but not invariably a fall in systemic arterial blood pressure within 90 seconds of implanting acrylic cement into the femoral shaft during hip arthroplasty. There is usually no change in arterial blood pressure on implanting acrylic cement into the acetabulum. The observed hypotension may be due to absorption of monomer or

Hugh Phillips; Peter V. Cole; Alan W. F. Lettin

1971-01-01

424

TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY IS TO PRESENT A PRELIMINARY PICTURE OF OCCUPATIONAL CHANGES BROUGHT ABOUT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF CEMENT AS A RESULT OF INTRODUCING AUTOMATED EQUIPMENT. ONE AUTOMATED AND SEVERAL CONVENTIONAL TYPE CEMENT PLANTS WERE STUDIED. ANALYSIS OF DATA OBTAINED THROUGH RESEARCH AND DATA COLLECTED DURING THE STUDY REVEALED THAT…

WESSON, CARL E.

425

CELLULOSE CEMENT COMPOSITE MODIFIED BY POLYMER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The durability of the cellulose-cement composites is a deciding factor to introduce such material in the market. Several researches have been developed aiming to avoid the degradation of vegetable fiber-cement, some using chemically treated fibers and others modifying the matrix. Polymers have been used in concrete and mortar production to increase its durability. The goal of this work is to

L. L. Pimentel; A. L. Beraldo; H. Savastano Jr

426

Radiological changes in asbestos cement workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To explore associations between exposure to asbestos cement dust and radiographic findings in lung parenchyma and pleura. METHODS--Radiographs from 174 blue collar workers and 29 white collar workers from an asbestos cement plant formed one part of the study. Progression of small opacities was further studied in those 124 blue collar workers, for whom two radiographs taken after the end

K Jakobsson; U Strömberg; M Albin; H Welinder; L Hagmar

1995-01-01

427

Basic studies on hydroxy apatite cement: I. Setting reaction.  

PubMed

Self-setting cements, alpha D-Cement and alpha DT-Cement, were prepared. They consisted of only the calcium phosphates alpha-TCP, TTCP and DCPA. These cements reacted and hardened in a moist environment at 37 degrees C. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns were taken to examine the conversion of their reactions as a function of time. The cements reacted and produced hydroxyapatite. The optimum powder/liquid ratio of alpha D-Cement was 2.0 and that of alpha DT-Cement was 1.8. The initial setting time of alpha D-Cement was 87.5 m and that of alpha DT-Cement was 107.5 m. The component and the product of these cements are calcium phosphates which are the putative minerals in teeth and bones. Therefore, these cements are useful for oral surgery as bone-filling materials. PMID:9680764

Fukase, Y; Wada, S; Uehara, H; Terakado, M; Sato, H; Nishiyama, M

1998-06-01

428

Mineralogy of fossil resins in Northern Eurasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigation is focused on identification and origin of fossil resins from the Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary sediments of Northern Eurasia on the basis of detailed study of their physical and chemical characteristics: morphology; size; mass; density; optical, mechanical, and thermal properties; chemical composition; etc. The composition of amorphous organic minerals with polymeric structure, fossil resins included, is studied with IR spectrometry, the EPR method, derivatography at low heating rates, XRD, chemical analysis, emission spectrometry, etc. The results of investigation summarized for the Baltic-Dnieper, North Siberian, and Far East amber-bearing provinces show some similarity of fossil resins in combination with specific features inherent to each province. Resins from the Baltic-Dnieper province should be termed as amber (succinite). Their variety is the most characteristic of Northern and Eastern Europe. Amber-like fossil resins from the North Siberian and Far East provinces are irrelevant to succinite. They usually occur as brittle resins, namely, retinite and gedanite, without jewelry value. Viscous fossil resin rumänite with an expected high economic value occurs in the Far East, on the shore of Sakhalin Island.

Bogdasarov, M. A.

2007-12-01

429

Cement–clay grouts modified with acrylic resin or methyl methacrylate ester: Physical and mechanical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grouting is a common technical method with many applications, e.g. it is used for soil stabilization and strengthening, for reduction of water ingress to underground facilities or of the water loss through a dam foundation, etc. Grouts comprise several constituents, which are combined in many ways depending on the in situ conditions and the outcome desired. Superplasticizers, accelerators, antifreezers, air-entraining

Costas A. Anagnostopoulos

2007-01-01

430

Resin/graphite fiber composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Processing techniques were developed for the fabrication of both polyphenylquinoxaline and polyimide composites by the in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on the graphite reinforcing fibers, rather than using previously prepared prepolymer varnishes. Void-free polyphenylquinoxaline composites were fabricated and evaluated for room and elevated flexure and shear properties. The technology of the polyimide system was advanced to the point where the material is ready for commercial exploitation. A reproducible processing cycle free of operator judgment factors was developed for fabrication of void-free composites exhibiting excellent mechanical properties and a long time isothermal life in the range of 288 C to 316 C. The effects of monomer reactant stoichiometry and process modification on resin flow were investigated. Demonstration of the utility and quality of this polyimide system was provided through the successful fabrication and evaluation of four complex high tip speed fan blades.

Cavano, P. J.

1974-01-01

431

Preparation and evaluation of dental resin luting agents with increasing content of bisphenol-A ethoxylated dimethacrylate.  

PubMed

Resin luting agents in which bisphenol-A glycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) and/or triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) are replaced with increasing amounts of bisphenol-A ethoxylated dimethacrylate are prepared. Degree of conversion (DC), diametral tensile strength (DTS), Young's modulus (YM), Knoop hardness (KHN), film thickness (FT), water sorption (W(sp) ), and solubility are evaluated. Regression analyses investigate the substitution of each monomer. The most appreciable differences are detected when TEGDMA is replaced: decreased DC, DTS, and W(sp), and increased YM, KHN, and FT. For substitution of Bis-GMA, the only significant differences are reduced W(sp) and increased YM. An ideal formulation of resin cement would make use of the three monomers. PMID:19033325

Moraes, Rafael R; Sinhoreti, Mário A C; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Ogliari, Fabrício A; Piva, Evandro; Petzhold, Cesar L

2010-01-01

432

Monitoring of Resin Transfer Molding Processes with Distributed Dielectric Sensors  

E-print Network

Monitoring of Resin Transfer Molding Processes with Distributed Dielectric Sensors Michael Campbell___________________________________ #12;University of Washington Abstract Monitoring of Resin Transfer Molding Processes with Distributed-situ sensing in resin transfer molding (RTM) and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is designed

Mamishev, Alexander

433

Inclined cement tests improve measurement  

SciTech Connect

Because of the effects of free water on setting cement, a free water test procedure was added to API Specification 10 in 1964. The API free water test placed more emphasis on the evaluation and control of free water rather than on all aspects of slurry stability (such as particle settling). For particle settling (density segregation), the procedure used only a visual, subjective review without a quantitative measurement. In 1978, a possible relationship between flow after cementing and changes in hydrostatic pressure because of the accumulation of free water was studied. Most of the research up to this point was conducted without consideration of the effects of increased temperature, pressure, and deviation. Later research found a large increase (up to 8%) in free water at high temperatures compared to tests conducted at 80 F according to API Section 6. Furthermore, when the effects of deviation were included, the vertical API test was found to be optimistic. Procedural modifications were suggested in include a test for free water at a 45[degree] angle. In early 1990, BP International Ltd. developed a new method of testing free water slurry stability and established a quantitative method of evaluation. This method combined aspects of temperature, pressure, and deviation in a unique chamber. The paper describes this test procedure and effects of deviation angle, temperature, and pressure.

Matson, R.P.; Rogers, M.; Boncan, V.G.; Gandy, R.G. (BJ Services Co., Tomball, TX (United States))

1993-03-08

434

Improved microbial-check-valve resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved microbial-check-valve resins have been tested for their microbicidal effectiveness and long-term stability. Resins give more-stable iodine concentrations than previous preparations and do not impart objectionable odor or taste to treated water. Microbial check valve is small cylindrical device, packed with iodide-saturated resin, that is installed in water line where contamination by micro-organisms is to be prevented. Prototype microbial check valve was tested for stability and performance under harsh environmental conditions. Effectiveness was 100 percent at 35 deg, 70 deg, and 160 deg F (2 deg, 21 deg, and 71 deg C).

Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

1980-01-01

435

Assessment of natural radioactivity levels of cements and cement composites in the Slovak Republic.  

PubMed

The radionuclide activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and radiological parameters (radium equivalent activity, gamma and alpha indices, the absorbed gamma dose rate and external and internal hazard indices) of cements and cement composites commonly used in the Slovak Republic have been studied in this paper. The cement samples of 8 types of cements from Slovak cement plants and five types of composites made from cement type CEM I were analyzed in the experiment. The radionuclide activities in the cements ranged from 8.58-19.1 Bq·kg(-1), 9.78-26.3 Bq·kg(-1) and 156.5-489.4 Bq·kg(-1) for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The radiological parameters in cement samples were calculated as follows: mean radium equivalent activity Ra(eq) = 67.87 Bq·kg(-1), gamma index I? = 0.256, alpha index I? = 0.067, the absorbed gamma dose rate D = 60.76 nGy·h(-1), external hazard index H(ex) = 0.182 and internal hazard index H(in) was 0.218. The radionuclide activity in composites ranged from 6.84-10.8 Bq·kg(-1) for 226Ra, 13.1-20.5 Bq·kg(-1) for 232Th and 250.4-494.4 Bq·kg(-1) for 40K. The calculated radiological parameters of cements were lower than calculated radiological parameters of cement composites. PMID:24351739

Eštoková, Adriana; Palaš?áková, Lenka

2013-12-01

436

Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels of Cements and Cement Composites in the Slovak Republic  

PubMed Central

The radionuclide activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and radiological parameters (radium equivalent activity, gamma and alpha indices, the absorbed gamma dose rate and external and internal hazard indices) of cements and cement composites commonly used in the Slovak Republic have been studied in this paper. The cement samples of 8 types of cements from Slovak cement plants and five types of composites made from cement type CEM I were analyzed in the experiment. The radionuclide activities in the cements ranged from 8.58–19.1 Bq·kg?1, 9.78–26.3 Bq·kg?1 and 156.5–489.4 Bq·kg?1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The radiological parameters in cement samples were calculated as follows: mean radium equivalent activity Raeq = 67.87 Bq·kg?1, gamma index I? = 0.256, alpha index I? = 0.067, the absorbed gamma dose rate D = 60.76 nGy·h?1, external hazard index Hex = 0.182 and internal hazard index Hin was 0.218. The radionuclide activity in composites ranged from 6.84–10.8 Bq·kg?1 for 226Ra, 13.1–20.5 Bq·kg?1 for 232Th and 250.4–494.4 Bq·kg?1 for 40K. The calculated radiological parameters of cements were lower than calculated radiological parameters of cement composites. PMID:24351739

Eštoková, Adriana; Palaš?áková, Lenka

2013-01-01

437

Microscale investigation of arsenic distribution and species in cement product from cement kiln coprocessing wastes.  

PubMed

To improve the understanding of the immobilization mechanism and the leaching risk of Arsenic (As) in the cement product from coprocessing wastes using cement kiln, distribution and species of As in cement product were determined by microscale investigation methods, including electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In this study, sodium arsenate crystals (Na3AsO412H2O) were mixed with cement production raw materials and calcined to produce cement clinker. Then, clinker was mixed water to prepare cement paste. EPMA results showed that As was generally distributed throughout the cement paste. As content in calcium silicate hydrates gel (C-S-H) was in low level, but higher than that in other cement mineral phases. This means that most of As is expected to form some compounds that disperse on the surfaces of cement mineral phases. Linear combination fitting (LCF) of the X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra revealed that As in the cement paste was predominantly As(V) and mainly existed as Mg3(AsO4)2, Ca3(AsO4)2, and Na2HAsO4. PMID:24223030

Yang, Yufei; Xue, Jingchuan; Huang, Qifei

2013-01-01

438

[Effects of the cementing technique on cementing results concerning the coxal end of the femur].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of jet-lavage and cement pressurising techniques upon cement penetration into proximal femoral cancellous bone. In a cadaver study 60 left human cadaver femora were used for implantation of cemented stem components. Four different groups of cementing techniques were generated, the allocation to the groups was randomized. Bone lavage was carried out either using jet-lavage or manual syringe lavage, cement application differed with regard to the amount of pressurisation used. Five different stem designs were used. Radiographs were taken and horizontal sections were obtained at predefined levels (2 cm) using a diamond saw. Microradiographs were taken and analysed using image analysis to assess cement penetration into cancellous bone. In an additional study the influence of jet-lavage (1000 ml) versus syringe lavage (1000 ml) was studied in 11 paired human cadaver femora. The specimens were imbedded in specially designed pots. Bone cement was applied in a retrograde manner and subjected to a standard pressure protocol with a constant force of 3000 N. The analysis protocol was identical to the main experiment. Both jet-lavage and pressurisation of bone cement significantly improved the penetration of cement into cancellous bone (p = 0.027 and p = 0.003, respectively). In the presence of strong, dense cancellous bone the findings were more pronounced. In the additional comparative study cement intrusion was significantly better (p < 0.001) in the jet-lavage group. We did not observe an influence of the stem type upon outcome (penetration). The use of jet-lavage yields significantly improved cement penetration and should be regarded mandatory in cemented total hip arthroplasty. High pressurising techniques are effective means to improve the interdigitation between cancellous bone and cement, but should only be administered in combination with jet-lavage to reduce the risk of thrombo-embolic complications. PMID:10798235

Breusch, S J; Schneider, U; Kreutzer, J; Ewerbeck, V; Lukoschek, M

2000-03-01

439

Measurement of transient and residual stresses during polymerization of bone cement for cemented hip implants.  

PubMed

The initial fixation of a cemented hip implant relies on the strength of the interface between the stem, bone cement and adjacent bone. Bone cement is used as grouting material to fix the prosthesis to the bone. The curing process of bone cement is an exothermic reaction where bone cement undergoes volumetric changes that will generate transient stresses resulting in residual stresses once polymerization is completed. However, the precise magnitude of these stresses is still not well documented in the literature. The objective of this study is to develop an experiment for the direct measurement of the transient and residual radial stresses at the stem-cement interface generated during cement polymerization. The idealized femoral-cemented implant consists of a stem placed inside a hollow cylindrical bone filled with bone cement. A sub-miniature load cell is inserted inside the stem to make a direct measurement of the radial compressive forces at the stem-cement interface, which are then converted to radial stresses. A thermocouple measures the temperature evolution during the polymerization process. The results show the evolution of stress generation corresponding to volumetric changes in the cement. The effect of initial temperature of the stem and bone as well as the cement-bone interface condition (adhesion or no adhesion) on residual radial stresses is investigated. A maximum peak temperature of 70 degrees C corresponds to a peak in transient stress during cement curing. Maximum radial residual stresses of 0.6 MPa in compression are measured for the preheated stem. PMID:18692188

Nuño, N; Madrala, A; Plamondon, D

2008-08-28

440

Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin  

SciTech Connect

An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at Hanford and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A recirculating test loop with a small ion exchange column was used to measure the effect of oxygen uptake and radiation exposure on the permeability of a packed bed of the RF resin. The lab-scale column was designed to be prototypic of the proposed Hanford columns at the WTP. Although the test equipment was designed to model the Hanford ion exchange columns, the data on changes in the hydraulic permeability of the resin will also be valuable for determining potential pressure drops through the proposed SCIX system. The superficial fluid velocity in the lab-scale test (3.4-5.7 cm/s) was much higher than is planned for the full-scale Hanford columns to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in those columns (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity produced forces on the resin in the lab-scale tests that matched the design basis of the full-scale Hanford column. Any changes in the resin caused by the radiation exposure and oxygen uptake were monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and the physical properties of the resin. Three hydraulic test runs were completed, the first using fresh RF resin at 25 C, the second using irradiated resin at 25 C, and the third using irradiated resin at 45 C. A Hanford AP-101 simulant solution was recirculated through a test column containing 500 mL of Na-form RF resin. Known amounts of oxygen were introduced into the primary recirculation loop by saturating measured volumes of the simulant solution with oxygen and reintroducing the oxygenated simulant into the feed tank. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the recirculating simulant was monitored, and the amount of oxygen that reacted with the resin was determined from the change in the DO concentration of the recirculating simulant solution. Prior to hydraulic testing the resin for runs 2 and 3 was covered with the simulant solution and irradiated in a spent fuel element at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Both batches of resin were irradiated to a total gamma dose of 177 Mrad, but the resin for run 2 reached a maximum temperature during irradiation of 51 C, while the resin for run 3 reached a temperature of 38 C. The different temperatures were the result of the operating status of HFIR at the time of the irradiation and were not part of the test plan; however, the results clearly show the impact of the higher-temperature exposure during irradiation. The flow rate and pressure drop data from the test loop runs show that irradiating the RF resin reduces both the void fraction and the permeability of the resin bed. The mechanism for the reduction in permeability is not clear because irradiation increases the particle size of the resin beads and makes them deform less under pressure. Microscopic examination of the resin beads shows that they are all smooth regular spheres and that irradiation or oxygen uptake did not change the shape of the beads. The resin reacts rapidly with DO in the simulant solution, and the reaction with oxygen reduces the permeability of a bed of new resin by about 10% but has less impact on the permeability of irradiated resin. Irradiation increases the toughness of the resin beads, probably by initiating cross-linking reactions in them. Oxygen uptake reduces the crush strength of both new and irradiated resin; however, the pressures that caused the beads to crush are much higher than would be expected during the operation of an ion exchange column. There was no visible evidence of broken beads in any of the resin samples taken from the test loop. Reaction with oxygen red

Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL

2010-01-01

441

CONSTRUCTION-GRADE CEMENT PRODUCTION FROM CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS USING  

E-print Network

1 CONSTRUCTION-GRADE CEMENT PRODUCTION FROM CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS USING CEMENT-LOCKTM TECHNOLOGY A developed the Cement-LockTM Technology a versatile, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly manufacturing technology for producing construction-grade cements from a wide variety of contaminated waste

Brookhaven National Laboratory

442

Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Shannon Golden, Alabama DOT  

E-print Network

Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Shannon Golden, Alabama DOT PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT may be substituted for part of the required Portland cement. Substitution of mineral admixtures shall Cement shall not exceed the percentages shown in the following table: MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SUBSTITUTION

443

Scanning electron microscopy imaging of hydraulic cement microstructure  

E-print Network

Scanning electron microscopy imaging of hydraulic cement microstructure by Paul Stutzman Building Reprinted from Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 26, No. 8, 957-966 pp., November 2004. NOTE: This paper;Available online at www.sciencedirect.com SCIENCE@OIRECT@ Cement & Concrete CompositesELSEVIER Cement

Bentz, Dale P.

444

Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale  

E-print Network

Study of composite cement containing burned oil shale Julien Ston Supervisors : Prof. Karen supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), allows to reduce the environmental impact and improve cement aims to characterize the effect of BOS in cement and concrete. To this end, 4 Holcim cements were

Dalang, Robert C.

445

Computer simulation of the diffusivity of cement-based materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital image-based model of the microstructure of cement paste, coupled with exact transport algorithms, is used to study the diffusivity of Portland cement paste. The principal variables considered are water:cement ratio, degree of cement hydration and capillary porosity. Computational methods are described and diffusivity results are presented, which are found to agree with the available experimental measurements within experimental

E. J. Garboczi; D. P. Bentz

1992-01-01

446

Controlling dust when cutting fibre-cement board  

E-print Network

Controlling dust when cutting fibre-cement board Page 1 of 2 Cutting fibre-cement board (e are not typically used when cutting and shaping fibre-cement board. To protect yourself you should: Use one of the methods described above for cutting fibre-· cement board Inspect the dust control equipment before you

Knowles, David William

447

Guide to Cement-Based Integrated Pavement Solutions  

E-print Network

Guide to Cement-Based Integrated Pavement Solutions August 2011 #12;Cement-Based Integrated Commercial Residential Recreation LAND USE CEMENT-BASED INTEGRATED PAVEMENT SOLUTIONS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Conventional Overlays CRCP VIBRATORY COMPACTION Pervious Concrete Full-Depth Reclamation Cement- Treat- ed Base

448

The virtual cement plant - the benefits and technology of simulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, employing well qualified control room operators, engineers, and support personnel, is an economic necessity for cement manufacturers. Training is the only way to achieve higher qualification, resulting in immediate financial benefits for the modern cement producers. This paper will describe a progressive tool for such process related training: a SIMULATOR, tailor-made for the cement industry. A cement plant simulator

Thomas Binninger

2004-01-01

449