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1

The Advantages of Polyester for Use in Coated Fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyester fabrics, with many superior physical properties, increasingly competitive economics and adaptability to the coated fabric environment, are gaming rapid acceptance in coated fabric applications. Higher modulus fibers with greater resistance to thermal shrinkage provide coated fabrics with superior dimensional stability and lower creep proper ties. The attributes, coupled with polyester's resistance to acids and climatic (humidity) changes contribute to

P. W. Mayer

1973-01-01

2

An alternative process for electroless copper plating on polyester fabric  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroless copper plating of polyester fabrics was demonstrated in the present investigation. The electroless Cu plating\\u000a process on polyester fabric was modified by replacing the conventional PdCl2 activator with an AgNO3 activator to reduce the overall cost of the plating process. Both uncoated and Cu-coated polyester fabrics were characterized\\u000a by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray

R. H. Guo; S. Q. Jiang; C. W. M. Yuen; M. C. F. Ng

2009-01-01

3

Microwave assisted dyeing of polyester fabrics with disperse dyes.  

PubMed

Dyeing of polyester fabrics with thienobenzochromene disperse dyes under conventional and microwave heating conditions was studied in order to determine whether microwave heating could be used to enhance the dyeability of polyester fabrics. Fastness properties of the dyed samples were measured. All samples dyed with or without microwave heating displayed excellent washing and perspiration fastness. The biological activities of the synthesized dyes against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, yeast and fungus were also evaluated. PMID:24022764

Al-Mousawi, Saleh Mohammed; El-Apasery, Morsy Ahmed; Elnagdi, Mohamed Hilmy

2013-09-09

4

Adhesion properties of butyl rubber-coated polyester fabric  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butyl rubber-coated polyester fabric with various concentrations of MT carbon black in the rubber was examined for peel strength. The peel strength was tested after aging at 90°C for different time intervals and after exposure to gamma radiation of various ionizing radiation doses. The air permeability and the dielectric properties of the proofed fabric were also measured. The optimum concentration

S. N. Lawandy; A. F. Younan; N. A. Darwish; F. Yousef; A. Mounir

1997-01-01

5

The Extinction Oxygen Index of Polyester-Cotton Blended Fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limiting and extinction oxygen index techniques have been used to study the effects that fabric variables and blend composition have on the burning be haviour of 20\\/80, 50\\/50 and 65\\/35 polyester-cotton blended fabrics. Whilst LOI values were not dependent on ignition time, they were for a given blend com position dependent on fabric area density. Lo values determined at zero

J. Allen; A. R. Horrocks; D. Price

1988-01-01

6

Fluorocarbon nano-coating of polyester fabrics by atmospheric air plasma with aerosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluorocarbon coating was deposited on polyester (PET) woven fabric using pulse discharge plasma treatment by injecting a fluoropolymer directly into the plasma dielectric barrier discharge. The objective of the treatment was to improve the hydrophobic properties as well as the repellent behaviour of the polyester fabric. Plasma treatment conditions were optimised to obtain optimal hydrophobic properties which were evaluated

F. Leroux; C. Campagne; A. Perwuelz; L. Gengembre

2008-01-01

7

Influence of chemical surface modification on the properties of biodegradable jute fabrics—polyester amide composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical surface modifications of jute fabrics involving bleaching, dewaxing, alkali treatment, cyanoethylation and vinyl grafting are made in view of their use as reinforcing agents in composites based on a biodegradable polyester amide matrix, BAK 1095. The effect of different fibre surface treatments and fabric amounts on the performance of resulting composites are investigated. The mechanical properties of composites

A. K Mohanty; M. A Khan; G Hinrichsen

2000-01-01

8

Effect of carbon black type on the adhesion between butyl rubber and polyester fabric  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of carbon black were used to study the effect of its loading on the adhesion between butyl rubber and polyester fabric. The adhesion improved both on aging and on exposure to ionizing gamma radiation. The dielectric constant, electrical resistivity, and permeability of the various rubber-fabric samples were measured. The dielectric properties were found to depend on the type

S. N. Lawandy; A. F. Younan; N. A. Darwish; F. Yousef; A. Mounir

1997-01-01

9

Predicting Shrinkage in Polyester Reinforced by Glass Fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyester is one of the most common resins used in contact lay-up method because of its low cost, room-temperature curing, wide availability, ease of handing, etc. However, the main disadvantage of this resin is the large volumetric shrinkage after curing (up to about 0.5%). This represents a major problem because it can cause unexpected defects in the molded composite parts

T. Vu-Khanh; V. Do-Thanh

2000-01-01

10

Optimization of process conditions for electroless copper plating on polyester fabric  

Microsoft Academic Search

The copper-coated polyester fabric can be used to prepare electromagnetic shielding materials. At present, electroless copper plating mainly using formaldehyde as the reducing agent. But the stability of the bath is poor and it is also volatile and toxic. Using hypophosphite as reducing agent has more advantages for its stability and the plating process does not release any toxic gases.

Wang Xiao-hong; Liu Jian-xiao; Feng Pei-zhong; Sun Zhi

2011-01-01

11

Laundry parameters as factors in lowering methyl parathion residue in cotton\\/polyester fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton\\/polyester fabrics were contaminated with a 1.25% solution of methyl parathion (MeP) emulsifiable concentrate formulation, then laboratory laundered. The laundering variables were detergent type, concentration, water volume, and mechanical agitation. Specimens were unfinished (UN) and soil repellent finished (SR) fabrics. Heavy duty liquid and phosphate-built powdered detergents were equally effective when used in combination with a prewash product. A negative

Debra N. Hild; Joan M. Laughlin; Roger E. Gold

1989-01-01

12

Use of an aliphatic hydrocarbon to improve adhesion in butyl rubber-proofed polyester fabric  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aliphatic hydrocarbon resin (Escoraze) was used as an additive in four bonding systems. These systems were based on (i) resorcinol, (ii) o-aminophenol, (iii) m-aminophenol, and (iv) m-phenylene diamine. Escoraze caused a significant additional adhesion force between the butyl rubber and the polyester fabric. The rubber-proofed fabric was subjected to an ionizing radiation. This led to better adhesion properties of

S. N. Lawandy; A. F. Younan; A. B. Shehata; N. A. Darwish; A. Mounir

1997-01-01

13

Surface physical–morphological and chemical changes leading to performance enhancement of atmospheric pressure plasma treated polyester fabrics for inkjet printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without any preprocessing, polyester fabric has lower ability to hold on water due to the smooth morphology and chemistry property of polyester fibers. Therefore, patterns directly printed with pigment inks have poor color yields and easily bleed. In this paper, atmospheric pressure plasma was used to pretreat polyester fabric in order to provide an active surface for the inkjet printing.

Kuanjun Fang; Chunming Zhang

2009-01-01

14

Sulfonation of polyester fabrics by gaseous sulfur oxide activated by UV irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an original technique aiming to improve the hydrophilic properties of polyester fibres. In this method, the sulfonation of the aromatic rings is carried out using gaseous sulfur trioxide activated by UV irradiations. Thus, exposing the polyester textile fabric to the UVC light (wavelength around 254 nm) under a stream of sulfur trioxide leads to the fixation of sbnd SO3H groups. The amounts of the fixed sulfonate groups depended on the reaction conditions. Evidence of grafting deduced from the measurements of hygroscopic properties was carried out by contact angle measurement, moisture regain as well as by measuring the rate of retention. SEM and FT-IR analysis, DSC and DTA/TGA thermograms showed that no significant modifications have occurred in the bulk of the treated PET fabrics.

Kordoghli, Bessem; Khiari, Ramzi; Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk; Sakli, Faouzi; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur

2012-10-01

15

Surface pretreatment of polyester fabric for ink jet printing with radio frequency O 2 plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma treatment of textiles is becoming more and more popular as a surface modification technique. It not only changes the\\u000a outermost layer of a material without interfering with the bulk properties but also offers the advantage of greater chemical\\u000a flexibility to obtain multifunctional textiles. Inkjet printing is becoming increasingly important and popular for the printing\\u000a of textiles. When polyester fabric

Chunying Wang; Chaoxia Wang

2010-01-01

16

Cationization and gamma irradiation effects on the dyeability of polyester fabric towards disperse dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of hydrazine hydrate (HZH) treatment and/or gamma irradiation on the dyeing, mechanical and thermal properties of polyester fabrics (PET) was studied. The different factors that may affect the dyeing performance, such as concentrations of HZH, benzyl alcohol and pH values, were investigated. In this regard, the colour strength of untreated polyester fabrics dyed with the dyestuffs Dispersol blue BR, Dispersol orange B2R and Dispersol red B2B was found to be 10.34, 10.76 and 10.12 compared to 24.61, 24.90 and 23.00 in the case of irradiated and HZH-treated polyester fabrics, respectively. These colour strength values were achieved by preirradiation at a dose of 75 kGy followed by treatment with 15mll-1 of HZH. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the thermal decomposition stability was improved by using gamma irradiation and the treatment with HZH as indicated by the calculated activation energies. FT-IR spectroscopy showed that the treatment with HZH acts as cationizer prior to dyeing with disperse dyes.

Zohdy, Maged H.

2005-06-01

17

Surface Modification of Polyester Fabric by Non-Thermal Plasma Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study it was carried out a surface modification of polyester fabric by plasma treatment with aim of providing hidrophilicity to fabric. In the process it were used three different gaseous atmosphere with mixtures of argon, nitrogen and/or oxygen [(1) Ar + N2 (4:2), (2) Ar + N2 + O2 (4:2:2) and N2 + O2 (2:0.6)] and maintained others parameters such as pressure, current and time of treatment fixed at 1.35 mBar, 0.08 A and 30 minutes, respectively. The plasma treatment was monitored by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) to identify the species presents in the plasma reactor. Chemical changes in the fabric surface after plasma treatments were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Wicking properties were used to evaluate hydrophilicity of the fabric. Wicking measurement showed that the hydrophilicity of polyester fabric was remarkably improved after treatment and was explained by XPS analysis indicating higher presence of functional groups containing nitrogen and oxygen.

Lima da Silva, R. C.; Alves, C., Jr.; Nascimento, J. H.; Neves, J. R. O.; Teixeira, V.

2012-12-01

18

The dimensional and mechanical properties of wool\\/polyester fabrics made from vortex and ring-spun yarns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fabric woven from wool\\/polyester (PES) Murata vortex spun (MVS) blend yarn is a commercially viable proposition particularly on the basis of advantageous wear-resistant properties, compared with fabric made from traditional worsted ring-spun yarn. However, in some early industrial trials with fabric made from 45\\/55-blend wool\\/PES MVS yarn, significantly greater relaxation shrinkage was found relative to comparable worsted ring-spun fabric. It

Q. Li; P. R. Brady; C. J. Hurren; X. G. Wang

2008-01-01

19

Effect of starch on reducing the retention of methyl parathion by cotton and polyester fabrics in agricultural protective clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the retention of methyl parathion on 100% cotton and 50% cotton\\/ 50% polyester fabrics with treatments of starch. The surface treatment of starch trapped the pesticide decreasing transfer to the skin and enhancing pesticide removal during laundering. The enzyme amylase was added to the laundry detergent to determine any refined effects on the decontamination of the soiled

L. L. Ko; S. K. Obendorf

1997-01-01

20

Characterization of E-glass/polyester woven fabric composite laminates and tubes  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an experimental study that supported the LDRD program ``A General Approach for Analyzing Composite Structures``. The LDRD was a tightly coupled analytical / experimental effort to develop models for predicting post-yield progressive failure in E-glass fabric/polyester composites subjected to a variety of loading conditions. Elastic properties, fracture toughness parameters, and failure responses were measured on flat laminates, rings and tubes to support the development and validation of material and structural models. Test procedures and results are presented for laminates tested in tension, compression, flexure, short beam shear, double cantilever beam Mode I fracture toughness, and end notched flexure Mode II fracture toughness. Structural responses, including failure, of rings loaded in diametral compression and tubes tested in axial compression, are also documented.

Guess, T.R.; Reedy, E.D. Jr.; Stavig, M.E.

1995-12-01

21

Different plasma-based strategies to improve the interaction of anionic dyes with polyester fabrics surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-pressure plasma treatments with subsequent immobilization of functional macromolecules from aqueous solution have gained an increasing popularity for its applications in new industrial processes. In this work, two different strategies to endow polyester fabrics (PET) with accessible primary amino groups are compared. (a) NH2 groups were produced directly using low-pressure ammonia plasma. (b) Negatively charged groups were introduced by low-pressure oxygen plasma to hydrophilize the fabric surfaces and used as anchor groups for the immobilization of water-borne polyelectrolyte copolymers poly(vinyl amine-co-vinyl amide) (PVAm). To study the effects of these surface modifications, a combination of various surface-sensitive characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), streaming potential measurements and time-dependent contact angle measurements were used. Furthermore, the influence of the pre-treatments on the interaction of PET fabrics with water-soluble dyes was evaluated. For that purpose, color strength and fastness tests were carried out to prove the effectiveness of pre-treatments.

Salem, Tarek; Pleul, Dieter; Nitschke, Mirko; Müller, Martin; Simon, Frank

2013-01-01

22

Improvement in hydrophobicity of polyester fabric finished with fluorochemicals via aminolysis and comparing with nano-silica particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the fabrication of the “lotus-type” fibers, a combination of two major requirements, low surface energy and the magnified\\u000a of the degree of roughness, should be utilized. In this research, the possible surface roughening effect of aminolysis of\\u000a the polyester fibers was applied to manipulated surface topography while fluorocarbon polymer layer generates low surface\\u000a energy. The results were compared with

Zahra Mazrouei-Sebdani; Akbar Khoddami; Shadpour Mallakpour

2011-01-01

23

Impact damage and residual strengths of woven fabric glass\\/polyester laminates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thick glass\\/polyester laminates of four different dimensions subject to low-velocity impact have been investigated using a guided drop-weight test rig with a flat-ended impactor in ascending energy order up to 3100 J. The characteristics of impact response and energy absorption have been determined by impact force and absorbed energy histories, and impact damage incurred was examined by cross-sectioning and ultrasonic

G. Zhou; D HITCHINGS

1996-01-01

24

Mechanical response of nonwoven polyester fabric/epoxy composites at cryogenic temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we characterize the cryogenic mechanical response of nonwoven polyester/epoxy composites for high temperature superconducting devices. The test specimens were produced from the composite cylindrical components, and tension, compression and flexure tests were performed at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) to evaluate the elastic and strength properties of the composites. The failure characteristics of the composites were examined by microscopic observations of failed specimens. The temperature dependence and anisotropy of the composite properties were discussed.

Shindo, Yasuhide; Takeda, Tomo; Narita, Fumio

2012-10-01

25

Fabrication of thermoset polyester microfluidic devices and embossing masters using rapid prototyped polydimethylsiloxane molds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastics are increasingly being used for the fabrication of Lab-on-a-Chip devices due to the variety of beneficial material properties, affordable cost, and straightforward fabrication methods available from a range of different types of plastics. Rapid prototyping of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices has become a well-known process for the quick and easy fabrication of microfluidic devices in the research laboratory; however, PDMS

Gina S. Fiorini; Gavin D. M. Jeffries; David S. W. Lim; Christopher L. Kuyper; Daniel T. Chiu

2003-01-01

26

Abaca/polyester nonwoven fabric functionalization for metal ion adsorbent synthesis via electron beam-induced emulsion grafting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A metal ion adsorbent was developed from a nonwoven fabric trunk material composed of both natural and synthetic polymers. A pre-irradiation technique was used for emulsion grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto an electron beam irradiated abaca/polyester nonwoven fabric (APNWF). The dependence of degree of grafting (Dg), calculated from the weight of APNWF before and after grafting, on absorbed dose, reaction time and monomer concentration were evaluated. After 50 kGy irradiation with 2 MeV electron beam and subsequent 3 h reaction with an emulsion consisting of 5% GMA and 0.5% polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20) surfactant in deionized water at 40 °C, a grafted APNWF with a Dg greater than 150% was obtained. The GMA-grafted APNWF was further modified by reaction with ethylenediamine (EDA) in isopropyl alcohol at 60 °C to introduce amine functional groups. After a 3 h reaction with 50% EDA, an amine group density of 2.7 mmole/gram adsorbent was achieved based from elemental analysis. Batch adsorption experiments were performed using Cu2+ and Ni2+ ions in aqueous solutions with initial pH of 5 at 30 °C. Results show that the adsorption capacity of the grafted adsorbent for Cu2+ is four times higher than Ni2+ ions.

Madrid, Jordan F.; Ueki, Yuji; Seko, Noriaki

2013-09-01

27

Some mechanical properties of untreated jute fabric-reinforced polyester composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research work is concerned with the evaluation of the mechanical properties—modulus, Poisson's ratio and strength—of woven jute fabric-reinforced composites. The specimens are prepared using hand lay-up techniques as per the ASTM standard. This is the first report by any single group of researchers in which tensile strength, compressive strength, flexural strength, impact strength, inplane shear strength, interlaminar shear strength

T. Munikenche Gowda; A. C. B. Naidu; Rajput Chhaya

1999-01-01

28

Polyester non-woven fabric finger cover as a TRUCT Braille reading assistance tool for Braille learners.  

PubMed

Transparent resinous ultraviolet-curing type (TRUCT) Braille signs are becoming more and more popular in Japan, especially when they are printed together with visual characters. These signs are made by screen printing, a technique that can be applied to various base materials, such as paper, metal, and plastic. TRUCT Braille signs have begun to be used in public facilities, such as on tactile maps and on handrails. Naturally, it is expected that Braille beginners will utilize these signs. However, it has been pointed out that the friction between the forefinger and the base material may affect reading accuracy and speed. In this study, we developed a finger cover made of soft, thin polyester non-woven fabric to reduce friction during Braille reading. We also carried out a study to investigate the effect of its use. The subjects were 12 Braille learners with acquired visual impairment, who were asked to read randomly selected characters with and without the finger cover. The results showed that most participants could read TRUCT Braille significantly faster and more accurately with a finger cover than without it, regardless of the base material and dot height. This result suggests that wearing the finger cover enables Braille learners to read TRUCT Braille more efficiently. The finger cover can be used as a Braille reading assistance tool for Braille learners. An additional, health-related advantage of the finger cover is that the forefinger remains clean. We expect that the finger cover will be in practical use in Japan within 1 or 2 years. PMID:17846807

Doi, Kouki; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

2007-09-11

29

Chemical, electrical and electrochemical characterization of hybrid organic/inorganic polypyrrole/PW 12 O 40 3- coating deposited on polyester fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the stability of conducting fabrics of polyester (PES) coated with polypyrrole/PW 12O 403- (organic/inorganic hybrid material) in different pH solutions (1, 7, 13) has been done. Washing tests were also done in views of its possible application in electronic textiles such as antistatic clothing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies have been done to quantify the amount of counter ion that remains in the polymer matrix and determine the doping ratio (N +/N) after the different tests. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also used to observe morphological differences after the different tests. Surface resistivity changes were measured by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was employed to measure changes in electroactivity after the different tests. Higher pHs caused a decrease of the doping ratio (N +/N), the loss of part of the counter ions and the decrease of its conducting and electrocatalytic properties. The stability in acid media and neutral media and after the washing test was good. Only at pH 13 the loss of the counter ion was widespread and there was a decrease of its conducting and catalytic properties; although the fabrics continued acting mainly as a conducting material.

Molina, J.; Fernández, J.; del Río, A. I.; Bonastre, J.; Cases, F.

2011-09-01

30

Changes of pulling-out length and shrinkage ratio in polyester\\/spandex power net warp knitted fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power net fabric is one of the highly extensible two-way fabrics. Power net structure shows special characteristics in the\\u000a wearing of final functional clothes. This research evaluated effects of treatment temperature on proportional extensibility\\u000a and shrinkage ratio of spandex at a given wale length. As treatment temperature increased, extensibility increased proportionally\\u000a to the standard length of the sample and the

Choon Gil Lee

2006-01-01

31

Comparison of the toxicity of the combustion products from a flexible polyurethane foam and a polyester fabric evaluated separately and together by the NBS (National Bureau of Standards) toxicity test method and a cone radiant heater toxicity test apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Representative specimens of flexible polyurethane foam and polyester fabric were thermally decomposed separately and together in order to compare the toxicity of the combustion products from the combined materials with those from the single homogeneous materials and to compare the toxicological results obtained with the NBS Toxicity Test Method with those using a cone radiant heater toxicity test apparatus. Gas concentrations (CO, CO2, O2 and HCN), blood carboxyhemoglobin, and LC(sub 50) values in Fischer 344 rats were determined for the materials under both flaming and non-flaming conditions. With the NBS Toxicity Test Method, the results of the non-flaming combined experiments indicated that both materials contributed in an additive manner to the concentration of the combustion products. However, under flaming conditions, the generation of HCN is greater than that predicted from the addition of the maximum amounts produced by the materials separately.

Levin, B. C.; Braun, E.; Gurman, J. L.; Paabo, M.

1986-11-01

32

Biodegradable functional poly(ester amide)s with pendant hydroxyl functional groups: Synthesis, characterization, fabrication and in vitro cellular response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of a new family of biodegradable ?-amino acid poly(ester amide)s (AA-PEAs) with pendant benzyl ether groups and hydroxyl functional groups is reported. The synthetic strategy employs the ring opening reaction of O-benzyl-l-serine-N-carboxyanhydride with di-p-toluenesulfonic acid salts of bis-l-valine butane-1,4-diester, followed by solution polycondesation reactions with di-p-nitrophenyl sebacate in N,N-dimethylacetamide. Catalytic hydrogenation of the resulting benzyl ether protected AA-PEAs

Mingxiao Deng; Jun Wu; Cynthia A. Reinhart-King; Chih-Chang Chu

2011-01-01

33

Polyester Resin Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyester resins are being increasingly used in industry. These resins require the addition of catalysts and accelerators. The handling of polyester resin system materials may give rise to skin irritations, allergic reactions, and burns. The burns are probably due to styrene and organic peroxides. Atmospheric pollution from styrene and explosion and fire risks from organic peroxides must be prevented. Where

L. B. Bourne; F. J. M. Milner

1963-01-01

34

Analog and digital circuits using organic thin-film transistors on polyester substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have fabricated and characterized analog and digital circuits using organic thin-film transistors on polyester film substrates. These are the first reported dynamic results for organic circuits fabricated on polyester substrates. The high-performance pentacene transistors yield circuits with the highest reported clock frequencies for organic circuits

M. G. Kane; J. Campi; M. S. Hammond; F. P. Cuomo; B. Greening; C. D. Sheraw; J. A. Nichols; D. J. Gundlach; J. R. Huang; C. C. Kuo; L. Jia; H. Klauk; T. N. Jackson

2000-01-01

35

Fiber Reinforced Polyester Resins Polymerized by Microwave Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyester resin based composite materials are widely used in the manufacture of fiberglass boats. Production time of fiberglass\\u000a laminate components could be strongly reduced by using an intense energy source as well as microwaves. In this work a polyester\\u000a resin was used with 2% by weight of catalyst and reinforced with chopped or woven glass fabric. Pure resin and composite

A. M. Visco; L. Calabrese; P. Cianciafara; L. Bonaccorsi; E. Proverbio

2007-01-01

36

Polyester Resin Hazards  

PubMed Central

Polyester resins are being increasingly used in industry. These resins require the addition of catalysts and accelerators. The handling of polyester resin system materials may give rise to skin irritations, allergic reactions, and burns. The burns are probably due to styrene and organic peroxides. Atmospheric pollution from styrene and explosion and fire risks from organic peroxides must be prevented. Where dimethylaniline is used scrupulous cleanliness and no-touch technique must be enforced. Handling precautions are suggested. Images

Bourne, L. B.; Milner, F. J. M.

1963-01-01

37

Cotton versus Polyester  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy requirements for the production of fibers, for the manufacture of cloth and clothing items, i.e., a shirt, for the maintenance of the finished product by washing, drying, and ironing, and for replacement due to wear, i.e., the comparative durability, of cotton clothing and clothing made from polyester or polyester--cotton blends, are compared giving details for the energy requirements

T. Leo van Winkle; John Edeleanu; Elizabeth Ann Prosser; Charles A. Walker

1978-01-01

38

Synthesis of Improved Polyester Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eighteen aromatic unsaturated polyester prepolymers prepared by a modified interfacial condensation technique were investigated for their solubility in vinyl monomers and ability to provide high char yield forming unsaturated polyester resins. The best re...

A. H. McLeod C. B. Delano

1979-01-01

39

Comparison of Goretex Laminated and Dermoflex Coated Fabrics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two fabrics, a polyester/cotton fabric laminated with Goretex, and a nylon fabric coated with Dermoflex, were proposed for the prototype Arctic clothing system. Samples of each fabric were subjected to various physical tests, both before and after launder...

P. A. Dolhan

1989-01-01

40

Comparison of Goretex Laminated and Dermoflex Coated Fabrics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two fabrics, a polyester/cotton fabric laminated with Goretex, and a nylon fabricated coated with Dermoflex, were proposed for the prototype Arctic clothing system. Samples of each fabric were subjected to various physical tests, both before and after lau...

P. A. Dolhan

1989-01-01

41

Microbial degradation of polyesters.  

PubMed

Polyesters, such as microbially produced poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid] [poly(3HB)], other poly[(R)-hydroxyalkanoic acids] [poly(HA)] and related biosynthetic or chemosynthetic polyesters are a class of polymers that have potential applications as thermoplastic elastomers. In contrast to poly(ethylene) and similar polymers with saturated, non-functionalized carbon backbones, poly(HA) can be biodegraded to water, methane, and/or carbon dioxide. This review provides an overview of the microbiology, biochemistry and molecular biology of poly(HA) biodegradation. In particular, the properties of extracellular and intracellular poly(HA) hydrolyzing enzymes [poly(HA) depolymerases] are described. PMID:11217416

Jendrossek, D

2001-01-01

42

Stabilized Unsaturated Polyesters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An unsaturated polyester, such as propylene glycol-maleic acid-phtatic acid prepolymer dissolved in styrene is interpolymerized with an ultraviolet absorber and/or an antioxidant to form a polymer stable to exposure to the outdoors without degradation by ...

E. Borsig O. Vogl

1984-01-01

43

Microfabricated polyester conical microwells for cell culture applications†  

PubMed Central

Over the past few years there has been a great deal of interest in reducing experimental systems to a lab-on-a-chip scale. There has been particular interest in conducting high-throughput screening studies using microscale devices, for example in stem cell research. Microwells have emerged as the structure of choice for such tests. Most manufacturing approaches for microwell fabrication are based on photolithography, soft lithography, and etching. However, some of these approaches require extensive equipment, lengthy fabrication process, and modifications to the existing microwell patterns are costly. Here we show a convenient, fast, and low-cost method for fabricating microwells for cell culture applications by laser ablation of a polyester film coated with silicone glue. Microwell diameter was controlled by adjusting the laser power and speed, and the well depth by stacking several layers of film. By using this setup, a device containing hundreds of microwells can be fabricated in a few minutes to analyze cell behavior. Murine embryonic stem cells and human hepatoblastoma cells were seeded in polyester microwells of different sizes and showed that after 9 days in culture cell aggregates were formed without a noticeable deleterious effect of the polyester film and glue. These results show that the polyester microwell platform may be useful for cell culture applications. The ease of fabrication adds to the appeal of this device as minimal technological skill and equipment is required.

Selimovic, Seila; Piraino, Francesco; Bae, Hojae; Rasponi, Marco; Redaelli, Alberto

2012-01-01

44

21 CFR 177.1590 - Polyester elastomers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Polyester elastomers. 177.1590 Section 177.1590...Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1590 Polyester elastomers. The polyester elastomers identified in paragraph...

2010-01-01

45

21 CFR 177.1590 - Polyester elastomers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Polyester elastomers. 177.1590 Section 177.1590...Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1590 Polyester elastomers. The polyester elastomers identified in paragraph...

2009-04-01

46

21 CFR 177.1590 - Polyester elastomers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2007-04-01 2007-04-01 false Polyester elastomers. 177.1590 Section 177.1590...Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1590 Polyester elastomers. The polyester elastomers identified in paragraph...

2007-04-01

47

21 CFR 177.1590 - Polyester elastomers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyester elastomers. 177.1590 Section 177.1590...Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1590 Polyester elastomers. The polyester elastomers identified in paragraph...

2013-04-01

48

Degradation of microbial polyesters.  

PubMed

Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), one of the largest groups of thermoplastic polyesters are receiving much attention as biodegradable substitutes for non-degradable plastics. Poly(D-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is the most ubiquitous and most intensively studied PHA. Microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various PHB-degrading microorganisms and PHB depolymerases have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. Distributions of PHB-degrading microorganisms, factors affecting the biodegradability of PHB, and microbial and enzymatic degradation of PHB are discussed in this review. We also propose an application of a new isolated, thermophilic PHB-degrading microorganism, Streptomyces strain MG, for producing pure monomers of PHA and useful chemicals, including D-3-hydroxycarboxylic acids such as D-3-hydroxybutyric acid, by enzymatic degradation of PHB. PMID:15289671

Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P

2004-08-01

49

Polyesters in Higher Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyesters occur in higher plants as the structural component of the cuticle that covers the aerial parts of plants. This\\u000a insoluble polymer, called cutin, attached to the epidermal cell walls is composed of interesterified hydroxy and hydroxy epoxy\\u000a fatty acids. The most common chief monomers are 10, 16-dihydroxy C16 acid, 18-hydroxy-9, 10 epoxy C18 acid, and 9, 10, 18-trihydroxy C18

Pappachan E. Kolattukudy

50

Fabric  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Skin covers and protects the body. Your skin also has the ability to detect differences in texture. Each fabric in this image has a different texture, or feel. Receptors on your skin translate the texture into a message and relay the message to your brain so that you interpret the difference in textures from one fabric to another.

N/A N/A (None;)

2004-07-12

51

Liquid crystal polyester thermosets  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides (1) curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 where R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are radicals selected from the group consisting of maleimide, substituted maleimide, nadimide, substituted naimide, ethynyl, and (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 where R.sup.3 is hydrogen with the proviso that the two carbon atoms of (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 are bound on the aromatic ring of A.sup.1 or A.sup.3 to adjacent carbon atoms, A.sup.1 and A.sup.3 are 1,4-phenylene and the same where said group contains one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, or propyl, alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, A.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of 1,4-phenylene, 4,4'-biphenyl, 2,6-naphthylene and the same where said groups contain one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro, lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, and propyl, lower alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl or fluoroalkoxy, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, and B.sup.1 and B.sup.2 are selected from the group consisting of --C(O)--O-- and --O--C(O)--, (2) thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions comprised of heat-cured segments derived from monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 as described above, (3) curable blends of at least two of the polyester monomers and (4) processes of preparing the curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers.

Benicewicz, Brian C. (Los Alamos, NM); Hoyt, Andrea E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01

52

Liquid crystal polyester thermosets  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides (1) curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 where R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are radicals selected from the group consisting of maleimide, substituted maleimide, nadimide, substituted naimide, ethynyl, and (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 where R.sup.3 is hydrogen with the proviso that the two carbon atoms of (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 are bound on the aromatic ring of A.sup.1 or A.sup.3 to adjacent carbon atoms, A.sup.1 and A.sup.3 are 1,4-phenylene and the same where said group contains one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, or propyl, alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, A.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of 1,4-phenylene, 4,4'-biphenyl, 2,6-naphthylene and the same where said groups contain one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro, lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, and propyl, lower alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl or fluoroalkoxy, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, and B.sup.1 and B.sup.2 are selected from the group consisting of --C(O)--O-- and --O--C(O)--, (2) thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions comprised of heat-cured segments derived from monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 as described above, (3) curable blends of at least two of the polyester monomers and (4) processes of preparing the curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers.

Benicewicz, Brian C. (Los Alamos, NM); Hoyt, Andrea E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01

53

Pressure polymerization of polyester  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for the preparation of a polyester polymer or polyester copolymer under superatmospheric pressure conditions in a pipe or tubular reaction under turbannular flow conditions. Reaction material having a glycol equivalents to carboxylic acid equivalents mole ratio of from 1.0:1 to 1.2:1, together with a superatmospheric dense gaseous medium are fed co-currently to the reactor. Dicarboxylic acid and/or diol raw materials may be injected into any of the reaction zones in the process during operation to achieve the overall desired mole ratio balance. The process operates at temperatures of from about 220.degree. C. to about 320.degree. C., with turbannular flow achieved before the polymer product and gas exit the reactor process. The pressure in the reaction zones can be in the range from 15 psia to 2500 psia. A polymer product having a DP of a greater than 40, more preferably at least about 70, is achieved by the transfer of water from the reacting material polymer melt to the gaseous medium in the reactor.

Maurer, Charles J. (Matthews, NC); Shaw, Gordon (Charlotte, NC); Smith, Vicky S. (Greer, SC); Buelow, Steven J. (Los Alamos, NM); Tumas, William (Los Alamos, NM); Contreras, Veronica (San Antonio, TX); Martinez, Ronald J. (Santa Cruz, NM)

2000-08-29

54

Future of microbial polyesters  

PubMed Central

Numerous microorganisms accumulate polyesters classified as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) as carbon and energy storage material when the growth condition is unfavorable in the presence of excess carbon source. Natural PHAs typically consist of various (R)-hydroxycarboxylic acids, and exhibit different material properties depending on the monomer composition. Such diversity comes from different metabolic pathways operating in the cell, and thus generating different monomers. Even more diverse PHAs can be produced by metabolically engineered microorganisms, which leads to the biosynthesis of non-natural polyesters containing lactate as a monomer. In order to make PHAs as useful polymers in our daily life, their production cost should be significantly lowered and material properties should be compatible with those produced by petrochemical industries. Metabolic engineering can address these issues by developing microbial strains capable of producing PHAs of desired material properties with high productivity and yield from inexpensive carbon sources. This commentary aims at peeking into the future of PHAs, focusing on the possible metabolic engineering strategies to be taken to achieve these goals.

2013-01-01

55

Future of microbial polyesters.  

PubMed

Numerous microorganisms accumulate polyesters classified as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) as carbon and energy storage material when the growth condition is unfavorable in the presence of excess carbon source. Natural PHAs typically consist of various (R)-hydroxycarboxylic acids, and exhibit different material properties depending on the monomer composition. Such diversity comes from different metabolic pathways operating in the cell, and thus generating different monomers. Even more diverse PHAs can be produced by metabolically engineered microorganisms, which leads to the biosynthesis of non-natural polyesters containing lactate as a monomer. In order to make PHAs as useful polymers in our daily life, their production cost should be significantly lowered and material properties should be compatible with those produced by petrochemical industries. Metabolic engineering can address these issues by developing microbial strains capable of producing PHAs of desired material properties with high productivity and yield from inexpensive carbon sources. This commentary aims at peeking into the future of PHAs, focusing on the possible metabolic engineering strategies to be taken to achieve these goals. PMID:23714196

Lee, Gi Na; Na, Jonguk

2013-05-28

56

Gamma irradiation of polyester films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation in air of several thermoplastic aromatic polyesters was carried out in order to investigate changes in characteristic properties. Polymers are irradiated at high doses, until 1 MGy, and no drastic changes seem to emerge. Dielectric and resistance measurements are carried out in order to evaluate changes in electrical insulation property; moreover, nanoholes dimensions, analyzed by positron spectroscopy, are measured in pristine and irradiated polyesters. The study shows good durability of this kind of polyesters, due to the aromatic rings able to stabilize the polymeric chains towards ionizing radiations and able to preserve the original structural, electrical and permeability properties.

Mariani, M.; Ravasio, U.; Varoli, V.; Consolati, G.; Faucitano, A.; Buttafava, A.

2007-08-01

57

Fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What aspects of optical fabrication technology need to be developed so as to facilitate existing planned missions, or enable new ones? Throughout the submillimeter to UV wavelengths, the common goal is to push technology to the limits to make the largest possible apertures that are diffraction limited. At any one wavelength, the accuracy of the surface must be better than lambda/30 (rms error). The wavelength range is huge, covering four orders of magnitude from 1 mm to 100 nm. At the longer wavelengths, diffraction limited surfaces can be shaped with relatively crude techniques. The challenge in their fabrication is to make as large as possible a reflector, given the weight and volume constraints of the launch vehicle. The limited cargo diameter of the shuttle has led in the past to emphasis on deployable or erectable concepts such as the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR), which was studied by NASA for a submillimeter astrophysics mission. Replication techniques that can be used to produce light, low-cost reflecting panels are of great interest for this class of mission. At shorter wavelengths, in the optical and ultraviolet, optical fabrication will tax to the limit the most refined polishing methods. Methods of mechanical and thermal stabilization of the substrate will be severely stressed. In the thermal infrared, the need for large aperture is tempered by the even stronger need to control the telescope's thermal emission by cooled or cryogenic operation. Thus, the SIRTF mirror at 1 meter is not large and does not require unusually high accuracy, but the fabrication process must produce a mirror that is the right shape at a temperature of 4 K. Future large cooled mirrors will present more severe problems, especially if they must also be accurate enough to work at optical wavelengths. At the very shortest wavelengths accessible to reflecting optics, in the x-ray domain, the very low count fluxes of high energy photons place a premium on the collecting area. It is not necessary to reach or even approach the diffraction limit, which would demand subnanometer fabrication and figure control. Replication techniques that produce large very lightweight surfaces are of interest for x-ray optics just as they are for the submillimeter region. Optical fabrication requirements are examined in more detail for missions in each of the three spectral regions of interest in astrophysics.

Angel, Roger; Helms, Richard; Bilbro, Jim; Brown, Norman; Eng, Sverre; Hinman, Steve; Hull-Allen, Greg; Jacobs, Stephen; Keim, Robert; Ulmer, Melville

1992-08-01

58

Review Degradation of microbial polyesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), one of the largest groups of thermoplastic polyesters are receiving much attention as biodegradable substitutes for non-degradable plastics. Poly(d-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is the most ubiquitous and most intensively studied PHA. Microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various PHB-degrading microorganisms and PHB depolymerases have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of

Yutaka Tokiwa; Buenaventurada P. Calabia

2004-01-01

59

Compressive behaviour of concrete cylinders reinforced by glass and polyester filaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concrete cylinders reinforced by various layers of glass or polyester filaments were fabricated. And the compressive strength of the cylinders with and without filament wrapping was tested. Comparisons of the compressive behaviour while using different fabrication parameters were made. It was revealed that the effect of the filament reinforcement was obvious. The modulus and the tensile strength of the filament

Huang Gu; Zuo Zhonge

2005-01-01

60

Polyester projects for India, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

India's Indo Rama Synthetics (Bombay) is planning a $186-million integrated polyester fiber and filament complex at Nagpur, Maharashtra. The complex will have annual capacities for 38,000 m.t. of polyester chips by polycondensation, 25,000 m.t. of polyester staple fiber, and 12,000 m.t. of polyester blended yarn. The company is negotiating with the main world suppliers of polycondensation technology. The first stage of the project is slated to begin production by the end of this year and be fully completed by 1994. In Pakistan, National Fibers Ltd. (PNF; Karachi) has signed a deal with Zimmer (Frankfurt) for technology, procurement, construction, and support work to expand polyester staple fiber capacity from 14,000 m.t./year to 52,000 m.t./year. The technology involves a continuous polymerization process. The project also calls for improvements to PNF's existing batch plant. It is scheduled for completion by the end of 1994. Total cost of the project is estimated at Rs1.745 billion ($70 million), out of which the foreign exchange component is Rs1.05 billion. The Islamic Development Bank (Jeddah; Saudi Arabia) has already approved a $27-million slice of the financing, while the balance of the foreign exchange loan is being arranged through suppliers credit. Local currency loans will be provided by other financial institutions in Pakistan.

Siddiqi, R.

1993-02-10

61

40 CFR 721.9507 - Polyester silane.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyester silane. 721.9507 Section 721...Chemical Substances § 721.9507 Polyester silane. (a) Chemical substance...The chemical substance identified as a polyester silane (P-95-1022) is...

2010-07-01

62

40 CFR 721.9507 - Polyester silane.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Polyester silane. 721.9507 Section 721...Chemical Substances § 721.9507 Polyester silane. (a) Chemical substance...The chemical substance identified as a polyester silane (P-95-1022) is...

2009-07-01

63

40 CFR 721.9507 - Polyester silane.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyester silane. 721.9507 Section 721...Chemical Substances § 721.9507 Polyester silane. (a) Chemical substance...The chemical substance identified as a polyester silane (P-95-1022) is...

2013-07-01

64

Polymorphism and isomorphism in biodegradable polyesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aliphatic polyesters, which can be obtained from bacterial or chemical synthesis, are emerging as an important class of biodegradable and biocompatible polymers for applications as biomedical and conventional materials. The last two decades have witnessed explosive growth in this subject. Most biodegradable polyesters are crystallizable. The crystallization and thermal behavior of biodegradable polyesters have been extensively studied in recent years.

Pengju Pan; Yoshio Inoue

2009-01-01

65

TEST OF FABRIC FILTRATION MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes pilot scale and laboratory tests of U.S. and Polish woven baghouse fabrics. Cotton, polyester, aramid, and glass fabrics were tested using cement, flyash, coal, and talc dusts at loadings of about 10 g/cu m, filtration velocities of 60 and 80 cu m/sq m, and a...

66

TESTS OF FABRIC FILTRATION MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes laboratory and pilot scale testing of filter fabrics. Tests were made on flat specimens and on bags. Fifteen styles of fabrics (made from cotton, polyester, aramid, or glass) were tested, using cement, coal, or talc dusts. Collection efficiencies and pressure...

67

Water Damage in Polyester Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of cracks, produced in three cured polyester resins during exposure to water has been studied by the combined techniques of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. There are many cracks totally enclosed within the resin and it is shown that these must be attributed to pockets of high pressure produced at impurity inclusions by

K. H. G. Ashbee; F. C. Frank; R. C. Wyatt

1967-01-01

68

Hydrolysis of polyesters by lipases  

Microsoft Academic Search

INCREASING public concern about the treatment of waste materials has stimulated the study of the biodegradation of synthetic polymers. Among synthetic polymers, aliphatic polyesters are generally known to be susceptible to biological attack1-5, but there are few reports of enzymes involved in their degradation. Bell et al.6 recently showed that the molecular weight of polycaprolactone (PCL) decreases on exposure to

Yutaka Tokiwa; Tomoo Suzuki

1977-01-01

69

Jute-reinforced polyester composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw jute fibre has been incorporated in a polyester resin matrix to form uniaxially reinforced composites containing up to 60 vol% fibre. The tensile strength and Young's modulus, work of fracture determined by Charpy impact and inter-laminar shear strength have been measured as a function of fibre volume fraction. These properties all follow a Rule of Mixtures relationship with the

P. J. Roe; M. P. Ansell

1985-01-01

70

Polyester synthases: natural catalysts for plastics.  

PubMed Central

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolyesters composed of hydroxy fatty acids, which represent a complex class of storage polyesters. They are synthesized by a wide range of different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as by some Archaea, and are deposited as insoluble cytoplasmic inclusions. Polyester synthases are the key enzymes of polyester biosynthesis and catalyse the conversion of (R)-hydroxyacyl-CoA thioesters to polyesters with the concomitant release of CoA. These soluble enzymes turn into amphipathic enzymes upon covalent catalysis of polyester-chain formation. A self-assembly process is initiated resulting in the formation of insoluble cytoplasmic inclusions with a phospholipid monolayer and covalently attached polyester synthases at the surface. Surface-attached polyester synthases show a marked increase in enzyme activity. These polyester synthases have only recently been biochemically characterized. An overview of these recent findings is provided. At present, 59 polyester synthase structural genes from 45 different bacteria have been cloned and the nucleotide sequences have been obtained. The multiple alignment of the primary structures of these polyester synthases show an overall identity of 8-96% with only eight strictly conserved amino acid residues. Polyester synthases can been assigned to four classes based on their substrate specificity and subunit composition. The current knowledge on the organization of the polyester synthase genes, and other genes encoding proteins related to PHA metabolism, is compiled. In addition, the primary structures of the 59 PHA synthases are aligned and analysed with respect to highly conserved amino acids, and biochemical features of polyester synthases are described. The proposed catalytic mechanism based on similarities to alpha/beta-hydrolases and mutational analysis is discussed. Different threading algorithms suggest that polyester synthases belong to the alpha/beta-hydrolase superfamily, with a conserved cysteine residue as catalytic nucleophile. This review provides a survey of the known biochemical features of these unique enzymes and their proposed catalytic mechanism.

Rehm, Bernd H A

2003-01-01

71

40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721.8082...Chemical Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane acrylate (PMN...

2009-07-01

72

40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721.8082...Chemical Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane acrylate (PMN...

2013-07-01

73

40 CFR 721.10436 - Amine neutralized phosphated polyesters (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Amine neutralized phosphated polyesters (generic). 721.10436 Section...10436 Amine neutralized phosphated polyesters (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as amine neutralized phosphated polyesters (PMN P-99-1217 and...

2013-07-01

74

40 CFR 721.10213 - Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). 721...Substances § 721.10213 Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). ...substance identified generically as polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (PMN...

2013-07-01

75

40 CFR 721.10578 - Unsaturated polyester imide (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Unsaturated polyester imide (generic). 721.10578 Section...Substances § 721.10578 Unsaturated polyester imide (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as unsaturated polyester imide (PMN P-10-231) is...

2013-07-01

76

77 FR 60720 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1104 (Review)] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From China Determination...the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from China would be likely...September 2012), entitled Certain Polyester Staple Fiber from China:...

2012-10-04

77

75 FR 23300 - Greige Polyester/Cotton Printcloth From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Third Review)] Greige Polyester/Cotton Printcloth From China AGENCY: United...antidumping duty order on greige polyester/cotton printcloth from China...antidumping duty order on greige polyester/cotton printcloth from China would be...

2010-05-03

78

21 CFR 177.2420 - Polyester resins, cross-linked.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Asbestos Glass fiber Polyester fiber produced by the... (c) The cross-linked polyester resins, with or...In accordance with good manufacturing practice, finished articles containing the cross-linked polyester resins shall be...

2009-04-01

79

21 CFR 177.2420 - Polyester resins, cross-linked.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Asbestos Glass fiber Polyester fiber produced by the... (c) The cross-linked polyester resins, with or...In accordance with good manufacturing practice, finished articles containing the cross-linked polyester resins shall be...

2010-01-01

80

Straw-reinforced polyester composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual crop fibres are rich in cellulose and they are a cheap and rapidly renewable source of fibres with potential for polymer reinforcement. Straw fibres have been incorporated in a polyester resin matrix and the properties of the fibre and composite determined. The fibres have a Young's modulus of approximately 8 GN m-2 and an effective density of 5.1 kN

N. M. White; M. P. Ansell

1983-01-01

81

Flax fibre–polyester composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composites of an aliphatic polyester (Bionolle) with natural flax fibres are prepared by batch mixing. The effect of processing conditions on fibre length distribution and the dependence of the composite mechanical properties on fibre content are investigated. The tensile modulus changes with fibre content according to the modified rule-of-mixture equation, with a fibre orientation efficiency factor ?0=0.194. The strength of

Massimo Baiardo; Elisa Zini; Mariastella Scandola

2004-01-01

82

Developing technology for removing contaminants from the surface of cotton-polyester textile materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expediency of using Everlase in desorption of protein contaminants from cotton-polyester fabrics was established. The\\u000a optimum treatment conditions were established (pH of the medium, temperature, incubation time) in which Everlase manifests\\u000a the maximum catalytic activity. The physicochemical mechanism of action of Everlase in removing protein stains from the surface\\u000a of fabrics was revealed. The effect of adding SF and

E. B. Sanzheeva; V. V. Safonov

2010-01-01

83

Bioresorbability and biocompatibility of aliphatic polyesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of biodegradable polymers is a fast growing area of polymer science because of the interest of such compounds for temporary surgical and pharmacological applications. Aliphatic polyesters constitute the most attractive family among which poly(a-hydroxy acids) have been extensively studied. In the past two decades, several excellent reviews have been published to present the general properties of aliphatic polyesters.

M. Vert; S. M. Li; G. Spenlehauer; P. Guerin

1992-01-01

84

RHEOLOGY OF CONCENTRATED SOLUTIONS OF HYPERBRANCHED POLYESTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The solution rheology of different generations of hyperbranched polyesters in N-methyl-2- pyrrolidinone (NMP) solvent was examined in this study. The solutions exhibited Newtonian behavior over a wide range of polyester concentrations. Also, the relative viscosities of poly(amido...

85

Biodegradation of polyesters containing aromatic constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymers, which undergo a controlled biological degradation by micro-organisms came to remarkable interest during the last years. Composting for instance could so be established as an alternative waste management system for parts of the plastic waste. Within this group of innovative polymer, polyesters play a predominant role, due to their potentially hydrolyzable ester bonds. While aromatic polyesters such as poly(ethylene

Rolf-Joachim Müller; Ilona Kleeberg; Wolf-Dieter Deckwer

2001-01-01

86

Longitudinal ruptures of polyester knitted vascular prostheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The purpose of the study was the characterization of a type of rupture occurring on warp-knitted polyester vascular prostheses. Materials and Methods: We studied 20 cases of warp-knitted polyester vascular prostheses that were explanted from humans that showed a longitudinal rupture as a part of a collaborative retrieval program. All the prostheses were immediately fixed in a 10% formaldehyde

Nabil Chakfe; Gunnar Riepe; Florence Dieval; Jean-Francois Le Magnen; Lu Wang; Elisabeth Urban; Marc Beaufigeau; Bernard Durand; Herbert Imig; Jean-Georges Kretz

2001-01-01

87

Effect of aluminum closed-cell foam filling on the quasi-static axial crush performance of glass fiber reinforced polyester composite and aluminum\\/composite hybrid tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Al closed-cell foam filling on the quasi-static crushing behavior of an E-glass woven fabric polyester composite tube and thin-walled Al\\/polyester composite hybrid tube was experimentally investigated. For comparison, empty Al, empty composite and empty hybrid tubes were also tested. Empty composite and empty hybrid tubes crushed predominantly in progressive crushing mode, without applying any triggering mechanism. Foam

M. Guden; S. Yüksel; A. Ta?demirci; M. Tano?lu

2007-01-01

88

Analysis of Commercial Unsaturated Polyester Repair Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic rheological, thermal, and mechanical properties of commercially available repair putties have been determined in this study, as has the composition of these products. These products contain 33% to 40% unsaturated polyester resin, 10% to 20% styr...

C. Greer I. McAninch J. M. Sands K. Andrews S. Bingham

2009-01-01

89

Biodegradation of polyesters containing aromatic constituents.  

PubMed

Polymers, which undergo a controlled biological degradation by micro-organisms came to remarkable interest during the last years. Composting for instance could so be established as an alternative waste management system for parts of the plastic waste. Within this group of innovative polymer, polyesters play a predominant role, due to their potentially hydrolyzable ester bonds. While aromatic polyesters such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) exhibit excellent material properties but proved to be almost resistant to microbial attack, many aliphatic polyesters turned out to be biodegradable but lack in properties, which are important for application. To combine good material properties with biodegradability, aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters have been developed as biodegradable polymers for many years. This article reviews the attempts to combine aromatic and aliphatic structures in biodegradable plastics and work, which has been done to evaluate the degradation behaviour and environmental safety of biodegradable polyesters, containing aromatic constituents. PMID:11245897

Müller, R J; Kleeberg, I; Deckwer, W D

2001-03-30

90

Hydrolytic kinetics of biodegradable polyester monolayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of hydrolysis of Langmuir monolayer films of a series of biodegradable polyesters was investigated at the air\\/water interface. The present study investigated parameters such as degradation medium, pH, and time. The hydrolysis of polyester monolayers strongly depended on both the degradation medium used to control subphase pH and the concentration of active ions. Under the conditions studied here,

Won-Ki Lee; Joseph A. Gardella

2000-01-01

91

Integrated analysis of low profile unsaturated polyester and vinylester resins cured at low temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unsaturated polyester and vinylester resins are used in a wide variety of applications. These materials provide high structural stability, increased resistance to solvent and temperature, and improved mechanical stability. Low profile additives have been found highly effective in eliminating the polymerization shrinkage of unsaturated polyester resins in high temperature molding processes such as compression molding of SMC and injection molding of BMC. In recent years, the improvement focuses on the development of low temperature and low-pressure fabrication techniques, such as low temperature/low pressure SMC, RTM, SCRIMP, to significantly reduce the tooling cost. However, poor performance of low profile additives and high residual reactivity in low temperature molding processes unavoidably undermine further applications of unsaturated polyester and vinylester resins. Therefore, there is considerable potential for improving the process through greater technical understanding of reaction and volume shrinkage control mechanism in low temperature cure of unsaturated polyester and vinylester resins. An integrated analysis is carried out in this study to investigate the reaction kinetics and shrinkage control of unsaturated polyester or vinylester resins with low profile additives cured at low temperatures. A differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), and a rheometrics dynamic analyzer (RDA) are used to study the reaction kinetics and rheological behaviors. A dilatometer is applied to study the volume change. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an optical microscopy are employed to investigate the structure and morphology evolution during curing. The effects of curing agents including initiator, promoter, and comonomer on the low temperature polymerization are investigated. These experiments are designed to provide information regarding the polymerization mechanism and microstructure evolution throughout the free radical polymerization. In addition, this information along with the relation between morphology and properties of crosslinked polymeric materials will be used to optimize polymerization conditions of unsaturated polyester and vinylester resins with desired properties for applications in composite matrix.

Cao, Xia

92

Biological degradation of synthetic polyesters—Enzymes as potential catalysts for polyester recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The depolymerization of polymers by enzymes is of great interest for biodegradable plastics, a group of materials which has been developed as an answer to increasing problems in plastics waste management. Polyesters play the dominant role in biodegradable polymers and recently a model of polyester degradation by hydrolyses (lipases) has been published. The chain mobility of the polymer chains proved

Rolf-Joachim Mueller

2006-01-01

93

Preparation methodology of radiation - curable resin. Unsaturated polyesters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two types of unsaturated polyester have been prepared according to normal alkyd methods of preparation. In this work the emphasis has been given to the preparation methodology of unsaturated polyesters in styrene. Their molecule weight distributions fall ...

Dahlan bin Haji Mohd Hussin bin Mohd Nor Mohamad Hilmi bin Mahmood

1989-01-01

94

75 FR 42784 - Greige Polyester/Cotton Printcloth From China  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Investigation No. 731-TA-101 (Third Review)] Greige Polyester/Cotton Printcloth From China AGENCY: United States International Trade...revocation of the antidumping duty order on greige polyester/cotton printcloth from China would be likely to lead to...

2010-07-22

95

Microbial production of lactate-containing polyesters.  

PubMed

Due to our increasing concerns on environmental problems and limited fossil resources, biobased production of chemicals and materials through biorefinery has been attracting much attention. Optimization of the metabolic performance of microorganisms, the key biocatalysts for the efficient production of the desired target bioproducts, has been achieved by metabolic engineering. Metabolic engineering allowed more efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, a family of microbial polyesters. More recently, non-natural polyesters containing lactate as a monomer have also been produced by one-step fermentation of engineered bacteria. Systems metabolic engineering integrating traditional metabolic engineering with systems biology, synthetic biology, protein/enzyme engineering through directed evolution and structural design, and evolutionary engineering, enabled microorganisms to efficiently produce natural and non-natural products. Here, we review the strategies for the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the in vivo biosynthesis of lactate-containing polyesters and for the optimization of whole cell metabolism to efficiently produce lactate-containing polyesters. Also, major problems to be solved to further enhance the production of lactate-containing polyesters are discussed. PMID:23718266

Yang, Jung Eun; Choi, So Young; Shin, Jae Ho; Park, Si Jae; Lee, Sang Yup

2013-05-29

96

Physical and mechanical degradation of shirting fabrics in burial conditions.  

PubMed

The current focal areas within forensic textile science are fibre identification and assessment of the method of damage to fabrics. This paper investigates fabric degradation within clandestine burials. The fabrics considered in this paper, unlike previous archaeological studies, are a modern polyester-cotton blend (65%/35%) and a 100% cotton fabric both of which are commonly used for men's shirting fabrics in the UK. Three laundering conditions were investigated (i) not-laundered, (ii) laundered 6 times, and (iii) laundered 60 times; this represented varying conditions of fabric upon clothing deposition. The two burial conditions; sand and clay, were selected as extremes of soil type. The deposition times (15 and 30 days) were based on a study of clandestine burials in UK crimes. There were clear differences in how polyester-cotton and cotton stained within the two different soil conditions, polyester-cotton becoming extensively stained after a 30-day deposition in sand. The tear force required to tear the fabric after deposition, suggested that polyester/cotton fabrics were consistently weaker after burial, regardless of soil type and deposition period. There was also significant damage caused to not-laundered cotton fabrics after a 30-day deposition in clay. This work indicates that common apparel fabrics can degrade in relatively short times when buried. PMID:22677503

Mitchell, J L; Carr, D J; Niven, B E; Harrison, K; Girvan, E

2012-06-05

97

Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of electroless Cu-plated PET fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop the high quality electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding textiles for protective clothing, polyester fabrics were electroless copper-plated. Effects of pretreatment conditions such as scouring, etching, and catalyzation on electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMISE) and physical properties of treated fabrics were investigated.High EMISE of fabrics over the wide range of frequency level were obtained when fabrics were scoured

Eun Gyeong Han; Eun Ae Kim; Kyung Wha Oh

2001-01-01

98

40 CFR 721.6485 - Hydroxy terminated polyester.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Hydroxy terminated polyester. 721.6485 Section 721.6485...Substances § 721.6485 Hydroxy terminated polyester. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as a hydroxy terminated polyester (PMN P-95-1213) is subject...

2009-07-01

99

49 CFR 173.165 - Polyester resin kits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Polyester resin kits. 173.165 Section...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.165 Polyester resin kits. (a) Except for transportation by aircraft, polyester resin kits consisting of a base...

2012-10-01

100

40 CFR 721.10449 - Aromatic polyester polyol (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic polyester polyol (generic). 721.10449 ...Substances § 721.10449 Aromatic polyester polyol (generic). (a) Chemical...substance identified generically as aromatic polyester polyol (PMN P-02-172) is...

2013-07-01

101

40 CFR 721.6485 - Hydroxy terminated polyester.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Hydroxy terminated polyester. 721.6485 Section 721.6485...Substances § 721.6485 Hydroxy terminated polyester. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as a hydroxy terminated polyester (PMN P-95-1213) is subject...

2013-07-01

102

Photocrosslinkable polyesters and poly(ester anhydride)s for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Crosslinking is a feasible way to prepare biodegradable polymers with potential in biomedical applications such as controlled release of active agents and tissue engineering. A synthesis route in which functional telechelic aliphatic polyester oligomers are used as precursors for the preparation of crosslinked polyesters and poly(ester anhydride)s is described. Mechanical properties, degradation characteristics and rate, and bioactivity can be modified widely by controlling the chemical composition and architecture of the crosslinkable oligomers. In tissue engineering, photocrosslinking allows to use crosslinkable oligomers in advanced manufacturing techniques like micromolding in capillaries, stereolithography and two-photon polymerization. PMID:22052651

Seppälä, Jukka; Korhonen, Harri; Hakala, Risto; Malin, Minna

2011-11-03

103

Detergency of used motor oil from cotton and polyester fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to identity factors contributing to the difficult removal of used motor oil from textile materials by\\u000a detergency. Infrared spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography of used motor oil showed that the oil was a saturated\\u000a aliphatic hydrocarbon with molecular weight around 950. X-ray analysis revealed that particulates present in the used motor\\u000a oil contained S, Mg, Al,

Yong-Seung Chi; S. Kay Obendorf

1999-01-01

104

Emulsification properties of polyesters and sucrose ester blends I: Carbohydrate fatty acid polyesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of carbohydrate fatty acid polyesters, potential fat substitutes, were screened for their ability to reduce surface\\u000a and interfacial tensions alone or as blends with commercial emulsifiers. Commercial sucrose ester emulsifiers (Ryoto, Mitsubishi-Kasei\\u000a Food Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) were evaluated alone or blended with other sucrose esters or with other carbohydrate fatty\\u000a acid polyesters, and their surfactant properties were examined

Casimir C. Akoh

1992-01-01

105

Correlation spectroscopy applied to glycerol polyester spectra  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The recent development of glycerol polyesters for use as controlled release matrix materials in the nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals industries presented a unique opportunity to apply correlation spectroscopy. In a typical formulation the glycerol is reacted with a polyfunctional acid such as citr...

106

Modification of Unsaturated Polyester Resin Using Elastomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsaturated polyester resin is widely used in the fiber reinforced plastic industry It suffers from lack of toughness, which makes it susceptible to breakage in the absence of reinforcement. This problem can be solved, at least partly, by the incorporation of elastomers. In this study a simple technique of dissolving various masticated elastomers in styrene and subsequent solution blending with

C. Mary Lubi; K. Ravi; Abdeen Ahammed; Eby Thomas Thachil

2000-01-01

107

Shock Wave Profiles in Glass Reinforced Polyester  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promise of lightweight armor which is also structurally robust is of particular importance to the Army for future combat vehicles. Fiber reinforced organic matrix composites such as Glass Reinforced Polyester (GRP) are being considered for this purpose due to their lower density and promising dynamic response. The work discussed here extends the prior work of Boteler who studied the

J. Michael Boteler; A. M. Rajendran; David Grove

1999-01-01

108

Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the performance characteristics of cotton, polyester and their blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology is defined as utilization of structure with at least one dimension of nanometer size. These nano structures are capable of enhancing the physical and performance properties of conventional textiles. On this basis, this research work study and compare the effect of nano zinc oxide particles having particle size less than 100nm with different concentrations (0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) on the properties of three different fabrics namely cotton, polyester and blend cotton/polyester (65/35).The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed through the following standard tests; X-ray diffraction (XRD), tensile strength and percentage elongation, crease recovery angle, air permeability, whiteness index and ultra violet protection factor (UPF). Generally, the improvement greatly depends on the size and concentration of nanoparticles.

Shady, K. E.; Michael, M. N.; Shimaa, H. A.

2012-07-01

109

Finite element description of nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour of technical fabric  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposal of the nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour description of textile material is presented in this work. The considered fabric is made of two polyester thread families woven perpendicularly to each other with double side PVC coating. The long-term uniaxial creep laboratory tests in the threads direction were conducted at five different constant stress levels. For the fabric behaviour characterization the

Pawe? K?osowski; Wies?aw Komar; Krzysztof Wo?nica

2009-01-01

110

PET fabric\\/polypyrrole composite with high electrical conductivity for EMI shielding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polypyrrole (PPy) was polymerized chemically and electrochemically in sequence on a polyester (PET) woven fabric, giving rise to PET fabric\\/PPy composite with high electrical conductivity. In the chemical polymerization, pyrrole dissolved in an aqueous solution without or with polyvinyl alcohol as a surfactant was first sprayed on the PET fabric and oxidized by spraying an aqueous solution of an oxidant

M. S. Kim; H. K. Kim; S. W. Byun; S. H. Jeong; Y. K. Hong; J. S. Joo; K. T. Song; J. K. Kim; C. J. Lee; J. Y. Lee

2002-01-01

111

Influence of Household Fabric Softeners and Laundry Enzymes on Pilling and Breaking Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to examine the un- resolved questions surrounding the influence of household fabric softeners and cellulase-en- zyme containing laundry detergents on pilling and strength of selected fabrics. Results showed that dryer sheet softeners were not associated with an increase in pilling, a greasy hand, nor increased breaking strength losses in any of the cotton or polyester fabrics

Patricia Cox Crews

2000-01-01

112

21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

2010-01-01

113

21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

2009-04-01

114

40 CFR 721.10298 - MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2013-07-01 false MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (generic). ...Substances § 721.10298 MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (generic). ...identified generically as MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer...

2013-07-01

115

21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

2013-04-01

116

76 FR 7532 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic...the administrative review of certain polyester staple fiber from the People's Republic...the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the PRC. See...

2011-02-10

117

77 FR 6783 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic...the administrative review of certain polyester staple fiber from the People's Republic...the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the PRC. See...

2012-02-09

118

77 FR 19619 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber from the People's Republic...the administrative review of certain polyester staple fiber from the People's Republic...the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the PRC.\\1\\...

2012-04-02

119

78 FR 51707 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the Republic of Korea: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trade Administration [A-580-839] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the Republic of Korea: Rescission...review of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber (polyester staple fiber) from the Republic of Korea...

2013-08-21

120

75 FR 30373 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic...the administrative review of certain polyester staple fiber from the People's Republic...the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the PRC. See...

2010-06-01

121

75 FR 6352 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber from the People's Republic...the administrative review of certain polyester staple fiber from the People's Republic...the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the PRC. See...

2010-02-09

122

Bio-based liquid crystalline polyesters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reported thin-film polymerization has been used as a screening method in order to find bio-based liquid crystalline polyesters with convenient melting temperatures for melt-processing purposes. An in depth study of the structural, morphological and chemical changes occurring during the ongoing polycondensation reactions of these polymers have been performed. Structural and conformational changes during polymerization for different compositions have been followed by time resolved X-ray and Infrared spectroscopy. In this study, bio-based monomers such as vanillic acid and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid are successfully incorporated in liquid crystalline polyesters and it is shown that bio-based liquid crystalline polymers with high aromatic content and convenient processing temperatures can be synthesized.

Wilsens, Carolus; Rastogi, Sanjay

2013-03-01

123

Antimicrobial modification of polyester by admicellar polymerization.  

PubMed

The N-halamine monomer 3-(4'-vinylbenzyl)-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (VBDMH) was synthesized and employed to form thin films on the surfaces of polyester fibers by surface polymerization with the aid of a cationic surfactant. The coated samples were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The thin film coatings could be rendered biocidal by exposure to dilute sodium hypochlorite. The antimicrobial polyesters were challenged with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Complete inactivation of S. aureus and E. coli O157:H7 was observed within 10 and 30 min of contact time, respectively. The chlorine bonded to the coatings was very stable under standard washing tests and UVA irradiation tests, and much of the lost chlorine could be regenerated by rechlorination. PMID:18985773

Ren, Xuehong; Kou, Lei; Kocer, Hasan B; Worley, S D; Broughton, R M; Tzou, Y M; Huang, T S

2009-05-01

124

Biodegradation of microbial and synthetic polyesters by fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of biodegradable polyesters have been developed in order to obtain useful biomaterials and to reduce the impact of environmental pollution caused by the large-scale accumulation of non-degradable waste plastics. Polyhydroxyalkanoates, poly(k-caprolactone), poly(l-lactide), and both aliphatic and aromatic polyalkylene dicarboxylic acids are examples of biodegradable polyesters. In general, most aliphatic polyesters are readily mineralized by a number of aerobic

D. Y. Kim; Y. H. Rhee

2003-01-01

125

Mechanical properties of natural fibers reinforced polyester hybrid composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation, the mechanical properties of natural fibers reinforced polyester hybrid fiber reinforced polyester\\u000a composite were analysed based on the wt % and length of the fibers. The glass fiber polyester composites were also prepared\\u000a to compare the properties. The fractured surfaces of the composite specimens were investigated using scanning electron microscopy.\\u000a The tensile and the flexural strength increases

A. Athijayamani; M. Thiruchitrambalam; V. Manikandan; B. Pazhanivel

2010-01-01

126

Thermomechanical behavior of liquid-crystal polyesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used the thermomechanical method to investigate the processes of self-elongation and shrinkage in uniaxially oriented liquid-crystal (LC) polyesters (CPET — the copolyester of terephthalic acid, phenylhydroquinone, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid; Ultrax — the copolyester of terephthalic acid, isophthalic acid, and bisphenol) and the injection-molded copolyester of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxynaphthoic acids Vectra A900. A universal tensile tester and a thermomechanical

S. E. Kudryavtseva

1996-01-01

127

Characterization of commercial aliphatic hyperbranched polyesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercially available Boltorn Hx (x=20, 30) hyperbranched (HB) polyesters of different theoretical core\\/monomer ratio (1\\/12 for H20 and 1\\/28 for H30) were characterized with respect to molar mass, composition, and structure. The results were compared to those obtained for the Boltorn H40 with a core\\/monomer ratio of 1\\/60 [Žagar E, Žigon M. Macromolecules 2002;35:9913 [11

Ema Žagar; Majda Žigon; Stepan Podzimek

2006-01-01

128

Curing of Unsaturated Polyester: Network Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unsaturated polyester resins in styrene as comonomer solvent gels to a thermoset stageby network formation due to free radicals produced by the redox reaction between cobalt octoate (promoter) and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) as initiator. Gel times can be reduced or enhanced by the use of N,N-Dimethyl aniline (DMA) or pyridine respectively. The technique of hand lay-up for producing glass reinforced fiber (GRF) is described.

Toorkey, R. F.; Rajanna, K. C.; Sai Prakash, P. K.

1996-04-01

129

Synthesis and Properties of Alkyl Glycoside and Stachyose Fatty Acid Polyesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solvent-free interesterification procedure was used to synthesize alkyl giycoside fatty acid polyesters: methyl glucoside\\u000a polyesters, methyl galactoside polyesters, octyl glucoside polyesters, and tetrasaccharide fatty acid polyester, stachyose\\u000a polyester. To obtain high yields, the hydroxyl groups on alkyl glycosides and stachyose were first protected by acetylation,\\u000a and thereafter interesterified with fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) of long chain fatty acids

Casimir C. Akoh; Barry G. Swanson

1989-01-01

130

Bacterial polyesters: biosynthesis, biodegradable plastics and biotechnology.  

PubMed

The discovery and chemical identification, in the 1920s, of the aliphatic polyester: poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), PHB, as a granular component in bacterial cells proceeded without any of the controversies which marked the recognition of macromolecules by Staudinger. Some thirty years after its discovery, PHB was recognized as the prototypical biodegradable thermoplastic to solve the waste disposal challenge. The development effort led by Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd., encouraged interdisciplinary research from genetic engineering and biotechnology to the study of enzymes involved in biosynthesis and biodegradation. From the simple PHB homopolyester discovered by Maurice Lemoigne in the mid-twenties, a family of over 100 different aliphatic polyesters of the same general structure has been discovered. Depending on bacterial species and substrates, these high molecular weight stereoregular polyesters have emerged as a new family of natural polymers ranking with nucleic acids, polyamides, polyisoprenoids, polyphenols, polyphosphates, and polysaccharides. In this historical review, the chemical, biochemical and microbial highlights are linked to personalities and locations involved with the events covering a discovery timespan of 75 years. PMID:15638495

Lenz, Robert W; Marchessault, Robert H

131

Strong fibers and films of microbial polyesters.  

PubMed

Poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (P(3HB)) and its copolymers are accumulated by a wide variety of microorganisms as intracellular carbon and energy material, and are extensively studied as biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastics. However, these microbial polyesters have not been recognized as practical because of their stiffness and brittleness. Recently, by new drawing techniques, we succeeded in obtaining strong fibers and films from microbial polyesters, produced by both wild-type and recombinant bacteria. The improvement in mechanical properties of the fibers and films is due not only to the orientation of molecular chains, but also to the generation of a zigzag conformation and network structure, formed by fibrillar and lamellar crystals. The structure of strong fibers with a tensile strength over 1.0 GPa was analyzed by micro-beam X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation. The strong fibers and films were completely degraded in natural, river freshwater or by extracellular polyhydroxybutyrate depolymerases. In this feature article, the processing, mechanical properties, highly ordered structure and biodegradability of strong fibers and films produced from microbial polyesters are presented. PMID:16052600

Iwata, Tadahisa

2005-08-12

132

Biodegradation of microbial and synthetic polyesters by fungi.  

PubMed

A variety of biodegradable polyesters have been developed in order to obtain useful biomaterials and to reduce the impact of environmental pollution caused by the large-scale accumulation of non-degradable waste plastics. Polyhydroxyalkanoates, poly(epsilon-caprolactone), poly( l-lactide), and both aliphatic and aromatic polyalkylene dicarboxylic acids are examples of biodegradable polyesters. In general, most aliphatic polyesters are readily mineralized by a number of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms that are widely distributed in nature. However, aromatic polyesters are more resistant to microbial attack than aliphatic polyesters. The fungal biomass in soils generally exceeds the bacterial biomass and thus it is likely that fungi may play a considerable role in degrading polyesters, just as they predominantly perform the decomposition of organic matter in the soil ecosystem. However, in contrast to bacterial polyester degradation, which has been extensively investigated, the microbiological and environmental aspects of fungal degradation of polyesters are unclear. This review reports recent advances in our knowledge of the fungal degradation of microbial and synthetic polyesters and discusses the ecological importance and contribution of fungi in the biological recycling of waste polymeric materials in the biosphere. PMID:12743758

Kim, D Y; Rhee, Y H

2003-01-25

133

Branched biodegradable polyesters for parenteral drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous, ‘infusion-like’ drug release profiles from biodegradable parenteral delivery systems are difficult to achieve for proteins and other hydrophilic macromolecular drugs with commonly used linear polyesters from lactic acid (PLA) and its random copolymers with glycolic acid (PLG). Drug release rates can be modified either by increasing the hydrophilicity of polyesters or by manipulating the polymer architecture to adjust polymer

Armin Breitenbach; You Xin Li; Thomas Kissel

2000-01-01

134

Microbial degradation of polyurethane, polyester polyurethanes and polyether polyurethanes.  

PubMed

Polyurethane (PUR) is a polymer derived from the condensation of polyisocyanate and polyol and it is widely used as a base material in various industries. PUR, in particular, polyester PUR, is known to be vulnerable to microbial attack. Recently, environmental pollution by plastic wastes has become a serious issue and polyester PUR had attracted attention because of its biodegradability. There are many reports on the degradation of polyester PUR by microorganisms, especially by fungi. Microbial degradation of polyester PUR is thought to be mainly due to the hydrolysis of ester bonds by esterases. Recently, polyester-PUR-degrading enzymes have been purified and their characteristics reported. Among them, a solid-polyester-PUR-degrading enzyme (PUR esterase) derived from Comamonas acidovorans TB-35 had unique characteristics. This enzyme has a hydrophobic PUR-surface-binding domain and a catalytic domain, and the surface-binding domain was considered as being essential for PUR degradation. This hydrophobic surface-binding domain is also observed in other solid-polyester-degrading enzymes such as poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) depolymerases. There was no significant homology between the amino acid sequence of PUR esterase and that of PHA depolymerases, except in the hydrophobic surface-binding region. Thus, PUR esterase and PHA depolymerase are probably different in terms of their evolutionary origin and it is possible that PUR esterases come to be classified as a new solid-polyester-degrading enzyme family. PMID:10091317

Nakajima-Kambe, T; Shigeno-Akutsu, Y; Nomura, N; Onuma, F; Nakahara, T

1999-02-01

135

Distorted polyester lines for model testing of offshore moored platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model tests of floating offshore platforms replace the mooring lines by inextensible cables connected to steel springs with a linear restoring capability. With the help of fundamental investigation on the similarity laws, the present work shows that the use of very thin polyester lines in model scaling is feasible and may allow a better physical representation of the full-scale polyester

A. C. Fernandes; R. R. Rossi

2005-01-01

136

Synthesis of Perfluoropolyethers via Hydrocarbon Polyesters. A New General Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new general synthesis for perfluoropolyethers from hydrocarbon polyesters is described. This synthesis is a three-step scheme which involves (1) perfluorination of the hydrocarbon polyester, (2) reaction of SF4 with the ester carbonyl to produce a CF2 u...

D. F. Persico G. E. Gerhardt R. J. Lagow

1985-01-01

137

UV curable polyester-based polyurethane acrylate nanocoating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper's aim is to synthesise ultraviolet (UV) curable polyurethane acrylate based on polyester polyol and to study change in its mechanical, chemical, optical and weather resistance properties with varying amount of nanosilica. It also seeks to determine its optimum loading levels for property maximisation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – New UV curable polyurethane acrylate has been synthesised using polyester polyol,

R. A. Mhatre; P. A. Mahanwar; V. V. Shertukde; V. A. Bambole

2010-01-01

138

Enzymatic polyester synthesis in ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic synthesis of polyesters by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and polycondensation in three ionic liquids, i.e., [bmim][Tf2N], [bmim][PF6] and [bmim][BF4] was investigated. For the enzymatic ROP of ?-caprolactone it was found that [bmim][PF6] and [bmim][BF4] result in an inhomogeneous reaction mixture upon polymerization, causing polymerization characteristics similar to bulk polymerization. In contrast, for [bmim][Tf2N] characteristics similar to toluene were observed.

Rebeca Marcilla; Matthijs de Geus; David Mecerreyes; Christopher J. Duxbury; Cor E. Koning; Andreas Heise

2006-01-01

139

Reactive modification of polyesters and their blends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a broader research effort to investigate the chemical modification of polyesters by reactive processing a low molecular weight (MW) unsaturated polyester (UP) and a higher MW saturated polyester, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), alone or blended with polypropylene (PP) were melt processed in a batch mixer and continuous twin screw extruders. Modification was monitored by on-line rheology and the products were characterized primarily by off-line rheology, morphology and thermal analysis. Efforts were made to establish processing/property relationships and provide an insight of the accompanying structural changes. The overall response of the reactively modified systems was found to be strongly dependent on the component characteristics, blend composition, type and concentrations of reactive additives and processing conditions. The work concluded that UP can be effectively modified through reactive melt processing. Its melt viscosity and MW can be increased through chemical reactions between organic peroxides (POX) and chain unsaturation or between MgO and carboxyl/hydroxyl end groups. Reactive blending of PP/UP blends through peroxide modification gave finer and more uniform morphology than unreacted blends and at a given PP/UP weight ratio more thermoplastic elastomers-like rheological behavior. This is due to the continuously decreasing viscosity ratio of PP/UP towards unity by the competing reactions between POX and the blend components and formation of PP-UP copolymers which serve as in-situ compatibilizers to promote better interfacial adhesion. Kinetics of the competing reactions were analyzed through a developed model. In addition to POX concentration and mixing efficiency, rheology and morphology of UP/PP bends were significantly affected by the addition of inorganic and organic coagents. Addition of coagents such as a difunctional maleimide, MgO and/or an anhydride functionalized PP during reactive blending offers effective means for tailoring the desired rheological and structural characteristics of the final products for potential applications such as low density extrusion foaming or compatibilization of immiscible polymer blends. Important modification conditions through coagents are identified and reaction mechanisms are proposed. A high MW saturated polyester, PET, can also be rheologically modified in extruders through low MW multifunctional anhydride and epoxy compounds by chain extension/branching. Several such modifiers were successfully screened in terms of their reactivity towards PET under controlled reactive extrusion conditions. A dianhydride with medium reactivity was then successfully used in a one-step reactive modification/extrusion foaming process to produce low density foams. A similar process was successfully used to produce small cell size foams from a four component system containing PET, PP and lesser amounts of a low molecular weight multifunctional epoxy compound and an acid functionalized polyolefin, the latter acting as compatibilizers.

Wan, Chen

140

Strength and durability properties of polyester concrete using pet and fly ash wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, mainly recovered from plastic beverage bottles, can be used to produce unsaturated polyester resins. In turn, these resins can be mixed with inorganic aggregates (sand and gravel and fly ash waste), to produce polyester concrete (PC). The strength and durability properties of plain and steel-reinforced polyester concrete (PC) using unsaturated polyester resins based on recycled PET

K. S. Rebeiz

1996-01-01

141

Acrylic\\/polyester hybrid powder coating system having excellent weather durability  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been many attempts to improve weather durability in polyester powder coatings. However, no effective suggestion improves weather durability without sacrificing other properties, such as mechanical properties. A novel polyester powder coating system is described in this article, with especially excellent weather durability. This system was based on an acrylic\\/polyester hybrid curing system composed of polyester resin showing excellent

Katsuhiko Okadaa; Kouichi Yamaguchi; Hirofumi Takeda

1997-01-01

142

Encyclopedia of polymer science and engineering, Vol. 11: Photographic applications to polyesters, elastomeric  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contents of this book are: Photographic Applications; Photocrosslinking; Phthaloccyanine Polymers; Pipe; Plant Design; Plasma Polymerizaton; Plastic; Plasticizers; Plastics; Identification; Plastics, Processing; Polyacetals; Poly(alkylidene sulfides); Polyalkylidenes; Polyamides; Polyamides, Aromatic; Polyamides, Fibers; Polyamides, Plastics; Polyamides from Fatty Acids; Polyamides; Polyaminotriazoles; Polyampholtyes; Polyanhydrides; Poly(arylene sulfides); Polybenzimidazoles; Polybenzothiazoles; Polybenzoxazinones; Polybithiazoles; Polycarbonates; Polyelectrolytes; Polyesters, Polyesters, Aromatic; Polyesters, Containers; and Polyesters, Elastomeric.

H. F. Mark; N. Bikales; C. G. Overberger; G. Menges

1987-01-01

143

Appearance Performance of Fusible Interfacing Fabrics Attached to Home Sewn Cotton Blouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wear study was conducted to evaluate the appearance performance of five selected fusible interfacing fabrics of either a light or heavy weight, nonwoven, 50\\/50 nylon-polyester, or 45\\/45\\/10 nylon-polyester-rayon, each with a polyamide adhesive agent applied by the pinpointing method; or a 100 percent nylon knit with a polyamide adhesive applied by spray coating, attached to the front areas of

Mary M. Warnock; Mary E. Cotton

1985-01-01

144

Crease recovery, mechanical and thermal properties of synthetic fabrics treated with electron beam irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of surface treatment of polyester, nylon-6 and cotton\\/polyester fabrics, with formulations based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) followed by electron beam irradiation, on the crease recovery, mechanical and thermal properties was investigated. The non-reactive siloxane was activated with styrene (S) or methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomers and their corresponding oligomers. The crease recovery properties were determined in terms of the recovery

M. H. Zohdy; S. S. Mohamed; Abdel Wahab M. El-Naggar

2004-01-01

145

Analysis of weathering of thermoplastic polyester elastomers—I. Polyether-polyester elastomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoplastic polyester elastomers (TPEE) are useful as new materials covering the region between rubbers and plastics. At present, the uses under outdoor conditions have increased. However, weatherability of TPEE is not clear. We have studied weathering of TPEE, by means of GPC, TG\\/DTA, FT-IR and 1H-NMR and other methods. In conclusion, (1) Ether parts of the soft segment in the

Yasutaka Nagai; Takahiro Ogawa; Liu Yu Zhen; Yuko Nishimoto; Fujio Ohishi

1997-01-01

146

EPA FABRIC FILTRATION STUDIES: 4. BAG AGING EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine the effects of aging on filter bags made of woven polyester. Fabric filter life can be divided into three periods: break-in, steady-state, and wear-out. During the break-in, both bag collection efficiency and the pressure drop acro...

147

Instrumented impact testing of fabric-reinforced composite materials. Research and development report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumented impact and ultrasonic inspection were used to assess the impact damage resistance of six fabric-reinforced laminates. Polyester and vinylester resins reinforced with woven roving, biaxial reinforcement, and glass\\/Kevlar hybrid were evaluated. Biaxial fabric reinforced resins had the best impact resistance. This determination is based on the ability of these materials to survive impact with the lowest friction of impact

T. D. Juska; R. M. Crane; T. Mixon

1989-01-01

148

Evaluation of a Fusion Bonded White Polyester Coated Guardrail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fusion bonded polyester coated guardrails were erected over a box culvert on the north and southbound sides of Maryland Route 97 over Piney Run in Carroll County, Maryland. They were inspected for visibility and durability and compared with conventional g...

M. I. Phillips W. L. Hood

1984-01-01

149

21 CFR 177.2420 - Polyester resins, cross-linked.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TBHQ Di-tert- butyl hydroquinone Hydroquinone 2. Accelerators: Total not to exceed 1.5 percent. Benzyl trimethyl...of the polyester resin. 4. Solvents for inhibitors, accelerators, and catalysts: Butyl benzyl phthalate...

2013-04-01

150

Polyester (Parietex) mesh for total extraperitoneal laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Polypropylene mesh is the most commonly used mesh for open and laparoscopic hernia repair in the United States. A variety\\u000a of newly developed polyester mesh products have recently become available. This is the first U.S. multiinstitutional study\\u000a evaluating the initial experience of polyester mesh use for total extraperitoneal (TEP) laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair.\\u000a Between January 2000 and June 2001, 337

B. Ramshaw; F. Abiad; G. Voeller; R. Wilson; E. Mason

2003-01-01

151

Polyester moulding compounds of natural fibres and wollastonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combination of natural fibres and wollastonite whiskers has been attempted as an alternative to glass fibre reinforcement in polyester dough moulding compounds. Natural fibres (sisal) and wollastonite were surface-modified with polyester compatible neo pentyl (diallyl) oxy, tri (dioctyl) pyro-phosphato titanate and gamma-methacryloxy propyl trimethoxy silane coupling agents, respectively. Reinforcing effect of wollastonite to a level of ?50wt% in an unsaturated

B Singh; M Gupta; Anchal Verma

2003-01-01

152

Hydrolyzable polyester resins, varnishes and coating compositions containing the same  

DOEpatents

Preparation of hydrolyzable polyester resin comprising reacting polycarboxylic acid and polyhydric alcohol components, which is characterized by using, as at least part of said polyhydric alcohol component, a metallic salt of hydroxy carboxylic acid of the formula defined and effecting the polycondensation at a temperature which is no more than the decomposition temperature of said metallic salt. The polyester resins are useful as resinous vehicle of varnishes and antifouling paints.

Yamamori, Naoki (Minoo, JP); Yokoi, Junji (Nara, JP); Yoshikawa, Motoyoshi (Nara, JP)

1984-01-01

153

Studies of dielectric relaxation in natural fibres reinforced unsaturated polyester  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dielectric properties on natural fibres reinforced unsaturated polyester were investigated. Dielectric spectra were measured\\u000a in the frequency range from 10?1 Hz to 106 Hz and temperature interval from 40 °C to 150 °C. For the composite, three relaxation processes were identified. The first\\u000a one is the ? mode relaxation associated with the glass transition of the unsaturated polyester resin matrix. The second relaxation\\u000a process

A. Triki; M. Guicha; Med Ben Hassen; M. Arous; Z. Fakhfakh

2011-01-01

154

Microbial degradation of polyurethane, polyester polyurethanes and polyether polyurethanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyurethane (PUR) is a polymer derived from the condensation of polyisocyanate and polyol and it is widely used as a base\\u000a material in various industries. PUR, in particular, polyester PUR, is known to be vulnerable to microbial attack. Recently,\\u000a environmental pollution by plastic wastes has become a serious issue and polyester PUR had attracted attention because of\\u000a its biodegradability. There

T. Nakajima-Kambe; Y. Shigeno-Akutsu; N. Nomura; F. Onuma; T. Nakahara

1999-01-01

155

Evaluation of Three Methods of Rendering Upholstery Fabrics Smolder Resistant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three methods of rendering upholstery fabrics smolder resistant were evaluated by determining the rate and extent of percent weight loss of a small scale mock-up system when the fabrics, with and without treatment, were tested in combination with F.R. cotton batting, F.R. polyurethane foam and resinated polyester fiber batting. A lit cigarette was placed in the crevice formed by the

Sharon S. Williams; Gordon H. Damant

1983-01-01

156

75 FR 34097 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Extension of the Final Results of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-583-833] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Extension of...of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from Taiwan. See Certain Polyester Staple Fiber from Taiwan: Preliminary...

2010-06-16

157

78 FR 2366 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic...the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber (``PSF'') from the...1\\ See Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's...

2013-01-11

158

75 FR 76954 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic...second administrative review of certain polyester staple fiber (``PSF'') from the...2008--May 31, 2009. See Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's...

2010-12-10

159

76 FR 28420 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Full Extension of Preliminary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic...the administrative review of certain polyester staple fiber from the People's Republic...the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the PRC. See...

2011-05-17

160

77 FR 71579 - Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trade Administration [A-583-833] Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Notice of...review of the antidumping duty order on polyester staple fiber from Taiwan covering the...Diamond Sawblades). \\6\\ See Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Final...

2012-12-03

161

75 FR 5763 - Notice of Correction to the First Administrative Review of Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...First Administrative Review of Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic...the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the People's Republic...First Administrative Review of Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's...

2010-02-04

162

75 FR 38463 - Greige Polyester Cotton Printcloth From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Sunset...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-101] Greige Polyester Cotton Printcloth From the People's Republic...antidumping duty order on greige polyester cotton printcloth from the People's Republic...antidumping duty order on greige polyester cotton printcloth from the PRC. See Greige...

2010-07-02

163

Aliphatic hyperbranched polyester: A new building block in the construction of multifunctional nanoparticles and nanocomposites**  

PubMed Central

Herein we report the design and synthesis of multifunctional hyperbranched polyester-based nanoparticles and nanocomposites with properties ranging from magnetic, fluorescence, antioxidant and X-ray contrast. The fabrication of these nanostructures was achieved using a novel aliphatic and biodegradable hyperbranched polyester (HBPE) synthesized from readily available diethylmalonate. The polymer’s globular structure with functional surface carboxylic groups and hydrophobic cavities residing in the polymer’s interior allows for the formation of multifunctional polymeric nanoparticles, which are able to encapsulate a diversity of hydrophobic cargos. Via simple surface chemistry modifications, the surface carboxylic acid groups were modified to yield nanoparticles with a variety of surface functionalizations, such as amino, azide and propargyl groups, which mediated the conjugation of small molecules. This capability achieved the engineering of the HBPE nanoparticle surface for specific cell internalization studies and the formation of nanoparticle assemblies for the creation of novel nanocomposites that retained, and in some cases enhanced, the properties of the parental nanoparticle building blocks. Considering these results, the HBPE polymer, nanoparticles and composites should be ideal for biomedical, pharmaceutical, nanophotonics and material applications.

Santra, Santimukul; Kaittanis, Charalambos; Perez, J. Manuel

2009-01-01

164

Aliphatic hyperbranched polyester: a new building block in the construction of multifunctional nanoparticles and nanocomposites.  

PubMed

Herein we report the design and synthesis of multifunctional hyperbranched polyester-based nanoparticles and nanocomposites with properties ranging from magnetic, fluorescence, antioxidant and X-ray contrast. The fabrication of these nanostructures was achieved using a novel aliphatic and biodegradable hyperbranched polyester (HBPE) synthesized from readily available diethyl malonate. The polymer's globular structure with functional surface carboxylic groups and hydrophobic cavities residing in the polymer's interior allows for the formation of multifunctional polymeric nanoparticles, which are able to encapsulate a diversity of hydrophobic cargos. Via simple surface chemistry modifications, the surface carboxylic acid groups were modified to yield nanoparticles with a variety of surface functionalizations, such as amino, azide and propargyl groups, which mediated the conjugation of small molecules. This capability achieved the engineering of the HBPE nanoparticle surface for specific cell internalization studies and the formation of nanoparticle assemblies for the creation of novel nanocomposites that retained, and in some cases enhanced, the properties of the parental nanoparticle building blocks. Considering these results, the HBPE polymer, nanoparticles and composites should be ideal for biomedical, pharmaceutical, nanophotonics applications. PMID:19957939

Santra, Santimukul; Kaittanis, Charalambos; Perez, J Manuel

2010-04-20

165

Electromagnetic shielding mechanisms using soft magnetic stainless steel fiber enabled polyester textiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work studied the effects of conductivity, magnetic loss, and complex permittivity when using blended textiles (SSF/PET) of polyester fibers (PET) with stainless steel fibers (SSF) on electromagnetic wave shielding mechanisms at electromagnetic wave frequencies ranging from 30 MHz to 1500 MHz. The 316L stainless steel fiber used in this study had 38 vol% ? austenite and 62 vol% ?? martensite crystalline phases, which was characterized by an x-ray diffractometer. Due to the magnetic and dielectric loss of soft metallic magnetic stainless steel fiber enabled polyester textiles, the relationship between the reflection/absorption/transmission behaviors of the electromagnetic wave and the electrical/magnetic/dielectric properties of the SSF and SSF/PET fabrics was analyzed. Our results showed that the electromagnetic interference shielding of the SSF/PET textiles show an absorption-dominant mechanism, which attributed to the dielectric loss and the magnetic loss at a lower frequency and attributed to the magnetic loss at a higher frequency, respectively.

Shyr, Tien-Wei; Shie, Jing-Wen

2012-11-01

166

Polysilicon TFT fabrication on plastic substrates  

SciTech Connect

Processing techniques utilizing low temperature depositions and pulsed lasers allow the fabrication of polysilicon thin film transistors (TFT`s) on plastic substrates. By limiting the silicon, SiO2, and aluminum deposition temperatures to 100(degrees)C, and by using pulsed laser crystallization and doping of the silicon, we have demonstrated functioning polysilicon TFT`s fabricated on polyester substrates with channel mobilities of up to 7.5 cm2/V-sec and Ion/Ioff current ratios of up to 1x10(to the 6th power).

Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Wickboldt, P.W.; Thompson, M.O.; Sigmon, T.W.

1997-08-06

167

Effect of Bonding Resins on the Flammability Properties and Thermal Behaviour of Cotton and Cotton\\/PESFR Woven Fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the influence of two binder resins (acrylic and styrene-butadiene resins) on the fire properties and the thermal behaviour of cotton and cotton\\/flame retardant polyester (PESFR) textiles. Lab-scale fire testings (limiting oxygen index and vertical fire test) have shown that the impregnation of the cotton\\/polyester fabrics leads to a dramatic loss of fire performance. Therefore, a thermogravimetric

J. LEFEBVRE; M. LE BRAS; B. LEFORT; C. DREVELLE; S. DUQUESNE; M. VOUTERS; C. MAGNIEZ

2003-01-01

168

Conductivity trends of PEDOT-PSS impregnated fabric and the effect of conductivity on electrochromic textile.  

PubMed

A stretchable e-textile was fabricated by simply soaking Spandex fabric in a conductive polymer aqueous dispersion, PEDOT-PSS. The resulting conductive fabric had an average conductivity of 0.1 S/cm. Subjecting the fabric to more than one soaking step increased the conductivity of the fabric up to ca. 2.0 S/cm resulting in a 33% faster switching speed. This simple methodology is not limited to Spandex (50% nylon/50% polyurethane). Several other fabric compositions were investigated for their conductivity via this process, including 100% cotton, 60% cotton/40% polyester, 95% cotton/5% Lycra, 60%polyester/40% rayon, 100% polyester, and 80% nylon/20% Spandex, listed in order of decreasing hydrophilicity. Those fabrics with higher water uptake resulted in higher conductivities upon soaking in PEDOT-PSS. Electrochromic polymers coated on the fabric could be switched between their different colored states, even upon stretching of the Spandex. SEM revealed that the electrochromic polymer coated on the substrate separated under stretching, uncovering the color of the base conducting fabric. It was found that the PEDOT-PSS was not a film on the Spandex but rather homogenously dispersed nanoparticles within the fabric matrix forming a percolated network. PMID:20481442

Ding, Yujie; Invernale, Michael A; Sotzing, Gregory A

2010-06-01

169

Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi?  

PubMed Central

Bioremediation is an important approach to waste reduction that relies on biological processes to break down a variety of pollutants. This is made possible by the vast metabolic diversity of the microbial world. To explore this diversity for the breakdown of plastic, we screened several dozen endophytic fungi for their ability to degrade the synthetic polymer polyester polyurethane (PUR). Several organisms demonstrated the ability to efficiently degrade PUR in both solid and liquid suspensions. Particularly robust activity was observed among several isolates in the genus Pestalotiopsis, although it was not a universal feature of this genus. Two Pestalotiopsis microspora isolates were uniquely able to grow on PUR as the sole carbon source under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Molecular characterization of this activity suggests that a serine hydrolase is responsible for degradation of PUR. The broad distribution of activity observed and the unprecedented case of anaerobic growth using PUR as the sole carbon source suggest that endophytes are a promising source of biodiversity from which to screen for metabolic properties useful for bioremediation.

Russell, Jonathan R.; Huang, Jeffrey; Anand, Pria; Kucera, Kaury; Sandoval, Amanda G.; Dantzler, Kathleen W.; Hickman, DaShawn; Jee, Justin; Kimovec, Farrah M.; Koppstein, David; Marks, Daniel H.; Mittermiller, Paul A.; Nunez, Salvador Joel; Santiago, Marina; Townes, Maria A.; Vishnevetsky, Michael; Williams, Neely E.; Vargas, Mario Percy Nunez; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Bascom-Slack, Carol; Strobel, Scott A.

2011-01-01

170

Shock Wave Profiles in Glass Reinforced Polyester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The promise of lightweight armor which is also structurally robust is of particular importance to the Army for future combat vehicles. Fiber reinforced organic matrix composites such as Glass Reinforced Polyester (GRP) are being considered for this purpose due to their lower density and promising dynamic response. The work discussed here extends the prior work of Boteler who studied the delamination strength of GRP and Dandekar and Beaulieu who investigated the compressive and tensile strengths of GRP. In a series of shock wave experiments, the wave profile was examined as a function of propagation distance in GRP. Uniaxial strain was achieved by plate impact in the ARL 102 mm bore single-stage light gas gun. Embedded polyvinylidene flouride (PVDF) stress-rate gauges provided a stress history at three unique locations in the GRP and particle velocity history was recorded with VISAR. The use of Lagrange gauges embedded in such a manner provides a means of calculating the constitutive relationships between specific volume, stress, and particle velocity uniquely with no prior assumptions of the form of constitutive relation. The Lagrangian analysis will be discussed and compared to Lagrangian hydrocode (EPIC) results employing a model to describe the viscoelastic response of the composite material in one-dimension.

Boteler, J. Michael; Rajendran, A. M.; Grove, David

1999-06-01

171

40 CFR 721.10574 - Alkylcarboxy polyester acrylate reaction products with mixed metal oxides (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...Alkylcarboxy polyester acrylate reaction products with mixed...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...alkylcarboxy polyester acrylate reaction products with...

2013-07-01

172

77 FR 54562 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the Republic of Korea: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration [A-580-839] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the Republic of Korea: Rescission of Antidumping...administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the Republic of Korea (``the...

2012-09-05

173

SOLUTION RHEOLOGY OF HYPERBRANCHED POLYESTERS AND THEIR BLENDS WITH LINEAR POLYMERS  

EPA Science Inventory

In this study, the rheological properties of different generations of hyperbranched polyesters in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone solvent and their blends with poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) have ben investigated. All the hyperbranched polyester solutions exhibited Newtonian behavior...

174

Experimental Evaluation of Woven Polylactic Acid, Polyester Tubes as Trachael Prostheses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Woven tubes of either polyester fibers or mixed polyester, polylactic acid fibers of appropriate sizes were prepared for substitution of the rabbit and dog trachea. Limited but significant survival of rabbits was achieved postimplantation using both types...

P. A. Thomas

1975-01-01

175

Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology.  

PubMed

This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment. PMID:19398266

Yang, Xiaoyi

2009-04-02

176

Evaluation of different insecticides and fabric types for development of treated targets for stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) control.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cloth targets, visually attractive to blood-feeding flies and treated with insecticides to kill flies when they land, were adapted for use against stable flies in rangeland situations in the U.S. Five candidate fabrics were tested and trigger fabric (polyester/cotton) best maintained pesticide resi...

177

The effect of polyester fibres on quality of hand-knotted carpets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyester fibres sometimes may be used in the warp and\\/or weft of hand-knotted carpets. Usage of polyester fibres could generate some problems. To study the effect of polyester fibres in hand-knotted carpets, four different carpet samples of hand-knotted carpet were woven with four different kinds of warp and thin weft yarns, including 100% cotton yarn and a blend of polyester\\/

M. Kamali Dolatabadi; M. Montazer; M. Latifi

2005-01-01

178

Microbial degradation of polyesters: a review on extracellular poly(hydroxyalkanoic acid) depolymerases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoplastic polyesters such as biologically produced poly[(R)-3-hydroxy-butyric acid], other polyhydroxyalkanoic acids and related chemosynthetic polyesters, have properties which make them valuable for many applications. In addition, these materials can be biodegraded to water and carbon dioxide. Many aerobic and anaerobic polyester-degrading microorganisms have been found in all moderate ecosystems. The microorganisms decompose the polymers by secretion of extracellular polyester depolymerases

Dieter Jendrossek

1998-01-01

179

Genetics and Biochemistry of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Granule Self-assembly: The Key Role of Polyester Synthases  

Microsoft Academic Search

PHAs (polyhydroxyalkanoates = biopolyester) composed of hydroxy fatty acids represent a rather complex class of storage polymers\\u000a synthesized by various bacteria and archaea and are deposited as water-insoluble cytoplasmic nano-sized inclusions. These\\u000a spherical particles are composed of a polyester core surrounded by phospholipids and proteins. The key enzymes of polyester\\u000a biosynthesis and polyester particle formation are the polyester synthases, which

Bernd H. A. Rehm

2006-01-01

180

Fabrication and dynamic mechanical behavior of nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyester/TiO2 nanocomposites have been fabricated using an in-situ polymerization technique coupled with ultrasonics, and an investigation has been conducted to characterize their mechanical and fracture behavior under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. The presence of the particles had the greatest effect on fracture toughness; negligible particle influence was observed in the remaining mechanical properties obtained using quasi-static loading. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of fracture surfaces was carried out to identify toughening mechanisms. Dynamic fracture toughness testing was carried out, and an increase in dynamic fracture toughness relative to quasi-static fracture toughness was observed. High strain rate testing conducted using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus revealed a moderate stiffening effect with increasing particle volume fraction. Dynamic photoelasticity coupled with high-speed photography was used to obtain the dynamic fracture constitutive behavior of polyester and nanocomposites. Birefringent coatings were used to conduct the photoelastic study due to the opaqueness of the nanocomposites. Two different specimen geometries were employed to obtain a broad range of crack velocities. Crack run-arrest, propagation, and branching events in polyester and nanocomposites were investigated and compared. Crack arrest toughness in nanocomposites was found to be 60% greater than that in polyester. Crack propagation velocities in nanocomposites were found to be 50% greater than those in polyester. Incipient branching values were 2.4 and 2.6 times the corresponding values of KIC in polyester and nanocomposites, respectively. A one-point strain measurement technique using a modified Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus was employed in a parametric study to evaluate the limiting conditions of validity of employment of quasi-static relations in the determination of dynamic fracture initiation toughness in brittle and moderately brittle polymers. The technique was combined with photoelastic analysis and high-speed photography to validate results obtained in polyester and PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) three-point bend specimens. Specimen size, crack length, incident pulse length and amplitude, and loading rate were variables used in the parametric study. A hypothesis was proposed and tested in an effort to explain how inertia effects interfere with the measurement of dynamic fracture initiation toughness using the one-point strain measurement technique.

Evora, Victor Manuel Fortes

181

Influence of weft-knitted tubular fabric on radial mechanical property of coaxial three-layer small-diameter vascular graft.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to evaluate the radial mechanical property of the small-diameter polyurethane vascular grafts reinforced by weft-knitted tubular polyester/spandex fabrics. The polyester/spandex tubular fabrics with different blend ratios were prepared on a weft-knitting machine to reinforce small-diameter polyurethane vascular grafts. Phase separation technique was employed to produce coaxial three-layer small-diameter polyurethane vascular grafts at room temperature. Morphology of the polyurethane vascular grafts was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and micropores were observed on both inner and cross section surfaces. Radial tensile property and compliance of small-diameter polyurethane vascular grafts with and without reinforcement by polyester/spandex tubular fabrics were characterized. The effect of polyester/spandex tubular fabric on the mechanical property of polyurethane vascular grafts was studied. The results indicated that the radial tensile strength of the vascular graft was improved by the tubular fabric, and that the influence of tubular fabric on compliance was small compared to that of wall thickness. It was notable that the wall thickness of the vascular grafts was a major factor in controlling the compliance in the radial direction. Therefore, a coaxial three-layer small-diameter polyurethane vascular graft with excellent compliance and tensile strength could be obtained by controlling the wall thickness and using polyester/spandex fabric as reinforcement. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater , 2012. PMID:22113920

Yang, Hongjun; Zhu, Guocheng; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Zhenzhen; Fang, Jian; Xu, Weilin

2011-11-24

182

On the frequency of occurrence of a peculiar polyester fibre type found in blue denim textiles.  

PubMed

In a double murder investigation, the victims were found after a prolonged stay in a drainage canal. In spite of the expectations, fibre examination established a multitude of primary and secondary transferred fibres. One of these fibre types was a colourless polyester fibre possessing a blue coloured molten fibre end. These matched one of the types present in the suspect's blue denim trousers. The aim of this study was to verify the rarity of this peculiar fibre type and more precisely its presence in blue denim textiles. Over five hundred different blue jeans textiles were examined and only one of these presented exactly the same type. The comparison involved microscopy, microspectrophotometry in the visible range and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate this fibre type is extremely rare in a blue jeans fabrics and that "standard" blue denim should not be disregarded in case work. PMID:22137048

De Wael, Kris; Baes, Christiaan; Lepot, Laurent; Gason, Fabrice

2011-03-04

183

Fabrication and characterization of particulate polymer nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive series of experiments are conducted to study dynamic crack initiation and propagation in nanocomposite materials. The nanocomposites are fabricated using ultrasonics with an in-situ polymerization technique to produce materials with excellent particle dispersion, as verified by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Dynamic fracture toughness testing is carried out on three-point bend nanocomposite specimens using a modified split-Hopkinson pressure bar. Dynamic photoelasticity coupled with high-speed photography has also been used to obtain crack tip velocities and dynamic stress fields around the propagating cracks. A relationship between the dynamic stress intensity factor, KD, and the crack tip velocity, a?, is established. Three different sizes Al2O3 particles were chosen as the reinforcement to fabricate the 1 vol.% polyester/A1 2O3 nanocomposites. A series of experiments were conducted to study the effect of the size of filler particles on fracture behavior of the composites. High strain rate testings conducted using a split Hopkinson preesure bar apparatus revealed a moderate increase in fracture toughness with the decrease of particle size. These three composites were also characterized for the dynamic fracture constitutive behavior. Birefringent coating technique coupled with high-speed photography was employed in this study to obtain the dynamic stress fields around the propagating crack tips. A relationship between the dynamic stress intensity factor K1, and the crack tip velocity, a?, was established and compared for all three materials. Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)/polyester composites were fabricated successfully using the in-situ method combined with the sonication technique. The nanotubes were pre-treated and functionalized to make them more soluble to the matrix material before added into the polyester resin. TEM analysis was carried out to verify the dispersion of the nanotubes in the composites. Three volume fractions (0.1%, 0.5% and 1%) MWNT/polyester nanocomposites were fabricated and subsequently characterized on mechanical behaviors. The results showed the great increase in static fracture toughness of the composites, while decrease in compression strength, compared with the virgin polyester specimens. The transport properties of the carbon nanotubes/polymer composites, including the electrical conductivity and the thermal conductivity, were reviewed and suggestions were given for the future researches.

Du, Ying

184

76 FR 11268 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-825 and 826 (Second Review)] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan AGENCY...the antidumping duty orders on certain polyester staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan...the antidumping duty orders on certain polyester staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan...

2011-03-01

185

75 FR 51442 - Polyester Staple Fiber from Taiwan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review in Part  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trade Administration [A-583-833] Polyester Staple Fiber from Taiwan: Rescission...review of the antidumping duty order on polyester staple fiber from Taiwan. The period...review of the antidumping duty order on polyester staple fiber from Taiwan with...

2010-08-20

186

77 FR 62217 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic...the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the People's Republic...the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the PRC pursuant...

2012-10-12

187

77 FR 25744 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1104 (Review)] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From China; Institution...the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from China would be likely...antidumping duty order on imports of certain polyester staple fiber from China (72 FR...

2012-05-01

188

76 FR 58040 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-825 and 826; Second Review] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan Determination...the antidumping duty orders on certain polyester staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan would...September 2011), entitled Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and...

2011-09-19

189

EFFECT OF VARIOUS FORMS OF GLASS FIBER REINFORCEMENTS ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF POLYESTER MATRIX COMPOSITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsaturated polyesters are important matrix resins used for glass fiber reinforced composites\\/plastics. The strength of fiber glass reinforced polyester composite is mainly related to the glass content of the material and the arrangement of glass fibers. In general, the higher the weight percent glass in the composites, the stronger is the reinforced composite. Polyester matrix composites (PMC) have good specific

Gul Hameed Awan; Liaqat Ali

2009-01-01

190

Bacterial and other biological systems for polyester production.  

PubMed

Poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) and other structurally related aliphatic polyesters from bacteria, referred to as polyhydroxyalkanoic acids, form biodegradable thermoplastics and elastomers that are currently in use, or being considered for use, in industry, medicine, pharmacy and agriculture. At present, they are produced by microbial fermentations; in the future, production will also be possible by in vitro methods or by agriculture using transgenic plants. Representatives from this highly diverse class of polyesters might be produced as commodity chemicals for bulk applications, and others as fine chemicals for special applications. PMID:9807839

Steinbüchel, A; Füchtenbusch, B

1998-10-01

191

Tandem synthesis of alternating polyesters from renewable resources  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of commodity materials are obtained from petrochemical feedstocks. These resources will plausibly be depleted within the next 100 years, and the peak in global oil production is estimated to occur within the next few decades. In this regard, biomass represents an abundant carbon-neutral renewable resource for the production of polymers. Here we report a new strategy, based on tandem catalysis, to obtain renewable materials. Commercially available complexes are found to be efficient catalysts for alternating polyesters from the cyclization of dicarboxylic acids followed by alternating copolymerization of the resulting anhydrides with epoxides. This operationally simple method is an attractive strategy for the production of new biodegradable polyesters.

Robert, Carine; de Montigny, Frederic; Thomas, Christophe M.

2011-01-01

192

A carpal ligament substitute part 1: polyester suture.  

PubMed

We have searched for a synthetic substitute for the carpal ligaments, which would be widely available and easy to use. Four loops of 2-0 polyester fiber suture (Mersilene) were found to exceed the ultimate tensile strength of the scapholunate interosseous ligament. This construct approximates a normal ligament stress/strain curve and can theoretically facilitate fibrous tissue ingrowth. It is readily available, easy to handle, and inexpensive. Based on these findings, we recommend the use of polyester suture in the reconstruction of carpal and other ligaments. PMID:23168035

Martin, John A; Wehbé, Marwan A

2013-02-01

193

Compression-shear study of glass reinforced polyester  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber reinforced organic matrix composites, due to their lower density, are being considered for armor applications where weight is an important factor. In this work, shock wave experiments were performed on Glass Reinforced Polyester (GRP) composite to investigate delamination due to normal and off-axis impact. This study extends the prior work of Dandekar and Beaulieu which examined both the compressive

J. Michael Boteler

1998-01-01

194

Electropositive bivalent metallic ion unsaturated polyester complexed polymer concrete  

DOEpatents

Quick setting polymer concrete compositions are described which are mixtures of unsaturated polyesters and crosslinking monomers together with appropriate initiators and promoters in association with aggregate which may be wet and a source of bivalent metallic ions which will set to polymer concrete with excellent structural properties.

Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.; Horn, W.H.

1983-05-13

195

On-Line Tension Control for Polyester Film Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uniform tension at a preferred value of polyester (PET) films in processing or rewinding is important to product quality, which can be achieved by tension control. Furthermore, the uniform transport speed is helpful in creating uniform film tension. In this article, a simplified version of PET film processing systems, consisting of an unwinding roll, a sensor roller, and a

Chang-Chiun Huang; Chi-Chung Peng; Tsann-Tay Tang

2008-01-01

196

Degradation of natural and synthetic polyesters under anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed

Often, degradability under anaerobic conditions is desirable for plastics claimed to be biodegradable, e.g. in anaerobic biowaste treatment plants, landfills and in natural anaerobic sediments. The biodegradation of the natural polyesters poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-co-11.6%-beta-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and the synthetic polyester poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was studied in two anaerobic sludges and individual polyester degrading anaerobic strains were isolated, characterized and used for degradation experiments under controlled laboratory conditions. Incubation of PHB and PHBV films in two anaerobic sludges exhibited significant degradation in a time scale of 6-10 weeks monitored by weight loss and biogas formation. In contrast to aerobic conditions, PHB was degraded anaerobically more rapidly than the copolyester PHBV, when tested with either mixed cultures or a single strained isolate. PCL tends to degrade slower than the natural polyesters PHB and PHBV. Four PHB and PCL degrading isolates were taxonomically identified and are obviously new species belonging to the genus Clostridium group I. The depolymerizing enzyme systems of PHB and PCL degrading isolates are supposed to be different. Using one isolated strain in an optimized laboratory degradation test with PHB powder, the degradation time was drastically reduced compared to the degradation in sludges (2 days vs. 6-10 weeks). PMID:11245900

Abou-Zeid, D M; Müller, R J; Deckwer, W D

2001-03-30

197

Poliflexsol polyester resin: It's properties and applications to conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poliflexsol is a light curable, glass fibre reinforced polyester resin supplied in sheet form. Since sheets of Poliflexsol are contained between two nylon films, the resin is clean and easy to handle. Its high flexibility allows it to be shaped as required and this has led to its application as a support material. The purpose of this paper is to

Yvonne Shashoua; Barbara Wills

1994-01-01

198

Mechanism of Low Profile Behavior in Unsaturated Polyester Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of low profile, low shrink behavior in single- and two-phase unsaturated polyester systems has been investigated. The curing process of several compositions has been followed by optical microscopy at various heating rates, fracture surfaces of cured samples have been observed using scanning electron microscopy and some of their physical properties have been measured. A mechanism is proposed, based

A. Siegmann; M. Narkis; J. Kost; A. T. Dibenedetto

1978-01-01

199

Low temperature cure of unsaturated polyester resins with thermoplastic additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dilatometry and morphological study of the effect of the various thermoplastic additives on shrinkage control of unsaturated polyester (UP) resins cured at low temperatures is presented in this article. It was found that shrinkage control is closely related to the morphological changes during curing. There are two major transitions in the relationship of shrinkage and additive concentration that can

W Li; L. J Lee

2000-01-01

200

Surface morphologies of composites based on unsaturated polyester prepolymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the study of surfaces of bulk molding compounds (BMC) based on miscible polymeric thermoset blends (TB)—unsaturated polyester, styrene and low profile additive (LPA)—containing fillers and glass fibers. In contrast to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that identified a continuous organic layer at the BMC surface, atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed the existence of aggregates linked together to form a

M. Vayer; C. Serré; N. Boyard; C. Sinturel; R. Erre

2002-01-01

201

Alkali treatment of coir fibres for coir-polyester composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coir fibres were subjected to alkali treatment with a view to improving the wettability of coir fibres by a commercially available resin such as polyester. Tensile strength of the fibres increases by 15% when the fibres are soaked in 5% aqueous solution of NaOH at 28±1° C for 72 to 76 h after which it shows a gradual decrease. This

S. V. Prasad; C. Pavithran; P. K. Rohatgi

1983-01-01

202

Bacterial and other biological systems for polyester production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) and other structurally related aliphatic polyesters from bacteria, referred to as polyhydroxyalkanoic acids, form biodegradable thermoplastics and elastomers that are currently in use, or being considered for use, in industry, medicine, pharmacy and agriculture. At present, they are produced by microbial fermentations; in the future, production will also be possible by in vitro methods or by agriculture using

Alexander Steinbüchel; Bernd Füchtenbusch

1998-01-01

203

Resource Conservation Through Beverage-Container Recycling (Polyester (PET) Bottles).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the introduction of plastic soft-drink bottles in 1977, the 2 liter container has captured almost the entire US market. The number of PET (polyethylene terephthalate, a polyester) bottles used in 1981 was 2.4 billion, and could grow to 14 billion by...

L. L. Gaines A. M. Wolsky

1982-01-01

204

Characterisation of improved polyester fibres for offshore mooring lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes tests performed to evaluate the properties of improved polyester fibres for marine rope applications. First the static and cyclic properties of single fibres have been measured. Then yarn and rope yarn specimens have been tested. Finally, sub-rope samples of 36 ton break load have been characterized. The data collected are now being used to validate rope performance

C. Lechat; A. Piant; A. R. Bunsell; P. Davies; B. Forest

2005-01-01

205

Gelatin-Sealed Polyester Resists Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The purpose of this study was to show that gelatin-impregnated polyester grafts inhibit Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm infection in a canine model of aortic graft interposition. A clinically native species and two engineered strains, which differed in slime and adhesin antigen components, were compared to determine differential gelatin and slime interactions.Methods. In vitro bacterial graft colonization was validated by immersion

Michael Farooq; Julie Freischlag; Holly Kelly; Gary Seabrook; Robert Cambria; Jonathan Towne

1999-01-01

206

Production of a polyester degrading extracellular hydrolase from Thermomonospora fusca.  

PubMed

The production of a polyester-degrading hydrolase from the thermophilic actinomycete Thermomonospora fusca was investigated with regard to its potential technical application. Only in the presence of a polyester (random aliphatic-aromatic copolyester from 1,4-butanediol, terephthalic acid, and adipic acid with around 40-50 mol % terephthalic acid in the acid component), the excretion of the extracellular enzyme could be achieved with an optimized synthetic medium using pectin and NH(4)Cl as nitrogen source. Compared to complex media, a significantly higher specific activity at comparable volumetric yields could be obtained, thus reducing the expenditure for purification. The activity profile in the medium is controlled by a complex process involving (1) induction of enzyme excretion, (2) enzyme adsorption on the hydrophobic polyester surface, (3) inhibition of enzyme generation by monomers produced by polyester cleavage, and (4) enzyme denaturation. Diafiltration with cellulose acetate membranes as the sole downstream processing step led to a product of high purity and with sufficient yield (60% of total activity). Scaling-up from shaking flasks to a fermentor scale of 100 L revealed no specific problems. However, the excretion of the hydrolase by the actinomycete turned out to be inhibited by the degradation products (monomers) of the aliphatic-aromatic copolyester used as inductor for the enzyme production. The crude enzyme exhibited generally similar properties (temperature and pH optimum) as the highly purified hydrolase described previously; however, the storage capability and thermal stability is improved when the crude enzyme solution is diafiltrated. PMID:12363342

Gouda, Mona K; Kleeberg, Ilona; van den Heuvel, Joop; Müller, Rolf-Joachim; Deckwer, Wolf-Dieter

207

ADBD plasma surface treatment of PES fabric sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma treatment of textile fabrics is investigated as an alternative to the environmentally hazardous wet chemical fabric treatment and pretreatment processes. Plasma treatment usually results in modification of the uppermost atomic layers of a material surface and leaves the bulk characteristics unaffected. It may result in desirable surface modifications, e.g. surface etching, surface activation, cross-linking, chain scission and oxidation. Presented paper contains results of the applicability study of the atmospheric pressure dielectric discharge (ADBD), i.e. dielectric barrier discharge sustaining in air at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature for synchronous treatment of several sheets of fabric. For tests sheets of polyester fabric were used. Effectivity of the modification process was determined with hydrophilicity measurements evaluated by means of the drop test. Hydrophilicity of individual sheets of fabric has distinctly increased after plasma treatment. Plasma induced surface changes of textiles were also proven by identification of new functional groups at the modified polyester fabric surface. Existence of new functional groups was detected by ESCA scans. For verification of surface changes we also applied high-resolution microphotography. It has shown distinct variation of the textile surface after plasma treatment. Important aspect for practical application of the plasma treatment is the modification effect time-stability, i.e. time stability of acquired surface changes of the fabric. The recovery of hydrophobicity was fastest in first days after treatment, later gradually diminished until reached almost original untreated state.

Píchal, J.; Klenko, Y.

2009-08-01

208

A novel method for applying reduced graphene oxide directly to electronic textiles from yarns to fabrics.  

PubMed

Conductive, flexible, and durable reduced RGO textiles with a facile preparation method are presented. BSA proteins serve as universal adhesives for improving the adsorption of GO onto any textile, irrespective of the materials and the surface conditions. Using this method, we successfully prepared various RGO textiles based on nylon-6 yarns, cotton yarns, polyester yarns, and nonwoven fabrics. PMID:23946273

Yun, Yong Ju; Hong, Won G; Kim, Wan-Joong; Jun, Yongseok; Kim, Byung Hoon

2013-08-15

209

PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF TOLUENE vapour USING FIXED BED MULTICHANNEL PHOTOREACTORS EQUIPPED WITH TiO2?COATED FABRICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of producing TiO2?coated fabric using nonwoven polyester as a photocatalyst support was examined through investigations on (i) changes in the fabric properties after coating with TiO2, (ii) the toluene removal capacity of a multichannel TiO2\\/fabric\\/UV reactor in removing the toluene vapour with and without O3 addition, and (iii) the photocatalytic effect of regenerated TiO2. The value and usefulness

2008-01-01

210

Fabrication and characterization of optical phantoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the fabrication of optical phantoms that will serve as calibration and test standards for a diffuse optical tomographic system developed in our laboratory. For the fabrication of a phantom's matrix, two materials are compared: polyester and epoxy resins. We investigate the capacity to use either of these two resins in the fabrication of a phantom's matrix with different shapes and thicknesses. For the absorbing agent we use India ink and for diffusing agent we choose a fine titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder. We test a collimated light measurements set-up to extract: the absorption coefficient ?a of a purely absorbing medium, and the scattering coefficient ?s of a purely diffusing medium. We also compare the way ?a and ?s add in a solution of absorbing and diffusing media.

Bioud, Fatma-Zohra; Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves

2008-08-01

211

DNA profiling on fabrics: an in-situ method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presence of sufficient DNA (from biological stains) on a binding substrate, multiplex PCR can be carried out in-situ without an extraction step. In this study, blood dried on six different fabrics, namely, cotton, rayon, nylon, wool, acrylic and polyester were tested. Multiplex PCR using the AmpFlSTR Identifiler kit on a 2- to 3-mm square bloodstain successfully amplified the

Lay Hong Seah; Mohd Izuan Othman; Primulapathi Jaya; N. Hithaya Jeevan

2004-01-01

212

Penetration of household insecticides through different types of textile fabrics.  

PubMed

Six different types of fabrics were compared for their ability to protect against human exposure to three different commercial household aerosol insecticides. Fabrics used in this investigation were, 100% cotton, cotton-polyester thermal underwear, cotton-polyester blend (twill), 100% acrylic, 100% wool and artificial silk (rayon). The household insecticides were, Black Flag (Ant and Roach Killer), Raid (Ant and Roach Killer) and Hot Shot (Wasp and Hornet Killer) containing propoxur, permethrin/pyrethrins and chlorpyrifos/allethrins as their active ingredients respectively. A fluorescent tracer, 4-methyl-7-diethyl amino coumarin was mixed with the aerosol (or equivalent aliquot) and sprayed onto cloth squares fitted on Whatman paper patches. The percentage of penetration through the cloth was quantified by the intensity of the fluorescence spectrum of each patch extract and the amount of the tracer recovered was calculated. The extract was concentrated to 1/10th of the volume to measure the content of each of the insecticides by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) using electron capture (ECD) and diode array detectors. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the fabrics showed the geometry of the yarn. The results obtained from the fluorescence spectra, SFC and SEM showed that cotton-polyester (twill), cotton, wool and cotton thermal underwear were the least penetrable materials for the aerosols. On the other hand, acrylic and artificial silk (rayon) were the most penetrable cloth types. PMID:9503577

Saleh, M A; Kamel, A; el-Demerdash, A; Jones, J

1998-03-01

213

Instrumented impact testing of fabric-reinforced composite materials. Research and development report  

SciTech Connect

Instrumented impact and ultrasonic inspection were used to assess the impact damage resistance of six fabric-reinforced laminates. Polyester and vinylester resins reinforced with woven roving, biaxial reinforcement, and glass/Kevlar hybrid were evaluated. Biaxial fabric reinforced resins had the best impact resistance. This determination is based on the ability of these materials to survive impact with the lowest friction of impact energy resulting in damage. In addition laminates with biaxial reinforcement ahd comparable damage areas to the other materials.

Juska, T.D.; Crane, R.M.; Mixon, T.

1989-05-01

214

Test of fabric filtration materials. Final report Jun 73Dec 78  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes pilot scale and laboratory tests of U.S. and Polish woven baghouse fabrics. Cotton, polyester, aramid, and glass fabrics were tested using cement, flyash, coal, and talc dusts at loadings of about 10 g\\/cu m, filtration velocities of 60 and 80 cu m\\/sq m, and ambient temperature and humidity. General conclusions reached were: (1) air permeability is a

J. R. Koscianowski; L. Koscianowska; M. Szablewicz

1979-01-01

215

Biosynthesis and Biodegradation of 3-Hydroxypropionate- Containing Polyesters?  

PubMed Central

3-Hydroxypropionate (3HP) is an important compound in the chemical industry, and the polymerized 3HP can be used as a bioplastic. In this review, we focus on polyesters consisting of 3HP monomers, including the homopolyester poly(3-hydroxypropionate) and copolyesters poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxypropionate), poly(3-hydroxypropionate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate-co-3-hydroxyoctanoate), poly(4-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxypropionate-co-lactate), and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxypropionate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate-co-lactate). Homopolyesters like poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) are often highly crystalline and brittle, which limits some of their applications. The incorporation of 3HP monomers reduces the glass transition temperature, the crystallinity, and also, at up to 60 to 70 mol% 3HP, the melting point of the copolymer. This review provides a survey of the synthesis and physical properties of different polyesters containing 3HP.

Andreessen, Bjorn; Steinbuchel, Alexander

2010-01-01

216

Surface Characterization of Aliphatic Polyester -g- Phosphorylcholine Copolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to control biodegradation behavior of a class of polyesters, hydrophilic functional groups were grafted onto the main chains. Phosphorylcholine (PC) molecules with azide attached at the end were synthesized. Due to their excellent biocompatibility and hydrophilicity, they have been covalently coupled to biodegradable aliphatic polyesters via a ``click'' cycloaddition reaction to produce amphiphilic graft copolymers. A series of copolymers were prepared by varying the molar incorporation of PC groups. Surface properties of the copolymers were examined to further explore their applications in drug delivery systems. Grazing angle reflection infrared spectroscopy was employed to determine segmental orientation at the film surface. XPS was used to verify surface composition. A water adsorption experiment was carried out to determine the water permeation rate. The improvement in hydrophilicity was confirmed by a water contact experiment. Results indicate that the graft copolymers were promising in drug delivery systems.

Zhang, Xiongfei; Emrick, Todd; Hsu, Shaw L.

2007-03-01

217

Thermoplastic polycarbonate/polyester blend compositions with improved mechanical properties  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed is a thermoplastic composition comprising a mixture of from 10 to 98 weight % of a polycarbonate polymer, from 2 to 90 weight % of a polyester polymer comprising structures derived from a diol compound having the structure (A) HO--Z--OH, wherein Z is a C.sub.1 to C.sub.36 linear aliphatic radical, a C.sub.3 to C.sub.36 branched aliphatic or cycloaliphatic radical, a C.sub.6 to C.sub.36 aryl radical, or a C.sub.7 to C.sub.36 alkylaryl radical, and a diacid compound having the structure (B) HOOC--CH.sub.2CH.sub.2--COOH, from 0 to 5 weight % of a polylactic acid polymer, wherein the sum of the polycarbonate polymer, the polyester polymer, and the polylactic acid polymer is equal to 100 weight %. The thermoplastic composition has improved mechanical properties.

2011-12-06

218

Morphology and performance of unsaturated polyester nanocomposites modified with organoclay and thermoplastic polyurethane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsaturated polyester (UPR)\\/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)\\/organoclay nanocomposites were prepared by melt compounding of\\u000a thermoplastic polyurethane and unsaturated polyester prepolymer, and then mixing with the hybrids of styrene monomers and\\u000a organoclay at ambient temperature. The crosslinking reaction eventually occurred through the unsaturated polyester prepolymer\\u000a and styrene monomer. The morphology of the composites was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission\\u000a electron

Chang-jiang You; Jin-guo Xu; Yi-zheng Zeng; Yao Li; De-min Jia; Toshio Nishi

2010-01-01

219

Transesterification catalysts to improve clay exfoliation in synthetic biodegradable polyester nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here on the melt intercalation preparation of polymer\\/clay nanocomposites based on three commercial synthetic biodegradable polyesters: EastarBio Ultra, Ecoflex, and Bionolle, respectively. The montmorillonite clay addition is performed either by direct dispersion of Cloisite 30B in the polyester matrix or by dispersing a “PCL-grafted Cloisite 30B” masterbatch in the biodegradable polyesters. All obtained nanocomposites display an intercalated morphology

Eric Pollet; Cécile Delcourt; Michael Alexandre; Philippe Dubois

2006-01-01

220

Resource conservation through beverage-container recycling. [Polyester (PET) bottles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the introduction of plastic soft-drink bottles in 1977, the 2 liter container has captured almost the entire US market. The number of PET (polyethylene terephthalate, a polyester) bottles used in 1981 was 2.4 billion, and could grow to 14 billion by 1990 if the penetration into the 1\\/2 liter market is as rapid as some experts predict. Consumers value

L. L. Gaines; A. M. Wolsky

1982-01-01

221

BIODEGRADABILITY ASSESSMENT OF ALIPHATIC POLYESTERS USING STANDARD METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Important information concerning polymer's final fate in the environment can be achieved in biodegradation studies performed in the aquatic environment. In this context, the focus of the present work was to evaluate the biodegradability level of blends containing aliphatic polyesters using standard methods. Blends of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and five biodegradable polymers (poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) and Mater-Bi

I. Moura; A. V. Machado; F. M. Duarte; A. G. Brito; R. Nogueira

222

Thermally stable polyester polymers for second-order nonlinear optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report electro-optic and thermal stability properties of a novel thermostable fluorene-based polyester polymer. The electro-optic coefficient, r33, at 810 nm is 2.6 pm\\/V for a poling field of 0.5 MV\\/cm. This value is comparable to that obtained from many reported side-chain polymers. Isothermal decay measurements of the charge transfer absorption band and electro-optic effect demonstrate that the chemical stability

Ajay Nahata; Chengjiu Wu; Charles Knapp; Victor Lu; J. Shan; James T. Yardley

1994-01-01

223

Jacketing of Optical Fibers with Ordered Thermotropic Liquid Crystal Polyesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermotropic liquid crystal polyesters (LCPs), based on improved polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and para-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB), are investigated as a secondary jacketing material for enclosing optical fibers. Because of shear- and deformation-induced molecular orientations produced during extrusion, the newly developed LCPs exhibit low thermal expansion coefficients and high Young's moduli. As a result, the LCP-jacketed optical fibers show small loss increases

Fumio Yamamoto

1987-01-01

224

Impact response of thick glass fibre reinforced polyester laminates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thick glass\\/polyester woven roving laminated plates subject to low-velocity impact have been investigated using a guided drop-weight test rig in ascending energy order up to 1500 J. The impact response and energy-absorbing characteristics have been determined by impact-forces and absorbed-energy histories, and by force-displacement relationships. Impact damage is examined by visual inspection, ultrasonic C-scan and an optical microscope so that

G. Zhou; G. A. O. Davies

1995-01-01

225

Conductive Papers Containing Metallized Polyester Fibers for Electromagnetic Interference Shielding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conductive papers were developed for preventing or reducing electromagnetic interference (EMI), and their shielding efficiency was evaluated. This type of conductive paper consists of wood pulp, synthetic pulp and metallized polyester fibers (0.5–2.0 mm long and 14 µm in diameter) whose surfaces are coated with nickel alone (Ni-PET) or copper and nickel double layers (Ni-Cu-PET) by electroless plating. In this

Shunichi Shinagawa; Yaomi Kumagai; Kei Urabe

1999-01-01

226

Biodiversity of microorganisms that degrade bacterial and synthetic polyesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodiversity and occurrence in nature of bioplastic-degrading microorganisms are exemplified by the identification of 695 strains, isolated from different environments, such as soils, composts, natural waters, and sludge, that are able to degrade the bacterial polyester poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)in vitro. These microorganisms belong to at least 57 different taxa, including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, streptomycetes, and moulds. The literature on the

J Mergaert; J Swings

1996-01-01

227

Fungal Communities Associated with Degradation of Polyester Polyurethane in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil fungal communities involved in the biodegradation of polyester polyurethane (PU) were investi- gated. PU coupons were buried in two sandy loam soils with different levels of organic carbon: one was acidic (pH 5.5), and the other was more neutral (pH 6.7). After 5 months of burial, the fungal communities on the surface of the PU were compared with the

Lee Cosgrove; Paula L. McGeechan; Geoff D. Robson; Pauline S. Handley

2007-01-01

228

TOXICITY AND BIODEGRADATION OF PRODUCTS FROM POLYESTER HYDROLYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity of products from polyester hydrolysis such as succinic acid (SA), adipic acid (AA), mandelic acid (MA), terephthalic acid (TA), 1,4-butanediol (1,4-B), ethylene glycol (EG), styrene glycol (SG) and 1,4-cyclohexane dimethanol (1,4-C) was evaluated by phytotoxicity test on germination of young radish seeds and by cytotoxicity test on HeLa cells. The phytotoxicity test revealed SG > MA > 1,4-C >

Mal-Nam Kim; Boo-Young Lee; Ick-Mo Lee; Han-Sup Lee; Jin-San Yoon

2001-01-01

229

Preparation of rich handles soft cellulosic fabric using amino silicone based softener, part II: colorfastness properties.  

PubMed

The preparation of amino silicone based softeners with different emulsifiers was carried out and adsorbed onto the surfaces of cotton and blends of cotton/polyester fabrics. The softened fabrics have high surface area, so poorly performance in washing and rubbing fastness. It is obvious from the results of colorfastness to rubbing and washing that some of the samples of the dyed fabric treated with prepared softeners have shown some poor rating as compared to the untreated fabrics. However the other two samples have shown acceptable rubbing fastness results without losing softness and permanent handle. It can be observed that washing of the printed treated fabric remains unaffected almost in all the studied samples. Moreover, the application of the prepared softeners has imparted anti pilling property to the fabric. It can be seen that there is a remarkable increase in weights of treated fabrics as compared to the untreated fabrics. PMID:21300085

Zuber, Mohammad; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Tabassum, Shazia; Jamil, Tahir; Barkaat-Ul-Hasin, Syed; Khosa, Muhammad Kaleem

2011-02-12

230

75 FR 70906 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Partial...Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber (``PSF'') from the People's...

2010-11-19

231

77 FR 4543 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration [A-583-833] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from Taiwan for the period May 1, 2010,...

2012-01-30

232

76 FR 5331 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration [A-583-833] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from Taiwan for the period May 1, 2009,...

2011-01-31

233

The persistence of human scalp hair on clothing fabrics.  

PubMed

This study reports the persistence behaviour of human scalp hairs under a number of different circumstances. The effects of artificial dyeing of hairs, the presence or absence of roots and different types of fabrics on the persistence of hair on a variety of garments were investigated. The garments were made from cotton, polycotton, cotton/acrylic, polyester and wool. The results indicated that neither artificial dyes nor the presence or absence of roots had statistically significant effects on the persistence of hair. In contrast, the type of fabric had a major impact and it was found that, generally, hairs persist longer on rougher fabrics. The rate of loss of hairs from non-woollen fabrics during normal wear was found to follow an exponential decay curve. In contrast, the rate of loss from the woollen garments was quite linear, indicating a constant, even loss, and thus suggests that a different process is involved in the persistence of hairs on woollen garments from that on non-woollen garments. The speed at which hair was lost from fabrics decreased in the order polyester, cotton/acrylic, polycotton, cotton, smooth wool, rough wool, so that wool gives the best chance of recovering samples of hair. Due to the uniqueness of each case, it is advised that caution be used when making any interpretations and before drawing any conclusions. PMID:14642716

Dachs, J; McNaught, I J; Robertson, J

2003-12-17

234

Blanket Design, Apparatus, and Fabrication Techniques for the Mass Production of Multilayer Insulation Blankets for the Superconducting Super Collider.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) consists of full cryostat length assemblies of aluminized polyester film fabricated in the form of blankets and installed as blankets to the 4.5K cold mass and the 20K and...

J. D. Gonczy W. N. Boroski R. C. Niemann J. G. Otavka M. K. Ruschman

1989-01-01

235

Integrated analysis of low profile unsaturated polyester and vinylester resins cured at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsaturated polyester and vinylester resins are used in a wide variety of applications. These materials provide high structural stability, increased resistance to solvent and temperature, and improved mechanical stability. Low profile additives have been found highly effective in eliminating the polymerization shrinkage of unsaturated polyester resins in high temperature molding processes such as compression molding of SMC and injection molding

Xia Cao

2002-01-01

236

EFFECT OF GGBFS AS FILLER IN POLYESTER GROUT ON STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT AND FLOWABILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of polymer grout based on isopthalic unsaturated polyester resin (IUPR), methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP), river sand and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) have been designed, tested and discussed in this paper. Slag was used as one of the design component to investigate its effect to polyester resin systems. Mechanical properties such as compressive and flexural strength of

S. K. Lim; F. Zakaria; M. W. Hussin; Z. Abd; R. Muhamad

237

Structure–property relationship of different types of polyester industrial yarns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four major types of polyester industrial yarns (1000 Denier) which are used commercially were studied for their key structural parameters. An attempt has been made to establish a relationship between morphology and properties of these yarns. High tenacity (HT) polyester yarn has the highest birefringence, amorphous orientation, and long period but is relatively less crystalline. High shrinkage characteristic of HT

Barun Kumar Samui; Manikanda Priya Prakasan; C. Ramesh; Debabrata Chakrabarty; R. Mukhopadhyay

2012-01-01

238

Fluorinated hyperbranched polyester acrylate used as an additive for UV curing coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorinated hyperbranched polyester acrylate (FHPA) was synthesized by modifying the hyperbranched polyester Boltorn H20 with fluorinated isocyanate, and characterized with 1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The water and oil wettability of the UV cured film with FHPA as an additive was investigated by measuring the contact angle. The results showed that an extremely low concentration of FHPA, even

Hui Miao; Liangliang Cheng; Wenfang Shi

2009-01-01

239

Studies on mechanical performance of biofibre\\/glass reinforced polyester hybrid composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of mechanical reinforcement that could be obtained by the introduction of glass fibres in biofibre (pineapple leaf fibre\\/sisal fibre) reinforced polyester composites has been assessed experimentally. Addition of relatively small amount of glass fibre to the pineapple leaf fibre and sisal fibre-reinforced polyester matrix enhanced the mechanical properties of the resulting hybrid composites. Different chemically modified sisal fibres

S Mishra; A. K Mohanty; L. T Drzal; M Misra; S Parija; S. K Nayak; S. S Tripathy

2003-01-01

240

Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Mechanical Properties of Glass\\/Polyester Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased use of fiber-reinforced polyester composites in an outdoor environment has led to questions concerning the environmental durability of these materials, particularly as related to ultraviolet (UV) exposure. In this research the effects of UV radiation on mechanical properties of glass\\/polyester composites were studied. Since the photo degradation is a surface mechanism and is restricted to degradation of mechanical

Mahmood M. Shokrieh; Alireza Bayat

2007-01-01

241

COMPATIBILITY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BLENDS OF POLYSYTRENE WITH BIODEGRADABLE POLYESTERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biodegradable polyesters allow the development of acceptable bio-composites and bio-blends from ag-based raw materials without impairing their biodegradability and other useful properties. The tensile properties of binary blends of polystyrene (PS) with the biodegradable polyesters polycaprolactone...

242

Radiation Grafting of Acrylonitrile onto Polyester Fiber as the Reinforcing Filler for Poly (Vinyl Chloride).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies have been carried out on radiation-induced grafting of acrylonitrile onto polyester fiber and on the properties of the grafted fiber in an attempt to increase the strength of polyester fiber reinforced soft poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) sheet by imp...

K. Kaji I. Ando

1985-01-01

243

Transverse behavior of a unidirectional composite (glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester). Part II. Influence of shrinkage strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

A micromechanical investigation of the transverse creep behavior of unidirectionally reinforced glass fibre composites with an unsaturated polyester matrix is presented. More specifically the influence of initial strains induced by polymerization shrinkage of the unsaturated polyester is studied. A previously established nonlinear viscoelastic model of the deformational behavior of the unsaturated polyester matrix is used in the numerical calculations. The

L. Zhang; L. J. Ernst; H. R. Brouwer

1998-01-01

244

77 FR 50530 - Polyester Staple Fiber From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Investigation No. 731-TA-1104 (Review)] Polyester Staple Fiber From China; Scheduling...Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Polyester Staple Fiber From China AGENCY: United...revocation of the antidumping duty order on polyester staple fiber from China would be...

2012-08-21

245

77 FR 21733 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-583-833] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Extension...the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from Taiwan for the period...through April 30, 2011.\\1\\ In Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan:...

2012-04-11

246

Fabric radiators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of large, high-temperature space radiators is still an evolving discipline. Researchers expanded the data base available to a designer by studying a novel class of radiators constructed of ceramic fabrics and/or composite materials. It appears that fabric radiators have features not available in more conventional radiator types, while offering the light weight and stowability of advanced radiators such as liquid droplet types. Experiments show that fabrics can be treated to become impermeable to the working fluid while retaining flexibility. This feature of fabrics, when allied to their low density, provides a material well-adapted to radiator construction.

Antoniak, Zenen I.; Jacox, Michael G.

247

Enzymatic saccharification coupling with polyester recovery from cotton-based waste textiles by phosphoric acid pretreatment.  

PubMed

In order to recycle the cotton-based waste textiles, a novel process was designed for pretreating waste textiles with phosphoric acid to recover polyester and fermentable sugar. The effects of pretreatment conditions including, phosphoric acid concentration, pretreatment temperature, time, and ratio of textiles and phosphoric acid were thoroughly investigated. Results indicated the mentioned four factors had significant influences on sugar and polyester recovery. Almost complete polyester recovery was achieved by enhancing phosphoric acid concentration, temperature and pretreatment time or reducing the ratio of textiles and phosphoric acid. However, these behaviors decreased the sugar recovery seriously. 100% polyester recovery with a maximum sugar recovery of 79.2% was achieved at the optimized conditions (85% phosphoric acid, 50°C, 7h, and the ratio of 1:15). According to the technical and cost-benefit analysis, it was technically feasible and potentially profitable to recover polyester and sugar from waste textiles by phosphoric acid pretreatment. PMID:23313669

Shen, Fei; Xiao, Wenxiong; Lin, Lili; Yang, Gang; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuai

2012-12-14

248

Current advances in microbial cell factories for lactate-based polyesters driven by lactate-polymerizing enzymes: Towards the further creation of new LA-based polyesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polylactic acid (PLA), a representative bio-based polyester, has been commonly synthesized via a multi-step by chemical process. The current modes of generating PLA involve microbial fermentation of starting material, lactic acid (LA), followed by chemical ring-opening polymerization. Recently, one-pot complete bioprocess for LA-based polyesters has been established as a microbial cell factory (MCF). The concept is a process conversion from

Seiichi Taguchi

2010-01-01

249

Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Supported Polyester Dendrimers  

PubMed Central

Amphiphiles with a dendritic structure are attractive materials as they combine the features of dendrimers with the self-assembling properties and interfacial behavior of water-air affinities. We have synthesized three generations of polyester dendrimers and studied their interfacial properties on the Langmuir films. The behavior obtained was, as a rule, the lowest generation dendrimers behaving like traditional amphiphiles and the larger molecules presenting complicated isotherms. The Langmuir films of these compounds have been characterized by their surface pressure versus molecular area (?/A) and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) observations.

Redon, Rocio; Carreon-Castro, M. Pilar; Mendoza-Martinez, F. J.

2012-01-01

250

Fabric Architecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by the Industrial Fabrics Association International, Fabric Architecture magazine is published bimonthly and is distributed to over 13000 architects working in the field. For those who've never thought about the possibilities and opportunities afforded by this area that straddles the lines between fabrics, design, and architecture, it's quite a find. On this page, users can look through materials that address topics like tents, lightweight structures, graphics, awnings, and truck covers. After perusing these areas, visitors should delve into the current issue. The archives here date back to 2006, and the topics covered within these pages include fabrics in the workplace, flexible design materials, and creating a "green" car park with various fabrics. For those who are interested, there's also information about how to subscribe to the print edition of the magazine.

251

G-SIMS of biodegradable homo-polyesters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Static SIMS (SSIMS) is a powerful surface analytical technique which can provide detailed molecular information from organic surfaces. However, often much of the acquired information is too rich in detail and the data analysis relies on analysts’ expertise and/or the limited number of materials in SSIMS libraries. Gilmore and Seah [Appl. Surf. Sci. 161 (2000) 465] recently developed a library independent technique, G-SIMS where extrapolation of the data to low surface plasma temperature reveals the un-degraded parent fragments from the SSIMS spectra. In this study, G-SIMS has been tested on biodegradable polyesters including: poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(caprolactone) (PCL). These materials are chosen to test G-SIMS capabilities on these structurally related compound series. The G-SIMS spectra derived from the SIMS spectra acquired from these polyesters yielded vital clues to fragmentation mechanisms as a function of molecular structure and highlight a powerful application of G-SIMS.

Ogaki, R.; Green, F.; Li, S.; Vert, M.; Alexander, M. R.; Gilmore, I. S.; Davies, M. C.

2006-07-01

252

Biosynthesis of lactate-containing polyesters by metabolically engineered bacteria.  

PubMed

Due to increasing concerns about environmental problems, climate change and limited fossil resources, bio-based production of chemicals and polymers is gaining attention as one of the solutions to these problems. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters that can be produced by microbial fermentation. PHAs are synthesized using monomer precursors provided from diverse metabolic pathways and are accumulated as distinct granules inside the cells. On the other hand, most so-called bio-based polymers including polybutylene succinate, polytrimethylene terephthalate, and polylactic acid (PLA) are synthesized by a chemical process using monomers produced by fermentation. PLA, an attractive biomass-derived plastic, is currently synthesized by heavy metal-catalyzed ring opening polymerization of L-lactide that is made from fermentation-derived L-lactic acid. Recently, a complete biological process for the production of PLA and PLA copolymers from renewable resources has been developed by direct fermentation of recombinant bacteria employing PHA biosynthetic pathways coupled with a novel metabolic pathway. This could be accomplished by establishing a pathway for generating lactyl-CoA and engineering PHA synthase to accept lactyl-CoA as a substrate combined with systems metabolic engineering. In this article, we review recent advances in the production of lactate-containing homo- and co-polyesters. Challenges remaining to efficiently produce PLA and its copolymers and strategies to overcome these challenges through metabolic engineering combined with enzyme engineering are discussed. PMID:22057878

Park, Si Jae; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Tae Wan; Jung, Yu Kyung; Yang, Taek Ho

2011-11-07

253

Finishing of Polyester Fabrics with Cyclodextrins and Polycarboxylic Acids as Crosslinking Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

CDs were grafted onto PET fibers by the intermediate of polycarboxylic acids thatplayed the role of crosslinking agents. We evidenced that grafting occurred despitethat no reaction could happen between the polycarboxylic acids and PET. It wasconcluded that the mode of grafting occurred through the formation of a crosslinkedcopolymer between PCA and CDs. This copolymer was not covalently fixed to thefibers,

B. Martel; M. Morcellet; D. Ruffin; L. Ducoroy; M. Weltrowski

2002-01-01

254

Additives in fibers and fabrics.  

PubMed Central

The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments which are often applied to fabrics to achieve special effects include flame retardants, soil release agents, antistatic agents, softeners, water and/or oil repellents, ultraviolet absorbers, bacteriostats, and fungistats.

Barker, R H

1975-01-01

255

Surface Modification of PET Fabric by Graft Copolymerization with Acrylic Acid and Its Antibacterial Properties  

PubMed Central

Graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA) onto Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabrics with the aid of benzoyl peroxide was carried out. The effect of polymerization parameters on the graft yield was studied. Percent grafting was enhanced significantly by increasing benzoyl peroxide (BP) concentrations up to 3.84?g/lit and then decreased upon further increase in initiator concentration. Preswelling of PET leads to changes in its sorption-diffusion properties and favors an increase in the degree of grafting. The antibiotics treated grafted fabrics showed antibacterial properties towards gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. FTIR and SEM were used to characterize AA-grafted polyester fabrics.

Abdolahifard, M.; Bahrami, S. Hajir; Malek, R. M. A.

2011-01-01

256

Visualisation of fingermarks and grab impressions on dark fabrics using silver vacuum metal deposition.  

PubMed

Vacuum metal deposition (VMD) involves the thermal evaporation of metal (silver) in a vacuum, resulting in a uniform layer being deposited on the specimen being treated. This paper examines the use of silver on dark fabrics, thus offering a simpler operation and more obvious colouration to that of the traditional use of gold and zinc metals which must be evaporated separately. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fabric type, donor, mark age and method of fingermark deposition on the quality of marks visualised using silver VMD. This was achieved by collecting fingermark deposits from fifteen donors, of both sexes and various ages, by a grab or a press method. Four different fabrics: satin, polyester, polycotton and cotton were studied over a 10day timeline of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 21 and 28+ days. It was found that satin and polyester gave the most positive results, with polyester often producing excellent ridge detail. Cotton and polycotton were less successful with no ridge detail being observed. The donors also had an observable effect on the results obtained probably due to variations in secretions produced or pressures applied during specimen collection. The age of the mark or the method of mark deposition had little influence on the results obtained. Silver VMD is a viable process for visualising marks on certain dark fabrics and has the advantage over gold/zinc VMD in that the marks visualised are light in colour which contrasts well against the dark background. PMID:23937939

Knighting, Susan; Fraser, Joanna; Sturrock, Keith; Deacon, Paul; Bleay, Stephen; Bremner, David H

2013-01-29

257

Functional finishing of aminated polyester using biopolymer-based polyelectrolyte microgels.  

PubMed

This study focuses on a microgel-based functionalization method applicable to polyester textiles for improving their hydrophilicity and/or moisture-management properties, eventually enhancing wear comfort. The method proposed aims at achieving pH-/temperature-controlled wettability of polyester within a physiological pH/temperature range. First, primary amine groups are created on polyester surfaces using ethylenediamine; second, biopolymer-based polyelectrolyte microgels are incorporated using the natural cross-linker genipin. The microgels consist of the pH-responsive natural polysaccharide chitosan and pH/thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) microparticles. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the microgel presence on polyester surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed nitrogen concentration, supporting increased microscopy results. Electrokinetic analysis showed that functionalized polyester surfaces have a zero-charge point at pH 6.5, close to the microgel isoelectric point. Dynamic wetting measurements revealed that functionalized polyester has shorter total water absorption time than the reference. This absorption time is also pH dependent, based on dynamic contact angle and micro-roughness measurements, which indicated microgel swelling at different pH values. Furthermore, at 40 °C functionalized polyester has higher vapor transmission rates than the reference, even at high relative humidity. This was attributed to the microgel thermoresponsiveness, which was confirmed through the almost 50% decrease in microparticle size between 20 and 40 °C, as determined by dynamic light scattering measurements. PMID:21751392

Glampedaki, Pelagia; Dutschk, Victoria; Jocic, Dragan; Warmoeskerken, Marijn M C G

2011-08-10

258

Fabric Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity, students work in groups to test a variety of fabrics to determine each one's effectiveness as an insulator. The printable five-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about the conditions in Antarctica and the properties of specialty fabrics, illustrated activity directions and a worksheet that includes areas for recording their experiment data, and questions that prompt students to compare their results against their original hypotheses.

259

Comportement mecanique des joints boulonnes en composites verre-polyester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glass fibre-reinforced polyester composite materials are being extensively used for general-purpose applications. For highly loaded structures, bolted joints are generally the preferred assembly method. However, bolted joints are usually the weakest link in a structure and they must therefore be designed with care. Specifically, the joint geometry, reinforcement type and lay-up should be chosen on a rational basis, otherwise the assembly may fail prematurely. The present study is concerned with the study of these material parameters. The mechanical response of bolted assemblies is studied for a range of six glass fibre-reinforced polyester laminates with reinforcements and lay-ups that are typical for general-purpose applications. In order to assess how changes in joint width or in joint end distance affect the behaviour of the joint, tests were carried out on three coupon geometries. In accordance with the standard test method ASTM D5961, a single-bolt double lap bolted joint configuration was used for the experimental characterisation. We investigated how the displacement measurement could best be made because currently there is a whole range of approaches in use and it is clear that the measured displacement quantity directly affects the stiffness values. A 3-D finite element model indicated that bolt deformation and fixture deformations affected the measured coupon displacement. The bearing stiffness was reduced by 26% on average when the width was reduced from six to two times the hole diameter. For the assemblies with a width of two times the hole diameter (w/D = 2) the bearing stiffness increased clearly with the tensile modulus of the tested materials. Both the experimental and numerical bearing stiffness values were much lower than those predicted by joint flexibility formulas. Hence, our results indicate that these joint flexibility formulas should be adapted if they are intended to be used for design of general-purpose glass fibre-reinforced polyester structures with bolt-hole clearance. The different material/geometry combinations led to very diverse failure modes and strengths, ranging from catastrophic low strength failures to progressive high strength failures. All the small coupons (w/D = 2; e/D = 3) failed catastrophically by tension. We observed that important characteristics of the bearing response such as damage stress, ultimate strength, failure mode and post-failure behaviour were related to reinforcement types and their stacking sequence. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Vangrimde, Bart

260

Biodegradable polyurethane ureas with variable polyester or polycarbonate soft segments: effects of crystallinity, molecular weight, and composition on mechanical properties.  

PubMed

Biodegradable polyurethane urea (PUU) elastomers are ideal candidates for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds with mechanical properties akin to strong and resilient soft tissues. PUU with a crystalline poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) macrodiol soft segment (SS) showed good elasticity and resilience at small strains (<50%) but showed poor resilience under large strains because of stress-induced crystallization of the PCL segments, with a permanent set of 677 ± 30% after tensile failure. To obtain softer and more resilient PUUs, we used noncrystalline poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) or poly(?-valerolactone-co-?-caprolactone) (PVLCL) macrodiols of different molecular weights as SSs that were reacted with 1,4-diisocyanatobutane and chain extended with 1,4-diaminobutane. Mechanical properties of the PUUs were characterized by tensile testing with static or cyclic loading and dynamic mechanical analysis. All of the PUUs synthesized showed large elongations at break (800-1400%) and high tensile strength (30-60 MPa). PUUs with noncrystalline SSs all showed improved elasticity and resilience relative to the crystalline PCL-based PUU, especially for the PUUs with high molecular weight SSs (PTMC 5400 M(n) and PVLCL 6000 M(n)), of which the permanent deformation after tensile failure was only 12 ± 7 and 39 ± 4%, respectively. The SS molecular weight also influenced the tensile modulus in an inverse fashion. Accelerated degradation studies in PBS containing 100 U/mL lipase showed significantly greater mass loss for the two polyester-based PUUs versus the polycarbonate-based PUU and for PVLCL versus PCL polyester PUUs. Basic cytocompatibility was demonstrated with primary vascular smooth muscle cell culture. The synthesized families of PUUs showed variable elastomeric behavior that could be explained in terms of the underlying molecular design and crystalline behavior. Depending on the application target of interest, these materials may provide options or guidance for soft tissue scaffold development. PMID:21755999

Ma, Zuwei; Hong, Yi; Nelson, Devin M; Pichamuthu, Joseph E; Leeson, Cory E; Wagner, William R

2011-07-26

261

Biodegradable polyesters containing Ibuprofen and naproxen as pendant groups.  

PubMed

Controlled release of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and naproxen could be beneficial for the treatment of inflammatory diseases while reducing the side effects resulting from their continuous use. Novel biodegradable polyesters solely comprised of biocompatible components (e.g., tartaric acid, 1,8-octanediol, and ibuprofen or naproxen as pendant groups) have been synthesized using tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate as catalyst at 130 °C and subsequently characterized to determine their structures and physicochemical properties. The polymers release the free drug (ibuprofen or naproxen) in vitro in a controlled manner without burst release, unlike the release rates achieved when the drugs are encapsulated in other polymers. These new biomaterials are not cytotoxic toward mouse fibroblasts up to 0.10 mg/mL. The drugs retain their chemical structure following hydrolytic degradation of the polymer, suggesting that bioactivity is preserved. PMID:23957612

Rosario-Meléndez, Roselin; Yu, Weiling; Uhrich, Kathryn E

2013-09-06

262

Polyester (PET) single fiber FT-IR dichroism: Potential individualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individualization of undyed fibers can be a problem in analyzing fiber evidence in forensic cases. In addition to the physical and optical microscopic features, the chemical composition information from single fiber FT-IR microspectroscopy may be useful. In the case of polyester, the most commonly used fiber, only a single generic class usually is recognized. Single fiber polarized FT-IR microspectroscopy provides a means of using the molecular orientation of the macromolecules in the fiber resulting from their manufacturing history to observe spectroscopic differences. Dichroic ratios for eight usable infrared bands for PET single fibers permit multidimensional discriminant analysis. The procedure described sorts PET fibers into 10 working subclasses and demonstrates the potential of this approach for single fiber individualization. This new dimension can be added to the traditional size, shape, and other distinguishing features.

Cho, Liling; Wetzel, David L.; Reffner, John A.

1998-06-01

263

Preparation of rich handles soft cellulosic fabric using amino silicone based softener. Part-I: Surface smoothness and softness properties.  

PubMed

A series of amino silicone based softeners with different emulsifiers were prepared and adsorbed onto the surfaces of cotton and blends of cotton/polyester fabrics. Factors affecting the performance properties of the finished substrate such as post-treatment with amino functional silicone based softener varying different emulsifiers in their formulations and its concentration on different processed fabrics were studied. Fixation of the amino-functional silicone softener onto/or within the cellulose structure is accompanied by the formation of semi-inter-penetrated network structure thereby enhancing both the extent of crosslinking and networking as well as providing very high softness. The results of the experiments indicate that the amino silicone can form a hydrophobic film on both cotton and blends of cotton/polyester fabrics and its coating reduces the surface roughness significantly. Furthermore, the roughness becomes lesser with an increase in the applied strength of amino silicone based softener. PMID:21255604

Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Tabassum, Shazia; Barkaat-ul-Hasin, Syed; Zuber, Mohammad; Jamil, Tahir; Jamal, Muhammad Asghar

2011-01-19

264

Production of microbial polyesters: fermentation and downstream processes.  

PubMed

Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) constitute a large and versatile family of polyesters produced by various bacteria. PHAs are receiving considerable attention because of their potential as renewable and biodegradable plastics, and as a source of chiral synthons since the monomers are chiral. Industrial PHA production processes have been developed for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (poly(3HB)) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-valerate) (poly(3HB-co-3HV). More than 100 other poly(3HAMCL)s, characterized by monomers of medium chain length, have been identified in the past two decades. These monomers typically contain 6-14 carbon atoms, are usually linked via-3-hydroxy ester linkages, but can occasionally also exhibit 2-, 4-, 5-, or 6-hydroxy ester linkages. Such polyesters are collectively referred to as medium chain length PHAs poly(3HAMCL)s. The vast majority of these interesting biopolyesters have been studied and produced only on the laboratory scale. However, there have been several attempts to develop pilot scale processes, and these provide some insight into the production economics of poly(3HAMCL)s other than poly(3HB) and poly(3HB-co-3HV). These processes utilize diverse fermentation strategies to control the monomer composition of the polymer, enabling the tailoring of polymer material properties to some extent. The best studied of these is poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) (poly(3HO)), which contains about 90% 3-hydroxyoctanoate. This biopolyester has been produced on the pilot scale and is now being used in several experimental applications. PMID:11217411

Kessler, B; Weusthuis, R; Witholt, B; Eggink, G

2001-01-01

265

Sorption properties of the interfacial layer in polyester-polysiloxane block copolymers (inverse gas chromatography)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fine supramolecular structure of multiblock polyester-polysiloxane copolymers has been studied. A method is proposed for quantitatively estimating the sorption properties of interfacial layers in block copolymers, which are difficult to determine.

Kalinin, A. V.; Voznyakovski?, A. P.

2009-11-01

266

Toxicity screening of candidate materials for the fabrication of a bubble oxygenator: A preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hazards encountered in the clinical use of medical devices and implants have been referred in this paper to emphasise\\u000a the need for and relevance of carrying out appropriate toxicological investigations before such items are manufactured and\\u000a marketed. Different formulations of polyvinyl chloride, low density polyethylene, high density polyethylene and polyester\\u000a fabric were subjected to various tests to determine their

P V Vedanarayanan; K Rathinam; A C Fernandez

1983-01-01

267

Hyperbranched polyether core containing vegetable oil-modified polyester and its clay nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesua ferrea L. seed oil-modified polyester with hyperbranched polyether core was prepared by the polycondensation technique, which involved carboxyl-terminated prepolymer of the monoglyceride of the oil, phthalic anhydride and maleic anhydride; hydroxyl of bisphenol-S and hyperbranched polyol of bisphenol-A and cyanuric chloride. The nanocomposites of this hyperbranched polyester with 0–5 wt% nanoclay were prepared by an ex situ solution technique

Uday Konwar; Niranjan Karak

2011-01-01

268

Synthesis, characterization and biodegradation studies of poly(ester urethane)s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bis-isocyanoto polyester was synthesized by the polymerization of PPSe with MDI and reacted with 1,3-propanediol chain extender to obtain poly(ester urethane)s. The effect of chain extender and PPSe content in polyurethane was investigated. The polymers were characterized by 1H NMR, FT-IR, viscosity measurement, TGA and XRD. Their biodegradability was investigated by the hydrolytic degradation in NaOH solution (3% and 10%);

Suresh S. Umare; Ajay S. Chandure

2008-01-01

269

Mechanical Properties of Composites Based on Low Styrene Emission Polyester Resins for Marine Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass fibre reinforced polyester composites are used extensively for hulls and decks of pleasure boats. Boat-builders must\\u000a optimise manufacturing technology, not only with respect to mechanical properties but also limiting volatile organic compounds\\u000a (VOC) emissions. One way to achieve this is through modified polyester resin formulations such as low styrene content, low\\u000a styrene emission or combinations of these. The resin

Christophe Baley; Y. Perrot; Peter Davies; A. Bourmaud; Yves Grohens

2006-01-01

270

A novel explanation of a low-profile mechanism for unsaturated polyester resins using phase diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel explanation for the mechanism of low profile additives in unsaturated polyester resins by using a concept of a phase diagram was proposed. According to the ternary phase diagrams for the systems of styrene-unsaturated polyester prepolymer-additives (e.g., polyvinyl acetate, polyurethane), the phenomenon of phase separation was explained. Furthermore, the final morphology of cured resins was correlated to the phase

L. Suspene; D. Fourquier; Y. S. Yang

1990-01-01

271

Experimental study on influence of polyester fibre on temperature shrinkage performance of cement-stabilized macadam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the cracking problems due to temperature shrinkage mostly occurred in cement-stabilized macadam, polyester fibre was added into cement-stabilized macadam and a device for measuring crack strains was developed. Based on the results from temperature shrinkage and mechanical property tests, the influence of polyester fibre on temperature shrinkage cracks and mechanical property of cement-stabilized macadam was studied.

Cheng Lv; Zhi-jun Liu

2011-01-01

272

The influence of fibre treatment on the performance of coir-polyester composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface modifications of coir fibres involving alkali treatment, bleaching, and vinyl grafting are made in view of their use as reinforcing agents in general-purpose polyester resin matrix. The mechanical properties of composites like tensile, flexural and impact strength increase as a result of surface modification. Among all modifications, bleached (65°C) coir-polyester composites show better flexural strength (61.6 MPa) whereas 2%

J. Rout; M. Misra; S. S. Tripathy; S. K. Nayak; A. K. Mohanty

2001-01-01

273

Azobenzene Side-Chain Liquid Crystalline Polyesters with Outstanding Optical Storage Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flexible azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline (SCLC) polyester architecture employed for re- versible optical storage is described. The modular design allows four structural parameters to be in- dividually modied. These parameters: i- the methylene side-chain spacer length, ii- the substituent on azobenzene, iii- the methylene main-chain segment length, and iv- the polyester molecular mass, all influence the optical storage properties.

S. HVILSTED; M. PEDERSEN; N. C. R. HOLME; P. S. RAMANUJAN

274

Coupled-dynamic analysis of floating structures with polyester mooring lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory and numerical tool are developed for the coupled-dynamic analysis of a deepwater floating platform with polyester mooring lines. The formulas allow relatively large elongation and nonlinear stress–strain relationships, as typically observed in polyester fibers. The mooring-line dynamics are based on a rod theory and the finite element method (FEM), with the governing equations described in a generalized coordinate

Arcandra Tahar; M. H. Kim

2008-01-01

275

Stress corrosion crack growth in glass\\/polyester composites with surface crack  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propagation characteristics of stress corrosion surface cracks and crack growth rates in a range of unidirectional glass\\/polyester composites exposed to 0.6N dilute HCl acid were examined using a fracture mechanics test. Glass\\/polyester composites were produced from continuous rovings using filament winding method. The shallow surface cracks with various a\\/c and a\\/t ratios were machined on the specimens and under

A Akdemir; N Tarakcioglu; A Avci

2001-01-01

276

Optimization of UV curable acrylated polyester-polyurethane\\/polysiloxane ceramer coatings using a response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual UV and moisture curable acrylated polyester, organic\\/inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared using a coupling agent and\\u000a tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) oligomers. An acrylated polyester resin based on adipic acid, neopentyl glycol, trimethylolpropane,\\u000a and acrylic acid was synthesized. TEOS oligomers were prepared through the hydrolysis and condensation of TEOS with water\\u000a and 3-(triethoxysilyl)propylisocyanate (TEOSPI) was used as the coupling agent between organic

Ahmet Nebioglu; Mark D. Soucek

2006-01-01

277

Characterization of the Degradation Mechanisms of Lysine-derived Aliphatic Poly(ester urethane) Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

Characterization of the degradation mechanism of polymeric scaffolds and delivery systems for regenerative medicine is essential to assess their clinical applicability. Key performance criteria include induction of a minimal, transient inflammatory response and controlled degradation to soluble non-cytotoxic breakdown products that are cleared from the body by physiological processes. Scaffolds fabricated from biodegradable poly(ester urethane)s (PEURs) undergo controlled degradation to non-cytotoxic breakdown products and support the ingrowth of new tissue in preclinical models of tissue regeneration. While previous studies have shown that PEUR scaffolds prepared from lysine-derived polyisocyanates degrade faster under in vivo compared to in vitro conditions, the degradation mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we have shown that PEUR scaffolds prepared from lysine triisocyanate (LTI) or a trimer of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDIt) undergo hydrolytic, esterolytic, and oxidative degradation. Hydrolysis of ester bonds to yield ?-hydroxy acids is the dominant mechanism in buffer, and esterolytic media modestly increase the degradation rate. While HDIt scaffolds show a modest (<20%) increase in degradation rate in oxidative medium, LTI scaffolds degrade six times faster in oxidative medium. Furthermore, the in vitro rate of degradation of LTI scaffolds in oxidative medium approximates the in vivo rate in rat excisional wounds, and histological sections show macrophages expressing myeloperoxidase at the material surface. While recent preclinical studies have underscored the potential of injectable PEUR scaffolds and delivery systems for tissue regeneration, this promising class of biomaterials has a limited regulatory history. Elucidation of the macrophage-mediated oxidative mechanism by which LTI scaffolds degrade in vivo provides key insights into the ultimate fate of these materials when injected into the body.

Hafeman, Andrea E.; Zienkiewicz, Katarzyna J.; Zachman, Angela L.; Sung, Hak-Joon; Nanney, Lillian B.; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Guelcher, Scott A.

2010-01-01

278

Characterization of the degradation mechanisms of lysine-derived aliphatic poly(ester urethane) scaffolds.  

PubMed

Characterization of the degradation mechanism of polymeric scaffolds and delivery systems for regenerative medicine is essential to assess their clinical applicability. Key performance criteria include induction of a minimal, transient inflammatory response and controlled degradation to soluble non-cytotoxic breakdown products that are cleared from the body by physiological processes. Scaffolds fabricated from biodegradable poly(ester urethane)s (PEURs) undergo controlled degradation to non-cytotoxic breakdown products and support the ingrowth of new tissue in preclinical models of tissue regeneration. While previous studies have shown that PEUR scaffolds prepared from lysine-derived polyisocyanates degrade faster under in vivo compared to in vitro conditions, the degradation mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we have shown that PEUR scaffolds prepared from lysine triisocyanate (LTI) or a trimer of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDIt) undergo hydrolytic, esterolytic, and oxidative degradation. Hydrolysis of ester bonds to yield ?-hydroxy acids is the dominant mechanism in buffer, and esterolytic media modestly increase the degradation rate. While HDIt scaffolds show a modest (<20%) increase in degradation rate in oxidative medium, LTI scaffolds degrade six times faster in oxidative medium. Furthermore, the in vitro rate of degradation of LTI scaffolds in oxidative medium approximates the in vivo rate in rat excisional wounds, and histological sections show macrophages expressing myeloperoxidase at the material surface. While recent preclinical studies have underscored the potential of injectable PEUR scaffolds and delivery systems for tissue regeneration, this promising class of biomaterials has a limited regulatory history. Elucidation of the macrophage-mediated oxidative mechanism by which LTI scaffolds degrade in vivo provides key insights into the ultimate fate of these materials when injected into the body. PMID:20864156

Hafeman, Andrea E; Zienkiewicz, Katarzyna J; Zachman, Angela L; Sung, Hak-Joon; Nanney, Lillian B; Davidson, Jeffrey M; Guelcher, Scott A

2010-09-22

279

Physical and chemical modification of polyester fibres and filaments to improve the consumer properties of the finished articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different types of polyester fibres and filaments with valuable consumer properties are obtained by physical modification\\u000a of PET. The fibres from chemically modified PET have high dyeability with disperse and cationic dyes, high thermal shrinkage,\\u000a and low pilling in comparison to standard polyester. A polyester fibre with low combustibility (OI > 27) was made by incorporating\\u000a fireproofing compounds in polycondensation

E. M. Aizenshtein

2005-01-01

280

Cure characterization of an unsaturated polyester resin using near-infrared, fluorescence and UV\\/visible reflection spectroscopies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation seeks to characterize the cure reaction of an unsaturated polyester resin using near-infrared, fluorescence and UV\\/Visible reflection spectroscopies. The results will provide a foundation for developing fiber-optic in-situ cure monitoring techniques based on near-infrared, fluorescence, and UV\\/Visible reflection spectroscopies for an unsaturated polyester resin system. Near-infrared spectra of the unsaturated polyester resin during cure showed a decrease in

Bradley Lyn Grunden

1999-01-01

281

Dielectric investigation of some woven fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we have investigated the temperature dependence of dielectric properties (relative dielectric permeabilities and dielectric tangents of losses) for woven fabrics of hemp, jute, flax, cotton, polyester (PES), cotton-PES mixture, and wool. The measurements have been carried out at a temperature range from -50 to 50 °C in the electric periodic field at a frequency 1 MHz in vacuum. For the same specimens, the values of the dielectric properties have also been measured at an air temperature of 21 °C and at relative humidities of 40%, 60%, and 80%. At different frequencies from 80 kHz to 5 MHz, the dielectric properties have been measured at a relative humidity of 40% and at a temperature of 21 °C. An investigation of the dielectric properties of woven fabrics can provide a better understanding of the relation between the dielectric properties of woven fabrics and the different raw material compositions, temperatures, relative air humidities, and frequencies for specimens. Hence, this investigation helps to improve textile material properties.

Cerovic, Dragana D.; Dojcilovic, Jablan R.; Asanovic, Koviljka A.; Mihajlidi, Tatjana A.

2009-10-01

282

Magnetic fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since Graham [1954; 1967] demonstrated in the 1950s and 1960s that magnetic anisotropy was a quick and non-destructive way of measuring rock fabric, magnetic fabric measurements have become increasingly prevalent in the study of earth and environmental processes (see Table 1 for definitions of magnetic terms). The accomplishments of U.S. workers over the past 4 years show that the U.S. community continues to contribute to the growth and development of the field. In addition to the more traditional anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements work is branching out to include anisotropy of remanence studies, particularly anisotropy of anhysteretic remanence (AAR) [McCabe et al, 1985] and anisotropy of isothermal remanence (AIR), since these parameters can be tied directly to the remanence-carrying grains in a rock and hence have relevance to the effects of magnetic fabric on natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Along with this shift is the realization, as a result of combining nonmagnetic observations (e.g.. scanning electron microscopy (SEM), finite strain measurements) with rock magnetic measurements (e.g.. hysteresis parameters), that magnetic mineral composition (paramagnetic and ferromagnetic) has an important control on magnetic anisotropy.

Kodama, Kenneth P.

1995-07-01

283

Photocrosslinkable biodegradable elastomers based on cinnamate-functionalized polyesters.  

PubMed

Synthetic biodegradable elastomers are an emerging class of materials that play a critical role in supporting innovations in bioabsorbable medical implants. This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of poly(glycerol-co-sebacate)-cinnamate (PGS-CinA), a biodegradable elastomer based on hyperbranched polyesters derivatized with pendant cinnamate groups. PGS-CinA can be prepared via photodimerization in the absence of photoinitiators using monomers that are found in common foods. The resulting network exhibits a Young's modulus of 50.5-152.1kPa and a projected in vitro degradation half-life time between 90 and 140days. PGS-CinA elastomers are intrinsically cell-adherent and support rapid proliferation of fibroblasts. Spreading and proliferation of fibroblasts are loosely governed by the substrate stiffness within the range of Young's moduli in PGS-CinA networks that were prepared. The thermo-mechanical properties, biodegradability and intrinsic support of cell attachment and proliferation suggest that PGS-CinA networks are broadly applicable for use in next generation bioabsorable materials including temporary medical devices and scaffolds for soft tissue engineering. PMID:23567941

Zhu, Congcong; Kustra, Stephen R; Bettinger, Christopher J

2013-04-06

284

Resource conservation through beverage-container recycling. [Polyester (PET) bottles  

SciTech Connect

Since the introduction of plastic soft-drink bottles in 1977, the 2 liter container has captured almost the entire US market. The number of PET (polyethylene terephthalate, a polyester) bottles used in 1981 was 2.4 billion, and could grow to 14 billion by 1990 if the penetration into the 1/2 liter market is as rapid as some experts predict. Consumers value the PET bottle's light weight and unbreakability. However, plastic bottles are made from oil and gas feedstocks which are imported and becoming more expensive. Recycling drastically reduces the oil and gas required to supply these bottles; recycling PET from bottles to other uses could save on the order of 6 million barrels of oil equivalent per year by 1990. A simple and economic technology is available for performing this recovery yet only 5% of the bottles used in 1980 were returned. What is missing is an effective inducement for bottle return. The reverse-vending machines that are proposed can provide part of that inducement by eliminating the inconvenience that now surrounds the sale of empty bottles to recyclers. These machines would dispense coins in return for empty PET bottles, and these machines could be located in supermarkets or their parking lots. It is believed that the design, construction, and use of such machines is an opportunity that has been overlooked.

Gaines, L.L.; Wolsky, A.M.

1982-01-01

285

Survival of Microorganisms in Laundered Polyester-Cotton Sheeting1  

PubMed Central

The effects of wash-water temperature, cold-water or regular detergent, wash-cycle design, drying, and drying temperature on survival of four microorganisms on polyester-cotton sheeting were examined. Escherichia coli T3 bacteriophage survived washing at 24, 35, 46, and 57 C, but not at 68 C. Serratia marcescens survived only the lowest three wash temperatures. Levels of residual Staphylococcus aureus were diminished at the highest two wash temperatures, but survival was substantial even at 68 C. Counts of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores were not altered appreciably by wash temperature. Type of detergent had no practical effect on observed counts. The regular wash cycle was significantly more efficient in removal of microorganisms than the permanent-press cycle. Counts, especially of the bacteriophage and the gramnegative bacterium, were decreased by drying; after drying, the effects of wash-water temperature on S. aureus and B. stearothermophilus were not significantly different. Microorganisms were transferred from inoculated to sterilized sheeting during laundering. The public health significance of these observations is discussed.

Wiksell, Joanne Clarquist; Pickett, Mary S.; Hartman, Paul A.

1973-01-01

286

Engineered Thermobifida fusca cutinase with increased activity on polyester substrates.  

PubMed

A bacterial cutinase from Thermobifida fusca, named Tfu_0883, was genetically modified by site-directed mutagenesis to enhance its activity on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The new mutations tailored the catalytic site for PET, increasing the affinity of cutinase to this hydrophobic substrate and the ability to hydrolyze it. The mutation I218A was designed to create space and the double mutation Q132A/T101A was designed both to create space and to increase hydrophobicity. The activity of the double mutant on the soluble substrate p-nitrophenyl butyrate increased two-fold compared to wild-type cutinase, while on PET both single and double mutants exhibited considerably higher hydrolysis efficiency. The replacement of specific amino acids at the active site was an effective approach for the improvement of the Tfu_0883 cutinase capacity to hydrolyze polyester surfaces. Thus, this study provides valuable insight on how the function and stability of enzymes can be improved by molecular engineering for their application in synthetic fiber biotransformation. PMID:21751386

Silva, Carla; Da, Shi; Silva, Nádia; Matamá, Teresa; Araújo, Rita; Martins, Madalena; Chen, Sheng; Chen, Jian; Wu, Jing; Casal, Margarida; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

2011-08-03

287

[Attempts at modification of the polyester vascular prosthesis].  

PubMed

Polyester vascular bilaterally velour prostheses produced by the Enterprise of Medical Products TRICOMED in Lodz were modified through: putting negative electric charge on the internal surfaces of prostheses; additional cleaning with ethanol; covering of the surfaces of prostheses with silicone preparation; two-sided covering of the surfaces of prostheses with collagen by the radiative method; covering of the surfaces of prostheses with chitosane. Laboratory investigations, investigations of hemolytic and toxic effects of aqueous as well as experimental investigations has been carried on piglets. During these investigations it was observed that the carried preparations caused multiple increase of electrical conductivity of proper and dry remnant after evaporation of the aqueous extracts. Hemolytic and toxic effects were not observed. In radiological and pathomorphological investigations it was observed that none of the preparations used for modification of vascular prostheses influenced improvement of their biological properties. In comparison with the initial prostheses DALLONR these prostheses evoked a greater reaction of tissues which was manifested with a thick internal layer causing narrowing of the lumen of the section with prosthesis or closing it. A small improvement of the biological properties of the prostheses were achieved after cleaning them with methanol. However, this improvement is so small that it does not justify changes in the existing technology. PMID:1305969

Paluch, D; Staniszewska-Ku?, J; Rutowski, R; Szymonowicz, M; Solski, L

1992-01-01

288

Comparison of tissue integration between polyester and polypropylene prostheses in the preperitoneal space.  

PubMed

Tissue integration and implant characteristics of various biomaterials commonly used for inguinal hernia repair have not been studied extensively. The aim of this study is to compare behavior and tissue response between two new polyester prostheses and a commonly used polypropylene (PP) mesh. The polyester prostheses utilized were polyester flat (PF) and polyester soft three-dimensional (PS); the PP mesh utilized was Marlex. Eight randomly assigned 4 x 4-cm2 pieces of two different meshes were fixed in the preperitoneal space with a centrally placed single suture. Gross evaluation included shrinkage and stiffness. Histological evaluation included amount of fibrous and fat encapsulation, connective tissue, foreign-body reaction, neovascularization, hemorrhage, necrosis, and exudate. Evaluations were graded on a zero to four scale. The area and the area ratio were measured using a calibrated micrometer. PP mesh resulted in more fibrous encapsulation and stiffness than PF and PS prostheses. PP also resulted in less connective tissue formation and foreign-body reaction than PF and PS prostheses. There was no difference in fat encapsulation, necrosis, hemorrhage, or exudate between prostheses. Both polyester prostheses (PF and PS) have better tissue integration than the PP mesh, as evidenced by the higher amount of connective tissue and lower extent of fibrous encapsulation. PMID:12852503

Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Ramshaw, Bruce J

2003-06-01

289

Liquefaction of corn stover and preparation of polyester from the liquefied polyol.  

PubMed

This research investigated a novel process to prepare polyester from corn stover through liquefaction and crosslinking processes. First, corn stover was liquefied in organic solvents (90 wt% ethylene glycol and 10 wt% ethylene carbonate) with catalysts at moderate temperature under atmospheric pressure. The effect of liquefaction temperature, biomass content, and type of catalyst, such as H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4, and ZnCl2, was evaluated. Higher liquefaction yield was achieved in 2 wt% sulfuric acid, 1/4 (w/w) stover to liquefying reagent ratio; 160 degrees C temperature, in 2 h. The liquefied corn stover was rich in polyols, which can be directly used as feedstock for making polymers without further separation or purification. Second, polyester was made from the liquefied corn stover by crosslinking with multifunctional carboxylic acids and/or cyclic acid anhydrides. The tensile strength of polyester is about 5 MPa and the elongation is around 35%. The polyester is stable in cold water and organic solvents and readily biodegradable as indicated by 82% weight loss when buried in damp soil for 10 mo. The results indicate that this novel polyester could be used for the biodegradable garden mulch film production. PMID:16915670

Yu, Fei; Liu, Yuhuan; Pan, Xuejun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Chengmei; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

2006-01-01

290

Process for the preparation of polyester containing little deposited antimony particles as impurities  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed is a process for the preparation of polyester having an ethylene-terephthalate recurring-unit in the amount of not less than 60 molar % of the total recurring-unit of the polyester by polymerizing a bifunctional carboxylic acid comprising terephthalic acid and glycol comprising ethylene glycol in the presence of an antimony compound, at least one metal compound selected from the group consisting of a glycol-soluble magnesium compound, a glycol-soluble manganese compound and a glycol-soluble zinc compound, a hindered phenol compound, and a sulphur-containing ester compound, wherein the metal compound, the hindered phenol compound and a sulphur-containing ester compound are employed under the following conditions: in which A represents an amount by molar % in terms of metal atom of the metal compound based on the amount of the total acid component constituting the polyester, B represents an amount by weight % of the hindered phenol compound based on the amount of the polyester and C represents an amount by weight % of the sulphur-containing ester compound based on the amount of the polyester.

1994-08-23

291

Evaluation of Staple Polyester/Microfibrous Polyolefin Blended Batting as a Potential Thermal Insulating Material for clothing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of a new batting (composed of a blend of 43% polyester staple fibers and 57% polyolefin microfibers without binders) in lieu of the standard batting (composed of 100% staple polyester fiber with 10% resin binder) within the U.S. Army jacket and tr...

D. A. Mikelson

1980-01-01

292

Carbon black-containing interpenetrating polymer networks based on unsaturated polyester\\/epoxyII. Thermal degradation behavior and kinetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon black flame retardants were chosen to improve the flame resistance of interpenetrating polymer networks based on unsaturated polyester\\/epoxy due to the expansion of carbon black at elevated temperatures. Thermal degradation behaviour and kinetic parameters of this system were analysed by conventional and modulated thermogravimetric analysis (MTGA). It was found that the epoxy and polyester components decomposed individually in the

Yeng-Fong Shih; Ru-Jong Jeng

2002-01-01

293

Synthesis of geranyl acetate by esterification with lipase entrapped in hybrid sol-gel formed within nonwoven fabric  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida cylindracea lipase was entrapped in organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel polymers made from tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and alkyltrimethoxysilanes.\\u000a By forming the gels within the pores of a nonwoven polyester fabric, a novel immobilized biocatalyst in sheet configuration\\u000a based on sol-gel en-trapment of the enzyme was obtained. Lipases immobilized in sol-gel matrices efficiently catalyzed the\\u000a direct esterification reaction of geraniol and acetic acid

Jyh-Ping Chen; Wei-Shin Lin; Min-Far Chang

2002-01-01

294

A blanket design, apparatus, and fabrication techniques for the mass production of multilayer insulation blankets for the Superconducting Super Collider  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) consists of full cryostat length assemblies of aluminized polyester film fabricated in the form of blankets and installed as blankets to the 4.5K cold mass and the 20K and 80K thermal radiation shields. Approximately 40,000 MLI blankets will be required in the 10,000 cryogenic devices comprising the SSC accelerator.

J. D. Gonczy; W. N. Boroski; R. C. Niemann; J. G. Otavka; M. K. Ruschman; C. J. Schoo

1989-01-01

295

Polar nematic liquid crystal formed from aromatic polyesters with head-tail character  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a distinct polar nematic liquid crystal formed from the polar rod-like aromatic polyester which comprises 4-hydroxybenzoaic acid (HBA) and 6-hydroxy-2naphthoic acid (HNA) in a molar ratio of 73/27. The nemtic liquid crystal is biaxial and the polarity appears along both axes as determined by measurements of the second harmonic generation. The polar structure disappeasrs when the molecular weight in polyester is decreased, showing that the large dipole moment of each chain is responsible for the polar ordering. The strong dipole-dipole interaction between polar rod-like molecules may be ascribed to the origin of the polarility.

Koike, Masao; Yuqing, Liu; Tsuchiya, Hitoshi; Imase, Tatsuya; Tokita, Masatoshi; Kawauchi, Susumu; Takezoe, Hideo; Watanabe, Junji

2004-10-01

296

Curing reaction of unsaturated (epoxy) polyesters based on different aliphatic glycols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cure behavior of the unsaturated (epoxy) polyesters based on different aliphatic glycols with styrene initiated by various\\u000a types of organic peroxides or the mixture of an acid anhydride\\/organic peroxide has been studied by means of differential\\u000a scanning calorimetry. unsaturated polyesters (UP) prepared from cyclohex-4-ene-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride, maleic anhydride,\\u000a and suitable aliphatic glycol: ethylene glycol or 1,4-butanediol or 1,6-hexanediol and unsaturated

Marta Worzakowska

2010-01-01

297

Synthesis and thermal behaviour of silicon containing poly(ester imide)s  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of silicon containing poly(ester imide)s [PEIs] were synthesized using novel vinyl silane diester anhydride (VSEA)\\u000a and various aromatic and aliphatic dimines by two-step process includes ring-opening polyaddition reaction to form poly(amic\\u000a acid) and thermal cyclo-dehydration process to obtain poly(ester imide)s. VSEA was synthesized by using dichloro methylvinylsilane\\u000a and trimellitic anhydride in the presence of K2CO3 by nucleophilic substitution

M. Padmanabha Raju; S. Alam

2008-01-01

298

Process for the preparation of polyesters containing 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed is a process for the preparation of high molecular weight polyesters by reacting one or more dicarboxylic acids directly with 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol and, optionally, one or more diols. The process uses an overall diol to dicarboxylic acid molar ratio of about 0.97 to about 1.2 and an incremental addition of either the diacid or diol components. The process provides a shorter total reaction time and, thus, lessens the thermal degradation of polyester which may result in high color and reduced molecular weight.

Martin; Daniel Lee (Kingsport, TN); Knight; Joseph Franklin (Kingsport, TN); Barton; Benjamin Fredrick (Kingsport, TN); Shackelford; Damon Bryan (Kingsport, TN)

2007-05-01

299

Screen printing of a capacitive cantilever-based motion sensor on fabric using a novel sacrificial layer process for smart fabric applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free-standing cantilevers have been fabricated by screen printing sacrificial and structural layers onto a standard polyester cotton fabric. By printing additional conductive layers, a complete capacitive motion sensor on fabric using only screen printing has been fabricated. This type of free-standing structure cannot currently be fabricated using conventional fabric manufacturing processes. In addition, compared to conventional smart fabric fabrication processes (e.g. weaving and knitting), screen printing offers the advantages of geometric design flexibility and the ability to simultaneously print multiple devices of the same or different designs. Furthermore, a range of active inks exists from the printed electronics industry which can potentially be applied to create many types of smart fabric. Four cantilevers with different lengths have been printed on fabric using a five-layer structure with a sacrificial material underneath the cantilever. The sacrificial layer is subsequently removed at 160 °C for 30 min to achieve a freestanding cantilever above the fabric. Two silver electrodes, one on top of the cantilever and the other on top of the fabric, are used to capacitively detect the movement of the cantilever. In this way, an entirely printed motion sensor is produced on a standard fabric. The motion sensor was initially tested on an electromechanical shaker rig at a low frequency range to examine the linearity and the sensitivity of each design. Then, these sensors were individually attached to a moving human forearm to evaluate more representative results. A commercial accelerometer (Microstrain G-link) was mounted alongside for comparison. The printed sensors have a similar motion response to the commercial accelerometer, demonstrating the potential of a printed smart fabric motion sensor for use in intelligent clothing applications.

Wei, Yang; Torah, Russel; Yang, Kai; Beeby, Steve; Tudor, John

2013-07-01

300

Thermal decomposition of polyester polyurethane and its elastomers exposed to ? -radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal-decomposition parameters of unplasticized and nitrate ester plasticized polyester polyurethane elastomers with\\u000a unsaturated carbon—carbon bonds in the initial state and after irradiation with doses of 120–380 kGy (?-quanta 60Co) were determined using dynamic thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry.

Yu. M. Milekhin; A. A. Koptelov; D. N. Sadovnichii; N. I. Shishov; T. A. Bestuzheva; E. A. Butenko

2006-01-01

301

Synthesis and characterization of multifunctional hyperbranched polyesters as prospective contrast agents for targeted MRI.  

PubMed

Based on a commercially available hyperbranched aliphatic polyester, novel multifunctional gadolinium complexes were prepared bearing protective PEG chains, a folate targeting ligand and EDTA or DTPA chelate moieties. Their relatively high water relaxivity values coupled with biodegradability of the hyperbranched scaffold, folate receptor specificity render these non-toxic dendritic polymers promising candidates for MRI applications. PMID:20621729

Sideratou, Zili; Tsiourvas, Dimitris; Theodossiou, Theodossis; Fardis, Michael; Paleos, Constantinos M

2010-06-08

302

Requirements on bacterial polyesters as future substitute for conventional plastics for consumer goods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial polyesters such as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) or polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) have to pass the following requirements to be accepted on a large scale: (i) they have to fulfil an urgent market need: (ii) they require that new and efficient composting systems are installed in urban areas; (iii) they have to complete with the present plastics as far as quality and processing

Urs. J. Hänggi

1995-01-01

303

Polyester-based mesh for ventral hernia repair: is it safe?  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe ideal prosthetic material for ventral hernia repair has yet to be described. Each prosthetic material has unique advantages and disadvantages in terms of tissue ingrowth, adhesion formation, and shrinkage profiles. Polyester-based mesh has shown minimal shrinkage and excellent tissue ingrowth in animal models. However, the macroporous, braided nature of this material has raised several concerns regarding the incidence of

Michael J. Rosen

2009-01-01

304

Properties of poly methyl methacrylate mortars with unsaturated polyester resin as a crosslinking agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study dealt with the properties of poly methyl methacrylate(PMMA) mortars using the binders which are made from a methyl methacrylate monomer solution of expanded polystyrene. Unsaturated polyester (UP) resin was used as a crosslinking agent of the binders. PMMA mortars were prepared with binders of various UP resin contents and then tested for working life, exothermal temperature, length change,

K. J. Mun; N. W. Choi

2008-01-01

305

Evaluation of Polyester Fiber Reinforced Concrete for use in Cement Concrete Pavement Works  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyester Fiber Reinforced Concrete (PFRC) has been evaluated for use as a cement concrete pavement material. The study focused on laboratory evaluation of various mechanical and durability properties of PFRC, with and without fly ash. Few tests were also conducted at the age of 24 months to study the long-term behaviour of PFRC. The PFRC exhibited improved flexural and compressive

Saroj Gupta; V. V. L. Kanta Rao; Jayabrata Sengupta

2008-01-01

306

Mechanism of surface microcracking of matrix in glass-reinforced polyester by artificial weathering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first stage in the deterioration of glass-fibre reinforced polyester (GRP) composites, fibre prominence, has been reported. The mechanism of the second stage, surface microcracking, is now described. Under controlled conditions GRP sheets were subjected to cyclic variation of moisture and temperature and to radiation. It is proposed that surface microcracking takes place under the combined action of radiation-induced tensile

A. Blaga; R. S. Yamasaki

1973-01-01

307

Effect of stretching conditions on the properties of polyester textile yarns  

Microsoft Academic Search

By varying the temperature of the heating roll and, correspondingly, the magnitude of the natural stretch ratio, one can obtain a required level of change in shrinkage in a definite sequence; and by periodicity of removal of the yarn being stretched from the heater, one may obtain lengthwise variation in shrinkage of polyester textile yarn.

V. É. Geller; I. N. Zhmykhov; E. A. Rogova

1987-01-01

308

Thickening behaviour and shrinkage control of low profile unsaturated polyester resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rheological and morphological changes of a low shrink unsaturated polyester resin during thickening and curing were investigated. The behaviour of low profile additive (LPA) could be modified by adding a thermo-breakable functional group to its molecule. The thickening reaction of the modified LPA with MDI was much faster than that of LPA with MgO, and the viscosity was stable

Reiko Saito; Wai-Ming J. Kan; L. James Lee

1996-01-01

309

Processing, performance and biodegradability of a thermoplastic aliphatic polyester\\/starch system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composites of a biodegradable thermoplastic aliphatic polyester, polybutylene succinate adipate (PBSA), with granular corn starch were investigated for processability, mechanical and thermal properties, and biodegradability. The PBSA\\/starch films were prepared with starch contents of 5%–30% by weight and processed by blown film extrusion. Increasing the starch content led to an increase in modulus and decreases in tensile strength, elongation to

Jo Ann Ratto; Peter J. Stenhouse; Margaret Auerbach; John Mitchell; Richard Farrell

1999-01-01

310

Processability and properties of aliphatic polyesters, ‘BIONOLLE’, synthesized by polycondensation reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradable aliphatic polyesters, trademarked ‘BIONOLLE’, such as polybutylene succinate (#1000 series), polybutylene succinate adipate copolymer (#3000 series) and polyethylene succinate (tentatively #6000 series) with high molecular weights ranging from several tens of thousands to several hundreds of thousands were invented in 1990 and produced successfully through polycondensation reaction of glycols with aliphatic dicar?ylic acids and others. A pilot plant with

Takashi Fujimaki

1998-01-01

311

Multiple transverse fracture in 90° cross-ply laminates of a glass fibre-reinforced polyester  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specimens of a 90° cross-ply glass-reinforced polyester were tested in tension in a direction parallel to one of the directions of reinforcement. Extensive cracking of the transverse ply occurred at strains much lower than the resin failure strain. These cracks formed in a direction parallel to the transverse reinforcement and showed a remarkably even crack spacing. Results of crack spacing

K. W. Garrett; J. E. Bailey

1977-01-01

312

Investigation of the wear behaviour of a glass-fibre-reinforced composite and plain polyester resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In industrial applications, the increase in the use of composite materials means that it is necessary to know their behaviour under working conditions. Wear is an important parameter and its experimental behaviour must be known. In this study, the wear behaviour of a glass-fibre-reinforced composite and plain polyester resin are experimentally investigated for speeds of 500 and 710 rpm and

Ha?im P?ht?l?; Nihat Tosun

2002-01-01

313

Compression strength of carbon, glass and Kevlar-49 fibre reinforced polyester resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compression behaviour of a series of polyester resins of various compositions and in different states of cure has been investigated. Their mechanical characteristics having been established, the same range of resins was then used as a matrix material for a series of composites reinforced with carbon, glass and aromatic polyamide fibres. The composites were unidirectionally reinforced, having been manufactured

M. R. Piggott; B. Harris

1980-01-01

314

Dope-dyed Polyester Fibers from Recycled PET Wastes for Use in Molded Automotive Carpets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different techniques used for the mass coloration of polyester fibers are discussed in this article. Dope-dyed fibers have been produced starting from PET bottle wastes. Dope dyeing has been carried out both by the incorporation of pigments during drying before melt extrusion and by masterbatch addition. Fibers produced using different pigments and at different add-ons have been evaluated for color

K. Gurudatt; P. De; A. K. Rakshit; M. K. Bardhan

2005-01-01

315

Modification of polymeric matrix of polyester fiber-glass materials with powder polyamide and epoxy resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of improving the quality of polyester fiber-glass products prepared by environmentally safe low-pressure procedures\\u000a by modification of the polymeric matrix with moderate amounts of polycaproamide powder in combination with small amounts of\\u000a epoxy resin was studied.

M. F. Radenkov; P. Ts. Cherkezova; V. K. Dikov; F. D. Radenkov

2006-01-01

316

Synthesis and application of novel EB curable polyester urethane acrylate modified by linseed oil fatty acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel polyester urethane acrylate resin modified by linseed oil fatty acid (LFA) was synthesized and EB curing coating was formulated in this work. When the coating cured by EB radiation on the timber, the cured coating was possessed of good performances.

Jun, L.; Xuecheng, J.; Min, Y.; Jinshan, W.; Hongfei, H.

1999-06-01

317

Mechanical properties of natural fibre reinforced polyester composites: Jowar, sisal and bamboo  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the experiments of tensile and flexural tests were carried out on composites made by reinforcing jowar as a new natural fibre into polyester resin matrix. The samples were prepared up to a maximum volume fraction of approximately 0.40 from the fibres extracted by retting and manual process, and compared with established composites like sisal and bamboo developed

A. V. Ratna Prasad; K. Mohana Rao

2011-01-01

318

Effect of Chemical treatment on Flexure Properties of Natural Fiber-reinforced Polyester Composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the study of the effect of chemical treatments of fibers by alkalization on the flexural properties of polyester matrix composite reinforced with natural fibers. The used reinforcement consists of Alfa fiber, extracted from the plant Stippa tenacissima from Hodna Region (Algeria). Alfa fibers are subjected to alkali treatments with NaOH at 1, 5 and 10% for

Mansour Rokbi; Hocine Osmani; Abdellatif Imad; Noureddine Benseddiq

2011-01-01

319

Surface modification of polyester to produce a bacterial cellulose-based vascular prosthetic device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface of medical grade polyesters was modified to impart hydrophilic character for attachment to bacterial synthesized cellulose to produce a vascular prosthetic device. The polyesters were treated with UV/ozone, air plasma, and nitrogen plasma for various lengths of time. The unmodified and modified surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and advancing contact angle measurements. The surfaces were then coated with bacterial produced cellulose to study adhesion properties through tensile testing (peel testing). UV/ozone and plasma treatment XPS results indicated an increase in the oxygen concentration in the form of CO(H) on the treated polyester surfaces. The treatment time to reach steady state in the case of air and nitrogen plasmas took the order of seconds, while 7 min and longer were required for UV/ozone treatment. Peel strength tests to measure adhesion of modified polyester to cellulose reached their maximum values when the CO(H) concentrations were at the highest level. It was also at this level that the contact angle measurements showed no further decrease.

Charpentier, Paul A.; Maguire, Anne; Wan, Wan-Kei

2006-07-01

320

Lipase-catalysed polyester synthesis in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid was employed as a reaction medium for lipase-catalysed aliphatic polyester synthesis. Lipase PS-C exhibited excellent catalysis in polycondensation of diethyl octane-1,8-dicarboxylate and 1,4-butanediol at room temperature and at 60°C. A relatively high molecular weight polymer was obtained at 60°C.

Susheel J. Nara; Jitendra R. Harjani; Manikrao M. Salunkhe; Ankush T. Mane; Prakash P. Wadgaonkar

2003-01-01

321

Encapsulation and controlled release of a hydrophobic drug using a novel nanoparticle-forming hyperbranched polyester.  

PubMed

An amphiphilic, hyperbranched polymer suitable for use in controlled drug delivery is reported. This polymer was obtained by modification of the hyperbranched aliphatic polyester Boltorn H20 (H20) with succinic anhydride and then glycidyl methacrylate, and formed nanoparticles in aqueous solution. The critical association concentration was 7.4 x 10(-3) g . L(-1), as determined by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene as a molecular probe. A static/dynamic laser light scattering (LLS) study revealed that the average particle size was 39.4 nm with a low particle size distribution (PDI=0.04), and that each particle was composed of about 350 amphiphilic molecules. Daidzein, a hydrophobic traditional Chinese medicine, was encapsulated during particle formation and the release properties were determined. The optimal feeding concentration of daidzein to hyperbranched polyester was 4.9 x 10(-5) g . mL(-1) to 5.0 x 10(-3) g . mL(-1) with a loading efficiency of 76.1%. In the presence of the enzyme Lipase PS, the drug loaded nanoparticles degraded in a random one-by-one manner and released the drug over a few days. This system is therefore a novel controlled drug release system based on nanoparticles formed of hyperbranched polyester. Encapsulation of daidzein by hyperbranched polyester particles. PMID:16001454

Zou, Jianhua; Shi, Wenfang; Wang, Jun; Bo, Jun

2005-07-14

322

Biocompatibility and healing process of polyester meshes in the brain: in vivo examination in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To analyze the biocompatibility of multifilament polyester (PET) meshes used for the implantation of auditory brainstem implants in a standardized Wistar rat model (n=29).Methods: The physical properties of the meshes were examined during surgery. Using a modified plastic embedding, the local tissue reaction and the stability of mesh position in the region of the fourth ventricle were evaluated in

Ralf Quester; Benita Hermanns; Bernd Klosterhalfen; Roland Schröder; Norfrid Klug

2003-01-01

323

Management of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes by Incorporation into Water Extended Polyesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two water extended polyester (WEP) resins were prepared and used as incorporation media for simulated spent ion exchange resin used at the Inshas Reactor (Egypt). The suitability of the final waste forms to fulfil the re quirements needed for the final disposal has been tested under different ex perimental conditions. Factors affecting the mechanical stability of the end products such

N. E. Ikladious; M. E. Tawfik; N. K. Ghattas

1992-01-01

324

TMDSC and Dynamic Rheometry, Gelation, Vitrification and Autoacceleration in the Cure of an Unsaturated Polyester Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free radical cross-linking copolymerization of an unsaturated polyester resin with styrene is studied in isothermal conditions using temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) and dynamic rheometry. The dynamic rheometry measurements show that gelation occurs at a conversion below 5%, while TMDSC measurements show that an important autoacceleration starts near 60% conversion, giving rise to a maximum cure rate closely

G. Van Assche; E. Verdonck; B. Van Mele

2000-01-01

325

Nanofiltration thin-film composite polyester polyethersulfone-based membranes prepared by interfacial polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanofiltration polyester thin-film composite membranes have been prepared by interfacial polymerization using commercial polyethersulfone membrane support. Different monomer bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in the aqueous solution and various interfacial polymerization times in the organic solution containing trimesoyl chloride (TMC) were studied. The success of the conducted interfacial polymerization procedure was corroborated by FTIR-ATR. Irreversible fouling of both the unmodified polyethersulfone

M. N. Abu Seman; M. Khayet; N. Hilal

2010-01-01

326

Failure analysis of heat exchanger fluid vapor phase vent lines in a Polyester plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Polyester plant is using Proprietary heat exchange fluids (26.5% biphenyl, 73.5% diphenyloxide). The plant hot condensate tank, condensate feed tank, and heat exchanger vapor phase dead end and ventable lines (ASTM 106 Grade B) with isolation valves were suffering frequent leakages with severe gouging and pitting corrosion. Lustrous (shiny) coke deposit was prominent inside the cut sections due to

M. A. Virk; M. A. Butt; A. Chughtai; M. Ahmad; I. H. Khan; K. M. Deen

2010-01-01

327

Effect of particle size and surface treatment on constitutive properties of polyester-cenosphere composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cenospheres (hollow, aluminum silicate spheres ranging from 10 to 400 µm in diameter) are used as filler in a homogeneous polyester composite. Particle size was varied to study its effect on mechanical properties of the composite. The effect of particulate surface modification using a silane coupling agent was also studied. Properties of the composites were characterized using standard testing methods.

R. J. Cardoso; A. Shukla; A. Bose

2002-01-01

328

Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride tedlar bags  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) bags for ...

329

An ESR study of the gamma radiolysis of aromatic polyesters containing isomeric naphthalene links  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six polyesters were synthesised from 4,4'-oxy-bis(benzoyl chloride) and 1,4-, 1,5-, 1,6-, 2,3-, 2,6-, and 2,7-naphthalenediol isomers. The structures of the polyesters were characterised by means of IR, inherent viscosities in tetrachloroethane (TCE), solutions at 303K and thermal analysis. The glass transition temperatures were in the range of 425-494K by DSC thermal analysis. All of the polyesters were irradiated in an AECL Gammacell 220 unit at a dose rate of approximately 6.7kGy/h to doses in the range of 0-15kGy at 77 and 300K. ESR spectroscopy was used to examine the radicals formed during radiolysis and to measure their yields. The /G-values for radical formation in the polyesters were found to be in the range 0.18-1.41 at 77K and 0.19-0.78 at 300K. At 77K, up to 15% of the radicals formed on radiolysis were found to be photo-bleachable anion radicals. Annealing experiments were carried out in order to identify the neutral radicals, which were assigned to naphthyl- or phenyl- and phenoxyl-type radicals.

Hill, D. J. T.; Choi, B.-K.; Ahn, H.-K.; Choi, E.-J.

2001-07-01

330

Thermal expansion of epoxy and polyester polymer mortars—plain mortars and fibre-reinforced mortars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted in order to determine the coefficient of thermal expansion of two specific binder formulations of epoxy and unsaturated polyester polymer mortars. The variation of this parameter with temperature was also analysed. Polymer concrete and mortars have been observed to have lower coefficients of thermal expansion at lower temperatures than at higher temperatures. Plots of strains vs.

M. C. S. Ribeiro; J. M. L. Reis; A. J. M. Ferreira; A. T. Marques

2003-01-01

331

Thermal degradation and fire behaviour of unsaturated polyester with chain ends modified by dicyclopentadiene  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with the thermostability and the thermal behaviour of unsaturated polyester materials with dicyclopentadiene end cap (DCPD). These new UP resins will be used for naval applications, limiting styrene emission during processing. The thermostability has been studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) both in air and in nitrogen to determine thermal and thermooxidative mechanisms, and activation energy was calculated

A. Baudry; J. Dufay; N. Regnier; B. Mortaigne

1998-01-01

332

An oxygen index evaluation of flammability on modified epoxy\\/polyester systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a study on flame retardancy conducted on a dual cure thermosetting system consisting of an epoxy resin, blended with an unsaturated polyester. Neat resin panels and glass-fibre reinforced composites were prepared utilising several structurally different flame-retardant (FR) additives. These materials were tested in order to determine the Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI), which is a measure of the

A. D. La Rosa; A. Recca; J. T. Carter; P. T. McGrail

1999-01-01

333

On the frequency of occurrence of a peculiar polyester fibre type found in blue denim textiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a double murder investigation, the victims were found after a prolonged stay in a drainage canal. In spite of the expectations, fibre examination established a multitude of primary and secondary transferred fibres. One of these fibre types was a colourless polyester fibre possessing a blue coloured molten fibre end. These matched one of the types present in the suspect's

Kris De Wael; Christiaan Baes; Laurent Lepot; Fabrice Gason

334

Use of textile dyeing technology to create an infection-resistant functionalized polyester biomaterial.  

PubMed

Infection is a major complication when utilizing implantable devices. The purpose of this study was to create a functionalized polyethylene terephthalate (polyester) biomaterial with sustained antimicrobial properties using textile-dyeing technology. Polyester was hydrolyzed via exposure to sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to provide two functional sites within the polymeric backbone. A modified textile dyeing technique known as thermofixation or pad-heating (pad-heat) in conjunction with autoclaving was employed to directly incorporate the fluoroquinolone antibiotic Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) into polyester fibers. Woven polyester segments were placed into various concentrations of boiling NaOH solutions to create carboxylic acid and hydroxyl groups (HYD). The segments were then sprayed (padded) with a 5 mg mL(-1) Cipro solution and dried overnight, followed by exposure to intense heat and autoclaving. Untreated HYD, Cipro-dipped, and pad-heat-treated HYD segments were then washed under stringent conditions. The antimicrobial activity of the each material was determined via zone of inhibition. Untreated HYD controls had no antimicrobial activity at any of the time periods examined. Cipro-dipped HYD segments had no antimicrobial activity after 1 h. In contrast, antimicrobial activity for autoclaved, pad-heat-treated HYD segments persisted for 80 days (length of study). Autoclave usage prior to plating affected antimicrobial activity substantially. Additionally, varying hydrolysis concentrations did not significantly affect overall Cipro release. Thus, Cipro application to HYD polyester via thermofixation resulted in controlled, sustained antibiotic release over an extended period of time. The long-term infection resistance provided by this technique may address major problems of infection from which implantable devices suffer. PMID:20725956

Aggarwal, Puja; Sousa, Kerry A; Logerfo, Frank W; Bide, Martin J; Phaneuf, Matthew D

2010-10-01

335

Compare Fabric Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine different types of fabric and their characteristics. Using magnifying glasses and sandpaper, they test and observe the weave and wear quality of fabric samples. By comparing the qualities of different fabrics they come to understand why so many different types of fabric exist and are able to recognize or suggest different uses for them.

Center For Engineering Educational Outreach

336

Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy- Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 19...

A. B. England D. N. Thompson F. J. Loge J. P. Fladers K. A. Wiedeman R. W. Emerick

2010-01-01

337

Accuracy of Polyester Subrope Damage Detection by ROV Inspection and Assessment of Remaining Rope Strength and Life.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In March 2007, the MMS contracted Stress Engineering Services, Inc. assisted by TTI, Ltd., to evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of polyester subrope damage detection processes following hurricanes and other events (i.e., loop current) that exceed th...

R. R. Auers

2007-01-01

338

Effects of Zinc Borate Addition on the Flammability Characteristics of Polyester, Vinyl Ester and Epoxy Glass Reinforced Plastics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of an inorganic fire-retardant additive, zinc borate, on flammability characteristics and smoke generation of glass reinforced polyester, vinyl ester and epoxy resins were evaluated. Information is presented on the flame spread index (ASTM E16...

R. M. Morchat

1993-01-01

339

Effect of Antimony Trioxide Addition on the Flammability Characteristics of Polyester and Vinyl Ester Glass Reinforced Plastics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of an inorganic fire-retardant additive, antimony trioxide, on flammability characteristics and smoke generation of glass reinforced polyester and vinyl ester plastics were evaluated. Information is presented on the flame spread index (ASTM E1...

R. M. Morchat

1989-01-01

340

Effects of Alumina Trihydrate on the Flammability Characteristics of Polyester, Vinyl Ester and Epoxy Glass Reinforced Plastics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of an inorganic fire-retardant additive, alumina trihydrate, on flammability characteristics and smoke generation of glass reinforced polyester, vinyl ester and epoxy resins were evaluated. Information is presented on the flame spread index (A...

R. M. Morchat

1991-01-01

341

Polymorphous computing fabric  

DOEpatents

Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw (Los Alamos, NM); Gokhale, Maya B. (Los Alamos, NM); McCabe, Kevin Peter (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-01-18

342

Studies on the cure reaction and thermal properties of NADIC\\/phthalic anhydride modified unsaturated (epoxy) polyesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cure reaction of NADIC\\/PA modified unsaturated (epoxy) polyesters with styrene initiated by benzoyl peroxide (BPO) or\\u000a the mixture of benzoyl peroxide\\/tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (BPO\\/THPA) and the thermal properties of obtained styrene copolymers\\u000a have been studied. Based on non-isothermal DSC analysis, it was proved that the course of the cure reaction clearly depended\\u000a on the structure of polyesters as well as

Marta Worzakowska

2010-01-01

343

A versatile family of degradable non-viral gene carriers based on hyperbranched poly(ester amine)s  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of degradable hyperbranched poly(ester amine)s containing primary, secondary and tertiary amino groups, were synthesized and evaluated as non-viral gene carriers. The polymers were obtained in high yields through a Michael-type conjugate addition of diacrylate monomers with trifunctional amine monomers. Analysis of degradation products using liquid chromatography–mass spectroscopy (LC–MS) demonstrated that all poly(ester amine)s had a hyperbranched structure with

Zhiyuan Zhong; Yan Song; Johan F. J. Engbersen; Martin C. Lok; Wim E. Hennink; Jan Feijen

2005-01-01

344

New formulations for unsaturated polyester resins and their interactions with low-profile agents and glass fibres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Special anhydrides, such as hexahydrophthalic, methyl-hexahydrophthalic, nadic, methylnadic and methyl-tetrahydroxyphthalic, have been polycondensed with glycols such as propylene and di-propylene, to obtain new formulations for unsaturated polyesters. The properties of these resins, such as tensile behaviour and ultraviolet resistance, neat or mixed with anti-shrinkage additives have been examined and compared to standard polyester resins. Particular attention was paid to the

M. Avella; E. Martuscelli; G. Orsello; M. Bocci; G. Caramaschi; M. Leonardi; S. Sanchioni

1996-01-01

345

Effect of iron fillings on the properties and microstructure of cast fiber–polyester\\/iron filings particulate composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of iron fillings particles on the microstructure and properties of fiber–polyester composites have been studied. 3–15wt% iron fillings particles were added. The microstructure of the fiber–polyester particulate composites produced were examined, the physical and mechanical properties measured includes: linear shrinkage, density, porosity, ultimate tensile strength, compressive strength, hardness values and impact energy. The results revealed that, addition of

I. A. Madugu; M. Abdulwahab; V. S. Aigbodion

2009-01-01

346

A Pseudomonas strain accumulating polyesters of 3-hydroxybutyric acid and medium-chain-length 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A citronellol-utilizing bacterium was isolated that accumulated a polyester consisting of 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) and of medium-chain-length 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids (3HAMCL) from various carbon sources up to approximately 70% of the cellular dry matter if the cells were cultivated in ammineral salts medium under nitrogen limitation. In octanoate-grown cells, for instance, the polyester consisted of 87.5 mol% 3HB and 12.5

Alexander Steinbiichel; Stefan Wiese

1992-01-01

347

Application of foams to the processing of fabrics. Final report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1979  

SciTech Connect

In mill trials, a range of foam fabric finishes including softeners, hand builders, and durable-press and shrink-resistant types were applied to cotton sheeting, corduroy, and polyester/cellulosic blends, etc. In all cases, substantial energy savings were realized. A number of companies are currently using foam fabric finishing as a commercial production process. Additionally, the pilot range has been used to demonstrate foam fabric finishing to over twenty companies. The range has been used to demonstrate the foam acid dyeing of nylon carpets to several companies in this specialized area of textile processing. Active work still continues with these companies since the foam dyeing of carpets involves only about 1/5 the water used in the normal continuous dyeing of carpets. Energy conservation is realized both from reduced steam consumption in steaming colors and less heat used for drying.

Duke, M.W.

1979-12-01

348

Effects of catalyst accelerator on electromagnetic shielding in nonelectrolytic Cu-plated fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of etching and catalyst accelerating conditions on microstructures of copper films and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of nonelectrolytic copper-plated fabrics were investigated. Copper films were coated onto polyester fabrics by a conventional nonelectrolytic copper plating process. Comparison of two etchants had the result where uniform deposition of Cu particles in the smaller size was observed using acidic etchant, which provided the better EMI SE than alkaline etchant. We found that KCl was the better catalyst accelerator than commonly used SnCl2. EMI SEs and conductivities of copper-plated fabrics increased as the concentration of KCl increased up to 0.1 mole/l and then decreased with further addition.

Kim, E. A.; Han, E. G.; Oh, K. W.; Na, J. G.

2000-05-01

349

Utilization of biopolymer in resist printing of linen fabrics using reactive dyes.  

PubMed

A novel utilization of chitosan as a cationic biopolymer in the chemical resist printing of linen fabrics and its polyester blend using reactive dyes. The effects of ratio and concentration of various resist-printing agents and processing conditions are observed and discussed. The concentration of chitosan, type of resist agent, and the ratio of chitosan to resist agent were varied to determine their effects on the efficiency of resist-printing. Regardless of the type of fabric, the resist effect on printed fabrics expressed as % decrease in K/S was obtained at optimal chitosan concentration of 1% with a mixture of chitosan/maleic acid as a resist salt at a ratio of 25:75. Thus, chitosan can be used pure or in admixture with different resist salts successfully in chemical resist printing. PMID:24053837

Rekaby, M; El-Hennawi, H M; Shahin, A A; Ragheb, A A

2013-07-30

350

The temperature dependence of the emission of perchloroethylene from dry cleaned fabrics.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate the emission of perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene) from freshly dry cleaned fabrics using small environmental test chambers. The temperature dependence of the release of perchloroethylene was evaluated over a temperature range of 20 to 45 degrees C. A linear relation exists between the logarithm of perchloroethylene retention time (tau) and the reciprocal of the absolute temperature (1/T). The temperature dependence of the retention time can be expressed as tau = 2.36 x 10(-16)e13,892/T and 8.38 x 10(-9)e8766/T sec for 100% wool and 55% polyester/45% wool fabrics, respectively. These results indicate that "airing out" freshly dry cleaned fabrics at temperatures near 20 degrees C for short time periods (e.g., 5 hr) will not appreciably reduce the total emissions of perchloroethylene. PMID:2351125

Guo, Z S; Tichenor, B A; Mason, M A; Plunket, C M

1990-06-01

351

Methanogenic Activity and Structural Characteristics of the Microbial Biofilm On a Needle-Punched Polyester Support  

PubMed Central

In a downflow stationary fixed-film anaerobic reactor receiving a swine waste influent, few bacteria were observed to be tightly adherent to the surfaces of the needle-punched polyester support material. However, there was a morphologically complex, dense population of bacteria trapped within the matrix. Frequently large microcolonies of a uniform morphological type of bacteria were observed. These were particularly evident for methanosarcina-like bacteria which grew forming large aggregates of unseparated cells. Leafy deposits of electron-dense, calcium- and phosphorus-enriched material coated the polyester matrix and some cells. As the biofilm matured there was more extensive mineral deposition which completely entrapped cells. The entrapped cells appeared to autolyze, and many were partially degraded. Further impregnation of the matrix with minerals and apparent cell death may eventually have a deleterious effect on the methanogenic activity of the biofilm. Images

Harvey, Martin; Forsberg, Cecil W.; Beveridge, Terry J.; Pos, Jack; Ogilvie, John R.

1984-01-01

352

A novel explanation of a low-profile mechanism for unsaturated polyester resins using phase diagrams  

SciTech Connect

A novel explanation for the mechanism of low profile additives in unsaturated polyester resins by using a concept of a phase diagram was proposed. According to the ternary phase diagrams for the systems of styrene-unsaturated polyester prepolymer-additives (e.g., polyvinyl acetate, polyurethane), the phenomenon of phase separation was explained. Furthermore, the final morphology of cured resins was correlated to the phase diagram. Microscopic observations showed the morphology was controlled by the phase separation. TEM results also clearly showed that the microvoids were formed in the low profile phase, separated from the resin phase, instead of being in the interfacial region as previously reported. It was concluded that a well controlled phase diagram can lead to a shrinkage-controlled low profile system.

Suspene, L.; Fourquier, D.; Yang, Y.S. (Norsolor Orken Group, Verneuil (FRA))

1990-04-01

353

Chemical resistance/thermal and mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester-based nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocomposites were synthesized using unsaturated polyester as the matrix and organically modified montmorillonite (CA-MMT) as the reinforcing agent. XRD pattern of the modified montmorillonite showed that the interlayer spacing expanded from 1.21 to 1.9 nm, indicating intercalation. TGA and DTA show loss of organic surfactant from interlayer galleries. Glass transition temperature (T g) of these composites increased from 71 °C in the unfilled unsaturated polyester to 79 °C in the composites with 5 % organically modified montmorillonite. Chemical resistance and mechanical properties of the UP/organo-clay nanocomposites were studied. Chemical resistance was studied under aqueous conditions in acetic acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, aqueous ammonia and sodium carbonate. Chemical resistance studies reveal maximum weight gain/loss with increasing clay content. Mechanical studies show maximum characteristics for the composites-clay filled 5 % (w/w).

Jaya Vinse Ruban, Y.; Ginil Mon, S.; Vetha Roy, D.

2013-01-01

354

Non-contact laser sealing of thin polyester food packaging films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a laser-based, non-contact sealing technique for thin, polyester-based lidding films, used in PET containers for food packaging. The method uses a beam-steered laser to seal the container, thereby enabling virtually instant changeover from one product line to another. Unlike conventional sealing PET film processes, no bespoke tooling is required to hold the package components in close proximity and under pressure whilst the seal is formed. This greatly reduces sealing machine tooling costs and potential downtime at product changeovers. Results are presented that show that the process is able to produce seals of higher strength using thin (26 ?m) polyester film than those from the conventional thermal/mechanical process. This provides a potential for increased production flexibility, reduction in product wastage, and for reducing the cost and embodied energy in construction of a less massive sealing machine.

Brown, Neil; Kerr, David; Parkin, Robert M.; Jackson, Michael R.; Shi, Fangmin

2012-10-01

355

Abrasive wear: The efects of fibres size on oil palm empty fruit bunch polyester composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an experimental investigation carried out to determine the effect of palm oil empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre size in dry sliding testing of polyester composite. These composite samples were produced by mixing raw OPEFB fibre with resin. The samples were prepared at different sizes of fibre (100, 125, 180 and 250?m). Abrasion Resistance Tester (TR-600) was used to carried out abrasive wear tests in dry sliding conditions. These tests were performed at room temperature for two different loads (10 and 30N) and at a constant sliding velocity of 1.4m/s. The specific wear rates of OPEFB polyester composites were obtained. The morphology of composite surface before and after tests was also examined using 3D microscope imaging. Preliminary work on thermal distribution at the abrasive wheel point was also conducted for selected samples.

Kasolang, S.; Kalam, A.; Ahmad, M. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Suhadah, W. N.

2012-06-01

356

Synthesis of lipase-catalysed silicone-polyesters and silicone-polyamides at elevated temperatures.  

PubMed

More and more enzymes are being explored as alternatives to conventional catalysts in chemical reactions. To utilize these biocatalysts to their fullest, it is incumbent on researchers to gain a complete understanding of the reaction conditions that particular enzymes will tolerate. To this end siloxane-containing polyesters and polyamides have been produced via N435-mediated catalysis at temperatures well above the normal denaturation temperature for free CalB. Low molecular weight disiloxane-based acceptors release the enzyme from its acylated state with equal proficiency while longer chain siloxanes favours polyester synthesis. The thermal tolerance of the enzyme catalyst is increased using longer chain diesters and generally more hydrophobic substrates. PMID:23999945

Frampton, Mark B; Zelisko, Paul M

2013-10-18

357

Impact tests on woven-roving E-glass\\/polyester laminates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results of low-energy drop-weight impact tests on woven-roving E-glass\\/polyester composites are presented. The effects of specimen thickness, impactor kinetic energy, velocity of impact and laminator are investigated. Damage was observed for all impact energies. The assumption that shear deformation dominates the response gives good agreement with the results. A model assuming a circular delamination area predicts very well the

L. S Sutherland; C Guedes Soares

1999-01-01

358

Non-Axial Crushing of E-Glass\\/Polyester Pultruded Tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of non-axial crushing, off-axis crushing and angled crushing, have been identified and significant differences found between the E-glass\\/polyester pultruded tubes crushed in these different configurations. Energy absorption for the two types of crushing was found also to vary significantly with the angle of inclination, with the difference being largest at high angles of inclination. Reasons for energy absorption

Michael J. Czaplicki; Richard E. Robertson; Peter H. Thornton

1990-01-01

359

The time evolution of space charge limited current magnitudes in a hydrazone-doped polyester  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dc current–voltage properties of amorphous thin films of hydrazone-doped polyester samples have been monitored as a function of time following deposition of gold contacts. Hole currents injected from gold electrodes in contact with the bottom surface of the films are observed to increase in magnitude as the samples progressively age with a saturated current–voltage response eventually obtained after a

J. M Fair; D. M Goldie; R. A. G Gibson

1998-01-01

360

Liquefaction of corn stover and preparation of polyester from the liquefied polyol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated a novel process to prepare polyester from corn stover through liquefaction and crosslinking processes.\\u000a First, corn stover was liquefied in organic solvents (90 wt% ethylene glycol and 10 wt% ethylene carbonate) with catalysts\\u000a at moderate temperature under atmospheric pressure. The effect of liquefaction temperature, biomass content, and type of catalyst,\\u000a such H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4, and ZnCl2, was

Fei Yu; Yuhuan Liu; Xuejun Pan; Xiangyang Lin; Chengmei Liu; Paul Chen; Roger Ruan

2006-01-01

361

Damage characterisation of glass\\/polyester composite plates subjected to low-energy impact fatigue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports and discusses an experimental method for characterising the damage behaviour of glass\\/polyester laminated composite plates at low-energy impact fatigue. Experimental tests are performed under increasing impact energy and increasing number of impacts conditions. The investigated energies are in the range of 3.5–7J in order to describe the internal damage behaviour at different levels of incident impact energy.

K. Azouaoui; N. Ouali; Y. Ouroua; A. Mesbah; T. Boukharouba

2007-01-01

362

Cycle history data and elongation characteristics for polyester and aramid wire-lay construction ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance ropes have unique properties that are derived from their fiber and construction. Wire-lay construction rope manufactured from 1W81 polyester with SeaGuard(R) finish and Kevlar(R) 29 aramid are observed in this study while experiencing 250,000+ cycles of tension-tension fatigue. The results indicate general behavioral trends. The numerical data obtained can be used in computer models to evaluate the appropriate

E. W. Huntley

1997-01-01

363

Synthesis and characterization of thermotropic liquid crystalline polyester\\/multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermotropic liquid crystalline polyester (TLCP) was synthesized via low-temperature solution polycondensation from 1,4-Bis(4-Hydroxybenzoyloxy)butane and terephthaloyl dichloride. Polymer nanocomposites based on a small quantity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were prepared by in situ polymerization method. The wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) results suggested that the addition of MWNTs to TLCP matrix did not significantly change the crystal structure of TLCP. The

Xiaoyu Wang; Juanjuan Wang; Wenfeng Zhao; Linwei Zhang; Xing Zhong; Rong Li; Jiantai Ma

2010-01-01

364

Study on Anti-tracking Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Resin SMC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of thickening hydroxyl-terminated unsaturated polyester with polyurethane (PU) that comes from the reaction between diisocyanate compounds and polyglycol is introduced, and the effect of PU prepolymer on the anti-arc properties of the sheet molding compounds (SMC) is studied according to the standard of ASTM, the electric strength is tested in the transformer oil under 423K, 453K, 473K, 523K

Yu-jun Zhang; Li-jun Dai; Yan Wang; Feng-fu Li; Zhen-hao Jin

2006-01-01

365

Biodegradation of aliphatic polyesters soaked in deep seawaters and isolation of poly( ?-caprolactone)-degrading bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate biodegradability of so-called biodegradable plastics in deep sea, degrading behavior of aliphatic polyesters poly(?-caprolactone) [PCL], poly(?-hydroxybutyrate\\/valerate) [PHB\\/V], and poly(butyrene succinate) [PBS] in deep seawaters were evaluated at Rausu, Toyama, and Kume, Japan. After 12 months of soaking in deep seawaters, PCL and PHB\\/V fibers became brittle or completely ruined. Although breaking strength of PBS fibers maintained approximately 95%

Takayoshi Sekiguchi; Azusa Saika; Koji Nomura; Toshihiro Watanabe; Toru Watanabe; Yu Fujimoto; Makiko Enoki; Takako Sato; Chiaki Kato; Haruyuki Kanehiro

2011-01-01

366

Study of fission track registration efficiency of ?-irradiated polyester track detector in solution medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fission track registration efficiency (K\\u000a wet) of the Garware polyester track (GPF) detector in solution has been determined with respect to the Lexan detector whose K\\u000a wet is very well known in the literature. The K\\u000a wet is found to be (1.2 ± 0.1) 10?3 cm. The track registration efficiency of the GPF detector in solution is better than

Chhavi Agarwal; P. C. Kalsi; A. Goswami

2009-01-01

367

Effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties of hemp fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemp fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites (HFRUPE) were subjected to water immersion tests in order to study the effects of water absorption on the mechanical properties. HFRUPE composites specimens containing 0, 0.10, 0.15, 0.21 and 0.26 fibre volume fraction were prepared. Water absorption tests were conducted by immersing specimens in a de-ionised water bath at 25°C and 100°C for different

H. N. Dhakal; Z. Y. Zhang; M. O. W. Richardson

2007-01-01

368

Spray-dried indomethacin-loaded polyester nanocapsules and nanospheres: development, stability evaluation and nanostructure models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The industrial development of polymeric nanoparticle suspensions, as drug delivery systems, is limited due to the problems in maintaining stability of suspensions. In this work, a spray-drying technique was applied to dry nanocapsule and nanosphere suspensions prepared by nanoprecipitation of polyesters using SiO2 as adjuvant. Powders obtained from nanocapsules presented stable drug recoveries and morphological characteristics after 5 months. For

Adriana Raffin Pohlmann; Valeria Weiss; Omar Mertins; Nádya Pesce da Silveira; S??lvia Stanisçuaski Guterres

2002-01-01

369

Addition of unmodified nanoclay to improve the performance of unsaturated polyester resin coating on natural stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) thin coating containing styrene monomer has been used to consolidate Brown Emperor natural stone pieces. Different amounts (0.5–2wt%) of nanoclay was added to reduce shrinkage during cure and to impart both stiffness and toughness. The uncured UPR–nanoclay hybrids were characterized by rotational rheology, the gelation was monitored by means of a texture

Verónica Morote-Martínez; Rafael Torregrosa-Coque; José Miguel Martín-Martínez

2011-01-01

370

Shrinkage control of low-profile unsaturated polyester resins cured at low temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of new manufacturing processes, such as low-pressure compression moulding of sheet moulding compound (SMC), resin transfer moulding (RTM) and vacuum infusion liquid composite moulding (e.g. SCRIMP) processes, low-shrinkage moulding compounds which can be processed at low temperatures have attracted considerable interest from the composite industry. In this paper, an integrated rheology–kinetics–morphology–dilatometry study on an unsaturated polyester resin

Wen Li; L. James Lee

1998-01-01

371

UV-Curable Coating of Unsaturated Polyester\\/Epoxy Resins Containing Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

UV-curable coating of unsaturated polyester\\/epoxy resin (UP-ER) modified with methylacryloylpropyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (MAP-POSS) was prepared. The UV-cured process, kinetics, and some properties of coating were investigated. The results show that this coating has a better UV-curing property. The curing reaction can be described by a two-parameter autocatalytic Šesták-Berggren (S-B) model. The mechanical loss peak temperature Tp of curing coating

Jungang Gao; Beibei Sun; Xing Li; Yingying Ma

2011-01-01

372

Volume shrinkage characteristics in the cure of low-shrink unsaturated polyester resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of four low-profile additives (LPA), namely poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), thermoplastic polyurethane (PU), and polystyrene (PS), on volume shrinkage in the cure of unsaturated polyester (UP) resins at 110°C were investigated by the linear shrinkage method, density measurements, and dilatometry. Experimental results showed that, for the finally cured samples, the fractional volume shrinkage would generally decrease

Yan-Jyi Huang; Chiou-Ming Liang

1996-01-01

373

Nylon 66\\/polyester hybrid cords: 1. Design and investigation of properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, Nylon 66\\/Polyester (Ny 66\\/PET) hybrid cord design and production was investigated to obtain new cord with better\\u000a performance than conventional cord. The factors affecting cord properties and cord production process were examined. Taguchi\\u000a design of experiment method was implemented in order to minimize the required number of experiments. Different sets of 4 reference\\u000a cords conventionally used in

Ay?e Ayta; Berrin Yilmaz; Veli Deniz

2011-01-01

374

Bio-based unsaturated polyester\\/layered silicate nanocomposites: Characterization and thermo-physical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper stiffness–toughness balance along with enhancement in other thermo-physical properties can be obtained by incorporating layered silicates (nanoclay) in bio-based resins, defined as blends of functionalized vegetable oils and petroleum-based resins. Bio-based polymer nanocomposites with varying clay concentration and varying bio-resin (epoxidized soy bean oil) content in unsaturated polyester resins were manufactured. Thermo-physical properties such as tensile modulus and strength,

Mahmoodul Haq; Rigoberto Burgueño; Amar K. Mohanty; Manjusri Misra

2009-01-01

375

Vapour deposition of thin semiconducting layers on polyester foils for detector applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vapour deposition of thin semiconducting layers on a 2 mum polyester foil for application in the ``Huygensvessel'' central trigger detector is described. This detector has been designed for the measurement of light and intermediate-heavy charged particles. The foils are used as entrance foils for plastic scintillator-detectors to combine primarily light-tightness and optimum light reflection properties. Further demands are a

A. J. Michielsen; C. J. W. Twenhöfel

1993-01-01

376

Microstructure, tensile properties, and biodegradability of aliphatic polyester\\/clay nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel biodegradable aliphatic polyester (APES)\\/organoclay nanocomposites were prepared through melt intercalation method. Two kinds of organoclays, Cloisite 30B and Cloisite 10A with different ammonium cations located in the silicate gallery, were chosen for the nanocomposites preparation. The dispersion of the silicate layers in the APES hybrids was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tensile properties

Sang-Rock Lee; Hwan-Man Park; Hyuntaek Lim; Taekyu Kang; Xiucuo Li; Won-Jei Cho; Chang-Sik Ha

2002-01-01

377

Three-body abrasive wear of short glass fibre polyester composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short E-glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites with and without filler have been studied for the low stress abrasive wear behaviour carried out using Rubber Wheel Abrasion Test (RWAT) apparatus. In the present investigation, angular silica sand particles of size ranging between 100–200 and 200–300 ?m were used as dry and loose abrasives. The volume loss of the composite during three-body abrasion

Navin Chand; Ajay Naik; Somit Neogi

2000-01-01

378

Polyether–polyester diblock copolymers for the preparation of paclitaxel loaded polymeric micelle formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of hypersensitivity reactions have been attributed to the presence of Cremophor® EL in the current formulation for paclitaxel. This has led to the development of formulations for paclitaxel employing polyether–polyester diblock copolymers as micelle forming carriers. Diblock copolymers of methoxypolyethylene glycol-block-poly(d,l-lactide) (MePEG:PDLLA) were synthesized from monomers of d,l-lactide and MePEG by a ring opening bulk polymerization in the

R. T. Liggins; H. M. Burt

2002-01-01

379

Post-fire mechanical properties of glass-reinforced polyester composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into changes in the mechanical properties of glass-reinforced polyester composites after exposure to intense radiant heat is presented. The tension, compression, flexure and interlaminar shear properties fell rapidly with increasing heat flux and heat-exposure time owing, mainly, to charring and delamination cracking caused by burning of the composite. Substantially higher post-fire mechanical properties were attained when the composite

A. P. Mouritz; Z. Mathys

2001-01-01

380

Behavior of copolymers of styrene with polyester-acrylate in isothermal uniaxial compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of a series of three-dimensional copolymers of styrene with polyester-acrylate has been investigated in isothermal uniaxial compression and recuperation. The similarity of the behavior of linear and three-dimensional polymers is noted. It is shown that the behavior of polymer specimens in repeat compression after a recuperation period is determined by the relaxational nature of the recuperation process. A

M. Z. Girshovich

1967-01-01

381

Degradation of aliphatic–aromatic copolyesters by bacteria that can degrade aliphatic polyesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation activities of bacteria that can degrade aliphatic polyesters on various aliphatic–aromatic copolyesters (PBSTIL, PBST, and Ecoflex™) were investigated. Among the bacteria examined, strain TB-71 showed the best degradation activity. An HPLC analysis of the degradation products revealed that PBST55 and Ecoflex™ are degraded into monomers by strain TB-71. In the case of PBSTIL, an unknown peak was detected

Toshiaki Nakajima-Kambe; Fumie Ichihashi; Ryoko Matsuzoe; Satoshi Kato; Noboru Shintani

2009-01-01

382

The effect of ormosil nano-particles on the toughness of a polyester resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic–inorganic hybrid nano-particles have been synthesized via a modified Stber method. Nano-particles have been prepared\\u000a from silica precursors with different organic functionalities. Methyl, ethyl, vinyl and phenyl modified silicas have been\\u000a synthesized with a view to using these particles as modifiers for polymers and polymer matrix composites. Nano-composites\\u000a have been produced using polyester as a matrix. The effect of the

David A. Jesson; Paul A. Smith; John N. Hay; John F. Watts

2007-01-01

383

Rapid detection of dilute lipopolysaccharide antigens in large volumes using polymyxin-coated polyester cloth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A segment of polymyxin-coated polyester cloth was placed onto a blotting pad and 10 mL of a dilute Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) sample was passively pipetted through the cloth segment (taking about 40 s). The LPS concentrated on the segment was assayed by immunoreaction with rabbit-anti LPS antibody and anti-rabbit-peroxidase conjugate (taking about 60 s), followed by colorimetric measurement of peroxidase.

Lori Button; Hiroshi Yamazaki

1997-01-01

384

Prediction by multivariate data analysis of long-term properties of glassfiber reinforced polyester composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prediction of long-term properties of polymers has been analysed by identifiction of low molecular weight compounds in glassfibre-reinforced polyester composites which were subjected to accelerated ageing at 40 and 60°C and 80 %-RH for periods up to 6 years. Before the accelerated ageing the materials were stored for 20 years at ambient temperature. After different ageing times the low

Minna Hakkarainen; Guillaume Gallet; Sigbritt Karlsson

1999-01-01

385

Polyester mesh: an alternative material for reinforcing the pulmonary autograft root.  

PubMed

Today, it is widely accepted that the pulmonary autograft should be reinforced when used as a root in the Ross operation. Various techniques using a vascular conduit have been reported. Herein is described an alternative technique, using a polyester mesh, that was applied in a 15-year-old boy with recurrent congenital stenosis. The advantages of using a mesh rather than a solid vascular prosthesis are discussed. PMID:22066365

Mitilian, Delphine; Zargouni, Nejib; Mechmeche, Rachid; Acar, Christophe

2011-09-01

386

Dielectric Properties of Lead Monoxide Filled Unsaturated Polyester Based Polymer Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead monoxide filled isophthalate resin particulate polymer composites were prepared with different filler concentrations and investigated for physical, thermal, mechanical and gamma radiation shielding characteristics. This paper discusses about the dielectric properties of the composites. The present study showed that the dielectric constant (?'), dielectric loss (V'') and ac conductivity (?ac) of isopthalate based unsaturated polyester resin increases with the increase in wt% PbO filler in polymer matrix.

Harish, V.; Kumar, H. G. Harish; Nagaiah, N.

2011-07-01

387

Synthesis, Characterization and Dyeing Application of Heterocyclic Polymers in Nylon and Polyester  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various 4-Arylazo-1,3-benzenediamine (AABs) dyes have been synthesized and polycondensed with Toluene 2,4-diisocyanate (TDI). The resultant polyureas (PUs) have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and number average molecular weight (), estimated by non-aqueous conductometric titration. Thermal properties of PUs have been examined. Their dyeing performance on nylon and polyester gives yellow to orange shades with moderate to good light

Medha Joshi; Smita Jauhari; K. R. Desai

2012-01-01

388

Biocompatibility of Polyester Scaffolds with Fibroblasts and Osteoblast-like Cells for Bone Tissue Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity and cytocompatibility of the developed aliphatic polyester co-polymer scaffolds: poly(L-lactide-co-?-caprolactone) and poly(L-lactide-co-1,5-dioxepan-2-one). The scaffolds were produced by solvent casting and particulate leaching, and tested by direct and indirect contact cytotoxicity assays on human osteoblast-like cells and mouse fibroblasts. Cell morphology was documented by light and scanning electron microscopy.

Shaza B. Idris; Staffan Dånmark; Anna Finne-Wistrand; Kristina Arvidson; Ann-Christine Albertsson; Anne Isine Bolstad; Kamal Mustafa

2010-01-01

389

Characterisation of products from the recycling of glass fibre reinforced polyester waste by pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermoset polyester\\/styrene copolymer reinforced with glass fibre was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor at 450 °C. The main gases evolved were CO and CO2, which accounted for more than 75vol% of the total gas composition. Other gases identified were H2, CH4 and other hydrocarbons from C2 to C4. The properties of the pyrolytic oil, including calorific value, viscosity and

Adrian M Cunliffe; Paul T Williams

2003-01-01

390

Fluorinated modification of hyperbranched polyesters used for improving the surface property of UV curing coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial hyperbranched aliphatic polyols (Hn) were modified by thioglycolic acid (TA) and hexafluorobutyl acrylate (HFBA) or dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate (DFHMA) to prepare a series of fluorinated hyperbranched polyesters. For comparison, a linear fluorinated polymer, poly(n-BMA-co-DFHMA), was synthesized through the copolymerization of n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) and DFHMA. The molecular structures were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopic analysis. The synthesized polymers were

Hui Miao; Fenfen Bao; Liangliang Cheng; Wenfang Shi

391

Degradable poly(ester amide)s based on l-tartaric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of poly(ester amide)s with ester\\/amide group ratios ranging from 199 to 14 were obtained using 1,6-hexanediamine, 1,6-hexanediol and 2,3-di-O-methoxy-l-tartaric and succinic acids as building blocks. The ester linkages were introduced in pairs using as comonomer the diacid resulting from the esterification of 1,6-hexanediol with 2 mol of succinic anhydride. Polycondensastion reactions were carried out in solution at room

A. Alla; A. Rodríguez-Galán; A. Martínez de llarduya; S. Muñoz-Guerra

1997-01-01

392

Identification of the ions produced by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry in some polyesters and polyamides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry was applied to the analysis of two polyesters, poly(ethylene adipate) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone), and two polyamides, Nylon 6.6 and Nylon 6. The peaks present in the spectra of the crude polymers were identified as corresponding to protonated molecular ions of preformed cyclic oligomers and of low molecular weight compounds contained in the polymer samples; these

Alberto. Ballistreri; Domenico. Garozzo; Mario. Giuffrida; Giorgio. Montaudo

1987-01-01

393

Small molecule penetrant diffusion in aromatic polyesters: a molecular dynamics simulation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to study diffusion of methane in three highly impermeable aromatic polyesters that are good barrier materials. These are amorphous poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(ethylene 2,6-naphthalene dicarboxylate) (PEN), and the nematic mesophase of the thermotropic liquid crystalline copolyester (LCP) of p-hydroxy benzoic acid (HBA) and 2,6 hydroxy naphthoic acid (HNA). Diffusion coefficients were determined

Rishikesh K. Bharadwaj; Richard H. Boyd

1999-01-01

394

Test procedures for polyester immobilized salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes  

SciTech Connect

These test procedures are written to meet the procedural needs of the Test Plan for immobilization of salt containing surrogate mixed waste using polymer resins, HNF-SD-RE-TP-026 and to ensure adequacy of conduct and collection of samples and data. This testing will demonstrate the use of four different polyester vinyl ester resins in the solidification of surrogate liquid and dry wastes, similar to some mixed wastes generated by DOE operations.

Biyani, R.K.; Hendrickson, D.W.

1997-07-18

395

Subchronic inhalation toxicity study of a water-dispersible polyester in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

AQ55 is a high molecular weight, water-dispersible, amorphous polyester used in applications where the exclusion of solvents and conventional surfactants is desirable, such as water-based adhesives, coatings, emulsions, paint primers, cosmetics and detergents. Potential health effects were evaluated in rats exposed by inhalation for about 13 wk to mean concentrations of 0, 2.4, 19.6 or 199 mg\\/m3 AQ55 polymer. No

G. V. Katz; W. D. Faber; L. G. Bernard; R. A. Moulton; R. M. David; M. S. Vlaovic; W. M. Dyer Jr

1997-01-01

396

Synthesis and Characterization of Hyperbranched Polyesters Based on Isophthalic Acid and Trimethylolpropane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyl-terminated hyperbranched polyesters (HBPEs) with aromatic\\/aliphatic structure were synthesized at three different monomer mole ratios (A2\\/B3=1, 0.9, and 0.6, respectively) by melt polycondensation of isophthalic acid and trimethylolpropane via A2+ B3 approach. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated that the expected HBPEs, which showed excellent solubility in a variety of polar solvents such as N, N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP),

Xinli Zhang

2010-01-01

397

The cobalt-catalyzed alternating copolymerization of epoxides and carbon monoxide: a novel approach to polyesters.  

PubMed

The metal-catalyzed synthesis of polyolefins, polyketones, and polycarbonates is well-known in academia and is already successfully applied in industrial processes. Still missing, however, is the metal-catalyzed synthesis of aliphatic polyesters, as one of the most important biodegradeable polymer families. We report here on the cobalt-catalyzed alternating copolymerization of propylene oxide and carbon monoxide, affording atactic and isotactic polyhydroxybutyrates (PHB). The postulated mechanism is supported by online ATR-IR analytics. PMID:12010031

Allmendinger, Markus; Eberhardt, Robert; Luinstra, Gerrit; Rieger, Bernhard

2002-05-22

398

Sublaminar devices for the correction of scoliosis: metal wire versus polyester tape.  

PubMed

The authors conducted a retrospective study comparing the corrective effect of two sublaminar techniques on scoliosis: the classical one, based on metal wire, and a more recent one, based on polyester tape (thoracic Universal Clamp), known to be safer (less risk of neurological damage, less laminar breakthrough) and compatible with MRI. Lumbar screws were used in both groups. The authors composed two groups of 25 scoliosis patients, matched for gender, age, aetiology, anterior release, number of levels fused, number of infections, major curve and flexibility: there was no significant difference. Only the follow-up period was different: 55 months in the metal wire group, versus 17 months in the polyester tape group (p < 0.001), but this was immaterial because the curves were compared one year after surgery. After one year there was no significant difference between both groups, as to correction in the coronal or in the sagittal plane. This means that the polyester tape technique offers an interesting alternative, given that it yields supplementary advantages, as mentioned above. PMID:23821975

Caekebeke, Pieter; Moke, Lieven; Moens, Pierre

2013-04-01

399

A functionalizable polyester with free hydroxyl groups and tunable physiochemical and biological properties  

PubMed Central

Polyesters with free functional groups allow facile modifications with biomolecules, which can lead to versatile biomaterials that afford controlled interactions with cells and tissues. Efficient synthesis of functionalizable polyesters is still a challenge that greatly limits the availability and widespread applications of biofunctionalized synthetic polymers. Here we report a simple route to prepare a functionalizable polyester, poly(sebacoyl diglyceride) (PSeD) bearing free hydroxyl groups. The key synthetic step is an epoxide ring-opening polymerization, instead of the traditional polycondensation, that produces poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) [1]. PSeD has a more defined structure with mostly linear backbone, more free hydroxyl groups, higher molecular weight, and lower polydispersity than PGS. Crosslinking PSeD with sebacic acid yields a polymer five times tougher and more elastic than cured PGS. PSeD exhibits good cytocompatibility in vitro. Furthermore, functionalization by glycine proceeds with high efficiency. This versatile synthetic platform can offer a large family of biodegradable, functionalized polymers with tunable physiochemical and biological properties useful for a wide range of biomedical applications.

You, Zhengwei; Cao, Haiping; Gao, Jin; Shin, Paul H.; Day, Billy W.; Wang, Yadong

2010-01-01

400

Enzymatic synthesis and curing of biodegradable epoxide-containing polyesters from renewable resources.  

PubMed

Epoxide-containing polyesters were enzymatically synthesized via two routes using unsaturated fatty acids as starting substrate. Lipase catalysis was used for both polycondensation and epoxidation of the unsaturated fatty acid group. One route was synthesis of aliphatic polyesters containing an unsaturated group in the side chain from divinyl sebacate, glycerol, and the unsaturated fatty acids, followed by an epoxidation of the unsaturated fatty acid moiety in the side chain of the resulting polymer. In another route, epoxidized fatty acids were prepared from the unsaturated fatty acids and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of lipase catalyst, and subsequently the epoxidized fatty acids were polymerized with divinyl sebacate and glycerol. The polymer structure was confirmed by NMR and IR, and for both routes, the high epoxidized ratio was achieved. Curing of the resulting polymers proceeded thermally, yielding transparent polymeric films with high gloss surface. Pencil scratch hardness of the present films improved, compared with that of the cured film obtained from the polyester having an unsaturated fatty acid in the side chain. The obtained film showed good biodegradability, evaluated by BOD measurement in an activated sludge. PMID:12625714

Uyama, Hiroshi; Kuwabara, Mai; Tsujimoto, Takashi; Kobayashi, Shiro

401

Polyester non-woven fabric finger cover as a TRUCT Braille reading assistance tool for Braille learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transparent resinous ultraviolet-curing type (TRUCT) Braille signs are becoming more and more popular in Japan, especially\\u000a when they are printed together with visual characters. These signs are made by screen printing, a technique that can be applied\\u000a to various base materials, such as paper, metal, and plastic. TRUCT Braille signs have begun to be used in public facilities,\\u000a such as

Kouki Doi; Hiroshi Fujimoto

2007-01-01

402

Metal/PET Composite Knitted Fabrics and Composites: Structural Design and Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following rapid technological advances, electronic products are being used more frequently than ever, resulting in a massive amount of interference from electromagnetic waves. In this research, stainless-steel (SS) wires, copper wires, and polyester (PET) filaments were made into SS/PET, copper/PET, and SS/copper/PET composite ply yarns. These ply yarns were then knitted into electromagnetic shielding fabrics with various knitting-needle densities. In the frequency range of 1.1 GHz to 1.4 GHz, the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (EMSE) of the SS/PET fabric was 3.8 dB greater than that of the copper/PET composite knitted fabric, demonstrating better permeability. However, in the frequency range of 0.36 GHz to 1.1 GHz, the EMSE of the copper/PET fabric was 10 dB greater than that of the SS/PET fabric, demonstrating better conductivity. The SS/copper/PET fabrics exhibited an EMSE 10 dB greater than that of the SS/PET or copper/PET fabrics.

Huang, Chen-Hung; Lin, Jia-Horng; Yang, Ruey-Bin; Lin, Ching-Wen; Lou, Ching-Wen

2012-08-01

403

Mechanical properties of small-diameter polyurethane vascular grafts reinforced by weft-knitted tubular fabric.  

PubMed

Polyester filament yarns of different Deniers were knitted into tubular fabrics with different densities and thicknesses on a specially designed weft-knitting machine. The developed tubular fabric was used to reinforce polyurethane vascular graft and thus a kind of composite vascular graft was fabricated with a small inner diameter of 4 mm. Tensile properties of the reinforced composite vascular grafts were compared with the control tubular fabric and the pure PU vascular grafts. Elasticity and strength of the reinforced vascular grafts were improved compared with the weft-knitted tubular fabrics. Strength of the reinforced composite vascular grafts was almost 5-10 times of the strength of the pure PU vascular grafts. As the PU content increased in the reinforced composite vascular grafts, the wall thickness of the vascular graft and its strength increased, but the initial modulus of the reinforced composite vascular grafts remained similar to that of the weft-knitted tubular fabric, and the PU content showed little influence on the initial modulus of the reinforced composite vascular grafts. Microporous structure can also be fabricated in the wall of the reinforced composite vascular grafts. PMID:19165779

Xu, Weilin; Zhou, Fei; Ouyang, Chenxi; Ye, Wenxiang; Yao, Mu; Xu, Bugao

2010-01-01

404

FabricLink  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some say that the binding relationships between individuals are the fabric of human society, where others are more interested in, well, actual fabric. For those who are interested in the wide world of fabric and related topics, the FabricLink website is a fine place to learn about various fabrics, their care, fabric products, and the latest in fabric industry news and innovation. First-time visitors will want to wind their way over to the Consumer Guide section straight away. Here they will find the fabric care center, which provides helpful stain removal hints, and information about those sometimes cryptic care symbols on various items of apparel. The home furnishings area contains a number of reference guides, and a whole section dedicated to "Yarn Facts".

405

Application of foams to the processing of fabrics. Phase III. Technical progress report, September 1, 1979-August 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Objective is to reduce the energy required to evaporate the water in wet processes by using foams. By the end of August 1980 approximately 400,000,000 yards of fabric had been foam finished. Plant energy data from three UM and M plants have been collected which shows great savings. Considerable work has been done on developing applicators to apply dye and finish uniformly to flat goods. Simultaneously tinting and foam finishing by the use of a tripad show promise. Foam dyeing of nylon carpets is in production and approximately 3 million pounds of carpet have been foam dyed in one US plant. Nylon flock fabric dyeing has been scaled-up in pilot plant and plant trials. Foam dyeing of 100% polyester blankets utilizing pigment foam and disperse dye foam is in production in one textile mill. Foam pigment dyeing of flat goods by horizontal pad application shows promise by the traverse application of foam on both sides of fabric. Wet on wet foam dyeing of prepared wet fabrics is feasible. A polyester/cotton narrow width industrial toweling is now being foam dyed and finished simultaneously commercially. Foam printing using engraved rolls continues in production.

Namboodri, C.G.

1980-09-01

406

Traditions of optical fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of optical fabrication is traced from Roman times to the 1900s to indicate the level of the art. This background serves as a reference for discussing the particular optical fabrication problems associated with grazing incidence optics. It is suggested that 'bend and polish' techniques may be particularly applicable to the fabrication of vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray collimator optics.

Parks, R. E.

407

Photochemical cutting of fabrics  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for the cutting of garment patterns from one or more layers of fabric. A laser capable of producing laser light at an ultraviolet wavelength is utilized to shine light through a pattern, such as a holographic phase filter, and through a lens onto the one or more layers of fabric. The ultraviolet laser light causes rapid photochemical decomposition of the one or more layers of fabric, but only along the pattern. The balance of the fabric of the one or more layers of fabric is undamaged.

Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1994-01-01

408

Photochemical cutting of fabrics  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus is described for the cutting of garment patterns from one or more layers of fabric. A laser capable of producing laser light at an ultraviolet wavelength is utilized to shine light through a pattern, such as a holographic phase filter, and through a lens onto the one or more layers of fabric. The ultraviolet laser light causes rapid photochemical decomposition of the one or more layers of fabric, but only along the pattern. The balance of the fabric of the one or more layers of fabric is undamaged. 1 fig.

Piltch, M.S.

1994-11-22

409

Photocrosslinked poly(ester anhydride)s for peptide delivery: Effect of oligomer hydrophobicity on PYY3-36 delivery.  

PubMed

The treatment for many diseases can be improved by developing more efficient peptide delivery technologies, for example, biodegradable polymers. In this work, photocrosslinked poly(ester anhydride)s based on functionalized poly(?-caprolactone) oligomers were investigated for their abilities to achieve controlled peptide delivery. The effect of oligomer hydrophobicity on erosion and peptide release from poly(ester anhydride)s was evaluated by developing a sustained subcutaneous delivery system for an antiobesity drug candidate, peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36). Oligomer hydrophobicity was modified with alkenylsuccinic anhydrides containing a 12-carbon alkenyl chain. PYY3-36 was mixed as a solid powder with methacrylated poly(ester anhydride) precursors, and this mixture was photocrosslinked at room temperature to form an implant for subcutaneous administration in rats. The oligomer hydrophobicity controlled the polymer erosion and PYY3-36 release as the increased hydrophobicity via the alkenyl chain prolonged polymer erosion in vitro and sustained in vivo release of PYY3-36. In addition, photocrosslinked poly(ester anhydride)s increased the bioavailability of PYY3-36 by up to 20-fold in comparison with subcutaneous administration of solution, evidence of remarkably improved delivery. In conclusion, this work demonstrates the suitability of photocrosslinked poly(ester anhydride)s for use in peptide delivery. PMID:21964317

Mönkäre, Juha; Hakala, Risto A; Kovalainen, Miia; Korhonen, Harri; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Seppälä, Jukka V; Järvinen, Kristiina

2011-09-22

410

A high-performance dielectric elastomer consisting of bio-based polyester elastomer and titanium dioxide powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bio-based polyester elastomer containing many polar groups was combined with high-dielectric-constant titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder to form a dielectric elastomer composite for the first time. The effects of the titanium dioxide filler on the elastic modulus, dielectric properties, and electromechanical responses of the polyester dielectric elastomer were studied. We found that the dielectric constant of composites increased with increasing content of TiO2. Nevertheless, the elastic modulus of the composites did not increase with increasing content of TiO2, and the polyester elastomer filled with 6 vol. % of TiO2 exhibited the lowest elastic modulus, which led to a high prestrain-free actuated strain of 11.8% at a low electric field of just 9.8 kV/mm. The actuated strain is better than other dielectric elastomers reported in the literature. The high electromechanical performance was attributed to the increase in dielectric constant and decrease in elastic modulus of the composite from those of the pure polyester elastomer. The decrease in elastic modulus was explained in detail by the competing effects of crosslink density and filler network. In addition, a dramatic increase in dielectric constant of the composite was observed and discussed through several dielectric mixing rules. Finally, the polyester elastomer and titanium dioxide are both environment-friendly, making possible the composite to be used in biological and medical devices.

Yang, Dan; Tian, Ming; Dong, Yingchao; Kang, Hailan; Gong, Daolin; Zhang, Liqun

2013-10-01

411

Click synthesis of neutral, cationic, and zwitterionic poly(propargyl glycolide)-co-poly(?-caprolactone)-based aliphatic polyesters as antifouling biomaterials.  

PubMed

With the development of polymer-based biomaterials, aliphatic polyesters have attracted considerable interest because of their non-toxicity, non-allergenic property, and good biocompatibility. However, the hydrophobic nature and the lack of side chain functionalities of aliphatic polyesters limit their biomedical applications. In this study, we prepared four new polyesters: poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate)-, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphotidylcholine)-, poly(ethylene glycol)-, and quaternized poly[(2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate]-grafted poly(propargyl glycolide)-co-poly(?-caprolactone). Their synthesis was conducted through ring-opening polymerization of acetylene-functionalized lactones and subsequent graft of bioactive units using click chemistry. The chemical structures of the polyesters were characterized through nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and their physical properties (including molecular weight, glass transition temperature, and melting point) were determined using gel permeation chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry. For studies on their hydrophilicity, stability, and anti-bioadhesive property, a series of polymeric surfaces of these polyesters was prepared by coating them onto glass substrates. The hydrophilicity and stability of these polyester surfaces were examined by contact angle measurements and attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Their anti-bioadhesive property was investigated through protein adsorption, as well as cellular and bacterial adhesion assays. The prepared polyesters showed good hydrophilicity and long-lasting stability, as well as significant anti-fouling property. The newly prepared polyesters could be developed as promising anti-fouling materials with extensive biomedical applications. PMID:23511626

Tu, Qin; Wang, Jian-Chun; Liu, Rui; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Yanrong; Wang, Dong-En; Yuan, Mao-Sen; Xu, Juan; Wang, Jinyi

2013-02-21

412

A functional test comparison between mica over bare copper and double polyester glass over heavy polyesteramide imide insulation for high voltage multiturn coils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many European and Asian manufacturers of high voltage multiturn coils have selected mica over bare copper as their preferred turn insulation rather than the double polyester glass over heavy polyester-amide imide film that is often used in the United States. A functional test program was developed to look at the process, performance and cost tradeoffs of both systems. A set

2003-01-01

413

Structural and Functional Studies of A. oryzae Cutinase: Enhanced Thermostability and Hydrolytic Activity of Synthetic Ester and Polyester Degradation  

PubMed Central

Cutinases are responsible for hydrolysis of the protective cutin lipid polyester matrix in plants and thus have been exploited for hydrolysis of small molecule esters and polyesters. Here we explore the reactivity, stability, and structure of Aspergillus oryzae cutinase and compare it to the well-studied enzyme from Fusarium solani. Two critical differences are highlighted in the crystallographic analysis of the A. oryzae structure: (i) an additional disulfide bond and (ii) a topologically favored catalytic triad with a continuous and deep groove. These structural features of A. oryzae cutinase are proposed to result in improved hydrolytic activity and altered substrate specificity profile, enhanced thermostability and remarkable reactivity towards the degradation of the synthetic polyester, polycaprolactone. The results presented here provide insight into engineering new cutinase-inspired biocatalysts with tailor-made properties.

Liu, Zhiqiang; Gosser, Yuying; Baker, Peter James; Ravee, Yaniv; Lu, Ziying; Alemu, Girum; Li, Huiguang; Butterfoss, Glenn L.; Kong, Xiang-Peng; Gross, Richard; Montclare, Jin Kim

2009-01-01

414

Structural and Functional Studies of Aspergillus oryzae Cutinase: Enhanced Thermostability and Hydrolytic Activity of Synthetic Ester and Polyester Degradation  

SciTech Connect

Cutinases are responsible for hydrolysis of the protective cutin lipid polyester matrix in plants and thus have been exploited for hydrolysis of small molecule esters and polyesters. Here we explore the reactivity, stability, and structure of Aspergillus oryzae cutinase and compare it to the well-studied enzyme from Fusarium solani. Two critical differences are highlighted in the crystallographic analysis of the A. oryzae structure: (i) an additional disulfide bond and (ii) a topologically favored catalytic triad with a continuous and deep groove. These structural features of A. oryzae cutinase are proposed to result in an improved hydrolytic activity and altered substrate specificity profile, enhanced thermostability, and remarkable reactivity toward the degradation of the synthetic polyester polycaprolactone. The results presented here provide insight into engineering new cutinase-inspired biocatalysts with tailor-made properties.

Liu, Z.; Gosser, Y; Baker, P; Ravee, Y; Li, H; Butterfoss, G; Kong, X; Gross, R; Montclare, J; et al.

2009-01-01

415

Fumed silica concentration effect on structure and dielectric properties of a styrene-cross-linked unsaturated polyester resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentration effects of a high-reactive-surface nanosized SiO2 filler on structure and dielectrical properties of a styrene-cross-linked polyester resin have been experimentally studied. Thermal desorption mass-spectroscopy, IR-spectroscopy, dielectric spectroscopy, and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy were used to determine an atomic content of thermal destruction products, IR-reflection spectra, complex dielectric permittivity, and a nature of positron traps as function of filler content in the polymer matrix. Interaction between active surface centers of SiO2-nanoparticles and atoms of polyester chains and styrene molecules gives the non-monotonous influence on the structure of polyester chains, macromolecule polarity, dielectric parameters and the number of positronium nanotraps.

Gorelov, B. M.; Polovina, O. I.; Gorb, A. M.; Dacko, S.; Kostrzewa, M.; Ingram, A.

2012-11-01

416

A comparison study of improvement of binding strength of polypyrrole (PPy) coating on polyester using Argon, Oxygen and Nitrogen plasma treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we have studied the performance of different plasma gases (Ar, N2, and O2) and the factors responsible for the improvement of binding of PPy with both polyester thin film and fabric. The plasma was generated by a radio frequency (RF) generator. The gas pressure (8x10^ -2mbar) and the RF power (100 W) were kept the same, while treatment time varied between 60 and 180 sec. Treated samples were subsequently coated with PPy. The oxygen plasma treated samples showed much more pronounced changes in the surface topography compared to nitrogen and argon plasma treated samples. The contact angle decreased from 84 for the untreated sample to 55 for Argon, 42 for nitrogen and 35 for oxygen plasma-treated samples after 120 sec treatment. Abrasion resistance and conductivity measurements suggest effectiveness of different plasma gases in the following order: O2>Ar>N2. XPS results show a decrease in C-C (284.6 eV) and an increase in C-O (286.4 eV) and O-C=O (288.7 eV) percentages for each plasma gas, while oxygen to carbon ratios for oxygen, argon and nitrogen plasma are 0.56, 0.5 and 0.46 respectively. It is concluded that improvement of binding of PPy is both due to increased surface roughness and incorporation of oxygen containing functional groups.

Mehmood, Tariq; Dai, Jane; Kouzani, Abbas; Kaynak, Akif

2011-11-01

417

A comparison study of improvement of binding strength of polypyrrole (PPy) coating on polyester using Argon, Oxygen and Nitrogen plasma treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we have studied the performance of different plasma gases (Ar, N2, and O2) and the factors responsible for the improvement of binding of PPy with both polyester thin film and fabric. The plasma was generated by a radio frequency (RF) generator. The gas pressure (8x10-2mbar) and the RF power (100 W) were kept the same, while treatment time varied between 60 and 180 sec. Treated samples were subsequently coated with PPy. The oxygen plasma treated samples showed much more pronounced changes in the surface topography compared to nitrogen and argon plasma treated samples. The contact angle decreased from 84 for the untreated sample to 55 for Argon, 42 for nitrogen and 35 for oxygen plasma-treated samples after 120 sec treatment. Abrasion resistance and conductivity measurements suggest effectiveness of different plasma gases in the following order: O2>Ar>N2. XPS results show a decrease in C-C (284.6 eV) and an increase in C-O (286.4 eV) and O-C=O (288.7 eV) percentages for each plasma gas, while oxygen to carbon ratios for oxygen, argon and nitrogen plasma are 0.56, 0.5 and 0.46 respectively. It is concluded that improvement of binding of PPy is both due to increased surface roughness and incorporation of oxygen containing functional groups.

Mehmood, Tariq; Dai, Jane; Kouzani, Abbas; Kaynak, Akif

2011-11-01

418

Curing study of orthophtalic polyester resin: Effect on the degradation in saline environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, composite materials based on a polymeric matrix are widely used in structural applications as engineering materials which offer high performances in advanced industrial sectors such as aerospace, aeronautical, transport, construction, etc. They can provide excellent mechanical and chemical properties, good chemical and weather resistance and low cost. Unsaturated polyester is one of the most used thermoset as a matrix for glass fibre reinforcements because of its good relationship properties/cost/quality, since it allows a more competitive cost. Due to the importance that this type of materials reach in some industrial sectors, it is important the mechanical behaviour evaluation as one of the priorities in practically any of their applications; also, it is important to keep in mind that most of industrial sectors that use this resin are subjected to extreme environmental conditions that can produce degradation in the material and therefore, chemical resistance of composites becomes a critical characteristic in those applications that require a contact with environmental agents that can induce some degradation processes and, consequently, a substantial change on general performance. The present study is focussed in the analysis of the effect of curing reaction of the thermosetting matrix of unsaturated orthophtalic polyester in the long term behaviour of materials made up of this type of matrix and glass fibre reinforcement. This is to determine the optimum processing conditions and its behaviour in an aggressive environment, concretely, marine environment. Considering this, crosslinking level of the resin is a decisive parameter, since we can expect lower saline water absorption for high crosslinking levels. The optimum processing conditions are those that permit to obtain the highest crosslinking level in the unsaturated polyester internal structure. Since the degradation effect is related to the crosslinking level of the internal structure, with the optimum cured state conditions the loss of mechanical performance due to degradation is minimum, and therefore the resin shows the maximum quality to reach specifications required in its industrial service.

Sanchez Nacher, Lourdes

419

Shrinkage of intraperitoneal onlay mesh in sheep: coated polyester mesh versus covered polypropylene mesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Currently, the laparoscopic placement of intraperitoneal mesh constitutes an acceptable option in the management of ventral\\u000a hernia. To date, relatively little has been published on the consequences of intra-abdominal placement of a mesh with respect\\u000a to the decrease of mesh size (shrinkage).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In each of 16 sheep, four meshes (dimensions 10 × 10 cm), two based on polyester and two on polypropylene, were

N. B. Zinther; P. Wara; H. Friis-Andersen

2010-01-01

420

Influence of carbon nanotubes diameter on thermal conductivity of polyester based nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered good candidates to improve the physical properties of polymeric materials. It is well known that CNTs have one of the highest thermal conductivities in nature. However, it has been found that thermal resistance between polymer matrix and CNTs, at nanometric scale, could imply a disadvantage to obtain high thermal conductivity nanocomposites. In this work, the effect of CNTs diameter on the effective thermal conductivity of composites based on polyester resin is studied. In particular, the effects of CNT's diameter and volume fraction are analyzed. The thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites is obtained determining the thermal diffusivity by photothermal radiometry and from the values of their specific heat capacity.

de Coss-Martínez, Romeo; Quiñones-Weiss, Graciela Inés; Anely Doporto-Valladares, Jazmín; Guadalupe Vales-Pinzón, Caridad; Zambrano-Arjona, Miguel Ángel; Mendez-Gamboa, José Ángel; Medina-Esquivel, Rubén Arturo; Alvarado-Gil, Juan José

2012-02-01

421

Outgassing rate of Reemay Spunbonded Polyester and DuPont Double Aluminized Mylar  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the outgassing rates of two commercially available multi-layer insulation (MLI) materials commonly used in cryogenic applications. Both Reemay Spunbonded Polyester and DuPont Double Aluminized Mylar (DAM) were studied for outgassing species and respective rates, and the total amount of outgassed material. Measurements were made using a Fixed Aperture Technique. A sample was pumped on through an aperture of known size with a turbomolecular pump. Pressure vs. time was plotted for both Reemay and DAM, as well as the baseline system, and data conveniently extrapolated to {approx}1,000 hrs. A quadrupole residual gas analyzer was used to measure the outgassing species.

Todd, R.J.; Pate, D.; Welch, K.M.

1993-08-01

422

Deuterium isotope exchange reaction between hydrogen and water over polyester-supported platinum catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Deuterium transfer between hydrogen and water over polyester-supported platinum has been found to follow a two-step process, namely, an initial fast step followed by a slower one. The faster exchange step was more susceptible to water poisoning while the other step continued to be active for H/D exchange reaction during prolonged contact with liquid water. The results are in agreement with the existence of heterogeneous metal sites with varying degrees of catalytic activity and support the mechanism whereby the chemisorption of both the water and hydrogen molecules at metal sites leads to the deuterium exchange process.

Gupta, N.M.; Mishra, K.; Belapurkar, A.D.; Rama Rao, K.V.S.; Iyer, R.M. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India))

1990-02-01

423

Determination of glyphosate and AMPA on polyester-toner electrophoresis microchip with contactless conductivity detection.  

PubMed

This paper reports a method for rapid, simple, direct, and reproducible determination of glyphosate and its major metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). The platform described herein uses polyester-toner microchips incorporating capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection and electrophoresis separation of the analytes. The polyester-toner microchip presented 150 ?m-wide and 12 ?m-deep microchannels, with injection and separation lengths of 10 and 40 mm long, respectively. The best results were obtained with 320 kHz frequency, 4.5 Vpp excitation voltage, 80 mmol/L CHES/Tris buffer at pH 8.8, injection in -1.0 kV for 7 s, and separation in -1.5 kV. RSD values related to the peak areas for glyphosate and AMPA were 1.5 and 3.3% and 10.1 and 8.6% for intra- and interchip assays, respectively. The detection limits were 45.1 and 70.5 ?mol/L, respectively, without any attempt of preconcentration of the analytes. Finally, the method was applied to river water samples in which glyphosate and AMPA (1.0 mmol/L each) were added. The recovery results were 87.4 and 83.7% for glyphosate and AMPA, respectively. The recovery percentages and LOD values obtained here were similar to others reported in the literature. PMID:23595638

da Silva, Eduardo R; Segato, Thiago P; Coltro, Wendell K T; Lima, Renato S; Carrilho, Emanuel; Mazo, Luiz H

2013-06-26

424

A microbial factory for lactate-based polyesters using a lactate-polymerizing enzyme  

PubMed Central

Polylactate (PLA) is synthesized as a representative bio-based polyester by the chemo-bio process on the basis of metal catalyst-mediated chemical polymerization of lactate (LA) supplied by microbial fermentation. To establish the one-step microbial process for synthesis of LA-based polyesters, we explored whether polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase would exhibit polymerizing activity toward a LA-coenzyme A (CoA), based on the fact that PHA monomeric constituents, especially 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), are structurally analogous to LA. An engineered PHA synthase was discovered as a candidate by a two-phase in vitro polymerization system previously developed. An LA-CoA producing Escherichia coli strain with a CoA transferase gene was constructed, and the generation of LA-CoA was demonstrated by capillary electrophoresis/MS analysis. Next, when the engineered PHA synthase gene was introduced into the resultant recombinant strain, we confirmed the one-step biosynthesis of the LA-incorporated copolyester, P(6 mol% LA-co-94 mol% 3HB), with a number-average molecular weight of 1.9 × 105, as revealed by gel permeation chromatography, gas chromatography/MS, and NMR.

Taguchi, Seiichi; Yamada, Miwa; Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Tajima, Kenji; Satoh, Yasuharu; Munekata, Masanobu; Ohno, Katsuhiro; Kohda, Katsunori; Shimamura, Takashi; Kambe, Hiromi; Obata, Shusei

2008-01-01

425

Shrinkproofing of Fabrics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Knitted fabrics are fulled and shrinkproofed by a process wherein a loosely-knitted fabric is exposed to a diisocyanate. The so-treated material is then fulled and treated with a polyamine, whereby a polyurea is formed on the surface of the fibers and the...

C. E. Pardo R. E. Foster W. Fong

1977-01-01

426

Soft substrate as a sacrificial layer for fabrication free-standing SU-8-based nanofluidic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we describe a new fabrication process utilizing polydimethylesiloxane (PDMS) and polyester (PET) as a sacrificial substrate for fabricating free-standing SU-8-based nanofluidic system. The soft substrate permits SU-8 UV cured patterning and layer-to-layer bonding, and allows the SU-8 structures to be easily peeled off from the substrate after complete fabrication. In the process, PDMS-on glass is used as a handling wafer, on which SU-8 based trenches is imprinted by a flexible film mold using low-pressure nanoimprint lithography. The reservoir pattern of SU-8 is fabricated on the bonding layer, in which PET serves as substrate. The nanochannel is sealed by optimized bonding process, which is flexible and easily controllable with the use of soft substrate as a sacrificial layer. After bonding process, PDMS and PET could be easily peeled off from nanaofluidic system. The SEM results shows that the height of the fully enclosed nanochannels will be about hundreds nanometer. Large area of free standing SU-8 structure layers are successfully fabricated and peeled off from the soft substrate layer as single continuous sheets.

Li, Xiaojun; Wang, Xudi; Jin, Jian; Li, Xin; Tian, Yangchao; Fu, Shaojun

2010-05-01

427

Synthesis and spectral-luminescence properties of aromatic polyamides and polyesters with chromophores in the polymer main chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report copolycondensation reactions of several benzimidazole-, benzoxazole- and diphenylanthracenyl-containing chromophores with m-phenylenediamine (MPD), isophthaloyl chloride (IPC) and bisphenol A (BPA) to form polyamides and polyesters. The absorbance and fluorescence spectra of the polymers were measured and the actual molar ratios of luminophoric and nonluminophoric moieties in their structures were determined by comparison to model compounds. Most copolymers showed intense

N. N. Barashkov; T. S. Novikova; D. J. Guerrero; J. P. Ferraris

1995-01-01

428

Polyester synthesis in transplastomic tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.): significant contents of polyhydroxybutyrate are associated with growth reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathway for synthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a polyester produced by three bacterial enzymes, was transferred to the tobacco plastid genome by the biolistic transformation method. The polycistronic phb operon encoding this biosynthetic pathway was cloned into plastome transformation vectors. Following selection and regeneration, the content and structure of plant-produced hydroxybutyrate was analysed by gas chromatography. Significant PHB synthesis was

A. Lössl; C. Eibl; H.-J. Harloff; C. Jung; H.-U. Koop

2003-01-01

429

Effect of Fiber Acid Treatment on the Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester\\/Carbon Fiber Unidirectional Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the surface modification of carbon fiber by sulfuric acid is investigated. Atomic Force Microscopy was employed to capture the corresponding changes in the surface roughness of the carbon fiber. Moreover, using treated and untreated fibers, unsaturated polyester unidirectional composite rods were prepared and their flexural properties were determined by three-point bending and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis.The results

Babak Fathi; Masoud Esfandeh; Ali Khalifeh Soltani; Iraj Amiri Amraei

2011-01-01

430

Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered

David N. Thompson; Robert W. Emerick; Alfred B. England; James P. Flanders; Frank J. Loge; Katherine A. Wiedeman; Michael P. Wolcott

2010-01-01

431

Structural and mechanical characteristics of polyester dref-3 yarns in relation to fibre profile and annealing treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of process parameters and annealing treatment on structural parameters, tensile properties, flexural rigidity and abrasion resistance of polyester dref-3 yarns has been studied. Annealing leads to a marked increase in helix angle and helix diameter, and a decrease in mean fibre extent. The results show significant improvement in breaking extension, work of rupture and abrasion resistance, and an

G K Tyagia; J Singh

432

The shrinkage compensation of unsaturated polyester resins — polyvinyl acetate blends polymerization proceeds through fractal morphologies: characterization and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blends of unsaturated polyester, styrene and polyvinyl acetate are hot cured either between glass plates or under pressure in a molding simulator. The morphologies of the products are observed using microscopy and show their usual aspects. They are characterized according to fractal concepts by image processing; the influence of mixture composition, pressure and temperature is investigated. Based on the hypothesis

M. Ruffier; G. Merle; J. P. Pascault; H. Bouleçane; N. Vincent

1996-01-01

433

Control of shrinkage and residual styrene of unsaturated polyester resins cured at low temperatures: I. Effect of curing agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In low temperature molding processes, control of resin shrinkage and residual monomer is an important concern. The presence of low profile additives (LPAs) can reduce the shrinkage of unsaturated polyester (UP)\\/styrene (St) resins under proper processing conditions but may increase the residual styrene content. A systematic study was carried out to investigate the effect of the initiator system and reaction

Xia Cao; L. James Lee

2003-01-01

434

Low temperature cure of unsaturated polyester resins with thermoplastic additives III. Modification of polyvinyl acetate for better shrinkage control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copolymers of vinyl acetate and acid monomers were synthesized by emulsion polymerization and applied as shrinkage control additives in the polymerization of unsaturated polyester (UP) and styrene at low temperatures. The presence of acid groups on the copolymer chain changes the selectivity of the cobalt promoter, and in turn, the relative reaction rate in the thermoplastic-rich and the UP-rich phase

W Li; L. J Lee; K. H Hsu

2000-01-01

435

Study on Stretching Methods of Biaxially Stretched Co-polyester Film with Has Uniaxially Heat Shrinkage Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat shrinkable film made of stretched film is widely used for decorative labels by attaching on PET bottles with heat shrinkage by steam or dry heating. Trouble cancellation in the installation process of the PET bottle is necessary. The purpose of this study is development of uniaxially heat shrinkable co-polyester film that has strength both in the machine direction (MD)

Masayuki Haruta; Yukinobu Mukouyama; Norimi Tabota; Katsuya Ito; Chisato Nonomura

2010-01-01

436

Polyester Polymer Concrete Overlay: I-90 Contract 8018, Vic Geiger RD to Spokane Viaduct-PCCP Rehab.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polyester polymer concrete (PPC) was used in a trial application on a section of pavement that suffers from extensive studded tire wear. The purpose of the trial section is to determine if PPC is a possible repair strategy for this type of pavement damage...

C. Simonson J. S. Uhlmeyer K. Littleton K. W. Anderson M. Russell

2013-01-01

437

Certain Polyester Staple Fiber from Korea and Taiwan. Investigation Nos. 731-TA-825 and 826 (Second Review).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In May of 2000, the Commission unanimously determined that an industry in the United States was materially injured by reason of LTFV imports of conventional polyester staple fiber (i.e., certain PSF), but reached a negative determination with respect to L...

2011-01-01

438

THE PHASE BEHAVIOR OF FLUORINATED DIOLS, DIVINYL ADIPATE, AND A FLUORINATED POLYESTER IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE. (R828131)  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction medium for polyester synthesis is hindered by the low solubility of diols in CO2. However, it has been previously demonstrated that fluorinated compounds can exhibit greater miscibility with carbon dioxide than t...

439

Identification of the major polyunsaturated C 16 acids of marine oils by GLC separation factors on normal and organosilicone polyesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tentative identification of the unsaturated C16 acids of marine oils is facilitated through analysis on both normal and organosilicone polyester substrates. Two different\\u000a separation factors can then be approximated from the more accessible separation factors appropriate to unsaturated acids of\\u000a longer chain lengths.

R. G. Ackman; P. M. Jangaard

1963-01-01

440

Electrochemical identification of metal ions in archaeological ceramic glazes by stripping voltammetry at graphite\\/polyester composite electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical response of metal ions in different samples of coloured ceramic tin–lead glazes attached to graphite\\/polyester composite electrodes is described. In addition to the ubiquous signals for lead, reductive dissolution processes are followed by anodic stripping peaks for Co, Cu, Sb, Mn, Sn and Fe, enabling the direct identification of such elements in microsamples proceeding from archaeological glazed tiles

A Doménech-Carbó; M. T Doménech-Carbó; L Osete-Cortina; J. V Gimeno-Adelantado; F Bosch-Reig; R Mateo-Castro

2002-01-01

441

Dilatation of Stent-Grafts by Luminal Pressures: Experimental Evaluation of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Woven Polyester Grafts  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the effect on dilatation of three types of covering materials used for endovascular stent-grafts.Methods: Stent-grafts with three types of covering material [0.1-mm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 0.2-mm PTFE, and 0.15-mm woven polyester] were placed in a fluid circuit. For the pulsatile pressure test, the luminal pressure of 190/130 mmHg was loaded up to 300,000 pulses. For the static pressure test, the luminal pressure was increased from 50 to 300 mmHg at 50-mmHg increments. The percent of dilatation of each stent-graft was compared.Results: The 0.1-mm PTFE stent-graft was significantly more dilated than the 0.2-mm PTFE and the 0.15-mm woven polyester stent-graft (p < 0.005) in both examinations. There was no significant difference between the 0.2-mm PTFE and the 0.15-mm woven polyester stent-grafts. The dilatation of the 0.1-mm PTFE stent-graft was irreversible.Conclusion: The 0.15-mm woven polyester and the 0.2-mm PTFE stent-grafts may be preferable to the 0.1-mm PTFE stent-graft with regard to dilatation and deformity.

Suzuki, Kojiro; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Kawatsu, Shoji; Iwai, Hiroyoshi; Maruyama, Kunihiro; Ishigaki, Takeo [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)

2001-03-15

442

Thermal performance measurements of a 100 percent polyester MLI (multilayer insulation) system for the Superconducting Super Collider  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plastic materials used in the multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets of the superconducting magnets of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are comprised entirely of polyesters. This paper reports on tests conducted in three separate experimental blanket arrangements. The tests explore the thermal performance of two candidate blanket joint configurations each employing a variation of a stepped-butted joint nested between sewn

J. D. Gonczy; W. N. Boroski; R. C. Niemann

1989-01-01

443

Thermal performance measurements of a 100 percent polyester MLI (multilayer insulation) system for the Superconducting Super Collider  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal performance measurements of a 100 percent polyester multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) were conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) under three experimental test arrangements. Each experiment measured the thermal performance of a 32-layer MLI blanket instrumented with twenty foil sensors to measure interstitial layer temperatures. Heat leak values and sensor temperatures were

W. N. Boroski; J. D. Gonczy; R. C. Niemann

1989-01-01

444

Polyester and nylon powders used as pollen diluents preserve pollen germination and tube growth in controlled pollinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen acquisition for seed production, breeding programs and supplemental pollination can be costly and difficult. The identification of dry particulates for use as pollen diluents would facilitate the use of limited amounts of pollen and aid in accurate pollen application and dispersion. Four powders - Rilsan ES, polyester, wheat flour, and Lycopodium spores - were evaluated as pollen diluents using

Weiguang Yi; Edward S. Law; Hazel Y. Wetzstein

2003-01-01

445

Powder characteristics and coating conditions of fresh and reused polyester resins for electrostatic powder coating: powder recycling and loss prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder characteristics and coating conditions are significant factors in electrostatic powder coating. In this work, powder characteristics of the reused polyester resin or recycled powder particles in terms of shape, size, particle size distribution, moisture content, density, flowability, fluidity and chargeability were compared with those of fresh resin or as-received powder to consider powder recycling. The coating conditions for a

A. W. Lothongkum; R. Nonthapone; K. Seangkiatiyuth; W. Tanthapanichkoon

2007-01-01

446

The effect of woven and non-woven fiber structure on mechanical properties polyester composite reinforced kenaf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of woven and non-woven kenaf fiber on mechanical properties of polyester composites were studied at different types of perform structures. Composite polyester reinforced kenaf fiber has been prepared via hand lay-up process by varying fiber forms into plain weave, twill and mats structure. The reinforcing efficiency of different fiber structure was compared with control of unreinforced polyester sample. It was found that the strength and stiffness of the composites are largely affected by fiber structure. A maximum value for tensile strength of composite was obtained for twill weave pattern of fiber structure while no significant different for plain weave and mat structure. The elastic modulus of composite has shown some improvement on plain and twill weave pattern. Meanwhile, lower value of modulus elasticity achieved by mats structure composite as well as control sample. The modulus of rupture and impact resistance were also analyzed. The improvement of modulus of rupture value can be seen on plain and twill weave pattern. However impact resistance doesn't show significant improvement in all types of structure except for mat fiber. The mechanical properties of kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composite found to be increased with woven and non-woven fiber structures in composite.

Ratim, S.; Bonnia, N. N.; Surip, N. S.

2012-06-01

447

Structure–property study of waterborne, polyurethane acrylate dispersions based on hyperbranched aliphatic polyester for UV-curable coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of waterborne, hyperbranched polyurethane acrylates for aqueous dispersions (WHPUDs) based on hydroxy-functionalized hyperbranched aliphatic polyester Boltorn H20 were synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The aqueous dispersions were electrostatically stabilized with carboxyl groups incorporated into their structures, which were neutralized by triethylamine (TEA). The effects of chemical structures of end groups on various properties of

Anila Asif; Chengyu Huang; Wenfang Shi

2004-01-01

448

Carbon black containing interpenetrating polymer networks based on unsaturated polyester\\/epoxy III: thermal and pyrolysis analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, carbon black flame retardants were chosen to improve the flame resistance of the interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on unsaturated polyester\\/epoxy due to the expansion of carbon black at elevated temperatures. The results of DSC reveal that the Tg of the IPN sample became indistinct as the carbon black was added. This is due to the increase

Yeng-Fong Shih; Ru-Jong Jeng; Kuo-Min Wei

2003-01-01

449

Ab initio and DFT derived potential energy functions in simulations of selected polyesters based on atomistic models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on atomistic simulations of polyesters, the main interest being in the performance of classical models. The Polymer Consistent Force Field (PCFF), developed for synthetic polymers, forms the basis for the simulations. The calculated properties of synthetic polymers depend strongly on the conformational statistics of the polymer chains, and the force field is, therefore, of crucial importance for the reliability of the simulations. Thus, the PCFF has been tested by comparing its results for model molecules of the polyesters studied with those of quantum mechanical ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) calculations regarding the rotational behaviour of typical bonds in these polyesters. The calculations showed that there were severe disagreements between the quantum mechanical and the PCFF studies, leading thus to re-optimisation of the particular torsion potentials of the PCFF. The quantum mechanical methods used were also compared, and though they gave mostly similar results, the DFT methods were found to underestimate some of the torsional barriers. The modified PCFF was shown to yield results in good agreement with experimental data for single chain properties of the selected polyesters. The dependence of the RIS Metropolis Monte Carlo (RMMC) method, used for these property calculations, on different run parameters, was discussed in more detail. The RMMC method, using the original and modified PCFFs, was also used in studies on the flexibility of some polyesters, which are known to be biodegradable, i.e. of polylactic (PLA) and polyglycolic (PGA) acids and some of their copolymers. The original PCFF was found to reproduce the flexibilities of these polyesters in contradiction with the results obtained with the modified PCFF. Finally, the modified PCFF was applied to molecular dynamics simulations on the constructed amorphous models for PLA and PGA and some of their copolymers to study the probability for hydrolysis as the first stage of biodegradation. The main conclusion of this study is, that re- optimisation of the torsion parameters was necessary to reproduce the torsional behaviour obtained by QM methods. The modified PCFF can, thus, be reliably used in single chain property calculations and in studies on bulk material properties of polyesters containing structural units studied in this work.

Blomqvist, Johanna Marjaana

450

New polymorphous computing fabric.  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces a new polymorphous computing Fabric well suited to DSP and Image Processing and describes its implementation on a Configurable System on a Chip (CSOC). The architecture is highly parameterized and enables customization of the synthesized Fabric to achieve high performance for a specific class of application. For this reason it can be considered to be a generic model for hardware accelerator synthesis from a high level specification. Another important innovation is the Fabric uses a global memory concept, which gives the host processor random access to all the variables and instructions on the Fabric. The Fabric supports different computing models including MIMD, SPMD and systolic flow and permits dynamic reconfiguration. We present a specific implementation of a bank of FIR filters on a Fabric composed of 52 cells on the Altera Excalibur ARM running at 33 MHz. The theoretical performance of this Fabric is 1.8 GMACh. For the FIR application we obtain 1.6 GMAC/s real performance. Some automatic tools have been developed like the tool to provide a host access utility and assembler.

Wolinski, C. (Christophe); Gokhale, M. (Maya); McCabe, K. P. (Kevin P.)

2002-01-01

451

Curing of polyester powder coating modified with rutile nano-sized titanium dioxide studied by DSC and real-time FT-IR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyester powder coating modified with 2 mass% of rutile nano-sized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) was prepared by melt-blend extrusion method. The nano-TiO2 dispersion state in the powder coating matrix was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), which\\u000a presented a well dispersion of modified nano-TiO2 in the polyester powder coating. The effect of nano-TiO2 on the curing of polyester powder

Qiwu Shi; Wanxia Huang; Yubo Zhang; Yang Zhang; Yuanjie Xu; Gang Guo

452

Fabricating a shoulder somatoprosthesis.  

PubMed

A technique for the fabrication of a shoulder prosthesis has been described. The prosthesis has proven to be an effective means of rehabilitating a patient following an intrascapulothoracic amputation. The patient may once again wear clothing without having it adjusted to conform to the defect. Such rehabilitation has been of great psychologic value for patients and their families as well. The impression and processing procedures are effective for the fabrication of a shoulder prosthesis. The principles of this technique may be applied to the fabrication of other large somatoprostheses. PMID:6938685

Blumenfeld, I; Schortz, R H; Levy, M; Lepley, J B

1981-05-01

453

Instrumentation Fabrication Branch  

NASA Website

Branch Overview The Instrumentation Fabrication Branch (OC) is responsible for providing Para-Engineering and Technical services which encompass Telemetry support (system development, programming, troubleshooting to data decommutation and display), ...

454

Fabricated torque shaft  

SciTech Connect

A fabricated torque shaft is provided that features a bolt-together design to allow vane schedule revisions with minimal hardware cost. The bolt-together design further facilitates on-site vane schedule revisions with parts that are comparatively small. The fabricated torque shaft also accommodates stage schedules that are different one from another in non-linear inter-relationships as well as non-linear schedules for a particular stage of vanes.

Mashey, Thomas Charles (Anderson, SC)

2002-01-01

455

Superconducting wire fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were done leading to the fabrication of high-temperature superconducting composite wire. Bulk superconductor was characterized by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x ray spectroscopy. The chemical compatibility of superconducting materials with a number of metal sheathing candidates was tested, with silver offering the best compatibility. Wire was fabricated by drawing 0.250-inch-diameter silver tubing packed with superconducting

W. E. Glad; G. G. Chase

1990-01-01

456

Fabric space radiators  

SciTech Connect

Future Air Force space missions will require thermal radiators that both survive in the hostile space environment and stow away for minimal bulk during launch. Advances in all aspects of radiator design, construction, and analysis will be necessary to enable such future missions. Currently, the best means for obtaining high strength along with flexibility is through structures known as fabrics. The development of new materials and bonding techniques has extended the application range of fabrics into areas traditionally dominated by monolithic and/or metallic structures. Given that even current spacecraft heat rejection considerations tend to dominate spacecraft design and mass, the larger and more complex designs of the future face daunting challenges in thermal control. Ceramic fabrics bonded to ultra-thin metal liners (foils) have the potential of achieving radiator performance levels heretofore unattainable, and of readily matching the advances made in other branches of spacecraft design. The research effort documented here indicates that both pumped loops and heat pipes constructed in ceramic fabrics stand to benefit in multiple ways. Flexibility and low mass are the main advantages exhibited by fabric radiators over conventional metal ones. We feel that fabric radiators have intrinsic merits not possessed by any other radiator design and need to be researched further. 26 refs., 16 figs., 17 tabs.

Antoniak, Z.I.; Krotiuk, W.J.; Webb, B.J.; Prater, J.T.; Bates, J.M.

1988-01-01

457

Cell debris self-immobilized thermophilic lipase: a biocatalyst for synthesizing aliphatic polyesters.  

PubMed

The paper explored the catalytic activity of a cell debris self-immobilized thermophilic lipase for polyester synthesis, using the ring-opening polymerization of ?-caprolactone as model. Effects of biocatalyst concentration, temperature, and reaction medium on monomer conversion and product molecular weight were systematically evaluated. The biocatalyst displayed high catalytic activity at high temperatures (70-90 °C), with 100 % monomer conversion. High monomer conversion values (>90 %) were achieved in both hydrophobic and hydrophilic solvents, and also in solvent-free system, with the exception of dichloromethane. Poly(?-caprolactone) was obtained in 100 % monomer conversion, with a number-average molecular weight of 1,680 g/mol and a polydispersity index of 1.35 in cyclohexane at 70 °C for 72 h. Furthermore, the biocatalyst exhibited excellent operational stability, with monomer conversion values exceeding 90 % over the course of 15 batch reactions. PMID:23536248

Sun, Yang; Yang, Yan; Wang, Chenhui; Liu, Jiaming; Shi, Wei; Zhu, Xiaobo; Lu, Laijin; Li, Quanshun

2013-03-28

458

Reutilization of thermostable polyester wastes by means of agglomeration with phenolic resins.  

PubMed

We report on the possibility of obtaining organic polymeric matrixes allowing the development of new high performance fire-resistant products by recycling downsized thermostable waste materials. Phenolic resins have been used as binders for recycled waste. Furthermore, considering that reinforced plastic triturations have superior properties (chemical, mechanical, water resistance, etc.) to wood agglomerates, significant advantages over conventional materials are anticipated. In summary, we propose a viable solution to some of the known problems caused by the consumption of wood and to the needs of strengthened plastic processing engineering. Using resins as a binder, several fire-resistant prototypes were prepared from polyester waste, and their mechanical properties, thermal stability, and fire-resistant properties were analyzed. PMID:20605431

Correa, M; Laza, J M; Vilas, J L; Bilbao, E; Rodríguez, M; León, L M

2010-06-03

459

The Relationship Between Microstructure and Toughness of Biaxially Oriented Semicrytalline Polyester Films  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between microstructure and toughness of biaxially stretched semicrystalline polyester films was investigated. Optically transparent films were prepared by simultaneous biaxial stretching of melt-cast sheets near the glass transition temperature. Copolyesters of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) with different compositions of two diols: ethylene glycol (EG) and cyclohexane dimethanol (CHDM), and stoichiometrically matched terephthalic acid were used to produce films with different degrees of crystallinity. In addition, the PET films with different crystalline morphologies were produced by constrained high temperature annealing of biaxially oriented films. The toughness, degree of crystallinity and crystalline morphology/molecular ordering were studied using mechanical testing, synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) techniques, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicate that the toughness of a semicrystalline polymeric film is determined by the interconnectivity of the crystalline phase within the amorphous phase and is greatly influenced by the degree of crystallinity and the underlying crystalline morphology.

Rao,Y.; Greener, J.; Avila-Orta, C.; Hsiao, B.; Blanton, T.

2008-01-01

460

Human exposure to styrene. IV. Industrial hygiene investigations and biological monitoring in the polyester industry.  

PubMed

An industrial hygiene study of 10 glassfiber reinforced polyester plants (including 90 workers) was undertaken to investigate the styrene exposure in this industry and to estimate biological limit values (BLV's) for the urinary metabolites of styrene: mandelic (MA) and phenylglyoxylic acids (PGA). Time weighted average (TWA) styrene exposures were found ranging from 2 to 200 ppm. The urinary elimination of metabolites correlated well with exposure and the BLV's corresponding to an 8-h exposure at 100 ppm were consistent with earlier laboratory findings (end-of-shift sample: MA 1640, PGA 510, MA + PGA 2150; next-morning sample: MA 330, PGA 330, MA + PGA 660 mg/g creat.). Total metabolites (MA + PGA) in the next-morning sample or mandelic acid in the end-of-shift sample are recommended for routine monitoring of exposure to styrene. The study revealed the need for further research on how to reduce styrene exposure in this industry. PMID:7160913

Guillemin, M P; Bauer, D; Martin, B; Marazzi, A

1982-01-01

461

Cohesive zone model of carbon nanotube-coated carbon fiber/polyester composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been previously reported that the average properties of carbon nanotube-coated carbon fiber/polyester multiscale composites critically depend on the length and density of nanotubes on the fiber surface. In this paper the effect of nanotube length and density on the interfacial properties of the carbon nanotube-coated carbon fiber-polymer interface has been studied using shear lag and a cohesive zone model. The latter model incorporates frictional sliding after complete debonding between the fiber and matrix and has been developed to quantify the effect of nanotube coating on various interfacial characterizing parameters. Our numerical results indicate that fibers with an optimal coverage and length of nanotubes significantly increase the interfacial strength and friction between the fiber and polymer. However, they also embrittle the interface compared with bare fibers.

Kamal Agnihotri, Prabhat; Kar, Kamal K.; Basu, Sumit

2012-04-01

462

Chemical and Physical Changes in a Hydrolyzed Poly(ester urethane)  

SciTech Connect

Hydrolytic degradation has been shown to be a significant problem for poly(ester urethane) elastomers exposed to high humidity environments. The ester group in the soft segment is particularly susceptible to hydrolysis. One of the products of this reaction is a carboxylic acid group that catalyses further hydrolysis. The resulting reduction in molecular weight leads to deterioration of the elastomer's mechanical properties. In this paper we have measured the extent of the hydrolysis reaction by {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. In addition we have measured the spin-spin relaxation time of the soft phase and followed the increase in mobility of these segments. Both measurements were performed on the solid polymer. These measurements provide an excellent monitoring tool of the chemical and physical state of polymer during the aging process.

ASSINK,ROGER A.; CELINA,MATHIAS C.; LANG,DAVID P.

1999-11-03

463

Test plan for immobilization of salt-containing surrogate mixed wastes using polyester resins  

SciTech Connect

Past operations at many Department of Energy (DOE) sites have resulted in the generation of several waste streams with high salt content. These wastes contain listed and characteristic hazardous constituents and are radioactive. The salts contained in the wastes are primarily chloride, sulfate, nitrate, metal oxides, and hydroxides. DOE has placed these types of wastes under the purview of the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The MWFA has been tasked with developing and facilitating the implementation of technologies to treat these wastes in support of customer needs and requirements. The MWFA has developed a Technology Development Requirements Document (TDRD), which specifies performance requirements for technology owners and developers to use as a framework in developing effective waste treatment solutions. This project will demonstrate the use of polyester resins in encapsulating and solidifying DOE`s mixed wastes containing salts, as an alternative to conventional and other emerging immobilization technologies.

Biyani, R.K.; Douglas, J.C.; Hendrickson, D.W.

1997-07-07

464

Investigation of thermodynamic properties of hyperbranched aliphatic polyesters by inverse gas chromatography.  

PubMed

Thermodynamic properties of a series of commercial hyperbranched aliphatic polyesters (Boltorn H20, H30 and H40) were examined for the first time by inverse gas chromatography (IGC) using 13 different solvents at infinite dilution as probes. Retention data of probes were utilized for an extensive characterization of polymers, which includes the determination of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, the weight fraction activity coefficient as well as the total and partial solubility parameters. Analysis of the results indicated that the total and partial solubility parameters decrease with increase of temperature. Furthermore, upon increase of the molecular weight, while the hydrogen bonding component decreases, no influence on the total solubility parameter is noticed within the experimental error margins. Results from the present study while providing new insight to the thermodynamic characteristics of the examined systems, they are also expected to reflect more general aspects of the behavior of hyperbranched polymers bearing similar end-groups. PMID:19913230

Dritsas, G S; Karatasos, K; Panayiotou, C

2009-10-22

465

Calcarides a-e, antibacterial macrocyclic and linear polyesters from a calcarisporium strain.  

PubMed

Bioactive compounds were detected in crude extracts of the fungus, Calcarisporium sp. KF525, which was isolated from German Wadden Sea water samples. Purification of the metabolites from the extracts yielded the five known polyesters, 15G256?, ?-2, ?, ?-2 and ? (1-5), and five new derivatives thereof, named calcarides A-E (6-10). The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy supported by UV and HRESIMS data. The compounds exhibited inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Xanthomonas campestris and Propionibacterium acnes. As the antibacterial activities were highly specific with regard to compound and test strain, a tight structure-activity relationship is assumed. PMID:23994907

Silber, Johanna; Ohlendorf, Birgit; Labes, Antje; Erhard, Arlette; Imhoff, Johannes F

2013-08-29

466

Cyclosporin absorption is impaired by the fat substitutes, sucrose polyester and tricarballylate triester, in the rat.  

PubMed

The effect of non-absorbable fat substitutes (sucrose polyester (SPE) and tricarballylate triester (TCTE)) on cyclosporin A (CsA) intestinal absorption was studied in the rat using in situ perfusion and gastric intubation techniques. A first experiment using the recirculating intestinal perfusion model showed that emulsions of either 5% SPE or TCTE significantly reduced (p < 0.0008) CsA absorption, whereas no difference was found between results for saline and 5% olive oil emulsion. In single-pass intestinal perfusion experiments SPE dose-dependently inhibited CsA absorption at SPE concentrations of 0.31% (p < 0.0004) and higher. Using gastric intubation, whole blood CsA concentrations significantly decreased when administered with SPE and TCTE in comparison with olive oil (p < 0.04). These results confirm that the CsA fraction dissolved in the undigested oil phase, constituted by the undigested and nonabsorbed fat substitute, is unavailable for intestinal absorption. PMID:7855052

Benmoussa, K; Sabouraud, A; Scherrmann, J M; Bourre, J M

1994-10-01

467

Low-stress indium-tin-oxide thin films rf magnetron sputtered on polyester substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using rf magnetron sputtering, we have grown low resistivity (approx3 x10-4 Omega cm), high transparency (>80%) indium-tin-oxide thin films with near zero stress on polyester substrates, near room temperature. We concluded from analysis of sputtered ions and atoms that bombardment by energetic (>70 eV) negative oxygen ions caused high stress (approx1 GPa) in films grown at lower (6 mTorr) pressure. Sputtering at 12 mTorr dissipated energetic bombardment and reduced film stress to about zero, independent of oxygen partial pressure (pO2). However, increasing pO2 did affect film microstructure, that is, crystallinity, roughness, and grain size.

Carcia, P. F.; McLean, R. S.; Reilly, M. H.; Li, Z. G.; Pillione, L. J.; Messier, R. F.

2002-09-01

468

Calcarides A-E, Antibacterial Macrocyclic and Linear Polyesters from a Calcarisporium Strain  

PubMed Central

Bioactive compounds were detected in crude extracts of the fungus, Calcarisporium sp. KF525, which was isolated from German Wadden Sea water samples. Purification of the metabolites from the extracts yielded the five known polyesters, 15G256?, ?-2, ?, ?-2 and ? (1–5), and five new derivatives thereof, named calcarides A–E (6–10). The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy supported by UV and HRESIMS data. The compounds exhibited inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Xanthomonas campestris and Propionibacterium acnes. As the antibacterial activities were highly specific with regard to compound and test strain, a tight structure-activity relationship is assumed.

Silber, Johanna; Ohlendorf, Birgit; Labes, Antje; Erhard, Arlette; Imhoff, Johannes F.

2013-01-01

469

Formation and Morphology of "shish-like" Fibril Crystals of Aliphatic Polyesters from the Sheared Melt  

SciTech Connect

We found the formation of 'shish-like' fibril crystals of aliphatic polyesters such as poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA), poly({var_epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(12-hydroxydodecanoic acid) (PHDA) and poly(16-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid) (PHHA) from the sheared melt with shear rate {gamma} = 5 s{sup -1} observed by polarizing optical microscope (POM). The melting temperature T{sub m}s of obtained fibril crystals of PLLA and PCL were higher than those of spherulites and were close to the equilibrium melting temperature T{sub m}{sup 0}. The small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns from the bulk sample including fibril crystals, small amount of unoriented small crystals and amorphous showed no peaks arose from the existence of long periods in fibril crystals. These are the evidence that the observed fibril crystals consist of assemblies of a lot of extended chain crystals (ECCs). We observed the morphology of moderately extracted single strand of fibril crystals at the magnification of POM by means of scanning electron microscope. We found that macroscopic fibril crystals of PLLA with diameter d = 10 {micro}m consist of the bundle structure of microscopic fibril crystals with d = 2 {micro}m. From POM observation of the formation of fibril crystals of PLLA and PCL, we showed phase diagrams of molecular weight M and crystallization temperature T{sub c} for the formation of fibril crystals. From these phase diagrams, we evaluated a critical M and T{sub c} for the formation of fibril crystals. Moreover, from the sequential melting and crystallization experiments, it was implied that the entanglement and transesterification play an important role on the formation of fibril crystals of aliphatic polyesters.

Yamazaki, S.; Itoh, M; Oka, T; Kimura, K

2010-01-01

470

Development and long-term in vivo evaluation of a biodegradable urethane-doped polyester elastomer  

PubMed Central

We have recently reported upon the development of crosslinked urethane-doped polyester (CUPE) network elastomers, which was motivated by the desire to overcome the drawbacks presented by crosslinked network polyesters and biodegradable polyurethanes for soft tissue engineering applications. Although the effect of the isocyanate content and post-polymerization conditions on the material structure-property relationship was examined in detail, the ability of the diol component to modulate the material properties was only studied briefly. Herein, we present a detailed report on the development of CUPE polymers synthesized using diols 4, 6, 8, 10, or 12 methylene units in length in order to investigate what role the diol component plays on the resulting material’s physical properties, and assess their long-term biological performance in vivo. An increase in the diol length was shown to affect the physical properties of the CUPE polymers primarily through lowered polymeric crosslinking densities and elevated material hydrophobicity. The use of longer chain diols resulted in CUPE polymers with increased molecular weights resulting in higher tensile strength and elasticity, while also increasing the material hydrophobicity to lower bulk swelling and prolong the polymer degradation rates. Although the number of methylene units largely affected the physical properties of CUPE, the choice of diol did not affect the overall polymer cell/tissue-compatibility both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, we have established the diol component as an important parameter in controlling the structure-property relationship of the polymer in addition to diisocyanate concentration and post-polymerization conditions. Expanding the family of CUPE polymers increases the choices of biodegradable elastomers for tissue engineering applications.

Dey, Jagannath; Tran, Richard T.; Shen, Jinhui; Tang, Liping; Yang, Jian

2011-01-01

471

Development and long-term in vivo evaluation of a biodegradable urethane-doped polyester elastomer.  

PubMed

We have recently reported upon the development of crosslinked urethane-doped polyester (CUPE) network elastomers, which was motivated by the desire to overcome the drawbacks presented by crosslinked network polyesters and biodegradable polyurethanes for soft tissue engineering applications. Although the effect of the isocyanate content and post-polymerization conditions on the material structure-property relationship was examined in detail, the ability of the diol component to modulate the material properties was only studied briefly. Herein, we present a detailed report on the development of CUPE polymers synthesized using diols 4, 6, 8, 10, or 12 methylene units in length in order to investigate what role the diol component plays on the resulting material's physical properties, and assess their long-term biological performance in vivo. An increase in the diol length was shown to affect the physical properties of the CUPE polymers primarily through lowered polymeric crosslinking densities and elevated material hydrophobicity. The use of longer chain diols resulted in CUPE polymers with increased molecular weights resulting in higher tensile strength and elasticity, while also increasing the material hydrophobicity to lower bulk swelling and prolong the polymer degradation rates. Although the number of methylene units largely affected the physical properties of CUPE, the choice of diol did not affect the overall polymer cell/tissue-compatibility both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, we have established the diol component as an important parameter in controlling the structure-property relationship of the polymer in addition to diisocyanate concentration and post-polymerization conditions. Expanding the family of CUPE polymers increases the choices of biodegradable elastomers for tissue engineering applications. PMID:22184499

Dey, Jagannath; Tran, Richard T; Shen, Jinhui; Tang, Liping; Yang, Jian

2011-12-12

472

Low Temperature Measurement of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Phenolic Laminate, the Pultruded Polyester Fiberglass and A and B Epoxy Putty.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low temperature measurements were made and are reported of thermal and mechanical properties of phenolic laminate, pultruded polyester fiberglass, and A and B epoxy putty. To determine the modulus, compressive and tensile stress and strain, an Instron mac...

S. T. Wang S. H. Kim N. S. Kim R. S. Cheng J. Hoffman

1979-01-01

473

Thermal Performance Measurements of a 100 Percent Polyester MLI (Multilayer Insulation) System for the Superconducting Super Collider: Part 2, Laboratory Results (300K-80K).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The plastic materials used in the multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets of the superconducting magnets of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are comprised entirely of polyesters. This paper reports on tests conducted in three separate experimental bl...

J. D. Gonczy W. N. Boroski R. C. Niemann

1989-01-01

474

Enzymatic degradation of polyester films by a cutinase-like enzyme from Pseudozyma antarctica: surface plasmon resonance and atomic force microscopy study.  

PubMed

Enzymatic degradation of polyester films by a cutinase-like enzyme from Pseudozyma antarctica JCM10317 (PaE) was analyzed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The adsorption of PaE and the degradation rate for polyester films were quantitatively monitored by a positive and negative SPR signal shifts, respectively. The decrease in SPR signal and the erosion depth of amorphous poly(L-lactide) (a-PLLA) film measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) had a linear relationship, and the weight loss was estimated from the AFM data combined with a density of a-PLLA film. Furthermore, SPR sensorgrams for various polyester films showed that degradation rate of poly(?-caprolactone) and poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) which contain C6 units was higher than that of other polyesters such as poly(butylene succinate) and a-PLLA. These results suggest that C6 is the preferred chain length as substrates for PaE. PMID:23339012

Shinozaki, Yukiko; Kikkawa, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shun; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Watanabe, Takashi; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

2013-01-22

475

Elevated Temperature Aging of Glass Fiber Reinforced Vinyl Ester and Isopthalic Polyester Composites in Water, Salt Water and Concrete Pore Solution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years, the use of fiber-reinforced vinyl ester and isophthalic polyester (isopolyester) composites in civil infrastructure has grealty increased, due to an optimum combination of desirable properties, processability, and ease of installation ass...

A. Signor J. W. Chin W. L. Hughes

2010-01-01

476

Acetone-soluble cellulose acetate extracted from waste blended fabrics via ionic liquid catalyzed acetylation.  

PubMed

Isolation of cellulose from waste polyester/cotton blended fabrics (WBFs) is a bottleneck for recycling and exploiting waste textiles. The objective of this study was to provide a new environmental-friendly and efficient approach for extracting cellulose derivatives and polyester from WBFs. A Bronsted acidic ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-imidazolium bisulfate, [Hmim]HSO4, was used as a novel catalyst for acetylation of cellulose rather than a solvent with the aim to overcome low isolation efficiency associated with the very high viscosity and relatively high costs of ILs. The extraction yield of acetone-soluble cellulose acetate (CA) was 49.3%, which corresponded to a conversion of 84.5% of the cellulose in the original WBFs; meanwhile, 96.2% of the original poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was recovered. The extracted CA was characterized by (1)H NMR, FTIR, XRD and TGA analysis, and the results indicated that high purity acetone-soluble CA and carbohydrate-free PET could be isolated in this manner from WBFs. PMID:23987361

Sun, Xunwen; Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Dong; Zhang, Xinxing

2013-06-18

477

Predicting the unevenness of polyester\\/viscose blended open-end rotor spun yarns using artificial neural network and statistical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) and a statistical model are developed to predict the unevenness of polyester\\/viscose\\u000a blended open-end rotor spun yarns. Seven different blend ratios of polyester\\/viscose slivers are produced and these slivers\\u000a are manufactured with four different rotor speed and four different yarn counts in rotor spinning machine. A back propagation\\u000a multi layer perceptron (MLP)

O?uz Demiryürek; Erdem Koç

2009-01-01

478

The mechanism and\\/or prediction of the breaking elongation of polyester\\/viscose blended open-end rotor spun yarns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an analysis on the breaking elongation mechanism of the polyester\\/viscose blended open-end rotor spun yarns\\u000a has been carried out. In addition, a back propagation multi layer perceptron (MLP) network and a mixture process crossed regression\\u000a model with two mixture components (polyester and viscose blend ratios) and two process variables (yarn count and rotor speed)\\u000a are developed to

O?uz Demiryürek; Erdem Koç

2009-01-01

479

The EIS investigation of powder polyester coatings on phosphated low carbon steel: The effect of NaNO 2 in the phosphating bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different type of iron-phosphate coatings on corrosion stability and adhesion characteristic of top powder polyester coating on steel was investigated. Iron-phosphate coatings were deposited on steel in the novel phosphating bath with or without NaNO2 as an accelerator. The corrosion stability of the powder polyester coating was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), adhesion by pull-off and

B. V. Jegdi?; J. B. Bajat; J. P. Popi?; S. I. Stevanovi?; V. B. Miškovi?-Stankovi?

2011-01-01

480

Preparation of unsaturated polyester Ce(IV) phosphate by plastic waste bottles and its application for removal of Malachite green dye from water samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, recycling of polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), a non-biodegradable plastic, was carried out by preparing unsaturated polyester Ce(IV) phosphate (USPECe(IV)P) composite cation exchanger. Various samples of USPECe(IV)P was prepared by mixing different volume ratios of unsaturated polyester in an inorganic Ce(IV) phosphate gel and characterized by TGA\\/DTA, XRD, SEM, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) instrumental methods. The composite has been

Asif Ali Khan; Rais Ahmad; Anish Khan; Pijush Kanti Mondal

481

Novel gradient casting method provides high-throughput assessment of blended polyester poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) thin films for parameter optimization.  

PubMed

Pure polymer films cannot meet the diverse range of controlled release and material properties demanded for the fabrication of medical implants or other devices. Additives are added to modulate and optimize thin films for the desired qualities. To characterize the property trends that depend on additive concentration, an assay was designed which involved casting a single polyester poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) film that blends a linear gradient of any PLGA-soluble additive desired. Four gradient PLGA films were produced by blending polyethylene glycol or the more hydrophobic polypropylene glycol. The films were made using a custom glass gradient maker in conjunction with a 180 cm film applicator. These films were characterized in terms of thickness, percent additive, total polymer (PLGA+additive), and controlled drug release using drug-like fluorescent molecules such as coumarin 6 (COU) or fluorescein diacetate (FDAc). Material properties of elongation and modulus were also accessed. Linear gradients of additives were readily generated, with phase separation being the limiting factor. Additive concentration had a Pearson's correlation factor (R) of >0.93 with respect to the per cent total release after 30 days for all gradients characterized. Release of COU had a near zero-order release over the same time period, suggesting that coumarin analogs may be suitable for use in PLGA/polyethylene glycol or PLGA/polypropylene glycol matrices, with each having unique material properties while allowing tuneable drug release. The gradient casting method described has considerable potential in offering higher throughput for optimizing film or coating material properties for medical implants or other devices. PMID:22293582

Steele, Terry W J; Huang, Charlotte L; Kumar, Saranya; Irvine, Scott; Boey, Freddy Yin Chiang; Loo, Joachim S C; Venkatraman, Subbu S

2012-01-18

482

Microfluidic channel fabrication method  

DOEpatents

A new channel structure for microfluidic systems and process for fabricating this structure. In contrast to the conventional practice of fabricating fluid channels as trenches or grooves in a substrate, fluid channels are fabricated as thin walled raised structures on a substrate. Microfluidic devices produced in accordance with the invention are a hybrid assembly generally consisting of three layers: 1) a substrate that can or cannot be an electrical insulator; 2) a middle layer, that is an electrically conducting material and preferably silicon, forms the channel walls whose height defines the channel height, joined to and extending from the substrate; and 3) a top layer, joined to the top of the channels, that forms a cover for the channels. The channels can be defined by photolithographic techniques and are produced by etching away the material around the channel walls.

Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Cardinale, Gregory F. (Oakland, CA)

2001-01-01

483

Technical note: A method to facilitate retrieval of polyester bags used in in sacco trials in ruminants.  

PubMed

A method is described to facilitate the retrieval of polyester bags from ruminally cannulated cattle. The system consists of 2 major components, i) an accommodation vessel for multiple polyester bags in the form of an opaque nylon stocking, referred to as the "receptacle," and ii) a shorter stocking, knotted with a loop on one end to attach to the receptacle, referred to as the "catcher." The catcher is tied on the other end to the inside of the cannula plug. Sample bags are inserted in tandem into the receptacle, separated from each other by a tight knot. The receptacle is tied to the catcher and subsequently inserted into the rumen. Upon retrieval, receptacles are pulled out only far enough to expose the first bag to be removed. This procedure ensures easy bag retrieval without exposing the remaining bags (intended for further incubation) to air. PMID:16507698

Cruywagen, C W

2006-03-01

484

Drum drying of fabrics  

SciTech Connect

A study of drying of textile fabrics on a drum heated by natural gas burner is presented. In the first stage of study, the distribution of the heat flux over the outer surface of the drum is calculated by an analytical method. In the second stage, this heat flux is entered in a numerical code able to simulate the heat and mass transfers in porous media. The simulation results validate the analytical model assumptions. Special attention is paid to the contact resistance between the drum and the fabric.

Stemmelen, D.; Moyne, C. [LEMTA, Vandoeuvre (France); Perre, R. [ENGREF, Nancy (France); Lebois, P. [CERUG Gaz de France, La Plaine St. Denis (France)

1997-10-01

485

Effect of Replacement of Fat by Nonabsorbable Fat (Sucrose Polyester) in Meals or Snacks as a Function of Dietary Restraint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S., N. E. G. Wijckmans-Duijsens, F. Ten Hoor and J. A. Weststrate. Effect of replacement of fat by nonabsorbable fat (sucrose polyester) in meals or snacks as a function of dietary restraint. Physiol Behav 61(6) 939–947, 1997.—The effect of replacement of fat by nonabsorbable fat on energy intake and on feelings of hunger and satiety was assessed, in

Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga; Nicole E. G. Wijckmans-Duijsens; Foppe Ten Hoor; Jan A. Weststrate

1997-01-01

486

Macrocycles 23. Odd–even effect in the cyclization of poly(ester imide)s derived from catechols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various poly(ester imide)s, PEIs, were prepared from N-(4-carboxyphenyl) trimellitimide (4-CPTI) or from N-(3-carboxyphenyl) trimellitimide (3-CPTI). Various catechols or 5-methylresorcinol served as comonomers. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealed that the PEIs derived from 4-CPTI and catechols contain significantly more even than odd cycles, whereas the PEIs derived from 3-CPTI and catechols contained almost equal amounts of odd and even-numbered cycles. The predominant

Abbas A Shaikh; Gert Schwarz; Hans R Kricheldorf

2003-01-01

487

Volume shrinkages and mechanical properties of various fiber-reinforced hydroxyethyl methacrylate–polyurethane\\/unsaturated polyester composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, two kinds of hydroxyethyl methacrylate–polyurethane (HEMA–PU) were used as volume shrinkage modifiers, and several hydroxyethyl methacrylate–polyurethane modified unsaturated polyester (HEMA–PU\\/St.\\/UP) resins crosslinked with styrene were synthesized and characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and in terms of their mechanical properties, including their tensile strengths and Izod impact energies. The properties of the

S. P. Lin; J. H. Shen; J. L. Han; Y. J. Lee; K. H. Liao; J. T. Yeh; F. C. Chang; K. H. Hsieh

2008-01-01

488

Microvoids in unsaturated polyester resins containing poly(vinyl acetate) and composites with calcium carbonate and glass fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

When thermoplastics is added as a low-profile additive (LPA) to an unsaturated polyester (UP) resin, microvoids are introduced and compensate for the high volume shrinkage of the resin. The characteristics and mechanisms involved in the microvoid formation of a low-shrinkage UP resin system with poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) as LPA were investigated in this work. Both PVAc and styrene were found

Z. Zhang; S. Zhu

2000-01-01

489

Low temperature cure of unsaturated polyester resins with thermoplastic additives. II. Structure formation and shrinkage control mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important feature in the cure of unsaturated polyester (UP)\\/styrene\\/thermoplastics system is the formation of a two-phase structure. Its final morphology is primarily determined by the phase separation process and the gelation resulting from the polymerization. In this study, the phase separation process during the cure of UP resins with thermoplastic additives was investigated by optical microscopy. It was found

W Li; L. J Lee

2000-01-01

490

HYPERBRANCHED POLYESTER WITH MIXED METHACRYLOYL ANDALIPHATIC ESTER TERMINAL GROUPS: SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, AND APPLICATION IN DENTAL RESTORATIVE FORMULATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boltron H30 is a polyester polyol with a dendritic structure, developed by Perstop Corp. Complete methacrylated H30 oligomers were obtained by using three different reaction routes, i.e., treatment of H30 with methacrylic anhydride, methacryloyl chloride and 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate (IEM). The viscosities of the three H30 hyperbranched materials at 45°C were 22.4, 23.5, and 42.8 Poise, respectively, compared to commonly used

Feng Gao; Scott R. Schricker; Yuhua Tong; Bill M. Culbertson

2002-01-01

491

Effect of nanoclay on shrinkage control of low profile unsaturated polyester (UP) resin cured at room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of a small amount of nanoclay (1–3wt%) can provide excellent volume shrinkage control of unsaturated polyester (UP)\\/styrene (St)\\/poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) systems cured at room temperature. PVAc serves as the low profile additive (LPA). In this study, both temperature-induced phase separation of the uncured resin mixture and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the cured sample revealed that nanoclay resided

Liqun Xu; L. James Lee

2004-01-01

492

Control of volume shrinkage and residual styrene of unsaturated polyester resins cured at low temperatures. II. Effect of comonomer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a comonomer, methyl methacrylate (MMA), on volume shrinkage and residual styrene content of an unsaturated polyester (UP) resin with low profile additives (LPAs) cured at low temperature was investigated by an integrated reaction kinetics-morphology-property analysis. MMA affects the volume shrinkage and residual styrene content differently depending on MMA to styrene (St) C?C bond molar ratio. At low

Xia Cao; L. James Lee

2003-01-01

493

Hybrid bio-based composites from blends of unsaturated polyester and soybean oil reinforced with nanoclay and natural fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid bio-based composites that exploit the synergy between natural fibers (industrial hemp) in a nano-reinforced bio-based polymer can lead to improved properties while maintaining environmental appeal. Bio-based resins obtained by partial substitution of unsaturated polyester (UPE) with epoxidized soybean oil (EMS) increase toughness but compromise stiffness and hygro-thermal properties. Reinforcement of the bio-based resin with nanoclays permits to retain stiffness

Mahmoodul Haq; Rigoberto Burgueño; Amar K. Mohanty; Manjusri Misra

2008-01-01

494

Attempts to map the structure and degradation characteristics of aliphatic polyesters derived from lactic and glycolic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 5 years, important advances have been accomplished in the understanding of the fate of aliphatic polyesters derived from lactic acid (LA) and glycolic acid (GA) in aqueous media. Hydrolysis of solid LA\\/GA polymers is now regarded as dependent upon a diffusion-reaction mechanism. Faster central degradation, degradation-induced composition, and morphology changes are three of the most important findings

M. Vert; S. M. Li; H. Garreau

1995-01-01

495

Effect of Strong Acids on Mechanical Properties of Glass\\/Polyester GRP Pipe at Normal and High Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of hydrochloric acids (HCl), sulfuric acids (H2SO4), nitric acids (HNO3), and phosphoric acids (H3PO4) on the physical and mechanical properties of glass fiber\\/polyester composite pipes internally lined with C glass were investigated. Specimens cut from the pipes were immersed for various periods—30, 60, and 90 days in 20% acid concentration at room temperature and 100°C. The pipes consisted

Mahmoud K. Mahmoud; S. H. Tantawi

2003-01-01

496

Comparative degradation by micro-organisms of terephthalic acid, 2,6-naphthalene dicarboxylic acid, their esters and polyesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various derivatives of terephthalic acid (TA) and 2,6-naphthalene dicarboxylic acid (NDA) have been degraded in the presence of various strains of micro-organisms. These compounds include the dimethylesters (TME and NDME), the ethylene glycoldiesters (TGE and NDGE) and the corresponding ethylene glycol polyesters (PET and PEN). The terephthalic acid derivatives were shown not to be degraded by a pure strain of

C. Lefèvre; C. Mathieu; A. Tidjani; I. Dupret; C. Vander Wauven; W. De Winter; C. David

1999-01-01

497

Conformation and distribution of groups on the surface of amphiphilic polyether-co-polyester dendrimers: Effect of molecular architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphiphilic polyester-co-polyether (PEPE) dendrimers synthesized from poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were examined to understand the influence of alterations in the architecture of dendrimers on their conformation at interfaces and distribution of various groups on their surface. Effect of changes in the number of branching points, type of terminal functional groups and generation of dendrimer was primarily evaluated. Dendrimers were deposited on

Renu Singh Dhanikula; Patrice Hildgen

2007-01-01

498

Poly(ester imide)s Possessing Low CTE and Low Water Absorption (II). Effect of Substituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The film properties of a variety of poly(ester imide)s (PEsIs) were evaluated for development of a novel high temperature base film in flexible printed circuit (FPC) boards. In this work, three types of PEsI systems were systematically prepared from the following combinations of monomers: (1) ester-containing tetracarboxylic dianhydrides: hydroquinone bis(trimellitate anhydride) (TAHQ), methyl-substituted TAHQ (M-TAHQ), and methoxy-substituted TAHQ (MeO-TAHQ) with

Masatoshi Hasegawa; Yumi Tsujimura; Kazunori Koseki; Tatsuya Miyazaki

2008-01-01

499

Development and Characterization of Sodium Alginate-Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose-Polyester Multilayered Hydrogel Membranes for Drug Delivery through Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multi-layered hydrogel membranes of sodium alginate-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-polyester were developed for controlled delivery of anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac diethylamine through intact skin. The XRD studies indicated the amorphous dispersion of drug in the membranes. DSC analysis suggested that as cross-linking increases, the stiffer membranes were formed. The prepared membranes were permeable to water vapors depending upon the cross-link density. The in

Raghavendra V. Kulkarni; Yogesh J. Wagh; C. Mallikarjun Setty; Biswanath Sa

2011-01-01

500

The Effect of a Nonabsorbable Lipid, Sucrose Polyester, on the Absorption of Dietary Cholesterol by the Rat1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of cholesterol from diets containing various proportions of triglycéridesand an unabsorbable fat, sucrose polyester (SPE), was determined in rats. Each replacement of 1% dietary triglyc éride with SPE resulted in a 1.2% decrease in cholesterol absorption. The SPE was a mixture of the hexa-, hepta- and octa-esters of long chain fatty acids. The physical properties of this material

FRED H. MATTSON; R. J. JANDACEK