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Sample records for resistance ktp crystal

  1. Comparative study on the intracavity frequency-doubling 532 nm laser based on gray-tracking-resistant KTP and conventional KTP.

    PubMed

    Huang, H-T; Qiu, G; Zhang, B-T; He, J-L; Yang, J-F; Xu, J-L

    2009-11-10

    A comparative study of a frequency-doubling 532 nm laser based on gray-tracking-resistant KTP (GTR-KTP) and conventional KTP is presented. The intracavity GTR-KTP was proved to have better temperature characteristics than that of conventional KTP. Within the normalized output power variation range of 0.8-1.0, GTR-KTP has a temperature tolerance of 35 degrees C, broader than the 21 degrees C obtained with conventional KTP. Under the laser diode (LD) pump power of 180 W, the maximum average output power at 532 nm was 40.6 W for GTR-KTP at a repetition frequency of 10 kHz. In the case of conventional KTP, the maximum available LD pump power was limited to 150 W, with the corresponding maximum green average output power of 27.2 W. PMID:19904338

  2. Spectral features of a new crystal - Cr:KTP and its potential application for self-frequency doubling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Nee-Yin; Koker, Edmond B.; Barnes, Norman P.; Loiacono, Gabriel M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a technique for growing Cr-doped single crystals of KTiOPO4 (Cr:KTP) and presents the spectral characteristics, lasing potential, and SHG properties of Cr:KTP. It is shown that the use of Cr:KTP as a lasing medium is potentially promising due to the combination of the wide spectral bandwidth and reasonable gain. The potential application of the crystal for self frequency doubling is discussed.

  3. Growth and optical properties of bulk KTP crystals by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chang-Long; Hu, Zhang-Gui; Huang, Ling-Xiong; Zhou, Wei-Ning; lü, Zhi; Zhang, Ge; Liu, You-Chen; Zou, Yan-Bin; Lu, Fu-Hua; Hou, Hang-De; Qin, Shi-Jie; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Bai, Lang

    2008-04-01

    The high-quality bulk potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO 4 or KTP) crystals have been grown successfully by the hydrothermal method using an improved mixed solution of K 2HPO 4 (2.0 mol/l), KH 2PO 4 (0.1 mol/l) and H 2O 2 (1 wt%) as mineralizer, and spontaneous flux KTP crystals as nutrients. The growing rate of KTP crystals along (0 1 1) was 0.15 mm/day. The size of the biggest grown crystal was up to 26×83×25 mm 3, 132 g in weight. The transmittance was over 80% in the range of 450-2500 nm. The optical homogeneity was up to 4.15×10 -6 cm -1. The precise principal refractive indices were measured by the auto-collimation method and compared with those of KTP grown by the flux method. The Sellmeir equations were fitted with the experimental data. The test of bulk absorption at strong CW green radiation 532 nm was performed with the photo-thermal common-path interferometer. The results showed that the hydrothermal KTP crystals have great ability to anti-gray track.

  4. Control of forward stimulated polariton scattering in periodically-poled KTP crystals.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hoon; Strömqvist, Gustav; Pasiskevicius, Valdas; Canalias, Carlota

    2013-11-01

    We report suppression of forward stimulated polariton scattering (SPS) in χ((2)) structured media. Periodic poling in KTiOPO(4) (KTP) leads to the destructive interference of phonon-polariton waves, which is responsible for the dependence of the SPS threshold on the poling period. This was confirmed by comparing the SPS thresholds in periodically-poled KTP (PPKTP) crystals with different poling periods. Further confirming the physical picture, we studied the changes in the Stokes power distribution as a function of the rotation angle of the PPKTP crystal. PMID:24216950

  5. Absolute measurement of the effective nonlinearities of KTP and BBO crystals by optical parametric amplification.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, D J; Alford, W J; Raymond, T D; Smith, A V

    1996-04-20

    Absolute magnitudes of the effective nonlinearity, deff, were measured for seven KTP and six BBO crystals. The d(eff), were derived from the parametric gain of an 800-nm signal wave in the sample crystals when they were pumped by the frequency-doubled, spatially filtered light from an injectionseeded, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The KTP crystals, all type II phase matched with propagation in the X-Z plane, had d(eff) values ranging from 1.97 to 3.50 pm/V. Measurements of gain as a function of phase velocity mismatch indicate that two of the KTP crystals clearly contain multiple ferroelectric domains. For five type I phase-matched BBO crystals, d(eff) ranged from 1.76 to 1.83 pm/V, and a single type II phase-matched BBO crystal had a d(eff) of 1.56 pm/V. The uncertainty in our measurements of d(eff) values is ±5% for KTP and ±10% for BBO. PMID:21085331

  6. Second Stokes 1129 nm generation in gray-trace resistance KTP intracavity driven by a diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.-T.; He, J.-L.; Wang, Y.

    2011-03-01

    A gray-trace resistance KTP (GTR-KTP) second Stokes Raman laser intracavity driven by a diode-pumped acousto-optic Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser was first demonstrated in this paper. With an incident pump power of 9.5 W, the intracavity GTR-KTP Raman laser, operating at the repetition rate of 20 kHz, produced the maximum average output power of 860 mW at 1129 nm. The minimum pulse width obtained in this GTR-KTP Raman laser was 10.8 ns. When the GTR-KTP was substituted with a common KTP, a lower average output power of 720 mW and longer pulse width of 15.9 ns were obtained in the common KTP Raman laser under the same pump condition and cavity setup as the GTR-KTP Raman laser. Experimental results indicated that the decreased absorption at the fundamental and Stokes wave in GTR-KTP was beneficial to improve the stimulated Raman scattering performance.

  7. Complete anisotropic time-dependent heat equation in KTP crystal under repetitively pulsed Gaussian beams: a numerical approach.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Mostafa Mohammad; Sabaeian, Mohammad; Motazedian, Alireza; Jalil-Abadi, Fatemeh Sedaghat; Khaldi-Nasab, Ali

    2015-02-20

    In this work, a thorough and detailed solution for the time-dependent heat equation for a cylindrical nonlinear potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystal under a repetitively pulsed pumping source is developed. The convection and radiation boundary conditions, which are usually ignored in the literature, have been taken into account, and their importance on the temperature distribution has been discussed in detail. Moreover, the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of KTP was considered in the calculations, and its impact is discussed. It is shown that the radiation term has a negligible effect and can be dropped safely, while the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity is more influential, such that ignorance of it brings some errors into the modeling. The time evolution of the temperature while the crystal is pumping with a train of successive Gaussian pulses until reaching equilibrium is shown. To accomplish numerical calculations, we developed a homemade code written with the finite difference time domain method in Intel Fortran (ifort) and ran it with the Linux operating system. PMID:25968183

  8. Low-repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of optical waveguides in KTP crystals: analysis of anisotropic refractive index changes.

    PubMed

    Butt, Muhammad Ali; Nguyen, Huu-Dat; Ródenas, Airán; Romero, Carolina; Moreno, Pablo; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Aguiló, Magdalena; Solé, Rosa Maria; Pujol, Maria Cinta; Díaz, Francesc

    2015-06-15

    We report on the direct low-repetition rate femtosecond pulse laser microfabrication of optical waveguides in KTP crystals and the characterization of refractive index changes after the thermal annealing of the sample, with the focus on studying the potential for direct laser fabricating Mach-Zehnder optical modulators. We have fabricated square cladding waveguides by means of stacking damage tracks, and found that the refractive index decrease is large for vertically polarized light (c-axis; TM polarized) but rather weak for horizontally polarized light (a-axis; TE polarized), this leading to good near-infrared light confinement for TM modes but poor for TE modes. However, after performing a sample thermal annealing we have found that the thermal process enables a refractive index increment of around 1.5x10(-3) for TE polarized light, while maintaining the negative index change of around -1x10(-2) for TM polarized light. In order to evaluate the local refractive index changes we have followed a multistep procedure: We have first characterized the waveguide cross-sections by means of Raman micro-mapping to access the lattice micro-modifications and their spatial extent. Secondly we have modeled the waveguides following the modified region sizes obtained by micro-Raman with finite element method software to obtain a best match between the experimental propagation modes and the simulated ones. Furthermore we also report the fabrication of Mach-Zehnder structures and the evaluation of propagation losses. PMID:26193514

  9. Temperature Distribution in a Gaussian End-Pumped Nonlinear KTP Crystal: the Temperature Dependence of Thermal Conductivity and Radiation Boundary Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabaeian, Mohammad; Jalil-Abadi, Fatemeh Sedaghat; Rezaee, Mostafa Mohammad; Motazedian, Alireza; Shahzadeh, Mohammadreza

    2015-02-01

    The presence of a temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and the heat radiation boundary condition in the diffusion-type heat equation driven by a Gaussian source make it impossible to find an analytical solution for temperature distribution in the solid-state laser media. In this work, a temperature distribution for a solid-state end-pumped KTP (KTiOPO4) crystal under a Gaussian continuous wave as a heat source is reported. More precisely, the effects of considering the temperature-dependent nature of the thermal conductivity of the KTP crystal and the heat radiation from the end faces of the crystal, in addition to heat convection, which are usually ignored, were studied. It was shown that considering the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity leads to significantly different results compared to constant thermal conductivity case. In addition, it was shown that the radiation can be influential for crystals with large surfaces from which the radiation can occur. Making the crystal thinner, the radiation impact becomes negligible and can be ignored.

  10. Novel Optical Parametric Amplifier at 1572 nm Wavelength Using KTP Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huan-Huan; Li, Shi-Guang; Ma, Xiu-Hua; Wang, Jun-Tao; Zhu, Xiao-Lei

    2012-11-01

    A novel master oscillator/power amplifier architecture for optical parametric conversion of high pulse energy from 1.064 μm to 1.572 μm in KTiOPO4 crystal is presented. A high gain of more than 80 at 1.572 μm pumped by a high energy Q-switched pulse laser is realized. With a seeding signal energy of 1 mJ, and 400 mJ pump pulse at 100 Hz, an amplified signal pulse energy of over 80 mJ is obtained. The total optical-optical conversion efficiency reaches 21%.

  11. A study of vacancy defects related to gray tracks in KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) using positron annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Jing; Wang, Jiyang Jiang, Huaidong; Cao, Xingzhong; Yang, Jing

    2014-12-15

    For the first time to our knowledge, positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) was used to study vacancy defects in KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) single crystals. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy combined with dielectric measurements identified the existence of oxygen vacancies and reflected the concentration of vacancy defects in three samples. The vacancy defects in KTP do not consist of monovacancies, but rather vacancy complexes. Doppler broadening indicates that the vacancy defects are distributed uniformly. A relationship is established where a crystal with a low oxygen vacancy concentration and a highly balanced stoichiometry has a higher resistance to gray track formation.

  12. A study of vacancy defects related to gray tracks in KTiOPO4 (KTP) using positron annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Jing; Cao, Xingzhong; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jiyang; Jiang, Huaidong

    2014-12-01

    For the first time to our knowledge, positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) was used to study vacancy defects in KTiOPO4 (KTP) single crystals. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy combined with dielectric measurements identified the existence of oxygen vacancies and reflected the concentration of vacancy defects in three samples. The vacancy defects in KTP do not consist of monovacancies, but rather vacancy complexes. Doppler broadening indicates that the vacancy defects are distributed uniformly. A relationship is established where a crystal with a low oxygen vacancy concentration and a highly balanced stoichiometry has a higher resistance to gray track formation.

  13. Frequency doubling of a tunable ytterbium-doped fibre laser in KTP crystals phase-matched in the XY and YZ planes

    SciTech Connect

    Akulov, V A; Kablukov, S I; Babin, Sergei A

    2012-02-28

    This paper presents an experimental study of frequency doubling of a tunable ytterbium-doped fibre laser in KTP crystals phase-matched in the XY and YZ planes. In the XY plane, we obtained continuous tuning in the range 528 - 540 nm through intracavity frequency doubling. The second-harmonic power reached 450 mW for 18 W of multimode diode pump power, which was five times higher in comparison with single-pass frequency doubling. In a single-pass configuration in the YZ plane, we obtained a wide tuning range (527 - 551 nm) in the green spectral region and a second-harmonic power of {approx}10 mW. The tuning range was only limited by the mechanical performance of the fibre Bragg grating and can potentially be extended to the entire lasing range of the ytterbium-doped fibre laser.

  14. Theoretical research of the spin-Hamiltonian parameters for two rhombic W5+ centers in KTiOPO4 (KTP) crystal through a two-mechanism model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Yang; Chen, Bo-Wei; Wei, Chen-Fu; Zheng, Wen-Chen

    2016-09-01

    The high-order perturbation formulas based on the two-mechanism model are employed to calculate the spin-Hamiltonian parameters (g factors gi and hyperfine structure constants Ai, where i=x, y, z) for two approximately rhombic W5+ centers in KTiOPO4 (KTP) crystal. In the model, both the widely-applied crystal-field (CF) mechanism concerning the interactions of CF excited states with the ground state and the generally-neglected charge-transfer (CT) mechanism concerning the interactions of CT excited states with the ground state are included. The calculated results agree with the experimental values, and the signs of constants Ai are suggested. The calculations indicate that (i) for the high valence state dn ions in crystals, the contributions to spin-Hamiltonian parameters should take into account both the CF and CT mechanisms and (ii) the large g-shifts |Δgi | (=|gi-ge |, where ge≈ 2.0023) for W5+ centers in crystals are due to the large spin-orbit parameter of free W5+ ion.

  15. A high average power electro-optic switch using KTP

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbers, C.A.; Cook, W.M.; Velsko, S.P.

    1994-04-01

    High damage threshold, high thermal conductivity, and small thermo-optic coefficients make KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) an attractive material for use in a high average power Q-switch. However, electro-chromic damage and refractive index homogeneity have prevented the utilization of KTP in such a device in the past. This work shows that electro-chromic damage is effectively suppressed using capacitive coupling, and a KTP crystal can be Q-switched for 1.5 {times} 10{sup 9} shots without any detectable electro-chromic damage. In addition, KTP with the high uniformity and large aperture size needed for a KTP electro-optic Q-switch can be obtained from flux crystals grown at constant temperature. A thermally compensated, dual crystal KTP Q-switch, which successfully produced 50 mJ pulses with a pulse width of 8 ns (FWHM), has been constructed. In addition, in off-line testing the Q-switch showed less than 7% depolarization at an average power loading of 3.2 kW/cm{sup 2}.

  16. Sub-nanosecond, 1-10 kHz, low-threshold, non-critical OPOs based on periodically poled KTP crystal pumped at 1,064 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchev, Georgi; Dallocchio, Paolo; Pirzio, Federico; Agnesi, Antonio; Reali, Giancarlo; Petrov, Valentin; Tyazhev, Aleksey; Pasiskevicius, Valdas; Thilmann, Nicky; Laurell, Fredrik

    2012-11-01

    We employed a 9-mm long periodically poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP) crystal in an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to generate sub-nanosecond idler pulses around 2.8 μm. With a 1-cm long OPO cavity in a singly resonant configuration and double pass pumping by 1-ns pulses at 1,064 nm, the maximum idler energy reached 110 μJ at 1 kHz. Pumping with 500 ps pulses at 1-10 kHz, resulted in an idler energy of ~50 μJ and the shortest pulse duration of ~250 ps, ever reported for an OPO. The corresponding quantum conversion efficiencies were 32.5 and 34.9 %, respectively.

  17. The GTR-KTP intracavity optical parametric oscillator driven by a diode-end-pumped acousto-optical Q-switched Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. T.; Zhang, B. T.; He, J. L.

    2013-03-01

    An efficient eye-safe gray-trace resistance-KTP (GTR-KTP) intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO) excited by a diode-end-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser was demonstrated. Under a laser diode power of 11.4 W, a maximum average output power of 1.2 W at 1572 nm was obtained at a repetition rate of 15 kHz, corresponding to a diode-to-signal conversion efficiency of 10.5%. As for the common KTP IOPO under the same pump conditions and cavity design, a lower average output power of 0.96 W was obtained. Consequently, the corresponding GTR-KTP OPO conversion efficiency was increased by 25% compared with that obtained in common KTP IOPO.

  18. High-efficient diode-pumped actively Q-switched Nd:YAG/KTP Raman laser at 1096 nm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Fufang; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Weitao; Cong, Zhenhua; Shi, Men; Yang, Xiuqin; Kong, Weijin; Ma, Lili; Wu, Wendi

    2013-09-01

    With Nd:YAG as the gain medium and KTP crystal as the Raman medium, the characteristics of an LD pumped intracavity actively Q-switched Nd:YAG/KTP Raman laser at 1096 nm wavelength were studied. The output characteristics of 1096 nm were investigated. At a pulse repetition rate of 30 kHz an average power up to 1.97 W was obtained with the incident pump power of 11.75 W, corresponding to a diode-to-Stokes conversion efficiency of 16.8%.

  19. Tuning fluidic resistance via liquid crystal microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Flow of molecularly ordered fluids, like liquid crystals, is inherently coupled with the average local orientation of the molecules, or the director. The anisotropic coupling-typically absent in isotropic fluids-bestows unique functionalities to the flowing matrix. In this work, we harness this anisotropy to pattern different pathways to tunable fluidic resistance within microfluidic devices. We use a nematic liquid crystalline material flowing in microchannels to demonstrate passive and active modulation of the flow resistance. While appropriate surface anchoring conditions-which imprint distinct fluidic resistances within microchannels under similar hydrodynamic parameters-act as passive cues, an external field, e.g., temperature, is used to actively modulate the flow resistance in the microfluidic device. We apply this simple concept to fabricate basic fluidic circuits, which can be hierarchically extended to create complex resistance networks, without any additional design or morphological patterning of the microchannels. PMID:24256819

  20. Tuning Fluidic Resistance via Liquid Crystal Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Flow of molecularly ordered fluids, like liquid crystals, is inherently coupled with the average local orientation of the molecules, or the director. The anisotropic coupling—typically absent in isotropic fluids—bestows unique functionalities to the flowing matrix. In this work, we harness this anisotropy to pattern different pathways to tunable fluidic resistance within microfluidic devices. We use a nematic liquid crystalline material flowing in microchannels to demonstrate passive and active modulation of the flow resistance. While appropriate surface anchoring conditions—which imprint distinct fluidic resistances within microchannels under similar hydrodynamic parameters—act as passive cues, an external field, e.g., temperature, is used to actively modulate the flow resistance in the microfluidic device. We apply this simple concept to fabricate basic fluidic circuits, which can be hierarchically extended to create complex resistance networks, without any additional design or morphological patterning of the microchannels. PMID:24256819

  1. Continuous wave Yb:YCOB cyan lasers with KTP as the sum-frequency converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Ruijun; Cheng, Hao; Yang, Guang

    2015-12-01

    All-solid-state cyan laser at 500 nm range are reported based on a Yb:YCa4O(BO3)3 (Yb:YCOB) crystal and a type-II phase matched KTiOPO4 (KTP) crystal. The 503 nm cyan laser is obtained by the sum-frequency mixing (SFM) of 974 nm pump wave and 1042 nm fundamental wave. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first cyan laser demonstrated with Yb-doped YCOB crystal. A dual-wavelength laser at 505 and 525 nm is also obtained, which origins from the simultaneous SFM and self-frequency doubling.

  2. KTP-532 laser ablation of urethral strictures.

    PubMed

    Turek, P J; Malloy, T R; Cendron, M; Carpiniello, V L; Wein, A J

    1992-10-01

    In 1988 the KTP-532 laser was used to ablate a series of benign urethral strictures. Rather than using a single incision as in urethrotomy, strictures were treated with 360-degree contact photoradiation. Thirty-one male patients, average age 53.2 years, received thirty-seven treatments; 6 patients underwent a second laser treatment. Stricture etiology was commonly iatrogenic (32%), traumatic (16%), and postgonococcal (10%). Stricture location included mainly bulbar (49%), membranous (20%), and penile (12%) areas. The surgical technique consisted of circumferential ablation, followed by Foley catheter placement (mean, 10 days). Follow-up on 29 of 31 patients ranged from one to sixteen months (mean 9.7). Complete success occurred in 17 patients (59%) who had no further symptoms or instrumentation. Partial success was seen in 6 patients (20.5%) with symptom, but not stricture, recurrence. Six patients (20.5%) failed therapy, requiring additional surgery or regular dilations. No complications were seen. Although longer assessment is required, KTP-532 laser ablation of urethral strictures appears efficacious. PMID:1413350

  3. KTP-532 laser ablation of urethral strictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Terrence R.

    1991-07-01

    In 1988, the KTP-532 laser was used to ablate a series of benign urethral strictures. Rather than using a single incision, as in urethrotomy, strictures were treated with a 360$DEG contact photoradiation. Thirty-one males, average age 53.2 years, received 37 treatments. Six patients underwent a second laser treatment. Stricture etiology was commonly iatrogenic (32%), traumatic (16%), and post-gonococcal (10%). Stricture location included mainly bulbar (49%), membranous (20%), and penile (12%) areas. The surgical technique consisted of a circumferential ablation followed by foley catheter placement (mean 10 days). Follow-up on 29 of 31 patients ranged from 1 to 16 months (mean 9.7) Complete success occurred in 17 patients (59%) who had no further symptoms or instrumentation. Partial success was seen in 6 patients (20.5%) with symptoms but no stricture recurrence. Six patients (20.5%) failed therapy requiring additional surgery or regular dilatations. No complications were encountered. Although longer assessment is required, KTP-532 laser ablation of urethral strictures appears efficacious.

  4. Laser damage resistant nematic liquid crystal cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raszewski, Z.; Piecek, W.; Jaroszewicz, L.; Soms, L.; Marczak, J.; Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, E.; Perkowski, P.; Kedzierski, J.; Miszczyk, E.; Olifierczuk, M.; Morawiak, P.; Mazur, R.

    2013-08-01

    There exists a problem in diagnostics of a dense plasma (so-called Thomson diagnostics). For this purpose, the plasma is illuminated by series of high energy laser pulses. Such pulses are generated by several independent lasers operating sequentially, and these pulses are to be directed along an exactly the same optical path. In this case, the energy of each separate pulse is as large as 3 J, so it is impossible to generate a burst of such pulses by a single laser. In this situation, several independent lasers have to be used. To form optical path with λ = 1.064 μm and absolute value of the energy of laser pulse through of 3 J, a special refractive index matched twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell (NLCC) of type LCNP2 with switching on time τON smaller than 5 μs might be applied. High laser damage resistance of NLCC and short τON can be fulfilled by preparation of liquid crystal cells with Liquid Crystal Mixture (LCM), well tuned to twisted nematic electro-optical effect, and well tuned all optical interfaces (Air - Antireflection - Quartz Plate - Electrode - Blocking Film - Aligning Layer - LCM - Aligning Layer - Blocking Film - Electrode - Quartz Plate - Antireflection - Air). In such LCNP2 cell, the transmission is higher than 97% at λ = 1.064 μm, as it is presented by Gooch and Tarry [J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 8, 1575 (1975)]. The safe laser density energy is about 0.6 J/cm2 for a train of laser pulses (λ = 1.064 μm, pulse duration 10 ns FWHM, pulse repetition rate 100 pps, train duration 10 s), so the area of liquid crystal cell tolerating 3 J through it shall be as large as 5 cm2. Due to the presence of two blocking film layers between electrodes, LCNP2 can be driven by high voltages. Switching on time smaller than τON = 5 μs was obtained under 200 V switching voltage.

  5. Intra-cavity frequency-doubled Yb:KYW laser using periodically poled Rb-doped KTP with a volume Bragg grating input coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seger, Kai; Meiser, Niels; Tjörnhammar, Staffan; Zukauskas, Andrius; Canalias, Carlota; Pasiskevicius, Valdas; Laurell, Fredrik

    2014-05-01

    An Yb:KYW laser intra-cavity frequency doubled to the green at 514.7 nm using a periodically poled Rb:KTP crystal with an output power exceeding 1 W is presented. Spectral narrowing and locking at the fundamental wavelength has been achieved by using a volume Bragg grating as the input coupler.

  6. Materials for high-power laser applications: Point defects in KTP and ZnGeP2. Final technical report, 1 June 1993-31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Halliburton, L.E.

    1994-09-30

    The operation of devices utilizing nonlinear optical materials such as KTP and ZnGeP2 are limited at high laser power by point defects in the crystal. This project has used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) experimental techniques to identify and characterize the primary point defects in KTP, ZnGeP2, and CdGeAs2 crystals. In KTP, the primary electron trap (i.e., a Ti3+ ion) is associated with the formation of gray tracks. The present investigation has shown that these Ti3+ ions have a significantly different local environment depending on whether the crystal was grown hydrothermally or by the flux technique. Also, in KTP, it is shown that potassium vacancies are the primary hole trapping site at low temperature. The acceptor in as-grown crystals of ZnGeP2 is shown to be a singly ionized zinc vacancy or a zinc ion on a germanium site. Results in CdGeAs2 suggest that the dominant EPR-active defects are either a cation vacancy or a cation antisite.

  7. Treatment of urethral strictures with the KTP 532 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidlin, Franz R.; Oswald, Michael; Iselin, Christoph E.; Jichlinski, Patrice; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Leisinger, Hans-Juerg; Graber, Peter

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of the KTP 532 laser to direct vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU) in the management of urethral strictures. A total of 32 patients were randomized prospectively in this study, 14 DVIU and 18 KTP 532 laser. Patients were evaluated postoperatively with flowmetry and in the case of recurrence with cystourethrography at 3, 12, 24 weeks. With the KTP 532 laser complete symptomatic and urodynamic success was achieved in 15 (83%) patients at 12 and 24 weeks. Success rate was lower in the DVIU group with 9 (64%) patients at 12 weeks and 8 (57%) patients at 24 weeks. With the KTP mean preoperative peak-flow was improved from 6 cc/s to 20 cc/s at 3, 12 and 24 weeks. With DVIU mean preoperative peak-flow was improved from 5.5 cc/s to 20 cc/s at 3 weeks followed by a steady decrease to 13 cc/s at 12 weeks and to 12 cc/s 24 weeks. No complications were observed in either group of patients. Our results confirm that stricture vaporization with the KTP 532 laser is a safe and efficient procedure. It thus represents a valuable alternative in the endoscopic treatment of urethral strictures.

  8. ["Power bleaching" with the KTP laser].

    PubMed

    Vanderstricht, K; Nammour, S; De Moor, R

    2009-01-01

    The most important constituent of the bleaching process is the hydrogen peroxyde. The bleaching effect is the result of a change in the chemical structure of organic molecules in the teeth. Different bleaching techniques are described on the basis of the concentration of the hydrogen peroxyde used and on the basis of the different methods of application. It has been demonstrated that a faster change in colour can be obtained when bleaching is performed in combination with a light source i.e. power bleaching aiming for a more in depth change of colour. Different investigations have demonstrated that negative effects associated with bleaching agents are seen earlier when light sources have been used as accelerators. So, light activation may not lead to 'heating of the pulp'. Different types of laser bleaching have been described, though, not all of them will lead to the desired result. There is only one exception at present and this is the KTP-laser bleaching with the Smart Bleach gel. The specific laser-tissue interaction is the result of different activation processes of the hydrogen peroxyde in the gel: as a result of the interaction with the laser a photocatalytic effect is induced (i.e. the activation of the gel by means of light--this is also referred to as a photochemical reaction), a limited photothermal effect (light absorption may result in a certain heating of the gel). The light activated gel also has an alkaline pH, which favours the ionisation of the hydrogen peroxyde into perhydroxyl ions (these are the most reactive free radicals). It is also possible to directly cut the tetracycline molecules (a good absorption of light by the tetracycline molecules at 532 nm). This will result in better decolouration of tetracycline stained teeth. This last process is described as direct photobleaching. It also needs to be emphasized that bleaching with a laser can only be performed by a dentist who has acquired a substantial knowledge on laser-tissue interaction

  9. Thermal stability of ferroelectric domain gratings in Rb-doped KTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Gustav; Peña, Alexandra; Zukauskas, Andrius; Liljestrand, Charlotte; Ménaert, Bertrand; Boulanger, Benoît.; Canalias, Carlota

    2015-08-01

    We study the thermal stability of domain walls in periodically poled Rb-doped KTP crystals. Domain-wall motion is observed after annealing the crystals above 550 °C. This motion is highly anisotropic along the a- and b- crystallographic axes. Along the b-axis domain wall motion is in the order of tens of micrometers. In the a-direction, it results in either three orders of magnitude smaller domain wall displacement or in domain merging, depending on the initial domain configuration. We show that the thermal stability of the domain gratings depends on their periodicity, resulting in complete backswitching for sub-micrometer domains annealed at 730 °C.

  10. Anomalous magneto-resistance in single crystals of silver chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chenglong; Liu, Haiwen; Hua, Wei; Yuan, Zhunjun; Sun, Junliang; Xie, Xincheng; Jia, Shuang

    2015-03-01

    Silver chalcogenides have been known as quantum materials for over fifteen years but no single crystal was ever studied before. Very recently, we developed a method for growth of single crystals. Our measurements of magneto-resistance (MR) showed strong Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations associated with a very low quantum limit. When the field is beyond this limit we observed a negative, longitudinal MR, which is believed as a fingerprint of chiral anomaly in Weyl Fermion systems.

  11. High-order Stokes generation in a KTP Raman laser pumped by a passively Q-switched ND:YLF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Maorong; Zhong, Kai; Mei, Jialin; Guo, Shibei; Xu, Degang; Yao, Jianquan

    2015-12-01

    High-order Stokes wave was observed in an x-cut KTP crystal based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) pumped by a passively Q-switched Nd:YLF laser with a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber. Output spectra including the fundamental wave at 1047 nm and six Stokes wavelengths at 1077 nm, 1110 nm, 1130 nm, 1143 nm, 1164 nm, 1180 nm based on two Raman frequency shift at 267.4 cm-1 and 693.0 cm-1 were obtained simultaneously. We also detected green light generation with output power of 12 mW from self frequency mixing in the KTP crystal. The maximum total output power reached 452 mW at the repetition frequency of 8.1 kHz, corresponding to the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 4.61% and pump-to-Raman conversion efficiency of 3.6%.

  12. Contacts for high-resistivity (Cd,Mn)Te crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Witkowska-Baran, M.; James, R.; Mycielski, A.; Kochanowska, D.; Szadkowski, A.J.; Jakiela, R.; Witkowska, B.; Kaliszek, W.; Domagala, J.; Lusakowska, E.; Domukhovski, V.; Dybko, K.; Cui, Y.; and James, R.B.

    2010-09-09

    Semi-insulating (Cd,Mn)Te crystals offer a material that may compete well with the commonly used (Cd,Zn)Te crystals for manufacturing large-area X- and gamma-ray detectors. The Bridgman growth method yields good quality, high-resistivity (10{sup 9} - 10{sup 10} {Omega} {center_dot} cm) crystals of (Cd,Mn)Te:V. Doping the as-grown crystals with the compensating agent vanadium ({approx} 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}) ensures their high resistivity; thereafter, annealing them in cadmium vapors reduces the number of cadmium vacancies. Applying the crystals as detectors necessitates having satisfactory electrical contacts. Accordingly, we explored various techniques of ensuring good electrical contacts to these semi-insulating (Cd,Mn)Te crystals, assessing metallic layers, monocrystalline semiconductor layers, and amorphous (or nanocrystalline) semiconductor layers. We found that ZnTe heavily doped ({approx} 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}) with Sb, and CdTe heavily doped ({approx} 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}) with In, proved satisfactory semiconductor contact layers. They subsequently enabled us to establish good contacts (with only narrow tunneling barriers) to the Au layer that usually constitutes the most external contact layer. We outline our technology of applying electrical contacts to semi-insulating (Cd,Mn)Te, and describe some important properties.

  13. Resistance of a pulsed electrical breakdown channel in ionic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punanov, I. F.; Emlin, R. V.; Kulikov, V. D.; Cholakh, S. O.

    2014-04-01

    A technique for estimating the resistance of the electrical breakdown channel in ionic crystals is proposed. This technique is based on measuring the channel velocity in a sample when a ballast resistor is connected to the circuit of a needle anode and on using the theoretical dependence of the channel velocity on the channel conductivity. The breakdown channel resistance at a voltage of 140 kV is about 6.5 kΩ in KCl and about 6.1 kΩ in KBr. These resistances are shown to characterize a gas phase. The gas-phase resistance is found to be nonuniform along the breakdown channel. The head part ˜1 mm long has the maximum resistance. This head region is concluded to contain dielectric substance clusters, which then decompose into metal and halogen ions. The cluster lifetime is ˜10-9 s.

  14. Theoretical analysis of terahertz parametric oscillator using KTiOPO4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongyang; Bing, Pibin; Yuan, Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Terahertz parametric oscillator (TPO) using KTiOPO4 (KTP) crystal with a noncollinear phase-matching scheme is investigated. Frequency tuning characteristics of terahertz wave (THz-wave) by varying the phase-matching angle and pump wavelength are analyzed. The expression of the effective parametric gain length under the noncollinear phase matching condition is deduced. Parametric gain and absorption characteristics of THz-wave in KTP are theoretically simulated for the first time. The characteristics of KTP for TPO are compared with MgO:LiNbO3. The analyses indicate that KTP is more suitable than MgO:LiNbO3 for TPO.

  15. Dispersion of the temperature-noncritical frequency conversion and birefringence in biaxial optical crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Grechin, Sergei G; Dmitriev, Valentin G; Dyakov, Vladimir A; Pryalkin, Vladimir I

    2004-05-31

    Dispersion of the temperature-noncritical frequency conversion (phase matching) and birefringence in biaxial crystals is considered. The possibility of simultaneous realisation of these processes during SHG in a KTP crystal is discussed. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  16. Purification of a Multidrug Resistance Transporter for Crystallization Studies.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Kamela O; Law, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Crystallization of integral membrane proteins is a challenging field and much effort has been invested in optimizing the overexpression and purification steps needed to obtain milligram amounts of pure, stable, monodisperse protein sample for crystallography studies. Our current work involves the structural and functional characterization of the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance transporter MdtM, a member of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). Here we present a protocol for isolation of MdtM to increase yields of recombinant protein to the milligram quantities necessary for pursuit of structural studies using X-ray crystallography. Purification of MdtM was enhanced by introduction of an elongated His-tag, followed by identification and subsequent removal of chaperonin contamination. For crystallization trials of MdtM, detergent screening using size exclusion chromatography determined that decylmaltoside (DM) was the shortest-chain detergent that maintained the protein in a stable, monodispersed state. Crystallization trials of MdtM performed using the hanging-drop diffusion method with commercially available crystallization screens yielded 3D protein crystals under several different conditions. We contend that the purification protocol described here may be employed for production of high-quality protein of other multidrug efflux members of the MFS, a ubiquitous, physiologically and clinically important class of membrane transporters. PMID:27025617

  17. Purification of a Multidrug Resistance Transporter for Crystallization Studies

    PubMed Central

    Alegre, Kamela O.; Law, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Crystallization of integral membrane proteins is a challenging field and much effort has been invested in optimizing the overexpression and purification steps needed to obtain milligram amounts of pure, stable, monodisperse protein sample for crystallography studies. Our current work involves the structural and functional characterization of the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance transporter MdtM, a member of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). Here we present a protocol for isolation of MdtM to increase yields of recombinant protein to the milligram quantities necessary for pursuit of structural studies using X-ray crystallography. Purification of MdtM was enhanced by introduction of an elongated His-tag, followed by identification and subsequent removal of chaperonin contamination. For crystallization trials of MdtM, detergent screening using size exclusion chromatography determined that decylmaltoside (DM) was the shortest-chain detergent that maintained the protein in a stable, monodispersed state. Crystallization trials of MdtM performed using the hanging-drop diffusion method with commercially available crystallization screens yielded 3D protein crystals under several different conditions. We contend that the purification protocol described here may be employed for production of high-quality protein of other multidrug efflux members of the MFS, a ubiquitous, physiologically and clinically important class of membrane transporters. PMID:27025617

  18. [Vaporization of urethral stenosis using the KTP 532 laser].

    PubMed

    Schmidlin, F; Oswald, M; Iselin, C; Rohner, S; Jichlinski, P; Delacrétaz, G; Leisinger, H J; Graber, P

    1997-01-01

    The authors treated 16 patients presenting with a total of 20 anterior urethral strictures using the KTP 16 Laser. The aetiology was iatrogenic in 50% of cases, infectious in 20% of cases, traumatic in 20% of cases and unknown in 10% of cases. The stricture was situated in the bulbous urethra (80%), membranous urethra (10%) or penil urethra (10%). Laser vaporization of the urethral stricture was performed over the entire circumference of the urethra when necessary, followed by bladder drainage by urethral catheter for 24 hours. All patients were prospectively reviewed at 3 weeks, 3 months and 6 months (clinical symptoms, uroflowmetry, cystourethrography). A complete symptom and urodynamic success was obtained in 13 patients (81%) at 3 and 6 months. The stricture recurred in 4 patients, but only three of them (19%) required treatment (reoperation of repeat dilatations). The mean maximum flow rate increased from 6 mL/s to 20 mL/s at 3 months and was maintained at 19 mL/s at 6 months. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed. In conclusion, our results confirm that KTP 532 laser urethral strictures is a reliable and effective method in the medium term. These good results also suggest an advantage in terms of the recurrence rate in comparison with internal urethrotomy. However, our series needs to be evaluated with a longer follow-up and prospective, randomized trials comparing the two methods need to be conducted. PMID:9157820

  19. Aluminum nitride bulk crystal growth in a resistively heated reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmau, Rafael Federico

    A resistively heated reactor capable of temperatures in excess of 2300°C was used to grow aluminum nitride (AlN) bulk single crystals from an AlN powder source by physical vapor transport (PVT) in nitrogen atmosphere. AlN crystals were grown at elevated temperatures by two different methods. Self-seeded crystals were obtained by spontaneous nucleation on the crucible walls, while seeded growth was performed on singular and vicinal (0001) surfaces of silicon carbide (SiC) seeds. During self-seeded growth experiments a variety of crucible materials, such as boron nitride, tungsten, tantalum, rhenium, tantalum nitride, and tantalum carbide, were evaluated. These studies showed that the morphology of crystals grown by spontaneous nucleation strongly depends on the growth temperature and contamination in the reactor. Crucible selection had a profound effect on contamination in the crystal growth environment, influencing nucleation, coalescence, and crystal morphology. In terms of high-temperature stability and compatibility with the growth process, the best results for AlN crystal growth were obtained in crucibles made of sintered tantalum carbide or tantalum nitride. In addition, contamination from the commercially purchased AlN powder source was reduced by presintering the powder prior to growth, which resulted in a drastic reduction of nearly all impurities. Spontaneously grown single crystals up to 15 mm in size were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray topography, glow discharge mass spectrometry, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Average dislocation densities were on the order of 103 cm -3, with extended areas virtually free of dislocations. High resolution rocking curves routinely showed peak widths as narrow as 7 arcsec, indicating a high degree of crystalline perfection. Low-temperature partially polarized optical reflectance measurements were used to calculate the crystal-field splitting parameter of AlN, Deltacr = -230 meV, and a low-temperature (1

  20. Simultaneous dual-wavelength eye-safe KTP OPO intracavity pumped by a Nd:GYSGG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Maorong; Zhong, Kai; Mei, Jialin; Guo, Shibei; Xu, Degang; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-02-01

    A simultaneous dual-wavelength intracavity pumped non-critical eye-safe optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is realized using a Nd:GYSGG laser crystal and a KTP nonlinear crystal. A folded cavity is used for thermal stability and mode matching, which greatly improves the output characteristics versus a linear cavity. The maximum output power of the 1562.1 nm/1567.4 nm dual-wavelength eye-safe laser is 750 mW at 10 kHz, corresponding to the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency, single-pulse-energy and peak power of 5.8%, 75 μJ and 22.7 kW. Such a dual-wavelength OPO provides a good laser source for remote sensing for CO and CO2 gases or difference frequency generation for terahertz wave at the important 0.65 THz band.

  1. Measurements of the operating characteristics of a 1064 nm pumped KTP RISTRA OPO.

    SciTech Connect

    Gimmestad, Gary; Armstrong, Darrell Jewell; Wood, Jack; Roberts, David

    2009-07-01

    Measurements of the operating characteristics of a 1064 nm pumped potassium titanyl phosphte (KTP) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) were carried out at the Electro Optics Systems Laboratory of Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI). The OPO was developed by Sandia National Laboratories and employs a nonplanar image-rotating geometry that is known by the acronym RISTRA, denoting Rotated Image Singly-Resonant Twisted RectAngle. The OPO was configured for pumping by the 1064 nm fundamental wavelength of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser to generate a signal wavelength at 1627 nm and idler wavelength at 3074.8 nm. GTRI will be incorporate the OPO into a multi-wavelength lidar platform called the Integrated Atmospheric Characterization System (IACS). Prior to completion of the system design for the IACS platform, personnel at GTRI carried out a series of risk reduction experiments to measure the operating characteristics of the OPO. Sandia's role in this effort included technical assistance with numerical modeling of OPO performance, selection of nonlinear optical crystals, specification of cavity-mirror dielectric coatings, selection of vendors for optical components, and advice concerning integration of the RISTRA OPO into the IACS platform. This report describes results of the risk reduction measurements and it also provides some background information on the operating characteristics of RISTRA OPO's but is not intended to be a tutorial. A working knowledge of pulsed solid-state lasers, laser cavity modes, laser beam quality and beam propagation, and three-wave mixing in nonlinear crystals, is useful.

  2. Utra-bright compact sources of correlated photons based on SPDC in periodically-poled KTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beausoleil, Ray; Fiorentino, Marco; Spillane, Sean; Roberts, Tony; Battle, Phil; Munroe, Mark

    2007-05-01

    Photon pairs generated using spontaneous parametric down- conversion (SPDC) have been a central ingredient for a number of quantum optics experiments ranging from the generation of entanglement to demonstrations of quantum information processing protocols. The flux of pairs generated by SPDC sources has been steadily growing over the years opening the door to practical applications of correlated and entangled photon pairs. SPDC sources based on periodically poled waveguides have shown a great potential to generate large numbers of correlated pairs with a few μW of pump. These works, however, lack a clear explanation of the increased pair rate in waveguides and do not directly compare the waveguide result with bulk. Na"ively, field confinement in waveguides is not expected to enhance pair generation rate, since SPDC is a scattering phenomenon that only involves one pump photon and therefore does not benefit from higher photon densities created by focussing. In this talk we present a theoretical and experimental comparison of spontaneous parametric down-conversion in periodically poled waveguides and bulk KTP crystals. We measured a waveguide pair generation rate of 2.9 .10^6 pairs/s per mW of pump in a 1-nm band: more than 50 times higher than the bulk crystal generation rate. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NWS07.E3.4

  3. Electrical Resistivity and Negative Magnetoresistance in (SNBry)x Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneto, Keiichi; Sasa, Shigehiko; Yoshino, Katsumi; Inuishi, Yoshio

    1980-11-01

    Electrical resistivity, magnetoresistance and their temperature dependences in (SNBry)x are measured for various quantity of y. By bromination, negative magnetoresistance is enhanced at 4.2 K and also appears even at 77 K, at which temperature negative magnetoresistance is not observed in undoped (SN)x. These features are remarkable for the samples heavily doped and just after doping, and are abated by pumping bromine from (SNBry)x for a few days. The possible origins for the anomalous negative magnetoresistance are discussed taking the surface state of fiber bundles or crystal due to adsorped bromine into consideration.

  4. Dye laser pumped, continuous-wave KTP optical parametric oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, M. E.; Scheidt, M.; Boller, K.-J.; Wallenstein, R.

    1998-06-01

    We report on dye-laser-pumped, continuous-wave (CW) KTiOPO4 (KTP) optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) with pump and idler resonant cavities. With a linear two-mirror cavity the pump power at threshold was 70 mW. The single-frequency signal and idler output wavelengths were tuned in the range of 1025 to 1040 nm and 1250 to 1380 nm by tuning the dye laser in the range of 565 to 588 nm. With a dual three-mirror cavity the threshold was 135 mW. Pumped by 500 mW of 578 nm radiation the 1040 nm single-frequency signal wave output power was 84 mW. Power and frequency stable operation with a spectral bandwidth of less than 9 MHz was obtained by piezo-electrically locking the length of the pump resonant cavity to the dye laser wavelength. Similar performance was achieved by placing the idler resonant OPO inside the resonator of the dye laser. With this system power stable and single-frequency operation was achieved with a spectral bandwidth of less than 11 MHz for the idler wave.

  5. Catastrophic nanosecond laser induced damage in the bulk of potassium titanyl phosphate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Frank R. Natoli, Jean-Yves; Akhouayri, Hassan; Commandré, Mireille; Duchateau, Guillaume

    2014-06-28

    Due to its high effective nonlinearity and the possibility to produce periodically poled crystals, potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO{sub 4}, KTP) is still one of the economically important nonlinear optical materials. In this overview article, we present a large study on catastrophic nanosecond laser induced damage in this material and the very similar RbTiOPO{sub 4} (RTP). Several different systematic studies are included: multiple pulse laser damage, multi-wavelength laser damage in KTP, damage resistance anisotropy, and variations of the laser damage thresholds for RTP crystals of different qualities. All measurements were carried out in comparable experimental conditions using a 1064 nm Q-switched laser and some were repeated at 532 nm. After summarizing the experimental results, we detail the proposed model for laser damage in this material and discuss the experimental results in this context. According to the model, nanosecond laser damage is caused by light-induced generation of transient laser-damage precursors which subsequently provide free electrons that are heated by the same nanosecond pulse. We also present a stimulated Raman scattering measurement and confront slightly different models to the experimental data. Finally, the physical nature of the transient damage precursors is discussed and similarities and differences to laser damage in other crystals are pointed out.

  6. Compatibility of the argon and KTP lasers with middle ear implants.

    PubMed

    Wanamaker, H H; Silverstein, H

    1993-06-01

    Visible-spectrum lasers (argon, KTP) are becoming common tools in otology. Concern over transmission of disease by homograft tissue has focused attention on synthetic materials such as Silastic, Polycel, hydroxylapatite, and Teflon. This study sought to determine the effects of argon and KTP lasers on materials used in stapes and chronic ear surgery. Silastic sheeting, hydroxylapatite and polycel total ossicular replacement prostheses (TORPs) and partial ossicular replacement prostheses (PORPs), and platinum wire/Teflon stapes prostheses were exposed to argon and KTP laser energy at clinical power settings. Effects of the two lasers were similar. The presence of pigment (char or blood) was necessary to produce any effect. Silastic transmitted energy to underlying material. Hydroxylapatite cracked and shattered. Polycel vaporized and melted, as did Teflon. Clinical implications of these interactions on primary and revision otologic surgeries will be discussed. PMID:8388975

  7. Heat generation on root surfaces after KTP:NdYAG use in endodontic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nammour, S.; Kowalyk, Kenneth; Valici, Ch.; Guillaume, Patrick

    1997-05-01

    The canals of 30 recently extracted human teeth were filled with a photosensitizer. A series of 5 shots, separated by a resting time of 1 second also, was delivered by means of the KTP:YAG fiber tip. The temperature increases were measured on the topical point of the root surfaces by the use of a thermocouple. For laser settings, the rises were always below the safety threshold of 7 C. We conclude that the KTP:NdYAG laser can be harmless for periodontal tissues under some conditions.

  8. Crystallization of DIR1, a LTP2-like resistance signalling protein from Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Lascombe, Marie-Bernard; Buhot, Nathalie; Bakan, Bénédicte; Marion, Didier; Blein, Jean Pierre; Lamb, Chris J.; Prangé, Thierry

    2006-07-01

    DIR1, a putative LTP2 protein from Arabidopsis thaliana implicated in systemic acquired resistance in planta, has been crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} with one molecule per asymmetric unit. DIR1, a putative LTP2 protein from Arabidopsis thaliana implicated in systemic acquired resistance in planta, has been crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} with one molecule per asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to a resolution of 1.6 Å.

  9. An investigation of the chemical and physical properties of pristine, electrochromically damaged, and photochromically damaged KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) using surface analytical and optical spectroscopic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Quagliano, J.R.; Petrin, R.R.; Trujillo, T.C.; Cockroft, N.J.; Paffett, M.T.; Havrilla, G.; Maggiore, C.J.; Jacco, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    Single-crystal KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) is widely used as a nonlinear optical material in optics and lasers, but it can suffer irreversible damage from intense electric and electromagnetic fields; impurities, defects, vacancies, and electron/hole transfers are probably involved. This report shows results of surface and near-surface (bulk) studies using SIMS, Rutherford backscattering, PIXE, channeling, and XRF. The electrochromic damage may occur upon reduction of Ti{sup 4+} to Ti{sup 3+} by trapping electrons passing through the ion channels. Jahn-Teller distortions and Ti{sup 3+} absorption could produce the dark macroscopi damage. The claim that Ag ions could travel through the ion channels, is discounted by the RBS and SIMS data. RBS does suggest Ti ion migration, but this is not likely, according to the KTP structure and lack of Ti ion enhancement in the white residue. The 355 nm radiation could be absorbed into the UV band edge to inititate a photochemical process (gray tracking), which could be the charge transfer from the oxide ligand to Ti{sup 4+} to create Ti{sup 3+}.

  10. Comparison of KTP, Thulium, and CO2 laser in stapedotomy using specialized visualization techniques: thermal effects.

    PubMed

    Kamalski, Digna M A; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M; de Boorder, Tjeerd; Vincent, Robert; Trabelzini, Franco; Grolman, Wilko

    2014-06-01

    High-speed thermal imaging enables visualization of heating of the vestibule during laser-assisted stapedotomy, comparing KTP, CO2, and Thulium laser light. Perforation of the stapes footplate with laser bears the risk of heating of the inner ear fluids. The amount of heating depends on absorption of the laser light and subsequent tissue ablation. The ablation of the footplate is driven by strong water absorption for the CO2 and Thulium laser. For the KTP laser wavelength, ablation is driven by carbonization of the footplate and it might penetrate deep into the inner ear without absorption in water. The thermal effects were visualized in an inner ear model, using two new techniques: (1) high-speed Schlieren imaging shows relative dynamic changes of temperatures up to 2 ms resolution in the perilymph. (2) Thermo imaging provides absolute temperature measurements around the footplate up to 40 ms resolution. The high-speed Schlieren imaging showed minimal heating using the KTP laser. Both CO2 and Thulium laser showed heating below the footplate. Thulium laser wavelength generated heating up to 0.6 mm depth. This was confirmed with thermal imaging, showing a rise of temperature of 4.7 (±3.5) °C for KTP and 9.4 (±6.9) for Thulium in the area of 2 mm below the footplate. For stapedotomy, the Thulium and CO2 laser show more extended thermal effects compared to KTP. High-speed Schlieren imaging and thermal imaging are complimentary techniques to study lasers thermal effects in tissue. PMID:23880918

  11. KTP and Er:YAG laser dental bleaching comparison: a spectrophotometric, thermal and morphologic analysis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, C; Augros, C; Rocca, J P; Lagori, G; Fornaini, C

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results, in terms of temperature, colour change and morphology, of two different laser wavelengths with two different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (HP). The lasers used were KTP (potassium-titanyl-phosphate) laser (λ = 532 nm (PD = 1.98 W/cm2)) and Er:YAG laser (λ = 2940 nm (PD = 2.54 W/cm2)). The bleaching gels used were PolaOffice 35% HP gel and PolaOffice+ 6% HP gel (SDI, Australia). Thirty-six extracted human teeth were selected and divided into two groups. For the 35% HP treatment, 18 teeth were randomly assigned to three subgroups: (1) HP gel without laser irradiation vs. HP gel + KTP laser irradiation; (2) HP gel without laser irradiation vs. HP gel + Er:YAG irradiation; and (3) HP gel + KTP laser irradiation vs. HP gel + Er:YAG irradiation. The same protocol was used for the 6% HP bleaching treatment. The bleaching results were analysed by a spectrophotometer, the thermal elevation by K thermocouples and the enamel surface by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney test were performed, and the data were analysed using the software StatView and the free Web statistics tool BiostaTGV. The thermal elevation of the Er:YAG groups was higher than KTP, while only the group 35% HP gel vs. 35% HP gel + Er:YAG showed significant colour differences (p < 0.05). SEM photographs showed slight enamel surface morphologic alterations after bleaching treatment. The Er:YAG laser may improve the bleaching results of 35% HP even if it increases the gel temperature, when compared to the KTP laser. PMID:26100002

  12. Pyroelectricity and its role in optical damage of potassium titanyl phosphate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Thomas, J.C.; Petrin, R.R.

    1996-12-01

    The origin of optical damage in potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystals has been vigorously investigated since its introduction as a nonlinear optical material in 1976. It is well known that this material exhibits a laser damage threshold that limits its use in many high average-power applications, especially frequency doubling of Nd-doped lasers. Both photochromic and electrochromic damage can be induced in KTP. Until recently, it was thought that these two types of damage were distinctly different, possibly involving different mechanisms; however, new data show that electrochromic-like damage can be induced in KT? by laser irradiation only, implying the existence of an internal electric field. We have recently observed bursts of light (optical scintillations) when heating KTP crystals at 0.1 - 1.0 K/s in the temperature range 8 - 675 K. The scintillations correspond to molecular nitrogen emission occurring during the electrical breakdown of air near the crystal surface, and imply the existence of pyroelectric fields in KTP exceeding 30 kV/cm. These fields (and concomitant currents) were induced by 10.6 {mu}m laser irradiation. The observation of pyroelectric effects, heretofore not considered in KTP damage models, provides an important new insight into the possible cause of the recently observed {open_quotes}electrochromic-like{close_quotes} photochromic damage in KTP.

  13. Luminescence and radiation resistance of undoped NaI crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shiran, N. Boiaryntseva, I.; Gektin, A.; Gridin, S.; Shlyakhturov, V.; Vasuykov, S.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • The performance of NaI scintillators depends on luminescence properties. • A criterion of crystals’ purity level is radiation colorability at room temperature. • The traces of the most dangerous impurities were detected. • Crucial role in efficiency of pure NaI scintillator play the crystal perfection. - Abstract: Undoped NaI single crystal is an excellent scintillator at low temperature. However, scintillation parameters of different quality crystals vary in a wide range, significantly exceeding measurement error. Experimental data demonstrate the features of luminescence, radiation induced coloration, and afterglow dependence on the quality of nominally pure crystals. It is found that defects level that allows to elucidate artefacts introduced by traces of harmful impurities corresponds to 3 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} that significantly overhead accuracy of chemical and absorption analysis. It is shown that special raw material treatment before and during the single crystal growth allows to reach NaI purity level that avoids impurities influence to the basic luminescence data.

  14. Engineering Porous Organic Cage Crystals with Increased Acid Gas Resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guanghui; Hoffman, Christopher D; Liu, Yang; Bhattacharyya, Souryadeep; Tumuluri, Uma; Jue, Melinda L; Wu, Zili; Sholl, David S; Nair, Sankar; Jones, Christopher W; Lively, Ryan P

    2016-07-25

    Both known and new CC3-based porous organic cages are prepared and exposed to acidic SO2 in vapor and liquid conditions. Distinct differences in the stability of the CC3 cages exist depending on the chirality of the diamine linkers used. The acid catalyzed CC3 degradation mechanism is probed via in situ IR and a degradation pathway is proposed and supported with computational results. CC3 crystals synthesized with racemic mixtures of diaminocyclohexane exhibited enhanced stability compared to CC3-R and CC3-S. Confocal fluorescent microscope images reveal that the stability difference in CC3 species originates from an abundance of mesoporous grain boundaries in CC3-R and CC3-S, allowing facile access of aqueous SO2 throughout the crystal, promoting decomposition. These grain boundaries are absent from CC3 crystals made with racemic linkers. PMID:27253350

  15. Abnormal drop in electrical resistivity with impurity doping of single-crystal Ag

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Young; Oh, Min-Wook; Lee, Seunghun; Cho, Yong Chan; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Lee, Geun Woo; Cho, Chae-Ryong; Park, Chul Hong; Jeong, Se-Young

    2014-01-01

    Resistivity is an intrinsic feature that specifies the electrical properties of a material and depends on electron-phonon scattering near room temperature. Reducing the resistivity of a metal to its potentially lowest value requires eliminating grain boundaries and impurities, but to date few studies have focused on reducing the intrinsic resistivity of a pure metal itself. We could reduce the intrinsic resistivity of single-crystal Ag, which has an almost perfect structure, by impurity doping it with Cu. This paper presents our results: resistivity was reduced to 1.35 μΩ·cm at room temperature after 3 mol% Cu-doping of single-crystal Ag. Various mechanisms were examined in an attempt to explain the abnormal behavior. PMID:24965478

  16. Light-Induced Resistance Effect Observed in Nano Au Films Covered Two-Dimensional Colloidal Crystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Huang, Meizhen; Yao, Yanjie; Wang, Hui; Jin, Kui-juan; Zhan, Peng; Wang, Zhenlin

    2015-09-01

    Tailoring resistance response using periodic nanostructures is one of the key issues in the current research. Two-dimensional colloidal crystals (CCs) structure is one of popular periodic nanospheres' structures and most of reports are focused on anomalous transmission of light or biomedical applications. In this work, a light-induced resistance effect is observed on silicon-based Au films covered CCs, featuring a remarkable resistance change as much as 56% and resistance switching characteristic. The diffusion and recombination of photocarriers is the crucial factor for this effect. This finding will expand photoelectricity functionality and be useful for future development of CC-based photoelectric devices. PMID:26314930

  17. Nanosecond X-ray detector based on high resistivity ZnO single crystal semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaolong; Chen, Liang; He, Yongning; Liu, Jinliang; Peng, Wenbo; Huang, Zhiyong; Qi, Xiaomeng; Pan, Zijian; Zhang, Wenting; Zhang, Zhongbing; Ouyang, Xiaoping

    2016-04-01

    The pulse radiation detectors are sorely needed in the fields of nuclear reaction monitoring, material analysis, astronomy study, spacecraft navigation, and space communication. In this work, we demonstrate a nanosecond X-ray detector based on ZnO single crystal semiconductor, which emerges as a promising compound-semiconductor radiation detection material for its high radiation tolerance and advanced large-size bulk crystal growth technique. The resistivity of the ZnO single crystal is as high as 1013 Ω cm due to the compensation of the donor defects (VO) and acceptor defects (VZn and Oi) after high temperature annealing in oxygen. The photoconductive X-ray detector was fabricated using the high resistivity ZnO single crystal. The rise time and fall time of the detector to a 10 ps pulse electron beam are 0.8 ns and 3.3 ns, respectively, indicating great potential for ultrafast X-ray detection applications.

  18. The Effect of Hydrogen Annealing on the Oxidation Resistance of Four EPM Single Crystal Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Barrett, Charles A.; Garlick, Ralph G.

    2001-01-01

    Four single crystal EPM (enabling propulsion materials) developmental airfoil superalloys were hydrogen annealed at 1300 C for up to 100 hours to remove sulfur and improve oxidation resistance. Although the 1100 and 1150 C cyclic oxidation resistance was remarkably improved by annealing for 24 or 100 hours, the behavior was still considerably inferior to that of commercially available single crystal superalloys, especially those that are either Y-doped or hydrogen annealed. Excessive degradation in the developmental alloys appeared to be correlated with low Cr contents and, to a lesser extent, high Co and Re contents.

  19. Visible and near-infrared optical properties of a proton-implanted KTP waveguide.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu-Fan; Liu, Peng; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Lian; Yu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Tie-Jun; Zhao, Jin-Hua; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2014-07-20

    In this work, the optical properties of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) waveguides in the visible and near-infrared region are reported. The KTP waveguides were fabricated using 550 keV proton implantation at room temperature, and the refractive index profiles of the implanted region in the visible and near-infrared region were reconstructed. The profiles of the guided modes were measured through the end-face coupling method with both 632.8 and 1539 nm laser sources and then compared with the simulation results using the beam propagation method. Optical transmission and Raman spectra in the original substrate and waveguide active region were measured to study microstructural changes. The propagation loss of the TM0-mode at 632.8 nm was also measured. PMID:25090217

  20. Efficacy of LED versus KTP laser activation of photodynamic bleaching of tetracycline-stained dentine.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Zackary Y; Walsh, Laurence J

    2015-09-01

    In some well-established laser applications where large spot sizes are used, an array of high-intensity light emitting diodes (LED) emitting at similar wavelength could potentially replace the laser. This situation applies for the photodynamic bleaching of stains in teeth. This study compared the relative efficacy of an array of visible green LED (535 nm ± 15 nm) with a KTP laser in photodynamic bleaching of tetracycline-stained dentine in human tooth roots. After establishing consistent staining in 96 roots using a validated method, the roots were sectioned into 2-3-mm thick horizontal slices that were treated with gels containing rhodamine B (Smartbleach® or Smartbleach® 3LT). Colour changes were tracked up to 1 month after treatment. While both systems were effective in bleaching the tetracycline-stained dentine, KTP laser activation gave greater bleaching efficacy than LED activation, enhancing the action of the gel. Use of the KTP laser would be preferable over an LED system when confronted with tetracycline staining. Use of this photodynamic bleaching method offers valuable means to reduce the severity of tetracycline staining. PMID:25288264

  1. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal. 5 figs.

  2. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cockroft, Nigel J.

    1998-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal.

  3. Resistive memory effects in BiFeO3 single crystals controlled by transverse electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawachi, S.; Kuroe, H.; Ito, T.; Miyake, A.; Tokunaga, M.

    2016-04-01

    The effects of electric fields perpendicular to the c-axis of the trigonal cell in single crystals of BiFeO3 are investigated through magnetization and resistance measurements. Magnetization and resistance exhibit hysteretic changes under applied electric fields, which can be ascribed to the reorientation of the magnetoelectric domains. Samples are repetitively switched between high- and low-resistance states by changing the polarity of the applied electric fields over 20 000 cycles at room temperature. These results demonstrate the potential of BiFeO3 for use in non-volatile memory devices.

  4. Crystal structure of the TLDc domain of oxidation resistance protein 2 from zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Blaise, Mickaël; Alsarraf, Husam M A B; Wong, Jaslyn E M M; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Laroche, Fabrice; Schack, Lotte; Spaink, Herman; Stougaard, Jens; Thirup, Søren

    2012-06-01

    The oxidation resistance proteins (OXR) help to protect eukaryotes from reactive oxygen species. The sole C-terminal domain of the OXR, named TLDc is sufficient to perform this function. However, the mechanism by which oxidation resistance occurs is poorly understood. We present here the crystal structure of the TLDc domain of the oxidation resistance protein 2 from zebrafish. The structure was determined by X-ray crystallography to atomic resolution (0.97Å) and adopts an overall globular shape. Two antiparallel β-sheets form a central β-sandwich, surrounded by two helices and two one-turn helices. The fold shares low structural similarity to known structures. PMID:22434723

  5. Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, Yu M; Voevodin, V G; Badikov, Valerii V; Geiko, L G; Geiko, P P; Ivashchenko, M V; Karapuzikov, A I; Sherstov, I V

    2001-12-31

    The results of radiation resistance measurements for twelve nonlinear crystals are presented. The crystals include the well-known nonlinear CdGeAs{sub 2}, ZnGeP{sub 2}, AgGaSe{sub 2}, GaSe, AgGaS{sub 2}, and Ag{sub 3}AsS{sub 3} crystals operating in the middle IR range, new mixed AgGaGeS{sub 4} and Cd{sub 0.35}Hg{sub 0.65}Ga{sub 2}S{sub 4} crystals, two-phase (orange and yellow) HgGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} crystal, and the doped GaSe:In crystal. The mixed crystals and the two-phase HgGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} crystal are transparent in the range from 0.4 - 0.5 to 11.5 - 14.5 {mu}m. The measurements were performed using a pulsed single-mode highly stability TEA CO{sub 2} laser with an output pulse duration of {approx}30 ns. The damage thresholds of new nonlinear AgGaGeS{sub 4} and Cd {sub 0.35}Hg{sub 0.65}Ga{sub 2}S{sub 4} crystals and of the HgGa{sub 2}S{sub 4} crystal (the orange and yellow phases) were found to be 1.5 - 2.2 times higher than for the crystals operating in the middle IR range. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  6. Intracavity optical parametric oscillator based on GTR-KTP driven by laser-diode end-pumped Q-switched Nd:YVO 4 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian-Fei; Zhang, Bai-Tao; Huang, Hai-Tao; He, Jing-Liang; Xu, Jin-Long; Zhao, Shuang; Yang, Xiu-Qin; Qiu, Gang; Liu, Zong-Kai

    2010-07-01

    An efficient, eye-safe, high-repetition-rate, single-resonant intracavity optical parameter oscillator, driven by a laser-diode (LD) end-pumped acousto-optically Q-switched Nd:YVO 4 laser, based on high gray-trace resistance KTiPO 4 (GTR-KTP), was demonstrated. With a pump power of 13.8 W and frequency repetition rate of 40 kHz, the maximum power of 1.72 W with pulse width of 2.09 ns at signal wavelength 1572 nm is obtained. The corresponding peak power and single pulse energy is calculated to be 21 kW and 43 μJ, respectively. And the conversion efficiency from incident pump power at 808 nm to output power at signal wavelength 1572 nm is about 12.5%. The output instability is measured only to be 1% within 1 h.

  7. Radiation resistivity of BGO crystals due to low-energy gamma-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozma, Peter; Kozma, Petr

    2003-04-01

    Radiation resistivity of 4×4×30 mm 3 BGO crystals from three suppliers has been studied for doses 10 4 Gy (10 6 rad) and 10 5 Gy (10 7 rad). Radiation hardness was examined by the measurement of optical transmission through BGO crystals before and after 60Co gamma-ray irradiations. The absolute degradation of transmission for 10 4 and 10 5 Gy doses at 480 nm wavelength of the peak emission of BGO, was found to be lower than 3.4% and 7.5%, respectively. The results have been also compared with radiation hardness measurements for a large volume ∅30×30 mm 3 BGO crystal as well as another heavy scintillation crystals: fluorides and tungstates. Complete recovery of BGO radiation damage was observed only after few days.

  8. Good electrical contacts for high resistivity (Cd,Mn)Te crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Witkowska-Baran,M.; Mycielski, A.; Kochanowska, D.; Szadkowski, A. J.; Jakiela, r.; Witkowska, B.; Kaliszek, W.; Domagala, J.; Lusakowska, E.; Domukhovski, V.; Dybko, K.; Cui, Y.; James, R. B.

    2008-10-19

    We consider that semi-insulating (Cd,Mn)Te crystals may well successfully replace the commonly used (Cd,Zn)Te crystals as a material for manufacturing large-area X- and gamma-ray detectors. The Bridgman growth method yields good quality and high-resistivity (10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} {Omega}-cm) crystals of (Cd,Mn)Te:V. Doping with vanadium ({approx} 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}), which acts as a compensating agent, and annealing in cadmium vapors, which reduces the number of cadmium vacancies in the as-grown crystal, ensure this high resistivity. Detector applications of the crystals require satisfactory electrical contacts. Hence, we explored techniques of ensuring good electrical contacts to semi-insulating (Cd,Mn)Te crystals. Our findings are reported here. Before depositing the contact layers, we prepared an 'epi-ready' surface of the crystal platelet by a procedure described earlier for various tellurium-based II-VI compound crystals. A molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) apparatus was used to deposit various types of contact layers: Monocrystalline semiconductor layers, amorphous- and nanocrystalline semiconductor layers, and metal layers were studied. We employed ZnTe heavily doped ({approx} 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}) with Sb, and CdTe heavily doped ({approx} 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}) with In as the semiconductors to create contact layers that subsequently enable good contact (with a narrow, tunneling barrier) to the Au layer that usually is applied as the top contact layer. We describe and discuss the technology and some properties of the electrical contacts to semi-insulating (Cd,Mn)Te.

  9. Growth of KTiOPO{sub 4} crystals doped with zinc and studies of their physical properties and specific structural features

    SciTech Connect

    Orlova, E. I.; Novikova, N. E.; Gagor, A.; Verin, I. A.; Pietraszko, A.; Belov, D. A.; Voronkova, V. I.

    2010-07-15

    A series of potassium titanyl phosphate single crystals doped with zinc (KTP: Zn) is grown by spontaneous flux crystallization. Their properties and the way the additive is implanted in the crystal lattice are studied. The inclusion of zinc atoms in the KTP structure is evidenced by the data of chemical analysis and the results of studies of electrophysical properties (the growth of conductivity and increase of relaxation anomalies). Precision X-ray diffraction studies of KTP: Zn single crystals reveal changes in the channel of the structure which correlate with the physical properties of this crystal series. No substitution of zinc atoms for titanium, phosphorus, or potassium atoms is found in the structure. Zinc atoms can be located at structural defects, domain walls, and the crystal surface.

  10. Low-Density, Creep-Resistant Single-Crystal Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKay, Rebecca A.; Gabb, Timothy P.; Smialek, James L.; Nathal, Michael V.

    2006-01-01

    Several recently formulated nickel-base superalloys have been developed with excellent high-temperature creep resistance, at lower densities than those of currently used nickel-base superalloys. These alloys are the latest products of a continuing effort to develop alloys that have even greater strength-to-weight ratios, suitable for use in turbine blades of aircraft engines. Mass densities of turbine blades exert a significant effect on the overall weight of aircraft. For a given aircraft, a reduction in the density of turbine blades enables design reductions in the weight of other parts throughout the turbine rotor, including the disk, hub, and shaft, as well as supporting structures in the engine. The resulting total reduction in weight can be 8 to 10 times that of the reduction in weight of the turbine blades. The approach followed in formulating these alloys involved several strategies for identifying key alloying elements and the range of concentration of each element to study. To minimize the number of alloys needed to be cast, a design-of--experiments methodology was adopted. A statistics-based computer program that models the effects of varying compositions of four elements, including effects of two-way interactions between elements, was used to test all possible alloys within the design space. The starting points for the computational analysis were three alloy compositions mandated by engineering consensus. After likewise identification of key alloying elements to vary and the allowed ranges of concentrations, the computer program then selects a minimum number of alloys within the design space to allow determination of effects for all four elements and their interactions.

  11. Enamel crystals of mice susceptible or resistant to dental fluorosis: an AFM study

    PubMed Central

    BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; BARBOSA, Carolina Silveira; LEITE, Aline de Lima; CHANG, Sywe-Ren; LIU, Jun; CZAJKA-JAKUBOWSKA, Agata; CLARKSON, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the overall apatite crystals profile in the enamel matrix of mice susceptible (A/J strain) or resistant (129P3/J strain) to dental fluorosis through analyses by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Material and Methods Samples from the enamel matrix in the early stages of secretion and maturation were obtained from the incisors of mice from both strains. All detectable traces of matrix protein were removed from the samples by a sequential extraction procedure. The purified crystals (n=13 per strain) were analyzed qualitatively in the AFM. Surface roughness profile (Ra) was measured. Results The mean (±SD) Ra of the crystals of A/J strain (0.58±0.15 nm) was lower than the one found for the 129P3/J strain (0.66±0.21 nm) but the difference did not reach statistical significance (t=1.187, p=0.247). Crystals of the 129P3/J strain (70.42±6.79 nm) were found to be significantly narrower (t=4.013, p=0.0013) than the same parameter measured for the A/J strain (90.42±15.86 nm). Conclusion Enamel crystals of the 129P3/J strain are narrower, which is indicative of slower crystal growth and could interfere in the occurrence of dental fluorosis. PMID:25025555

  12. Crystal Structure of the Carbapenem Intrinsic Resistance Protein CarG

    PubMed Central

    Tichy, E.M.; Luisi, B.F.; Salmond, G.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    In the Gram-negative enterobacterium Erwinia (Pectobacterium) and Serratia sp. ATCC 39006, intrinsic resistance to the carbapenem antibiotic 1-carbapen-2-em-3-carboxylic acid is mediated by the CarF and CarG proteins, by an unknown mechanism. Here, we report a high-resolution crystal structure for the Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 carbapenem resistance protein CarG. This structure of CarG is the first in the carbapenem intrinsic resistance (CIR) family of resistance proteins from carbapenem-producing bacteria. The crystal structure shows the protein to form a homodimer, in agreement with results from analytical gel filtration. The structure of CarG does not show homology with any known antibiotic resistance proteins nor does it belong to any well-characterised protein structural family. However, it is a close structural homologue of the bacterial inhibitor of invertebrate lysozyme, PliI-Ah, with some interesting structural variations, including the absence of the catalytic site responsible for lysozyme inhibition. Both proteins show a unique β-sandwich fold with short terminal α-helices. The core of the protein is formed by stacked anti-parallel sheets that are individually very similar in the two proteins but differ in their packing interface, causing the splaying of the two sheets in CarG. Furthermore, a conserved cation binding site identified in CarG is absent from the homologue. PMID:24583229

  13. Injection photodiodes based on low-resistivity ZnS single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Losev, V. V.

    2009-12-15

    Results of an experimental study of Ni-n-n{sup +}-In photodiode structures fabricated from a low-resistivity ZnS:Al crystal (n{sup +}-region) are reported. The high-resistivity compensated n-type layer is produced by thermal diffusion of silver. The photodiodes exhibit an injection amplification of the photocurrent under a forward bias of 1-10 V. The dependence of the currents through the diodes on the thickness of the n-type layer in the dark and under UV irradiation is determined. The photosensitivity is at a maximum in the fundamental absorption range in a narrow spectral band.

  14. High power and high SFDR frequency conversion using sum frequency generation in KTP waveguides.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Russell J; Brewer, Tyler; Barber, Zeb W

    2016-08-01

    We characterize the intermodulation distortion of high power and efficient frequency conversion of modulated optical signals based on sum frequency generation (SFG) in a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) waveguide. Unwanted frequency two-tone spurs are generated near the converted signal via a three-step cascaded three-wave mixing process. Computer simulations describing the process are presented along with the experimental measurements. High-conversion efficiencies and large spur-free dynamic range of the converted optical signal are demonstrated. PMID:27472638

  15. Fabrication of multilevel resist patterns by using a liquid crystal mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słupski, Piotr; Nikodem, Michał; Chai, Liming; Komorowska, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    Photolithographic processes of multilevel features in microfluidics can be complex and expensive. This paper demonstrates a quick method for manufacturing multilevel patterns, which is based on liquid crystal display masking during a standard lithography process for master mold fabrication for the polydimethysiloxane replica process. An active mask, based on a liquid crystal display, can simplify the process due to the ability to quickly modify designs and reduce the overhead for alignment between mask levels. The possibility of multilevel patterning, with the help of active masking, creates new opportunities for optical lithography processes. We have developed the process for a standard, mercury lamp exposure mask aligner system. The patterning characteristics were evaluated with a step pattern fabricated as an example of three-dimensional patterning for multilevel structuring. The application of a liquid crystal mask for resist contrast measurements was demonstrated.

  16. Relationship between the cathodoluminescence emission and resistivity in In doped CdZnTe crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, J.; Carcelen, V.; Dieguez, E.; Hidalgo, P.; Piqueras, J.; Vijayan, N.; Sochinskii, N. V.; Perez, J. M.

    2009-08-15

    Cadmium zinc telluride, CdZnTe, bulk single crystals doped with 10{sup 19} at./cm{sup 3} of indium in the initial melt were grown by vertical Bridgman technique. The samples were investigated by energy dispersive spectroscopy, cathodoluminiscence (CL), and current-voltage behavior at room temperature. The results shows that Cd and Te vacancy concentration depend on the indium and zinc concentrations. CL measurements indicate a relationship between radiative centers associated to Cd and Te vacancies and resistivity values.

  17. Laser effects in nonpigmented versus pigmented tissues using FiberTomeTM, Nd:YAG, and KTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Wendy J.; Vari, Sandor G.; Pergadia, Vani R.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Weiss, Andrew B.; Duffy, J. T.; Thomas, Reem; Shi, Wei-Qiang; Fry, Stephen M.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1994-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the FiberTomeTM (10, 20, 30 W), conventional Nd:YAG (10, 20, 30 W), and KTP (5, 10, 15 W) surgical laser systems, with respect to pigmented and nonpigmented tissues. The cutting width, cutting depth, and thermal damages were measured on the skin and liver of farmer pigs. The results show that there was no significant difference in the cutting width and depth, for nonpigmented versus pigmented tissues. KTP showed the most significant thermal damage reduction in pigmented tissue; 318 micrometers in nonpigmented vs 94 micrometers in pigmented tissue.

  18. Optical property analysis of high-resistivity CZT:In single crystals before and after annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pengfei; Jie, Wanqi

    2014-05-01

    In-doped CdZnTe:In (CZT:In) single crystals with high resistivity were annealed by an effective method containing Cd/Zn atmosphere annealing and Te atmosphere annealing. They were mainly measured by IR transmittance and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The results indicated Te inclusions were eliminated completely after annealing. Both of the resistivity and IR transmittance decreased notably after Cd/Zn atmosphere annealing, and then increased tremendously after Te atmosphere annealing. For PL measurements, (A0, X) disappeared, the intensity of (D0, X) peak increased, and FWHM was obviously reduced after annealing. These indicated the crystal quality was enhanced. The donor-acceptor pair peak decreased in annealed CZT:In crystal, which might be due to the dissociation of [VCd-InCd] complex and the remove of the impurities. Moreover, Dcomplex peak containing two peaks was caused by Cd vacancy-related (D1) and dislocation-related defects (D2) in as-grown crystal. However, after annealing, the intensities of D1 and D2 peaks decreased because of the compensation of Cd vacancies and the elimination of Te inclusions, respectively.

  19. Measuring anisotropic resistivity of single crystals using the van der Pauw technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borup, Kasper A.; Fischer, Karl F. F.; Brown, David R.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Iversen, Bo B.

    2015-07-01

    Anisotropy in properties of materials is important in materials science and solid-state physics. Measurement of the full resistivity tensor of crystals using the standard four-point method with bar shaped samples requires many measurements and may be inaccurate due to misalignment of the bars along crystallographic directions. Here an approach to extracting the resistivity tensor using van der Pauw measurements is presented. This reduces the number of required measurements. The theory of the van der Pauw method is extended to extract the tensor from parallelogram shaped samples with known geometry. Methods to extract the tensor for both known and unknown principal axis orientation are presented for broad applicability to single crystals. Numerical simulations of errors are presented to quantify error sources. Several benchmark experiments are performed on isotropic graphite samples to verify the internal consistency of the developed theory, test experimental precision, and characterize error sources. The presented methods are applied to a RuS b2 single crystal at room temperature and the results are discussed based on the error source analysis. Temperature resolved resistivities along the a and b directions are finally reported and briefly discussed.

  20. Resistance degradation due to interstitial hydrogen in photorefractive potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivker, M.; Agranat, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    Resistance degradation in potassium lithium tantalate niobate (KLTN) doped with iron and titanium was measured in a single sample containing various concentrations of interstitial hydrogen. In this crystal the degradation arose from the migration of interstitial hydrogen and not oxygen vacancies, as reported in previous research. Interstitial hydrogen and oxygen vacancy defects both arise to compensate the valence shortfall of the substitutional iron impurities and the thermodynamic balance between the two compensation mechanisms can be controlled using reaction chemistry techniques. Through appropriate annealing treatments a single crystal of KLTN was prepared in three states: hydrogen-rich oxidized, hydrogen-poor reduced, and hydrogen-rich reduced. The characteristic degradation times for the three cases were 29, 2710, and 26min, respectively. The degradation rate is correlated with hydrogen concentration and not oxidation state of the crystal. Infrared absorption from near the two electrodes of the hydrogen-rich reduced crystal after degradation confirmed polarization of the hydrogen concentration. Electrocoloration was also found to correlate with hydrogen—it was observed in both hydrogen-rich states, but was absent from the hydrogen-poor crystal.

  1. Influence of surface cracks on laser-induced damage resistance of brittle KH₂PO₄ crystal.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jian; Chen, Mingjun; Liao, Wei; Wang, Haijun; Wang, Jinghe; Xiao, Yong; Li, Mingquan

    2014-11-17

    Single point diamond turning (SPDT) currently is the leading finishing method for achieving ultra-smooth surface on brittle KH(2)PO(4) crystal. In this work, the light intensification modulated by surface cracks introduced by SPDT cutting is numerically simulated using finite-difference time-domain algorithm. The results indicate that the light intensification caused by surface cracks is wavelength, crack geometry and position dependent. Under the irradiation of 355 nm laser, lateral cracks on front surfaces and conical cracks on both front and rear surfaces can produce light intensification as high as hundreds of times, which is sufficient to trigger avalanche ionization and finally lower the laser damage resistance of crystal components. Furthermore, we experimentally tested the laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDTs) on both crack-free and flawed crystal surfaces. The results imply that brittle fracture with a series of surface cracks is the dominant source of laser damage initiation in crystal components. Due to the negative effect of surface cracks, the LIDT on KDP crystal surface could be sharply reduced from 7.85J/cm(2) to 2.33J/cm(2) (355 nm, 6.4 ns). In addition, the experiment of laser-induced damage growth is performed and the damage growth behavior agrees well with the simulation results of light intensification caused by surface cracks with increasing crack depths. PMID:25402114

  2. Type II sum frequency generation in KTP waveguides: a technique for pre and post screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleva, Christopher M.; Munro, Mark; Roberts, Tony D.; Chang, Tiejun; Battle, Philip

    2008-02-01

    Quasi-phase matched (QPM) frequency conversion in ion exchanged potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) waveguides can be used for highly efficient single pass conversion of low power cw and quasi-cw lasers. Applications include frequency doubling diode lasers for display and biomedical, pulsed sources for fluorescence and remote sensing, and recently KTP waveguides have been used to generate photon pairs using both Type I and II down conversion for quantum information science and technology (QUIST) applications. In this paper, we will describe a nondestructive, all optical technique that can be used to assess the quality and modal index of the ion exchanged waveguide before periodic poling. The structure of the waveguide is interrogated utilizing Type II sum frequency generation (SFG) and is enabled by the fact that the ion exchange process results in waveguides that can support both TE and TM optical modes. The results of this technique can be used to determine the uniformity of the created waveguide and are used to determine the necessary period for a desired poling result. Furthermore, this technique can be utilized to provide an in situ assessment of the poling for any QPM period without needing the laser sources for the particular frequency conversion interaction. Experimental results will be reviewed.

  3. Dry heat or gaseous chemical resistance of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores included within water-soluble crystals.

    PubMed

    Mullican, C L; Hoffman, R K

    1968-08-01

    Inclusion of spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger in water-soluble crystals increased the resistance of the spores to dry heat and to a gaseous mixture of methyl bromide and ethylene oxide. Resistance of spores in glycine crystals to dry heat at 125 C was increased 5 to 24 times compared to unprotected spores. There appeared to be a positive correlation between the size of the crystal and the degree of resistance. The resistance to dry heat of spores included in sodium chloride crystals was about six times greater than unprotected spores. A gaseous mixture of methyl bromide (964 mg/liter) and ethylene oxide (642 mg/liter) at 37% relative humidity was ineffective in sterilizing spores enclosed within these water-soluble crystals, as was ethylene oxide alone. However, if the relative humidity was sufficiently high to dissolve the crystals during exposure to the vapor, viable-spore counts were drastically reduced or were negative. The surfaces of crystals grossly contaminated with dry spores were sterilized by exposure to gaseous ethylene oxide. Sterilization of heat-labile or moisture-labile materials with a critical requirement for sterility, as in planetary probes or drugs, may be complicated by the presence of spores in naturally occurring water-soluble crystals. This phenomenon is similar to the protection afforded spores entrapped in solid plastics. PMID:4970891

  4. Dry Heat or Gaseous Chemical Resistance of Bacillus subtilis var. niger Spores Included Within Water-soluble Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Mullican, Charles L.; Hoffman, Robert K.

    1968-01-01

    Inclusion of spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger in water-soluble crystals increased the resistance of the spores to dry heat and to a gaseous mixture of methyl bromide and ethylene oxide. Resistance of spores in glycine crystals to dry heat at 125 C was increased 5 to 24 times compared to unprotected spores. There appeared to be a positive correlation between the size of the crystal and the degree of resistance. The resistance to dry heat of spores included in sodium chloride crystals was about six times greater than unprotected spores. A gaseous mixture of methyl bromide (964 mg/liter) and ethylene oxide (642 mg/liter) at 37% relative humidity was ineffective in sterilizing spores enclosed within these water-soluble crystals, as was ethylene oxide alone. However, if the relative humidity was sufficiently high to dissolve the crystals during exposure to the vapor, viable-spore counts were drastically reduced or were negative. The surfaces of crystals grossly contaminated with dry spores were sterilized by exposure to gaseous ethylene oxide. Sterilization of heat-labile or moisture-labile materials with a critical requirement for sterility, as in planetary probes or drugs, may be complicated by the presence of spores in naturally occurring water-soluble crystals. This phenomenon is similar to the protection afforded spores entrapped in solid plastics. PMID:4970891

  5. Multi-watt power blue light generation by intracavity sum- frequency-mixing in KTiOPO4 crystal.

    PubMed

    Haiyong, Zhu; Ge, Zhang; Chenghui, Huang; Yong, Wei; Lingxiong, Huang; Zhenqiang, Chen

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, a high power blue laser at 447 nm was obtained by intracavity sum-frequency-mixing of a diode-side-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAlO(3)(Nd:YAP) laser operating at 1341.4 nm. A type-I critical phase matching LiB(3)O(5) (LBO) crystal and type-II critical phase matching KTiOPO(4) (KTP) crystal were used for second harmonic generation and third harmonic generation, respectively. The phase matching condition of the KTP crystal was researched. The results show that the KTP has superiority in intracavity sum-frequency-mixing blue light generation. 4.76 W blue light output was achieved at 4.6 kHz with the pulse width of 190ns. The fluctuation of output power was better than 3% at the output power of 4.76 W during half an hour. PMID:18542384

  6. Single-Crystal Electrical Resistivities of Some Ta-Rich Chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kyungsoo; Hughbanks, Timothy

    1993-02-01

    Vapor phase transport synthesis of several Ta-rich chalcogenides affords us good single crystals for four-probe measurements of their electrical resistivities. A comparison of the temperature dependent resistivities of Ta2S and Ta3S2 show that the latter compound is a considerably poorer conductor for all temperatures from 15 to 270 K, as predicted in our earlier band structure study of these materials and consistent with the recent work of Nozaki and coworkers. In both cases, resistivities were measured along the direction parallel to the 1x [Ta5Ta] chains that serve as these materials' basic structural building blocks. The compounds Ta9M2S6 (M = Fe, Co, Ni) show normal metallic behavior over the same range of temperatures. A distortion that leads to a doubling of the c-axis length for the Fe and Co containing compounds seems to have no significant effect on the electronic density of states at the Fermi level in either material. In contrast, the compounds Ta11M2Se8 (M = Fe, Co, Ni) exhibit markedly different resistivities as a function of temperature. While Ta11Fe2Se8 and Ta11Ni2Se8 behave much like the structurally similar Ta9M2S6 compounds, the resistivity of Ta11Co2Se8 shows a curiously weak temperature dependence and a high residual value at the lowest temperatures of measurement (15 K). Powder diffraction data for this compound suggests that crystals prepared at low temperature have lower symmetry than the Pnnm space group originally reported.

  7. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of the response regulator NsrR involved in nisin resistance.

    PubMed

    Khosa, Sakshi; Hoeppner, Astrid; Kleinschrodt, Diana; Smits, Sander H J

    2015-10-01

    A number of Gram-positive bacteria produce a class of bacteriocins called `lantibiotics'. These lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized peptides that possess high antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including clinically challenging pathogens, and are therefore potential alternatives to antibiotics. All lantibiotic producer strains and some Gram-positive nonproducer strains express protein systems to circumvent a suicidal effect or to become resistant, respectively. Two-component systems consisting of a response regulator and a histidine kinase upregulate the expression of these proteins. One of the best-characterized lantibiotics is nisin, which is produced by Lactococcus lactis and possesses bactericidal activity against various Gram-positive bacteria, including some human pathogenic strains. Within many human pathogenic bacterial strains inherently resistant to nisin, a response regulator, NsrR, has been identified which regulates the expression of proteins involved in nisin resistance. In the present study, an expression and purification protocol was established for the NsrR protein from Streptococcus agalactiae COH1. The protein was successfully crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method, resulting in crystals that diffracted X-rays to 1.4 Å resolution. PMID:26457525

  8. Urethral stricture vaporization with the KTP laser provides evidence for a favorable impact of laser surgery on wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidlin, Franz R.; Venzi, Giordano; Jichlinski, Patrice; Oswald, Michael; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Gabbiani, Giulio; Leisinger, Hans-Juerg; Graber, Peter

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of the KTP 532 laser to direct vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU) in the management of urethral strictures. A total of 32 patients were randomized prospectively in this study, 14 DVIU and 18 KTP 532 laser. Patients were evaluated postoperatively with flowmetry and in the case of recurrence with cystourethrography at 3, 12, 24 weeks. With the KTP 532 laser complete symptomatic and uredynamic success was achieved in 15 (83%) patients at 12 and 24 weeks. Success rate was lower in the DVIU group with 9 (64%) patients at 12 weeks and 8 (57%) patients at 24 weeks. Mean preoperative peak-flow was improved from 6 cc/s to 20 cc/s at 3, 12 and 24 weeks with the KTP laser. With DVIU mean preoperative peak-flow was improved from 5.5 cc/s to 20 cc/s at 3 weeks followed by a steady decrease to 13 cc/s at 12 weeks and to 12 cc/s 24 weeks. No complication was observed in either group of patients. Our results confirm that stricture vaporization with the KTP 532 laser is a safe and efficient procedure. The better results after laser surgery make it also a valuable alternative in the endoscopic treatment of urethral strictures. These findings suggest a favorable influence of laser surgery on wound healing with less wound contraction and scarring. The lack of contraction of laser wounds might be related to the absence and the lack of organization of myofibroblasts in laser induced lesions.

  9. Treatment of superficial cutaneous vascular lesions: experience with the KTP 532 nm laser.

    PubMed

    Clark, C; Cameron, H; Moseley, H; Ferguson, J; Ibbotson, S H

    2004-01-01

    Whilst most facial telangiectasias respond well to short-pulse-duration pulsed dye laser therapy, studies have shown that for the treatment of larger vessels these short-duration pulses are sub-optimal. Long-pulse frequency-doubled neodymium:YAG lasers have been introduced with pulse durations ranging from 1-50 ms and treatment beam diameters of up to 4 mm. We report the results of KTP/532 nm laser treatment for superficial vascular skin lesions. The aim was to determine the efficacy of the KTP/532 nm laser in the treatment of superficial cutaneous vascular lesions at a regional dermatology centre in a 2 year retrospective analysis. Patients were referred from general dermatology clinics to a purpose-built laser facility. A test dose was performed at the initial consultation and thereafter patients were reviewed and treated at 6 week intervals. Outcome was graded into five classifications by the patient and operator independently based on photographic records: clear, marked improvement, partial response, poor response, and no change or worsening. Over the 2 year period, 204 patients with 246 diagnoses were treated [156 female; median age 41 (range 1-74) years; Fitzpatrick skin types I-III]. Equal numbers of spider angioma (102) and facial telangiectasia (102) were treated. Of those patients who completed treatment and follow up, 57/58 (98%) of spider angiomas and 44/49 (90%) of facial telangiectasia markedly improved or cleared. Satisfactory treatment outcomes, with one clearance and two partial responses, occurred in three of five patients with port-wine stain. Few patients experienced adverse effects: two declined further treatment due to pain, and a small area of minimal superficial scarring developed in one case. Two patients developed mild persistent post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, and one subject experienced an episode of acute facial erythema, swelling and blistering after one treatment. The KTP/532 nm frequency-doubled neodymium:YAG laser is a safe and

  10. High-resistance liquid-crystal lens array for rotatable 2D/3D autostereoscopic display.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Jen, Tai-Hsiang; Ting, Chih-Hung; Huang, Yi-Pai

    2014-02-10

    A 2D/3D switchable and rotatable autostereoscopic display using a high-resistance liquid-crystal (Hi-R LC) lens array is investigated in this paper. Using high-resistance layers in an LC cell, a gradient electric-field distribution can be formed, which can provide a better lens-like shape of the refractive-index distribution. The advantages of the Hi-R LC lens array are its 2D/3D switchability, rotatability (in the horizontal and vertical directions), low driving voltage (~2 volts) and fast response (~0.6 second). In addition, the Hi-R LC lens array requires only a very simple fabrication process. PMID:24663563

  11. Observation of superconductivity and anomalous electrical resistivity in single-crystal Ir3Te8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Qi, T. F.; Lin, L. S.; Wu, X. X.; Zhang, X. T.; Butrouna, K.; Cao, V. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Hu, Jiangping; Yuan, S. J.; Schlottmann, P.; De Long, L. E.; Cao, G.

    2013-05-01

    We observe an unusual combination of normal and superconducting state properties without any signature of strong spin fluctuations in single-crystal Ir3Te8. The electrical resistivity does not saturate by 700 K but exhibits a low-resistivity ratio, and it exhibits two extended linear regimes (approximately 20-330 and 370-700 K) with the same slope, separated by a small hysteretic interval marking a strong first-order phase transition from cubic to rhombohedral lattice symmetry at TS = 350 K. The electronic heat-capacity coefficient (11mJmol-1K-2) is consistent with a net diamagnetic, rather than a Pauli paramagnetic, normal state that yields to superconductivity below a critical temperature TC = 1.8 K. The size of the heat-capacity jump near TC indicates bulk superconductivity.

  12. Pulp-temperature increases after selective ablation of caries by KTP:NdYAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nammour, S.; Kowalyk, Kenneth; Valici, Ch.; Guillaume, Patrick

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this investigation is to define optimal parameters of KTP laser irradiation during caries removal. 12 decayed human teeth, recently extracted were used. Their rot canals were prepared for insertion of a thermocouple probe into the pulp chamber. The demineralized tissues have been colored by Acid Red 52 before proceeding to different conditions of irradiation. Pulpal temperature increases were found under the following parameters with 15 seconds continuous lasing: 400mw, 0.10 m sec pulse width, PRR

  13. Temperature rise after KTP:NdYAG laser irradiation as a root-planing complement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nammour, S.; Kowalyk, Kenneth; Valici, Ch.; Guillaume, Patrick

    1997-05-01

    The purposes of this study was to define the optimal irradiation conditions of a KTP:NdYAG laser after root planning treatment. The surfaces of 40 single-root human teeth were scaled with conventional tools before lasing. The pulpal temperature increase was measured by means of a thermocouple. The influence of variables of coloration by Acid Red 52, scanning speed, dentin thickness, and probe position, have been analyzed for a constant exposure time of 15 seconds. The temperature was below 3 C for the adjustments, power output: 400 mw, scanning speed of irradiation: 2 mm/sec., and Pw 0.10 m sec, PRR < 60 Hz or Pw: 0.12 m sec, PRR < 55 Hz.

  14. Resistivity and adhesive strength of thin film metallizations on single crystal quartz.

    PubMed

    Vianco, P T; Sifford, C H; Romero, J A

    1997-01-01

    Resistivity and adhesive strength were measured for the thin films 450 A Cr-1800 A Au, 450 A Cr-1000 A Mo-1800 A Au, 450 A Cr-1000 A Ni-1800 A Au, 450 A Mo-1800 A Au, 1800 A Au, and 2000 A Al on z-and AT-oriented single crystal quartz substrates in the as-deposited condition as well as after thermal annealing at 380 degrees C and 450 degrees C for 30 min in air or vacuum. The Cr-Au films exhibited significant resistivity increases after thermal annealing which were caused by the interdiffusion of Cr and Au. Barrier layers of Mo or Ni limited such increases after heat treatment. The Mo-Au, Au, and Al films exhibited resistivity decreases following thermal annealing. The mean adhesive strengths of the Cr-Au, Cr-Mo-Au, and Cr-Ni-Au films were excellent in the as-deposited and annealed conditions, ranging from 41 MPa to 70 MPa. The Mo-Au and Au films maintained relatively poor adhesion under all circumstances. Heat treatment improved the poor adhesive strength of the as-deposited Al films to values exceeding 63 MPa. Resistivity and adhesive strengths did not differ significantly between the z- and AT-oriented substrates. PMID:18244122

  15. Biopsy of Different Oral Soft Tissues Lesions by KTP and Diode Laser: Histological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Umberto; Russo, Claudia; Lo Giudice, Rossella; Visca, Paolo; Migliau, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Oral biopsy aims to obtain clear and safe diagnosis; it can be performed by scalpel or laser. The controversy in this latter application is the thermal alteration due to tissue heating. The aim of this study is the histological evaluation of margins of “in vivo” biopsies collected by diode and KTP lasers. Material and Methods. 17 oral benign lesions biopsies were made by diode 808 nm (SOL, DenMatItalia, Italy) and KTP 532 nm (SmartLite, DEKA, Italy). Samples were observed at OM LEICA DM 2000; margin alterations were evaluated through Leica Application Suite 3.4. Results. Epithelial and connective damages were assessed for each pathology with an average of 0.245 mm and a standard deviation of ±0.162 mm in mucoceles, 0.382 mm ± 0.149 mm in fibromas, 0.336 mm ± 0.106 mm in hyperkeratosis, 0.473 mm ± 0.105 mm in squamous hyperplasia, 0.182 mm in giant cell granuloma, and 0.149 mm in melanotic macula. Discussion. The histologic aspect of lesions influenced the response to laser, whereas the greater inflammation and cellularity were linked with the higher thermal signs. Many artifacts were also associated to histologic procedures. Conclusion. Both tested lasers permitted sure histologic diagnosis. However, it is suggested to enlarge biopsies of about 0.5 mm, to avoid thermal alterations, especially in inflammatory lesions like oral lichen planus. PMID:25405233

  16. Effects of Tooth Coating Material and Finishing Agent on Bleached Enamel Surfaces by KTP Laser

    PubMed Central

    Kameda, Ayumi; Masuda, Yoshiko Murakami; Teruo, Toko; Yamada, Yoshishige; Kimura, Yuichi; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth coating material and finishing agent on bleached enamel surfaces after using KTP laser with 27% hydrogen peroxide. Background data: There have been few reports on the effects of tooth coating materials and finishing agents after bleaching. Methods: After 40 crowns of human extracted maxillary incisors were bleached by KTP laser, bleached enamels were finished with fluoride only or both of fluoride and nano-hydroxyapatite as a finishing agent. After application(s) of fluoride and/or finishing agent, the enamel surfaces were divided into 2 groups, which were covered with the coating material or without coating material. After application of coating materials, all specimens were kept for 2 weeks at 37°C of 100% humidity. After removing the coating material, color changing was measured and enamel surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: SEM observation of enamel surfaces treated the fluoride gel, finishing agent and coating material showed the most flattered surface compared to other groups. By measuring the color changing, few color changing was observed on the enamel surfaces treated the fluoride gel, finishing agents and coating material. Conclusion: These results suggested that applications of fluoride gel, finishing agent and coating material made the enamel-surfaces flattered and kept effects of bleaching, could prevent the re-coloration. After applications of fluoride gel and finishing agent, covering the bleached-enamel surfaces with the coating material enhanced the keeping whiteness. It would give the patients satisfaction of whiteness. PMID:24155557

  17. An investigation of the chemical and physical properties of pristine, electrochromically damaged, and photochromically damaged KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) using surface analytical and optical spectroscopic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Quagliano, J.R.; Petrin, R.R.; Trujillo, T.C.; Cockroft, N.J.; Paffett, M.T.; Maggiore, C.J.; Jacco, J.C.

    1995-03-01

    A variety of experimental techniques were employed to study the properties of electrochromically (EC) damaged, photochromically (PC) damaged, and pristine KTiOP0{sub 4} (KTP). Additionally, nonlinear optical calculations were performed to complement the experimental work in an effort to elucidate the respective mechanisms operative in producing EC and PC damage to KTP. Several independent experiments indicate that there is Ti deficiency in the EC damaged material, which is due to migration of these ions to the electrode surface. The laser experiments indicate that UV radiation can produce reversible PC damage. UV-producing SFG processes accidentally occurring in SHG cut KTP may lead to macroscopic damage. It must be emphasized that a fundamentally different mechanism is responsible for EC damaged versus PC damaged KTP.

  18. Anomalously temperature-independent birefringence in biaxial optical crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Grechin, Sergei G; Dmitriev, Valentin G; Dyakov, Vladimir A; Pryalkin, Vladimir I

    2000-01-31

    Temperature-independent birefringence in a biaxial crystal was predicted theoretically and observed experimentally for the first time. The width of the plot against temperature (the range corresponding to the temperature independence of the birefringence) at a fundamental radiation wavelength of 632.8 nm in a KTP crystal 5.9 mm long was more than 160{sup 0}C. (letters to the editor)

  19. Growth of 3-Inch-Diameter Li2B4O7 Single Crystal Using the Resistance Heating Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Tamotsu; Komatsu, Ryuichi; Sugihara, Tadashi

    1994-09-01

    The mode and origin of cracking of lithium tetraborate ( Li2B4O7) single crystals during growth using a resistance heating furnace have been studied. The relationship between the formation mechanism of anomalous growth ridges and the occurrence of cracking was examined. It is concluded that a high temperature gradient near the interface and small temperature fluctuations in the melt are needed for growing a crack-free 3-inch-diameter Li2B4O7 single crystal.

  20. Resistivity Anisotropy in Single Crystals of CaCo1.86As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanatar, M. A.; Anand, V. K.; Pandey, A.; Sangeetha, N. S.; Johnston, D. C.; Prozorov, R.

    In-plane and inter-plane resistivity was measured in single crystals of type A antiferromagnet CaCo2-xAs2 (x = 0.14). Clear anomalies in the temperature dependent resistivity are observed at the magnetic ordering at TN ~ 50 K. The transition shifts to lower temperatures upon application of 9 T magnetic field both along tetragonal (001) axis, H ∥ c , and transverse to it, H⊥c . The temperature - magnetic field phase diagrams determined from the resistivity measurements are in good agreement with magnetization measurements. No additional anomalies are found at the spin-flop transition in the compound, suggesting that the direction of the spin does not play an appreciable role in the spin-disorder scattering in this compound. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Science, Materials Science and Engineering Division and was performed at the Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University under Contract DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  1. In-plane Resistivity Anisotropy in Mechanically De- twinned Single Crystals FeSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmons, Erik; Tanatar, Makariy; Bohmer, Anna; Drachuck, Gil; Taufour, Valentin; Bud'Ko, Sergey; Canfield, Paul; Prozorov, Ruslan; Schuett, Michael; Fernandes, Rafael; Ruslan Prozorov Group Team; Paul Canfield Group Team; Rafael Fernandes Group Team

    The in-plane resistivity anisotropy was studied in stress-detwinned vapor transport grown single crystals of FeSe, which exhibit the tetragonal-orthorhombic structural transition temperature at Ts ~ 90 K in unstrained samples, but no long-range magnetic order. Direct transport and elastoresistivity measurements show a significant in-plane resistivity anisotropy above Ts induced by a very moderate mechanical stress. This anisotropy peaks slightly below Ts and decreases to nearly zero on cooling to base temperature, while the degree of orthorhombic distortion grows monotonically before saturating at low temperatures. We explain the non-monotonic temperature dependence of the resistivity anisotropy as a result of the inelastic scattering of electrons by anisotropic spin fluctuations. Experimental work was supported by the U.S. DOE/OS/MSED and was performed at the Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University under contract DE-AC02-07CH11358. M.S. acknowledges the support from the Humboldt Foundation. R.M.F. is supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, under Award No. DE-SC0012336.

  2. Transmission of heat to the vestibule during revision stapes surgery using a KTP laser: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Marcin; Mills, Robert; Abel, Eric

    2003-05-01

    The transmission of heat to the vestibule during revision stapes surgery with a piston in situ has been studied using a KTP laser in an in vitro model. A type K thermocouple was placed around the medial of each piston tested in a 'vestibule' filled with saline. The effect of laser hits on fluoroplastic, fluoroplastic-wire and stainless steel stapes prostheses was investigated. The effect of adding blood to the operative field, of introducing a vein graft to seal the stapedotomy and of vaporizing soft tissue in the oval window were also examined. Greater temperature rises occurred with stainless steel than with the other piston types and smaller rises occurred when there was a vein graft in situ. The maximum temperature rise recorded was 2.6 degrees C. We conclude that the use of the KTP laser to clear soft tissue from the oval window is safe when operated at the power levels recommended by the manufacturer. PMID:12803783

  3. Highly controllable and stable quantized conductance and resistive switching mechanism in single-crystal TiO2 resistive memory on silicon.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chengqing; McDaniel, Martin D; Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A; Ekerdt, John G; Yu, Edward T

    2014-08-13

    TiO2 is being widely explored as an active resistive switching (RS) material for resistive random access memory. We report a detailed analysis of the RS characteristics of single-crystal anatase-TiO2 thin films epitaxially grown on silicon by atomic layer deposition. We demonstrate that although the valence change mechanism is responsible for the observed RS, single-crystal anatase-TiO2 thin films show electrical characteristics that are very different from the usual switching behaviors observed for polycrystalline or amorphous TiO2 and instead very similar to those found in electrochemical metallization memory. In addition, we demonstrate highly stable and reproducible quantized conductance that is well controlled by application of a compliance current and that suggests the localized formation of conducting Magnéli-like nanophases. The quantized conductance observed results in multiple well-defined resistance states suitable for implementation of multilevel memory cells. PMID:25072099

  4. Origins of low resistivity in Al ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Oga, T.; Izawa, Y.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Kinomura, A.

    2011-06-15

    The origins of low resistivity in Al ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals are studied by combining Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), photoluminescence (PL), and Van der Pauw methods. The Al-ion implantation (peak concentration: 2.6 x 10{sup 20}cm{sup -3}) into ZnO is performed using a multiple-step energy. The resistivity decreases from {approx}10{sup 4{Omega}} cm for un-implanted ZnO to 1.4 x 10{sup -1{Omega}} cm for as-implanted, and reaches 6.0 x 10{sup -4{Omega}} cm for samples annealed at 1000 deg. C. RBS and NRA measurements for as-implanted ZnO suggest the existence of the lattice displacement of Zn (Zn{sub i}) and O (O{sub i}), respectively. After annealing at 1000 deg. C, the Zn{sub i} related defects remain and the O{sub i} related defects disappear. The origin of the low resistivity in the as-implanted sample is attributed to the Zn{sub i} ({approx}30 meV [Look et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2552 (1999)]). In contrast, the origin of the low resistivity in the sample annealed at 1000 deg. C is assigned to both of the Zn{sub i} related defects and the electrically activated Al donor. A new PL emission appears at around 3.32 eV after annealing at 1000 deg. C, suggesting electrically activated Al donors.

  5. Laser-Damage-Resistant Photoalignment Layers for High-Peak-Power Liquid Crystal Device Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, K.L.; Gan, J.; Mitchell, G.; Papernov, S.; Rigatti, A.L.; Schmid, A.W.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2008-10-23

    Large-aperture liquid crystal (LC) devices have been in continuous use since 1995 as polarization control devices in the 40-TW, 351-nm, 60-beam OMEGA Nd:glass laser system at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The feasibility of using a noncontacting alignment method for high-peak-power LC laser optics by irradiation of a linearly photopolymerizable polymer with polarized UV light was recently investigated. These materials were found to have surprisingly large laser-damage thresholds at 1054 nm, approaching that of bare fused silica (30 to 60 J/cm^2). Their remarkable laser-damage resistance and ease in scalability to large apertures of these photoalignment materials, along with the ability to produce multiple alignment states by photolithographic patterning, opens new doorways for their application in LC devices for optics, photonics, and high-peak-power laser applications.

  6. Correlation between blue luminescence intensity and resistivity in β-Ga2O3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuma, T.; Fujioka, S.; Yamaguchi, T.; Higashiwaki, M.; Sasaki, K.; Masui, T.; Honda, T.

    2013-07-01

    Temperature-dependent cathodoluminescence spectra were measured from (001) unintentionally doped, (100) Si-doped, and (010) Mg-doped β-Ga2O3 substrates prepared by either the floating zone growth or edge-defined film-fed growth methods. Although β-Ga2O3 is expected to be an indirect bandgap material, direct Γ-Γ transitions were found to be dominant in the optical transmittance spectra. The substrates exhibited no near-band-edge emission and instead exhibited ultraviolet luminescence, blue luminescence (BL), and green luminescence bands. Since the BL intensity strongly depended on the resistivity in the crystals, there was evidence of a correlation between the BL intensity and formation energy of oxygen vacancies.

  7. Crystal Structure of the Protease-Resistant Core Domain of Yersinia Pestis Virulence Factor Yopr

    SciTech Connect

    Schubot,F.; Cherry, S.; Austin, B.; Tropea, J.; Waugh, D.

    2005-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of the plague, employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) to secrete and translocate virulence factors into the cytoplasm of mammalian host cells. One of the secreted virulence factors is YopR. Little is known about the function of YopR other than that it is secreted into the extracellular milieu during the early stages of infection and that it contributes to virulence. Hoping to gain some insight into the function of YopR, we determined the crystal structure of its protease-resistant core domain, which consists of residues 38--149 out of 165 amino acids. The core domain is composed of five {alpha}-helices that display unexpected structural similarity with one domain of YopN, a central regulator of type III secretion in Y. pestis. This finding raises the possibility that YopR may play a role in the regulation of type III secretion.

  8. Ultra-multiple and reproducible resistance levels based on intrinsic crystallization properties of Ge1Sb4Te7 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, You; Iwashita, Shota; Hosaka, Sumio; Wang, Tao; Li, Jingze; Liu, Yang; Yu, Qi

    2016-04-01

    Ge1Sb4Te7 (GST147) was adopted as the storage media for multiple resistance levels. It was exhibited that the resistivity of GST147 gradually dropped by about 3-4 orders of magnitude due to crystallization with the annealing temperature, which is critical to realize multiple resistance levels. The ultra-multiple 27 resistance levels in TiSi3/GST147 lateral phase-change memory device were demonstrated simply by controlling the maximum sweeping currents for programming the device resistance. Furthermore, the reproducibility of the six resistance levels was demonstrated and these levels were distinguishable from each other. This study indicates that GST147 is a media suitable for stable ultra-multiple level storage, enabling low-cost ultrahigh-density nonvolatile memory.

  9. Bound electronic Kerr effect and self-focusing induced damage in second-harmonic-generation crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Heping; Zhou, Feng; Zhang, Xuejun; Ji, Wei

    1997-02-01

    We present an investigation of third-order electronic nonlinearities in second-harmonic-generation (SHG) crystals using a picosecond 532 nm wavelength beam. The crystals studied include KTP, KTA, BBO, LBO and LiNbO 3. Using the Z-scan technique the nonlinear refractive indexes and two-photon absorption coefficients in the z-cut crystals are measured, as well as in KTP, BBO and LBO along the phase-matching angles for the SHG of 1064 nm radiation. The microscopic origin of the measured refractive nonlinearity can be understood in terms of bound electronic effects, and the theoretical predictions are in agreement with our measurements. Finally, we perform an experimental study on the self-focusing induced damage in these crystals by extending the Z-scan method. The measured damage threshold is inversely proportional to the nonlinear refractive index and the thickness of a crystal.

  10. Unipolar conductivity of SrTiO3 crystals with light-induced drop in electrical resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shablaev, S. I.; Grachev, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports on the results of the experimental investigation of unipolar (diode) current-voltage characteristics of local regions in high-resistance SrTiO3 crystals that experienced a light-induced drop in electrical resistance. This behavior has been explained by the influence exerted on the electrical conductivity by the irradiated region in the Schottky barrier of one of the contacts. The ideality factor of the Schottky barrier has been determined and the barrier height for a number of regions has been estimated from measurements of the forward branch of the current-voltage characteristics. An analysis of the specific features in the behavior of the reverse branch of the current-voltage characteristics has revealed that, in the SrTiO3 crystals with p-type conductivity, the resistance switching occurs through a pure electronic mechanism, in contrast to models based on electrochemical processes, in particular, the migration of oxygen vacancies.

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the TLDc domain of oxidation resistance protein 2 from zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Alsarraf, Husam M. A. B.; Laroche, Fabrice; Spaink, Herman; Thirup, Søren; Blaise, Mickael

    2011-01-01

    Cell metabolic processes are constantly producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have deleterious effects by triggering, for example, DNA damage. Numerous enzymes such as catalase, and small compounds such as vitamin C, provide protection against ROS. The TLDc domain of the human oxidation resistance protein has been shown to be able to protect DNA from oxidative stress; however, its mechanism of action is still not understood and no structural information is available on this domain. Structural information on the TLDc domain may therefore help in understanding exactly how it works. Here, the purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the TLDc domain from zebrafish are reported. Crystals belonging to the orthorhombic space group P21212 were obtained and diffracted to 0.97 Å resolution. Selenomethionine-substituted protein could also be crystallized; these crystals diffracted to 1.1 Å resolution and the structure could be solved by SAD/MAD methods. PMID:22102041

  12. Crystal Structures of Trimethoprim-Resistant DfrA1 Rationalize Potent Inhibition by Propargyl-Linked Antifolates.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Michael N; G-Dayanandan, Narendran; Wright, Dennis L; Anderson, Amy C

    2016-02-12

    Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, notably Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, have become major health concerns worldwide. Resistance to effective therapeutics is often carried by class I and II integrons that can confer insensitivity to carbapenems, extended spectrum β-lactamases, the antifolate trimethoprim, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides. Specifically of interest to the study here, a prevalent gene (dfrA1) coding for an insensitive dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) confers 190- or 1000-fold resistance to trimethoprim for K. pneumoniae and E. coli, respectively. Attaining inhibition of both the wild-type and resistant forms of the enzyme is critical for new antifolates. For several years, we have been developing the propargyl-linked antifolates (PLAs) as effective inhibitors against trimethoprim-resistant DHFR enzymes. Here, we show that the PLAs are active against both the wild-type and DfrA1 DHFR proteins. We report two high-resolution crystal structures of DfrA1 bound to potent PLAs. The structure-activity relationships and crystal structures will be critical in driving the design of broadly active inhibitors against wild-type and resistant DHFR. PMID:27624966

  13. Gallium hole traps in irradiated KTiOPO{sub 4}:Ga crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Grachev, V.; Meyer, M.; Malovichko, G.; Hunt, A. W.

    2014-12-07

    Nominally pure and gallium doped single crystals of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO{sub 4}) have been studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance at low temperatures before and after irradiation. Irradiation with 20 MeV electrons performed at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature caused an appearance of electrons and holes. Gallium impurities act as hole traps in KTiOPO{sub 4} creating Ga{sup 4+} centers. Two different Ga{sup 4+} centers were observed, Ga1 and Ga2. The Ga1 centers are dominant in Ga-doped samples. For the Ga1 center, a superhyperfine structure with one nucleus with nuclear spin ½ was registered and attributed to the interaction of gallium electrons with a phosphorus nucleus or proton in its surrounding. In both Ga1 and Ga2 centers, Ga{sup 4+} ions substitute for Ti{sup 4+} ions, but with a preference to one of two electrically distinct crystallographic positions (site selective substitution). The Ga doping eliminates one of the shortcomings of KTP crystals—ionic conductivity of bulk crystals. However, this does not improve significantly the resistance of the crystals to electron and γ-radiation.

  14. Influence of the three dimensionality of the HF electromagnetic field on resistivity variations in Si single crystals during FZ growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnieks, G.; Muiznieks, A.; Buligins, L.; Raming, G.; Mühlbauer, A.; Lüdge, A.; Riemann, H.

    2000-06-01

    Three-dimensional numerical modelling is carried out to analyse the floating zone crystal growth with the needle-eye technique used for the production of high-quality silicon single crystals with large diameters ( ⩾100 mm ). Since the pancake inductor has only one turn, the EM field and the distribution of heat sources and EM forces are only roughly axisymmetric. The non-symmetry together with crystal rotation reflects itself on the hydrodynamic, thermal and dopant concentration fields in the molten zone and causes variations of resistivity in the grown single crystal, which are known as the so-called rotational striations. The non-symmetric high-frequency electromagnetic field of the pancake inductor is calculated by boundary element method. The obtained non-symmetric power distribution on the free melt surface and the corresponding EM forces are used for the coupled calculation of the 3D steady-state hydrodynamic and temperature fields in the molten zone on a body fitted structured 3D grid by a commercial program package with control volume approach. The buoyancy, Marangoni and EM forces are considered. The afterwards calculated corresponding 3D dopant concentration field is used to derive the variations of resistivity in a longitudinal cut of the grown crystal. The results are compared with experimental measurements (photo-scanning method) and with results of 2D transient flow calculations. Rotational striations are found in both 3D-calculated and experimental resistivity distributions and show a qualitative agreement. A Fourier analysis for the resistivity variations is performed and the observed differences are explained by modelling limitations.

  15. Enhanced oxygen vacancy diffusion in Ta2O5 resistive memory devices due to infinitely adaptive crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hao; Stewart, Derek A.

    2016-04-01

    Metal oxide resistive memory devices based on Ta2O5 have demonstrated high switching speed, long endurance, and low set voltage. However, the physical origin of this improved performance is still unclear. Ta2O5 is an important archetype of a class of materials that possess an adaptive crystal structure that can respond easily to the presence of defects. Using first principles nudged elastic band calculations, we show that this adaptive crystal structure leads to low energy barriers for in-plane diffusion of oxygen vacancies in λ phase Ta2O5. Identified diffusion paths are associated with collective motion of neighboring atoms. The overall vacancy diffusion is anisotropic with higher diffusion barriers found for oxygen vacancy movement between Ta-O planes. Coupled with the fact that oxygen vacancy formation energy in Ta2O5 is relatively small, our calculated low diffusion barriers can help explain the low set voltage in Ta2O5 based resistive memory devices. Our work shows that other oxides with adaptive crystal structures could serve as potential candidates for resistive random access memory devices. We also discuss some general characteristics for ideal resistive RAM oxides that could be used in future computational material searches.

  16. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Theoretical, and Resistivity Study of BaUSe3.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jai; Tarasenko, Maria S; Mesbah, Adel; Lebègue, Sébastien; Malliakas, Christos D; Ibers, James A

    2016-08-01

    The black-colored compound BaUSe3 has been synthesized at 1173 K by a stoichiometric reaction of the elements in a CsCl flux. BaUSe3 crystallizes in the GdFeO3 structure type. There is no change in structure between 100 and 298 K. The U atoms in this structure are octahedrally connected to six Se atoms. Each octahedral unit shares all six corners with neighboring octahedra, forming a three-dimensional network. BaUSe3 can be charge balanced as Ba(2+)U(4+)(Se(2-))3. DFT electronic structure calculations found BaUSe3 to be antiferromagnetic in its ground state and to be a semiconductor with a band gap of 2.5 eV. The band gap is inconsistent with the black color of the material and with the small activation energy of 0.12(1) eV obtained from resistivity measurements. A UV-vis spectrum indicated that there was no band gap above 1 eV. It is possible that, for BaUSe3, intrinsic and extrinsic impurities from the flux create midgap states that lead to the experimentally measured narrow optical gap. More likely, BaUSe3 presents a challenge to DFT calculations as applied to 5f materials. PMID:27399160

  17. Combination of thermocoagulation and vaporization using an Nd:YAG/KTP laser versus TURP in BPH treatment: results of a multicenter prospective study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jichlinski, Patrice; Oswald, Michael; Schmidlin, Franz R.; Graber, Peter; Leisinger, Hans-Juerg

    1998-07-01

    Laser treatment of BPH as minimally invasive therapy has found wide employment in the last few years. The objective here was to study the effects of combined technique of coagulation and vaporization with an Nd:YAG/KTP laser on BPH compared to TURP. Thirty-eight patients presenting symptomatic BPH were randomized and treated either by a laser coagulation/vaporization using an ADD fiber at settings of 40 - 60 W for the Nd:YAG and of 36 W for the KTP alike in 21 cases or by TURP in 17 cases. Symptom score, uroflow and residual urine were assessed preoperatively at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. No transfusion in any group. Similar postoperative catheterization time. Treatment failure in 2 TURP patients and in 2 laser patients. Comparing AUA score, Qmax and residual urine, both forms of treatment were similar at 1 year. Nd:YAG/KTP laser is equivalent to TURP at 1 year for around 40 g prostates.

  18. Role of point defects in optical damage of nonlinear crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scripsick, Michael P.; Edwards, Gary J.

    1993-07-01

    We have initiated a program at West Virginia University to establish the properties of point defects that are relevant to the optical damage phenomena in KTP, BBO, and LBO crystals. Defects have been characterized using optical absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), and luminescence techniques. Among the defects which have been observed are impurity ions (iron, platinum, hydrogen, etc.), trapped hole centers, and trapped electron centers.

  19. Residual resistivity and oxygen stoichiometry in Pr 2- xCe xCuO 4+δ single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkmann, Matthias; Rex, Thomas; Stief, Markus; Bach, Heinrich; Westerholt, Kurt

    1996-02-01

    Using an improved high-temperature annealing procedure we homogeneously vary the oxygen content of Pr 2- xCe xCuO 4+δ single crystals and change the superconducting transition temperature in small steps. Minute changes of the oxygen concentration δ give rise to a strong increase of the residual resistivity but leave the Hall and the Seebeck coefficient nearly unchanged. A strong correlation of the change of the residual resistivity and the change of Tc suggests that the point-defect scattering rate on oxygen interstitials or oxygen vacancies is an important parameter determining Tc in the electron-doped high- Tc systems.

  20. High speed, high temperature electrical characterization of phase change materials: metastable phases, crystallization dynamics, and resistance drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirisaglik, Faruk; Bakan, Gokhan; Jurado, Zoila; Muneer, Sadid; Akbulut, Mustafa; Rarey, Jonathan; Sullivan, Lindsay; Wennberg, Maren; King, Adrienne; Zhang, Lingyi; Nowak, Rebecca; Lam, Chung; Silva, Helena; Gokirmak, Ali

    2015-10-01

    During the fast switching in Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change memory devices, both the amorphous and fcc crystalline phases remain metastable beyond the fcc and hexagonal transition temperatures respectively. In this work, the metastable electrical properties together with crystallization times and resistance drift behaviour of GST are studied using a high-speed, device-level characterization technique in the temperature range of 300 K to 675 K.During the fast switching in Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change memory devices, both the amorphous and fcc crystalline phases remain metastable beyond the fcc and hexagonal transition temperatures respectively. In this work, the metastable electrical properties together with crystallization times and resistance drift behaviour of GST are studied using a high-speed, device-level characterization technique in the temperature range of 300 K to 675 K. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05512a

  1. Thermo-optical effect and saturation of nonlinear absorption induced by gray tracking in a 532-nm-pumped KTP optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, B; Fève, J P; Guillien, Y

    2000-04-01

    We present experiments that show that gray tracking modifies the parametric gain and the generated wavelengths of a KTP optical parametric oscillator pumped at 532 nm near degeneracy. These perturbations occur over a limited range of pump intensity. We propose a satisfactory model that takes into account photochromic damage, the thermo-optical effect, and the combined processes of creation and saturation of a two-photon absorber at 532 nm. The temperature dependence of Sellmeier equations of KTP is also established at 20-200 degrees C. PMID:18064087

  2. High speed, high temperature electrical characterization of phase change materials: metastable phases, crystallization dynamics, and resistance drift.

    PubMed

    Dirisaglik, Faruk; Bakan, Gokhan; Jurado, Zoila; Muneer, Sadid; Akbulut, Mustafa; Rarey, Jonathan; Sullivan, Lindsay; Wennberg, Maren; King, Adrienne; Zhang, Lingyi; Nowak, Rebecca; Lam, Chung; Silva, Helena; Gokirmak, Ali

    2015-10-28

    During the fast switching in Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change memory devices, both the amorphous and fcc crystalline phases remain metastable beyond the fcc and hexagonal transition temperatures respectively. In this work, the metastable electrical properties together with crystallization times and resistance drift behaviour of GST are studied using a high-speed, device-level characterization technique in the temperature range of 300 K to 675 K. PMID:26415716

  3. Oxidation Resistance and Critical Sulfur Content of Single-Crystal Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    1997-01-01

    The high-temperature components of a jet turbine engine are made from nickel-base superalloys. These components must be able to withstand high stresses, fatigue, and corrosive reactions with high-temperature gases. Such oxidation resistance is associated with slow-growing Al2O3 scales that remain adherent to superalloy components after many thermal cycles. Historically, good oxidation resistance has been obtained by coating these components with Ni-Cr-Al-Y coatings, where small additions of yttrium (Y) were necessary for scale adhesion. Subsequently, it was found that the Y aids scale adhesion by preventing sulfur from segregating to the scale metal interface and thus preventing the sulfur from weakening the oxide-metal bonds. Y is a difficult element to incorporate in single-crystal superalloy castings, but it was shown in early work at the NASA Lewis Research Center that good adhesion could be obtained for low-sulfur, uncoated, singlecrystal superalloys, without Y additions. Low sulfur contents for these uncoated superalloys were achieved in the laboratory by a high-temperature hydrogen annealing process. This process allows segregation and surface cleaning of sulfur monolayers in a reducing environment. Another approach is to remove sulfur from the alloy in the melting process. The present study was designed to establish a guideline for the minimum level of desulfurization needed to achieve maximum performance. Coupons of various thicknesses of the superalloy PWA 1480 were hydrogen annealed at various times (8 to 100 hr) and temperatures (1000 to 1300 C), resulting in coupons with sulfur contents ranging from about 0.05 to 5 ppm. Cyclic oxidation tests at 1100 C were then used to assess adhesion and spalling. The weight change of one set of 20-mil (0.5-mm) samples, annealed for 20 hr at 1000, 1100, 1200, and 1300 C, is shown in the following figure. Clearly, the effect of the annealing temperature is quite dramatic in that the higher temperatures produced scales

  4. Crystal Structures of Wild-type and Mutant Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Dihydrofolate Reductase Reveal an Alternative Conformation of NADPH that may be Linked to Trimethoprim Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, K.; Liu, J; Lombardo, M; Bolstad, D; Wright, D; Anderson, A

    2009-01-01

    Both hospital- and community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections have become major health concerns in terms of morbidity, suffering and cost. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) is an alternative treatment for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections. However, TMP-resistant strains have arisen with point mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), the target for TMP. A single point mutation, F98Y, has been shown biochemically to confer the majority of this resistance to TMP. Using a structure-based approach, we have designed a series of novel propargyl-linked DHFR inhibitors that are active against several trimethoprim-resistant enzymes. We screened this series against wild-type and mutant (F98Y) S. aureus DHFR and found that several are active against both enzymes and specifically that the meta-biphenyl class of these inhibitors is the most potent. In order to understand the structural basis of this potency, we determined eight high-resolution crystal structures: four each of the wild-type and mutant DHFR enzymes bound to various propargyl-linked DHFR inhibitors. In addition to explaining the structure-activity relationships, several of the structures reveal a novel conformation for the cofactor, NADPH. In this new conformation that is predominantly associated with the mutant enzyme, the nicotinamide ring is displaced from its conserved location and three water molecules complete a network of hydrogen bonds between the nicotinamide ring and the protein. In this new position, NADPH has reduced interactions with the inhibitor. An equilibrium between the two conformations of NADPH, implied by their occupancies in the eight crystal structures, is influenced both by the ligand and the F98Y mutation. The mutation induced equilibrium between two NADPH-binding conformations may contribute to decrease TMP binding and thus may be responsible for TMP resistance.

  5. Crystal Structures of Wild-type and Mutant Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Dihydrofolate Reductase Reveal an Alternative Conformation of NADPH that may be Linked to Trimethoprim Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Kathleen M.; Liu, Jieying; Lombardo, Michael N.; Bolstad, David B.; Wright, Dennis L.; Anderson, Amy C.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Both hospital- and community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections have become major health concerns in terms of morbidity, suffering and cost. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) is an alternative treatment for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections. However, TMP-resistant strains have arisen with point mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), the target for TMP. A single point mutation, F98Y, has been shown biochemically to confer the majority of this resistance to TMP. Using a structure-based approach, we have designed a series of novel propargyl-linked DHFR inhibitors that are active against several trimethoprim-resistant enzymes. We screened this series against wild-type and mutant (F98Y) S. aureus DHFR and found that several are active against both enzymes and specifically that the meta-biphenyl class of these inhibitors is the most potent. In order to understand the structural basis of this potency, we determined eight high-resolution crystal structures: four each of the wild-type and mutant DHFR enzymes bound to various propargyl-linked DHFR inhibitors. In addition to explaining the structure-activity relationships, several of the structures reveal a novel conformation for the cofactor, NADPH. In this new conformation that is predominantly associated with the mutant enzyme, the nicotinamide ring is displaced from its conserved location and three water molecules complete a network of hydrogen bonds between the nicotinamide ring and the protein. In this new position, NADPH has reduced interactions with the inhibitor. An equilibrium between the two conformations of NADPH, implied by their occupancies in the eight crystal structures, is influenced both by the ligand and the F98Y mutation. The mutation induced equilibrium between two NADPH binding conformations may contribute to decrease TMP binding and thus may be responsible for TMP resistance. PMID:19249312

  6. Crystal structure of fosfomycin resistance kinase FomA from Streptomyces wedmorensis.

    PubMed

    Pakhomova, Svetlana; Bartlett, Sue G; Augustus, Alexandria; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Newcomer, Marcia E

    2008-10-17

    The fosfomycin resistance protein FomA inactivates fosfomycin by phosphorylation of the phosphonate group of the antibiotic in the presence of ATP and Mg(II). We report the crystal structure of FomA from the fosfomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces wedmorensis in complex with diphosphate and in ternary complex with the nonhydrolyzable ATP analog adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)-triphosphate (AMPPNP), Mg(II), and fosfomycin, at 1.53 and 2.2 angstroms resolution, respectively. The polypeptide exhibits an open alphabetaalpha sandwich fold characteristic for the amino acid kinase family of enzymes. The diphosphate complex shows significant disorder in loops surrounding the active site. As a result, the nucleotide-binding site is wide open. Binding of the substrates is followed by the partial closure of the active site and ordering of the alpha2-helix. Structural comparison with N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase shows several similarities in the site of phosphoryl transfer: 1) preservation of architecture of the catalytical amino acids of N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (Lys9, Lys216, and Asp150 in FomA); 2) good superposition of the phosphate acceptor groups of the substrates, and 3) good superposition of the diphosphate molecule with the beta- and gamma-phosphates of AMPPNP, suggesting that the reaction could proceed by an associative in-line mechanism. However, differences in conformations of the triphosphate moiety of AMPPNP molecules, the long distance (5.1 angstroms) between the phosphate acceptor and donor groups in FomA, and involvement of Lys18 instead of Lys9 in binding with the gamma-phosphate may indicate a different reaction mechanism. The present work identifies the active site residues of FomA responsible for substrate binding and specificity and proposes their roles in catalysis. PMID:18701452

  7. Characterization Study of Band Gap, Resistivity, Crystal Structure, and Phase Identification of CuInSe2 Ternary Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saing, Bungaran; Arto, Budi

    2016-01-01

    Characterization study of band gap, resistivity, crystal structure, and phase identification of CuInSe2 ternary alloy which is the synthesis result of Bridgman method by using modified simple single zone temperature, have been carried out. The phase identification and crystal structure of obtained polycrystal were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Then the X-ray diffractograms were analyzed by using crystallographic software package GSAS. Electrical resistivity and bandgap were measured by using Van der Pauw method. Identification and analysis of diffractogram show that ternary alloy of CuInSe2 has main phase of space group I ̅4 ad and lattice parameters a and c of 6,1173 A and 11,7144 Å respectively. The other coexisting phases were identified as CuIn5Se8 with the space group P ̅4 2 m and Se with the space group P3121. Result from the resistivity measurement shows the resistivity is between (1,596 - 9,666) × 10 -3Ωm, and Bandgap is around 1,03 - 1,61 eV.

  8. "Broadband" Bioinformatics Skills Transfer with the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP): Educational Model for Upliftment and Sustainable Development.

    PubMed

    Chimusa, Emile R; Mbiyavanga, Mamana; Masilela, Velaphi; Kumuthini, Judit

    2015-11-01

    A shortage of practical skills and relevant expertise is possibly the primary obstacle to social upliftment and sustainable development in Africa. The "omics" fields, especially genomics, are increasingly dependent on the effective interpretation of large and complex sets of data. Despite abundant natural resources and population sizes comparable with many first-world countries from which talent could be drawn, countries in Africa still lag far behind the rest of the world in terms of specialized skills development. Moreover, there are serious concerns about disparities between countries within the continent. The multidisciplinary nature of the bioinformatics field, coupled with rare and depleting expertise, is a critical problem for the advancement of bioinformatics in Africa. We propose a formalized matchmaking system, which is aimed at reversing this trend, by introducing the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP). Instead of individual researchers travelling to other labs to learn, researchers with desirable skills are invited to join African research groups for six weeks to six months. Visiting researchers or trainers will pass on their expertise to multiple people simultaneously in their local environments, thus increasing the efficiency of knowledge transference. In return, visiting researchers have the opportunity to develop professional contacts, gain industry work experience, work with novel datasets, and strengthen and support their ongoing research. The KTP develops a network with a centralized hub through which groups and individuals are put into contact with one another and exchanges are facilitated by connecting both parties with potential funding sources. This is part of the PLOS Computational Biology Education collection. PMID:26583922

  9. Low-power interstitial photocoagulation of uterine leiomyomas by KTP/YAG laser: a review of 50 consecutive cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Roxana

    1994-12-01

    Interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP), which is a new method of low power laser destruction of tumors, has been used to treat laparoscopically 50 consecutive patients with symptomatic uterine leiomyomas which were difficult or impossible to remove via laparoscopy. The KTP/YAG laser, with wavelengths of 532 and 1064 nm respectively, was employed. Holes 2 cm apart were drilled with a 600 micrometers quartz laser fiber employing the KTP component at 8 W and subsequent coagulation of the surrounding myoma tissue was accomplished during the withdrawal of the fiber over the course of 10 - 30 s but using the YAG component at 8 W until the whole myoma had been treated. Thirty seven became symptom free and have remained so. Six were lost to follow up. Of 10 complaining of subfertility 4, in whom uterine myomas were the only etiological factor, have become pregnant. Seven patients required further treatment: Two were retreated because their myomas were excessively large and did not completely disappear with the initial ILP, 2 received further ILP because of the development of new myomas and 3 were subjected to laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy at patients' request (2 because of the development of new myomas and 1 because of the development of further endometriosis). Finally, in 7 cases, residual tumor or scar tissue was biopsied and examined for the presence of oestrogen and progesterone receptors. None was discovered and in 2 subsequent pregnancy did not cause further growth of residual myoma tissue.

  10. Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) with the KTP 532 laser for the treatment of uterine adenomyosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Roxana; Chapman, Kenneth

    1997-05-01

    Adenomyosis is a condition in which the myometrium is infiltrated by endometrial glands and stroma. This results in myometrial hyperplasia, uterine enlargement and causes menorrhagia, dysmenorrhoea and dyspareunia for which there is no known cure other than hysterectomy. The success of LITT in the treatment of uterine leiomyomata suggested that this might also be effective for the treatment of adenomyosis. Initially LITT was carried out on patients with adenomyosis prior to hysterectomy, then on patients who had completed child-bearing and finally on those who desired a family. Not only were symptoms relieved but pregnancies occurred spontaneously. The KTP 532 nm component of the KTP/YAG laser, which is absorbed by red pigment, was used with a 600 micrometer fiber with a bare tip via a needle microstat at laparoscopy. Holes were drilled in the abnormal tissue 3 cm apart and the laser fiber then slowly withdrawn, the object being to coagulate the surrounding blood vessels and adenomyotic tissue. The number of joules required depended on the volume of tissue treated.

  11. Origins of low resistivity and Ge donor level in Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kamioka, K.; Oga, T.; Izawa, Y.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.

    2013-12-04

    The energy level of Ge in Ge-ion implanted ZnO single crystals is studied by Hall-effect and photoluminescence (PL) methods. The variations in resistivity from ∼10{sup 3} Ωcm for un-implanted samples to ∼10{sup −2} Ωcm for as-implanted ones are observed. The resistivity is further decreased to ∼10{sup −3} Ωcm by annealing. The origins of the low resistivity are attributed to both the zinc interstitial (Zn{sub i}) related defects and the electrical activated Ge donor. An activation energy of Ge donors estimated from the temperature dependence of carrier concentration is 102 meV. In PL studies, the new peak at 372 nm (3.33 eV) related to the Ge donor is observed in 1000 °C annealed samples.

  12. Origins of low resistivity and Ge donor level in Ge ion-implanted ZnO bulk single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamioka, K.; Oga, T.; Izawa, Y.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.

    2013-12-01

    The energy level of Ge in Ge-ion implanted ZnO single crystals is studied by Hall-effect and photoluminescence (PL) methods. The variations in resistivity from ˜103 Ωcm for un-implanted samples to ˜10-2 Ωcm for as-implanted ones are observed. The resistivity is further decreased to ˜10-3 Ωcm by annealing. The origins of the low resistivity are attributed to both the zinc interstitial (Zni) related defects and the electrical activated Ge donor. An activation energy of Ge donors estimated from the temperature dependence of carrier concentration is 102 meV. In PL studies, the new peak at 372 nm (3.33 eV) related to the Ge donor is observed in 1000 °C annealed samples.

  13. Threshold effects for resistance to optical damage and nonvolatile holographic storage properties in In:Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen Xihe; Li Qiang; Xu Yuheng

    2005-07-20

    The threshold concentration for In2O3 was found in In:Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals by measurement of the infrared spectra of the crystals. The resistance of the In:Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals to optical damage is characterized by changes in photoinduced birefringence as well as by distortion of the transmitted beam pattern. The resistance increases remarkably when the concentration of In2O3 exceeds its threshold. The resistance to optical damage of a In(3.0 mol. %):Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystal is 2 orders of magnitude higher that of a Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystal. The dependence of defects on the resistance to optical damage of the In:Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals is discussed in detail. Nonvolatile holographic storage was achieved for all crystals, and the sensitivity of the In(3.0 mol. %):Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystal is much higher than that of the others.

  14. Efficient GTR-KTP IOPO driven by a diode-pumped Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG laser with the shared cavity configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.-T.; He, J.-L.; Yang, J.-F.; Zhang, B.-T.; Xu, J.-L.; Liu, S.-D.

    2010-09-01

    An efficient eye-safe GTR-KTP IOPO with the shared cavity configuration and excited by a diode-end-pumped composite Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG laser was demonstrated. Under the incident LD power of 8.4 W, the maximum average output power of 900 mW at 1572 nm was obtained with the T=33% output coupler, corresponding to a diode-to-signal conversion efficiency of 10.7%. The corresponding signal pulse width and repetition rate were respectively 2.2 ns and 12 kHz, with the peak power and single pulse energy estimated to be 34.1 kW and 75 µJ, respectively. The instability of the average signal output power over hours-long operation was found to be 2.0%. As for the common KTP IOPO at the same pump condition and cavity design, a lower average output power of 640 mW with a longer pulse width of 4.6 ns was obtained. The corresponding diode-to-signal conversion efficiency was reduced by 28.8% compared with that obtained in GTR-KTP IOPO. A theoretical model for the compact GTR-KTP IOPO was also presented in this paper. Theoretical analysis on the pulse characteristics of the signal was performed, which showed a good agreement with that obtained experimentally.

  15. Improved resistance to wear and fatigue fracture in high pressure crystallized vitamin E-containing ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    PubMed Central

    Oral, Ebru; Beckos, Christine A. Godleski; Lozynsky, Andrew J.; Malhi, Arnaz S.; Muratoglu, Orhun K.

    2013-01-01

    Higher crystallinity and extended chain morphology are induced in ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) in the hexagonal phase at temperatures and pressures above the triple point, resulting in improved mechanical properties. In this study, we report the effects of the presence of a plasticizing agent, namely vitamin E (α-tocopherol), in UHMWPE during high pressure crystallization. We found that this new vitamin E-blended and high pressure crystallized UHMWPE (VEHPE) has improved fatigue strength and wear resistance compared to virgin high pressure crystallized (HP) UHMWPE. This suggested different mechanisms of wear reduction and fatigue crack propagation resistance in UHMWPE. PMID:19135247

  16. C-axis electrical resistivity of PrO1-aFaBiS2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Masanori; Miura, Akira; Watauchi, Satoshi; Takano, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Isao

    2015-08-01

    The high anisotropy in RO1-aFaBiS2 (R denotes a rare-earth element) superconductors demonstrates their potential use as intrinsic Josephson junctions, considering the weak coupling among BiS2-PrO(F)-BiS2 (superconducting-normal-superconducting) layers along the c-axis. We grew PrO1-aFaBiS2 single crystals using CsCl/KCl flux. The superconducting anisotropies of the grown single crystals were estimated to be approximately 40-50 from the effective mass model. The c-axis transport properties were characterized using single-crystal s-shaped intrinsic Josephson junctions with a focused ion beam. Along the c-axis, the crystals showed zero resistivity at 2.7 K and a critical current density of 1.33 × 103 A/cm2 at 2.0 K. The current-voltage curve along the c-axis displayed hysteresis. The c-axis transport measurements under a magnetic field parallel to the ab-plane revealed a “lock-in” state due to the Josephson vortex flow, indicating that BiS2 superconductors are promising candidates for intrinsic Josephson junctions.

  17. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the nisin resistance protein from Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Khosa, Sakshi; Hoeppner, Astrid; Kleinschrodt, Diana; Smits, Sander H J

    2015-06-01

    Nisin is a 34-amino-acid antimicrobial peptide produced by Lactococcus lactis belonging to the class of lantibiotics. Nisin displays a high bactericidal activity against various Gram-positive bacteria, including some human-pathogenic strains. However, there are some nisin-non-producing strains that are naturally resistant owing to the presence of the nsr gene within their genome. The encoded protein, NSR, cleaves off the last six amino acids of nisin, thereby reducing its bactericidal efficacy. An expression and purification protocol has been established for the NSR protein from Streptococcus agalactiae COH1. The protein was successfully crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method in hanging and sitting drops, resulting in crystals that diffracted X-rays to 2.8 and 2.2 Å, respectively. PMID:26057793

  18. Circuit for continuous motional series resonant frequency and motional resistance monitoring of quartz crystal resonators by parallel capacitance compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnau, A.; Sogorb, T.; Jimenez, Y.

    2002-07-01

    A deep analysis of the problem associated with oscillators as interface circuits for quartz-crystal-microbalance sensors, reveals that the so-called static capacitance of the sensor is one of the elements that makes the use of oscillators more critical for sensors applications. A phase-locked-loop based circuit specifically designed for compensating the parallel capacitance effects in quartz crystal resonator sensors is presented. This circuit permits the calibration of the external circuitry to the sensor and an accurate determination of the effective capacitive compensation. The system provides a continuous measurement of the motional series resonant frequency and motional resistance. An extension and automation of the proposed system for multiple sensor characterization is introduced. The theoretical analysis of the circuit along with the experimental results presented prove that the proposed system is a good alternative for quartz sensors characterization.

  19. Crystal structures of penicillin-binding protein 2 from penicillin-susceptible and -resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae reveal an unexpectedly subtle mechanism for antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Powell, Ailsa J; Tomberg, Joshua; Deacon, Ashley M; Nicholas, Robert A; Davies, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) from N. gonorrhoeae is the major molecular target for beta-lactam antibiotics used to treat gonococcal infections. PBP2 from penicillin-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae harbors an aspartate insertion after position 345 (Asp-345a) and 4-8 additional mutations, but how these alter the architecture of the protein is unknown. We have determined the crystal structure of PBP2 derived from the penicillin-susceptible strain FA19, which shows that the likely effect of Asp-345a is to alter a hydrogen-bonding network involving Asp-346 and the SXN triad at the active site. We have also solved the crystal structure of PBP2 derived from the penicillin-resistant strain FA6140 that contains four mutations near the C terminus of the protein. Although these mutations lower the second order rate of acylation for penicillin by 5-fold relative to wild type, comparison of the two structures shows only minor structural differences, with the positions of the conserved residues in the active site essentially the same in both. Kinetic analyses indicate that two mutations, P551S and F504L, are mainly responsible for the decrease in acylation rate. Melting curves show that the four mutations lower the thermal stability of the enzyme. Overall, these data suggest that the molecular mechanism underlying antibiotic resistance contributed by the four mutations is subtle and involves a small but measurable disordering of residues in the active site region that either restricts the binding of antibiotic or impedes conformational changes that are required for acylation by beta-lactam antibiotics. PMID:18986991

  20. Crystal Structures of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2 From Penicillin-Susceptible And -Resistant Strains of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Reveal An Unexpectedly Subtle Mechanism for Antibiotic Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, A.J.; Tomberg, J.; Deacon, A.M.; Nicholas, R.A.; Davies, C.

    2009-05-21

    Penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) from N. gonorrhoeae is the major molecular target for {beta}-lactam antibiotics used to treat gonococcal infections. PBP2 from penicillin-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae harbors an aspartate insertion after position 345 (Asp-345a) and 4-8 additional mutations, but how these alter the architecture of the protein is unknown. We have determined the crystal structure of PBP2 derived from the penicillin-susceptible strain FA19, which shows that the likely effect of Asp-345a is to alter a hydrogen-bonding network involving Asp-346 and the SXN triad at the active site. We have also solved the crystal structure of PBP2 derived from the penicillin-resistant strain FA6140 that contains four mutations near the C terminus of the protein. Although these mutations lower the second order rate of acylation for penicillin by 5-fold relative to wild type, comparison of the two structures shows only minor structural differences, with the positions of the conserved residues in the active site essentially the same in both. Kinetic analyses indicate that two mutations, P551S and F504L, are mainly responsible for the decrease in acylation rate. Melting curves show that the four mutations lower the thermal stability of the enzyme. Overall, these data suggest that the molecular mechanism underlying antibiotic resistance contributed by the four mutations is subtle and involves a small but measurable disordering of residues in the active site region that either restricts the binding of antibiotic or impedes conformational changes that are required for acylation by {beta}-lactam antibiotics.

  1. Resistivity of the HoIn 3 and ErIn 3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletowski, Z.; Sławiński, P.

    1990-11-01

    We report results of the resistivity measurements of HoIn 3 and ErIn 3 in temperature range 4.2-300 K. A comparison of these data with that for the nonmagnetic LuIn 3 indicates a big similarity of these three temperature dependences of the resistivity. An appearance of the spin disorder resistivity for the HoIn 3 and ErIn 3 is noticed. The resistivity results confirm the existence of an anomaly observed before for the HoIn 3 in the ordered phase.

  2. Electrical resistance of single-crystal magnetite (Fe3O4) under quasi-hydrostatic pressures up to 100 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Takaki; Gasparov, Lev V.; Berger, Helmuth; Hemley, Russell J.; Struzhkin, Viktor V.

    2016-04-01

    The pressure dependence of electrical resistance of single-crystal magnetite (Fe3O4) was measured under quasi-hydrostatic conditions to 100 GPa using low-temperature, megabar diamond-anvil cell techniques in order to gain insight into the anomalous behavior of this material that has been reported over the years in different high-pressure experiments. The measurements under nearly hydrostatic pressure conditions allowed us to detect the clear Verwey transition and the high-pressure structural phase. The appearance of a metallic ground state after the suppression of the Verwey transition around 20 GPa and the concomitant enhancement of the electrical resistance caused by the structural transformation to the high-pressure phase form reentrant semiconducting-metallic-semiconducting behavior, although the appearance of the metallic phase is highly sensitive to stress conditions and details of the measurement technique.

  3. Numerical investigation of the influence of EM-fields on fluid motion and resistivity distribution during floating-zone growth of large silicon single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raming, G.; Muižnieks, A.; Mühlbauer, A.

    2001-08-01

    The floating-zone-process with needle-eye inductor is a complex process with many coupled parameters that have nonlinear influence on the process stability and resistivity distribution in the silicon single crystal. To fulfill the requirements of semiconductor industry for tighter specification of resistivity distribution, additional means like magnetic fields can be used to reach a more homogeneous resistivity distribution without disturbing process stability. The current paper analyses the influence of static and alternating fields on the fluid motion and macroscopic and microscopic resistivity profile by means of numerical calculations. It is found that with a lower frequency of the HF-inductor current and with an additional AC-field the radial resistivity profile can be made more homogeneous. Rotating magnetic fields give only a slightly more homogeneous resistivity profile. DC-fields do not change the radial resistivity distribution qualitatively, but suppress all flow oscillations and therefore axial microscopic resistivity variations.

  4. Mechanism of Drug Resistance Revealed by the Crystal Structure of the Unliganded HIV-1 Protease with F53L Mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fengling; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y.; Louis, John M.; Boross, Peter I.; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Harrison, Robert W.; Weber, Irene T.

    2010-12-03

    Mutations in HIV-1 protease (PR) that produce resistance to antiviral PR inhibitors are a major problem in AIDS therapy. The mutation F53L arising from antiretroviral therapy was introduced into the flexible flap region of the wild-type PR to study its effect and potential role in developing drug resistance. Compared to wild-type PR, PR{sub F53L} showed lower (15%) catalytic efficiency, 20-fold weaker inhibition by the clinical drug indinavir, and reduced dimer stability, while the inhibition constants of two peptide analog inhibitors were slightly lower than those for PR. The crystal structure of PR{sub F53L} was determined in the unliganded form at 1.35 {angstrom} resolution in space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2. The tips of the flaps in PR{sub F53L} had a wider separation than in unliganded wild-type PR, probably due to the absence of hydrophobic interactions of the side-chains of Phe53 and Ile50{prime}. The changes in interactions between the flaps agreed with the reduced stability of PR{sub F53L} relative to wild-type PR. The altered flap interactions in the unliganded form of PR{sub F53L} suggest a distinct mechanism for drug resistance, which has not been observed in other common drug-resistant mutants.

  5. Crystal structure of the drug-resistant S31N influenza M2 proton channel.

    PubMed

    Thomaston, Jessica L; DeGrado, William F

    2016-08-01

    The M2 protein is a small proton channel found in the influenza A virus that is necessary for viral replication. The M2 channel is the target of a class of drugs called the adamantanes, which block the channel pore and prevent the virus from replicating. In recent decades mutations have arisen in M2 that prevent the adamantanes from binding to the channel pore, with the most prevalent of these mutations being S31N. Here we report the first crystal structure of the S31N mutant crystallized using lipidic cubic phase crystallization techniques and solved to 1.59 Å resolution. The Asn31 residues point directly into the center of the channel pore and form a hydrogen-bonded network that disrupts the drug-binding site. Ordered waters in the channel pore form a continuous hydrogen bonding network from Gly34 to His37. PMID:27082171

  6. Crystal Structures of a Multidrug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Reveal an Expanded Active-Site Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Logsdon, Bradley C.; Vickrey, John F.; Martin, Philip; Proteasa, Gheorghe; Koepke, Jay I.; Terlecky, Stanley R.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Winters, Mark A.; Merigan, Thomas C.; Kovari, Ladislau C.

    2010-03-08

    The goal of this study was to use X-ray crystallography to investigate the structural basis of resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors. We overexpressed, purified, and crystallized a multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV-1 protease enzyme derived from a patient failing on several protease inhibitor-containing regimens. This HIV-1 variant contained codon mutations at positions 10, 36, 46, 54, 63, 71, 82, 84, and 90 that confer drug resistance to protease inhibitors. The 1.8-{angstrom} crystal structure of this MDR patient isolate reveals an expanded active-site cavity. The active-site expansion includes position 82 and 84 mutations due to the alterations in the amino acid side chains from longer to shorter (e.g., V82A and I84V). The MDR isolate 769 protease 'flaps' stay open wider, and the difference in the flap tip distances in the MDR 769 variant is 12 {angstrom}. The MDR 769 protease crystal complexes with lopinavir and DMP450 reveal completely different binding modes. The network of interactions between the ligands and the MDR 769 protease is completely different from that seen with the wild-type protease-ligand complexes. The water molecule-forming hydrogen bonds bridging between the two flaps and either the substrate or the peptide-based inhibitor are lacking in the MDR 769 clinical isolate. The S1, S1', S3, and S3' pockets show expansion and conformational change. Surface plasmon resonance measurements with the MDR 769 protease indicate higher k{sub off} rates, resulting in a change of binding affinity. Surface plasmon resonance measurements provide k{sub on} and k{sub off} data (K{sub d} = k{sub off}/k{sub on}) to measure binding of the multidrug-resistant protease to various ligands. This MDR 769 protease represents a new antiviral target, presenting the possibility of designing novel inhibitors with activity against the open and expanded protease forms.

  7. Laser-induced microwave generation with nonlinear optical crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghesani, Francesco; Braggio, Caterina; Carugno, Giovanni; Della Valle, Federico; Ruoso, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    We report about a novel technique to generate microwave radiation by the irradiation of a nonlinear optical crystal with uniformly spaced, ultrashort optical pulses delivered by a mode-locked laser. We study systematically the laser polarization and intensity dependence of the microwave signal to conclusively show that it is a nonlinear phenomenon and that it originates from optical rectification. The measurements have been conducted using KTP, LBO and ZnSe crystals. The observed pulsed microwave signals are harmonically related to the laser pulses repetition rate, a feature that can be exploited to develop an innovative ultrafast laser detector.

  8. The Crystal Structure at Room Temperature of Six Cast Heat-Resisting Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, Burt M.

    1947-01-01

    The crystal structures of alloys 61, X-40,X-50, 422-19, 6059, and Vitallium, derived from x-ray diffraction, are discussed. The alloys have been, or are being considered for use in gas turbine applications. The predominant phase was a solid solution of the face centered cubic type of the principal constituent elements.The lattice parameters were found to be between 3.5525 and 3.5662.

  9. Correlation between the spin disorder resistivity and crystal structure of thulium thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Dudas, J.; Feher, A.; Kavecansky; Goscianska, I.; Ratajczak, H.

    1994-03-01

    An increase of the spin-disorder resistivity with decreasing film thickness has been observed in thulium thin films prepared in UHV. X-ray diffraction investigation in thinner films with thickness below {approx} 100nm revealed that this dependence is caused by a structural change.

  10. Crystal structure of tabtoxin resistance protein complexed with acetyl coenzyme A reveals the mechanism for {beta}-lactam acetylation.

    SciTech Connect

    He, H.; Ding, Y.; Bartlam, M.; Sun, F.; Le, Y.; Qin, X.; Tang, H.; Zhang, R.; Joachimiak, A.; Liu, J.; Zhao, N.; Rao, Z.; Biosciences Division; Tsinghua Univ.; Chinese Academy of Science

    2003-01-31

    Tabtoxin resistance protein (TTR) is an enzyme that renders tabtoxin-producing pathogens, such as Pseudomonas syringae, tolerant to their own phytotoxins. Here, we report the crystal structure of TTR complexed with its natural cofactor, acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), to 1.55 {angstrom} resolution. The binary complex forms a characteristic 'V' shape for substrate binding and contains the four motifs conserved in the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily, which also includes the histone acetyltransferases (HATs). A single-step mechanism is proposed to explain the function of three conserved residues, Glu92, Asp130 and Tyr141, in catalyzing the acetyl group transfer to its substrate. We also report that TTR possesses HAT activity and suggest an evolutionary relationship between TTR and other GNAT members.

  11. Characterization of Multi-Domain Bumps of Organic Resists in Color Filters for Wide-Viewing-Angle Liquid Crystal Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Horng-Show; Chen, Mi; Yang, Sheng-Hung; Kawai, Tomoji

    2008-06-01

    Negative-type multi-domain vertical alignment (MVA) photoresists have technically been fabricated and integrated in color filter processing for the application of wide-viewing-angle liquid crystal displays. The expectable results including excellent light transmittance, stability and uniformity of protrudent bumps in shape, superior reliability in material characteristics and wider gamut have extensively been achieved. The superior brightness (GY) of negative-type photo resists used in color filters to positive-type photoresists is attended with the result of excellent transmittances. The transmittances of positive-type and negative-type protrudent bumps photoresists in color filters are 70 and 100%, respectively. NTSC ratio of the color-filter sample with negative-type photoresist in MVA protrudent bumps is improved from 61.9 to 62.8% and higher. Comparisons in characteristics between negative-type (NPR) photoresist and positive-type (PPR) photoresist materials have eventually been analyzed and demonstrated as well.

  12. Crystal structures of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 protease in complex with two potent anti-malarial compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yong; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Kovari, Iulia A.; Woster, Patrick M.; Kovari, Ladislau C.; Gupta, Deepak

    2012-06-19

    Two potent inhibitors (compounds 1 and 2) of malarial aspartyl protease, plasmepsin-II, were evaluated against wild type (NL4-3) and multidrug-resistant clinical isolate 769 (MDR) variants of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) aspartyl protease. Enzyme inhibition assays showed that both 1 and 2 have better potency against NL4-3 than against MDR protease. Crystal structures of MDR protease in complex with 1 and 2 were solved and analyzed. Crystallographic analysis revealed that the MDR protease exhibits a typical wide-open conformation of the flaps (Gly48 to Gly52) causing an overall expansion in the active site cavity, which, in turn caused unstable binding of the inhibitors. Due to the expansion of the active site cavity, both compounds showed loss of direct contacts with the MDR protease compared to the docking models of NL4-3. Multiple water molecules showed a rich network of hydrogen bonds contributing to the stability of the ligand binding in the distorted binding pockets of the MDR protease in both crystal structures. Docking analysis of 1 and 2 showed a decrease in the binding affinity for both compounds against MDR supporting our structure-function studies. Thus, compounds 1 and 2 show promising inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease variants and hence are good candidates for further development to enhance their potency against NL4-3 as well as MDR HIV-1 protease variants.

  13. Crystallization kinetics and thermal resistance of bamboo fiber reinforced biodegradable polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumsorn, S.; Srisawat, N.; On, J. Wong; Pivsa-Art, S.; Hamada, H.

    2014-05-01

    Bamboo fiber reinforced biodegradable polymer composites were prepared in this study. Biodegradable poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was blended with bamboo fiber in a twin screw extruder with varied bamboo content from 20-0wt%. PBS/bamboo fiber composites were fabricated by compression molding process. The effect of bamboo fiber contents on properties of the composites was investigated. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetic study of the composites was investigated based on Avrami equation. The kinetic parameters indicated that bamboo fiber acted as heterogeneous nucleation and enhanced crystallinity of the composites. Bamboo fiber was well dispersed on PBS matrix and good adhered with the matrix. Tensile strength of the composites slightly deceased with adding bamboo fiber. However, tensile modulus and impact strength of the composites increased when increasing bamboo fiber contents. It can be noted that bamboo fiber promoted crystallization and crystallinity of PBS in the composites. Therefore, the composites were better in impact load transferring than neat PBS, which exhibited improving on impact performance of the composites.

  14. Radiation resistance of nonlinear LiB3O5 crystals: optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorodnikov, I. N.; Kruzhalov, A. V.; Porotnikov, A. V.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents the results of study of the radiation stability of LiB3O5 (LBO) crystals with regard to optical properties. LBO crystals of the high optical quality were studied under action of an electron beam with energy of 0.2 - 10 MeV, x-rays, and polarized synchrotron radiation of a high intensity. Both the trapped electron (B2) and hole (O-) centers were revealed and their optical manifestations were studied in detail. In particular, the strong radiation-induced optical absorption band at lambda equals 306 nm, extending up to the spectral region of the second harmonic (at about 532 nm), was attributed to the optical transitions inside the O- center. The accumulation of defects over the dose region between 1010 and 5 multiplied by 1016 electrons per cm2 was measured. The accumulation curve at 77 K exhibits two well-defined flux regions: 1010-1014 and 1014- 1016 electrons per cm2. The paper discusses the origin of radiation degradation of LiB3O5 optical properties.

  15. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies to near-atomic resolution of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Benjamin R.; Dobson, Renwick C. J. Dogovski, Con; Jameson, Geoffrey B.; Parker, Michael W.; Perugini, Matthew A.

    2008-07-01

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS), an enzyme of the lysine-biosynthetic pathway, is a promising target for antibiotic development against pathogenic bacteria. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis to 1.45 Å resolution of DHDPS from methicillin-resistant S. aureus is reported. In recent years, dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS; EC 4.2.1.52) has received considerable attention from both mechanistic and structural viewpoints. DHDPS is part of the diaminopimelate pathway leading to lysine, coupling (S)-aspartate-β-semialdehyde with pyruvate via a Schiff base to a conserved active-site lysine. In this paper, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DHDPS from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, an important bacterial pathogen, are reported. The enzyme was crystallized in a number of forms, predominantly from PEG precipitants, with the best crystal diffracting to beyond 1.45 Å resolution. The space group was P1 and the unit-cell parameters were a = 65.4, b = 67.6, c = 78.0 Å, α = 90.1, β = 68.9, γ = 72.3°. The crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) was 2.34 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, with an estimated solvent content of 47% for four monomers per asymmetric unit. The structure of the enzyme will help to guide the design of novel therapeutics against the methicillin-resistant S. aureus pathogen.

  16. Cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a putative multiple antibiotic resistance repressor protein (MarR) from Xanthomonas campestris

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Zhi-Le; Li, Juo-Ning; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Shr, Hui-Lin; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Gao, Fei Philip; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Chou, Shan-Ho

    2005-07-01

    A putative repressor for the multiple antibiotic resistance operon from a plant pathogen X. campestris pv. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.3 Å with good quality. The multiple antibiotic resistance operon (marRAB) is a member of the multidrug-resistance system. When induced, this operon enhances resistance of bacteria to a variety of medically important antibiotics, causing a serious global health problem. MarR is a marR-encoded protein that represses the transcription of the marRAB operon. Through binding with salicylate and certain antibiotics, however, MarR can derepress and activate the marRAB operon. In this report, the cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of XC1739, a putative MarR repressor protein present in the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a Gram-negative bacterium causing major worldwide disease of cruciferous crops, are described. The XC1739 crystals diffracted to a resolution of at least 1.8 Å. They are orthorhombic and belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 39.5, b = 54.2 and c = 139.5 Å, respectively. They contain two molecules in the asymmetric unit from calculation of the self-rotation function.

  17. Low Density, High Creep Resistant Single Crystal Super Alloy for Turbine Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKay, Rebecca A. (Inventor); Gabb, Timothy P. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Nathal, Michael V. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A nickel-base superalloy article for use in turbines has increased creep resistance and lower density. The superalloy article includes, as measured in % by weight, 6.0-12.0% Mo, 5.5-6.5%Al, 3.0-7.0% Ta, 0-15% Co, 2.0-6.0% Cr, 1.0-4.0% Re, 0-1.5% W, 0-1.5% Ru, 0-2.0% Ti, 0-3.0% Nb, 0-0.2% Hf, 0-0.02% Y, 0.001-0.005% B, 0.01-0.04% C, and a remainder including nickel plus impurities.

  18. Intracavity KTP OPO pumped by a doubly Q-switched laser with AOM and a monolayer graphene saturable abosorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Junpeng; Zhao, Jia; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Li, Tao; Qiao, Wenchao; Chu, Hongwei

    2015-12-01

    An intracavity KTiOPO4 (KTP) optical parametric oscillator (IOPO) pumped by a doubly Q-switched YVO4/Nd:YVO4 laser with an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and a monolayer graphene saturable absorber has been realized for the first time. The average output power, the pulse duration, single pulse energy and the peak power of signal light versus incident pump power have been measured. At an incident pump power of 11.7 W and an AOM repetition rate of 10 kHz, the shortest pulse duration of 1.24 ns was obtained, corresponding to a single pulse energy of 9.5 μJ and a peak power of 7.9 kW. In comparison, the doubly IOPO (DIOPO) pumped by doubly Q-switched laser with AOM and graphene saturable absorber can generate pulses with narrower pulse width and higher peak power than the singly IOPO (SIOPO) pumped only by AOM Q-switched laser.

  19. High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging at 1.7 μm with a KTP-based OPO

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Jie; Yu, Qianhuan; Ma, Teng; Wang, Pu; Cao, Yingchun; Bruning, Rebecca S.; Qu, Yueqiao; Chen, Zhongping; Zhou, Qifa; Sturek, Michael; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Chen, Weibiao

    2015-01-01

    Lipid deposition inside the arterial wall is a hallmark of plaque vulnerability. Based on overtone absorption of C-H bonds, intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) catheter is a promising technology for quantifying the amount of lipid and its spatial distribution inside the arterial wall. Thus far, the clinical translation of IVPA technology is limited by its slow imaging speed due to lack of a high-pulse-energy high-repetition-rate laser source for lipid-specific first overtone excitation at 1.7 μm. Here, we demonstrate a potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP)-based optical parametric oscillator with output pulse energy up to 2 mJ at a wavelength of 1724 nm and with a repetition rate of 500 Hz. Using this laser and a ring-shape transducer, IVPA imaging at speed of 1 frame per sec was demonstrated. Performance of the IVPA imaging system’s resolution, sensitivity, and specificity were characterized by carbon fiber and a lipid-mimicking phantom. The clinical utility of this technology was further evaluated ex vivo in an excised atherosclerotic human femoral artery with comparison to histology. PMID:26601018

  20. High-speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging at 1.7 μm with a KTP-based OPO.

    PubMed

    Hui, Jie; Yu, Qianhuan; Ma, Teng; Wang, Pu; Cao, Yingchun; Bruning, Rebecca S; Qu, Yueqiao; Chen, Zhongping; Zhou, Qifa; Sturek, Michael; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Chen, Weibiao

    2015-11-01

    Lipid deposition inside the arterial wall is a hallmark of plaque vulnerability. Based on overtone absorption of C-H bonds, intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) catheter is a promising technology for quantifying the amount of lipid and its spatial distribution inside the arterial wall. Thus far, the clinical translation of IVPA technology is limited by its slow imaging speed due to lack of a high-pulse-energy high-repetition-rate laser source for lipid-specific first overtone excitation at 1.7 μm. Here, we demonstrate a potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP)-based optical parametric oscillator with output pulse energy up to 2 mJ at a wavelength of 1724 nm and with a repetition rate of 500 Hz. Using this laser and a ring-shape transducer, IVPA imaging at speed of 1 frame per sec was demonstrated. Performance of the IVPA imaging system's resolution, sensitivity, and specificity were characterized by carbon fiber and a lipid-mimicking phantom. The clinical utility of this technology was further evaluated ex vivo in an excised atherosclerotic human femoral artery with comparison to histology. PMID:26601018

  1. Intracavity KTP optical parametric oscillator driven by a KLM Nd:GGG laser with a single AO modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hongwei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Jia; Li, Yufei; Li, Tao; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Qiao, Wenchao

    2015-05-01

    An intracavity KTiOPO4 (KTP) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a Kerr lens mode-locking (KLM) Nd:GGG laser near 1062 nm with a single AO modulator was realized for the first time. The mode-locking pulses of the signal wave were obtained with a short duration of subnanosecond and a repetition rate of several kilohertz (kHz). Under a diode pump power of 8.25 W, a maximum output power of 104 mW at signal wavelength near 1569 nm was obtained at a repetition rate of 2 kHz. The highest pulse energy and peak power were estimated to be 80 μJ and 102 kW at a repetition rate of 1 kHz, respectively. The shortest pulse duration was measured to be 749 ps. By considering the Gaussian spatial distribution of the photon density and the Kerr-lens effect in the gain medium, a set of the coupled rate equations for QML intracavity optical parametric oscillator are given and the numerical simulations are basically fitted with the experimental results.

  2. Development of Creep-Resistant NiAl(Ti,Hf) Single-Crystal Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Nickel-base superalloys are the current choice for high-temperature jet engine applications such as turbine blades and vanes. However, after more than five decades of use, nickel-base superalloys have reached their limit, since the operating temperatures in gas turbine engines are now approaching the melting temperature of these alloys. Thus alternative materials, such as lightweight NiAl intermetallic alloys with superior properties, (e.g., high melting temperature, high thermal conductivity, and excellent chemical stability and oxidation resistance) are required for the next generation of high-temperature structural materials for more efficient 21st century civil transport systems. The two major disadvantages that have historically prevented the application of NiAl as a high-temperature structural material are its poor creep resistance and low room-temperature ductility. Alloying strategies similar to those used for nickel-base superalloys are being used to improve the high-temperature strength via solid-solution and precipitate-hardening effects. This study highlights the potent role of Ti and Hf as potential solid-solution strengtheners in NiAl and also the added effect of second-phase particles when Ti and Hf are both used.

  3. Controlling the Integration of Polyvinylpyrrolidone onto Substrate by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation To Achieve Excellent Protein Resistance and Detoxification.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Wang, Lin; Zeng, Xiangze; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Sa; Shi, Xuetao; Wang, Yingjun; Huang, Xuhui; Ren, Li

    2016-07-27

    Blood purification systems, in which the adsorbent removes exogenous and endogenous toxins from the blood, are widely used in clinical practice. To improve the protein resistance of and detoxification by the adsorbent, researchers can modify the adsorbent with functional molecules, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). However, achieving precise control of the functional molecular density, which is crucial to the activity of the adsorbent, remains a significant challenge. In the present study, we prepared a model system for blood purification adsorbents in which we controlled the integration density of PVP molecules of different molecular weights on an Au substrate by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). We characterized the samples with atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and QCM-D and found that the molecular density and the chain length of the PVP molecules played important roles in determining the properties of the sample. At the optimal condition, the modified sample demonstrated strong resistance to plasma proteins, decreasing the adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) and fibrinogen (Fg) by 92.5% and 79.2%, respectively. In addition, the modified sample exhibited excellent detoxification, and the adsorption of bilirubin increased 2.6-fold. Interestingly, subsequent atomistic molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the favorable interactions between PVP and bilirubin were dominated by hydrophobic interactions. An in vitro platelet adhesion assay showed that the adhesion of platelets on the sample decreased and that the platelets were maintained in an inactivated state. The CCK-8 assay indicated that the modified sample exhibited negligible cytotoxicity to L929 cells. These results demonstrated that our method holds great potential for the modification of adsorbents in blood purification systems. PMID:27363467

  4. Broadband 120 MHz Impedance Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) with Calibrated Resistance and Quantitative Dissipation for Biosensing Measurements at Higher Harmonic Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Manuel; Traxler, Lukas; Salopek, Jasmina; Grabmayr, Herwig; Ebner, Andreas; Kienberger, Ferry

    2016-01-01

    We developed an impedance quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) approach with the ability to simultaneously record mass changes and calibrated energy dissipation with high sensitivity using an impedance analyzer. This impedance QCM measures frequency shifts and resistance changes of sensing quartz crystals very stable, accurately, and calibrated, thus yielding quantitative information on mass changes and dissipation. Resistance changes below 0.3 Ω were measured with corresponding dissipation values of 0.01 µU (micro dissipation units). The broadband impedance capabilities allow measurements between 20 Hz and 120 MHz including higher harmonic modes of up to 11th order for a 10 MHz fundamental resonance frequency quartz crystal. We demonstrate the adsorbed mass, calibrated resistance, and quantitative dissipation measurements on two biological systems including the high affinity based avidin-biotin interaction and nano-assemblies of polyelectrolyte layers. The binding affinity of a protein-antibody interaction was determined. The impedance QCM is a versatile and simple method for accurate and calibrated resistance and dissipation measurements with broadband measurement capabilities for higher harmonics measurements. PMID:27231946

  5. Broadband 120 MHz Impedance Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) with Calibrated Resistance and Quantitative Dissipation for Biosensing Measurements at Higher Harmonic Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Manuel; Traxler, Lukas; Salopek, Jasmina; Grabmayr, Herwig; Ebner, Andreas; Kienberger, Ferry

    2016-01-01

    We developed an impedance quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) approach with the ability to simultaneously record mass changes and calibrated energy dissipation with high sensitivity using an impedance analyzer. This impedance QCM measures frequency shifts and resistance changes of sensing quartz crystals very stable, accurately, and calibrated, thus yielding quantitative information on mass changes and dissipation. Resistance changes below 0.3 Ω were measured with corresponding dissipation values of 0.01 µU (micro dissipation units). The broadband impedance capabilities allow measurements between 20 Hz and 120 MHz including higher harmonic modes of up to 11th order for a 10 MHz fundamental resonance frequency quartz crystal. We demonstrate the adsorbed mass, calibrated resistance, and quantitative dissipation measurements on two biological systems including the high affinity based avidin-biotin interaction and nano-assemblies of polyelectrolyte layers. The binding affinity of a protein-antibody interaction was determined. The impedance QCM is a versatile and simple method for accurate and calibrated resistance and dissipation measurements with broadband measurement capabilities for higher harmonics measurements. PMID:27231946

  6. Protein-resistant properties of a chemical vapor deposited alkyl-functional carboxysilane coating characterized using quartz crystal microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, Shyam V.; Yuan, Min; Narváez, Alfredo R.; Daghfal, David; Mattzela, James; Smith, David

    2016-02-01

    The protein-resistant properties of a chemical vapor deposited alkyl-functional carboxysilane coating (Dursan®) were compared to that of an amorphous fluoropolymer (AF1600) coating and bare 316L grade stainless steel by studying non-specific adsorption of various proteins onto these surfaces using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). A wash solution with nonionic surfactant, polyoxyethyleneglycol dodecyl ether (or Brij 35), facilitated 100% removal of the adsorbed bovine serum albumin (BSA), mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG), and normal human plasma proteins from the Dursan surface and of the adsorbed normal human plasma proteins from the AF1600 surface, whereas these proteins remained adsorbed on the bare stainless steel surface. Mechanical stress in the form of sonication demonstrated durability of the Dursan coating to mechanical wear and showed no negative impact on the coating's ability to prevent adsorption of plasma proteins. Surface delamination was observed in case of the sonicated AF1600 coating, which further led to adsorption of normal human plasma proteins.

  7. Can the KTP laser change the cementum surface of healthy and diseased teeth providing an acceptable root surface for fibroblast attachment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailhot, Jason M.; Garnick, Jerry J.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of our research is to determine the effects of KTP laser on root cementum and fibroblast attachment. Initial work has been completed in testing the effect of different energy levels on root surfaces. From these studies optimal energy levels were determined. In subsequent studies the working distance and exposure time required to obtain significant fibroblast attachment to healthy cementum surfaces were investigated. Results showed that lased cemental surfaces exhibited changes in surface topography which ranged from a melted surface to an apparent slight fusion of the surface of the covering smear layer. When the optimal energy level was used, fibroblasts demonstrate attachment on the specimens, resulting in the presence of a monolayer of cells on the control surfaces as well as on the surfaces lased with this energy level. The present study investigates the treatment of pathological root surfaces and calculus with a KTP laser utilizing these optimal parameters determine previously. Thirty single rooted teeth with advanced periodontal disease and ten healthy teeth were obtained, crowns were sectioned and roots split longitudinally. Forty test specimens were assigned into 1 of 4 groups; pathologic root--not lased, pathologic root--lased, root planed root and health root planed root. Human gingival fibroblasts were seeded on specimens and cultured for 24 hours. Specimens were processed for SEM. The findings suggest that with the KTP laser using a predetermined energy level applied to pathological root surfaces, the lased surfaces provided an unacceptable surface for fibroblast attachment. However, the procedural control using healthy root planed surfaces did demonstrate fibroblast attachment.

  8. Lumbar percutaneous KTP532 wavelength laser disc decompression and disc ablation in the management of discogenic pain.

    PubMed

    Knight, Martin; Goswami, Ankul

    2002-02-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the outcome of laser disc decompression and laser disc ablation in the management of painful degenerative disc disease with or without associated disc prolapse. Nonendoscopic percutaneous laser disc decompression was performed under x-ray control via the posterolateral approach with side-firing probes. All patients with chronic back pain who had reproduced pain during discography of a nature, pattern, and distribution similar to what they experienced normally were included in the study. Magnetic resonance which confirmed stenosis and sequestrated discs, and patients with acute neurological findings were excluded from the study. Laser disc decompression or ablation was done using the KTP532 wavelength. The functional outcome was assessed prospectively using the Oswestry Disability Index. Clinical benefit was considered significant in those patients with a percentage change in the index of > or =50% at review 3-9 years (mean, 5.33 years) following surgery. A total of 52% of patients demonstrated a sustained significant clinical benefit, with an additional 21% in whom functional improvement was noted. Cohort integrity was 67%. Long-term benefit of the laser disc ablation and decompression for discogenic pain suggests a mechanism other than principally mechanical as a cause of chronic back and sciatic pain. It may suggest that efficacy occurs by reduction in the intradiscal production of irritative products and by an effect upon discal and annular neoneuralization. The sustained nature of the benefit after long-term preoperative symptoms (mean, 4.7 years) rules out any placebo effect. Selection should be restricted to patients without significant lateral recess stenosis, retrolisthesis or olisthesis of > or =3 mm, significant dorsal or foraminal osteophytosis, extrusion, or sequestration. PMID:11902355

  9. Characterization of Two-Photon Absorption Related to the Enhanced Bulk Damage Resistance in CsLiB6O10 Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Tomosumi; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Horibe, Hideo; Nishioka, Munenori; Yamamoto, Masashi; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke; Sasaki, Takatomo; Yoshida, Kunio

    2005-05-01

    Two-photon absorption of CsLiB6O10 (CLBO) related to the enhanced bulk damage resistance was investigated by using transmittance measurements. Pulsed laser beams at wavelengths of 532 and 266 nm were irradiated to CLBO crystals having several bulk damage resistances while the pulsed laser energy is varied from low enough to be negligible nonlinear absorption up to just below the laser-induced damage threshold. At a wavelength of 532 nm, the nonlinear absorption did not occur even at the laser fluence just below the damage threshold. In contrast, two-photon absorption depending on the bulk damage resistance was clearly observed at a wavelength of 266 nm. A high-quality CLBO having a high-damage resistance shows a 2 times lower two-photon absorption coefficient than that of a conventional CLBO.

  10. Synthesis, crystal structure, resistivity, and electronic structure of the U(V) quaternary polyselenide Ba8PdU2Se12(Se2)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Jai; Mesbah, Adel; Lebègue, Sébastien; Malliakas, Christos D.; Ibers, James A.

    2015-10-01

    A new quaternary uranium(V) selenide, Ba8PdU2Se12(Se2)2, has been synthesized by reaction of elements at 1173 K. A single-crystal X-ray diffraction study shows that the compound crystallizes in a new structure type with two formula units in space group D2h12 - Pnnm of the orthorhombic crystal system with cell constants of a=9.490(1), b=12.240(2), and c=13.780(3) Å. Its crystal structure consists of [PdU2 Se1212-] units where U atoms are coordinated to six Se atoms in octahedral geometry and Pd atoms are coordinated to four Se atoms in square-planar geometry. These [PdU2 Se1212-] units are separated by Ba to result in a salt-like crystal structure. This compound also contains Se22- dimers that are part of Ba coordination polyhedra. The formula charge balances as (Ba2+)8(Pd2+)(U5+)2(Se2-)12(Se22-)2. Theoretical calculations predict antiferromagnetic semiconducting behavior for this compound with a band gap of 1.6 eV. Temperature-dependent four-probe resistivity measurements on single crystal confirm the semiconducting nature with an activation energy of 0.18(1) eV.

  11. Diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 green laser with a periodically poled KTP and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Li, Guiqiu; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Dechun

    2006-03-10

    A diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 green laser with a periodically poled KTP and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber is realized. The dependences of pulse repetition rate, pulse energy, pulse width, and peak power on incident pump power are measured for the generated green-light pulses. A rate-equation model is introduced to theoretically analyze the results obtained in the experiment, in which the spatial distribution of the intracavity photon density is taken into account. The numerical solutions of the rate equations agree with the experimental results. PMID:16572700

  12. Expression, purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of OXA-17, an extended-spectrum β-lactamase conferring severe antibiotic resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Sohn, S. G.; Jung, H. I.; An, Y. J.; Lee, S. H.

    2013-07-01

    OXA-17, an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) conferring severe antibiotic resistance, hydrolytically inactivates β-lactam antibiotics, inducing a lack of eradication of pathogenic bacteria by oxyimino β-lactams and not helping hospital infection control. Thus, the enzyme is a potential target for developing antimicrobial agents against pathogens producing ESBLs. OXA-17 was purified and crystallized at 298 K. X-ray diffraction data from OXA-17 crystal have been collected to 1.85 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal of OXA-17 belongs to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 48.37, b = 101.12, and c = 126.07 Å. Analysis of the packing density shows that the asymmetric unit probably contains two molecules with a solvent content of 54.6%.

  13. Expression, purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of OXA-17, an extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase conferring severe antibiotic resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. H. Sohn, S. G. Jung, H. I. An, Y. J. Lee, S. H.

    2013-07-15

    OXA-17, an extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase (ESBL) conferring severe antibiotic resistance, hydrolytically inactivates {beta}-lactam antibiotics, inducing a lack of eradication of pathogenic bacteria by oxyimino {beta}-lactams and not helping hospital infection control. Thus, the enzyme is a potential target for developing antimicrobial agents against pathogens producing ESBLs. OXA-17 was purified and crystallized at 298 K. X-ray diffraction data from OXA-17 crystal have been collected to 1.85 A resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal of OXA-17 belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 48.37, b = 101.12, and c = 126.07 A. Analysis of the packing density shows that the asymmetric unit probably contains two molecules with a solvent content of 54.6%.

  14. Crystal Structure of the Zorbamycin-Binding Protein ZbmA, the Primary Self-Resistance Element in Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC21892.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Jeffrey D; Bigelow, Lance; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne E; Lohman, Jeremy R; Chang, Chin-Yuan; Ma, Ming; Yang, Dong; Clancy, Shonda; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Phillips, George N; Shen, Ben

    2015-11-17

    The bleomycins (BLMs), tallysomycins (TLMs), phleomycin, and zorbamycin (ZBM) are members of the BLM family of glycopeptide-derived antitumor antibiotics. The BLM-producing Streptomyces verticillus ATCC15003 and the TLM-producing Streptoalloteichus hindustanus E465-94 ATCC31158 both possess at least two self-resistance elements, an N-acetyltransferase and a binding protein. The N-acetyltransferase provides resistance by disrupting the metal-binding domain of the antibiotic that is required for activity, while the binding protein confers resistance by sequestering the metal-bound antibiotic and preventing drug activation via molecular oxygen. We recently established that the ZBM producer, Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC21892, lacks the N-acetyltransferase resistance gene and that the ZBM-binding protein, ZbmA, is sufficient to confer resistance in the producing strain. To investigate the resistance mechanism attributed to ZbmA, we determined the crystal structures of apo and Cu(II)-ZBM-bound ZbmA at high resolutions of 1.90 and 1.65 Å, respectively. A comparison and contrast with other structurally characterized members of the BLM-binding protein family revealed key differences in the protein-ligand binding environment that fine-tunes the ability of ZbmA to sequester metal-bound ZBM and supports drug sequestration as the primary resistance mechanism in the producing organisms of the BLM family of antitumor antibiotics. PMID:26512730

  15. Crystal Structure of the Zorbamycin-Binding Protein ZbmA, the Primary Self-Resistance Element in Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC21892

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf, Jeffrey D.; Bigelow, Lance; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne E.; Lohman, Jeremy R.; Chang, Chin-Yuan; Ma, Ming; Yang, Dong; Clancy, Shonda; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Phillips, George N.; Shen, Ben

    2015-11-17

    The bleomycins (BLMs), tallysomycins (TLMs), phleomycin, and zorbamycin (ZBM) are members of the BLM family of glycopeptide-derived antitumor antibiotics. The BLM-producing Streptomyces verticillus ATCC15003 and the TLM-producing Streptoalloteichus hindustanus E465-94 ATCC31158 both possess at least two self-resistance elements, an N-acetyltransferase and a binding protein. The N-acetyltransferase provides resistance by disrupting the metal-binding domain of the antibiotic that is required for activity, while the binding protein confers resistance by sequestering the metal-bound antibiotic and preventing drug activation via molecular oxygen. We recently established that the ZBM producer, Streptomyces flavoviridis ATCC21892, lacks the N-acetyltransferase resistance gene and that the ZBM-binding protein, ZbmA, is sufficient to confer resistance in the producing strain. To investigate the resistance mechanism attributed to ZbmA, we determined the crystal structures of apo and Cu(II)-ZBM-bound ZbmA at high resolutions of 1.90 and 1.65 angstrom, respectively. A comparison and contrast with other structurally characterized members of the BLM-binding protein family revealed key differences in the protein ligand binding environment that fine-tunes the ability of ZbmA to sequester metal-bound ZBM and supports drug sequestration as the primary resistance mechanism in the producing organisms of the BLM family of antitumor antibiotics.

  16. Room temperature terahertz wave imaging at 60 fps by frequency up-conversion in DAST crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shuzhen; Qi, Feng; Notake, Takashi; Nawata, Kouji; Matsukawa, Takeshi; Takida, Yuma; Minamide, Hiroaki

    2014-02-01

    Terahertz imaging has attracted a lot of interests for more than 10 years. But real time, high sensitive, low cost THz imaging in room temperature, which is widely needed by fields such as biology, biomedicine and homeland security, has not been fully developed yet. A lot of approaches have been reported on electro-optic (E-O) imaging and THz focal plane arrays with photoconductive antenna or micro-bolometer integrated. In this paper, we report high sensitive realtime THz image at 60 frames per second (fps) employing a commercial infrared camera, using nonlinear optical frequency up-conversion technology. In this system, a flash-lamp pumped nanosecond pulse green laser is used to pump two optical parametric oscillator systems with potassium titanyl phosphate crystals (KTP-OPO). One system with dual KTP crystals is used to generate infrared laser for the pumping of THz difference frequency generation (DFG) in a 4- Dimethylamino-N-Methyl-4-Stilbazolium Tosylate (DAST) crystal. The other one is for generation of pumping laser for THz frequency up-conversion in a second DAST crystal. The THz frequency can be tuned continuously from a few THz to less than 30 THz by controlling the angle of KTP crystals. The frequency up-converted image in infrared region is recorded by a commercial infrared camera working at 60 Hz. Images and videos are presented to show the feasibility of this technique and the real-time ability. Comparison with a general micro-bolometer THz camera shows the high sensitivity of this technique.

  17. Radiation defects in single crystals of KTiOPO/sub 4/

    SciTech Connect

    Karaseva, L.G.; Andreev, B.V.; Gromov, V.V.; Zakharkin, B.N.; Pavlova, N.I.

    1987-02-01

    Single crystals of KTiOPO/sub 4/ (KTP) are a promising nonlinear optics material having high nonlinearity coefficients comparable in magnitude with analogous coefficients for Ba/sub 2/NaNb/sub 5/O/sub 15/. In the initial KTP crystals, using the EPR method, they detected paramagnetic Fe/sup 3 +/ impurities and other ions giving a complex multi-line spectrum over a wide field range (up to 7000 Oe). After ..gamma..-irradiation, the single crystal takes on a cream color. The induced optical absorption spectrum, represented by a broad band with weakly resolved maxima in the 490 and 550 nm region, has significant anisotropy. The intensity, shape, and position of the bands in the extrinsic absorption spectrum vary with a change in orientation of the crystal relative to the probe beam of the spectrophotometer. Simultaneously with induced absorption in the optical spectrum, two groups of high-field and low-field lines appear in the EPR spectrum in the g = 2 region. The high-field signal has a complex structure, changing with the orientation of the crystal in the resonant cavity, and also has a weak anisotropy in the g-factor and hyperfine coupling constants.

  18. Comparison of specific heat and magneto-resistance measurements in the same SmFeAsO1-xFx crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeski, Stanislaw; Moll, Philip; Zhigadlo, Nikolai; Karpinski, Janusz; Batlogg, Bertram; Physics of New Materials Team

    2014-03-01

    We have performed resistivity and specific heat measurements in the same sub-microgram single crystals of an iron-based superconductor SmFeAsO1-xFx (Tc ~ 50K). This allowed for the first direct comparison of Hc2 curves from thermodynamic measurements with estimates from the magneto-resistance at commonly used criteria (10, 50, 90% ϱN) . A criterion of 40-50% ϱN well describes Hc2(T) for both in and out of plane fields. We attribute the low field dependence of the criterion to filamentary superconductivity. The challenging heat capacity measurement on microscopic crystals (50 μm in diameter, 10 μm thick) was done using a commercially available gas-nanocalorimeter. The thermodynamic data was in good agreement with previous experiments performed on crystals from the same batch by other groups. Hc2 slopes of 1.6 T/K for fields parallel to the c-axis and 12.3 T/K in the ab-plane were found yielding a ξ anisotropy γ ~ 7. This demonstrates that our experimental technique is both relatively fast to set up and furthermore reliable in fields up to 6T.

  19. Growth, spectroscopy, and laser performance of a 2.79 μm Cr,Er,Pr:GYSGG radiation-resistant crystal.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jianqiao; Sun, Dunlu; Zhang, Huili; Guo, Qiang; Fang, Zhongqing; Zhao, Xuyao; Cheng, Maojie; Zhang, Qingli; Yin, Shaotang

    2015-09-15

    We demonstrate the growth, spectroscopy, and laser performance of a 2.79 μm Cr,Er,Pr:GYSGG radiation-resistant crystal. The lifetimes for the upper laser level (4)I(11/2) and lower laser level (4)I(13/2) are 0.59 and 0.84 ms, respectively, which are due to the doping of the Pr(3+) ions. A maximum pulse energy of 278 mJ operated at 10 Hz and 2.79 μm is obtained when pumped with a flash lamp, which corresponds to the electrical-to-optical efficiency of 0.6% and a slope efficiency of 0.7%. A maximum average power of 2.9 W at 60 Hz is achieved, which corresponds to the electrical-to-optical efficiency of 0.4% and slope efficiency of 0.8%. Compared with a Cr,Er:YSGG crystal, the Cr,Er,Pr:GYSGG crystal can be operated at a higher pulse repetition rate. These results suggest that doping deactivator Pr(3+) ions can effectively decrease the lower laser level lifetime and improve the laser repetition rate. Therefore, the application fields and range of the Cr,Er,Pr:GYSGG laser can be extended greatly due to its properties of radiation resistance and high repetition frequency. PMID:26371894

  20. Research on VCSEL of single-mode multilayer photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenchao; Liu, Zhengjun; Sha, Xiaopeng

    2010-10-01

    Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSEL) of single mode have the potential advantage in the domains of optical information network, routing interactions, optical information storage and data transmission for their excellent performance. However, operating on the single-mode model in the whole pumped area is not solved, which impacts the technologies and applications. In this paper, a new research on VCSEL of single mode multilayer photonic crystal is presented. In the structure of photonic crystal, defects in the horizontal direction are provided by the micro-cavity, while the AIR-KTP interface on the top and the KTP-DBR (Distributed Bragg Reflection) interface at the bottom of cavity provide the defects in the vertical direction, which form quantum defects of electron-hole pairs. The PC-VCSEL in the paper has excellent mode-selection characteristics, which can operate continuously at 850nm in single mode. The single-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of 45dB is obtained in a wide dynamic range. The PC-VCSEL is expected to become a high-power single-mode light in the future.

  1. Syntheses, crystal structures, and resistivities of the two new ternary uranium selenides, Er3USe8 and Yb3USe8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Jai; Mesbah, Adel; Beard, Jessica C.; Malliakas, Christos D.; Ibers, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Two new ternary lanthanide (Ln) uranium selenides, Er3USe8 and Yb3USe8, were synthesized at 1198 K using NaI as a flux. Single-crystal X-ray studies show these two compounds to be isostructural and to crystallize in space group D2h 11 -Pbcm of the orthorhombic crystal system. The Ln and U atoms are disordered on the same crystallographic site in these crystal structures. Each Ln/U atom is coordinated to eight Se atoms in a bicapped trigonal prism, and sharing of these (Ln/U)Se8 units creates a three-dimensional network. Se2 atoms are connected to each other to form infinite one-dimensional chains along the c axis. In these chains, the two Se atoms are separated by about 2.74 Å, a distance intermediate to those of a Se-Se single bond and a van der Waals interaction. Temperature-dependent resistivity measurements show that Er3USe8 and Yb3USe8 are semiconductors with activation energies of 0.08(1) and 0.17(1) eV, respectively.

  2. High-power (80-w) KTP laser vaporization of the prostate in the management of urinary retention: long-term follow up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleeman, M.; Nseyo, Unyime O.

    2004-07-01

    Introduction and Objectives: We have previously reported the use of high-powered photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) for patients in urinary retention due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). PVP is a relatively new treatment for bladder outlet obstruction due to BPH, using laser energy to vaporize obstructing prostatic tissue. This study investigates the long-term follow up of patients treated with PVP for urinary retention. Materials and Methods: All participants signed informed consent, and were treated with high power 80 W quasi-continuous wave potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser. Ten patients underwent the procedure from December 2001 until the present. One patient was excluded from the study for failure to return for follow-up. Mean patient follow-up was nine months, maximum of twelve months. Results: The mean pre-operative gland size by trans-rectal ultrasound was 48 grams. Mean urethral length was 3.2 cm. Mean laser time was 48.2 minutes and the mean energy usage was 82.2 kJoules. There were no peri-operative complications such as sepsis or measurable postoperative bleeding. The preoperative AUA Symptom Score (AUASS) decreased from a mean of 22.6 preoperatively to 17 at nine months postoperatively (p = 0.032). The Quality of Life Score (QOL) decreased from 4.6 preoperatively to 3.25 at 12 months postoperatively (p = 0.26). The maximum urine flow rate increased from a mean of 7.7 cc/sec preoperatively to 14.5 cc/sec at six months follow-up (p = 0.03). Conclusions: This follow-up study suggests that HP-KTP has a durable response in patients treated specifically for retention. It significantly improved urine flow rate and symptom score, and had a trend towards improvement in subjective quality of life. HP-KTP prostatectomy should be considered in treating patients in retention, especially those with significant co-morbidities or taking anticoagulation.

  3. Low-Temperature Band Transport and Impact of Contact Resistance in Organic Field-Effect Transistors Based on Single-Crystal Films of Ph-BTBT-C10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Joung-min; Mori, Takehiko

    2016-06-01

    Transistors based on single-crystal films of 2-decyl-7-phenyl-[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (Ph-BTBT-10) fabricated using the blade-coating method are investigated by the four-probe method down to low temperatures. The four-probe mobility is as large as 18 cm2/V s at room temperature, and increases to 45 cm2/V s at 80 K. At 60 K the two-probe mobility drops abruptly by about 50%, but the mobility drop is mostly attributed to the increase of the source resistance. The carrier transport in the present single-crystal film is regarded as essentially bandlike down to 30 K.

  4. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of triosephosphate isomerase from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA252)

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Somnath; Dutta, Debajyoti; Saha, Baisakhee; Das, Amit Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA252) was cloned in pQE30 vector, overexpressed in Escherichia coli M15 (pREP4) cells and purified to homogeneity. The protein was crystallized from 1.6 M trisodium citrate dihydrate pH 6.5 using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 79.15, c = 174.27 Å. X-ray diffraction data were collected and processed to a maximum resolution of 1.9 Å. The presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit gave a Matthews coefficient (V M) of 2.64 Å3 Da−1, with a solvent content of 53.63%. PMID:19342791

  5. Investigation of the photoelectric component of the light-induced resistance-drop mechanism in SrTiO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shablaev, S. I.; Grachev, A. I.

    2015-08-01

    The results of the experimental observation of the photovoltage in a SrTiO3 crystal sample, which exhibits the light-induced resistance-drop effect, have confirmed the previously proposed model of the effect in its photoelectric part. However, in addition to the expected manifestation of the barrier photovoltage, one more source of photocurrent has been found. This source is attributed to the manifestation of the linear photogalvanic effect in the subsurface region of the crystal. It has been assumed that the main role in the generation of photogalvanic current can be played by dipole centers of the oxygen vacancy-triply charged titanium ion type, which are oriented by an electric field of the surface barrier.

  6. Phase correction in two-crystal optical parametric oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Armstron, D.J.; Alford, W.J.; Raymond, T.D.; Smith, A.V.

    1995-02-01

    The effect of the pump, signal, and idler wave phases on three-wave nonlinear parametric mixing is investigated in a series of single-pass-gain experiments. Measurements are made with two angle-tuned KTP crystals in a 532 nm pumped, walkoff-compensated, optical parametric amplifier that is seeded by an 800 nm cw diode laser. In one of the measurements the second crystal is orientated to have its effective nonlinearity d{sub eff.} of opposite sign to that of the first crystal, so that all mixing that occurred in the first crystal is cancelled by the second when the phase mismatch {Delta}k{sub crystal 1} = {Delta}k{sub crystal 2} = 0. Efficient two-crystal amplification is subsequently restored by selecting the correct phase relationship for the three waves entering the crystal by inserting a dispersive plate between the crystals. The experimental results are explained in a straightforward manner with diagrams involving the three input wave polarizations. These results demonstrate that walkoff-compensated geometries require phase correction to achieve efficient mixing in the second crystal whenever the nonlinear interaction involves two extraordinary waves (e-waves). One practical application of this work may be lower oscillation thresholds and enhanced performance in walkoff-compensated optical parametric oscillators which use two e-waves.

  7. Measurement of the absorption of nonlinear crystals used for high-average-power frequency doubling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Guido; Seidel, Stefan

    1997-07-01

    The absorption coefficients of nonlinear crystals for fundamental and second harmonic wave are of great importance for high average power second harmonic generation. A practical method to measure low absorption coefficients for high average power second harmonic generation. A practical method to measure low absorption coefficients is to use an interferometric laser calorimeter with high power lasers. Therefore Q-switched Nd:YAG laser systems with intracavity second harmonic generation are used. The measurements are made with optical powers up to 300 W and 45 W, respectively. Because of the high power, the resolution limit for the absorption coefficients is 0.001 percent/cm. The absorption coefficients of KTP and LBO crystals of different manufacturers are determined. The results are used for a numerical model which takes into account the decrease of conversion efficiency due to thermal effects caused by the absorption of laser power in the nonlinear crystal. This model describes saturation effects which appear in the range of 100 W in the green using a KTP crystal. A new idea for compensation of thermal effects will be presented.

  8. Characterization of the lattice defects in Ge-ion implanted ZnO bulk single crystals by Rutherford Backscattering: Origins of low resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamioka, K.; Oga, T.; Izawa, Y.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.

    2013-07-01

    A Ge ion implantation using a multiple-step energy into ZnO bulk single crystals is performed (net concentration: 2.6 × 1020 cm-3). The origins of low resistivity of the Ge implanted ZnO samples are studied by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), photoluminescence (PL). The resistivity measured by Van der Pauw method decreases from ˜103 Ωcm for the un-implanted samples to 1.45 × 10-2 Ωcm for the as-implanted samples, originating from the lattice displacement of Zn (Zni) (˜30 meV [Look et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2552 (1999)]), the existence of which is revealed by the RBS measurements. In contrast, the 1000 °C annealed samples show the higher resistivity of 6.26 × 10-1 Ωcm, indicating that the Zni related defects decrease but still remain despite the annealing. A new PL emission appears at around 372 nm (3.33 eV) in the annealed samples, suggesting a Ge donor with an activation energy of 100 meV. This value corresponds to the activation energy (102 meV) of a Ge donor estimated from the temperature dependence of carrier concentration. These results suggest that the resistivity in the 1000 °C annealed samples results from both the Zni related defects and the electrically activated Ge donor.

  9. Growth and radiation resistant properties of 2.7-2.8 μm Yb,Er:GSGG laser crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dunlu; Luo, Jianqiao; Zhang, Qingli; Xiao, Jingzhong; Liu, Wenpeng; Wang, Shangfei; Jiang, Haihe; Yin, Shaotang

    2011-03-01

    High quality Yb3+ and Er3+ co-doped Gd3Sc2Ga3O12 (Yb,Er:GSGG) crystals were grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method, and their absorption and fluorescence properties with the gamma-ray radiation have been investigated. In comparison with Er:YAG crystals, these co-doped crystals exhibit much less color-center absorption after the illumination of gamma-ray. Excited by 940 nm LD, two of the strongest fluorescence peaks were observed near 2.7 and 2.8 μm, suggesting that the Yb3+ can act as a sensitizer for Er3+ ion in Yb,Er:GSGG crystals. In particular, the fluorescence intensity of these crystals does not deteriorate by the radiation of gamma-ray even with a dose of 100 Mrad, indicating that Yb,Er:GSGG possesses high capability for enduring the gamma radiation and is a potential laser gain medium for being used under radiant environment.

  10. Two crystal structures of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase from Cryptosporidium hominis reveal protein–ligand interactions including a structural basis for observed antifolate resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Amy C.

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of the protein–ligand interactions in two crystal structures of DHFR-TS from C. hominis reveals a possible structural basis for observed antifolate resistance in C. hominis DHFR. A comparison with the structure of human DHFR reveals residue substitutions that may be exploited for the design of species-selective inhibitors. Cryptosporidium hominis is a protozoan parasite that causes acute gastrointestinal illness. There are no effective therapies for cryptosporidiosis, highlighting the need for new drug-lead discovery. An analysis of the protein–ligand interactions in two crystal structures of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) from C. hominis, determined at 2.8 and 2.87 Å resolution, reveals that the interactions of residues Ile29, Thr58 and Cys113 in the active site of C. hominis DHFR provide a possible structural basis for the observed antifolate resistance. A comparison with the structure of human DHFR reveals active-site differences that may be exploited for the design of species-selective inhibitors.

  11. Improvement of surface laser damage resistance in CsLiB6O10 crystal for high-power UV lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Tomosumi; Nakai, Kazuhito; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke; Sasaki, Takatomo; Okada, Yukikatsu; Yoshida, Hidetsugu; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Kojima, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Kunio

    2000-04-01

    Effect of ion beam etching on surface damage resistance was investigated in CsLiB6O10(CLBO) crystal. In high-power UV operation, an as-polished CLBO surface was damaged due to absorption of the polishing compound embedded inside the crystal surface. In the as-polished surface of CLBO, polishing compound ZrO2 (absorption edge is about 300 nm) was detected to a depth of 60 nm. We have removed polishing compound with ion beam etching without degrading the surface quality. The effects of polishing compound removal on surface damage were characterized for the surface laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) at 355 nm (pulse width 0.85 ns) as a function of etching depth and surface lifetime for the generation of fourth-harmonic of ND:YAG laser (266 nm, 20 ns, 4 kHz). We found an improvement of the surface damage resistance. LIDT of etched surface increased up to 15 J/cm2 as compared with that of the as-polished surface of 11 J/cm2. Etched CLBO surface also exhibits an improvement lifetime 4 times longer than that of as-polished surface.

  12. Current controlled negative differential resistance behavior in Co2FeO2BO3 and Fe3O2BO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, E. C.; Freitas, D. C.; Fier, I.; Fernandes, J. C.; Continentino, M. A.; de Oliveira, A. J. A.; Walmsley, L.

    2016-03-01

    I-V curves showing negative differential resistance (NDR) are reported for single crystals of Co2FeO2BO3 at 315 K and 290 K and for Fe3O2BO3 at 300 K, 260 K and 220 K. Resistivity measurements are presented for both systems, parallel and perpendicular to the c axis, in the range 315-120 K. The high hysteretic behavior of the I-V curves in Co2FeO2BO3 around room temperature is discussed and the heat dissipated is estimated, suggesting an increase in the sample temperature of almost 22 K for the I-V curve at 315 K and a dominant contribution of Joule self-heating for the observed NDR. In contrast, insignificant hysteresis is observed on the I-V curves of Fe3O2BO3 around room temperature. The depinning of charge order domains is suggested as the main contribution to the NDR phenomenon for Fe3O2BO3. The high reproducibility of the NDR in the Fe3O2BO3 single crystal allows its use as a low frequency oscillator, as it is demonstrated.

  13. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy utilizing phase mismatched cascaded quadratic optical interactions in nonlinear crystals

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Georgi I.; Zhi, Miaochan; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally investigated the nonlinear optical interaction between the instantaneous four-wave mixing and the cascaded quadratic frequency conversion in commonly used nonlinear optical KTP and LiNbO3 with the aim of a possible background suppression of the non-resonant background in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. The possibility of background-free heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy is investigated at the interface formed by a liquid (isopropyl alcohol) and a nonlinear crystal (LiNbO3). PMID:24514791

  14. Characterization of vertical Au/β-Ga2O3 single-crystal Schottky photodiodes with MBE-grown high-resistivity epitaxial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    X, Z. Liu; C, Yue; C, T. Xia; W, L. Zhang

    2016-01-01

    High-resistivity β-Ga2O3 thin films were grown on Si-doped n-type conductive β-Ga2O3 single crystals by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Vertical-type Schottky diodes were fabricated, and the electrical properties of the Schottky diodes were studied in this letter. The ideality factor and the series resistance of the Schottky diodes were estimated to be about 1.4 and 4.6× 106 Ω. The ionized donor concentration and the spreading voltage in the Schottky diodes region are about 4 × 1018 cm-3 and 7.6 V, respectively. The ultra-violet (UV) photo-sensitivity of the Schottky diodes was demonstrated by a low-pressure mercury lamp illumination. A photoresponsivity of 1.8 A/W and an external quantum efficiency of 8.7 × 102% were observed at forward bias voltage of 3.8 V, the proper driving voltage of read-out integrated circuit for UV camera. The gain of the Schottky diode was attributed to the existence of a potential barrier in the i-n junction between the MBE-grown highly resistive β-Ga2O3 thin films and the n-type conductive β-Ga2O3 single-crystal substrate. Project supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61223002) the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant No. 13111103700), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 2012018530003).

  15. Nucleation, growth and characterization of LiB 3O 5 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, C. V.; Kimura, H.; Miyazaki, A.; Ramasamy, P.

    2005-02-01

    Nucleation parameters of LiB 3O 5 (LBO) that crystallized from high-temperature solution using two different solvents, namely boron oxide (B 2O 3) and molybdate (MoO 3), have been studied for better understanding of the growth process. Our results showed that B 2O 3 solvent yielded a larger value of metastable zone width than that of molybdate flux, thus giving more stability to the solution. Based on our theoretical considerations, inclusion-free LBO crystals have been grown by spontaneous nucleation and TSSG techniques using B 2O 3 solvent. Variation of optical absorption coefficient and refractive indices with wavelength has been studied. Results of optical and mechanical properties showed that the grown crystals are highly transparent and possesses hardness higher than that of KTP crystal.

  16. Electron-phonon interaction and thermal boundary resistance at the crystal-amorphous interface of the phase change compound GeTe

    SciTech Connect

    Campi, Davide; Bernasconi, Marco; Donadio, Davide; Sosso, Gabriele C.; Behler, Jörg

    2015-01-07

    Phonon dispersion relations and electron-phonon coupling of hole-doped trigonal GeTe have been computed by density functional perturbation theory. This compound is a prototypical phase change material of interest for applications in phase change non-volatile memories. The calculations allowed us to estimate the electron-phonon contribution to the thermal boundary resistance at the interface between the crystalline and amorphous phases present in the device. The lattice contribution to the thermal boundary resistance has been computed by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations with an interatomic potential based on a neural network scheme. We find that the electron-phonon term contributes to the thermal boundary resistance to an extent which is strongly dependent on the concentration and mobility of the holes. Further, for measured values of the holes concentration and electrical conductivity, the electron-phonon term is larger than the contribution from the lattice. It is also shown that the presence of Ge vacancies, responsible for the p-type degenerate character of the semiconductor, strongly affects the lattice thermal conductivity of the crystal.

  17. Magneto-resistance and vortex phase diagram of BaNi0.1Fe1.9As2 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun-Chao; Yu, Yi; Pi, Li; Zhang, Yu-Heng

    2014-12-01

    The transition from vortex glass to a liquid phase is studied in BaNi0.1Fe1.9As2 single crystal with Tc = 19.4 K by magneto-resistance measurements. The resistivity curves are measured in magnetic fields in a range of 0 T-13 T for H ‖ c and H⊥c. Good scalings for all values of resistivity ρ(H, T) and the effective pinning potential U0 (H, T) are obtained with the modified vortex glass theory by using the critical exponents s and H0. Phase diagrams for H ‖ c and H⊥c are determined based on the obtained vortex glass temperature Tg, the vortex dimensionality crossover temperature T*, and the upper critical magnetic field Hc2. Our results suggest that both below and above 5 T, single vortex pinning co-exists with collective creep, and collective creep is dominant. There is a narrower vortex liquid region for H⊥c than for H ‖ c in the vortex phase diagram, which may originate from a stronger pinning force.

  18. Effect of high pressure on the electrical resistivity of optimally doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ single crystals with unidirectional planar defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovk, R. V.; Vovk, N. R.; Khadzhai, G. Ya.; Goulatis, I. L.; Chroneos, A.

    2013-08-01

    In the present work the effect of hydrostatic pressure up to 10 kbar on in-plane electrical resistivity of well-structured YBa2Cu3O7-δ (δ<0.15, Тс≈91 K, ΔТс≈0.3 K) single crystals was investigated. The influence of the twin boundaries on the electrical resistivity was minimized. The resistivities temperature dependences in the interval Тс up to 300 K can be approximated by taking into account the linear term at high temperatures and the fluctuation conductivity (Maki-Thompson model) near Тс. The parameters of the linear dependence of R(T) are decreasing as the pressure is increasing. Тс increases linearly when the pressure increases with the derivative dTc/dP≈0.080 K/kbar. Among the Maki-Thompson model parameters the inter-layer distance, d, can be considered to be independent from pressure, the transverse coherence length, ξc(0)∼0.1d.

  19. Electron-phonon interaction and thermal boundary resistance at the crystal-amorphous interface of the phase change compound GeTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campi, Davide; Donadio, Davide; Sosso, Gabriele C.; Behler, Jörg; Bernasconi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Phonon dispersion relations and electron-phonon coupling of hole-doped trigonal GeTe have been computed by density functional perturbation theory. This compound is a prototypical phase change material of interest for applications in phase change non-volatile memories. The calculations allowed us to estimate the electron-phonon contribution to the thermal boundary resistance at the interface between the crystalline and amorphous phases present in the device. The lattice contribution to the thermal boundary resistance has been computed by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations with an interatomic potential based on a neural network scheme. We find that the electron-phonon term contributes to the thermal boundary resistance to an extent which is strongly dependent on the concentration and mobility of the holes. Further, for measured values of the holes concentration and electrical conductivity, the electron-phonon term is larger than the contribution from the lattice. It is also shown that the presence of Ge vacancies, responsible for the p-type degenerate character of the semiconductor, strongly affects the lattice thermal conductivity of the crystal.

  20. Tunable Stokes laser generation based on the stimulated polariton scattering in KTiOPO₄ crystal.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shiqi; Chen, Xiaohan; Cong, Zhenhua; Zhang, Xingyu; Qin, Zengguang; Liu, Zhaojun; Wang, Weitao; Li, Ning; Fu, Qiang; Lu, Qingming; Zhang, Shaojun

    2015-07-27

    The tunable Stokes laser characteristics based on the stimulated polariton scattering in KTiOPO4 (KTP) crystal and the intracavity frequency doubling properties for the Stokes laser are investigated for the first time. When the pumping laser wavelength is 1064.2 nm, and the angle between the pumping and Stokes beams outside the KTP crystal changes from 1.875° to 6.750°, the obtained tunable Stokes laser wavelength varies discontinuously from 1076.5 nm to 1091.4 nm with four gaps. When the pumping pulse energy is 120.0 mJ, the maximum Stokes pulse energy is 46.5 mJ obtained at the wavelength of 1086.6 nm. By inserting a LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal into the cavity, the obtained frequency-doubled laser wavelength is inconsecutive tunable from 538.5 nm to 543.8 nm. The maximum frequency-doubled laser pulse energy is 15.9 mJ at the wavelength of 543.5 nm. PMID:26367675

  1. INFLUENCE OF INTRINSIC PINNING ON THE RESISTIVE PROPERTIES OF YBa2Cu3O7-δ SINGLE CRYSTALS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovk, R. V.; Samoilov, A. V.; Goulatis, I. L.; Chroneos, A.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics of vortex matter in YBa2Cu3O7-δ single crystal with unidirectional twin boundaries is studied experimentally in a wide range of velocities of the magnetic flux in a tilted magnetic field. It is determined that with the orientation of the magnetic field vector in the locality of the ab-plane, the dynamics of the magnetic flux near the melting temperature of the vortex lattice can be described by the Kim-Anderson model and as the temperature is lowered, by the theory of collective pinning on small-scale defects or by the vortex glass model. The intrinsic pinning caused by the layered crystal structure of the material has an impact on the dynamics of magnetic flux and this effect increases with the decreasing of the temperature.

  2. Effect of Operating Parameters and Chemical Additives on Crystal Habit and Specific Cake Resistance of Zinc Hydroxide Precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise

    1999-08-01

    The effect of process parameters and chemical additives on the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates was investigated. The ability of a slurry to be filtered is dependent upon the particle habit of the solid and the particle habit is influenced by certain process variables. The process variables studied include neutralization temperature, agitation type, and alkalinity source used for neutralization. Several commercially available chemical additives advertised to aid in solid/liquid separation were also examined in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation. A statistical analysis revealed that the neutralization temperature and the source of alkalinity were statistically significant in influencing the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates in this study. The type of agitation did not significantly effect the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates. The use of chemical additives in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation had a favorable effect on the filterability. The morphology of the hydroxide precipitates was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Assessment of 4H-SiC epitaxial layers and high resistivity bulk crystals for radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Krishna C.; Muzykov, Peter G.; Chaudhuri, Sandeep K.; Terry, J. R.

    2012-10-01

    We present results of structural, electrical, and defect characterization of 4H-SiC epitaxial layers and bulk crystals and show performance of the radiation detectors fabricated from these materials. The crystal quality was evaluated by x-ray diffraction (XRD) rocking curve measurements, electron beam induced current (EBIC) imaging, and defect delineating etching in conjunction with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Studies of the electrically active intrinsic defects and impurities were conducted using thermally stimulated current (TSC) measurements in a wide temperature range of 94 - 750K. The results are correlated with the capability of bulk crystals and epitaxial layers for the detection of α-particles, low to high energy x-rays and gamma rays. High barrier rectifying Schottky diodes have been fabricated and tested. The epitaxial 4H-SiC radiation detectors exhibited low leakage current (< 1 nA) at ~ 200 V operating voltage up to 200 C. The soft x-ray responsivity measurements performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) showed significantly improved characteristics compared to commercially-available SiC UV photodiode detectors.

  4. Characterization of high-resistivity CdTe and Cd0.9Zn0.1Te crystals grown by Bridgman method for radiation detector applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Krishna C.; Krishna, Ramesh M.; Pak, Rahmi O.; Mannan, Mohammad A.

    2014-09-01

    CdTe and Cd0.9Zn0.1Te (CZT) crystals have been studied extensively for various applications including x- and γ-ray imaging and high energy radiation detectors. The crystals were grown from zone refined ultra-pure precursor materials using a vertical Bridgman furnace. The growth process has been monitored, controlled, and optimized by a computer simulation and modeling program developed in our laboratory. The grown crystals were thoroughly characterized after cutting wafers from the ingots and processed by chemo-mechanical polishing (CMP). The infrared (IR) transmission images of the post-treated CdTe and CZT crystals showed average Te inclusion size of ~10 μm for CdTe and ~8 μm for CZT crystal. The etch pit density was ≤ 5×104 cm-2 for CdTe and ≤ 3×104 cm-2 for CZT. Various planar and Frisch collar detectors were fabricated and evaluated. From the current-voltage measurements, the electrical resistivity was estimated to be ~ 1.5×1010 Ω-cm for CdTe and 2-5×1011 Ω-cm for CZT. The Hecht analysis of electron and hole mobility-lifetime products (μτe and μτh) showed μτe = 2×10-3 cm2/V (μτh = 8×10-5 cm2/V) and 3-6×10-3 cm2/V (μτh = 4- 6×10-5 cm2/V) for CdTe and CZT, respectively. Detectors in single pixel, Frisch collar, and coplanar grid geometries were fabricated. Detectors in Frisch grid and guard-ring configuration were found to exhibit energy resolution of 1.4% and 2.6 %, respectively, for 662 keV gamma rays. Assessments of the detector performance have been carried out also using 241Am (60 keV) showing energy resolution of 4.2% FWHM.

  5. Chloroplast-targeted expression of recombinant crystal-protein gene in cotton: an unconventional combat with resistant pests.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Sarfraz; Mohamed, Bahaeldeen Babiker; Shehzad, Kamran; Jamal, Adil; Shahid, Muhammad Naveed; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Husnain, Tayyab

    2013-07-10

    Plants transformed with single Bt gene are liable to develop insect resistance and this has already been reported in a number of studies carried out around the world where Bt cotton was cultivated on commercial scale. Later, it was envisaged to transform plants with more than one Bt genes in order to combat with resistant larvae. This approach seems valid as various Bt genes possess different binding domains which could delay the likely hazards of insect resistance against a particular Bt toxin. But it is difficult under field conditions to develop homozygous plants expressing all Bt genes equally after many generations without undergoing recombination effects. A number of researches claiming to transform plants from three to seven transgenes in a single plant were reported during the last decade but none has yet applied for patent of homozygous transgenic lines. A better strategy might be to use hybrid-Bt gene(s) modified for improved lectin-binding domains to boost Bt receptor sites in insect midgut. These recombinant-Bt gene(s) would express different lectin domains in a single polypeptide and it is relatively easy to develop homozygous transgenic lines under field conditions. Enhanced chloroplast-localized expression of hybrid-Bt gene would leave no room for insects to develop resistance. We devised and successfully applied this strategy in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and data up to T3 generation showed that our transgenic cotton plants were displaying enhanced chloroplast-targeted Cry1Ac-RB expression. Laboratory and field bioassays gave promising results against American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), pink bollworm (Pictinophora scutigera) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) that otherwise, were reported to have evolved resistance against Cry1Ac toxin. Elevated levels of hybrid-Bt toxin were confirmed by ELISA of chloroplast-enriched protein samples extracted from leaves of transgenic cotton lines. While, localization of recombinant Cry1Ac-RB protein in

  6. Modification of superconducting and resistive properties of HoBa2Cu3O7‑δ single crystals under application-removal of high hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovk, R. V.; Khadzhai, G. Ya.; Dobrovolskiy, O. V.; Kamchatna, S. N.; Chroneos, A.

    2016-06-01

    The influence of a high hydrostatic pressure on the basal-plane electrical resistance along the twin boundaries in underdoped HoBa2Cu3O7‑δ single crystals is investigated. An enhancement of the phase segregation caused by the high-pressure-induced redistribution of the labile oxygen has been revealed. The temperature dependences of the electrical resistance above Tc can be approximated well within the framework of the model of s ‑ d electron-phonon scattering.

  7. Irreversibility of the martensitic transformation in Ni-Mn-In single crystal studied by resistivity under pressure and in situ optical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcar, L.; Courtois, P.; Crouigneau, G.; Debray, J.; Bourgault, D.

    2014-10-01

    Optical observations under uniaxial pressure and in-situ resistivity measurements were undertaken in Ni-Mn-In single crystals as a function of temperature to study the thermal hysteresis of the martensitic transformation. The irreversibility of the isothermal transformation under pressure was clearly observed, and it was possible to stabilize the martensitic phase with large and coarsen variants by applying a pressure at a stable temperature Ms reached during cooling down (cooling branch of the hysteresis). When the uniaxial pressure is applied in the heating branch of the hysteresis, the martensitic transformation occurs in a complete reversible way as the hysteresis delimitates the metastability of the martensitic/austenitic phases and the energy barrier to overcome for the transformation. This procedure leads to a piezoresistance as large as 200%.

  8. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of N-acetylmannosamine kinase from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    North, Rachel A; Seizova, Simona; Stampfli, Anja; Kessans, Sarah A; Suzuki, Hironori; Griffin, Michael D W; Kvansakul, Marc; Dobson, Renwick C J

    2014-05-01

    N-Acetylmannosamine kinase (EC 2.7.1.60) is involved in the catabolism of sialic acid for many bacterial pathogens implicated in human disease such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae and V. vulnificus. Interestingly, some human commensals and bacterial pathogens can scavenge sialic acids from their surrounding environment and degrade them as a source of carbon, nitrogen and energy. This process requires a cluster of genes known as the `Nan-Nag cluster', which have proven to be essential for S. aureus growth on sialic acids, suggesting that the pathway is a viable antimicrobial drug target. The enzyme N-acetylmannosamine kinase is involved in the catabolism of sialic acid, transferring a phosphate group from adenosine-5'-triphosphate to the C6 position of N-acetylmannosamine to generate N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate. The gene was cloned into an appropriate expression vector; recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells and purified via anion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. Purified N-acetylmannosamine kinase was screened for crystallization. The best crystal diffracted to a resolution of beyond 2.6 Å in space group P2. Understanding the structural nature of this enzyme from methicillin-resistant S. aureus will provide insights necessary for the development of future antimicrobials. PMID:24817729

  9. One-step hydrothermal crystallization of a layered double hydroxide/alumina bilayer film on aluminum and its corrosion resistance properties.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Sailong; Zhao, Lili; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Fazhi; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

    2009-09-01

    A zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxide (ZnAl-LDH)/alumina bilayer film has been fabricated on an aluminum substrate by a one-step hydrothermal crystallization method. The LDH film was uniform and compact. XRD patterns and SEM images showed that the LDH film was highly oriented with the c-axis of the crystallites parallel to the substrate surface. The alumina layer existing between the LDH film and the substrate was formed prior to the LDH during the crystallization process. Polarization measurements showed that the bilayer film exhibited a low corrosion current density value of 10(-8) A/cm(2), which means that the LDH/alumina bilayer film can effectively protect aluminum from corrosion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the impedance of the bilayer was 16 MOmega, meaning that the film served as a passive layer with a high charge transfer resistance. The adhesion between the film and the substrate was very strong which enhances its potential for practical application. PMID:19441823

  10. The simultaneous enhancement of photorefraction and optical damage resistance in MgO and Bi2O3 co-doped LiNbO3 crystals.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dahuai; Kong, Yongfa; Liu, Shiguo; Chen, Muling; Chen, Shaolin; Zhang, Ling; Rupp, Romano; Xu, Jingjun

    2016-01-01

    For a long time that optical damage was renamed as photorefraction, here we find that the optical damage resistance and photorefraction can be simultaneously enhanced in MgO and Bi2O3 co-doped LiNbO3 (LN:Bi,Mg). The photorefractive response time of LN:Bi,Mg was shortened to 170 ms while the photorefractive sensitivity reached up to 21 cm(2)/J. Meanwhile, LN:Bi,Mg crystals could withstand a light intensity higher than 10(6)  W/cm(2) without apparent optical damage. Our experimental results indicate that photorefraction doesn't equal to optical damage. The underground mechanism was analyzed and attributed to that diffusion dominates the transport process of charge carriers, that is to say photorefraction causes only slight optical damage under diffusion mechanism, which is very important for the practical applications of photorefractive crystals, such as in holographic storage, integrated optics and 3D display. PMID:26837261

  11. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate 2-epimerase from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    North, Rachel A; Kessans, Sarah A; Griffin, Michael D W; Watson, Andrew J A; Fairbanks, Antony J; Dobson, Renwick C J

    2014-05-01

    Sialic acids are one of the most important carbohydrate classes in biology. Some bacterial pathogens can scavenge sialic acids from their surrounding environment and degrade them as a source of carbon, nitrogen and energy. This sequestration and subsequent catabolism of sialic acid require a cluster of genes known as the `Nan-Nag' cluster. The enzymes coded by these genes are important for pathogen colonization and persistence. Importantly, the Nan-Nag genes have proven to be essential for Staphylococcus aureus growth on sialic acids, suggesting that the pathway is a viable antibiotic drug target. The enzyme N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate 2-epimerase is involved in the catabolism of sialic acid; specifically, the enzyme converts N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate into N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate. The gene was cloned into an appropriate expression vector, and recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells and purified via a three-step procedure. Purified N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate 2-epimerase was screened for crystallization. The best crystal diffracted to a resolution of beyond 1.84 Å in space group P21212. Understanding the structural nature of this enzyme from methicillin-resistant S. aureus will provide us with the insights necessary for the development of future antibiotics. PMID:24817730

  12. The simultaneous enhancement of photorefraction and optical damage resistance in MgO and Bi2O3 co-doped LiNbO3 crystals

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Dahuai; Kong, Yongfa; Liu, Shiguo; Chen, Muling; Chen, Shaolin; Zhang, Ling; Rupp, Romano; Xu, Jingjun

    2016-01-01

    For a long time that optical damage was renamed as photorefraction, here we find that the optical damage resistance and photorefraction can be simultaneously enhanced in MgO and Bi2O3 co-doped LiNbO3 (LN:Bi,Mg). The photorefractive response time of LN:Bi,Mg was shortened to 170 ms while the photorefractive sensitivity reached up to 21 cm2/J. Meanwhile, LN:Bi,Mg crystals could withstand a light intensity higher than 106  W/cm2 without apparent optical damage. Our experimental results indicate that photorefraction doesn’t equal to optical damage. The underground mechanism was analyzed and attributed to that diffusion dominates the transport process of charge carriers, that is to say photorefraction causes only slight optical damage under diffusion mechanism, which is very important for the practical applications of photorefractive crystals, such as in holographic storage, integrated optics and 3D display. PMID:26837261

  13. Bio-inspired citrate-functionalized apatite thin films crystallized on Ti-6Al-4V implants pre-coated with corrosion resistant layers.

    PubMed

    Delgado-López, José Manuel; Iafisco, Michele; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Isaac; Gómez-Morales, Jaime

    2013-10-01

    In this paper the crystallization of a bioinspired citrate-functionalized apatite (cit-Ap) thin film (thickness about 2μm) on Ti-6Al-4V supports pre-coated with bioactive and corrosion resistant buffer layer of silicon nitride (Si3N4), silicon carbide (SiC) or titanium nitride (TiN) is reported. The apatitic coatings were produced by a new coating technique based on the induction heating of the implants immersed in a flowing calcium-citrate-phosphate solution at pH11. The influence of the buffer layers and the surface roughness of the substrate on the chemical-physical features and adhesion of the cit-Ap films were investigated. The best plasticity, compactness and adherence properties have been found in the Ap layer grown on Si3N4, followed by the Ap grown on SiC and TiN, respectively. The adhesion property was likely related to the roughness of the buffered substrates, whereas the compactness and plasticity were closely related to the operating conditions during the Ap crystallization (flow rate of the solution and increase of temperature) rather than to the nature of the buffer layer. PMID:23648093

  14. Effect of praseodymium on the electrical resistance of YВа2Сu3О7-δ single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovk, R. V.; Vovk, N. R.; Khadzhai, G. Ya.; Goulatis, I. L.; Chroneos, A.

    2014-07-01

    The electrical resistivity in the ab-plane of the Y1-yPryВа2Сu3О7-δ single crystals with high degree of perfection in the interval of Тc - 300 K was investigated. The increasing of praseodymium content leads to the reduction of the critical temperature (Tc) from 92 to 30 K. The experimental results can be approximated by the expression, taking into account the scattering of electrons by phonons, defects, the fluctuation conductivity in the 3D Aslamazov-Larkin model, as well as the transition to a "semiconductor" type behavior of the resistivity at the high praseodymium concentrations. The concentration dependences of all fitting parameters indicate a structural transition in the region 0.35≤у≤0.43. In particular, the Debye temperature changes in this range from 350 to 550 K, and the transverse coherence length passes through a maximum ξС(0)≈5 Å. The concentration dependence of the critical temperature testifies the d-pairing of the BCS model.

  15. Solid-state YVO4/Nd:YVO4/KTP green laser system for the generation of subnanosecond pulses with adjustable kilohertz repetition rate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijuan; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Jia; Wang, Yonggang

    2013-09-20

    A solid-state green laser generating subnanosecond pulses with adjustable kilohertz repetition rate is presented. This pulse laser system is composed of a Q-switched and mode-locked YVO(4)/Nd:YVO(4)/KTP laser simultaneously modulated by an electro-optic (EO) modulator and a central semiconductor saturable absorption mirror. Because the repetition rate of the Q-switched envelope in this laser depends on the modulation frequency of the EO modulator, so long as the pulsewidth of the Q-switched envelope is shorter than the cavity roundtrip transmit time, i.e., the time interval of two neighboring mode-locking pulses, only one mode-locking pulse exists underneath a Q-switched envelope, resulting in the generation of subnanosecond pulses with kilohertz repetition rate. The experimental results show that the pulsewidth of subnanosecond pulses decreases with increasing pump power and the shortest pulse generated at 1 kHz was 450 ps with pulse energy as high as 252 μJ, corresponding to a peak power of 560 kW. In addition, this laser was confirmed to have high stability, and the pulse repetition rate could be freely adjusted from 1 to 4 kHz. PMID:24085177

  16. Hydrogen ion-implantation induced low resistive layer in KNbO3 bulk single crystal: Evaluation by elastic recoil detection analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinkawa, A.; Shibasaki, Y.; Nishimura, T.; Tanuma, C.; Kuriyama, K.

    2016-03-01

    Origins of low resistivity in H-ion implanted KNbO3 bulk single crystals are studied by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and Van der Pauw methods. The H-ion implantation (peak ion fluence: 5.0 × 1015 cm-2) into KNbO3 is performed using a 500 keV implanter. The sheet resistance decreases from ∼108 Ω/□ for an un-implanted KNbO3 sample to 2.33 × 105 Ω/□ for as-implanted, 2.29 × 105 Ω/□ for 100 °C annealed, and 4.25 × 105 Ω/□ for 150 °C annealed samples, respectively. The ERDA experiment using the 1.5 MeV-4He+ beam can evaluate hydrogen from the surface to around 60 nm. The hydrogen concentration near the surface estimated using the 1.5 MeV helium beam is 5.1 × 1014 cm-2 for un-implanted KNbO3 sample, 5.6 × 1014 cm-2 for as-implanted, 3.4 × 1014 cm-2 for 150 °C annealed samples, respectively, indicating that a part of hydrogen is diffused out by annealing. The low resistive layer induced in H-ion implanted KNbO3 suggests the existence of a shallow energy level related to the complex defect consisting of hydrogen interstitial and the proton induced defect such as oxygen vacancy.

  17. Radio frequency surface resistance of Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O films on metal and single-crystal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, P. N.; Reeves, G. A.; Elliott, N. E.; Cooke, D. W.; Gray, E. R.; Houlton, R. J.; Brown, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    Films of Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu were dc magnetron sputtered from a single multielement target. The films were deposited onto substrates of: (1) magnesium oxide, (2) a silver based alloy (Consil 995), (3) a nickel based alloy (Haynes 230), and (4) buffer layers of barium fluoride or copper oxide on Consil. To form superconducting phases, post-deposition anneals were made on these films using an alumina crucible with an over pressure of thallium and flowing oxygen. After annealing, the film phases were determined using x-ray diffraction. The film surface resistances (Rs) were measured at 22 GHz in a TE011 cavity.

  18. Radio frequency surface resistance of Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O films on metal and single-crystal substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Arendt, P.N.; Reeves, G.A.; Elliott, N.E.; Cooke, D.W.; Gray, E.R.; Houlton, R.J.; Brown, D.R. )

    1990-01-25

    Films of Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu were dc magnetron sputtered from a single multielement target. The films were deposited onto substrates of: (1) magnesium oxide, (2) a silver based alloy (Consil 995), (3) a nickel based alloy (Haynes 230), and (4) buffer layers of barium fluoride or copper oxide on Consil. To form superconducting phases, post-deposition anneals were made on these films using an alumina crucible with an over pressure of thallium and flowing oxygen. After annealing, the film phases were determined using x-ray diffraction. The film surface resistances (Rs) were measured at 22 GHz in a TE{sub 011} cavity.

  19. Comment on "Refractive indices of biaxial crystals evaluated from the refractive indices ellipsoid equation"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Rodríguez, Cecilio; Fragoso-López, Ana Belén

    2014-02-01

    In 2007 Yin, Zhang and Tian [1] [Yin et al., 2007] derived the expressions of the refractive indices of biaxial crystals evaluated from the refractive indices ellipsoid equation. In the past we have researched about the simultaneous measurement of birefringence and optical activity in different crystals [2] [Hernández-Rodríguez et al., 2000], [3] [Hernández-Rodríguez and Gómez-Garrido, 2000], [4] [Herreros-Cedrés et al., 2003], [5] [Herreros-Cedrés et al., 2005] and [6] [Herreros-Cedrés et al., 2007], and recently, when we used their methods for the study of nonlinear crystals such as KTiOAsO4 (KTA) and KTiOPO4 (KTP), we found some errors in some expressions in their paper which were used by other authors [7] [Gao et al., 2003].

  20. Study program to improve the open-circuit voltage of low resistivity single crystal silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnucci, J. A.; Matthei, K. W.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a 14 month program to improve the open circuit voltage of low resistivity silicon solar cells are described. The approach was based on ion implantation in 0.1- to 10.0-ohm-cm float-zone silicon. As a result of the contract effort, open circuit voltages as high as 645 mV (AMO 25 C) were attained by high dose phosphorus implantation followed by furnace annealing and simultaneous SiO2 growth. One key element was to investigate the effects of bandgap narrowing caused by high doping concentrations in the junction layer. Considerable effort was applied to optimization of implant parameters, selection of furnace annealing techniques, and utilization of pulsed electron beam annealing to minimize thermal process-induced defects in the completed solar cells.

  1. Crystal structure and dimerization equilibria of PcoC, a methionine-rich copper resistance protein from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Wernimont, A.K.; Huffman, D.L.; Finney, L.A.; Demeler, B.; O'Halloran, T.V.; Rosenzweig, A.C.

    2010-03-08

    PcoC is a soluble periplasmic protein encoded by the plasmid-born pco copper resistance operon of Escherichia coli. Like PcoA, a multicopper oxidase encoded in the same locus and its chromosomal homolog CueO, PcoC contains unusual methionine rich sequences. Although essential for copper resistance, the functions of PcoC, PcoA, and their conserved methionine-rich sequences are not known. Similar methionine motifs observed in eukaryotic copper transporters have been proposed to bind copper, but there are no precedents for such metal binding sites in structurally characterized proteins. The high-resolution structures of apo PcoC, determined for both the native and selenomethionine-containing proteins, reveal a seven-stranded barrel with the methionines unexpectedly housed on a solvent-exposed loop. Several potential metal-binding sites can be discerned by comparing the structures to spectroscopic data reported for copper-loaded PcoC. In the native structure, the methionine loop interacts with the same loop on a second molecule in the asymmetric unit. In the selenomethionine structure, the methionine loops are more exposed, forming hydrophobic patches on the protein surface. These two arrangements suggest that the methionine motifs might function in protein-protein interactions between PcoC molecules or with other methionine-rich proteins such as PcoA. Analytical ultracentrifugation data indicate that a weak monomer-dimer equilibrium exists in solution for the apo protein. Dimerization is significantly enhanced upon binding Cu(I) with a measured {Delta}({Delta}G{sup o}) {le} -8.0 kJ/mole, suggesting that copper might bind at the dimer interface.

  2. The Crystal Structure of Peroxiredoxin Asp f3 Provides Mechanistic Insight into Oxidative Stress Resistance and Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Hillmann, Falk; Bagramyan, Karine; Straßburger, Maria; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Hong, Teresa B; Bzymek, Krzysztof P; Williams, John C; Brakhage, Axel A; Kalkum, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis and other fungal infections occur in immunocompromised individuals, including patients who received blood-building stem cell transplants, patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), and others. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by immune cells, which incidentally is defective in CGD patients, is considered to be a fundamental process in inflammation and antifungal immune response. Here we show that the peroxiredoxin Asp f3 of Aspergillus fumigatus inactivates ROS. We report the crystal structure and the catalytic mechanism of Asp f3, a two-cysteine type peroxiredoxin. The latter exhibits a thioredoxin fold and a homodimeric structure with two intermolecular disulfide bonds in its oxidized state. Replacement of the Asp f3 cysteines with serine residues retained its dimeric structure, but diminished Asp f3's peroxidase activity, and extended the alpha-helix with the former peroxidatic cysteine residue C61 by six residues. The asp f3 deletion mutant was sensitive to ROS, and this phenotype was rescued by ectopic expression of Asp f3. Furthermore, we showed that deletion of asp f3 rendered A. fumigatus avirulent in a mouse model of pulmonary aspergillosis. The conserved expression of Asp f3 homologs in medically relevant molds and yeasts prompts future evaluation of Asp f3 as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27624005

  3. Superior environment resistance of quartz crystal microbalance with anatase TiO2/ZnO nanorod composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Wei; Wei, Li; Shaodan, Wang; Yu, Bai

    2015-08-01

    The precise measurement of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in the detection and weighing of organic gas molecules is achieved due to excellent superhydrophobicity of a deposited film composite. Photocatalysis is utilized as a method for the self-cleaning of organic molecules on the QCM for extended long-term stability in the precision of the instrument. In this paper, ZnO nanorod array is prepared via in situ methods on the QCM coated with Au film via hydrothermal process. Subsequently, a TiO2/ZnO composite film is synthesized by surface modification with TiO2 via sol-gel methods. Results show the anatase TiO2/ZnO nanorod composite film with a sharp, pencil-like structure exhibiting excellent superhydrophobicity (water contact angle of 155°), non-sticking water properties, and an autonomous cleaning property under UV irradiation. The anatase TiO2/ZnO nanorod composite film facilitates the precise measurement and extended lifetime of the QCM for the detection of organic gas molecules.

  4. Photothermal method for absorption measurements in anisotropic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubenvoll, M.; Schäfer, B.; Mann, K.; Novak, O.

    2016-02-01

    A measurement system for quantitative determination of both surface and bulk contributions to the photo-thermal absorption has been extended to anisotropic optical media. It bases upon a highly sensitive Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, accomplishing precise on-line monitoring of wavefront deformations of a collimated test beam transmitted perpendicularly through the laser-irradiated side of a cuboid sample. Caused by the temperature dependence of the refractive index as well as thermal expansion, the initially plane wavefront of the test beam is distorted. Sign and magnitude depend on index change and expansion. By comparison with thermal theory, a calibration of the measurement is possible, yielding a quantitative absolute measure of bulk and surface absorption losses from the transient wavefront distortion. Results for KTP and BBO single crystals are presented.

  5. Impact of composition and crystallization behavior of atomic layer deposited strontium titanate films on the resistive switching of Pt/STO/TiN devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, N.; Longo, V.; Rodenbücher, C.; Roozeboom, F.; Kessels, W. M. M.; Szot, K.; Waser, R.; Hoffmann-Eifert, S.

    2014-08-01

    The resistive switching (RS) properties of strontium titanate (Sr1+xTi1+yO3+(x+2y), STO) based metal-oxide-metal structures prepared from industrial compatible processes have been investigated focusing on the effects of composition, microstructure, and device size. Metastable perovskite STO films were prepared on Pt-coated Si substrates utilizing plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) from cyclopentadienyl-based metal precursors and oxygen plasma at 350 °C, and a subsequent annealing at 600 °C in nitrogen. Films of 15 nm and 12 nm thickness with three different compositions [Sr]/([Sr] + [Ti]) of 0.57 (Sr-rich STO), 0.50 (stoichiometric STO), and 0.46 (Ti-rich STO) were integrated into Pt/STO/TiN crossbar structures with sizes ranging from 100 μm2 to 0.01 μm2. Nano-structural characterizations revealed a clear effect of the composition of the as-deposited STO films on their crystallization behavior and thus on the final microstructures. Local current maps obtained by local-conductivity atomic force microscopy were in good agreement with local changes of the films' microstructures. Correspondingly, also the initial leakage currents of the Pt/STO/TiN devices were affected by the STO compositions and by the films' microstructures. An electroforming process set the Pt/STO/TiN devices into the ON-state, while the forming voltage decreased with increasing initial leakage current. After a RESET process under opposite voltage has been performed, the Pt/STO/TiN devices showed a stable bipolar RS behavior with non-linear current-voltage characteristics for the high (HRS) and the low (LRS) resistance states. The obtained switching polarity and nearly area independent LRS values agree with a filamentary character of the RS behavior according to the valence change mechanism. The devices of 0.01 μm2 size with a 12 nm polycrystalline stoichiometric STO film were switched at a current compliance of 50 μA with voltages of about ±1.0 V between resistance states of about

  6. Impact of composition and crystallization behavior of atomic layer deposited strontium titanate films on the resistive switching of Pt/STO/TiN devices

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam, N.; Rodenbücher, C.; Szot, K.; Waser, R.; Hoffmann-Eifert, S.; Longo, V.; Roozeboom, F.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2014-08-14

    The resistive switching (RS) properties of strontium titanate (Sr{sub 1+x}Ti{sub 1+y}O{sub 3+(x+2y)}, STO) based metal-oxide-metal structures prepared from industrial compatible processes have been investigated focusing on the effects of composition, microstructure, and device size. Metastable perovskite STO films were prepared on Pt-coated Si substrates utilizing plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) from cyclopentadienyl-based metal precursors and oxygen plasma at 350 °C, and a subsequent annealing at 600 °C in nitrogen. Films of 15 nm and 12 nm thickness with three different compositions [Sr]/([Sr] + [Ti]) of 0.57 (Sr-rich STO), 0.50 (stoichiometric STO), and 0.46 (Ti-rich STO) were integrated into Pt/STO/TiN crossbar structures with sizes ranging from 100 μm{sup 2} to 0.01 μm{sup 2}. Nano-structural characterizations revealed a clear effect of the composition of the as-deposited STO films on their crystallization behavior and thus on the final microstructures. Local current maps obtained by local-conductivity atomic force microscopy were in good agreement with local changes of the films' microstructures. Correspondingly, also the initial leakage currents of the Pt/STO/TiN devices were affected by the STO compositions and by the films' microstructures. An electroforming process set the Pt/STO/TiN devices into the ON-state, while the forming voltage decreased with increasing initial leakage current. After a RESET process under opposite voltage has been performed, the Pt/STO/TiN devices showed a stable bipolar RS behavior with non-linear current-voltage characteristics for the high (HRS) and the low (LRS) resistance states. The obtained switching polarity and nearly area independent LRS values agree with a filamentary character of the RS behavior according to the valence change mechanism. The devices of 0.01 μm{sup 2} size with a 12 nm polycrystalline stoichiometric STO film were switched at a current compliance of 50 μA with

  7. Efficient generation of 1096 nm and 1572 nm by simultaneous stimulated Raman scattering and optical parametric oscillation in one KTiOPO4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. T.; He, J. L.; Liu, S. D.; Yang, J. F.; Zhang, B. T.; Liu, F. Q.

    2011-04-01

    The simultaneous stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and optical parametric oscillation (OPO) for the 1064 nm radiation were realized in one KTP crystal for the first time. At an incident diode laser power of 8.6 W, the maximum average output powers at 1096 nm and 1572 nm were 1.1 W and 0.36 W, respectively. The conversion efficiency to Stokes with respect to the incident diode power was as high as 12.8%. The corresponding minimum pulse widths at 1096 nm and 1572 nm were 2.8 and 1.1 ns, respectively.

  8. Expression, purification, crystallization, data collection and preliminary biochemical characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Seetharamappa, Jaldappagari; Oke, Muse; Liu, Huanting; McMahon, Stephen A.; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Carter, Lester; Dorward, Mark; Zawadzki, Michal; Overton, Ian M.; Niekirk, C. A. Johannes van; Graham, Shirley; Botting, Catherine H.; Taylor, Garry L.; White, Malcolm F.; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Coote, Peter J.; Naismith, James H.

    2007-05-01

    As part of work on S. aureus, the crystallization of Sar2028, a protein that is upregulated in MRSA, is reported. Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase with a molecular weight of 48 168 Da, was overexpressed in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared with a methicillin-sensitive strain. The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The protein crystallized in a primitive orthorhombic Laue group with unit-cell parameters a = 83.6, b = 91.3, c = 106.0 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Analysis of the systematic absences along the three principal axes indicated the space group to be P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. A complete data set was collected to 2.5 Å resolution.

  9. Microwave emission by nonlinear crystals irradiated with a high-intensity, mode-locked laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghesani, A. F.; Braggio, C.; Guarise, M.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the experimental investigation of the efficiency of some nonlinear crystals to generate microwave (RF) radiation as a result of optical rectification (OR) when irradiated with intense pulse trains delivered by a mode-locked laser at 1064 nm. We have investigated lithium triborate (LBO), lithium niobate (LiNbO3), zinc selenide (ZnSe), and also potassium titanyl orthophosphate (KTP) for comparison with previous measurements. The results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions based on the form of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor. For some crystals we investigated also the second harmonic generation (SHG) to cross check the theoretical model. We confirm the theoretical prediction that OR leads to the production of higher order RF harmonics that are overtones of the laser repetition rate.

  10. Interplane resistivity of underdoped single crystals (Ba1-xKx)Fe2As2(0<= x < 0.34)

    SciTech Connect

    Tanatar, M A; Straszheim, W E; Kim, Hyunsoo; Murphy, J; Spyrison, N; Blomberg, E C; Cho, K; Reid, J -Ph; Shen, Bing; Taillefer, Louis; Wen, Hai-Hu; Prozorov, R

    2014-04-01

    The temperature-dependent interplane resistivity ρc(T) was measured in the hole-doped iron arsenide superconductor (Ba1-xKx)Fe2As2 over a doping range from parent compound to optimal doping at Tc≈38 K, 0≤x≤0.34. The measurements were undertaken on high-quality single crystals grown from FeAs flux. The coupled magnetic/structural transition at TSM leads to a clear accelerated decrease of ρc(T) on cooling in samples with Tc<26 K (x<0.25). This decrease in the hole-doped material is in notable contrast to the increase in ρc(T) in the electron-doped Ba(Fe1-xCox)Fe 2As2 and isoelectron-substituted BaFe2(As1-xPx)2. TSM decreases very sharply with doping, dropping from Ts=71 K to zero on increase of Tc from approximately 25 to 27 K. ρc(T) becomes linear in T close to optimal doping. The broad crossover maximum in ρc(T), found in the parent BaFe2As2 at around Tmax~200 K, shifts to higher temperature ~250 K with doping of x=0.34. The maximum shows clear correlation with the broad crossover feature found in the temperature-dependent in-plane resistivity ρa(T). The evolution with doping of Tmax in (Ba1-xKx)Fe2As2 is in notable contrast with both the rapid suppression of Tmax found in Ba(Fe1-xTx)2As2 (T=Co,Rh,Ni,Pd) and its rapid increase in BaFe2(As1-xPx)2. This observation suggests that pseudogap features are much stronger in hole-doped than in electron-doped iron-based superconductors, revealing significant electron-hole doping asymmetry similar to that in the cuprates.

  11. Interplane resistivity of underdoped single crystals (Ba1-xKx)Fe2As2 (0≤x<0.34)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanatar, M. A.; Straszheim, W. E.; Kim, Hyunsoo; Murphy, J.; Spyrison, N.; Blomberg, E. C.; Cho, K.; Reid, J.-Ph.; Shen, Bing; Taillefer, Louis; Wen, Hai-Hu; Prozorov, R.

    2014-04-01

    The temperature-dependent interplane resistivity ρc(T) was measured in the hole-doped iron arsenide superconductor (Ba1-xKx)Fe2As2 over a doping range from parent compound to optimal doping at Tc≈38 K, 0≤x≤0.34. The measurements were undertaken on high-quality single crystals grown from FeAs flux. The coupled magnetic/structural transition at TSM leads to a clear accelerated decrease of ρc(T ) on cooling in samples with Tc<26 K (x <0.25). This decrease in the hole-doped material is in notable contrast to the increase in ρc(T) in the electron-doped Ba(Fe1-xCox)Fe2As2 and isoelectron-substituted BaFe2(As1-xPx)2.TSM decreases very sharply with doping, dropping from Ts=71 K to zero on increase of Tc from approximately 25 to 27 K. ρc(T ) becomes linear in T close to optimal doping. The broad crossover maximum in ρc(T), found in the parent BaFe2As2 at around Tmax˜200 K, shifts to higher temperature ˜250 K with doping of x =0.34. The maximum shows clear correlation with the broad crossover feature found in the temperature-dependent in-plane resistivity ρa(T). The evolution with doping of Tmax in (Ba1-xKx)Fe2As2 is in notable contrast with both the rapid suppression of Tmax found in Ba(Fe1-xTx)2As2 (T =Co,Rh,Ni,Pd) and its rapid increase in BaFe2(As1-xPx)2. This observation suggests that pseudogap features are much stronger in hole-doped than in electron-doped iron-based superconductors, revealing significant electron-hole doping asymmetry similar to that in the cuprates.

  12. Crystal structure of the effector AvrLm4-7 of Leptosphaeria maculans reveals insights into its translocation into plant cells and recognition by resistance proteins.

    PubMed

    Blondeau, Karine; Blaise, Françoise; Graille, Marc; Kale, Shiv D; Linglin, Juliette; Ollivier, Bénédicte; Labarde, Audrey; Lazar, Noureddine; Daverdin, Guillaume; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène; Choi, Danielle H Y; Tyler, Brett M; Rouxel, Thierry; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Fudal, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    The avirulence gene AvrLm4-7 of Leptosphaeria maculans, the causal agent of stem canker in Brassica napus (oilseed rape), confers a dual specificity of recognition by two resistance genes (Rlm4 and Rlm7) and is strongly involved in fungal fitness. In order to elucidate the biological function of AvrLm4-7 and understand the specificity of recognition by Rlm4 and Rlm7, the AvrLm4-7 protein was produced in Pichia pastoris and its crystal structure was determined. It revealed the presence of four disulfide bridges, but no close structural analogs could be identified. A short stretch of amino acids in the C terminus of the protein, (R/N)(Y/F)(R/S)E(F/W), was well-conserved among AvrLm4-7 homologs. Loss of recognition of AvrLm4-7 by Rlm4 is caused by the mutation of a single glycine to an arginine residue located in a loop of the protein. Loss of recognition by Rlm7 is governed by more complex mutational patterns, including gene loss or drastic modifications of the protein structure. Three point mutations altered residues in the well-conserved C-terminal motif or close to the glycine involved in Rlm4-mediated recognition, resulting in the loss of Rlm7-mediated recognition. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana (tobacco) and particle bombardment experiments on leaves from oilseed rape suggested that AvrLm4-7 interacts with its cognate R proteins inside the plant cell, and can be translocated into plant cells in the absence of the pathogen. Translocation of AvrLm4-7 into oilseed rape leaves is likely to require the (R/N)(Y/F)(R/S)E(F/W) motif as well as an RAWG motif located in a nearby loop that together form a positively charged region. PMID:26082394

  13. Blue light generation using periodically poled nonlinear crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademian, Ali; Shiner, David

    2013-05-01

    We have studied blue light generation using SHG of IR light. We have used single pass waveguides and bulk crystals with buildup cavities. The nonlinear crystals used were periodically poled Lithium Niobate (LN) and Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (KTP). Each of these approaches had limitations with regards to the maximum power handling and the stability of operation. Currently we are working on a different crystal in a new buildup cavity to circumvent some of the previous difficulties resulting from photorefractive damage and excessive heating due to blue absorption. Our initial measurements show that Lithium Tantalite (LT) has higher photorefractive threshold and much lower blue absorption (2% vs 15% for 20 mm crystal length). The new buildup cavity incorporates a more convenient commercial piezo mirror translator for feedback control. The buildup cavity can be operated with a minimum of 6 V as opposed to the 1000 V previously. We are exploring the use of a single DSP (digital signal processor) to perform all the locking and electronic control functions of the cavity. We are studying the coupling and propagation properties of the IR beams more carefully to minimize cavity and coupling losses, particularly due to front wave distortion caused by mirrors and lenses used in the setup. To optimize our cavity and to make the best and simplest choice of optical elements possible, different commercial (off the shelf) lenses and mirrors have been evaluated experimentally in our setup. This work is supported by NSF grant PHY-1068868.

  14. Production of Testing of Laser Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.

    1999-01-21

    Lasers and nonlinear optical system are being developed to allow the construction of all solid state lasers with tunable output in the mid-infrared (3-5{micro}m). In these systems potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) and its analogs (KTA, RTA and CTA) are used to construct Optical Parametric Oscillators (OPOs). In the past, large (5 mm x 5 mm x 15 mm) crystals of KTA, RTA and CTA have been difficult to obtain, and were costly as well. Also, the arsenate materials were limited in spectral range due to an AsO{sub 4} overtone in the 3.5 to 5.0 {micro}m region. There has also been interest in materials which self-OPO. This process is done by doping nonlinear materials with lasing ions. This effort investigated the development of mixed metal analogs of KTA, which would last and also suppress the AsO{sub 4} absorption overtones to allow more efficient mid-infrared OPO operation.

  15. Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD(asterisk)P, BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3, and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckardt, Robert C.; Byer, Robert L.; Masuda, Hisashi; Fan, Yuan Xuan

    1990-01-01

    Both absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of six nonlinear materials measured by second-harmonic generation are discussed. A single-mode, injection-seeded, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with spatially filtered output was used to generate the 1.064-micron fundamental radiation. The following results were obtained: d36(KDP) = 0.38 pm/V, d36(KD/asterisk/P) = 0.37 pm/V, (parallel)d22(BaB2O4)(parallel) = 2.2 pm/V, d31(LiIO3) = -4.1 pm/V, d31(5 percentMgO:MgO LiNbO3) = -4.7 pm/V, and d(eff)(KTP) = 3.2 pm/V. The accuracy of these measurements is estimated to be better than 10 percent.

  16. Experimental and theoretical study of a laser-diode-pumped passively Q-switched intracavity-frequency-doubled Nd:GdVO4/KTP red laser with V:YAG saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Li, Guiqiu; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Xin; Du, Guolong; Yin, Lei

    2011-09-10

    A laser-diode-pumped passively Q-switched intracavity-frequency-doubled Nd:GdVO4/KTP red laser with V:YAG saturable absorber is realized in a V-type resonator. The dependences of the pulse repetition rate, pulse width, single-pulse energy, and peak power on the incident pump power are measured and contrasted. By assuming the intracavity photon density and the initial population-inversion density to be Gaussian spatial distributions, the space-dependent rate equations of this laser are given. The numerical solutions of the rate equations are consistent with the experimental results. In order to optimize the described system, the variations of the pulse width, peak power, single-pulse energy, and laser efficiency with the initial transmission of the saturable absorber and the ratio of the laser beam radius to the pump beam radius are also calculated, respectively. PMID:21946991

  17. Electric-field-controlled interface strain coupling and non-volatile resistance switching of La1-xBaxMnO3 thin films epitaxially grown on relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ming; Zhu, Qiu-Xiang; Li, Xue-Yan; Yang, Ming-Min; Wang, Yu; Li, Xiao-Min; Shi, Xun; Luo, Hao-Su; Zheng, Ren-Kui

    2014-09-01

    We have fabricated magnetoelectric heterostructures by growing ferromagnetic La1-xBaxMnO3 (x = 0.2, 0.4) thin films on (001)-, (110)-, and (111)-oriented 0.31Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.35Pb(Mg1/3Nb1/2)O3-0.34PbTiO3 (PINT) ferroelectric single-crystal substrates. Upon poling along the [001], [110], or [111] crystal direction, the electric-field-induced non-180° domain switching gives rise to a decrease in the resistance and an enhancement of the metal-to-insulator transition temperature TC of the films. By taking advantage of the 180° ferroelectric domain switching, we identify that such changes in the resistance and TC are caused by domain switching-induced strain but not domain switching-induced accumulation or depletion of charge carriers at the interface. Further, we found that the domain switching-induced strain effects can be efficiently controlled by a magnetic field, mediated by the electronic phase separation. Moreover, we determined the evolution of the strength of the electronic phase separation against temperature and magnetic field by recording the strain-tunability of the resistance [(ΔR/R)strain] under magnetic fields. Additionally, opposing effects of domain switching-induced strain on ferromagnetism above and below 197 K for the La0.8Ba0.2MnO3 film and 150 K for the La0.6Ba0.4MnO3 film, respectively, were observed and explained by the magnetoelastic effect through adjusting the magnetic anisotropy. Finally, using the reversible ferroelastic domain switching of the PINT, we realized non-volatile resistance switching of the films at room temperature, implying potential applications of the magnetoelectric heterostructure in non-volatile memory devices.

  18. Electric-field-controlled interface strain coupling and non-volatile resistance switching of La{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}MnO₃ thin films epitaxially grown on relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Ming; Zhu, Qiu-Xiang; Li, Xue-Yan; Yang, Ming-Min; Li, Xiao-Min; Shi, Xun; Luo, Hao-Su; Zheng, Ren-Kui; Wang, Yu

    2014-09-21

    We have fabricated magnetoelectric heterostructures by growing ferromagnetic La{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}MnO₃ (x=0.2, 0.4) thin films on (001)-, (110)-, and (111)-oriented 0.31Pb(In{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O₃-0.35Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 1/2})O₃-0.34PbTiO₃ (PINT) ferroelectric single-crystal substrates. Upon poling along the [001], [110], or [111] crystal direction, the electric-field-induced non-180° domain switching gives rise to a decrease in the resistance and an enhancement of the metal-to-insulator transition temperature TC of the films. By taking advantage of the 180° ferroelectric domain switching, we identify that such changes in the resistance and TC are caused by domain switching-induced strain but not domain switching-induced accumulation or depletion of charge carriers at the interface. Further, we found that the domain switching-induced strain effects can be efficiently controlled by a magnetic field, mediated by the electronic phase separation. Moreover, we determined the evolution of the strength of the electronic phase separation against temperature and magnetic field by recording the strain-tunability of the resistance [(ΔR/R){sub strain}] under magnetic fields. Additionally, opposing effects of domain switching-induced strain on ferromagnetism above and below 197 K for the La₀.₈Ba₀.₂MnO₃ film and 150 K for the La₀.₆Ba₀.₄MnO₃ film, respectively, were observed and explained by the magnetoelastic effect through adjusting the magnetic anisotropy. Finally, using the reversible ferroelastic domain switching of the PINT, we realized non-volatile resistance switching of the films at room temperature, implying potential applications of the magnetoelectric heterostructure in non-volatile memory devices.

  19. Flux growth and grey colouration characteristics in KTiOPO4:Ln (Ln= Yb, Nd, Ho, Er, La)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadhasivam, S.; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana; Ramasamy, P.

    2015-12-01

    Single crystals of KTiOPO4:Ln (Ln=Yb, Nd, Ho, Er and La) were successfully grown by the top seeded solution growth (TSSG) method using potassium polyphosphate as a flux. A series of rare earth metal (Yb, Nd, Ho, Er and La) doped KTP crystals was subjected to high electric field and hydrogen annealing treatment at 973 K temperature. The vital role of alkali ionic conduction and Ti3+ in colouration of KTP has been studied by permittivity and ac conductivity studies. The hydrogen anneal- and UV bleach-induced grey colouration was studied by absorption and transmittance characteristics. The structural changes induced by grey tracking on KTP:Ln were studied by Raman shift analysis. The oxygen vacancies or Ti3+ centres were created by various treatments and the degree of colouration in the crystal was evaluated. The mechanisms of colouration in the crystal and resistance behaviour of grey colouration by lanthanide doping were studied.

  20. The crystal structure of Rv1347c, a putative antibiotic resistance protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, reveals a GCN5-related fold and suggests an alternative function in siderophore biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Card, G L; Peterson, N A; Smith, C A; Rupp, B; Schick, B M; Baker, E N

    2005-02-15

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the cause of TB, is a devastating human pathogen. The emergence of multi-drug resistance in recent years has prompted a search for new drug targets and for a better understanding of mechanisms of resistance. Here we focus on the gene product of an open reading frame from M. tuberculosis, Rv1347c, which is annotated as a putative aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferase. The Rv1347c protein does not show this activity, however, and we show from its crystal structure, coupled with functional and bioinformatic data, that its most likely role is in the biosynthesis of mycobactin, the M. tuberculosis siderophore. The crystal structure of Rv1347c was determined by MAD phasing from selenomethionine-substituted protein and refined at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution (R = 0.227, R{sub free} = 0.257). The protein is monomeric, with a fold that places it in the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) family of acyltransferases. Features of the structure are an acylCoA binding site that is shared with other GNAT family members, and an adjacent hydrophobic channel leading to the surface that could accommodate long-chain acyl groups. Modeling the postulated substrate, the N{sup {var_epsilon}}-hydroxylysine side chain of mycobactin, into the acceptor substrate binding groove identifies two residues at the active site, His130 and Asp168, that have putative roles in substrate binding and catalysis.

  1. Crystal Creations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipple, Nona; Whitmore, Sherry

    1989-01-01

    Presents a many-faceted learning approach to the study of crystals. Provides instructions for performing activities including crystal growth and patterns, creating miniature simulations of crystal-containing rock formations, charcoal and sponge gardens, and snowflakes. (RT)

  2. Synthesis, properties, and structure of potassium titanyl phosphate single crystals doped with hafnium

    SciTech Connect

    Orlova, E. I.; Kharitonova, E. P.; Novikova, N. E. Verin, I. A.; Alekseeva, O. A.; Sorokina, N. I.; Voronkova, V. I.

    2010-05-15

    Single crystals of potassium titanyl phosphate doped with hafnium are grown by spontaneous flux crystallization. Their physical properties are studied, and the structure of three KTi{sub 1-x}Hf{sub x}OPO{sub 4} crystals (x = 0.01, 0.03, and 0.12) is determined. In the crystals studied, hafnium mostly occupies the second titanium position. The doping of KTP crystals with hafnium results in an elongation of K-O bonds in the potassium polyhedra and, as a consequence, in a considerable (by approximately 180 deg. C) decrease in the temperature of ferroelectric phase transition. The magnitude of anomalous permittivity substantially decreases. The electrical conduction in the specimens studied decreases by approximately half an order of magnitude in the low-temperature region but remains almost unchanged in the high-temperature region. Even at minor concentrations, the presence of a hafnium additive in the specimens considerably (by 35%) enhances the intensity of the second harmonic generation of laser radiation.

  3. Crystal Structures of Flax Rust Avirulence Proteins AvrL567-A and -D Reveal Details of the Structural Basis for Flax Disease Resistance Specificity[W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ching-I A.; Gunčar, Gregor; Forwood, Jade K.; Teh, Trazel; Catanzariti, Ann-Maree; Lawrence, Gregory J.; Loughlin, Fionna E.; Mackay, Joel P.; Schirra, Horst Joachim; Anderson, Peter A.; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Dodds, Peter N.; Kobe, Boštjan

    2007-01-01

    The gene-for-gene mechanism of plant disease resistance involves direct or indirect recognition of pathogen avirulence (Avr) proteins by plant resistance (R) proteins. Flax rust (Melampsora lini) AvrL567 avirulence proteins and the corresponding flax (Linum usitatissimum) L5, L6, and L7 resistance proteins interact directly. We determined the three-dimensional structures of two members of the AvrL567 family, AvrL567-A and AvrL567-D, at 1.4- and 2.3-Å resolution, respectively. The structures of both proteins are very similar and reveal a β-sandwich fold with no close known structural homologs. The polymorphic residues in the AvrL567 family map to the surface of the protein, and polymorphisms in residues associated with recognition differences for the R proteins lead to significant changes in surface chemical properties. Analysis of single amino acid substitutions in AvrL567 proteins confirm the role of individual residues in conferring differences in recognition and suggest that the specificity results from the cumulative effects of multiple amino acid contacts. The structures also provide insights into possible pathogen-associated functions of AvrL567 proteins, with nucleic acid binding activity demonstrated in vitro. Our studies provide some of the first structural information on avirulence proteins that bind directly to the corresponding resistance proteins, allowing an examination of the molecular basis of the interaction with the resistance proteins as a step toward designing new resistance specificities. PMID:17873095

  4. Laser alexandrite crystals grown by horizontal oriented crystallization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurov, V. V.; Tsvetkov, E. G.; Yurkin, A. M.

    2008-05-01

    Comparative studies were performed for alexandrite crystals, Al 2BeO 4:Cr 3+, employed in solid state lasers and grown by the horizontal oriented crystallization (HOC) technique and alexandrite crystals grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method. It was shown that the structural quality and possibilities of generation of stimulated emission HOC-crystals are similar to Cz-crystals, whereas their damage threshold is about three times higher. The obtained results and considerably lower cost price of HOC-alexandrite crystals prove their advantageous application in powerful laser systems, which require large laser rods with a higher resistance to laser beam. It is emphasized that application of HOC technique is promising for growth of laser crystals of other high-temperature oxide compounds.

  5. Liquid crystal polyester thermosets

    SciTech Connect

    Benicewicz, B.C.; Hoyt, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of curable liquid crystal polyester monomers and to thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions prepared therefrom. It is an object of this invention to provide curable liquid crystalline polyester materials. Another object of this invention is to provide a process of preparing curable liquid crystal polyester monomers. Yet another object of this invention is to provide liquid crystalline blends of polyester materials. It is a further object of this invention to provide thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions. It is a still further object of this invention to provide thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions having a high heat resistance. 1 fig.

  6. Liquid crystal polyester thermosets

    SciTech Connect

    Benicewicz, B.C.; Hoyt, A.E.

    1990-12-31

    The present invention relates to the field of curable liquid crystal polyester monomers and to thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions prepared therefrom. It is an object of this invention to provide curable liquid crystalline polyester materials. Another object of this invention is to provide a process of preparing curable liquid crystal polyester monomers. Yet another object of this invention is to provide liquid crystalline blends of polyester materials. It is a further object of this invention to provide thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions. It is a still further object of this invention to provide thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions having a high heat resistance. 1 fig.

  7. Crystal Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  8. Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) with green light KTP laser in the management of symptomatic benign prostatic enlargement (BPE): does the anatomy of the TURP-like cavity predict the clinical outcome?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nseyo, Unyime

    2005-04-01

    Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) is evolving as an alternative outpatient surgical treatment to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in the management of patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hypertrophy/enlargement (BPH/BPE). The purported benefits of PVP include rapid vaporization of the prostate with an instant creation of TURP-like anatomic defect, an excellent hemostasis, shorter (<24 hours) duration of catheterization, short (< 24 hours) hospital stay, and quick return to work. We retrospectively reviewed the video clips of our cases to determine whether or not the anatomic appearance of the post-PVP prostatic cavity per se could predict clinical outcome. Forty-three, non-consecutive patients, diagnosed with symptomatic BPH have been treated with PVP using the 80W KTP laser and followed for at least 18 months (range 18-24). A majority (N=32) of the patients was enrolled under an Institutional Review Board approved multi-center protocol at the Hunter McGuire Veterans Administration Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia. We reviewed the urodynamic parameters: AUA-SI, QOL, Qmax and PVR at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months postoperatively. We plan to present video documentations of the various anatomic appearances of the TURP-like prostatic cavity at the conclusion of the PVP treatment along with summaries of the short and long term clinical outcomes.

  9. Probing the Influence of Stereoelectronic Effects on the Biophysical Properties of Oligonucleotides: Comprehensive Analysis of the RNA Affinity, Nuclease Resistance, and Crystal Structure of Ten 2'-O-Ribonucleic Acid Modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Egli, Martin; Minasov, George; Tereshko, Valentina; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Teplova, Marianna; Inamati, Gopal B.; Lesnik, Elena A.; Owens, Steve R.; Ross, Bruce S.; Prakash, Thazha P.; Manoharan, Muthiah

    2010-03-05

    The syntheses of 10 new RNA 2'-O-modifications, their incorporation into oligonucleotides, and an evaluation of their properties such as RNA affinity and nuclease resistance relevant to antisense activity are presented. All modifications combined with the natural phosphate backbone lead to significant gains in terms of the stability of hybridization to RNA relative to the first-generation DNA phosphorothioates (PS-DNA). The nuclease resistance afforded in particular by the 2'-O-modifications carrying a positive charge surpasses that of PS-DNA. However, small electronegative 2'-O-substituents, while enhancing the RNA affinity, do not sufficiently protect against degradation by nucleases. Similarly, oligonucleotides containing 3'-terminal residues modified with the relatively large 2'-O-[2-(benzyloxy)ethyl] substituent are rapidly degraded by exonucleases, proving wrong the assumption that steric bulk will generally improve protection against nuclease digestion. To analyze the factors that contribute to the enhanced RNA affinity and nuclease resistance we determined crystal structures of self-complementary A-form DNA decamer duplexes containing single 2'-O-modified thymidines per strand. Conformational preorganization of substituents, favorable electrostatic interactions between substituent and sugar-phosphate backbone, and a stable water structure in the vicinity of the 2'-O-modification all appear to contribute to the improved RNA affinity. Close association of positively charged substituents and phosphate groups was observed in the structures with modifications that protect most effectively against nucleases. The promising properties exhibited by some of the analyzed 2'-O-modifications may warrant a more detailed evaluation of their potential for in vivo antisense applications. Chemical modification of RNA can also be expected to significantly improve the efficacy of small interfering RNAs (siRNA). Therefore, the 2'-O-modifications introduced here may benefit the

  10. Generation of turquoise light by sum frequency mixing of a diode-pumped solid-state laser and a laser diode in periodically poled KTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Sandra; Spiekermann, Stefan; Wang, Shunhua; Pasiskevicius, Valdas; Laurell, Fredrik; Ekvall, Katrin

    2004-10-01

    We report a simple and efficient method to achieve visible light by sum-frequency mixing radiation from a diode-pumped solid-state laser and a laser diode in a periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal. Since high-power laser diodes are available at a wide range of wavelengths, it is thereby possible to obtain essentially any wavelength in the visible spectrum by appropriate choice of lasers. For demonstration we choose to construct a light source in the blue-green region. A turquoise output power of 4.0 mW was achieved.