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Sample records for resistant bacteria ccnwrs33-2

  1. Multidrug Resistance in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Large amounts of antibiotics used for human therapy, as well as for farm animals and even for fish in aquaculture, resulted in the selection of pathogenic bacteria resistant to multiple drugs. Multidrug resistance in bacteria may be generated by one of two mechanisms. First, these bacteria may accumulate multiple genes, each coding for resistance to a single drug, within a single cell. This accumulation occurs typically on resistance (R) plasmids. Second, multidrug resistance may also occur by the increased expression of genes that code for multidrug efflux pumps, extruding a wide range of drugs. This review discusses our current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in both types of resistance. PMID:19231985

  2. Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longenecker, Nevin E.; Oppenheimer, Dan

    1982-01-01

    A study conducted by high school advanced bacteriology students appears to confirm the hypothesis that the incremental administration of antibiotics on several species of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Bacillus sublitus, Bacillus megaterium) will allow for the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. (PEB)

  3. [Nosocomial bacteria: profiles of resistance].

    PubMed

    Sow, A I

    2005-01-01

    Nosocomial infections may be parasitic, mycosal or viral, but bacterial infections are more frequent. They are transmitted by hands or by oral route. This paper describes the main bacteria responsive of nosocomial infections, dominated by Staphylococcus, enterobacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The author relates natural and savage profiles of these bacterias, characterized by multiresistance due to large use of antibiotics. Knowledge of natural resistance and verification of aquired resistance permit to well lead probabilist antibiotherapy. PMID:16190117

  4. Antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gueimonde, Miguel; Sánchez, Borja; G. de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara; Margolles, Abelardo

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The main probiotic bacteria are strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although other representatives, such as Bacillus or Escherichia coli strains, have also been used. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are two common inhabitants of the human intestinal microbiota. Also, some species are used in food fermentation processes as starters, or as adjunct cultures in the food industry. With some exceptions, antibiotic resistance in these beneficial microbes does not constitute a safety concern in itself, when mutations or intrinsic resistance mechanisms are responsible for the resistance phenotype. In fact, some probiotic strains with intrinsic antibiotic resistance could be useful for restoring the gut microbiota after antibiotic treatment. However, specific antibiotic resistance determinants carried on mobile genetic elements, such as tetracycline resistance genes, are often detected in the typical probiotic genera, and constitute a reservoir of resistance for potential food or gut pathogens, thus representing a serious safety issue. PMID:23882264

  5. Evolution of Drug Resistance in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Waclaw, B

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to antibiotics is an important and timely problem of contemporary medicine. Rapid evolution of resistant bacteria calls for new preventive measures to slow down this process, and a longer-term progress cannot be achieved without a good understanding of the mechanisms through which drug resistance is acquired and spreads in microbial populations. Here, we discuss recent experimental and theoretical advances in our knowledge how the dynamics of microbial populations affects the evolution of antibiotic resistance . We focus on the role of spatial and temporal drug gradients and show that in certain situations bacteria can evolve de novo resistance within hours. We identify factors that lead to such rapid onset of resistance and discuss their relevance for bacterial infections. PMID:27193537

  6. [Antibiotic resistance--bacteria fight back].

    PubMed

    Tambić Andrasević, Arjana

    2004-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has become one of the leading problems in modern medicine. Resistance to antibiotics emerges in bacteria due to genetic mutations and consecutive selection of resistant mutants through selective pressure of antibiotics present in large amounts in soil, plants, animals and humans. Exchange of genetic material coding for resistance is possible even between unrelated organisms and further promotes the spread of resistance. Constantly evolving resistance mechanisms force experts to redefine breakpoint concentrations and interpretation of in vitro antibiotic sensitivity testing. Developing new antimicrobial agents does not seem to be enough to keep up pace with ever changing bacteria. Using antibiotics prudently and developing new approaches to the treatment of infections is vital for the future. The European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS) data clearly show that Scandinavian countries and The Netherlands have the lowest rates of resistance, while Southern and Eastern European countries have the highest prevalence of resistance. This is linked to the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) data that show very low consumption of antibiotics in Scandinavian countries and The Netherlands. Compliance with strict infection control policies related to multidrug resistant organisms is also high in these countries. Although it is important to be aware of the resistance problems worldwide, rational use of antibiotics should be based on the knowledge of local resistance patterns in common pathogens. Since 1996 there is a continuous surveillance of resistance in Croatia through the Croatian Committee for Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance. There is a particular concern about the rising penicillin and macrolide resistance in pneumococci. In Croatia, data for 2002 suggest that resistance to penicillin in pneumococci was 30% (low level) and 2% (high level). Among invasive isolates, 19% had reduced susceptibility to

  7. Bacterial resistance in biofilm-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Perumal, Govindaraj; Doble, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are structured groups of different bacterial species that are responsible for most chronic and recurrent infections. Biofilm-related infections reoccur in approximately 65-80% of cases. Bacteria associated with the biofilm are highly resistant to antibiotics. Knowledge of biofilm formation, its propagation and the resistance associated with it is scant and a multidisciplinary approach is followed to understand the science and develop strategies to address this problem. This article discusses the role of various biochemical factors, molecular mechanisms and altered host environment causes associated with bacterial resistance in biofilm. It also reveals the target sites and different multidisciplinary strategies adapted for destroying or preventing the formation of biofilms. PMID:26517598

  8. [Innovative treatments for multidrug-resistant bacteria].

    PubMed

    Pierre, Tattevin; Aurélien, Lorleac'h; Matthieu, Revest

    2014-03-01

    The spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria has accelerated sharply in the last decade. According to the World Health Organization they are responsible for an estimated 25 000 deaths in Europe each year. In addition, few new antibiotics are under development, raising the spectrum of a return to the "pre-antibiotic era". Non antibiotic antibacterial agents have recently attracted renewed interest. The most promising candidates are: i) phages (bacteria-infecting viruses) have been widely used in Eastern European countries since the 1930s but come up against logistic and regulatory obstacles due to the evolutionary nature of these biologic agents, while convincing clinical data are lacking; ii) bacteriocines are smallantibacterialpeptidesproducedby numerous bacteria; some have a rapid bactericidal effect, good tolerability, and a limited impact on the commensal flora; however, clinical use of bacteriocines is complicated by their fragility, poor penetration, and substantial risk of resistance selection ; iii) antisense oligonucleo tides act by inactivating genes through specific interaction with a complementary DNA or RNA fragment, potentially allowing specific inhibition of selected bacterial virulence factors. However, this therapeutic class may be more suitable for viral or genetic diseases than for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections, owing to the difficulty of delivering them inside bacteria. PMID:26427289

  9. Stop the Spread of Superbugs: Help Fight Drug Resistant Bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Spread of Superbugs Help Fight Drug-Resistant Bacteria For nearly a century, bacteria-fighting drugs known as antibiotics have helped to control and destroy many of the harmful bacteria that can make us sick. But in recent ...

  10. Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Detected in Sewage Spill

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160031.html Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Detected in Sewage Spill 'People need to be ... News) -- Sewer line breaks can release antibiotic-resistant bacteria that pose a public health threat, a new ...

  11. [Factors of multiple resistance to antibiotics in nodule bacteria].

    PubMed

    Pariĭskaia, A N; Gorelova, O P

    1976-01-01

    Multiple resistance to antibiotics (penicillin, levomycetin, neomycin, tetracycline) was found in 15% of collection strains of nodule bacteria and in strains isolated from natural environment. PMID:1050635

  12. Multidrug Resistant and Extensively Drug Resistant Bacteria: A Study

    PubMed Central

    Basak, Silpi; Singh, Priyanka; Rajurkar, Monali

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Antimicrobial resistance is now a major challenge to clinicians for treating patients. Hence, this short term study was undertaken to detect the incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR), and pandrug-resistant (PDR) bacterial isolates in a tertiary care hospital. Material and Methods. The clinical samples were cultured and bacterial strains were identified in the department of microbiology. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of different bacterial isolates was studied to detect MDR, XDR, and PDR bacteria. Results. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of 1060 bacterial strains was studied. 393 (37.1%) bacterial strains were MDR, 146 (13.8%) strains were XDR, and no PDR was isolated. All (100%) Gram negative bacterial strains were sensitive to colistin whereas all (100%) Gram positive bacterial strains were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion. Close monitoring of MDR, XDR, or even PDR must be done by all clinical microbiology laboratories to implement effective measures to reduce the menace of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26942013

  13. Translocatable resistance to mercuric and phenylmercuric ions in soil bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, A.J.; Oliver, J.; Kelly, W.J.; Reaney, D.C.

    1981-08-01

    Of a sample of 42 grams-negative Hg-resistant bacteria, three (a Pseudomonas fluorescens, a Klebsiella sp. and a Citrobacter sp.) contained translocatable elements conferring resistance to Hgbj (all three) and to Hgbj and phenylmercuric acetate (P. fluorescens). The discovery of transposable phenylmercuric acetate resistance extends the range of known resistance ''transposons'' from heavy metals and antibiotics to organometallic compounds.

  14. Antibiotic resistance in food lactic acid bacteria--a review.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Shalini; Singh, Rameshwar

    2005-12-15

    Antibiotics are a major tool utilized by the health care industry to fight bacterial infections; however, bacteria are highly adaptable creatures and are capable of developing resistance to antibiotics. Consequently, decades of antibiotic use, or rather misuse, have resulted in bacterial resistance to many modern antibiotics. This antibiotic resistance can cause significant danger and suffering for many people with common bacterial infections, those once easily treated with antibiotics. For several decades studies on selection and dissemination of antibiotic resistance have focused mainly on clinically relevant species. However, recently many investigators have speculated that commensal bacteria including lactic acid bacteria (LAB) may act as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes similar to those found in human pathogens. The main threat associated with these bacteria is that they can transfer resistance genes to pathogenic bacteria. Genes conferring resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin and vancomycin have been detected and characterized in Lactococcus lactis, Enterococci and, recently, in Lactobacillus species isolated from fermented meat and milk products. A number of initiatives have been recently launched by various organizations across the globe to address the biosafety concerns of starter cultures and probiotic microorganisms. The studies can lead to better understanding of the role played by the dairy starter microorganisms in horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to intestinal microorganisms and food-associated pathogenic bacteria. PMID:16289406

  15. Environmental Macrolide–Lincosamide–Streptogramin and Tetracycline Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Marilyn C.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics by mutation, transformation, and/or acquisition of new genes which are normally associated with mobile elements (plasmids, transposons, and integrons). Mobile elements are the main driving force in horizontal gene transfer between strains, species, and genera and are responsible for the rapid spread of particular elements throughout a bacterial community and between ecosystems. Today, antibiotic resistant bacteria are widely distributed throughout the world and have even been isolated from environments that are relatively untouched by human civilization. In this review macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramins, and tetracycline resistance genes and bacteria will be discussed with an emphasis on the resistance genes which are unique to environmental bacteria which are defined for this review as species and genera that are primarily found outside of humans and animals. PMID:21833302

  16. Probing minority population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tianxun; Zheng, Yan; Yan, Ya; Yang, Lingling; Yao, Yihui; Zheng, Jiaxin; Wu, Lina; Wang, Xu; Chen, Yuqing; Xing, Jinchun; Yan, Xiaomei

    2016-06-15

    The evolution and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has become a major threat to public health. Advanced tools are urgently needed to quickly diagnose antibiotic-resistant infections to initiate appropriate treatment. Here we report the development of a highly sensitive flow cytometric method to probe minority population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria via single cell detection. Monoclonal antibody against TEM-1 β-lactamase and Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated secondary antibody were used to selectively label resistant bacteria green, and nucleic acid dye SYTO 62 was used to stain all the bacteria red. A laboratory-built high sensitivity flow cytometer (HSFCM) was applied to simultaneously detect the side scatter and dual-color fluorescence signals of single bacteria. By using E. coli JM109/pUC19 and E. coli JM109 as the model systems for antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible bacteria, respectively, as low as 0.1% of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were accurately quantified. By monitoring the dynamic population change of a bacterial culture with the administration of antibiotics, we confirmed that under the antimicrobial pressure, the original low population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria outcompeted susceptible strains and became the dominant population after 5hours of growth. Detection of antibiotic-resistant infection in clinical urine samples was achieved without cultivation, and the bacterial load of susceptible and resistant strains can be faithfully quantified. Overall, the HSFCM-based quantitative method provides a powerful tool for the fundamental studies of antibiotic resistance and holds the potential to provide rapid and precise guidance in clinical therapies. PMID:26852201

  17. Stalking Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Common Vegetables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, David; Boeke, Caroline; Josowitz, Rebecca; Loya, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    The study developed a simple experimental protocol for studying antibiotic resistant bacteria that will allow students to determine the proportion of such bacteria found on common fruit and vegetable crops. This protocol can open up the world of environmental science and show how human behavior can dramatically alter ecosystems.

  18. Antibiotic resistant bacteria associated with biological aerosols within broiler houses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry are known to harbor antibiotic resistant and pathogenic bacteria, and as such poultry litter and poultry house air can be contaminated with these bacteria. Health researchers have typically focused on the presence of aerosolized endotoxin, NH3, and particulate matter within poultry houses; ...

  19. Insect Antimicrobial Peptide Complexes Prevent Resistance Development in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chernysh, Sergey; Gordya, Natalia; Suborova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades much attention has been paid to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as natural antibiotics, which are presumably protected from resistance development in bacteria. However, experimental evolution studies have revealed prompt resistance increase in bacteria to any individual AMP tested. Here we demonstrate that naturally occurring compounds containing insect AMP complexes have clear advantage over individual peptide and small molecule antibiotics in respect of drug resistance development. As a model we have used the compounds isolated from bacteria challenged maggots of Calliphoridae flies. The compound isolated from blow fly Calliphora vicina was found to contain three distinct families of cell membrane disrupting/permeabilizing peptides (defensins, cecropins and diptericins), one family of proline rich peptides and several unknown antimicrobial substances. Resistance changes under long term selective pressure of the compound and reference antibiotics cefotaxime, meropenem and polymyxin B were tested using Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains. All the strains readily developed resistance to the reference antibiotics, while no signs of resistance growth to the compound were registered. Similar results were obtained with the compounds isolated from 3 other fly species. The experiments revealed that natural compounds containing insect AMP complexes, in contrast to individual AMP and small molecule antibiotics, are well protected from resistance development in bacteria. Further progress in the research of natural AMP complexes may provide novel solutions to the drug resistance problem. PMID:26177023

  20. Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria: There is Hope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Argues that reduction in the use of antibiotics would enable antibiotic-sensitive bacteria to flourish. Presents an activity designed to show students how a small, seemingly unimportant difference in doubling time can, over a period of time, make an enormous difference in population size. (DDR)

  1. Ethanologenic bacteria with increased resistance to furfural

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Elliot Norman; Jarboe, Laura R.; Yomano, Lorraine P.; York, Sean W.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal

    2015-10-06

    The invention relates to bacterium that have increased resistance to furfural and methods of preparation. The invention also relates to methods of producing ethanol using the bacterium and corresponding kits.

  2. Effects of Efflux Pump Inhibitors on Colistin Resistance in Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wentao; Li, Yanjun; Guan, Jie; Zhao, Jin; Cui, Junchang; Wang, Rui; Liu, Youning

    2016-05-01

    We tested the effects of various putative efflux pump inhibitors on colistin resistance in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Addition of 10 mg/liter cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) to the test medium could significantly decrease the MICs of colistin-resistant strains. Time-kill assays showed CCCP could reverse colistin resistance and inhibit the regrowth of the resistant subpopulation, especially in Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia These results suggest colistin resistance in Gram-negative bacteria can be suppressed and reversed by CCCP. PMID:26953203

  3. Susceptibility and resistance of ruminal bacteria to antimicrobial feed additives.

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraja, T G; Taylor, M B

    1987-01-01

    Susceptibility and resistance of ruminal bacterial species to avoparcin, narasin, salinomycin, thiopeptin, tylosin, virginiamycin, and two new ionophore antibiotics, RO22-6924/004 and RO21-6447/009, were determined. Generally, antimicrobial compounds were inhibitory to gram-positive bacteria and those bacteria that have gram-positive-like cell wall structure. MICs ranged from 0.09 to 24.0 micrograms/ml. Gram-negative bacteria were resistant at the highest concentration tested (48.0 micrograms/ml). On the basis of their fermentation products, ruminal bacteria that produce lactic acid, butyric acid, formic acid, or hydrogen were susceptible and bacteria that produce succinic acid or ferment lactic acid were resistant to the antimicrobial compounds. Selenomonas ruminantium was the only major lactic acid-producing bacteria resistant to all the antimicrobial compounds tested. Avoparcin and tylosin appeared to be less inhibitory (MIC greater than 6.0 micrograms/ml) than the other compounds to the two major lactic acid-producing bacteria, Streptococcus bovis and Lactobacillus sp. Ionophore compounds seemed to be more inhibitory (MIC, 0.09 to 1.50 micrograms/ml) than nonionophore compounds (MIC, 0.75 to 12.0 micrograms/ml) to the major butyric acid-producing bacteria. Treponema bryantii, an anaerobic rumen spirochete, was less sensitive to virginiamycin than to the other antimicrobial compounds. Ionophore compounds were generally bacteriostatic, and nonionophore compounds were bactericidal. The specific growth rate of Bacteroides ruminicola was reduced by all the antimicrobial compounds except avoparcin. The antibacterial spectra of the feed additives were remarkably similar, and it appears that MICs may not be good indicators of the potency of the compounds in altering ruminal fermentation characteristics. PMID:3116929

  4. Clinically Relevant Chromosomally Encoded Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pumps in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2006-01-01

    Efflux pump genes and proteins are present in both antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Pumps may be specific for one substrate or may transport a range of structurally dissimilar compounds (including antibiotics of multiple classes); such pumps can be associated with multiple drug (antibiotic) resistance (MDR). However, the clinical relevance of efflux-mediated resistance is species, drug, and infection dependent. This review focuses on chromosomally encoded pumps in bacteria that cause infections in humans. Recent structural data provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of drug transport. MDR efflux pumps contribute to antibiotic resistance in bacteria in several ways: (i) inherent resistance to an entire class of agents, (ii) inherent resistance to specific agents, and (iii) resistance conferred by overexpression of an efflux pump. Enhanced efflux can be mediated by mutations in (i) the local repressor gene, (ii) a global regulatory gene, (iii) the promoter region of the transporter gene, or (iv) insertion elements upstream of the transporter gene. Some data suggest that resistance nodulation division systems are important in pathogenicity and/or survival in a particular ecological niche. Inhibitors of various efflux pump systems have been described; typically these are plant alkaloids, but as yet no product has been marketed. PMID:16614254

  5. A versatile plasmonic thermogel for disinfection of antimicrobial resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Abdou Mohamed, Mohamed A; Raeesi, Vahid; Turner, Patricia V; Rebbapragada, Anu; Banks, Kate; Chan, Warren C W

    2016-08-01

    The increasing occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria is a global problem that requires the development of alternative techniques to eradicate these superbugs. Herein, we used a combination of thermosensitive biocompatible polymer and gold nanorods to specifically deliver, preserve and confine heat to the area of interest. Our data demonstrates that this technique can be used to kill both Gram positive and Gram negative antimicrobial resistant bacteria in vitro. Our approach significantly reduces the antimicrobial resistant bacteria load in experimentally infected wounds by 98% without harming the surrounding tissues. More importantly, this polymer-nanocomposite can be prepared easily and applied to the wounds, can generate heat using a hand-held laser device, is safe for the operator, and does not have any adverse effects on the wound tissue and healing process. PMID:27174687

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from Swiss veal calves at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Di Labio, E; Regula, G; Steiner, A; Miserez, R; Thomann, A; Ledergerber, U

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria with antimicrobial resistance can be transferred from animals to humans and may compromise antimicrobial treatment in case of infection. To determine the antimicrobial resistance situation in bacteria from Swiss veal calves, faecal samples from 500 randomly selected calves originating from 129 farms were collected at four big slaughterhouses. Samples were cultured for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus sp. and Campylobacter sp. and isolated strains were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to selected antimicrobial agents by the minimal inhibitory concentration technique using the broth microdilution method. From 100 farms, data on farm management, animal husbandry and antimicrobial treatments of the calves were collected by questionnaire. Risk factors associated with antimicrobial resistance were identified by logistic regression. In total, 467 E. coli, 413 Enterococcus sp. and 202 Campylobacter sp. were isolated. Of those, 68.7%, 98.7% and 67.8%, respectively, were resistant to at least one of the tested antimicrobial agents. Resistance was mainly observed to antimicrobials frequently used in farm animals. Prevalence of resistance to antimicrobials important for human treatment was generally low. However, a rather high number of quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter sp. were detected. External calf purchase, large finishing groups, feeding of milk by-products and administration of antimicrobials through feed upon arrival of the animals on the farm significantly increased the risk of antimicrobial resistance at farm level. Participation in a quality assurance programme and injection of a macrolide upon arrival of the animals on the farm had a protective effect. The present study showed that veal calves may serve as a reservoir for resistant bacteria. To ensure food safety, veal calves should be included in the national monitoring programme for antimicrobial resistance in farm animals. By

  7. Determination of mercury and organomercurial resistance in obligate anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rudrik, J T; Bawdon, R E; Guss, S P

    1985-03-01

    A methodology for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration of inorganic and organomercurial compounds for obligate anaerobic bacteria is described. A wide variation in the susceptibility of anaerobic clinical and sewage isolates was observed. Isolates of Bacteroides ruminicola and Clostridium perfringens resistant to mercury were examined for their plasmid content and ability to demonstrate inducible resistance. None of the resistant anaerobes contained any plasmids, while resistant facultative isolates from the same source contained several plasmids. In 24 h, resistant strains of clostridia and Bacteroides volatilized 20 and 43% of the 203Hg2+ added to cultures, while Escherichia coli R100 and a sewage isolate of Enterobacter cloacae volatilized 63 and 27%, respectively, of the added 203Hg2+. Attempts to induce mercury resistance in the aerobic isolates were successful, but no induction was seen in the anaerobes. Thus, mercury resistance in these anaerobic isolates was neither inducible nor plasmid mediated. PMID:4005712

  8. Spore-Forming Bacteria that Resist Sterilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaDuc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2003-01-01

    A report presents a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of a bacterial species that has been found to be of the genus Bacillus and has been tentatively named B. odysseensis because it was isolated from surfaces of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft as part of continuing research on techniques for sterilizing spacecraft to prevent contamination of remote planets by terrestrial species. B. odysseensis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that forms round spores. The exosporium has been conjectured to play a role in the elevated resistance to sterilization. Research on the exosporium is proposed as a path toward improved means of sterilization, medical treatment, and prevention of biofouling.

  9. Promiscuous DNA and terramycin resistance in American Foulbrood bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terramycin (TM) is an antibiotic which has been used for decades to control the bacterial disease of honey bees called American Foulbrood (AFB). Within the past few years however, American Foulbrood bacteria resistant to TM have appeared. Broadly, this work gives an overview of bacterial antibiotic-...

  10. Efflux-Mediated Drug Resistance in Bacteria: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xian-Zhi; Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Drug efflux pumps play a key role in drug resistance and also serve other functions in bacteria. There has been a growing list of multidrug and drug-specific efflux pumps characterized from bacteria of human, animal, plant and environmental origins. These pumps are mostly encoded on the chromosome although they can also be plasmid-encoded. A previous article (Li X-Z and Nikaido H, Drugs, 2004; 64[2]: 159–204) had provided a comprehensive review regarding efflux-mediated drug resistance in bacteria. In the past five years, significant progress has been achieved in further understanding of drug resistance-related efflux transporters and this review focuses on the latest studies in this field since 2003. This has been demonstrated in multiple aspects that include but are not limited to: further molecular and biochemical characterization of the known drug efflux pumps and identification of novel drug efflux pumps; structural elucidation of the transport mechanisms of drug transporters; regulatory mechanisms of drug efflux pumps; determining the role of the drug efflux pumps in other functions such as stress responses, virulence and cell communication; and development of efflux pump inhibitors. Overall, the multifaceted implications of drug efflux transporters warrant novel strategies to combat multidrug resistance in bacteria. PMID:19678712

  11. Bacteria-Mineral Interactions on the Surfaces of Metal-Resistant Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Malkin, A J

    2010-03-24

    The extraordinary ability of indigenous microorganisms, like metal-resistant bacteria, for biotransformation of toxic compounds is of considerable interest for the emerging area of environmental bioremediation. However, the underlying mechanisms by which metal-resistant bacteria transform toxic compounds are currently unknown and await elucidation. The project's objective was to study stress-induced responses of metal-resistant bacteria to environmental changes and chemical stimulants. This project involved a multi-institutional collaboration of our LLNL group with the group of Dr. H.-Y. Holman (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). In this project, we have utilized metal-resistant bacteria Arthrobacter oxydans as a model bacterial system. We have utilized atomic force microscopy (AFM) to visualize for the first time at the nanometer scale formation of stress-induced structures on bacterial surfaces in response to Cr (VI) exposure. We have demonstrated that structure, assembly, and composition of these stress-induced structures are dependent on Cr (VI) concentrations. Our AFM observations of the appearance and development of stress-induced layers on the surfaces of Arthrobacter oxydans bacteria exposed to Cr (VI) were confirmed by Dr. Holman's biochemical, electron microscopy, and synchrotron infrared spectromicroscopy studies. In general, in vitro imaging of live microbial and cellular systems represents one of the most challenging issues in application of AFM. Various approaches for immobilization of bacteria on the substrate for in vitro imaging were tested in this project. Imaging of live bacteria was achieved, however further optimization of experimental methods are needed for high-resolution visualization of the cellular environmental structural dynamics by AFM. This project enhanced the current insight into molecular architecture, structural and environmental variability of bacterial systems. The project partially funded research for two book chapters (1

  12. Carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria by healthy children.

    PubMed

    Millar, M R; Walsh, T R; Linton, C J; Zhang, S; Leeming, J P; Bennett, P M

    2001-05-01

    The frequency of carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in healthy 7- and 8-year-old children in Bristol was studied. Children born in Avon between 1 April 1991 and 31 December 1992, attending the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC) 7 year follow-up clinic, formed the study population. Carriage was estimated using mouth and stool samples. None of 105 children on whom information was available had received tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin or an extended-spectrum cephalosporin in the previous year. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from mouthwashes from 200 (37.1%) of 539 children sampled. Six (3%) of the isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol or tetracycline and four (2%) were methicillin resistant. Haemophilus spp. were isolated from 369 (72%) of 513 samples and 63 (17%) were ampicillin resistant, 49 (13.3%) were erythromycin resistant and seven (1.9%) were tetracycline resistant. Branhamella catarrhalis was isolated from 333 (74%) of 450 samples. Twenty-eight (8.4%) were erythromycin resistant and 14 (4.2%) strains were tetracycline resistant. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci were isolated from 17 of 507 children sampled. One (5.9%) was tetracycline resistant. Stool samples were returned from 335 (62%) of 539 children from whom they were requested. Eleven per cent of samples yielded Gram-negative bacilli with high-level resistance to chloramphenicol, which was frequently linked to resistance to ampicillin, spectinomycin and streptomycin. Isolates demonstrating resistance to the third-generation cephalosporin ceftazidime were recovered from 17 subjects (3.2%). Six (35%) of 17 isolates possessed extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Healthy children carry bacteria resistant to antibiotics to which children are not usually exposed. Resistance to ceftazidime, chloramphenicol and tetracycline may be co-selected by exposure to other antibiotics used in children or may be acquired from family members, pets, other children or

  13. Isolation and characterization of bacteria resistant to metallic copper surfaces.

    PubMed

    Santo, Christophe Espírito; Morais, Paula Vasconcelos; Grass, Gregor

    2010-03-01

    Metallic copper alloys have recently attracted attention as a new antimicrobial weapon for areas where surface hygiene is paramount. Currently it is not understood on a molecular level how metallic copper kills microbes, but previous studies have demonstrated that a wide variety of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium difficile, are inactivated within minutes or a few hours of exposure. In this study, we show that bacteria isolated from copper alloy coins comprise strains that are especially resistant against the toxic properties exerted by dry metallic copper surfaces. The most resistant of 294 isolates were Gram-positive staphylococci and micrococci, Kocuria palustris, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum but also included the proteobacterial species Sphingomonas panni and Pseudomonas oleovorans. Cells of some of these bacterial strains survived on copper surfaces for 48 h or more. Remarkably, when these dry-surface-resistant strains were exposed to moist copper surfaces, resistance levels were close to those of control strains and MICs for copper ions were at or below control strain levels. This suggests that mechanisms conferring resistance against dry metallic copper surfaces in these newly isolated bacterial strains are different from well-characterized copper ion detoxification systems. Furthermore, staphylococci on coins did not exhibit increased levels of resistance to antibiotics, arguing against coselection with copper surface resistance traits. PMID:20048058

  14. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria: a challenge for the food industry.

    PubMed

    Capita, Rosa; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were first described in the 1940s, but whereas new antibiotics were being discovered at a steady rate, the consequences of this phenomenon were slow to be appreciated. At present, the paucity of new antimicrobials coming into the market has led to the problem of antibiotic resistance fast escalating into a global health crisis. Although the selective pressure exerted by the use of antibiotics (particularly overuse or misuse) has been deemed the major factor in the emergence of bacterial resistance to these antimicrobials, concerns about the role of the food industry have been growing in recent years and have been raised at both national and international levels. The selective pressure exerted by the use of antibiotics (primary production) and biocides (e.g., disinfectants, food and feed preservatives, or decontaminants) is the main driving force behind the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance throughout the food chain. Genetically modified (GM) crops with antibiotic resistance marker genes, microorganisms added intentionally to the food chain (probiotic or technological) with potentially transferable antimicrobial resistance genes, and food processing technologies used at sub-lethal doses (e.g., alternative non-thermal treatments) are also issues for concern. This paper presents the main trends in antibiotic resistance and antibiotic development in recent decades, as well as their economic and health consequences, current knowledge concerning the generation, dissemination, and mechanisms of antibacterial resistance, progress to date on the possible routes for emergence of resistance throughout the food chain and the role of foods as a vehicle for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The main approaches to prevention and control of the development, selection, and spread of antibacterial resistance in the food industry are also addressed. PMID:23035919

  15. Fate of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Genes during Wastewater Chlorination: Implication for Antibiotic Resistance Control

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qing-Bin; Guo, Mei-Ting; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated fates of nine antibiotic-resistant bacteria as well as two series of antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treated by various doses of chlorine (0, 15, 30, 60, 150 and 300 mg Cl2 min/L). The results indicated that chlorination was effective in inactivating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Most bacteria were inactivated completely at the lowest dose (15 mg Cl2 min/L). By comparison, sulfadiazine- and erythromycin-resistant bacteria exhibited tolerance to low chlorine dose (up to 60 mg Cl2 min/L). However, quantitative real-time PCRs revealed that chlorination decreased limited erythromycin or tetracycline resistance genes, with the removal levels of overall erythromycin and tetracycline resistance genes at 0.42 ± 0.12 log and 0.10 ± 0.02 log, respectively. About 40% of erythromycin-resistance genes and 80% of tetracycline resistance genes could not be removed by chlorination. Chlorination was considered not effective in controlling antimicrobial resistance. More concern needs to be paid to the potential risk of antibiotic resistance genes in the wastewater after chlorination. PMID:25738838

  16. Multidrug-resistant bacteria in hematology patients: emerging threats.

    PubMed

    Tatarelli, Paola; Mikulska, Malgorzata

    2016-06-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, particularly Gram negatives, such as Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins or carbapenems and MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are increasingly frequent in hematology patients. The prevalence of different resistant species varies significantly between centers. Thus, the knowledge of local epidemiology is mandatory for deciding the most appr-opriate management protocols. In the era of increasing antibiotic resistance, empirical therapy of febrile neutropenia should be individualized. A de-escalation approach is recommended in case of severe clinical presentation in patients who are at high risk for infection with a resistant strain. Targeted therapy of an MDR Gram negative usually calls for a combination treatment, although no large randomized trials exist in this setting. Infection control measures are the cornerstone of limiting the spread of MDR pathogens in hematology units. PMID:27196948

  17. Heavy metal resistance in halophilic Bacteria and Archaea.

    PubMed

    Voica, Doriana Mădălina; Bartha, Laszlo; Banciu, Horia Leonard; Oren, Aharon

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metals are dense chemicals with dual biological role as micronutrients and intoxicants. A few hypersaline environmental systems are naturally enriched with heavy metals, while most metal-contaminated sites are a consequence of human activities. Numerous halotolerant and moderately halophilic Bacteria possess metal tolerance, whereas a few archaeal counterparts share similar features. The main mechanisms underlying heavy metal resistance in halophilic Bacteria and Archaea include extracellular metal sequestration by biopolymers, metal efflux mediated by specific transporters and enzymatic detoxification. Biotransformation of metals by halophiles has implications both for trace metal turnover in natural saline ecosystems and for development of novel bioremediation strategies. PMID:27279625

  18. Plasmid Mediated Antibiotic Resistance in Isolated Bacteria From Burned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beige, Fahimeh; Baseri Salehi, Majid; Bahador, Nima; Mobasherzadeh, Sina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, the treatment of burned patients is difficult because of the high frequency of infection with antibiotic resistance bacteria. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the level of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria and its relation with the existence of plasmid. Materials and Methods: The samples were collected from two hundred twenty hospitalized burned patients in Isfahan burn hospital during a three-month period (March 2012 to June 2012). The samples were isolated and the Gram-negative bacteria were identified using phenotypic method and API 20E System. Antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profile were determined by standard Agar disc diffusion and plasmid spin column extraction methods. Results: Totally 117 Gram-negative bacteria were isolated, the most common were Pseudomonas aerugionsa (37.6%), P. fluorescens (25.6%), Acinetobacter baumanii (20/5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.6%), respectively. The isolates showed high frequency of antibiotic resistance against ceftazidime and co-amoxiclave (100%) and low frequency of antibiotic resistance against amikacin with (70%).The results indicated that 60% of the isolates harboured plasmid. On the other hand, the patients infected with A. baumanii and P. aeruginosa were cured (with 60% frequency) whereas, those infected with P. fluorescens were not cured. Hence, probably antibiotic resistance markers of A. baumanii and P. aeruginosa are plasmid mediated; however, P. fluorescens is chromosomally mediated. Conclusions: Based on our findings, P. aerugionsa is a major causative agent of wound infections and amikacin could be considered as a more effective antibiotic for treatment of the burned patients. PMID:25789121

  19. 2nd U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159807.html 2nd U.S. Case of Bacteria Resistant to Last-Resort Antibiotic Scientists concerned it ... the United States who was infected with a bacteria that is resistant to an antibiotic of last ...

  20. Bacteria-bacteria interactions within the microbiota of the ancestral metazoan Hydra contribute to fungal resistance.

    PubMed

    Fraune, Sebastian; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Augustin, René; Franzenburg, Sören; Knop, Mirjam; Schröder, Katja; Willoweit-Ohl, Doris; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2015-07-01

    Epithelial surfaces of most animals are colonized by diverse microbial communities. Although it is generally agreed that commensal bacteria can serve beneficial functions, the processes involved are poorly understood. Here we report that in the basal metazoan Hydra, ectodermal epithelial cells are covered with a multilayered glycocalyx that provides a habitat for a distinctive microbial community. Removing this epithelial microbiota results in lethal infection by the filamentous fungus Fusarium sp. Restoring the complex microbiota in gnotobiotic polyps prevents pathogen infection. Although mono-associations with distinct members of the microbiota fail to provide full protection, additive and synergistic interactions of commensal bacteria are contributing to full fungal resistance. Our results highlight the importance of resident microbiota diversity as a protective factor against pathogen infections. Besides revealing insights into the in vivo function of commensal microbes in Hydra, our findings indicate that interactions among commensal bacteria are essential to inhibit pathogen infection. PMID:25514534

  1. Combination Approaches to Combat Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, Roberta J.; Melander, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria is a global health problem that is exacerbated by the dearth of novel classes of antibiotics entering the clinic over the past 40 years. Herein we describe recent developments toward combination therapies for the treatment of multi-drug resistant bacterial infections. These efforts include antibiotic-antibiotic combinations, and the development of adjuvants that either directly target resistance mechanisms such as the inhibition of β-lactamase enzymes, or indirectly target resistance by interfering with bacterial signaling pathways such as two-component systems. We also discuss screening of libraries of previously approved drugs to identify non-obvious antimicrobial adjuvants. PMID:23333434

  2. Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, P M

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria have existed on Earth for three billion years or so and have become adept at protecting themselves against toxic chemicals. Antibiotics have been in clinical use for a little more than 6 decades. That antibiotic resistance is now a major clinical problem all over the world attests to the success and speed of bacterial adaptation. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in bacteria are varied and include target protection, target substitution, antibiotic detoxification and block of intracellular antibiotic accumulation. Acquisition of genes needed to elaborate the various mechanisms is greatly aided by a variety of promiscuous gene transfer systems, such as bacterial conjugative plasmids, transposable elements and integron systems, that move genes from one DNA system to another and from one bacterial cell to another, not necessarily one related to the gene donor. Bacterial plasmids serve as the scaffold on which are assembled arrays of antibiotic resistance genes, by transposition (transposable elements and ISCR mediated transposition) and site-specific recombination mechanisms (integron gene cassettes). The evidence suggests that antibiotic resistance genes in human bacterial pathogens originate from a multitude of bacterial sources, indicating that the genomes of all bacteria can be considered as a single global gene pool into which most, if not all, bacteria can dip for genes necessary for survival. In terms of antibiotic resistance, plasmids serve a central role, as the vehicles for resistance gene capture and their subsequent dissemination. These various aspects of bacterial resistance to antibiotics will be explored in this presentation. PMID:18193080

  3. Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bennett, P M

    2008-03-01

    Bacteria have existed on Earth for three billion years or so and have become adept at protecting themselves against toxic chemicals. Antibiotics have been in clinical use for a little more than 6 decades. That antibiotic resistance is now a major clinical problem all over the world attests to the success and speed of bacterial adaptation. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in bacteria are varied and include target protection, target substitution, antibiotic detoxification and block of intracellular antibiotic accumulation. Acquisition of genes needed to elaborate the various mechanisms is greatly aided by a variety of promiscuous gene transfer systems, such as bacterial conjugative plasmids, transposable elements and integron systems, that move genes from one DNA system to another and from one bacterial cell to another, not necessarily one related to the gene donor. Bacterial plasmids serve as the scaffold on which are assembled arrays of antibiotic resistance genes, by transposition (transposable elements and ISCR mediated transposition) and site-specific recombination mechanisms (integron gene cassettes).The evidence suggests that antibiotic resistance genes in human bacterial pathogens originate from a multitude of bacterial sources, indicating that the genomes of all bacteria can be considered as a single global gene pool into which most, if not all, bacteria can dip for genes necessary for survival. In terms of antibiotic resistance, plasmids serve a central role, as the vehicles for resistance gene capture and their subsequent dissemination. These various aspects of bacterial resistance to antibiotics will be explored in this presentation. PMID:18193080

  4. Linking microbial community structure and function to characterize antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistant genes from cattle feces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is widespread interest in monitoring the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in agriculturally impacted environments, however little is known about the relationships between bacterial community structure, and antibiotic resistance gene profiles. Cattl...

  5. Metagenomic Insights into Transferable Antibiotic Resistance in Oral Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sukumar, S; Roberts, A P; Martin, F E; Adler, C J

    2016-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance is considered one of the greatest threats to global public health. Resistance is often conferred by the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which are readily found in the oral microbiome. In-depth genetic analyses of the oral microbiome through metagenomic techniques reveal a broad distribution of ARGs (including novel ARGs) in individuals not recently exposed to antibiotics, including humans in isolated indigenous populations. This has resulted in a paradigm shift from focusing on the carriage of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria to a broader concept of an oral resistome, which includes all resistance genes in the microbiome. Metagenomics is beginning to demonstrate the role of the oral resistome and horizontal gene transfer within and between commensals in the absence of selective pressure, such as an antibiotic. At the chairside, metagenomic data reinforce our need to adhere to current antibiotic guidelines to minimize the spread of resistance, as such data reveal the extent of ARGs without exposure to antimicrobials and the ecologic changes created in the oral microbiome by even a single dose of antibiotics. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of metagenomics in the investigation of the oral resistome, including the transmission of antibiotic resistance in the oral microbiome. Future perspectives, including clinical implications of the findings from metagenomic investigations of oral ARGs, are also considered. PMID:27183895

  6. Determinants of Genetic Diversity of Spontaneous Drug Resistance in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Couce, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Rojas, Alexandro; Blázquez, Jesús

    2016-07-01

    Any pathogen population sufficiently large is expected to harbor spontaneous drug-resistant mutants, often responsible for disease relapse after antibiotic therapy. It is seldom appreciated, however, that while larger populations harbor more mutants, the abundance distribution of these mutants is expected to be markedly uneven. This is because a larger population size allows early mutants to expand for longer, exacerbating their predominance in the final mutant subpopulation. Here, we investigate the extent to which this reduction in evenness can constrain the genetic diversity of spontaneous drug resistance in bacteria. Combining theory and experiments, we show that even small variations in growth rate between resistant mutants and the wild type result in orders-of-magnitude differences in genetic diversity. Indeed, only a slight fitness advantage for the mutant is enough to keep diversity low and independent of population size. These results have important clinical implications. Genetic diversity at antibiotic resistance loci can determine a population's capacity to cope with future challenges (i.e., second-line therapy). We thus revealed an unanticipated way in which the fitness effects of antibiotic resistance can affect the evolvability of pathogens surviving a drug-induced bottleneck. This insight will assist in the fight against multidrug-resistant microbes, as well as contribute to theories aimed at predicting cancer evolution. PMID:27182949

  7. Antibiotic resistance shaping multi-level population biology of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Fernando; Tedim, Ana P.; Coque, Teresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics have natural functions, mostly involving cell-to-cell signaling networks. The anthropogenic production of antibiotics, and its release in the microbiosphere results in a disturbance of these networks, antibiotic resistance tending to preserve its integrity. The cost of such adaptation is the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes, and of all genetic and cellular vehicles in which these genes are located. Selection of the combinations of the different evolutionary units (genes, integrons, transposons, plasmids, cells, communities and microbiomes, hosts) is highly asymmetrical. Each unit of selection is a self-interested entity, exploiting the higher hierarchical unit for its own benefit, but in doing so the higher hierarchical unit might acquire critical traits for its spread because of the exploitation of the lower hierarchical unit. This interactive trade-off shapes the population biology of antibiotic resistance, a composed-complex array of the independent “population biologies.” Antibiotics modify the abundance and the interactive field of each of these units. Antibiotics increase the number and evolvability of “clinical” antibiotic resistance genes, but probably also many other genes with different primary functions but with a resistance phenotype present in the environmental resistome. Antibiotics influence the abundance, modularity, and spread of integrons, transposons, and plasmids, mostly acting on structures present before the antibiotic era. Antibiotics enrich particular bacterial lineages and clones and contribute to local clonalization processes. Antibiotics amplify particular genetic exchange communities sharing antibiotic resistance genes and platforms within microbiomes. In particular human or animal hosts, the microbiomic composition might facilitate the interactions between evolutionary units involved in antibiotic resistance. The understanding of antibiotic resistance implies expanding our knowledge on multi

  8. Mechanisms of Resistance in Bacteria: An Evolutionary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana; Hunyadi, Attila; Amaral, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of resistance is one of the major causes of failure in therapy of bacterial infections. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), thousands of deaths caused by Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus or Mycobacteria tuberculosis are due to failure in therapy caused by resistance to the chemotherapeutic agents. Understanding the mechanisms of resistance acquisition by the bacterial strains is therefore essential to prevent and overcome resistance. However, it is very difficult to extrapolate from in vitro studies, where the variables are far less and under constant control, as compared to what happens in vivo where the chosen chemotherapeutic, its effective dose, and the patient’s immune system are variables that differ substantially case-by-case. The aim of this review is to provide a new perspective on the possible ways by which resistance is acquired by the bacterial strains within the patient, with a special emphasis on the adaptive response of the infecting bacteria to the administered antibiotic. PMID:23560029

  9. Fate of antibiotic resistant cultivable heterotrophic bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songhe; Han, Bing; Gu, Ju; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Ma, Yanyan; Cao, Jiashun; He, Zhenli

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging contaminants of environmental concern. Heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge have an important role in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, the fate of cultivable heterotrophic ARB and ARGs in WWPTs process remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the antibiotic-resistant phenotypes of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria from influent and effluent water of three WWTPs and analysed thirteen ARGs in ARB and in activated sludge from anoxic, anaerobic and aerobic compartments. From each influent or effluent sample of the three plants, 200 isolates were randomly tested for susceptibility to 12 antibiotics. In these samples, between 5% and 64% isolates showed resistance to >9 antibiotics and the proportion of >9-drug-resistant bacteria was lower in isolates from effluent than from influent. Eighteen genera were identified in 188 isolates from influent (n=94) and effluent (n=94) of one WWTP. Six genera (Aeromonas, Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Microbacterium, Providencia, and Staphylococcus) were detected in both influent and effluent samples. Gram-negative and -positive isolates dominated in influent and effluent, respectively. The 13 tetracycline-, sulphonamide-, streptomycin- and β-lactam-resistance genes were detected at a higher frequency in ARB from influent than from effluent, except for sulA and CTX-M, while in general, the abundances of ARGs in activated sludge from two of the three plants were higher in aerobic compartments than in anoxic ones, indicating abundant ARGs exit in the excess sledges and/or in uncultivable bacteria. These findings may be useful for elucidating the effect of WWTP on ARB and ARGs. PMID:25950407

  10. [Resistant gram-negative bacteria. Therapeutic approach and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Salgado, P; Gilsanz, F; Maseda, E

    2016-09-01

    The rapid spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria has become a serious threat, especially in critical care units, thereby prolonging the hospital stay. Enterobacteriaceae have a high capacity to adapt to any environment. Plasmids are the reason behind their expansion. The choice of empiric therapy for intra-abdominal or urinary infections requires knowledge of the intrinsic microbiological variability of each hospital or critical care unit, as well as the source of infection, safety or antibiotic toxicity, interaction with other drugs, the dosage regimen and the presence of risk factors. Carbapenems are the drug of choice in the case of suspected infection by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The new ceftazidime/avibactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam drugs are opening up promising new horizons in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:27608309

  11. Antibiotic resistance of gram-negative bacteria in rivers, United States.

    PubMed

    Ash, Ronald J; Mauck, Brena; Morgan, Melissa

    2002-07-01

    Bacteria with intrinsic resistance to antibiotics are found in nature. Such organisms may acquire additional resistance genes from bacteria introduced into soil or water, and the resident bacteria may be the reservoir or source of widespread resistant organisms found in many environments. We isolated antibiotic-resistant bacteria in freshwater samples from 16 U.S. rivers at 22 sites and measured the prevalence of organisms resistant to beta-lactam and non-beta-lactam antibiotics. Over 40% of the bacteria resistant to more than one antibiotic had at least one plasmid. Ampicillin resistance genes, as well as other resistance traits, were identified in 70% of the plasmids. The most common resistant organisms belonged to the following genera: Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, and Serratia. PMID:12095440

  12. Antibiotic Resistance of Gram-Negative Bacteria in Rivers, United States

    PubMed Central

    Mauck, Brena; Morgan, Melissa

    2002-01-01

    Bacteria with intrinsic resistance to antibiotics are found in nature. Such organisms may acquire additional resistance genes from bacteria introduced into soil or water, and the resident bacteria may be the reservoir or source of widespread resistant organisms found in many environments. We isolated antibiotic-resistant bacteria in freshwater samples from 16 U.S. rivers at 22 sites and measured the prevalence of organisms resistant to β-lactam and non β-lactam antibiotics. Over 40% of the bacteria resistant to more than one antibiotic had at least one plasmid. Ampicillin resistance genes, as well as other resistance traits, were identified in 70% of the plasmids. The most common resistant organisms belonged to the following genera: Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, and Serratia. PMID:12095440

  13. Mobile antibiotic resistance - the spread of genes determining the resistance of bacteria through food products.

    PubMed

    Godziszewska, Jolanta; Guzek, Dominika; Głąbski, Krzysztof; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, more and more antibiotics have become ineffective in the treatment of bacterial nfections. The acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria is associated with circulation of genes in the environment. Determinants of antibiotic resistance may be transferred to pathogenic bacteria. It has been shown that conjugation is one of the key mechanisms responsible for spread of antibiotic resistance genes, which is highly efficient and allows the barrier to restrictions and modifications to be avoided. Some conjugative modules enable the transfer of plasmids even between phylogenetically distant bacterial species. Many scientific reports indicate that food is one of the main reservoirs of these genes. Antibiotic resistance genes have been identified in meat products, milk, fruits and vegetables. The reason for such a wide spread of antibiotic resistance genes is the overuse of antibiotics by breeders of plants and animals, as well as by horizontal gene transfer. It was shown, that resistance determinants located on mobile genetic elements, which are isolated from food products, can easily be transferred to another niche. The antibiotic resistance genes have been in the environment for 30 000 years. Their removal from food products is not possible, but the risks associated with the emergence of multiresistant pathogenic strains are very large. The only option is to control the emergence, selection and spread of these genes. Therefore measures are sought to prevent horizontal transfer of genes. Promising concepts involve the combination of developmental biology, evolution and ecology in the fight against the spread of antibiotic resistance. PMID:27383577

  14. Adaptive resistance to antibiotics in bacteria: a systems biology perspective.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Motta, Santiago; Aldana, Maximino

    2016-05-01

    Despite all the major breakthroughs in antibiotic development and treatment procedures, there is still no long-term solution to the bacterial antibiotic resistance problem. Among all the known types of resistance, adaptive resistance (AdR) is particularly inconvenient. This phenotype is known to emerge as a consequence of concentration gradients, as well as contact with subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics, both known to occur in human patients and livestock. Moreover, AdR has been repeatedly correlated with the appearance of multidrug resistance, although the biological processes behind its emergence and evolution are not well understood. Epigenetic inheritance, population structure and heterogeneity, high mutation rates, gene amplification, efflux pumps, and biofilm formation have all been reported as possible explanations for its development. Nonetheless, these concepts taken independently have not been sufficient to prevent AdR's fast emergence or to predict its low stability. New strains of resistant pathogens continue to appear, and none of the new approaches used to kill them (mixed antibiotics, sequential treatments, and efflux inhibitors) are completely efficient. With the advent of systems biology and its toolsets, integrative models that combine experimentally known features with computational simulations have significantly improved our understanding of the emergence and evolution of the adaptive-resistant phenotype. Apart from outlining these findings, we propose that one of the main cornerstones of AdR in bacteria, is the conjunction of two types of mechanisms: one rapidly responding to transient environmental challenges but not very efficient, and another much more effective and specific, but developing on longer time scales. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:253-267. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1335 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27103502

  15. [Antibiotic resistance of bacteria to 6 antibiotics in secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants].

    PubMed

    Lu, Sun-Qin; Li, Yi; Huang, Jing-Jing; Wei, Bin; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2011-11-01

    Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in wastewater effluents is concerned as an emerging contaminant. To estimate antibiotic resistance in secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants, antibiotic tolerance of heterotrophic bacteria, proportion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and hemi-inhibitory concentrations of six antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, cefalexin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and rifampicin) were determined at two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Beijing. The results showed that proportions of ampicillin-resistant bacteria in WWTP-G and chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria in WWTP-Q were highest to 59% and 44%, respectively. The concentrations of ampicillin-resistant bacteria in the effluents of WWTP-G and WWTP-Q were as high as 4.0 x 10(3) CFU x mL(-1) and 3.5 x 10(4) CFU x mL(-1), respectively; the concentrations of chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria were 4.9 x 10(2) CFU x mL(-1) and 4.6 x 10(4) CFU x mL(-1), respectively. The data also indicated that the hemi-inhibitory concentrations of heterotrophic bacteria to 6 antibiotics were much higher than common concentrations of antibiotics in sewages, which suggested that antibiotic-resistant bacteria could exist over a long period in the effluents with low concentrations of antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria could be a potential microbial risk during sewage effluent reuse or emission into environmental waters. PMID:22295644

  16. Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Al-Jassim, Nada; Ansari, Mohd Ikram; Mackie, Roderick I

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity is a global problem, and is particularly acute in certain regions like Africa, the Middle East, as well as the western states of America. A breakdown on water usage revealed that 70% of freshwater supplies are used for agricultural irrigation. The use of reclaimed water as an alternative water source for agricultural irrigation would greatly alleviate the demand on freshwater sources. This paradigm shift is gaining momentum in several water scarce countries like Saudi Arabia. However, microbial problems associated with reclaimed water may hinder the use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation. Of particular concern is that the occurrence of antibiotic residues in the reclaimed water can select for antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. Antibiotic resistance genes can be associated with mobile genetic elements, which in turn allow a promiscuous transfer of resistance traits from one bacterium to another. Together with the pathogens that are present in the reclaimed water, antibiotic resistant bacteria can potentially exchange mobile genetic elements to create the "perfect microbial storm". Given the significance of this issue, a deeper understanding of the occurrence of antibiotics in reclaimed water, and their potential influence on the selection of resistant microorganisms would be essential. In this review paper, we collated literature over the past two decades to determine the occurrence of antibiotics in municipal wastewater and livestock manure. We then discuss how these antibiotic resistant bacteria may impose a potential microbial risk to the environment and public health, and the knowledge gaps that would have to be addressed in future studies. Overall, the collation of the literature in wastewater treatment and agriculture serves to frame and identify potential concerns with respect to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in reclaimed water. PMID:27029309

  17. Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Al-Jassim, Nada; Ansari, Mohd Ikram; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity is a global problem, and is particularly acute in certain regions like Africa, the Middle East, as well as the western states of America. A breakdown on water usage revealed that 70% of freshwater supplies are used for agricultural irrigation. The use of reclaimed water as an alternative water source for agricultural irrigation would greatly alleviate the demand on freshwater sources. This paradigm shift is gaining momentum in several water scarce countries like Saudi Arabia. However, microbial problems associated with reclaimed water may hinder the use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation. Of particular concern is that the occurrence of antibiotic residues in the reclaimed water can select for antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. Antibiotic resistance genes can be associated with mobile genetic elements, which in turn allow a promiscuous transfer of resistance traits from one bacterium to another. Together with the pathogens that are present in the reclaimed water, antibiotic resistant bacteria can potentially exchange mobile genetic elements to create the “perfect microbial storm”. Given the significance of this issue, a deeper understanding of the occurrence of antibiotics in reclaimed water, and their potential influence on the selection of resistant microorganisms would be essential. In this review paper, we collated literature over the past two decades to determine the occurrence of antibiotics in municipal wastewater and livestock manure. We then discuss how these antibiotic resistant bacteria may impose a potential microbial risk to the environment and public health, and the knowledge gaps that would have to be addressed in future studies. Overall, the collation of the literature in wastewater treatment and agriculture serves to frame and identify potential concerns with respect to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in reclaimed water. PMID:27029309

  18. Hexavalent chromium-resistant bacteria isolated from river sediments.

    PubMed Central

    Luli, G W; Talnagi, J W; Strohl, W R; Pfister, R M

    1983-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known carcinogen and mutagen; however, the actual mechanisms of Cr toxicity are unknown. Two approaches were used to isolate Cr(VI)-resistant bacteria from metal-contaminated river sediments. Diluted sediments were plated directly onto a peptone-yeast extract (PYE) medium containing 0 to 100 micrograms of Cr(VI) ml-1. Approximately 8.4 x 10(5) CFU g-1 were recovered on 0 microgram of Cr(VI) ml-1, whereas 4.0 x 10(2) CFU g-1 were recovered on PYE plus 100 micrograms of Cr(VI) ml-1. Alternatively, continuous culture enrichment techniques were employed using PYE and 100 micrograms Cr(VI) ml-1 input at dilution rates of 0.02 and 0.10 h-1. After six residence periods, 10(9) CFU were recovered on PYE agar containing 0 microgram of Cr(VI) ml-1 and 10(7) CFU on PYE agar plus 100 micrograms of Cr(VI) ml-1. Of 89 isolates obtained by direct plating onto PYE, 47% were resistant to 100 micrograms of Cr(VI) ml-1, and 29% were resistant to 250 micrograms of Cr(VI) ml-1. When the same isolates were plated onto PYE containing Cr(III), 88% were resistant to 100 micrograms ml-1 but only 2% were resistant to 250 micrograms ml-1. Cr, Co, Sb, and Zn were found in significantly higher concentrations at an industry-related contaminated site than at a site 11 km downstream. Total Cr in the sediments at the contaminated site averaged 586 micrograms (dry weight) g-1, and the downstream site averaged 71 micrograms (dry weight) g-1. The Cr recovered from acid-digested Ottawa River sediment samples was predominantly hexavalent. Five acid digestion procedures followed by atomic absorption spectroscopy were compared and found to be 30 to 70% efficient for recovery of Cr relative to neutron activation analysis. A population of aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria was recovered from sediments containing elevated levels of Cr.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6639032

  19. A review of the influence of treatment strategies on antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Virender K; Johnson, Natalie; Cizmas, Leslie; McDonald, Thomas J; Kim, Hyunook

    2016-05-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in the aquatic environment have become an emerging contaminant issue, which has implications for human and ecological health. This review begins with an introduction to the occurrence of ARB and ARG in different environmental systems such as natural environments and drinking water resources. For example, ARG or ARB with resistance to ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, quinolone, vancomycin, or tetracycline (e.g., tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), tet(G), tet(O), tet(M), tet(W), sul I, and sul II) have been detected in the environment. The development of resistance may be intrinsic, may be acquired through spontaneous mutations (de novo), or may occur due to horizontal gene transfer from donor bacteria, phages, or free DNA to recipient bacteria. An overview is also provided of the current knowledge regarding inactivation of ARB and ARG, and the mechanism of the effects of different disinfection processes in water and wastewater (chlorination, UV irradiation, Fenton reaction, ozonation, and photocatalytic oxidation). The effects of constructed wetlands and nanotechnology on ARB and ARG are also summarized. PMID:26775188

  20. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the Hudson River Estuary linked to wet weather sewage contamination.

    PubMed

    Young, Suzanne; Juhl, Andrew; O'Mullan, Gregory D

    2013-06-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin were assessed in waterways of the New York City metropolitan area using culture-dependent approaches and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of resultant isolates. Resistant microbes were detected at all 10 sampling sites in monthly research cruises on the lower Hudson River Estuary (HRE), with highest concentrations detected at nearshore sites. Higher frequency sampling was conducted in Flushing Bay, to enumerate resistant microbes under both dry and wet weather conditions. Concentrations of ampicillin- and tetracycline-resistant bacteria, in paired samples, were positively correlated with one another and increased following precipitation. Counts of the fecal indicator, Enterococcus, were positively correlated with levels of resistant bacteria, suggesting a shared sewage-associated source. Analysis of 16S rRNA from isolates identified a phylogenetically diverse group of resistant bacteria, including genera containing opportunistic pathogens. The occurrence of Enterobacteriaceae, a family of enteric bacteria, was found to be significantly higher in resistant isolates compared to total heterotrophic bacteria and increased following precipitation. This study is the first to document the widespread distribution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the HRE and to demonstrate clearly a link between the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and levels of sewage-associated bacteria in an estuary. PMID:23708577

  1. Relationship between antibiotic- and disinfectant-resistance profiles in bacteria harvested from tap water.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sadia; Beattie, Tara K; Knapp, Charles W

    2016-06-01

    Chlorination is commonly used to control levels of bacteria in drinking water; however, viable bacteria may remain due to chlorine resistance. What is concerning is that surviving bacteria, due to co-selection factors, may also have increased resistance to common antibiotics. This would pose a public health risk as it could link resistant bacteria in the natural environment to human population. Here, we investigated the relationship between chlorine- and antibiotic-resistances by harvesting 148 surviving bacteria from chlorinated drinking-water systems and compared their susceptibilities against chlorine disinfectants and antibiotics. Twenty-two genera were isolated, including members of Paenibacillus, Burkholderia, Escherichia, Sphingomonas and Dermacoccus species. Weak (but significant) correlations were found between chlorine-tolerance and minimum inhibitory concentrations against the antibiotics tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole and amoxicillin, but not against ciprofloxacin; this suggest that chlorine-tolerant bacteria are more likely to also be antibiotic resistant. Further, antibiotic-resistant bacteria survived longer than antibiotic-sensitive organisms when exposed to free chlorine in a contact-time assay; however, there were little differences in susceptibility when exposed to monochloramine. Irrespective of antibiotic-resistance, spore-forming bacteria had higher tolerance against disinfection compounds. The presence of chlorine-resistant bacteria surviving in drinking-water systems may carry additional risk of antibiotic resistance. PMID:26966812

  2. Monitoring and Comparison of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Their Resistance Genes in Municipal and Hospital Wastewaters

    PubMed Central

    Aali, Rahim; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Khanahmad, Hossein; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human exposure to antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) is a public health concern which could occur in a number of ways. Wastewaters seem to play an important role in the dissemination of bacteria and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) in our environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of three groups of ARB and their resistance genes in hospital and municipal wastewaters (MWs) as possible sources. Methods: A total of 66 samples were collected from raw MWs and hospital wastewaters (HWs) and final effluents of related wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Samples were analyzed for the detection of three groups of ARB including gentamicin (GM), chloramphenicol (CHL) and ceftazidime resistant bacteria and their ARGs (aac (3)-1, cmlA1 and ctx-m-32, respectively). Results: The mean concentration of GM, CHL and ceftazidime resistant bacteria in raw wastewater samples was 1.24 × 107, 3.29 × 107 and 5.54 × 107 colony forming unit/100 ml, respectively. There is a variation in prevalence of different groups of ARB in MWs and HWs. All WWTPs decreased the concentration of ARB. However, high concentration of ARB was found in the final effluent of WWTPs. Similar to ARB, different groups of ARGs were found frequently in both MWs and HWs. All genes also detected with a relative high frequency in effluent samples of MWs WWTPs. Conclusions: Discharge of final effluent from conventional WWTPs is a potential route for dissemination of ARB and ARGs into the natural environment and poses a hazard to environmental and public health. PMID:25105001

  3. Bacteriophages as potential treatment option for antibiotic resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Robert; van der Westhuizen, Wouter; Lee, Ji-Yun; Coetsee, Elke; Boucher, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The world is facing an ever-increasing problem with antibiotic resistant bacteria and we are rapidly heading for a post-antibiotic era. There is an urgent need to investigate alterative treatment options while there are still a few antibiotics left. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically target bacteria. Before the development of antibiotics, some efforts were made to use bacteriophages as a treatment option, but most of this research stopped soon after the discovery of antibiotics. There are two different replication options which bacteriophages employ. These are the lytic and lysogenic life cycles. Both these life cycles have potential as treatment options. There are various advantages and disadvantages to the use of bacteriophages as treatment options. The main advantage is the specificity of bacteriophages and treatments can be designed to specifically target pathogenic bacteria while not negatively affecting the normal microbiota. There are various advantages to this. However, the high level of specificity also creates potential problems, the main being the requirement of highly specific diagnostic procedures. Another potential problem with phage therapy includes the development of immunity and limitations with the registration of phage therapy options. The latter is driving research toward the expression of phage genes which break the bacterial cell wall, which could then be used as a treatment option. Various aspects of phage therapy have been investigated in studies undertaken by our research group. We have investigated specificity of phages to various avian pathogenic E. coli isolates. Furthermore, the exciting NanoSAM technology has been employed to investigate bacteriophage replication and aspects of this will be discussed. PMID:24619620

  4. Computational modeling of drug-resistant bacteria. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    MacDougall, Preston

    2015-03-12

    Initial proposal summary: The evolution of antibiotic-resistant mutants among bacteria (superbugs) is a persistent and growing threat to public health. In many ways, we are engaged in a war with these microorganisms, where the corresponding arms race involves chemical weapons and biological targets. Just as advances in microelectronics, imaging technology and feature recognition software have turned conventional munitions into smart bombs, the long-term objectives of this proposal are to develop highly effective antibiotics using next-generation biomolecular modeling capabilities in tandem with novel subatomic feature detection software. Using model compounds and targets, our design methodology will be validated with correspondingly ultra-high resolution structure-determination methods at premier DOE facilities (single-crystal X-ray diffraction at Argonne National Laboratory, and neutron diffraction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory). The objectives and accomplishments are summarized.

  5. [Gram-negative bacteria resistant to antibiotics in foods].

    PubMed

    Dias, J C; Hofer, E

    1985-01-01

    From 154 food samples, including vegetables (lettuce), milk and meals served at school it was possible to isolate and identify 400 Gram negative bacilli distributed among 339 enteric bacteria (Escherichia, Shigella, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia and Proteus) and other 61 non enteric bacilli (Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, Aeromonas and Pseudomonas). Submitting this cultures to the drugs sulfadiazine (Su), streptomycin (Sm), tetracycline (Tc), chloramphenicol (Cm), kanamycin (Km), ampicillin (Ap), nalidixic acid (Nal) and gentamycin (Gm) it was observed only six stocks susceptible to all drugs and total sensibility to Gm. Among enteric bacteria the profiles Su (27,6%) and Su-Ap (39,6%) predominated, while for the non enteric bacilli percentages of 18.0 for Ap and 9.8 for Su-Ap were detected. Aiming to better characterization of resistance, experiments of conjugation were made with standard strains of Escherichia coli K 12. Great concern was raised by the recognition of these cultures due to the elevated R+ taxes for the enteric bacilli that were close to 90% (milk and food at school) and about 70% in relation to lettuce. PMID:3837834

  6. Update: The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System Enteric Bacteria (NARMS): Animal Arm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing remains an important tool as investigators devise ways to arrest the development of antimicrobial resistance, particularly in food borne bacteria. In 1996, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) initiated the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System -...

  7. ‘Old’ antibiotics for emerging multidrug-resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Phillip J.; Landersdorfer, Cornelia B.; Lee, Hee Ji; Li, Jian; Nation, Roger L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Increased emergence of bacterial resistance and the decline in newly developed antibiotics have necessitated the reintroduction of previously abandoned antimicrobial agents active against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Having never been subjected to contemporary drug development procedures, these ‘old’ antibiotics require redevelopment in order to optimize therapy. This review focuses on colistin as an exemplar of a successful redevelopment process and briefly discusses two other old antibiotics, fusidic acid and fosfomycin. Recent findings Redevelopment of colistin led to an improved understanding of its chemistry, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, enabling important steps towards optimizing its clinical use in different patient populations. A scientifically based dosing algorithm was developed for critically ill patients, including those with renal impairment. As nephrotoxicity is a dose-limiting adverse event of colistin, rational combination therapy with other antibiotics needs to be investigated. Summary The example of colistin demonstrated that state-of-the-art analytical, microbiological and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic methods can facilitate optimized use of ‘old’ antibiotics in the clinic. Similar methods are now being applied to fosfomycin and fusidic acid in order to optimize therapy. To improve and preserve the usefulness of these antibiotics rational approaches for redevelopment need to be followed. PMID:23041772

  8. Distribution and Characterization of Kepone-Resistant Bacteria in the Aquatic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Orndorff, S. A.; Colwell, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of the chlorinated insecticide Kepone on the ecology of Chesapeake Bay and James River bacteria were studied. Kepone-resistant bacteria present in a given environment were found to reflect the degree of fecal and/or high organic pollution of the sampling sites, based on total numbers and generic composition of the populations of Kepone-resistant bacteria. The presence of Kepone-resistant bacteria was found to be correlated (α = 0.01) with total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and total aerobic viable heterotrophic bacteria, but not with Kepone concentration, since Kepone-resistant bacteria were present in locations where Kepone could not be detected by the analytical methods used in this study. Only gram-negative bacteria, predominantly Pseudomonas, Vibrio, and Aeromonas spp., were found to be resistant to ≥10 μg of Kepone per ml. Gram-positive bacteria, i.e., Bacillus and Corynebacterium spp., were generally sensitive to ≥0.1 μg of Kepone per ml. From results of cluster analysis of taxonomic data, we determined that characteristics of Kepone-resistant bacteria included: resistance to pesticides and heavy metals; degradation of oil; positive oxidase and catalase reactions; and nitrate reduction. From results of the ecological and taxonomic analyses, we conclude that Kepone resistance in estuarine bacteria is due to the physicochemical composition of the gram-negative cell wall and not prior exposure to Kepone. Therefore, the presence of Kepone-resistant bacteria cannot serve as an indicator of Kepone contamination in the aquatic environment where gram-negative bacteria are predominant. PMID:6155825

  9. Irrigation waters and pipe-based biofilms as sources for antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in environmental surface waters has gained recent attention. Wastewater- and drinking water distribution systems are known to disseminate antibiotic-resistant bacteria, with the biofilms that form on the inner-surfaces of the pipeline as a hotspot for pr...

  10. Chlortetracycline-Resistant Intestinal Bacteria in Organically Raised and Feral Swine ▿

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Thad B.; Humphrey, Samuel B.; Stoffregen, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Organically raised swine had high fecal populations of chlortetracycline (CTC)-resistant (growing at 64 μg CTC/ml) Escherichia coli, Megasphaera elsdenii, and anaerobic bacteria. By comparison, CTC-resistant bacteria in feral swine feces were over 1,000-fold fewer and exhibited lower taxonomic diversity. PMID:21821750

  11. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Yuhui; Tian, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB) in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1) non-treated; (2) chicken manure-treated and (3) organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB) and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB) in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health. PMID:27376311

  12. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Yuhui; Tian, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB) in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1) non-treated; (2) chicken manure-treated and (3) organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB) and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB) in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health. PMID:27376311

  13. Bloodstream infections in intensive care unit patients: distribution and antibiotic resistance of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Russotto, Vincenzo; Cortegiani, Andrea; Graziano, Giorgio; Saporito, Laura; Raineri, Santi Maurizio; Mammina, Caterina; Giarratano, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are among the leading infections in critically ill patients. The case-fatality rate associated with BSIs in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) reaches 35%–50%. The emergence and diffusion of bacteria with resistance to antibiotics is a global health problem. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were detected in 50.7% of patients with BSIs in a recently published international observational study, with methicillin resistance detected in 48% of Staphylococcus aureus strains, carbapenem resistance detected in 69% of Acinetobacter spp., in 38% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and in 37% of Pseudomonas spp. Prior hospitalization and antibiotic exposure have been identified as risk factors for infections caused by resistant bacteria in different studies. Patients with BSIs caused by resistant strains showed an increased risk of mortality, which may be explained by a higher incidence of inappropriate empirical therapy in different studies. The molecular genetic characterization of resistant bacteria allows the understanding of the most common mechanisms underlying their resistance and the adoption of surveillance measures. Knowledge of epidemiology, risk factors, mechanisms of resistance, and outcomes of BSIs caused by resistant bacteria may have a major influence on global management of ICU patients. The aim of this review is to provide the clinician an update on BSIs caused by resistant bacteria in ICU patients. PMID:26300651

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance and Resistance Genes in Aerobic Bacteria Isolated from Pork at Slaughter.

    PubMed

    Li, Lili; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Ye, Lei; Yan, He; Nie, Qing; Meng, Hecheng; Shi, Lei

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance, integrons, and transferability of resistance markers in 243 aerobic bacteria recovered from pork at slaughter in the People's Republic of China. The organisms belonged to 22 genera of gram-negative bacteria (92.2%) and gram-positive bacteria (7.8%). High levels of resistance were detected to tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ampicillin (36.2 to 54.3%), and lower levels were detected to nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol (7.8 to 29.2%). Across species, genes conferring antimicrobial resistance were observed with the following frequencies: blaTEM, 40.7%; blaCMY-2, 15.2%; blaCTX-M, 11.5%; sul2, 27.2%; sul1, 14.4%; tet(A), 5.4%; tet(L), 5.4%; tet(M), 5.0%; tet(E), 3.7%; tet(C), 3.3%; tet(S), 2.5%; and tet(K), 0.8%. Various antimicrobial resistance genes were found in new carriers: blaTEM in Lactococcus garvieae, Myroides odoratimimus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Staphylococcus sciuri, Raoultella terrigena, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Acinetobacter ursingii, Sphingobacterium sp., and Oceanobacillus sp.; blaCMY-2 in Lactococcus lactis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Myroides phaeus; tet(L) in M. caseolyticus; sul1 in Vibrio cincinnatiensis; sul2 in Acinetobacter bereziniae, Acinetobacter johnsonii, and V. cincinnatiensis; and the class 1 integron and gene cassette aadA2 in V. cincinnatiensis. Approximately 6.6% of isolates contained class 1 integrons, and one isolate harbored class 2 integrons. Plasmid associated intI1 and androgen receptor- encoding genes were transferred into Escherichia coli J53 and E. coli DH5α by conjugation and transformation experiments, respectively. Our study highlights the importance of aerobic bacteria from pork as reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance genes and mobile genetic elements that can readily be transferred intra- and interspecies. PMID:27052863

  15. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in the Community: Trends and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    van Duin, David; Paterson, David L

    2016-06-01

    Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are one of the most important threats to public health. Typically, MDR bacteria are associated with nosocomial infections. However, some MDR bacteria have become prevalent causes of community-acquired infections. The spread of MDR bacteria into the community is a crucial development, and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, health care costs, and antibiotic use. Factors associated with community dissemination of MDR bacteria overlap but are distinct from those associated with nosocomial spread. Prevention of further community spread of MDR bacteria is of the utmost importance, and requires a multidisciplinary approach involving all stakeholders. PMID:27208764

  16. Mechanisms of β-lactam antimicrobial resistance and epidemiology of major community- and healthcare-associated multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sarah S; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Hsu, Li Yang

    2014-11-30

    Alexander Fleming's discovery of penicillin heralded an age of antibiotic development and healthcare advances that are premised on the ability to prevent and treat bacterial infections both safely and effectively. The resultant evolution of antimicrobial resistant mechanisms and spread of bacteria bearing these genetic determinants of resistance are acknowledged to be one of the major public health challenges globally, and threatens to unravel the gains of the past decades. We describe the major mechanisms of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics - the most widely used and effective antibiotics currently - in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and also briefly detail the existing and emergent pharmacological strategies to overcome such resistance. The global epidemiology of the four major types of bacteria that are responsible for the bulk of antimicrobial-resistant infections in the healthcare setting - methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Enterobactericeae, and Acinetobacter baumannii - are also briefly described. PMID:25134490

  17. Amoeba-resisting bacteria found in multilamellar bodies secreted by Dictyostelium discoideum: social amoebae can also package bacteria.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Valérie E; Charette, Steve J

    2016-03-01

    Many bacteria can resist phagocytic digestion by various protozoa. Some of these bacteria (all human pathogens) are known to be packaged in multilamellar bodies produced in the phagocytic pathway of the protozoa and that are secreted into the extracellular milieu. Packaged bacteria are protected from harsh conditions, and the packaging process is suspected to promote bacterial persistence in the environment. To date, only a limited number of protozoa, belonging to free-living amoebae and ciliates, have been shown to perform bacteria packaging. It is still unknown if social amoebae can do bacteria packaging. The link between the capacity of 136 bacterial isolates to resist the grazing of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and to be packaged by this amoeba was investigated in the present study. The 45 bacterial isolates displaying a resisting phenotype were tested for their capacity to be packaged. A total of seven isolates from Cupriavidus, Micrococcus, Microbacterium and Rathayibacter genera seemed to be packaged and secreted by D. discoideum based on immunofluorescence results. Electron microscopy confirmed that the Cupriavidus and Rathayibacter isolates were formally packaged. These results show that social amoebae can package some bacteria from the environment revealing a new aspect of microbial ecology. PMID:26862140

  18. Low Prevalence of Carbapenem-Resistant Bacteria in River Water: Resistance Is Mostly Related to Intrinsic Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tacão, Marta; Correia, António; Henriques, Isabel S

    2015-10-01

    Carbapenems are last-resort antibiotics to handle serious infections caused by multiresistant bacteria. The incidence of resistance to these antibiotics has been increasing and new resistance mechanisms have emerged. The dissemination of carbapenem resistance in the environment has been overlooked. The main goal of this research was to assess the prevalence and diversity of carbapenem-resistant bacteria in riverine ecosystems. The presence of frequently reported carbapenemase-encoding genes was inspected. The proportion of imipenem-resistant bacteria was on average 2.24 CFU/ml. Imipenem-resistant strains (n=110) were identified as Pseudomonas spp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aeromonas spp., Chromobacterium haemolyticum, Shewanella xiamenensis, and members of Enterobacteriaceae. Carbapenem-resistant bacteria were highly resistant to other beta-lactams such as quinolones, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, tetracyclines, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Carbapenem resistance was mostly associated with intrinsically resistant bacteria. As intrinsic resistance mechanisms, we have identified the blaCphA gene in 77.3% of Aeromonas spp., blaL1 in all S. maltophilia, and blaOXA-48-like in all S. xiamenensis. As acquired resistance mechanisms, we have detected the blaVIM-2 gene in six Pseudomonas spp. (5.45%). Integrons with gene cassettes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides (aacA and aacC genes), trimethoprim (dfrB1b), and carbapenems (blaVIM-2) were found in Pseudomonas spp. Results suggest that carbapenem resistance dissemination in riverine ecosystems is still at an early stage. Nevertheless, monitoring these aquatic compartments for the presence of resistance genes and its host organisms is essential to outline strategies to minimize resistance dissemination. PMID:26430939

  19. Resistance to β-lactams in Bacteria Isolated from Different Types of Portuguese Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Paula; Fernandes, Ruben; Prudêncio, Cristina; Brito, Luísa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of β-lactam-resistant bacteria in six different types of Portuguese cheese. The numbers of ampicillin resistant (AMPr) bacteria varied from 4.7 × 102 to 1.5 × 107 CFU/g. Within 172 randomly selected β-lactam-resistant bacteria, 44 resistant phenotypes were found and 31.4% were multidrug resistant. The majority (85%) of the isolates identified belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae family. The presence of the blaTEM gene was detected in 80.9% of the tested isolates. The results suggest that without thermal processing of the milk and good hygienic practices, cheese may act as a vehicle of transfer of β-lactam-resistant bacteria to the gastrointestinal tract of consumers. PMID:19468324

  20. Copper-resistant bacteria enhance plant growth and copper phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Renxiu; Luo, Chunling; Chen, Yahua; Wang, Guiping; Xu, Yue; Shen, Zhenguo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of rhizospheric bacteria in solubilizing soil copper (Cu) and promoting plant growth. The Cu-resistant bacterium DGS6 was isolated from a natural Cu-contaminated soil and was identified as Pseudomonas sp. DGS6. This isolate solubilized Cu in Cu-contaminated soil and stimulated root elongation of maize and sunflower. Maize was more sensitive to inoculation with DGS6 than was sunflower and exhibited greater root elongation. In pot experiment, inoculation with DGS6 increased the shoot dry weight of maize by 49% and sunflower by 34%, and increased the root dry weight of maize by 85% and sunflower by 45%. Although the concentrations of Cu in inoculated and non-inoculated seedlings did not differ significantly, the total accumulation of Cu in the plants increased after inoculation. DGS6 showed a high ability to solubilize P and produce iron-chelating siderophores, as well as significantly improved the accumulation of P and Fe in both maize and sunflower shoots. In addition, DGS6 produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and ACC deaminase, which suggests that it may modulate ethylene levels in plants. The bacterial strain DGS6 could be a good candidate for re-vegetation of Cu-contaminated sites. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of International Journal of Phytoremediation to view the supplemental file. PMID:23819298

  1. Isolation and characterization of arsenic resistant bacteria from wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Syed Zaghum; Riaz, Mehwish; Ramzan, Naseem; Zahid, M. Tariq; Shakoori, Farah R.; Rafatullah, Mohd.

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposed the isolation of arsenic resistant bacteria from wastewater. Only three bacterial isolates (MNZ1, MNZ4 and MNZ6) were able to grow in high concentrations of arsenic. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of arsenic against MNZ1, MNZ4 and MNZ6 were 300 mg/L, 300 mg/L and 370 mg/L respectively. The isolated strains showed maximum growth at 37 °C and at 7.0 pH in control but in arsenite stress Luria Bertani broth the bacterial growth is lower than control. All strains were arsenite oxidizing. All strains were biochemically characterized and ribotyping (16S rRNA) was done for the purpose of identification which confirmed that MNZ1 was homologous to Enterobacter sp. while MNZ4 and MNZ6 showed their maximum homology with Klebsiella pneumoniae. The protein profiling of these strains showed in arsenic stressed and non stressed conditions, so no bands of induced proteins appeared in stressed conditions. The bacterial isolates can be exploited for bioremediation of arsenic containing wastes, since they seem to have the potential to oxidize the arsenite (more toxic) into arsenate (less toxic) form. PMID:25763035

  2. Combination of essential oils and antibiotics reduce antibiotic resistance in plasmid-conferred multidrug resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Lim, Swee Hua Erin; Hu, Cai Ping; Yiap, Beow Chin

    2013-06-15

    In this study we investigated the relationship between several selected commercially available essential oils and beta-lactam antibiotics on their antibacterial effect against multidrug resistant bacteria. The antibacterial activity of essential oils and antibiotics was assessed using broth microdilution. The combined effects between essential oils of cinnamon bark, lavender, marjoram, tea tree, peppermint and ampicillin, piperacillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, carbenicillin, ceftazidime, meropenem, were evaluated by means of the checkerboard method against beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. In the latter assays, fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values were calculated to characterize interaction between the combinations. Substantial susceptibility of the bacteria toward natural antibiotics and a considerable reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were noted in some paired combinations of antibiotics and essential oils. Out of 35 antibiotic-essential oil pairs tested, four of them showed synergistic effect (FIC≤0.5) and 31 pairs showed no interaction (FIC>0.5-4.0). The preliminary results obtained highlighted the occurrence of a pronounced synergistic relationship between piperacillin/cinnamon bark oil, piperacillin/lavender oil, piperacillin/peppermint oil as well as meropenem/peppermint oil against two of the three bacteria under study with a FIC index in the range 0.26-0.5. The finding highlighted the potential of peppermint, cinnamon bark and lavender essential oils being as antibiotic resistance modifying agent. Reduced usage of antibiotics could be employed as a treatment strategy to decrease the adverse effects and possibly to reverse the beta-lactam antibiotic resistance. PMID:23537749

  3. New trends in regulatory rules and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of animal origin.

    PubMed

    Martel, J L; Tardy, F; Sanders, P; Boisseau, J

    2001-01-01

    Since the introduction in the 1940s of antibiotics as drugs against bacterial infections in human and then veterinary medicine, two major events have caused a shift in the antibiotherapy era: (1) the emergence of resistant bacteria and (2) the awareness of the limits of new drug development. It rapidly became urgent to set up measures in order to evaluate the importance of resistant bacteria and their origin as well as to limit the dissemination of resistant vectors (bacteria and bacterial genes). This led to the establishment of guidelines and regulatory rules necessary for risk assessment and clearly dependent upon monitoring and research organisations. At a veterinary level, the possible dissemination of multiresistant bacteria from animals to humans, through feeding, urged various national European and international institutions to give general recommendations to monitor and contain the emergence and diffusion of resistant strains. This paper gives an overview of the evolution of regulatory rules and monitoring systems dealing with multiresistant bacteria. PMID:11432426

  4. Detection and Characterizations of Genes Resistant to Tetracycline and Sulfa among the Bacteria in Mariculture Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, L.; Li, Y.; Zhu, P.

    2013-12-01

    One hundred and thirty-five bacteria from maricultural environments were tested for sensitivity to tetracycline and sulfa. Result show that 72% of the bacteria were sulfa-resistant, 36% of the bacteria were tetracycline-resistant, and 16.5% of bacteria showed resistance to both tetracyclines and sulfa ,indicating that the proportion of sulfa and tetracycline resistance bacteria isvery large in the maricultural environments. PCR methods were used to detect if these resistant bacteria carry tetracycline and sulfa resistance genes. Out of the 33 tetracycline-resistant bacteria screened, 3 were positive for tetA, 6 were positive for tetB and no isolate wasboth positive for tetA and tetB. Of the 97 sulfa-resistant bacteria screened, 9 were positive for sul2, 6 were positive for sul1, 1 isolate was positive for bothsul1 and sul2. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tetracycline for tetA-carrying isolates were higher than those tetB-carrying isolates.while The MIC of sulfa for sul2-carrying isolates were higher than those sul1-carrying isolates. Indicating that tetA and sul2 gene may play ubknown roles in resisting tetracycline and sulfa than tetB and sul1 genes. The results showed the 4 kinds of genes (tetA,tetB,sul1,sul2) has no host specificity. All these 16S sequence are from the isolates which are positive for the above genes, it indicated the above antibiotic resistance genes are widespread in the environment regardless of the host. While the DNA sequence of these four genes showed tetA, sul1, sul2 genes are conservative in different bacteria , etB gene conserved poorly. The research aim is to get a preliminary understanding of resistance mechanism related to the resistant bacteria and the resistance genes in marine aquaculture environment through the analysis of resistant genes, providing research base for the prevention and treatment of drug-resistant bacteria so as to reduce the threat to the ecological environment, aquaculture and human health.

  5. Analysis of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in MDR bacteria by microarray and high-throughput sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a major concern in human and animal health. The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) was designed by the CDC, FDA, and USDA to monitor antimicrobial resistance in the U.S. The Bacterial Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Resistanc...

  6. Distribution and quantification of antibiotic resistance genes and bacteria across agricultural and non-agricultural metagenomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is concern that antibiotic resistance can potentially be transferred from animals to humans through the food chain. The relationship between specific antibiotic resistant bacteria and the genes they carry remains to be described and few details are known about how antibiotic resistance genes i...

  7. Presence of antimicrobial resistance in coliform bacteria from hatching broiler eggs with emphasis on ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mezhoud, H; Chantziaras, I; Iguer-Ouada, M; Moula, N; Garmyn, A; Martel, A; Touati, A; Smet, A; Haesebrouck, F; Boyen, F

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the most important global health challenges. Broilers are an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in general and, more particularly, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Since contamination of 1-day-old chicks is a potential risk factor for the introduction of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the broiler production chain, the presence of antimicrobial resistant coliform bacteria in broiler hatching eggs was explored in the present study. Samples from 186 hatching eggs, collected from 11 broiler breeder farms, were inoculated on MacConkey agar with or without ceftiofur and investigated for the presence of antimicrobial resistant lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae, particularly, ESBL/AmpC-producers. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were obtained from the eggshells in 10 out of 11 (10/11) sampled farms. The majority of the isolates were recovered from crushed eggshells after external decontamination suggesting that these bacteria are concealed from the disinfectants in the egg shell pores. Antimicrobial resistance testing revealed that approximately 30% of the isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulphonamides, while the majority of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides, florfenicol, neomycin and apramycin. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins was detected in eight Enterobacteriaceae isolates from five different broiler breeder farms. The ESBL phenotype was confirmed by the double disk synergy test and blaSHV-12, blaTEM-52 and blaACT-39 resistance genes were detected by PCR. This report is the first to present broiler hatching eggs as carriers and a potential source of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae for broiler chicks. PMID:27011291

  8. Correlation among extracellular polymeric substances, tetracycline resistant bacteria and tetracycline resistance genes under trace tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Huang, Man-hong; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Yu; Zhang, Wen

    2014-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance occurrences and proliferation in activated sludge have attracted more and more attention nowadays. However, the role which extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) plays on the antibiotic resistance is not clear. The changes and correlation among EPS, tetracycline (TC) resistant bacteria (TRB) and TC resistance genes (TRGs) of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were investigated. Performance of SBR without TC was compared with two other SBRs to which different amounts of TC were added. Total average EPS contents were found to increase significantly from 66 mg g−1 VSS to 181 mg g−1 VSS as the TC concentrations increased from 0 to 100 μg L−1. As the EPS content increased, TRB in sludge of the three SBRs increased significantly from 105 to 106 colony forming unit mL−1 after being exposed to TC. In addition, the concentrations of three groups of TRGs (copies mL−1) were determined by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction and followed the order: efflux pump genes > ribosome protected genes > degradation enzyme genes. The numbers of TRGs in the idle stage were larger than those in the aeration sludge. Correlation coefficients (R2) between EPS and TRB in sludge were 0.823 (p < 0.01) while the correlation between EPS and total TRGs was poor (R2 = 0.463, p > 0.05). But it showed the same tendency that EPS and TRGs in sludge increased with the increasing of TC. PMID:25461932

  9. Detection of tetracycline resistance genes in bacteria isolated from fish farms using polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Hedayatianfard, Keshvad; Akhlaghi, Mostafa; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Five common tetracycline resistance genes tet(A), tet(B), tet(M), tet(O) and tet(S) were studied by polymerase chain reaction in 100 bacteria isolated from Iranian fish farms. In the antibiogram test most of the bacteria were either intermediately or completely resistant to tetracycline. Nine isolates out of 46 Aeromonas spp. contained either tet(A/M/S) resistant genes as follows: tet(A) in A. veronii/sobria (n = 1), A. media (n = 2), A. aquariorum (n = 1), and A. veronii (n = 3); tet(M) in one isolate of A. sobria and tet(S) in 1 isolate of A. jandaei. In other bacteria, tet(A) gene was detected in Citrobacter freundi (n = 1), Pseudomonas putida (n = 1); tet(S) was also identified in Yersinia ruckeri (n = 1), Arthrobacter arilaitensis (n = 1) and P. putida (n = 1). In total, 31 isolates (31.00%) contained the tetracycline resistance genes in which 21 bacteria (21.00%) showed the tet(S), nine bacteria (9.00%) contained the tet(A) and 1 bacteria (1.00%) was positive for tet(M). All of the L. garvieae isolates contained tet(S) in this study. The most widely distributed resistance gene was gene tet(A) and the least known resistance genes was tet(M) among the studied bacteria of the genus Aeromonas in this study. PMID:25610578

  10. Irrigation waters and pipe-based biofilms as sources for antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Blaustein, Ryan A; Shelton, Daniel R; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S; Karns, Jeffrey S; Stocker, Matthew D; Pachepsky, Yakov A

    2016-01-01

    The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in environmental surface waters has gained recent attention. Wastewater and drinking water distribution systems are known to disseminate antibiotic-resistant bacteria, with the biofilms that form on the inner-surfaces of the pipeline as a hot spot for proliferation and gene exchange. Pipe-based irrigation systems that utilize surface waters may contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a similar manner. We conducted irrigation events at a perennial stream on a weekly basis for 1 month, and the concentrations of total heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms, as well as the concentrations of these bacterial groups that were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, were monitored at the intake water. Prior to each of the latter three events, residual pipe water was sampled and 6-in. sections of pipeline (coupons) were detached from the system, and biofilm from the inner-wall was removed and analyzed for total protein content and the above bacteria. Isolates of biofilm-associated bacteria were screened for resistance to a panel of seven antibiotics, representing five antibiotic classes. All of the monitored bacteria grew substantially in the residual water between irrigation events, and the biomass of the biofilm steadily increased from week to week. The percentages of biofilm-associated isolates that were resistant to antibiotics on the panel sometimes increased between events. Multiple-drug resistance was observed for all bacterial groups, most often for fecal coliforms, and the distributions of the numbers of antibiotics that the total coliforms and fecal coliforms were resistant to were subject to change from week to week. Results from this study highlight irrigation waters as a potential source for antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can subsequently become incorporated into and proliferate within irrigation pipe-based biofilms. PMID:26703979

  11. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria: prevalence in food and inactivation by food compatible compounds and plant extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria such as Campylobacter jejuni, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio cholerae can adversely affect animal and human health, but a better understanding of the factors involve...

  12. Surveillance of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria from Wastewater Effluents Across the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will inform the audience of the purpose and importance of the antibiotic resistant bacteria surveillances that have been conducted to date. And an overview of why the EPA is looking into this problem in wastewater effluents.

  13. Protist-Bacteria Associations: Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria Are Prevalent as Digestion-Resistant Bacteria in Ciliated Protozoa.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jun; Qing, Yao; Zou, Songbao; Fu, Rao; Su, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Qianqian

    2016-01-01

    Protistan bacterivory, a microbial process involving ingestion and digestion, is ecologically important in the microbial loop in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. While bacterial resistance to protistan ingestion has been relatively well understood, little is known about protistan digestion in which some ingested bacteria could not be digested in cells of major protistan grazers in the natural environment. Here we report the phylogenetic identities of digestion-resistant bacteria (DRB) that could survive starvation and form relatively stable associations with 11 marine and one freshwater ciliate species. Using clone library and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, we found that the protistan predators could host a high diversity of DRB, most of which represented novel bacterial taxa that have not been cultivated. The localization inside host cells, quantity, and viability of these bacteria were checked using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The DRB were affiliated with Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Parcubacteria (OD1), Planctomycetes, and Proteobacteria, with Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria being the most frequently occurring classes. The dominance of Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria corresponds well to a previous study of Global Ocean Sampling metagenomic data showing the widespread types of bacterial type VI and IV secretion systems (T6SS and T4SS) in these two taxa, suggesting a putatively significant role of secretion systems in promoting marine protist-bacteria associations. In the DRB assemblages, opportunistic bacteria such as Alteromonadaceae, Pseudoalteromonadaceae, and Vibrionaceae often presented with high proportions, indicating these bacteria could evade protistan grazing thus persist and accumulate in the community, which, however, contrasts with their well-known rarity in nature. This begs the question whether viral lysis is significant in killing these indigestible bacteria in microbial communities. Taken together, our study on

  14. Protist-Bacteria Associations: Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria Are Prevalent as Digestion-Resistant Bacteria in Ciliated Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jun; Qing, Yao; Zou, Songbao; Fu, Rao; Su, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Qianqian

    2016-01-01

    Protistan bacterivory, a microbial process involving ingestion and digestion, is ecologically important in the microbial loop in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. While bacterial resistance to protistan ingestion has been relatively well understood, little is known about protistan digestion in which some ingested bacteria could not be digested in cells of major protistan grazers in the natural environment. Here we report the phylogenetic identities of digestion-resistant bacteria (DRB) that could survive starvation and form relatively stable associations with 11 marine and one freshwater ciliate species. Using clone library and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, we found that the protistan predators could host a high diversity of DRB, most of which represented novel bacterial taxa that have not been cultivated. The localization inside host cells, quantity, and viability of these bacteria were checked using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The DRB were affiliated with Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Parcubacteria (OD1), Planctomycetes, and Proteobacteria, with Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria being the most frequently occurring classes. The dominance of Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria corresponds well to a previous study of Global Ocean Sampling metagenomic data showing the widespread types of bacterial type VI and IV secretion systems (T6SS and T4SS) in these two taxa, suggesting a putatively significant role of secretion systems in promoting marine protist-bacteria associations. In the DRB assemblages, opportunistic bacteria such as Alteromonadaceae, Pseudoalteromonadaceae, and Vibrionaceae often presented with high proportions, indicating these bacteria could evade protistan grazing thus persist and accumulate in the community, which, however, contrasts with their well-known rarity in nature. This begs the question whether viral lysis is significant in killing these indigestible bacteria in microbial communities. Taken together, our study on

  15. How are we making bacteria more resistant to antibiotics? Darwinian impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will address the Darwinian selection of genes of antibiotic resistance in food animals. Darwin’s concept of survival of the fittest is as critical when applied to bacteria as it is to animals. Bacteria live in a highly competitive environment that is similar to the macrobiologica...

  16. Ultraviolet disinfection of antibiotic resistant bacteria and their antibiotic resistance genes in water and wastewater.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Chad W; Pruden, Amy

    2012-12-18

    Disinfection of wastewater treatment plant effluent may be an important barrier for limiting the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARBs) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). While ideally disinfection should destroy ARGs, to prevent horizontal gene transfer to downstream bacteria, little is known about the effect of conventional water disinfection technologies on ARGs. This study examined the potential of UV disinfection to damage four ARGs, mec(A), van(A), tet(A), and amp(C), both in extracellular form and present within a host ARBs: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), Escherichia coli SMS-3-5, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 01, respectively. An extended amplicon-length quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was developed to enhance capture of ARG damage events and also to normalize to an equivalent length of target DNA (∼1000 bp) for comparison. It was found that the two Gram-positive ARBs (MRSA and VRE) were more resistant to UV disinfection than the two Gram-negative ARBs (E. coli and P. aeruginosa). The two Gram-positive organisms also possessed smaller total genome sizes, which could also have reduced their susceptibility to UV because of fewer potential pyrimidine dimer targets. An effect of cell type on damage to ARGs was only observed in VRE and P. aeruginosa, the latter potentially because of extracellular polymeric substances. In general, damage of ARGs required much greater UV doses (200-400 mJ/cm² for 3- to 4-log reduction) than ARB inactivation (10-20 mJ/cm² for 4- to 5-log reduction). The proportion of amplifiable ARGs following UV treatment exhibited a strong negative correlation with the number of adjacent thymines (Pearson r < -0.9; p < 0.0001). ARBs surviving UV treatment were negatively correlated with total genome size (Pearson r < -0.9; p < 0.0001) and adjacent cytosines (Pearson r < -0.88; p < 0.0001) but positively correlated with adjacent thymines (Pearson r

  17. High isolation rates of multidrug-resistant bacteria from water and carpets of mosques

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Ali, Mostafa Mohamed; Alemary, Fuoad; Alrtail, Amna; Rzeg, Moftah M.; Albakush, Abdulla M.; Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is little information regarding the isolation of antimicrobial-resistant potentially pathogenic bacteria from water and carpets of mosques worldwide. The objective of the present investigation is to determine the bacteriological quality of water and carpets of mosques in Elkhomes city in Libya. Methods Potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated from water samples (n=44) and dust samples from carpets (n=50) of 50 mosques in Elkhomes city, Libya, using standard bacteriological procedures. Susceptibility of isolated bacteria to antimicrobial agents was determined by the disc-diffusion method. Results Of the water samples examined, 12 (27.3%) were positive for Escherichia coli, 10 (22.7%) for Klebsiella spp., and 15 (34.1%) for other enteric bacteria. Of the dust samples of carpets examined, 6 (12%) were positive for E. coli, 33 (66%) for Klebsiella spp., and 30 (60%) for Staphylococcus spp. Multidrug resistance (MDR, resistance to three or more antimicrobial groups) was found among 48.7% (19/37) and 46.9% (30/64) of the examined enterobacteria from water and carpets, respectively, and among 66.7% (20/30) of Staphylococcus spp. from carpets. In addition, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from a carpet of one mosque. Conclusion Presence of multidrug-resistant potentially pathogenic bacteria in examined water and carpets indicate that mosques as communal environments may play a role in the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria in the community and pose a serious health risk to worshipers. PMID:25128691

  18. Antibiotic-resistant heterotrophic plate count bacteria and amoeba-resistant bacteria in aquifers of the Mooi River, North West province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Alewyn; Bartie, Catheleen; Dennis, Rainier; Bezuidenhout, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater in the Mooi River catchment is prone to mining, agricultural, municipal and septic tank pollution. In this study physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were determined using appropriate methods. Bacterial isolates were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing (heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria and amoeba-resistant bacteria (ARB)) and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (Escherichia coli). Antibiotic resistance tests were also performed. Physico-chemical parameters were generally within target water quality ranges for drinking water. HPC bacteria ranged between 10(5) and 10(7) colony-forming units (cfu)/ml. E. coli were enumerated from Trimpark, School and Cemetery. The Blaauwbank borehole was negative for faecal streptococci. Pseudomonas spp. were most abundant in the bulk water. Opportunistic pathogens isolated included Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium, Bacillus cereus and Mycobacterium spp. Varying patterns of antibiotic resistance were observed. Most HPC bacterial isolates were resistant to cephalothin and/or amoxicillin and a few were resistant to erythromycin and streptomycin. Pseudomonas spp. was also the most abundant ARB. Other ARBs included Alcaligenes faecalis, Ochrobactrum sp. and Achromobacter sp. ARBs were resistant to streptomycin, chloramphenicol, cephalothin, and/or amoxicillin compared to HPCs. The presence of E. coli and ARB in these groundwater sources indicates potential human health risks. These risks should be further investigated and quantified, and groundwater should be treated before use. PMID:25473993

  19. Distribution of drug-resistant bacteria and rational use of clinical antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, CHENLIANG; CHEN, XIAOBING; WU, LIWEN; QU, JING

    2016-01-01

    Open wound may lead to infection in patients. Due to overuse of medication, certain bacteria have become resistant to drugs currently available. The aim of the present study was to provide a guide to ameliorate the appropriate and rational use of clinical antimicrobial agents by analyzing the distribution of drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria in patients. Between October 2013 and January 2015, 126 patients were selected at the Department of Orthopedics. Wound secretion samples were collected, and the pathogen bacteria isolated and identified. Identification was performed using an automated identification instrument and the Kirby-Bauer antibiotic method was used to evaluate the bacterial resistance. Of the 126 patients, 118 patients were infected (infection rate, 93.65%). Additionally, 47 strains of gram-positive pathogenic bacteria (39.83%) and 71 strains of pathogenic-gram negative bacteria (60.17%) were identified. The bacteria were most likely to be resistant to penicillin while sensitive to vancomycin and imipenem. Some bacteria were resistant to several antibacterial agents. The results showed that existing risk factors at the Department of Orthopedics were complex and any non-standard procedures were able to cause bacterial infection. There were obvious dissimilarities among infectious bacteria with regard to their sensitivity to various antibacterial agents. Manipulation techniques during the treatment process were performed in a sterile manner and the use of antibacterial agents was required to be strictly in accordance with the results of drug sensitivity tests to provide effective etiologic information and a treatment plan for clinical trials and to reduce the risk of infection by multi-resistant bacteria. PMID:27313667

  20. [Antimicrobial therapy in severe infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterias].

    PubMed

    Duszyńska, Wiesława

    2010-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria pose a serious and rapidly emerging threat to patients in healthcare settings, and are especially prevalent and problematic in intensive therapy units. Recently, the emergence of pandrug-resistance in Gram-negative bacteria poses additional concerns. This review examines the clinical impact and epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria as a cause of increased morbidity and mortality among ITU patients. Beta-lactamases, cephalosporinases and carbapenemases play the most important role in resistance to antibiotics. Despite the tendency to increased resistance, carbapenems administered by continuous infusion remain the most effective drugs in severe sepsis. Drug concentration monitoring, albeit rarely used in practice, is necessary to ensure an effective therapeutic effect. PMID:21413423

  1. Chlorine resistance patterns of bacteria from two drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, H F; Olson, B H

    1982-01-01

    The relative chlorine sensitivities of bacteria isolated from chlorinated and unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems were compared by two independent methods. One method measured the toxic effect of free chlorine on bacteria, whereas the other measured the effect of combined chlorine. Bacteria from the chlorinated system were more resistant to both the combined and free forms of chlorine than those from the unchlorinated system, suggesting that there may be selection for more chlorine-tolerant microorganisms in chlorinated waters. Bacteria retained on the surfaces of 2.0-microns Nuclepore membrane filters were significantly more resistant to free chlorine compared to the total microbial population recovered on 0.2-micron membrane filters, presumably because aggregated cells or bacteria attached to suspended particulate matter exhibit more resistance than unassociated microorganisms. In accordance with this hypothesis, scanning electron microscopy of suspended particulate matter from the water samples revealed the presence of attached bacteria. The most resistant microorganisms were able to survive a 2-min exposure to 10 mg of free chlorine per liter. These included gram-positive spore-forming bacilli, actinomycetes, and some micrococci. The most sensitive bacteria were readily killed by chlorine concentrations of 1.0 mg liter-1 or less, and included most gram-positive micrococci, Corynebacterium/Arthrobacter, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas/Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium/Moraxella, and Acinetobacter. Images PMID:7149722

  2. Diversity of ionizing radiation-resistant bacteria obtained from the Taklimakan Desert.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li Zhi-Han; Luo, Xue-Song; Liu, Ming; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2015-01-01

    So far, little is known about the diversity of the radiation-resistant microbes of the hyperarid Taklimakan Desert. In this study, ionizing radiation (IR)-resistant bacteria from two sites in Xinjiang were investigated. After exposing the arid (water content of 0.8 ± 0.3%) and non-arid (water content of 21.3 ± 0.9%) sediment samples to IR of 3000 Gy using a (60)Co source, a total of 52 γ-radiation-resistant bacteria were isolated from the desert sample. The 16S rRNA genes of all isolates were sequenced. The phylogenetic tree places these isolates into five groups: Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides, Proteobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Interestingly, this is the first report of radiation-resistant bacteria belonging to the genera Knoellia, Lysobacter, Nocardioides, Paracoccus, Pontibacter, Rufibacter and Microvirga. The 16s rRNA genes of four isolates showed low sequence similarities to those of the published species. Phenotypic analysis showed that all bacteria in this study are able to produce catalase, suggesting that these bacteria possess reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes. These radiation-resistant bacteria also displayed diverse metabolic properties. Moreover, their radiation resistances were found to differ. The diversity of the radiation-resistant bacteria in the desert provides further ecological support for the hypothesis that the ionizing-radiation resistance phenotype is a consequence of the evolution of ROS-scavenging systems that protect cells against oxidative damage caused by desiccation. PMID:25590873

  3. Agriculture and food animals as a source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Economou, Vangelis; Gousia, Panagiota

    2015-01-01

    One of the major breakthroughs in the history of medicine is undoubtedly the discovery of antibiotics. Their use in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine has resulted in healthier and more productive farm animals, ensuring the welfare and health of both animals and humans. Unfortunately, from the first use of penicillin, the resistance countdown started to tick. Nowadays, the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing, and resistance to antibiotics is probably the major public health problem. Antibiotic use in farm animals has been criticized for contributing to the emergence of resistance. The use and misuse of antibiotics in farm animal settings as growth promoters or as nonspecific means of infection prevention and treatment has boosted antibiotic consumption and resistance among bacteria in the animal habitat. This reservoir of resistance can be transmitted directly or indirectly to humans through food consumption and direct or indirect contact. Resistant bacteria can cause serious health effects directly or via the transmission of the antibiotic resistance traits to pathogens, causing illnesses that are difficult to treat and that therefore have higher morbidity and mortality rates. In addition, the selection and proliferation of antibiotic-resistant strains can be disseminated to the environment via animal waste, enhancing the resistance reservoir that exists in the environmental microbiome. In this review, an effort is made to highlight the various factors that contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in farm animals and to provide some insights into possible solutions to this major health issue. PMID:25878509

  4. Agriculture and food animals as a source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Economou, Vangelis; Gousia, Panagiota

    2015-01-01

    One of the major breakthroughs in the history of medicine is undoubtedly the discovery of antibiotics. Their use in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine has resulted in healthier and more productive farm animals, ensuring the welfare and health of both animals and humans. Unfortunately, from the first use of penicillin, the resistance countdown started to tick. Nowadays, the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing, and resistance to antibiotics is probably the major public health problem. Antibiotic use in farm animals has been criticized for contributing to the emergence of resistance. The use and misuse of antibiotics in farm animal settings as growth promoters or as nonspecific means of infection prevention and treatment has boosted antibiotic consumption and resistance among bacteria in the animal habitat. This reservoir of resistance can be transmitted directly or indirectly to humans through food consumption and direct or indirect contact. Resistant bacteria can cause serious health effects directly or via the transmission of the antibiotic resistance traits to pathogens, causing illnesses that are difficult to treat and that therefore have higher morbidity and mortality rates. In addition, the selection and proliferation of antibiotic-resistant strains can be disseminated to the environment via animal waste, enhancing the resistance reservoir that exists in the environmental microbiome. In this review, an effort is made to highlight the various factors that contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in farm animals and to provide some insights into possible solutions to this major health issue. PMID:25878509

  5. Multidrug-Resistance and Toxic Metal Tolerance of Medically Important Bacteria Isolated from an Aquaculture System

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Juliana Alves; Silva, Vânia L.; Fontes, Cláudia Oliveira; Souza-Filho, Job Alves; de Oliveira, Tamara Lopes Rocha; Coelho, Cíntia Marques; César, Dionéia Evangelista; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2012-01-01

    The use of antimicrobials and toxic metals should be considered carefully in aquaculture and surrounding environments. We aimed to evaluate medically relevant bacteria in an aquaculture system and their susceptibility to antimicrobials and toxic metals. Selective cultures for enterobacteria (ENT), non-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFR) and Gram-positive cocci (GPC) were obtained from water samples collected in two different year seasons. The isolated bacteria were biochemically identified and antimicrobial and toxic metal susceptibility patterns were determined. Overall, 407 representative strains were recovered. In general, bacteria isolated from fish ponds showed higher multiple antibiotic resistance indices when compared to those isolated from a water-fed canal. Resistance to penicillin and azithromycin was observed more frequently in the GPC group, whereas resistance to ampicillin and ampicillin/sulbactam or gentamicin was observed more frequently in the ENT and NFR groups, respectively. All the isolated bacteria were tolerant to nickel, zinc, chromium and copper at high levels (≥1,024 μg mL−1), whereas tolerance to cadmium and mercury varied among the isolated bacteria (2–1,024 μg mL−1). Multidrug-resistant bacteria were more frequent and diverse in fish ponds than in the water-fed canal. A positive correlation was observed between antimicrobial resistance and metal tolerance. The data point out the need for water treatment associated with the aquaculture system. PMID:22972388

  6. Role of shellfish hatchery as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Claudio D; Rojas, Rodrigo; Garrido, Marcela; Geisse, Julieta; González, Gerardo

    2013-09-15

    The main aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of resistant bacteria in florfenicol-treated and untreated scallop larval cultures from a commercial hatchery and to characterize some selected florfenicol-resistant strains. Larval cultures from untreated and treated rearing tanks exhibited percentages of copiotrophic bacteria resistant to florfenicol ranging from 0.03% to 10.67% and 0.49-18.34%, respectively, whereas florfenicol resistance among oligotrophic bacteria varied from 1.44% to 35.50% and 3.62-95.71%, from untreated and treated larvae, respectively. Florfenicol resistant microbiota from reared scallop larvae mainly belonged to the Pseudomonas and Pseudoalteromonas genus and were mainly resistant to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, streptomycin and co-trimoxazole. This is the first study reporting antimicrobial resistant bacteria associated to a shellfish hatchery and the results suggest that a continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance even in absence of antibacterial therapy is urgently required to evaluate potential undesirable consequences on the surrounding environments. PMID:23880028

  7. DNA Microarray Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Bacteria Co-Cultured from Swine Feces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One factor leading to the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AR) in bacteria is the horizontal transfer of resistance genes. To study this, a DNA microarray was recently developed to detect these genes. To maximize the capability of this microarray, probes were designed and added to detect all AR g...

  8. Chlortetracycline - resistant intestinal bacteria in organically-raised and feral swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organically-raised swine had high fecal populations of chlortetracycline (CTC)-resistant (growing at 64 micro g CTC/ml) Escherichia coli, Megasphaera elsdenii and anaerobe populations. By comparison, predominant CTC-resistant bacteria in feral swine feces were over 1000-fold fewer and exhibited lo...

  9. OCCURRENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT BACTERIA AND ENDOTOXIN ASSOCIATED WITH THE LAND APPLICATION OF BIOSOLIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and endotoxin in soil following land application of biosolids. Soil was collected over a 15 month period following land application of biosolids, and antibiotic resistance was ascertained using clinically rel...

  10. Photodynamic inactivation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and biofilms by hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengcheng; Hu, Min; Ma, Dandan; Lei, Jin'e; Xu, Jiru

    2016-02-01

    The worldwide increase in bacterial antibiotic resistance has led to a search for alternative antibacterial therapies. A promising approach to killing antibiotic-resistant bacteria is photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy, which uses light in combination with a photosensitizer to induce a phototoxic reaction. We evaluated the photodynamic inactivation (PDI) efficiency of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) on antibiotic-resistant bacteria and biofilms. HMME exhibited no significant dark toxicity and provided dose-dependent inactivation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and biofilms. After incubation with 100-μM HMME and irradiation with 72-J cm(-2) white light, 4.19-7.59 log10 reductions in survival were achieved in planktonic suspension. Antibiotic-resistant strains were as susceptible to PDI in biofilms as in planktonic suspensions, but the inactivation of bacterial cells in biofilms was attenuated. In addition, gram-positive bacterial strains and biofilms were more susceptible than gram-negative strains and biofilms to the PDI effect of HMME. Thus, HMME is a promising photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially gram-positive bacteria. PMID:26719055

  11. Surveillance of multidrug resistant uropathogenic bacteria in hospitalized patients in Indian

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Monali Priyadarsini; Debata, Nagen Kumar; Padhy, Rabindra Nath

    2013-01-01

    Objective To record surveillance, antibiotic resistance of uropathogens of hospitalized patients over a period of 18 months. Methods Urine samples from wards and cabins were used for isolating urinary tract infection (UTI)-causing bacteria that were cultured on suitable selective media and identified by biochemical tests; and their antibiograms were ascertained by Kirby-Bauer's disc diffusion method, in each 6-month interval of the study period, using 18 antibiotics of five different classes. Results From wards and cabins, 1 245 samples were collected, from which 996 strains of bacteria belonging to 11 species were isolated, during April 2011 to September 2012. Two Gram-positive, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), and nine Gram-negative bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated. Both S. aureus and E. faecalis were vancomycin resistant, and resistant-strains of all pathogens increased in each 6-month period of study. Particularly, all Gram-negatives were resistant to nitrofurantoin and co-trimoxazole, the most preferred antibiotics of empiric therapy for UTI. Conclusions Antibiograms of 11 UTI-causing bacteria recorded in this study indicated moderately higher numbers of strains resistant to each antibiotic studied, generating the fear of precipitating fervent episodes in public health particularly with bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and S. aureus. Moreover, vancomycin resistance in strains of S. aureus and E. faecalis is a matter of concern. PMID:23620859

  12. Bloom of resident antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil following manure fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Wichmann, Fabienne; Broderick, Nichole A.; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a global threat to public health. Agricultural use of antibiotics is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance, but the mechanisms by which many agricultural practices influence resistance remain obscure. Although manure from dairy farms is a common soil amendment in crop production, its impact on the soil microbiome and resistome is not known. To gain insight into this impact, we cultured bacteria from soil before and at 10 time points after application of manure from cows that had not received antibiotic treatment. Soil treated with manure contained a higher abundance of β-lactam–resistant bacteria than soil treated with inorganic fertilizer. Functional metagenomics identified β-lactam–resistance genes in treated and untreated soil, and indicated that the higher frequency of resistant bacteria in manure-amended soil was attributable to enrichment of resident soil bacteria that harbor β-lactamases. Quantitative PCR indicated that manure treatment enriched the blaCEP-04 gene, which is highly similar (96%) to a gene found previously in a Pseudomonas sp. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the abundance of Pseudomonas spp. increased in manure-amended soil. Populations of other soil bacteria that commonly harbor β-lactamases, including Janthinobacterium sp. and Psychrobacter pulmonis, also increased in response to manure treatment. These results indicate that manure amendment induced a bloom of certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil that was independent of antibiotic exposure of the cows from which the manure was derived. Our data illustrate the unintended consequences that can result from agricultural practices, and demonstrate the need for empirical analysis of the agroecosystem. PMID:25288759

  13. Bloom of resident antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil following manure fertilization.

    PubMed

    Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Wichmann, Fabienne; Broderick, Nichole A; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-10-21

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a global threat to public health. Agricultural use of antibiotics is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance, but the mechanisms by which many agricultural practices influence resistance remain obscure. Although manure from dairy farms is a common soil amendment in crop production, its impact on the soil microbiome and resistome is not known. To gain insight into this impact, we cultured bacteria from soil before and at 10 time points after application of manure from cows that had not received antibiotic treatment. Soil treated with manure contained a higher abundance of β-lactam-resistant bacteria than soil treated with inorganic fertilizer. Functional metagenomics identified β-lactam-resistance genes in treated and untreated soil, and indicated that the higher frequency of resistant bacteria in manure-amended soil was attributable to enrichment of resident soil bacteria that harbor β-lactamases. Quantitative PCR indicated that manure treatment enriched the blaCEP-04 gene, which is highly similar (96%) to a gene found previously in a Pseudomonas sp. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the abundance of Pseudomonas spp. increased in manure-amended soil. Populations of other soil bacteria that commonly harbor β-lactamases, including Janthinobacterium sp. and Psychrobacter pulmonis, also increased in response to manure treatment. These results indicate that manure amendment induced a bloom of certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil that was independent of antibiotic exposure of the cows from which the manure was derived. Our data illustrate the unintended consequences that can result from agricultural practices, and demonstrate the need for empirical analysis of the agroecosystem. PMID:25288759

  14. Functional characterization of bacteria isolated from ancient arctic soil exposes diverse resistance mechanisms to modern antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Perron, Gabriel G; Whyte, Lyle; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Goordial, Jacqueline; Hanage, William P; Dantas, Gautam; Desai, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    Using functional metagenomics to study the resistomes of bacterial communities isolated from different layers of the Canadian high Arctic permafrost, we show that microbial communities harbored diverse resistance mechanisms at least 5,000 years ago. Among bacteria sampled from the ancient layers of a permafrost core, we isolated eight genes conferring clinical levels of resistance against aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline antibiotics that are naturally produced by microorganisms. Among these resistance genes, four also conferred resistance against amikacin, a modern semi-synthetic antibiotic that does not naturally occur in microorganisms. In bacteria sampled from the overlaying active layer, we isolated ten different genes conferring resistance to all six antibiotics tested in this study, including aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline variants that are naturally produced by microorganisms as well as semi-synthetic variants produced in the laboratory. On average, we found that resistance genes found in permafrost bacteria conferred lower levels of resistance against clinically relevant antibiotics than resistance genes sampled from the active layer. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes were functionally diverse prior to the anthropogenic use of antibiotics, contributing to the evolution of natural reservoirs of resistance genes. PMID:25807523

  15. Functional Characterization of Bacteria Isolated from Ancient Arctic Soil Exposes Diverse Resistance Mechanisms to Modern Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Gabriel G.; Whyte, Lyle; Turnbaugh, Peter J.; Goordial, Jacqueline; Hanage, William P.; Dantas, Gautam; Desai, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    Using functional metagenomics to study the resistomes of bacterial communities isolated from different layers of the Canadian high Arctic permafrost, we show that microbial communities harbored diverse resistance mechanisms at least 5,000 years ago. Among bacteria sampled from the ancient layers of a permafrost core, we isolated eight genes conferring clinical levels of resistance against aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline antibiotics that are naturally produced by microorganisms. Among these resistance genes, four also conferred resistance against amikacin, a modern semi-synthetic antibiotic that does not naturally occur in microorganisms. In bacteria sampled from the overlaying active layer, we isolated ten different genes conferring resistance to all six antibiotics tested in this study, including aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline variants that are naturally produced by microorganisms as well as semi-synthetic variants produced in the laboratory. On average, we found that resistance genes found in permafrost bacteria conferred lower levels of resistance against clinically relevant antibiotics than resistance genes sampled from the active layer. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes were functionally diverse prior to the anthropogenic use of antibiotics, contributing to the evolution of natural reservoirs of resistance genes. PMID:25807523

  16. Drug Resistance Mechanisms in Bacteria Causing Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Associated with Vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Shaskolskiy, Boris; Dementieva, Ekaterina; Leinsoo, Arvo; Runina, Anastassia; Vorobyev, Denis; Plakhova, Xenia; Kubanov, Alexey; Deryabin, Dmitrii; Gryadunov, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Here, we review sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) caused by pathogenic bacteria and vaginal infections which result from an overgrowth of opportunistic bacterial microflora. First, we describe the STDs, the corresponding pathogens and the antimicrobials used for their treatment. In addition to the well-known diseases caused by single pathogens (i.e., syphilis, gonococcal infections, and chlamydiosis), we consider polymicrobial reproductive tract infections (especially those that are difficult to effectively clinically manage). Then, we summarize the biochemical mechanisms that lead to antimicrobial resistance and the most recent data on the emergence of drug resistance in STD pathogens and bacteria associated with vaginosis. A large amount of research performed in the last 10-15 years has shed light on the enormous diversity of mechanisms of resistance developed by bacteria. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms of antimicrobials action and the emergence of resistance is necessary to modify existing drugs and to develop new ones directed against new targets. PMID:27242760

  17. Drug Resistance Mechanisms in Bacteria Causing Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Associated with Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Shaskolskiy, Boris; Dementieva, Ekaterina; Leinsoo, Arvo; Runina, Anastassia; Vorobyev, Denis; Plakhova, Xenia; Kubanov, Alexey; Deryabin, Dmitrii; Gryadunov, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Here, we review sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) caused by pathogenic bacteria and vaginal infections which result from an overgrowth of opportunistic bacterial microflora. First, we describe the STDs, the corresponding pathogens and the antimicrobials used for their treatment. In addition to the well-known diseases caused by single pathogens (i.e., syphilis, gonococcal infections, and chlamydiosis), we consider polymicrobial reproductive tract infections (especially those that are difficult to effectively clinically manage). Then, we summarize the biochemical mechanisms that lead to antimicrobial resistance and the most recent data on the emergence of drug resistance in STD pathogens and bacteria associated with vaginosis. A large amount of research performed in the last 10–15 years has shed light on the enormous diversity of mechanisms of resistance developed by bacteria. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms of antimicrobials action and the emergence of resistance is necessary to modify existing drugs and to develop new ones directed against new targets. PMID:27242760

  18. [Impact on public health of quinolone resistance in animal-origin bacteria].

    PubMed

    Orden Gutiérrez, J A; de la Fuente López, R

    2001-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are one of the most useful classes of antimicrobial agents used in human and animal medicine today, both because of their spectrum and their physicochemical properties. The use of quinolones in animals is a matter of special concern because it could contribute to the acquisition of resistance in foodborn bacteria (such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli) and this, in turn, could lead to a reduction in the efficacy of such compounds in treating infections in humans. However, the causal relationship between the use of fluoroquinolones in veterinary medicine and the isolation of fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria in humans has not been generally proven and, moreover, the use of fluoroquinolones in animals is only one of the many factors implicated in the resistance to these antimicrobials. Even so, the surveillance of fluoroquinolone resistance in bacteria isolated from animals and foods and the prudent use of these antimicrobials in animals should have the highest priority. PMID:11693069

  19. Isolation and identification of cobalt- and caesium-resistant bacteria from a nuclear fuel storage pond.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Linda; Osborne, Thomas H; Santini, Joanne M

    2014-10-01

    One of the issues facing the nuclear power industry is how to store spent nuclear fuel which is contaminated with radionuclides produced during nuclear fission, including caesium ((134)Cs(+), (135)Cs(+) and (137)Cs(+)) and cobalt ((60)Co(2+)). In this study, we have isolated Co(2+)- and Cs(+)-resistant bacteria from water collected from a nuclear fuel storage pond. The most resistant Cs(+) and Co(2+) isolates grew in the presence of 500 mM CsCl and 3 mM CoCl2. Strain Cs67-2 is resistant to fourfold more Cs(+) than Cupriavidus metallidurans str. CH34 making it the most Cs(+)-resistant strain identified to date. The Cs(+)-resistant isolates were closely related to bacteria in the Serratia and Yersinia genera, while the Co(2+)-resistant isolates were closely related to the Curvibacter and Tardiphaga genera. These new isolates could be used for bioremediation. PMID:25091383

  20. [Significance of efflux pumps in multidrug resistance of Gram-negative bacteria].

    PubMed

    Wiercińska, Olga; Chojecka, Agnieszka; Kanclerski, Krzysztof; Rőhm-Rodowald, Ewa; Jakimiak, Bożenna

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of multidrug. resistance of bacteria is a serious problem of modern medicine. This resistance largely is a consequence of abuse and improper use of antibacterial substances, especially antibiotics and chemotherapeutics in hospital settings. Multidrug resistance is caused by a number of interacting mechanisms of resistance. Recent studies have indicated that efflux pumps and systems of efflux pumps are an important determinant of this phenomenon. Contribute to this particular RND efflux systems of Gram-negative bacteria, which possess a wide range of substrates such as antibiotics, dyes, detergents, toxins and active substances of disinfectants and antiseptics. These transporters are usually encoded on bacterial chromosomes. Genes encoding efflux pumps' proteins may also be carried on plasmids and other mobile genetic elements. Such pumps are usually specific to a small group of substrates, but as an additional mechanism of resistance may contribute to the multidrug resistance. PMID:26084076

  1. Isolation and screening of heavy metal resistant bacteria from wastewater: a study of heavy metal co-resistance and antibiotics resistance.

    PubMed

    Yamina, Benmalek; Tahar, Benayad; Marie Laure, Fardeau

    2012-01-01

    The uncontrolled discharges of wastes containing a large quantity of heavy metal create huge economical and healthcare burdens particularly for people living near that area. However, the bioremediation of metal pollutants from wastewater using metal-resistant bacteria is a very important aspect of environmental biotechnology. In this study, 13 heavy metal resistant bacteria were isolated from the wastewater of wadi El Harrach in the east of Algiers and characterized. These include zinc-, lead-, chromium- and cadmium-resistant bacteria. The metal-resistant isolates characterized include both Gram-negative (77%) and Gram-positive (23%) bacteria. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of wastewater isolates against the four heavy metals was determined in solid media and ranged from 100 to 1,500 μg/ml. All the isolates showed co-resistance to other heavy metals and antibiotic resistance of which 15% were resistant to one antibiotic and 85% were multi- and bi-antibiotics resistant. The zinc-resistant species Micrococcus luteus was the much more heavy metal resistant. The results of toxicity tests on Vibrio fischeri showed that the DI(50) (5 min) as low as 0.1 carried away luminescence inhibition greater than 50%. PMID:22949232

  2. The Structure of Fitness Landscapes in Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deris, Barrett; Kim, Minsu; Zhang, Zhongge; Okano, Hiroyuki; Hermsen, Rutger; Gore, Jeff; Hwa, Terence

    2014-03-01

    To predict the emergence of antibiotic resistance, quantitative relations must be established between the fitness of drug-resistant organisms and the molecular mechanisms conferring resistance. We have investigated E. coli strains expressing resistance to translation-inhibiting antibiotics. We show that resistance expression and drug inhibition are linked in a positive feedback loop arising from an innate, global effect of drug-inhibited growth on gene expression. This feedback leads generically to plateau-shaped fitness landscapes and concomitantly, for strains expressing at least moderate degrees of drug resistance, gives rise to an abrupt drop in growth rates of cultures at threshold drug concentrations. A simple quantitative model of bacterial growth based on this innate feedback accurately predicts experimental observations without ad hoc parameter fitting. We describe how drug-inhibited growth rate and the threshold drug concentration (the minimum inhibitory concentration, or MIC) depend on the few biochemical parameters that characterize the molecular details of growth inhibition and drug resistance (e.g., the drug-target dissociation constant). And finally, we discuss how these parameters can shape fitness landscapes to determine evolutionary dynamics and evolvability.

  3. Acquired inducible antimicrobial resistance in Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chancey, Scott T; Zähner, Dorothea; Stephens, David S

    2012-01-01

    A major contributor to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive bacterial pathogens is the expansion of acquired, inducible genetic elements. Although acquired, inducible antibiotic resistance is not new, the interest in its molecular basis has been accelerated by the widening distribution and often ‘silent’ spread of the elements responsible, the diagnostic challenges of such resistance and the mounting limitations of available agents to treat Gram-positive infections. Acquired, inducible antibiotic resistance elements belong to the accessory genome of a species and are horizontally acquired by transformation/recombination or through the transfer of mobile DNA elements. The two key, but mechanistically very different, induction mechanisms are: ribosome-sensed induction, characteristic of the macrolide–lincosamide–streptogramin B antibiotics and tetracycline resistance, leading to ribosomal modifications or efflux pump activation; and resistance by cell surface-associated sensing of β-lactams (e.g., oxacillin), glycopeptides (e.g., vancomycin) and the polypeptide bacitracin, leading to drug inactivation or resistance due to cell wall alterations. PMID:22913355

  4. Resistance trends in gram-negative bacteria: surveillance results from two Mexican hospitals, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hospital-acquired infections caused by multiresistant gram-negative bacteria are difficult to treat and cause high rates of morbidity and mortality. The analysis of antimicrobial resistance trends of gram-negative pathogens isolated from hospital-acquired infections is important for the development of antimicrobial stewardship programs. The information obtained from antimicrobial resistant programs from two hospitals from Mexico will be helpful in the selection of empiric therapy for hospital-acquired gram-negative infections. Findings Two thousand one hundred thirty two gram-negative bacteria collected between January 2005 and December 2010 from hospital-acquired infections occurring in two teaching hospitals in Mexico were evaluated. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated gram-negative bacteria, with >50% of strains resistant to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Klebsiella spp. showed resistance rates similar to Escherichia coli for ceftazidime (33.1% vs 33.2%), but exhibited lower rates for levofloxacin (18.2% vs 56%). Of the samples collected for the third most common gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, >12.8% were resistant to the carbapenems, imipenem and meropenem. The highest overall resistance was found in Acinetobacter spp. Enterobacter spp. showed high susceptibility to carbapenems. Conclusions E. coli was the most common nosocomial gram-negative bacilli isolated in this study and was found to have the second-highest resistance to fluoroquinolones (>57.9%, after Acinetobacter spp. 81.2%). This finding represents a disturbing development in a common nosocomial and community pathogen. PMID:22676813

  5. Coincident plasmids and antimicrobial resistance in marine bacteria isolated from polluted and unpolluted Atlantic Ocean Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Baya, A.M.; Brayton, P.R.; Brown, V.L.; Grimes, D.J.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Colwell, R.R.

    1986-06-01

    Sewage effluent and outfall confluence samples were collected at the Barceloneta Regional Treatment Plant in Barceloneta, Puerto Rico; outfall confluence samples at Ocean City, Md., were also collected. Samples from uncontaminated open ocean areas served as clean-water controls. Bacteria were enriched in marine broth 2216 amended with 1 ..mu..g of one of a set of chemical selected for study per ml: nitrobenzene, dibutyl phthalate, m-cresol, o-cresol, 4-nitroaniline, bis(tributyltin) oxide, and quinone. MICs of the chemicals were determined individually for all isolates. Bacterial isolates were evaluated for resistance to nine different antibiotics and for the presence of plasmid DNA. Treated sewage was found to contain large numbers of bacteria simultaneously possessing antibiotic resistance, chemical resistance, and multiple bands of plasmic DNA. Bacteria resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, m-cresol, quinone, and bis(tributyltin) oxide were detected in nearly all samples, but only sewage outfall confluence samples yielded bacterial isolates that were resistant to streptomycin. Bacteria resistant to a combination of antibiotics, including kanamycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and tetracycline, were isolated only from sewage effluent samples. It is concluded that bacterial isolates derived from toxic chemical wastes more frequently contain plasmid DNA and demonstrate antimicrobial resistance than do bacterial isolates from domestic sewage-impacted waters or from uncontaminated open ocean sites.

  6. Coincident plasmids and antimicrobial resistance in marine bacteria isolated from polluted and unpolluted Atlantic Ocean samples.

    PubMed Central

    Baya, A M; Brayton, P R; Brown, V L; Grimes, D J; Russek-Cohen, E; Colwell, R R

    1986-01-01

    Sewage effluent and outfall confluence samples were collected at the Barceloneta Regional Treatment Plant in Barceloneta, Puerto Rico; outfall confluence samples at Ocean City, Md., were also collected. Samples from uncontaminated open ocean areas served as clean-water controls. Bacteria were enriched in marine broth 2216 amended with 1 microgram of one of a set of chemicals selected for study per ml: nitrobenzene, dibutyl phthalate, m-cresol, o-cresol, 4-nitroaniline, bis(tributyltin) oxide, and quinone. MICs of the chemicals were determined individually for all isolates. Bacterial isolates were evaluated for resistance to nine different antibiotics and for the presence of plasmid DNA. Treated sewage was found to contain large numbers of bacteria simultaneously possessing antibiotic resistance, chemical resistance, and multiple bands of plasmid DNA. Bacteria resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, m-cresol, quinone, and bis(tributyltin) oxide were detected in nearly all samples, but only sewage outfall confluence samples yielded bacterial isolates that were resistant to streptomycin. Bacteria resistant to a combination of antibiotics, including kanamycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and tetracycline, were isolated only from sewage effluent samples. It is concluded that bacterial isolates derived from toxic chemical wastes more frequently contain plasmid DNA and demonstrate antimicrobial resistance than do bacterial isolates from domestic sewage-impacted waters or from uncontaminated open ocean sites. PMID:3755317

  7. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AMONG ENTERIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM HUMAN AND ANIMAL WASTES AND IMPACTED SURFACE WATERS: COMPARISON WITH NARMS FINDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human infection with bacteria exhibiting mono or multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) has been a growing problem in the US, and studies have implicated livestock as a source of MAR bacteria primarily through foodborne transmission routes. However, waterborne transmission of...

  8. Zinc and copper in animal feed – development of resistance and co-resistance to antimicrobial agents in bacteria of animal origin

    PubMed Central

    Yazdankhah, Siamak; Rudi, Knut; Bernhoft, Aksel

    2014-01-01

    Farmed animals such as pig and poultry receive additional Zn and Cu in their diets due to supplementing elements in compound feed as well as medical remedies. Enteral bacteria in farmed animals are shown to develop resistance to trace elements such as Zn and Cu. Resistance to Zn is often linked with resistance to methicillin in staphylococci, and Zn supplementation to animal feed may increase the proportion of multiresistant E. coli in the gut. Resistance to Cu in bacteria, in particular enterococci, is often associated with resistance to antimicrobial drugs like macrolides and glycopeptides (e.g. vancomycin). Such resistant bacteria may be transferred from the food-producing animals to humans (farmers, veterinarians, and consumers). Data on dose-response relation for Zn/Cu exposure and resistance are lacking; however, it seems more likely that a resistance-driven effect occurs at high trace element exposure than at more basal exposure levels. There is also lack of data which could demonstrate whether Zn/Cu-resistant bacteria may acquire antibiotic resistance genes/become antibiotics resistant, or if antibiotics-resistant bacteria are more capable to become Zn/Cu resistant than antibiotics-susceptible bacteria. Further research is needed to elucidate the link between Zn/Cu and antibiotic resistance in bacteria. PMID:25317117

  9. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from vegetables with regards to the marketing stage (farm vs. supermarket).

    PubMed

    Schwaiger, Karin; Helmke, Katharina; Hölzel, Christina Susanne; Bauer, Johann

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this study was to elucidate whether and to what extent fresh produce from Germany plays a role as a carrier and reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. For this purpose, 1001 vegetables (fruit, root, bulbous vegetables, salads and cereals) were collected from 13 farms and 11 supermarkets in Germany and examined bacteriologically. Phenotypic resistance of Enterobacter cloacae (n=172); Enterobacter gergoviae (n=92); Pantoea agglomerans (n=96); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=295); Pseudomonas putida (n=106) and Enterococcus faecalis (n=100) against up to 30 antibiotics was determined by using the microdilution method. Resistance to ß-lactams was most frequently expressed by P. agglomerans and E. gergoviae against cefaclor (41% and 29%). Relatively high resistance rates were also observed for doxycycline (23%), erythromycin (21%) and rifampicin (65%) in E. faecalis, for spectinomycin (28%) and mezlocillin (12%) in E. cloacae, as well as for streptomycin (19%) in P. putida. In P. aeruginosa, relatively low resistance rates were observed for the aminoglycosides amikacin, apramicin, gentamicin, neomycin, netilmicin and tobramycin (<4%); 11% was resistant to streptomycin. No glycopeptide-resistant enterococci were observed. Resistance rates of bacteria isolated from farm samples were higher than those of the retail markets whenever significant differences were observed. This suggests that expressing resistance is at the expense of bacterial viability, since vegetables purchased directly at the farm are probably fresher than at the supermarket, and they have not been exposed to stress factors. However, this should not keep the customer from buying directly at the farm, since the overall resistance rates were not higher than observed in bacteria from human or animal origin. Instead, peeling or washing vegetables before eating them raw is highly recommended, since it reduces not only the risk of contact with pathogens, but also that of ingesting and spreading

  10. A β-Lactamase-Imprinted Responsive Hydrogel for the Treatment of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Dong, Kai; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-07-01

    Antibiotics play important roles in infection treatment and prevention. However, the effectiveness of antibiotics is now threatened by the prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria. Furthermore, antibiotic abuse and residues in the environment cause serious health issues. In this study, a stimuli-responsive imprinted hydrogel was fabricated by using β-lactamase produced by bacteria for deactivating antibiotics as the template molecule. The imprinted hydrogel could initially trap β-lactamase excreted by drug-resistant bacteria, thus making bacteria sensitive to antibiotics. After the bactericidal treatment, the "imprinted sites" on the hydrogel could be reversibly abolished with a temperature stimulus, which resulted in the reactivation of β-lactamase to degrade antibiotic residues. We also present an example of the use of this antibacterial design to treat wound infection. PMID:27159893

  11. Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria: a product of globalization.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, P M

    2015-04-01

    Global trade and mobility of people has increased rapidly over the last 20 years. This has had profound consequences for the evolution and the movement of antibiotic resistance genes. There is increasing exposure of populations all around the world to resistant bacteria arising in the emerging economies. Arguably the most important development of the last two decades in the field of antibiotic resistance is the emergence and spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) of the CTX-M group. A consequence of the very high rates of ESBL production among Enterobacteriaceae in Asian countries is that there is a substantial use of carbapenem antibiotics, resulting in the emergence of plasmid-mediated resistance to carbapenems. This article reviews the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, focuses on three particular carbapenemases--imipenem carbapenemases, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase, and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase--and highlights the importance of control of antibiotic use. PMID:25737092

  12. Methicillin-Resistant Bacteria Inhabiting Surface Waters Monitored by mecA-Targeted Oligonucleotide Probes.

    PubMed

    Seyedmonir, Elnaz; Yilmaz, Fadime; Icgen, Bulent

    2016-08-01

    Part of a 20-60 kb staphylococcal chromosome cassette called mecA encodes low-affinity penicillin-binding protein PBP2a and causes methicillin resistance. Among all methicillin-resistant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen and main concern worldwide. Although the origin of the mecA is not very well-defined, mecA homologues are also ubiquitous in methicillin-resistant non-staphylococcal bacteria. Due to the dissemination of methicillin resistance through the transmission of mecA gene among staphylococcal and non-staphylococcal bacteria inhabiting surface waters, there is a need to monitor mecA gene in these waters for public health safety. Therefore, this study aimed at monitoring mecA harboring bacteria inhabiting surface waters by using fluorescently labelled mecA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Under the hybridization conditions of 55 % formamide and 0.020 M NaCl at 46°C, the oligonucleotide probe used in the study showed high hybridization stringency to the mecA gene targeted. The strong linear relationships observed between the signal intensity and the target gene were used to assess the population dynamics of mecA harboring isolates over a 2-year-period. The results indicated that mecA-targeted oligonucleotide probes can be effectively used for in situ monitoring of methicillin resistant isolates inhabiting surface waters. PMID:27156085

  13. Effect of chlorination on antibiotic resistance profiles of sewage-related bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, G E; Tobin, R S; Junkins, B; Kushner, D J

    1984-01-01

    A total of 1,900 lactose-fermenting bacteria were isolated from raw sewage influent and chlorinated sewage effluent from a sewage treatment plant, as well as from chlorinated and neutralized dilute sewage, before and after a 24-h regrowth period in the laboratory. Of these isolates, 84% were resistant to one or more antibiotics. Chlorination of influent resulted in an increase in the proportion of bacteria resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin, the increase being most marked after regrowth occurred following chlorination. Of the other nine antibiotics tested, chlorination resulted in an increased proportion of bacteria resistant to some, but a decrease in the proportion resistant to the remainder. Multiple resistance was found for up to nine antibiotics, especially in regrowth populations. Identification of about 5% of the isolates showed that the highest proportion of Escherichia coli fell in untreated sewage. Some rare and potentially pathogenic species were isolated from chlorinated and regrowth samples, including Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pestis, Pasteurella multocida, and Hafnia alvei. Our results indicate that chlorination, while initially lowering the total number of bacteria in sewage, may substantially increase the proportions of antibiotic-resistant, potentially pathogenic organisms. PMID:6476832

  14. [Antibiotic resistance--an ambivalence of attitudes. As of now, the bacteria are in advantage].

    PubMed

    Sköld, O

    1995-09-13

    The value of the precious medical asset that antibiotics constitute is contimualby being eroded by the spread of resistance. For some time that bacterial world has been adapting itself to contend with the toxic assault of man-made poisons, antibiotics, by developing resistance in a very rapid process of evolutionary changes occurring before our very eyes. This evolutionary adaptation is an example of natural genetic engineering entailing an interchange between bacteria of genes conferring antibiotic resistance. Trimethoprim resistance is an example where numerous genes of unknown origin (some closely interrelated), expressing drug-resistant dihydrofolate reductases, move among human commensals and pathogens. They have been shown to move as gene cassettes in and out of the recently characterised integron structure occurring in many pathogens. They are also carried by various transposons such as Tn7, or Tn5393 originally observed in a plant pathogen, Erwinia amylovora. Betalactam resistance is another example of natural genetic engineering, where new betalactamases are continually emerging, and individual enzyme substrate specificity is modified by point mutation. At present, betalactamase mutants resistant to all commercially available betalactams, including clavulanic acid used in combination with betalactam antibiotics, are to be found in clinical isolates. Thus, currently bacteria seem to be triumphing in the running battle between the pharmaceutical industry and the bacterial world, the former introducing one new antibiotic variant after another, to which bacteria promptly develop resistance by manipulating their own genomes. PMID:7674727

  15. Prevalence and diversity of carbapenem-resistant bacteria in untreated drinking water in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Isabel S; Araújo, Susana; Azevedo, Juliana S N; Alves, Marta Salgueiro; Chouchani, Chedly; Pereira, Anabela; Correia, António

    2012-10-01

    We examined the prevalence and diversity of carbapenem-resistant bacteria (CRB) in untreated drinking water. Prevalence was estimated in plate count agar (PCA) and R2A media with or without antibiotics. Clonal relatedness of isolates was established by repetitive extragenic palindroitic (REP)-PCR. Phylogeny was based on the 16S rRNA gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by disc diffusion methods. Genes encoding beta-lactamases and integrases were inspected by PCR. CRB ranged from 0.02% to 15.9% of cultivable bacteria, while ampicillin-resistant bacteria ranged from 1.5% to 31.4%. Carbapenem-resistant isolates affiliated with genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Chryseobacterium, Sphingobacterium, Acidovorax, Caulobacter, Cupriavidus, and Sphingomonas. CRB were highly resistant to beta-lactams, but mostly susceptible to other classes. Transmissible beta-lactamase genes and integrase genes were not detected. The genus-specific bla(L1) was detected in 61% of the Stenotrophomonas isolates. Contrarily to what has been reported for extensively used antibiotics, low levels of carbapenem resistance were detected in untreated drinking water, often represented by intrinsically resistant genera. Production of chromosomal-encoded carbapenemases was the prevalent carbapenem resistance mechanism. Results suggest that the dissemination of anthropogenic-derived carbapenem resistance is at an early stage. This presents an opportunity to rationally develop monitoring strategies to identify dissemination routes and assess the impact of human actions in the environmental resistome. PMID:22663561

  16. Immobilized N-alkylated polyethylenimine avidly kills bacteria by rupturing cell membranes with no resistance developed.

    PubMed

    Milović, Nebojsa M; Wang, Jun; Lewis, Kim; Klibanov, Alexander M

    2005-06-20

    Several critical mechanistic and phenomenological aspects of the microbicidal surface coatings based on immobilized hydrophobic polycations, previously developed by us, are addressed. Using Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) bacteria, remarkable bactericidal action (up to a 10(9)-fold reduction in live bacteria count in the surface-exposed solution and a 100% inactivation of the surface-adhered bacteria) of an amino-glass slide covalently derivatized with N-hexyl,methyl-polyethylenimine (PEI) is found to be due to rupturing bacterial cell membranes by the polymeric chains. The bacteria fail to develop noticeable resistance to this lethal action over the course of many successive generations. Finally, the immobilized N-alkyl-PEI, while deadly to bacteria, is determined to be harmless to mammalian (monkey kidney) cells. PMID:15803464

  17. Arsenic resistant bacteria isolated from arsenic contaminated river in the Atacama Desert (Chile).

    PubMed

    Escalante, G; Campos, V L; Valenzuela, C; Yañez, J; Zaror, C; Mondaca, M A

    2009-11-01

    In this study, arsenic resistant bacteria were isolated from sediments of an arsenic contaminated river. Arsenic tolerance of bacteria isolated was carried out by serial dilution on agar plate. Redox abilities were investigated using KMnO4. arsC and aox genes were detected by PCR and RT-PCR, respectively. Bacterial populations were identified by RapID system. Forty nine bacterial strains were isolated, of these, 55 % corresponded to the reducing bacteria, 4% to oxidizing bacteria, 8% presented both activities and in 33% of the bacteria none activity was detected. arsC gene was detected in 11 strains and aox genes were not detected. The activity of arsenic transforming microorganisms in river sediment has significant implications for the behavior of the metalloid. PMID:19779656

  18. New strategies to identify patients harbouring antibiotic-resistant bacteria at hospital admission.

    PubMed

    Tacconelli, E

    2006-02-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most prevention strategies focus on cross-transmission, but the endemic state inside the hospital is also maintained through the influx of patients colonised or infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria, balanced by the efflux of colonised patients following discharge. Epidemiological research has demonstrated that eradication can be achieved by preventing the influx of resistant bacteria. The presence of a central venous catheter and a history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection or colonisation are associated significantly with methicillin-resistant staphylococcal bacteraemia at admission. Previous antibiotic therapy and transfer from long-term care facilities or nursing homes are associated with bacteraemia caused by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci, while skin ulcer and cellulites are independent risk-factors for MRSA bacteraemia. A scoring system using point values has been developed and validated to identify patients positive for vancomycin-resistant enterococci at admission. Six variables were identified: age > 60 years (2 points); hospitalisation in the previous year (3); use of two or more antibiotics during the previous 30 days (3); transfer from another hospital or long-term care facility (3); a requirement for chronic haemodialysis (2); and a previous history of MRSA infection (4). With a point score cut-off of > or = 10, the specificity of this prediction rule is 98%. Knowledge of variables identifying patients at high risk for being colonised or infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria may assist clinicians in targeting preventive measures and streamlining the use of vancomycin. Current studies are analysing risk-factors for harbouring multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria at hospital admission. PMID:16441446

  19. Presence of multidrug-resistant enteric bacteria in dairy farm topsoil.

    PubMed

    Burgos, J M; Ellington, B A; Varela, M F

    2005-04-01

    In addition to human and veterinary medicine, antibiotics are extensively used in agricultural settings, such as for treatment of infections, growth enhancement, and prophylaxis in food animals, leading to selection of drug and multidrug-resistant bacteria. To help circumvent the problem of bacterial antibiotic resistance, it is first necessary to understand the scope of the problem. However, it is not fully understood how widespread antibiotic-resistant bacteria are in agricultural settings. The lack of such surveillance data is especially evident in dairy farm environments, such as soil. It is also unknown to what extent various physiological modulators, such as salicylate, a component of aspirin and known model modulator of multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) genes, influence bacterial multi-drug resistance. We isolated and identified enteric soil bacteria from local dairy farms within Roosevelt County, NM, determined the resistance profiles to antibiotics associated with mar, such as chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, penicillin G, and tetracycline. We then purified and characterized plasmid DNA and detected mar phenotypic activity. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of antibiotics for the isolates ranged from 6 to >50 microg/mL for chloramphenicol, 2 to 8 microg/mL for nalidixic acid, 25 to >300 microg/mL for penicillin G, and 1 to >80 microg/mL for tetracycline. On the other hand, many of the isolates had significantly enhanced MIC for the same antibiotics in the presence of 5 mM salicylate. Plasmid DNA extracted from 12 randomly chosen isolates ranged in size from 6 to 12.5 kb and, in several cases, conferred resistance to chloramphenicol and penicillin G. It is concluded that enteric bacteria from dairy farm topsoil are multidrug resistant and harbor antibiotic-resistance plasmids. A role for dairy topsoil in zoonoses is suggested, implicating this environment as a reservoir for development of bacterial resistance against clinically relevant

  20. Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in solid organ transplant recipients with bacteremias.

    PubMed

    Wan, Q Q; Ye, Q F; Yuan, H

    2015-03-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSIs) remain as life-threatening complications and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria can cause serious bacteremias in these recipients. Reviews have aimed to investigate MDR Gram-negative bacteremias; however, they were lacking in SOT recipients in the past. To better understand the characteristics of bacteremias due to MDR Gram-negative bacteria, optimize preventive and therapeutic strategies, and improve the outcomes of SOT recipients, this review summarize the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory characteristics, and explores the mechanisms, prevention, and treatment of MDR Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25388855

  1. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance of bovine bacteria to antibiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most formidable threats to human medicine today. Therefore, the research objective is to evaluate the susceptibility of Staphylococcus species isolated from beef cows to 12 antibiotics commonly used in treating human and animal infections. This research w...

  2. Engineering radiation-resistant bacteria for environmental biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Daly, M J

    2000-06-01

    Seventy million cubic meters of ground and three trillion liters of groundwater have been contaminated by leaking radioactive waste generated in the United States during the Cold War. A cleanup technology is being developed based on the radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, which is being engineered to express bioremediating functions. PMID:10851141

  3. Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria--What Everyone Needs To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascoe, Neil; Felkner, Marilyn; Maldonado, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Notes the overuse of antibiotics and the resulting resistant bacterial strains. Describes how to control and prevent staphylococcal infections specifically, and almost all infectious diseases generally. Specific sections address: (1) what are staph infections; (2) preventing staph infections; (3) caring for wounds; and (4) controlling staph…

  4. Photoexcited quantum dots for killing multidrug-resistant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Colleen M.; Goodman, Samuel M.; McDaniel, Jessica A.; Madinger, Nancy E.; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2016-05-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are an ever-growing threat because of the shrinking arsenal of efficacious antibiotics. Metal nanoparticles can induce cell death, yet the toxicity effect is typically nonspecific. Here, we show that photoexcited quantum dots (QDs) can kill a wide range of multidrug-resistant bacterial clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli, and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhimurium. The killing effect is independent of material and controlled by the redox potentials of the photogenerated charge carriers, which selectively alter the cellular redox state. We also show that the QDs can be tailored to kill 92% of bacterial cells in a monoculture, and in a co-culture of E. coli and HEK 293T cells, while leaving the mammalian cells intact, or to increase bacterial proliferation. Photoexcited QDs could be used in the study of the effect of redox states on living systems, and lead to clinical phototherapy for the treatment of infections.

  5. Exposing Plasmids as the Achilles’ Heel of Drug-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Julia J.; Hergenrother, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Many multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens harbor large plasmids that encode proteins conferring resistance to antibiotics. While the acquisition of these plasmids often enables bacteria to survive in the presence of antibiotics, it is possible that plasmids also represent a vulnerability that can be exploited in tailored antibacterial therapy. This review highlights three recently described strategies designed to specifically combat bacteria harboring such plasmids: Inhibition of plasmid conjugation, inhibition of plasmid replication, and exploitation of plasmid-encoded toxin-antitoxin systems. PMID:18625335

  6. [Rhizospheria bacteria of Poplus euphratica improve resistance of wood plants to heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Ouyang, Li-ming; Kong, Pei-jun; Yang, Ze-yu; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Dong-lin; Zhang, Li-li

    2015-09-01

    Populus euphratica is a special kind of woody plant, which lives in desert area of northwestern China and is strongly resistant to multiple abiotic stresses. However, the knowledge about the ecology and physiological roles of microbes associated with P. euphratica is still not enough. In this paper, we isolated 72 strains resistant to heavy metals from rhizospheric soil of wild P. euphratica forest in Shaya County of Xinjiang. There were 50 strains conveying resistance to one of four heavy metals (Cu2+, Ni2+, Pb2+ or Zn2+), and 9 strains were resistant to at least three kinds of these heavy metals. Five of the multi-heavy metal resistant bacteria were inoculated to bamboo willow and the growth inhibition of plant under stresses of Cu2+ or Zn2+ was found to be alleviated to different extent. Among the 5 strains, Pseudomonas sp. Z30 and Cupriavidus sp. N8 significantly improved the growth of plant under stresses of both zinc and copper when compared to the uninoculated controls. The results showed the diversity of heavy metal resistant bacteria associated with P. euphratica which lived in a non-heavy metal polluted area and some of the multi-heavy metal resistant bacteria may greatly improve the growth of host plant under heavy metal.stress. The PGPB associated with P. euphratica has potential application in the xylophyte-microbe remediation of environmental heavy metal pollution. PMID:26785565

  7. Efficacy of surface disinfectant cleaners against emerging highly resistant gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, the emergence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria is a clinical problem. Surface disinfectant cleaners (SDCs) that are effective against these bacteria are needed for use in high risk areas around patients and on multi-touch surfaces. We determined the efficacy of several SDCs against clinically relevant bacterial species with and without common types of multidrug resistance. Methods Bacteria species used were ATCC strains; clinical isolates classified as antibiotic-susceptible; and multi-resistant clinical isolates from Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens (all OXA-48 and KPC-2); Acinetobacter baumannii (OXA-23); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (VIM-1); and Achromobacter xylosoxidans (ATCC strain). Experiments were carried out according to EN 13727:2012 in quadruplicate under dirty conditions. The five evaluated SDCs were based on alcohol and an amphoteric substance (AAS), an oxygen-releaser (OR), surface-active substances (SAS), or surface-active-substances plus aldehydes (SASA; two formulations). Bactericidal concentrations of SDCs were determined at two different contact times. Efficacy was defined as a log10 ≥ 5 reduction in bacterial cell count. Results SDCs based on AAS, OR, and SAS were effective against all six species irrespective of the degree of multi-resistance. The SASA formulations were effective against the bacteria irrespective of degree of multi-resistance except for one of the four P. aeruginosa isolates (VIM-1). We found no general correlation between SDC efficacy and degree of antibiotic resistance. Conclusions SDCs were generally effective against gram-negative bacteria with and without multidrug resistance. SDCs are therefore suitable for surface disinfection in the immediate proximity of patients. Single bacterial isolates, however, might have reduced susceptibility to selected biocidal agents. PMID:24885029

  8. Amplification and attenuation of tetracycline resistance in soil bacteria: aquifer column experiments.

    PubMed

    Rysz, Michal; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2004-10-01

    A growing inefficacy of antimicrobial agents to treat infectious diseases has stimulated research on the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria in the environment. Sustained exposure of soil microorganisms to tetracycline (TC) in flow-through columns (50mg/L influent) significantly decreased the effluent concentration of total heterotrophs and selected for TC-resistant (Tet(r)) soil bacteria. This suggests that TC released to the environment from animal farms may contribute to the development and amplification of TC resistance, with soil bacteria serving as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance continuance. Burkholderia cepacia, with genetic determinants for efflux pumps that facilitate TC excretion, was the only bacterium that grew on TC-amended R2A plates. Following 300 days of exposure, TC was removed from the influent to study the recovery pattern of the microbial community. The percentage of Tet(r) hererotrophs decreased from 25% to close to the control level of 1% within 1 month of discontinuing TC exposure. This was due both to a significant rebound in the total heterotrophic population and to a significant decrease in the concentration of Tet(r) bacteria. Thus, discontinuing TC exposure or curtailing its use should enhance natural attenuation mechanisms that mitigate the spread of resistance vectors. PMID:15350422

  9. Incidence and Diversity of Antimicrobial Multidrug Resistance Profiles of Uropathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Linhares, Inês; Raposo, Teresa; Rodrigues, António

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the most frequent multidrug resistant (MDR) profiles of the main bacteria implicated in community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI). Only the MDR profiles observed in, at least, 5% of the MDR isolates were considered. A quarter of the bacteria were MDR and the most common MDR profile, including resistance to penicillins, quinolones, and sulfonamides (antibiotics with different mechanisms of action, all mainly recommended by the European Association of Urology for empirical therapy of uncomplicated UTI), was observed, alone or in association with resistance to other antimicrobial classes, in the main bacteria implicated in UTI. The penicillin class was included in all the frequent MDR profiles observed in the ten main bacteria and was the antibiotic with the highest prescription during the study period. The sulfonamides class, included in five of the six more frequent MDR profiles, was avoided between 2000 and 2009. The results suggest that the high MDR percentage and the high diversity of MDR profiles result from a high prescription of antibiotics but also from antibiotic-resistant genes transmitted with other resistance determinants on mobile genetic elements and that the UTI standard treatment guidelines must be adjusted for the community of Aveiro District. PMID:25834814

  10. Incidence and diversity of antimicrobial multidrug resistance profiles of uropathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Linhares, Inês; Raposo, Teresa; Rodrigues, António; Almeida, Adelaide

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the most frequent multidrug resistant (MDR) profiles of the main bacteria implicated in community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI). Only the MDR profiles observed in, at least, 5% of the MDR isolates were considered. A quarter of the bacteria were MDR and the most common MDR profile, including resistance to penicillins, quinolones, and sulfonamides (antibiotics with different mechanisms of action, all mainly recommended by the European Association of Urology for empirical therapy of uncomplicated UTI), was observed, alone or in association with resistance to other antimicrobial classes, in the main bacteria implicated in UTI. The penicillin class was included in all the frequent MDR profiles observed in the ten main bacteria and was the antibiotic with the highest prescription during the study period. The sulfonamides class, included in five of the six more frequent MDR profiles, was avoided between 2000 and 2009. The results suggest that the high MDR percentage and the high diversity of MDR profiles result from a high prescription of antibiotics but also from antibiotic-resistant genes transmitted with other resistance determinants on mobile genetic elements and that the UTI standard treatment guidelines must be adjusted for the community of Aveiro District. PMID:25834814

  11. Combating multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria with structurally nanoengineered antimicrobial peptide polymers.

    PubMed

    Lam, Shu J; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Pantarat, Namfon; Sulistio, Adrian; Wong, Edgar H H; Chen, Yu-Yen; Lenzo, Jason C; Holden, James A; Blencowe, Anton; Reynolds, Eric C; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-01-01

    With the recent emergence of reports on resistant Gram-negative 'superbugs', infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria have been named as one of the most urgent global health threats due to the lack of effective and biocompatible drugs. Here, we show that a class of antimicrobial agents, termed 'structurally nanoengineered antimicrobial peptide polymers' (SNAPPs) exhibit sub-μM activity against all Gram-negative bacteria tested, including ESKAPE and colistin-resistant and MDR (CMDR) pathogens, while demonstrating low toxicity. SNAPPs are highly effective in combating CMDR Acinetobacter baumannii infections in vivo, the first example of a synthetic antimicrobial polymer with CMDR Gram-negative pathogen efficacy. Furthermore, we did not observe any resistance acquisition by A. baumannii (including the CMDR strain) to SNAPPs. Comprehensive analyses using a range of microscopy and (bio)assay techniques revealed that the antimicrobial activity of SNAPPs proceeds via a multimodal mechanism of bacterial cell death by outer membrane destabilization, unregulated ion movement across the cytoplasmic membrane and induction of the apoptotic-like death pathway, possibly accounting for why we did not observe resistance to SNAPPs in CMDR bacteria. Overall, SNAPPs show great promise as low-cost and effective antimicrobial agents and may represent a weapon in combating the growing threat of MDR Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:27617798

  12. Isolation of Surfactant-Resistant Bacteria from Natural, Surfactant-Rich Marine Habitats▿

    PubMed Central

    Plante, Craig J.; Coe, Kieran M.; Plante, Rebecca G.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental remediation efforts often utilize either biodegradative microbes or surfactants, but not in combination. Coupling both strategies holds the potential to dramatically increase the rate and extent of remediation because surfactants can enhance the bioavailability of contaminants to microbes. However, many surfactants permeabilize bacterial cell membranes and are effective disinfectants. An important goal then is to find or genetically modify microorganisms that possess both desirable degradative capabilities and the ability to thrive in the presence of surfactants. The guts of some marine invertebrates, particularly deposit feeders, have previously been shown to contain high levels of biosurfactants. Our primary aim was to mine these natural, surfactant-rich habitats for surfactant-resistant bacteria. Relative to sediment porewaters, the gut contents of two polychaete deposit feeders, Nereis succinea and Amphitrite ornata, exhibited a significantly higher ratio of bacteria resistant to both cationic and anionic surfactants. In contrast, bacteria in the gut fluids of a holothuroid, Leptosynapta tenuis, showed surfactant susceptibility similar to that of bacteria from sediments. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the majority of surfactant-resistant isolates were previously undescribed species of the genus Vibrio or were of a group most closely related to Spongiobacter spp. We also tested a subset of resistant bacteria for the production of biosurfactants. The majority did produce biosurfactants, as demonstrated via the oil-spreading method, but in all cases, production was relatively weak under the culture conditions employed. Novel surfactant-resistant, biosurfactant-producing bacteria, and the habitats from which they were isolated, provide a new source pool for potential microorganisms to be exploited in the in situ bioremediation of marine sediments. PMID:18586977

  13. Antimicrobial Organometallic Dendrimers with Tunable Activity against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Abd-El-Aziz, Alaa S; Agatemor, Christian; Etkin, Nola; Overy, David P; Lanteigne, Martin; McQuillan, Katherine; Kerr, Russell G

    2015-11-01

    Multidrug-resistant pathogens are an increasing threat to public health. In an effort to curb the virulence of these pathogens, new antimicrobial agents are sought. Here we report a new class of antimicrobial organometallic dendrimers with tunable activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria that included methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Mechanistically, these redox-active, cationic organometallic dendrimers induced oxidative stress on bacteria and also disrupted the microbial cell membrane. The minimum inhibitory concentrations, which provide a quantitative measure of the antimicrobial activity of these dendrimers, were in the low micromolar range. AlamarBlue cell viability assay also confirms the antimicrobial activity of these dendrimers. Interestingly, these dendrimers were noncytotoxic to epidermal cell lines and to mammalian red blood cells, making them potential antimicrobial platforms for topical applications. PMID:26452022

  14. Multidrug Resistance in Quinolone-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolated from Hospital Effluent and the Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Varela, Ana Rita; Pereira, Thamiris V; Fochat, Romário C; Manaia, Célia M

    2016-03-01

    This study is aimed to assess if hospital effluents represent an important supplier of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria that, being discharged in the municipal collector, may be disseminated in the environment and bypassed in water quality control systems. From a set of 101 non-Escherichia coli Gram-negative bacteria with reduced susceptibility to quinolones, was selected a group of isolates comprised by those with the highest indices of MDR (defined as nonsusceptibility to at least one agent in six or more antimicrobial categories, MDR ≥6) or resistance to meropenem or ceftazidime (n = 25). The isolates were identified and characterized for antibiotic resistance phenotype, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes, and other genetic elements and conjugative capacity. The isolates with highest MDR indices were mainly from hospital effluent and comprised ubiquitous bacterial groups of the class Gammaproteobacteria, of the genera Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Pseudomonas, and of the class Flavobacteriia, of the genera Chryseobacterium and Myroides. In this group of 25 strains, 19 identified as Gammaproteobacteria harbored at least one PMQR gene (aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrB, qnrS, or oqxAB) or a class 1 integron gene cassette encoding aminoglycoside, sulfonamide, or carbapenem resistance. Most of the E. coli J53 transconjugants with acquired antibiotic resistance resulted from conjugation with Enterobacteriaceae. These transconjugants demonstrated acquired resistance to a maximum of five classes of antibiotics, one or more PMQR genes and/or a class 1 integron gene cassette. This study shows that ubiquitous bacteria, other than those monitored in water quality controls, are important vectors of antibiotic resistance and can be disseminated from hospital effluent to aquatic environments. This information is relevant to support management options aiming at the control of this public health problem. PMID

  15. Antibiotic concentration and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in two shallow urban lakes after stormwater event.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songhe; Pang, Si; Wang, PeiFang; Wang, Chao; Han, Nini; Liu, Bin; Han, Bing; Li, Yi; Anim-Larbi, Kwaku

    2016-05-01

    Stormwater runoff is generally characterized as non-point source pollution. In the present study, antibiotic concentration and antibiotic susceptibilities of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria were investigated in two small shallow urban lakes before and after strong storm event. Several antibiotics, lactose-fermenting bacteria and cultivable heterotrophic bacteria concentrations increased in surface water and/or surface sediment of two small urban lakes (Lake Xuanwu and Wulongtan) after strong storm event. In general, the frequencies of bacteria showing resistance to nine antibiotics increased after storm event. Based on the 16S rRNA genes of 50 randomly selected isolates from each water sample of two lakes, Aeromonas and Bacillus were dominant genera in samples from two lakes, while genera Proteus and Lysinibacillus were the third abundant genera in Lake Xuanwu and Wulongtu, respectively. Presences of nine antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the 100 isolates were detected and most of these isolates harbored at least two ARGs with different functions. The detection frequency of ARGs in Gram-negative isolates was higher than that in Gram-positive isolates. The most prevalent integron in 100 isolates was int(II) (n = 28), followed by int(I) (n = 17) and int(III) (n = 17). Our results indicate that strong storm events potentially contribute to the transfer of ARGs and antibiotic-resistant bacteria from land-sewer system to the urban Lakes. PMID:26865482

  16. Multidrug resistant bacteria isolated from cockroaches in long-term care facilities and nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Pai, Hsiu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Residents in long-term care facilities and nursing homes have a relative higher risk for infections. The nocturnal and filthy habits of cockroaches may be ideal disseminators of pathogenic microorganisms in these institutions. This study was designed to determine the infestation and vector potential of cockroaches under this institutional environment. Cockroaches were collected from 69 long-term care facilities and nursing homes in Kaohsiung City. Risk factors related to cockroach infestation were determined by questionnaire survey. In addition, bacteria were isolated and identified from the alimentary tract and external surface of these insects. Antibiotic resistances of these microorganisms were then determined. Cockroach infestation was found in 45 (65.2%) institutions and 558 cockroaches (119 Periplaneta americana and 439 Blattella germanica) were collected. A significant association was found between cockroach infestation and indoor environmental sanitation. From 250 adult cockroaches, 38 species of gram-negative bacteria, 20 species of glucose non-fermenter bacilli and 6 species of gram-positive bacteria were isolated. Moreover, antibiotic resistances were found among the bacteria isolated. These findings indicate that cockroaches have the potential in transmitting pathogenic bacteria with multidrug resistances in long-term care facilities and nursing homes. PMID:22960645

  17. [Antibiotic resistance of coryneform bacteria isolated from the reproductive tract of women].

    PubMed

    Cherkasov, S V; Gladysheva, I V

    2010-01-01

    The species composition, antilysozyme activity and antibiotic resistance of coryneform bacteria, isolated from the reproductive tract of women with microecological disturbances, were studied. Sixty six women without microecological disturbances and 102 female patients with microecological disturbances in the reproductive tract were examined. The study showed that Corynebacterium minutissimum, C. amycolatum, C. group JK, C. bovis and C. pseudodiphtheriticum prevailed in the healthy women. In the patients with microecological disturbances in the reproductive tract C. vitarumen, C. matruchotii, C. striatum, C. renale and C. urealyticum were detected in addition to the above species. The average antilysozyme activity of the coryneform bacteria isolated from the healthy women was 1.32 +/- 0.47. In the patients with microecological disturbances in the reproductive tract it was 1.84 +/- 0.38. The in vitro susceptibility of the coryneform bacteria to antimicrobial agents was determined. High prevalence of resistance to beta-lactams (oxacillin and penicillin), erythromycin and co-trimoxazole was detected. Thus, the species variety and the antilysozyme activity of the coryneform bacteria in the reproductive tract of the women with microecological disturbances were found to be higher. The high prevalence of resistance to oxacillin, penicillin, erythromycin and co-trimoxazole in the coryneform bacteria isolated from the patients with the microecological disturbances did not differ from that in the healthy women. PMID:21400755

  18. Cell free glutathione synthesizing activity of mercury resistant bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Gachhui, R.; Pahan, K.; Ray, S., R.; Chaudhuri, J.; Mandal, A. )

    1991-03-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) is present in all living cells and is known to have a generalized role in protecting the cells from heavy metal toxicity. Depletion of both GSH and glutathione reductase (GR) level upon treatment with mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) is reported in various organs of rat. However, the effect of HgCl{sub 2} on glutathione level in bacterial system is not known. In the present communication, the authors report the results of their investigation on the glutathione status in mercury resistant bacterial cells exposed to HgCl{sub 2}.

  19. The role of surveillance systems in confronting the global crisis of antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Federico; Villegas, Maria Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review It is widely accepted that infection control, advanced diagnostics, and novel therapeutics are crucial to mitigate the impact of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The role of global, national and regional surveillance systems as part of the response to the challenge posed by antibiotic resistance is not sufficiently highlighted. We provide an overview of contemporary surveillance programs, with emphasis on Gram-negative bacteria. Recent Findings The World Health Organization and public health agencies in Europe and the United States recently published comprehensive surveillance reports. These highlight the emergence and dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and other multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In Israel, public health action to control CRE, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) producing-Klebsiella pneumoniae, has advanced together with a better understanding of its epidemiology. Surveillance models adapted to the requirements and capacities of each country are in development. Summary Robust surveillance systems are essential to combat antibiotic resistance, and need to emphasize a “One Health” approach. Refinements in surveillance will come from advances in bioinformatics and genomics that permit the integration of global and local information about antibiotic consumption in humans and animals, molecular mechanisms of resistance, and bacterial genotyping. PMID:26098505

  20. [Distribution and removal of anaerobic antibiotic resistant bacteria during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge].

    PubMed

    Tong, Juan; Wang, Yuan-Yue; Wei Yuan, Song

    2014-10-01

    Sewage sludge is one of the major sources that releasing antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) into the environment since it contains large amount of ARB, but there is little information about the fate of the anaerobic ARB in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. Therefore, the distribution, removal and seasonal changes of tetracycline and β-lactam antibiotics resistant bacteria in the mesophilic egg-shaped digesters of a municipal wastewater treatment plant were investigated for one year in this study. Results showed that there were higher amounts of ARB and higher resistance rate of β-lactam antibiotics than that of tetracycline antibiotics in the sewage sludge. All ARB could be significantly reduced during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion process by 1.48-1.64 log unit (P < 0.05). Notably, the ampicillin and cephalothin resistance rates were significantly increased after anaerobic digestion by 12.0% and 14.3%, respectively (P < 0.05). The distribution of ARB in the sewage sludge had seasonal change characteristics. Except for chlorotetracycline resistant bacteria, there were more ARB in the sewage sludge in cold season than in warm season (P < 0.05). PMID:25693388

  1. Incidence of antimicrobial-resistance genes and integrons in antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from eels and aquaculture ponds.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mao; Wu, Xiaomei; Yan, Qingpi; Ma, Ying; Huang, Lixing; Qin, Yingxue; Xu, Xiaojin

    2016-07-01

    The overuse of antimicrobials in aquaculture has promoted the selection of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Here we investigated the abundance of antimicrobial-resistance genes and integrons in 108 strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from eels and aquaculture ponds in China. Conventional PCR was implemented to examine common antibiotic-resistance genes, integrons, and their gene cassette arrays. The results showed that the antibiotic-resistance genes blaTEM, tetC, sulI, aadA, floR, and qnrB were detected at high percentages, as were a number of other resistance genes. Class I integrons were present in 79.63% of the strains, and 10 out of 108 isolates carried class II integrons. Class III integrons were not detected. Three strains carried both class I and class II integrons, and 73.26% of the class I integron-positive isolates contained the qacEΔ1/sul1 gene. Fourteen types of integron cassette arrays were found among class I integron-positive isolates. A new array, dfrB4-catB3-blaOXA-10-aadA1, was discovered in this study. The gene cassette array dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 was the most widely distributed. In summary, 23 different gene cassettes encoding resistance to 8 classes of antibiotics were identified in the class I integrons, and the main cassettes contained genes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides (aad) and trimethoprim (dfr). All class II integron-positive strains had only a single gene cassette array, viz. dfrA1-catB2-sat2-aadA1. High levels of antimicrobial-resistance genes and integrons in eels and auqauculture ponds suggest that the overuse of antimicrobials should be strictly controlled and that the levels of bacterial antimicrobial-resistance genes in aquaculture should be monitored. PMID:27409235

  2. Broad Specificity Efflux pumps and Their Role in Multidrug Resistance of Gram Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nikaido, Hiroshi; Pagès, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance mechanisms reported in Gram-negative bacteria are producing a worldwide health problem. The continuous dissemination of «multi-drug resistant» (MDR) bacteria drastically reduces the efficacy of our antibiotic “arsenal” and consequently increases the frequency of therapeutic failure. In MDR bacteria, the over-expression of efflux pumps that expel structurally-unrelated drugs contributes to the reduced susceptibility by decreasing the intracellular concentration of antibiotics. During the last decade, several clinical data indicate an increasing involvement of efflux pumps in the emergence and dissemination of resistant Gram-negative bacteria. It is necessary to clearly define the molecular, functional and genetic bases of the efflux pump in order to understand the translocation of antibiotic molecules through the efflux transporter. The recent investigation on the efflux pump AcrB at its structural and physiological level, including the identification of drug affinity sites and kinetic parameters for various antibiotics, may open the way to rationally develop an improved new generation of antibacterial agents as well as efflux inhibitors in order to efficiently combat efflux-based resistance mechanisms. PMID:21707670

  3. Distribution of tetracycline- and tylosin-resistance genes in bacteria from soils exposed to swine effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of animal waste from large-scale production facilities to cropland is a common means of manure disposal and nutrient recycling. In addition to the high nutrient load, antibiotic residues and antibiotic-resistant bacteria enter into the environment through this process. As yet, it i...

  4. DISTRIBUTION OF TETRACYCLINE- AND TYLOSIN-RESISTANCE GENES IN BACTERIA FROM SOILS EXPOSED TO SWINE EFFLUENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of animal waste from large-scale production facilities to cropland is a common means of manure disposal and nutrient recycling. In addition to the high nutrient load, antibiotic residues and antibiotic-resistant bacteria enter into the environment through this process. As yet, it i...

  5. Recycling antibiotics into GUMBOS: A new combination strategy to combat multi-drug resistant bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria, coupled with the lack of new antibiotics in development, is fast evolving into a global crisis. New strategies utilizing existing antibacterial agents are urgently needed. We propose one such strategy in which four outmoded ß-lactam antibiotics (amp...

  6. Enteric dysbiosis promotes antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection: systemic dissemination of resistant and commensal bacteria through epithelial transcytosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Linda Chia-Hui; Shih, Yi-An; Wu, Li-Ling; Lin, Yang-Ding; Kuo, Wei-Ting; Peng, Wei-Hao; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Wei, Shu-Chen; Turner, Jerrold R; Ni, Yen-Hsuan

    2014-10-15

    Antibiotic usage promotes intestinal colonization of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, whether resistant bacteria gain dominance in enteric microflora or disseminate to extraintestinal viscera remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate temporal diversity changes in microbiota and transepithelial routes of bacterial translocation after antibiotic-resistant enterobacterial colonization. Mice drinking water with or without antibiotics were intragastrically gavaged with ampicillin-resistant (Amp-r) nonpathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and given normal water afterward. The composition and spatial distribution of intestinal bacteria were evaluated using 16S rDNA sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Bacterial endocytosis in epithelial cells was examined using gentamicin resistance assay and transmission electromicroscopy. Paracellular permeability was assessed by tight junctional immunostaining and measured by tissue conductance and luminal-to-serosal dextran fluxes. Our results showed that antibiotic treatment enabled intestinal colonization and transient dominance of orally acquired Amp-r E. coli in mice. The colonized Amp-r E. coli peaked on day 3 postinoculation and was competed out after 1 wk, as evidenced by the recovery of commensals, such as Escherichia, Bacteroides, Lachnospiraceae, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus. Mucosal penetration and extraintestinal dissemination of exogenous and endogenous enterobacteria were correlated with abnormal epithelial transcytosis but uncoupled with paracellular tight junctional damage. In conclusion, antibiotic-induced enteric dysbiosis predisposes to exogenous infection and causes systemic dissemination of both antibiotic-resistant and commensal enterobacteria through transcytotic routes across epithelial layers. These results may help explain the susceptibility to sepsis in antibiotic-resistant enteric bacterial infection. PMID:25059827

  7. Culture-independent detection of 'TM7' bacteria in a streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying process

    SciTech Connect

    Kurogi, T.; Linh, N. T. T.; Kuroki, T.; Yamada, T.; Hiraishi, A.

    2014-02-20

    Nitrification in biological wastewater treatment processes has been believed for long time to take place under neutral conditions and is inhibited under acidic conditions. However, we previously constructed acidophilic nitrifying sequencing-batch reactors (ANSBRs) being capable of nitrification at < pH 4 and harboring bacteria of the candidate phylum 'TM7' as the major constituents of the microbial community. In light of the fact that the 16S rRNA of TM7 bacteria has a highly atypical base substitution possibly responsible for resistance to streptomycin at the ribosome level, this study was undertaken to construct streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying (SRAN) reactors and to demonstrate whether TM7 bacteria are abundant in these reactors. The SRAN reactors were constructed by seeding with nitrifying sludge from an ANSBR and cultivating with ammonium-containing mineral medium (pH 4.0), to which streptomycin at a concentration of 10, 30 and 50 mg L{sup −1} was added. In all reactors, the pH varied between 2.7 and 4.0, and ammonium was completely converted to nitrate in every batch cycle. PCR-aided denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that some major clones assigned to TM7 bacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were constantly present during the overall period of operation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with specific oligonucleotide probes also showed that TM7 bacteria predominated in all SRAN reactors, accounting for 58% of the total bacterial population on average. Although the biological significance of the TM7 bacteria in the SRAN reactors are unknown, our results suggest that these bacteria are possibly streptomycin-resistant and play some important roles in the acidophilic nitrifying process.

  8. Culture-independent detection of "TM7" bacteria in a streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurogi, T.; Linh, N. T. T.; Kuroki, T.; Yamada, T.; Hiraishi, A.

    2014-02-01

    Nitrification in biological wastewater treatment processes has been believed for long time to take place under neutral conditions and is inhibited under acidic conditions. However, we previously constructed acidophilic nitrifying sequencing-batch reactors (ANSBRs) being capable of nitrification at < pH 4 and harboring bacteria of the candidate phylum "TM7" as the major constituents of the microbial community. In light of the fact that the 16S rRNA of TM7 bacteria has a highly atypical base substitution possibly responsible for resistance to streptomycin at the ribosome level, this study was undertaken to construct streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying (SRAN) reactors and to demonstrate whether TM7 bacteria are abundant in these reactors. The SRAN reactors were constructed by seeding with nitrifying sludge from an ANSBR and cultivating with ammonium-containing mineral medium (pH 4.0), to which streptomycin at a concentration of 10, 30 and 50 mg L-1 was added. In all reactors, the pH varied between 2.7 and 4.0, and ammonium was completely converted to nitrate in every batch cycle. PCR-aided denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that some major clones assigned to TM7 bacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were constantly present during the overall period of operation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with specific oligonucleotide probes also showed that TM7 bacteria predominated in all SRAN reactors, accounting for 58% of the total bacterial population on average. Although the biological significance of the TM7 bacteria in the SRAN reactors are unknown, our results suggest that these bacteria are possibly streptomycin-resistant and play some important roles in the acidophilic nitrifying process.

  9. Agricultural use of antibiotics and the evolution and transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Khachatourians, G G

    1998-01-01

    Microbial Resistance to antibiotics is on the rise, in part because of inappropriate use of antibiotics in human medicine but also because of practices in the agricultural industry. Intensive animal production involves giving livestock animals large quantities of antibiotics to promote growth and prevent infection. These uses promote the selection of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations. The resistant bacteria from agricultural environments may be transmitted to humans, in whom they cause disease that cannot be treated by conventional antibiotics. The author reviews trends in antibiotic use in animal husbandry and agriculture in general. The development of resistance is described, along with the genetic mechanisms that create resistance and facilitate its spread among bacterial species. Particular aspects of resistance in bacterial species common to both the human population and the agrifood industry are emphasized. Control measures that might reverse the current trends are highlighted. PMID:9835883

  10. Preparation of silver nanoparticles fabrics against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanh, Truong Thi; Thu, Nguyen Thi; Hien, Nguyen Quoc; An, Pham Ngoc; Loan, Truong Thi Kieu; Hoa, Phan Thi

    2016-04-01

    The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/peco fabrics were prepared by immobilization of AgNPs on fabrics in which AgNPs were synthesized by γ-irradiation of the 10 mM AgNO3 chitosan solution at the dose of 17.6 kGy. The AgNPs size has been estimated to be about 11 nm from TEM image. The AgNPs content onto peco fabrics was of 143±6 mg/kg at the initial AgNPs concentration of 100 ppm. The AgNPs colloidal solution was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and TEM image. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs/peco fabrics after 60 washings against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae was found to be over 99%. Effects of AgNPs fabics on multidrug-resistant pathogens from the clinical specimens were also tested.

  11. Intestinal regeneration as an insect resistance mechanism to entomopathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Castagnola, Anaïs; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2016-06-01

    The intestinal epithelium of insects is exposed to xenobiotics and entomopathogens during the feeding developmental stages. In these conditions, an effective enterocyte turnover mechanism is highly desirable to maintain integrity of the gut epithelial wall. As in other insects, the gut of lepidopteran larvae have stem cells that are capable of proliferation, which occurs during molting and pathogenic episodes. While much is known on the regulation of gut stem cell division during molting, there is a current knowledge gap on the molecular regulation of gut healing processes after entomopathogen exposure. Relevant information on this subject is emerging from studies of the response to exposure to insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) as model intoxicants. In this work we discuss currently available data on the molecular cues involved in gut stem cell proliferation, insect gut healing, and the implications of enhanced healing as a potential mechanism of resistance against Bt toxins. PMID:27436739

  12. Efficacy of Locally Isolated Lactic Acid Bacteria Against Antibiotic-Resistant Uropathogens

    PubMed Central

    Manzoor, Asma; Ul-Haq, Ikram; Baig, Shahjhan; Qazi, Javed Iqbal; Seratlic, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic resistance represents a serious global health threat to public health, so infections such as pneumonia and urinary tract infection (UTI) are becoming harder to treat. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an action plan to restrain the problem of antibiotic resistance. One approach in UTI control could be the use of lactobacilli because these indigenous inhabitants in human intestine have been found to play an important role in protecting the host from various infections. Objectives: We sought to check the efficacy of locally isolated Lactobacillus species to eradicate antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria causing UTI. Materials and Methods: Lactic acid bacteria isolated from spoiled fruits and vegetables and grown in MRS medium were screened against multi-drug-resistant Candida albicans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus fecalis. Results: Fifty-four lactic acid bacteria were isolated from spoiled fruits and vegetables, of which 11 Gram-positive and catalase-negative Lactobacillus isolates were identified by carbohydrate assimilation profiles as Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. paracasei, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. helveticus, L. brevis, L. salivarius, L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus, L. animalis, and L. plantarum. The latter organism had the highest abundance of all the samples, so its isolates were also verified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated Lactobacilli were screened against multi-drug-resistant uropathogens, viz. C. albicans, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, E. fecalis, and E. coli. The growth inhibition zone (GIZ) was over 10 mm against all the uropathogenic test organisms, where L. fermentum and L. plantarum strains demonstrated remarkable inhibitory activities against E. coli and E. faecalis, with a GIZ up to 28 mm. The susceptibility test to 16 antibiotics showed multidrug resistance (3 to 5 antibiotics) among all the tested uropathogens. Conclusions: The obtained results

  13. Bisphosphocins: novel antimicrobials for enhanced killing of drug-resistant and biofilm-forming bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jonathan P; DiTullio, Paul; Parkinson, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The global prevalence of antibiotic resistance and the threat posed by drug-resistant superbugs are a leading challenge confronting modern medicine in the 21st century. However, the progress on the development of novel antibiotics to combat this problem is severely lagging. A more concerted effort to develop novel therapeutic agents with robust activity and unique mechanisms of action will be needed to overcome the problem of drug resistance. Furthermore, biofilm forming bacteria are known to be increasingly resistant to the actions of antibiotics and are a leading cause of mortality or morbidity in nosocomial infections. Bisphosphocins (also scientifically known as nubiotics) are novel small protonated deoxynucleotide molecules, and exert their antibacterial activity by depolarization of the bacterial cell membrane, causing bacterial cell death. Bisphosphocins may represent an effective weapon against antibiotic-resistant and biofilm-forming pathogenic bacteria. Preclinical efficacy studies in animals have shown that the compounds are safe and, efficacious against various bacterial infections, including drug-resistant pathogens. In vitro biochemical analysis confirmed that the bactericidal activity of bisphosphocins is mediated by depolarization of the bacterial cell membrane, and these compounds are better able to penetrate through bacterial biofilm and kill the biofilm encased bacteria. This article will cover the structure, mode of action, safety, efficacy and the current state of development of bisphosphocins. Together, the information presented here will present a strong case for bisphosphocins to be considered for use as new weapons to complement the existing arsenal of antimicrobial drugs and as a first line defence against drug-resistant and biofilm-forming bacteria. PMID:26597426

  14. Ciprofloxacin residue and antibiotic-resistant biofilm bacteria in hospital effluent.

    PubMed

    Ory, Jérôme; Bricheux, Geneviève; Togola, Anne; Bonnet, Jean Louis; Donnadieu-Bernard, Florence; Nakusi, Laurence; Forestier, Christiane; Traore, Ousmane

    2016-07-01

    Discharge of antimicrobial residues and resistant bacteria in hospital effluents is supposed to have strong impacts on the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the environment. This study aimed to characterize the effluents of the Gabriel Montpied teaching hospital, Clermont-Ferrand, France, by simultaneously measuring the concentration of ciprofloxacin and of biological indicators resistant to this molecule in biofilms formed in the hospital effluent and by comparing these data to ciprofloxacin consumption and resistant bacterial isolates of the hospital. Determination of the measured environmental concentration of ciprofloxacin by spot sampling and polar organic chemical integrative (POCIS) sampling over 2 weeks, and comparison with predicted environmental concentrations produced a hazard quotient >1, indicating a potential ecotoxicological risk. A negative impact was also observed with whole hospital effluent samples using the Tetrahymena pyriformis biological model. During the same period, biofilms were formed within the hospital effluent, and analysis of ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates indicated that Gamma-Proteobacteria were numerous, predominantly Aeromonadaceae (69.56%) and Enterobacteriaceae (22.61%). Among the 115 isolates collected, plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone-resistant genes were detected, with mostly aac(6')-lb-cr and qnrS. In addition, 60% of the isolates were resistant to up to six antibiotics, including molecules mostly used in the hospital (aminosides and third-generation cephalosporins). In parallel, 1247 bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients and resistant to at least one of the fluoroquinolones were collected. Only 5 of the 14 species identified in the effluent biofilm were also found in the clinical isolates, but PFGE typing of the Gram-negative isolates found in both compartments showed there was no clonality among the strains. Altogether, these data confirm the role of hospital loads as sources of pollution for wastewater

  15. Salmonella Newport as Reported by the Animal Arm of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System Enteric Bacteria (NARMS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Since the early 1990’s there has been increasing awareness and concern regarding the development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria of public health significance. Reports targeting zoonotic bacteria, and in particular Salmonella species, suggest that resistance is trending upw...

  16. Prevalence of plasmid-mediated multidrug resistance determinants in fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria isolated from sewage and surface water.

    PubMed

    Osińska, Adriana; Harnisz, Monika; Korzeniewska, Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are fully synthetic broad-spectrum antibacterial agents that are becoming increasingly popular in the treatment of clinical and veterinary infections. Being excreted during treatment, mostly as active compounds, their biological action is not limited to the therapeutic site, but it is moved further as resistance selection pressure into the environment. Water environment is an ideal medium for the aggregation and dissemination of antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which can pose a serious threat to human health. Because of this, the aim of this study was to determine the number of fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria (FQRB) and their share in total heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) in treated wastewater (TWW), and upstream and downstream river water (URW, DRW) samples where TWW is discharged. The spread of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants and the presence/absence of resistance genes to other most popular antibiotic groups (against tetracyclines and beta-lactams) in selected 116 multiresistant isolates were investigated. The share of FQRB in total HPC in all samples was rather small and ranged from 0.7 % in URW samples to 7.5 % in TWW. Bacteria from Escherichia (25.0 %), Acinetobacter (25.0 %), and Aeromonas (6.9 %) genera were predominant in the FQRB group. Fluoroquinolone resistance was mostly caused by the presence of the gene aac(6')-1b-cr (91.4 %). More rarely reported was the occurrence of qnrS, qnrD, as well as oqxA, but qnrA, qnrB, qepA, and oqxB were extremely rarely or never noted in FQRB. The most prevalent bacterial genes connected with beta-lactams' resistance in FQRB were bla TEM, bla OXA, and bla CTX-M. The bla SHV was less common in the community of FQRB. The occurrence of bla genes was reported in almost 29.3 % of FQRB. The most abundant tet genes in FQRB were tet(A), tet(L), tet(K), and tet(S). The prevalence of tet genes was observed in 41.4

  17. Re-sensitizing drug-resistant bacteria to antibiotics by designing Antisense Therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Colleen; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2014-03-01

    ``Super-bugs'' or ``multi-drug resistant organisms'' are a serious international health problem, with devastating consequences to patient health care. The Center for Disease Control has identified antibiotic resistance as one of the world's most pressing public health problems as a significant fraction of bacterial infections contracted are drug resistant. Typically, antibiotic resistance is encoded by ``resistance-genes'' which express proteins that carryout the resistance causing functions inside the bacterium. We present a RNA based therapeutic strategy for designing antimicrobials capable of re-sensitizing resistant bacteria to antibiotics by targeting labile regions of messenger RNAs encoding for resistance-causing proteins. We perform in silico RNA secondary structure modeling to identify labile target regions in an mRNA of interest. A synthetic biology approach is then used to administer antisense nucleic acids to our model system of ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli. Our results show a prolonged lag phase and decrease in viability of drug-resistant E. colitreated with antisense molecules. The antisense strategy can be applied to alter expression of other genes in antibiotic resistance pathways or other pathways of interest.

  18. Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in raw and biologically treated sewage and in groundwater below leaking sewers.

    PubMed

    Gallert, C; Fund, K; Winter, J

    2005-11-01

    More than 750 isolates of faecal coliforms (>200 strains), enterococci (>200 strains) and pseudomonads (>340 strains) from three wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) and from four groundwater wells in the vicinity of leaking sewers were tested for resistance against 14 antibiotics. Most, or at least some, strains of the three bacterial groups, isolated from raw or treated sewage of the three WTPs, were resistant against penicillin G, ampicillin, vancomycin, erythromycin, triple sulfa and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT). Only a few strains of pseudomonads or faecal coliforms were resistant against some of the other tested antibiotics. The antibiotic resistances of pseudomonads, faecal coliforms and enterococci from groundwater varied to a higher extent. In contrast to the faecal coliforms and enterococci, most pseudomonads from all groundwater samples, including those from non-polluted groundwater, were additionally resistant against chloramphenicol and SXT. Pseudomonads from sewage and groundwater had more multiple antibiotic resistances than the faecal coliforms or the enterococci, and many pseudomonads from groundwater were resistant to more antibiotics than those from sewage. The pseudomonads from non-polluted groundwater were the most resistant isolates of all. The few surviving faecal coliforms in groundwater seemed to gain multiple antibiotic resistances, whereas the enterococci lost antibiotic resistances. Pseudomonads, and presumably, other autochthonous soil or groundwater bacteria, such as antibiotic-producing Actinomyces sp., seem to contribute significantly to the gene pool for acquisition of resistances against antibiotics in these environments. PMID:16001254

  19. Detection of Tn5-like sequences in kanamycin-resistant stream bacteria and environmental DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Leff, L G; Dana, J R; McArthur, J V; Shimkets, L J

    1993-01-01

    Resistance to kanamycin and neomycin in the bacterial assemblage of a coastal plain stream was detected by growth of colonies on media containing antibiotics. Three of 184 kanamycin-resistant colonies hybridized with a probe containing the nptII gene from transposon Tn5; the nptII gene encodes the enzyme neomycin phosphotransferase and conveys resistance to kanamycin and neomycin. In one of these isolates, the homologous gene was cloned and shown to confer resistance to a kanamycin-sensitive Escherichia coli strain. Since enumeration of bacteria by acridine orange direct counts revealed that less than 0.2% of the bacteria present were cultivated, direct examination of environmental DNA was used to assess abundance of sequences that hybridize to the nptII gene. To examine the resistance potential of bacteria that were not cultured, total DNA was extracted from environmental samples and hybridized with specific probes. The relative amount of eubacterial DNA in each sample was determined by using a eubacterial specific rDNA probe. Then, the abundance of sequences that hybridize to the eubacterial neomycin phosphotransferase gene was determined by hybridization and expressed relative to the total eubacterial DNA in the assemblage. Relative gene abundance was significantly different among assemblages from different habitats (leaves, midchannel sediments, and bank sediments) but did not differ among stream sites. Images PMID:8382021

  20. [Should we screen for colonization to control the spread of multidrug resistant bacteria?].

    PubMed

    Lepelletier, D; Perron, S; Huguenin, H; Picard, M; Bemer, P; Caillon, J; Juvin, M-E; Drugeon, H

    2003-10-01

    Should we screen for colonization to control the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria? A multidrug-resistant bacteria surveillance program was performed in 1999 at Laënnec Hospital (Nantes, France). After a 3-year period, the results permit us to determine the strategy to strengthen their spread. In 2001, Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin represented 45% of the 202 multidrug-resistant bacteria isolated. The global incidence rate per 100 admissions remained stable between 1999 and 2001 (0.42%), but those of infections acquired in our institution decreased significantly from 0.27% in 1999 to 0.18% in 2001 (P < 0.05), particularly in medical care units (P < 0.04). In spite of this surveillance program and hygiene trainings, the global incidence remained stable during the study period, even if our action contributed to decrease the incidence of S. aureus resistant to methicillin acquired in our institution. Isolation precautions and screening for colonization policy in intensive care units are not sufficient to control the spread of MRB at hospital level. They should be strengthened by procedures for the transfer of infected or colonized patients and by antibiotic use control. PMID:14568591

  1. Cyclic lipodepsipeptides: a new class of antibacterial agents in the battle against resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bionda, Nina; Pitteloud, Jean-Philippe; Cudic, Predrag

    2013-01-01

    In order to provide effective treatment options for infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, innovative antibiotics are necessary, preferably with novel modes of action and/or belonging to novel classes of drugs. Naturally occurring cyclic lipodepsipeptides, which contain one or more ester bonds along with the amide bonds, have emerged as promising candidates for the development of new antibiotics. Some of these natural products are either already marketed or in advanced stages of clinical development. However, despite the progress in the development of new antibacterial agents, it is inevitable that resistant strains of bacteria will emerge in response to the widespread use of a particular antibiotic and limit its lifetime. Therefore, development of new antibiotics remains our most efficient way to counteract bacterial resistance. PMID:23859209

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Bacteria Resistant to Metallic Copper Surfaces▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Espírito Santo, Christophe; Morais, Paula Vasconcelos; Grass, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Metallic copper alloys have recently attracted attention as a new antimicrobial weapon for areas where surface hygiene is paramount. Currently it is not understood on a molecular level how metallic copper kills microbes, but previous studies have demonstrated that a wide variety of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium difficile, are inactivated within minutes or a few hours of exposure. In this study, we show that bacteria isolated from copper alloy coins comprise strains that are especially resistant against the toxic properties exerted by dry metallic copper surfaces. The most resistant of 294 isolates were Gram-positive staphylococci and micrococci, Kocuria palustris, and Brachybacterium conglomeratum but also included the proteobacterial species Sphingomonas panni and Pseudomonas oleovorans. Cells of some of these bacterial strains survived on copper surfaces for 48 h or more. Remarkably, when these dry-surface-resistant strains were exposed to moist copper surfaces, resistance levels were close to those of control strains and MICs for copper ions were at or below control strain levels. This suggests that mechanisms conferring resistance against dry metallic copper surfaces in these newly isolated bacterial strains are different from well-characterized copper ion detoxification systems. Furthermore, staphylococci on coins did not exhibit increased levels of resistance to antibiotics, arguing against coselection with copper surface resistance traits. PMID:20048058

  3. Infections Caused by Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria: Epidemiology and Management.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Keith S; Pogue, Jason M

    2015-10-01

    Infections caused by resistant gram-negative bacteria are becoming increasingly prevalent and now constitute a serious threat to public health worldwide because they are difficult to treat and are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. In the United States, there has been a steady increase since 2000 in rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and multidrug-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, particularly among hospitalized patients with intraabdominal infections, urinary tract infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and bacteremia. Colonization with resistant gram-negative bacteria is common among residents in long-term care facilities (particularly those residents with an indwelling device), and these facilities are considered important originating sources of such strains for hospitals. Antibiotic resistance is associated with a substantial clinical and economic burden, including increased mortality, greater hospital and antibiotic costs, and longer stays in hospitals and intensive care units. Control of resistant gram-negative infections requires a comprehensive approach, including strategies for risk factor identification, detection and identification of resistant organisms, and implementation of infection-control and prevention strategies. In treating resistant gram-negative infections, a review of surveillance data and hospital-specific antibiograms, including resistance patterns within local institutions, and consideration of patient characteristics are helpful in guiding the choice of empiric therapy. Although only a few agents are available with activity against resistant gram-negative organisms, two recently released β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations - ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam - have promising activity against these organisms. In this article, we review the epidemiology, risk factors, and

  4. Isolation, identification and characterization of highly tellurite-resistant, tellurite-reducing bacteria from Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Felipe A.; Pugin, Benoit; Henríquez, Nicole A.; Arenas-Salinas, Mauricio A.; Díaz-Vásquez, Waldo A.; Pozo, María F.; Muñoz, Claudia M.; Chasteen, Thomas G.; Pérez-Donoso, José M.; Vásquez, Claudio C.

    2014-03-01

    The tellurium oxyanion, tellurite, is extremely noxious to most living organisms. Its toxicity has been mainly related to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as to an unbalancing of the thiol:redox buffering system. Nevertheless, a few bacteria are capable of thriving at high tellurite concentrations. One mechanism of resistance is the enzymatic and non-enzymatic reduction of tellurite to the less toxic elemental tellurium. This reduction generates nano- to micrometric tellurium crystals that display different shapes and sizes. To date, a very limited number of highly tellurite-resistant and tellurite-reducing bacterial species are available from international culture collections. In this work, we decided to look for tellurite-reducing bacteria from an extreme environment, Antarctica. This environment exhibits a combination of several extreme factors such as high UV-radiation and desiccation and freezing conditions that impact directly on the local biodiversity. Since, as does, all these factors induce ROS formation, we hypothesized that Antarctic bacteria could also exhibit tellurite-resistance. In this context, we isolated 123 tellurite-resistant bacteria, and characterized six new tellurite-resistant and tellurite-reducing bacterial strains from samples collected in Antarctica. These strains were identified according to their 16S rRNA gene sequence as Staphylococcus hameolyticus, Staphylococcus sciuri, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Pseudomonas lini, and two strains of Psychrobacter immobilis. The isolates display tellurite-resistance about 35- to 500-fold higher than Escherichia coli (Te-sensitive organism), and a high level of tellurite reduction which might be interesting for an application in the field of bioremediation or nanoparticle biosynthesis.

  5. How Fitness Reduced, Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria Survive and Spread: A Multiple Pig - Multiple Bacterial Strain Model

    PubMed Central

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2014-01-01

    More than 30% of E. coli strains sampled from pig farms in Denmark over the last five years were resistant to the commonly used antimicrobial tetracycline. This raises a number of questions: How is this high level sustained if resistant bacteria have reduced growth rates? Given that there are multiple susceptible and resistant bacterial strains in the pig intestines, how can we describe their coexistence? To what extent does the composition of these multiple strains in individual pigs influence the total bacterial population of the pig pen? What happens to a complex population when antimicrobials are used? To investigate these questions, we created a model where multiple strains of bacteria coexist in the intestines of pigs sharing a pen, and explored the parameter limits of a stable system; both with and without an antimicrobial treatment. The approach taken is a deterministic bacterial population model with stochastic elements of bacterial distributions and transmission. The rates that govern the model are process-oriented to represent growth, excretion, and uptake from environment, independent of herd and meta-population structures. Furthermore, an entry barrier and elimination process for the individual strains in each pig were implemented. We demonstrate how competitive growth between multiple bacterial strains in individual pigs, and the transmission between pigs in a pen allow for strains of antimicrobial resistant bacteria to persist in a pig population to different extents, and how quickly they can become dominant if antimicrobial treatment is initiated. The level of spread depends in a non-linear way of the parameters that govern excretion and uptake. Furthermore, the sampling of initial distributions of strains and stochastic transmission events give rise to large variation in how homogenous and how resistant the bacterial population becomes. Most important: resistant bacteria are demonstrated to survive with a disadvantage in growth rate of well over 10

  6. Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria isolated from dry-fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Fraqueza, Maria João

    2015-11-01

    Dry-fermented sausages are meat products highly valued by many consumers. Manufacturing process involves fermentation driven by natural microbiota or intentionally added starter cultures and further drying. The most relevant fermentative microbiota is lactic acid bacteria (LAB) such as Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus, producing mainly lactate and contributing to product preservation. The great diversity of LAB in dry-fermented sausages is linked to manufacturing practices. Indigenous starters development is considered to be a very promising field, because it allows for high sanitary and sensorial quality of sausage production. LAB have a long history of safe use in fermented food, however, since they are present in human gastrointestinal tract, and are also intentionally added to the diet, concerns have been raised about the antimicrobial resistance in these beneficial bacteria. In fact, the food chain has been recognized as one of the key routes of antimicrobial resistance transmission from animal to human bacterial populations. The World Health Organization 2014 report on global surveillance of antimicrobial resistance reveals that this issue is no longer a future prediction, since evidences establish a link between the antimicrobial drugs use in food-producing animals and the emergence of resistance among common pathogens. This poses a risk to the treatment of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. This review describes the possible sources and transmission routes of antibiotic resistant LAB of dry-fermented sausages, presenting LAB antibiotic resistance profile and related genetic determinants. Whenever LAB are used as starters in dry-fermented sausages processing, safety concerns regarding antimicrobial resistance should be addressed since antibiotic resistant genes could be mobilized and transferred to other bacteria. PMID:26002560

  7. Carriage of antibiotic-resistant enteric bacteria varies among sites in Galapagos reptiles.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Emily; Hong, Pei-Ying; Bedon, Lenin Cruz; Mackie, Roderick I

    2012-01-01

    Increased overlap between humans and wildlife populations has increased the risk for novel disease emergence. Detecting contacts with a high risk for transmission of pathogens requires the identification of dependable measures of microbial exchange. We evaluated antibiotic resistance as a molecular marker for the intensity of human-wildlife microbial connectivity in the Galápagos Islands. We isolated Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica from the feces of land iguanas (Conolophus sp.), marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), giant tortoises (Geochelone nigra), and seawater, and tested these bacteria with the use of the disk diffusion method for resistance to 10 antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were found in reptile feces from two tourism sites (Isla Plaza Sur and La Galapaguera on Isla San Cristóbal) and from seawater close to a public use beach near Puerto Baquerizo Moreno on Isla San Cristóbal. No resistance was detected at two protected beaches on more isolated islands (El Miedo on Isla Santa Fe and Cape Douglas on Isla Fernandina) and at a coastal tourism site (La Lobería on Isla San Cristóbal). Eighteen E. coli isolates from three locations, all sites relatively proximate to a port town, were resistant to ampicillin, doxycycline, tetracycline, and trimethoprin/sulfamethoxazole. In contrast, only five S. enterica isolates showed a mild decrease in susceptibility to doxycycline and tetracycline from these same sites (i.e., an intermediate resistance phenotype), but no clinical resistance was detected in this bacterial species. These findings suggest that reptiles living in closer proximity to humans potentially have higher exposure to bacteria of human origin; however, it is not clear from this study to what extent this potential exposure translates to ongoing exchange of bacterial strains or genetic traits. Resistance patterns and bacterial exchange in this system warrant further investigation to understand better how human associations

  8. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods.

    PubMed

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of bacteria's heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria's heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample's thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS's performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria's thermo-tolerances. PMID:27465120

  9. Iron metabolism and resistance to infection by invasive bacteria in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Bozzaro, Salvatore; Buracco, Simona; Peracino, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Dictyostelium cells are forest soil amoebae, which feed on bacteria and proliferate as solitary cells until bacteria are consumed. Starvation triggers a change in life style, forcing cells to gather into aggregates to form multicellular organisms capable of cell differentiation and morphogenesis. As a soil amoeba and a phagocyte that grazes on bacteria as the obligate source of food, Dictyostelium could be a natural host of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, many pathogens that occasionally infect humans are hosted for most of their time in protozoa or free-living amoebae, where evolution of their virulence traits occurs. Due to these features and its amenability to genetic manipulation, Dictyostelium has become a valuable model organism for studying strategies of both the host to resist infection and the pathogen to escape the defense mechanisms. Similarly to higher eukaryotes, iron homeostasis is crucial for Dictyostelium resistance to invasive bacteria. Iron is essential for Dictyostelium, as both iron deficiency or overload inhibit cell growth. The Dictyostelium genome shares with mammals many genes regulating iron homeostasis. Iron transporters of the Nramp (Slc11A) family are represented with two genes, encoding Nramp1 and Nramp2. Like the mammalian ortholog, Nramp1 is recruited to phagosomes and macropinosomes, whereas Nramp2 is a membrane protein of the contractile vacuole network, which regulates osmolarity. Nramp1 and Nramp2 localization in distinct compartments suggests that both proteins synergistically regulate iron homeostasis. Rather than by absorption via membrane transporters, iron is likely gained by degradation of ingested bacteria and efflux via Nramp1 from phagosomes to the cytosol. Nramp gene disruption increases Dictyostelium sensitivity to infection, enhancing intracellular growth of Legionella or Mycobacteria. Generation of mutants in other “iron genes” will help identify genes essential for iron homeostasis and resistance to pathogens. PMID

  10. In vitro antibacterial potency of Butea monosperma Lam. against 12 clinically isolated multidrug resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Mahesh Chandra; Padhy, Rabindra Nath

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial activity, using cold and hot extraction procedures with five solvents, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water to validate medicinal uses of Butea monosperma Lam (B. monosperma) in controlling infections; and to qualitatively estimate phytochemical constituents of leaf-extracts of the plant. Methods The antibacterial activity of leaf-extracts was evaluated by the agar-well diffusion method against clinically isolated 12 Gram-positive and -negative multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria in vitro. Values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of leaf-extracts against each bacterium were obtained in a 96-well micro-titre plate, by broth dilution micro-titre plate technique. Results The presence of tannins, flavonoids, starch, glycosides and carbohydrates in different leaf extracts was established. Pathogenic bacteria used were, Acinetobacter sp., Chromobacterium violaceum, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sp., Enterococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), methicillin resistant S. aureus and vancomycin resistant S. aureus, along with standard bacterial strains. These MDR bacteria had been recorded to have significant inhibitions by leaf extracts, obtained by cold and hot extraction procedures with five solvents. In addition, the hot aqueous extract against Enterococcus sp. had the highest inhibition zone-size (21 mm). Ciprofloxacin 30 µg/disc was the positive/reference control and the diluting solvent, 10% dimethyl sulphoxide was the negative control. Recorded MIC values of different extracts ranged between 0.23 and 13.30 mg/mL, and MBC values were 0.52 to 30.00 mg/mL, for these bacteria. Conclusions Leaf-extracts with hot water and ethanol had shown significant antibacterial activity against all bacteria. B. monosperma leaf-extract could be used in treating infectious

  11. Deoxynybomycins inhibit mutant DNA gyrase and rescue mice infected with fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Elizabeth I.; Bair, Joseph S.; Nakamura, Bradley A.; Lee, Hyang Y.; Kuttab, Hani I.; Southgate, Emma H.; Lezmi, Stéphane; Lau, Gee W.; Hergenrother, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are one of the most commonly prescribed classes of antibiotics, but fluoroquinolone resistance (FQR) is widespread and increasing. Deoxynybomycin (DNM) is a natural-product antibiotic with an unusual mechanism of action, inhibiting the mutant DNA gyrase that confers FQR. Unfortunately, isolation of DNM is difficult and DNM is insoluble in aqueous solutions, making it a poor candidate for development. Here we describe a facile chemical route to produce DNM and its derivatives. These compounds possess excellent activity against FQR methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci clinical isolates and inhibit mutant DNA gyrase in-vitro. Bacteria that develop resistance to DNM are re-sensitized to fluoroquinolones, suggesting that resistance that emerges to DNM would be treatable. Using a DNM derivative, the first in-vivo efficacy of the nybomycin class is demonstrated in a mouse infection model. Overall, the data presented suggest the promise of DNM derivatives for the treatment of FQR infections. PMID:25907309

  12. Analysis of antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from the surface microlayer and underlying water of an estuarine environment.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Juliana S N; Araújo, Susana; Oliveira, Cláudia S; Correia, António; Henriques, Isabel

    2013-02-01

    We compared the prevalence of cultivable antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes in the surface microlayer (SML) and underlying waters (UW) of an estuary. Prevalence of resistant bacteria was determined in antibiotic-supplemented agar. Bacterial isolates from the UW (n=91) and SML (n=80), selected in media without antibiotic, were characterized concerning susceptibility against nine antibiotics. The presence of genes bla(TEM), bla(OXA-B), bla(SHV), bla(IMP), tet(A), tet(B), tet(E), tet(M), cat, sul1, sul2, sul3, aadA, IntI1, IntI2, and IntI3 was assessed by PCR. The variable regions of integrons were sequenced. Ampicillin- and streptomycin-resistant bacteria were significantly more prevalent in SML. Resistance levels among the bacterial collections were generally low, preventing detection of significant differences between SML and UW. The tet(E) gene was detected in two Aeromonas isolates and tet(M) was detected in a Pseudomonas isolate. Gene sul1 was amplified from three Aeromonas isolates. Prevalence of intI genes was 2.11%. Cassette arrays contained genes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides and chloramphenicol. A higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the SML, although only detectable when bacteria were selected in antibiotic-supplemented agar, suggests that SML conditions select for antibiotic resistance. Results also showed that antibiotic resistance was uncommon among estuarine bacteria and the resistance mechanisms are probably predominantly intrinsic. PMID:23067198

  13. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in fecal bacteria from rooks commonly wintering throughout Europe.

    PubMed

    Literak, Ivan; Micudova, Maria; Tausova, Dagmar; Cizek, Alois; Dolejska, Monika; Papousek, Ivo; Prochazka, Jakub; Vojtech, Jiri; Borleis, Frank; Guardone, Lisa; Guenther, Sebastian; Hordowski, Jozef; Lejas, Cyrille; Meissner, Wlodzimierz; Marcos, Benito Fuertes; Tucakov, Marko

    2012-12-01

    This study concerned the occurrence of fecal bacteria with plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in rooks (Corvus frugilegus, medium-sized corvid birds) wintering in continental Europe during winter 2010/2011. Samples of fresh rook feces were taken by cotton swabs at nine roosting places in eight European countries. Samples were transported to one laboratory and placed in buffered peptone water (BPW). The samples from BPW were enriched and subcultivated onto MacConkey agar (MCA) supplemented with ciprofloxacin (0.06 mg/L) to isolate fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria. DNA was isolated from smears of bacterial colonies growing on MCA and tested by PCR for PMQR genes aac(6')-Ib, qepA, qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, and oqxAB. All the PCR products were further analyzed by sequencing. Ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria were isolated from 37% (392 positive/1,073 examined) of samples. Frequencies of samples with ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates ranged significantly from 3% to 92% in different countries. The qnrS1 gene was found in 154 samples and qnrS2 in 2 samples. The gene aac(6')-Ib-cr was found in 16 samples. Thirteen samples were positive for qnrB genes in variants qnrB6 (one sample), qnrB18 (one), qnrB19 (one), qnrB29 (one), and qnrB49 (new variant) (one). Both the qnrD and oqxAB genes were detected in six samples. The genes qnrA, qnrC, and qepA were not found. Wintering omnivorous rooks in Europe were commonly colonized by bacteria supposedly Enterobacteriaceae with PMQR genes. Rooks may disseminate these epidemiologically important bacteria over long distances and pose a risk for environmental contamination. PMID:22731858

  14. [Monotherapy vs. combined therapy in the treatment of multi-drug resistance gramnegative bacteria].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sagasti, F; González-Gallego, M A; Moneo-González, A

    2016-09-01

    The increasing number of multidrug resistant gram negative bacteria, particularly in patients with risk factors, but in those who suffer community infections as well, is doing more and more difficult to choose the appropriate treatment. The most challenging cases are due to the production of extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenemases. This mini-review will discuss the adequacy of administering carbapenems when suspecting infections due to ESBL that could be modified after knowing the MIC of the isolated bacteria and the combined therapy in cases of carbapenemases, being particularly important to include a carbapenem and/or colistine at high dosages in this combination. PMID:27608313

  15. Co-occurrence of antibiotic drugs, resistant bacteria and resistance genes in runoff from cattle feedlots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural uses of antibiotics raises concerns about the development of antibiotic resistance in food animals, and the potential to transmit resistance to human clinical settings via fecal contamination of surface and ground water. Although there is broad agreement that agricultural resistance can...

  16. Ozone treatment of conditioned wastewater selects antibiotic resistance genes, opportunistic bacteria, and induce strong population shifts.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Johannes; Knopp, Gregor; Dötsch, Andreas; Wieland, Arne; Schwartz, Thomas

    2016-07-15

    An ozone treatment system was investigated to analyze its impact on clinically relevant antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs). A concentration of 0.9±0.1g ozone per 1g DOC was used to treat conventional clarified wastewater. PCR, qPCR analyses, Illumina 16S Amplicon Sequencing, and PCR-DGGE revealed diverse patterns of resistances and susceptibilities of opportunistic bacteria and accumulations of some ARGs after ozone treatment. Molecular marker genes for enterococci indicated a high susceptibility to ozone. Although they were reduced by almost 99%, they were still present in the bacterial population after ozone treatment. In contrast to this, Pseudomonas aeruginosa displayed only minor changes in abundance after ozone treatment. This indicated different mechanisms of microorganisms to cope with the bactericidal effects of ozone. The investigated ARGs demonstrated an even more diverse pattern. After ozone treatment, the erythromycin resistance gene (ermB) was reduced by 2 orders of magnitude, but simultaneously, the abundance of two other clinically relevant ARGs increased within the surviving wastewater population (vanA, blaVIM). PCR-DGGE analysis and 16S-Amplicon-Sequencing confirmed a selection-like process in combination with a substantial diversity loss within the vital wastewater population after ozone treatment. Especially the PCR-DGGE results demonstrated the survival of GC-rich bacteria after ozone treatment. PMID:27058129

  17. Nontoxic colloidal particles impede antibiotic resistance of swarming bacteria by disrupting collective motion and speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shengtao; Liu, Fang; Xing, Bengang; Yeow, Edwin K. L.

    2015-12-01

    A monolayer of swarming B. subtilis on semisolid agar is shown to display enhanced resistance against antibacterial drugs due to their collective behavior and motility. The dynamics of swarming motion, visualized in real time using time-lapse microscopy, prevents the bacteria from prolonged exposure to lethal drug concentrations. The elevated drug resistance is significantly reduced when the collective motion of bacteria is judiciously disrupted using nontoxic polystyrene colloidal particles immobilized on the agar surface. The colloidal particles block and hinder the motion of the cells, and force large swarming rafts to break up into smaller packs in order to maneuver across narrow spaces between densely packed particles. In this manner, cohesive rafts rapidly lose their collectivity, speed, and group dynamics, and the cells become vulnerable to the drugs. The antibiotic resistance capability of swarming B. subtilis is experimentally observed to be negatively correlated with the number density of colloidal particles on the engineered surface. This relationship is further tested using an improved self-propelled particle model that takes into account interparticle alignment and hard-core repulsion. This work has pertinent implications on the design of optimal methods to treat drug resistant bacteria commonly found in swarming colonies.

  18. [Inactivation of the chlorine-resistant bacteria isolated from the drinking water distribution system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Qiao; Duan, Xiao-Di; Lu, Pin-Pin; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Chao

    2012-01-01

    Inactivation experiments of seven strains of chlorine-resistant bacteria, isolated from a drinking water distribution system, were conducted with four kinds of disinfectants. All the bacteria showed high resistance to chlorine, especially for Mycobacterium mucogenicum. The CT value of 99.9% inactivation for M. mucogenicum, Sphingomonas sanguinis and Methylobacterium were 120 mg x (L x min)(-1), 7 mg x (L x min)(-1) and 4 mg x (L x min)(-1), respectively. The results of inactivation experiments showed that chlorine dioxide and potassium monopersulfate could inactive 5 lg of M. mucogenicum within 30 min, which showed significantly higher efficiency than free chlorine and monochloramine. Free chlorine was less effective because the disinfectant decayed very quickly. Chloramination needed higher concentration to meet the disinfection requirements. The verified dosage of disinfectants, which could effectively inactivate 99.9% of the highly chlorine-resistant M. mucogenicum within 1 h, were 3.0 mg/L monochloramine, 1.0 mg/L chlorine dioxide (as Cl2), and 1.0 mg/L potassium monopersulfate (as Cl2). It was suggested that the water treatment plants increase the concentration of monochloramine or apply chlorine dioxide intermittently to control the disinfectant-resistant bacteria. PMID:22452196

  19. Aerobic Mercury-resistant bacteria alter Mercury speciation and retention in the Tagus Estuary (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Neusa L; Canário, João; O'Driscoll, Nelson J; Duarte, Aida; Carvalho, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Aerobic mercury-resistant bacteria were isolated from the sediments of two highly mercury-polluted areas of the Tagus Estuary (Barreiro and Cala do Norte) and one natural reserve area (Alcochete) in order to test their capacity to transform mercury. Bacterial species were identified using 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing techniques and the results indicate the prevalence of Bacillus sp. Resistance patterns to mercurial compounds were established by the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations. Representative Hg-resistant bacteria were further tested for transformation pathways (reduction, volatilization and methylation) in cultures containing mercury chloride. Bacterial Hg-methylation was carried out by Vibrio fluvialis, Bacillus megaterium and Serratia marcescens that transformed 2-8% of total mercury into methylmercury in 48h. In addition, most of the HgR bacterial isolates showed Hg(2+)-reduction andHg(0)-volatilization resulting 6-50% mercury loss from the culture media. In summary, the results obtained under controlled laboratory conditions indicate that aerobic Hg-resistant bacteria from the Tagus Estuary significantly affect both the methylation and reduction of mercury and may have a dual face by providing a pathway for pollution dispersion while forming methylmercury, which is highly toxic for living organisms. PMID:26461264

  20. Xenopus laevis oocytes infected with multi-drug–resistant bacteria: implications for electrical recordings

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Denice; Mruk, Karen; Rocheleau, Jessica M.

    2011-01-01

    The Xenopus laevis oocyte has been the workhorse for the investigation of ion transport proteins. These large cells have spawned a multitude of novel techniques that are unfathomable in mammalian cells, yet the fickleness of the oocyte has driven many researchers to use other membrane protein expression systems. Here, we show that some colonies of Xenopus laevis are infected with three multi-drug–resistant bacteria: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Oocytes extracted from infected frogs quickly (3–4 d) develop multiple black foci on the animal pole, similar to microinjection scars, which render the extracted eggs useless for electrical recordings. Although multi-drug resistant, the bacteria were susceptible to amikacin and ciprofloxacin in growth assays. Supplementing the oocyte storage media with these two antibiotics prevented the appearance of the black foci and afforded oocytes suitable for whole-cell recordings. Given that P. fluorescens associated with X. laevis has become rapidly drug resistant, it is imperative that researchers store the extracted oocytes in the antibiotic cocktail and not treat the animals harboring the multi-drug–resistant bacteria. PMID:21788613

  1. Antisense RNA regulation and application in the development of novel antibiotics to combat multidrug resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yinduo; Lei, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of antibiotics and vaccines, infectious diseases remain one of most dangerous threats to humans and animals. The overuse and misuse of antibacterial agents have led to the emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens. Bacterial cells are often resilient enough to survive in even the most extreme environments. To do so, the organisms have evolved different mechanisms, including a variety of two-component signal transduction systems, which allow the bacteria to sense the surrounding environment and regulate gene expression in order to adapt and respond to environmental stimuli. In addition, some bacteria evolve resistance to antibacterial agents while many bacterial cells are able to acquire resistance genes from other bacterial species to enable them to survive in the presence of toxic antimicrobial agents. The crisis of antimicrobial resistance is an unremitting menace to human health and a burden on public health. The rapid increase in antimicrobial resistant organisms and limited options for development of new classes of antibiotics heighten the urgent need to develop novel potent antibacterial therapeutics in order to combat multidrug resistant infections. In this review, we introduce the regulatory mechanisms of antisense RNA and significant applications of regulated antisense RNA interference technology in early drug discovery. This includes the identification and evaluation of drug targets in vitro and in vivo, the determination of mode of action for antibiotics and new antibacterial agents, as well as the development of peptide-nucleic acid conjugates as novel antibacterials. PMID:23738437

  2. Occurrence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from seawater organisms caught in Campania Region: preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental contamination by pharmaceuticals is a public health concern: drugs administered to humans and animals are excreted with urine or faeces and attend the sewage treatment. The main consequences of use and abuse of antibiotics is the development and diffusion of antibiotic resistance that has become a serious global problem. Aim of the study is to evaluate the presence of antimicrobial residues and to assess the antimicrobial resistance in bacteria species isolated from different wild caught seawater fish and fishery products. Results Three antibiotic substances (Oxytetracicline, Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim) were detected (by screening and confirmatory methods) in Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis and Thais haemastoma. All Vibrio strains isolated from fish were resistant to Vancomycin (VA) and Penicillin (P). In Vibrio alginolyticus, isolated in Octopus vulgaris, a resistance against 9 antibiotics was noted. Conclusions Wild caught seawater fish collected in Gulf of Salerno (Campania Region), especially in marine areas including mouths of streams, were contaminated with antibiotic-resistant bacteria strains and that they might play an important role in the spread of antibiotic-resistance. PMID:25027759

  3. GWAMAR: Genome-wide assessment of mutations associated with drug resistance in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of drug resistance in bacteria causes antibiotic therapies to be less effective and more costly. Moreover, our understanding of the process remains incomplete. One promising approach to improve our understanding of how resistance is being acquired is to use whole-genome comparative approaches for detection of drug resistance-associated mutations. Results We present GWAMAR, a tool we have developed for detecting of drug resistance-associated mutations in bacteria through comparative analysis of whole-genome sequences. The pipeline of GWAMAR comprises several steps. First, for a set of closely related bacterial genomes, it employs eCAMBer to identify homologous gene families. Second, based on multiple alignments of the gene families, it identifies mutations among the strains of interest. Third, it calculates several statistics to identify which mutations are the most associated with drug resistance. Conclusions Based on our analysis of two large datasets retrieved from publicly available data for M. tuberculosis, we identified a set of novel putative drug resistance-associated mutations. As a part of this work, we present also an application of our tool to detect putative compensatory mutations. PMID:25559874

  4. The Challenge of Efflux-Mediated Antibiotic Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Plésiat, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The global emergence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria is a growing threat to antibiotic therapy. The chromosomally encoded drug efflux mechanisms that are ubiquitous in these bacteria greatly contribute to antibiotic resistance and present a major challenge for antibiotic development. Multidrug pumps, particularly those represented by the clinically relevant AcrAB-TolC and Mex pumps of the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) superfamily, not only mediate intrinsic and acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) but also are involved in other functions, including the bacterial stress response and pathogenicity. Additionally, efflux pumps interact synergistically with other resistance mechanisms (e.g., with the outer membrane permeability barrier) to increase resistance levels. Since the discovery of RND pumps in the early 1990s, remarkable scientific and technological advances have allowed for an in-depth understanding of the structural and biochemical basis, substrate profiles, molecular regulation, and inhibition of MDR pumps. However, the development of clinically useful efflux pump inhibitors and/or new antibiotics that can bypass pump effects continues to be a challenge. Plasmid-borne efflux pump genes (including those for RND pumps) have increasingly been identified. This article highlights the recent progress obtained for organisms of clinical significance, together with methodological considerations for the characterization of MDR pumps. PMID:25788514

  5. Occurrence of Multidrug Resistant Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Bacteria on Iceberg Lettuce Retailed for Human Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Talreja, Deepa; Rana, Sonia Walia; Walia, Sandeep; Walia, Satish K.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a global problem exacerbated by the dissemination of resistant bacteria via uncooked food, such as green leafy vegetables. New strains of bacteria are emerging on a daily basis with novel expanded antibiotic resistance profiles. In this pilot study, we examined the occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria against five classes of antibiotics on iceberg lettuce retailed in local convenience stores in Rochester, Michigan. In this study, 138 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies from 9 iceberg lettuce samples were randomly picked and tested for antibiotic resistance. Among these isolates, the vast majority (86%) demonstrated resistance to cefotaxime, and among the resistant bacteria, the majority showed multiple drug resistance, particularly against cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Three bacterial isolates (2.17%) out of 138 were extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. Two ESBL producers (T1 and T5) were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae, an opportunistic pathogen with transferable sulfhydryl variable- (SHV-) and TEM-type ESBLs, respectively. The DNA sequence analysis of the blaSHV detected in K. pneumoniae isolate T1 revealed 99% relatedness to blaSHV genes found in clinical isolates. This implies that iceberg lettuce is a potential reservoir of newly emerging and evolving antibiotic resistant bacteria and its consumption poses serious threat to human health. PMID:26064922

  6. Bacteria–bacteria interactions within the microbiota of the ancestral metazoan Hydra contribute to fungal resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fraune, Sebastian; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Augustin, René; Franzenburg, Sören; Knop, Mirjam; Schröder, Katja; Willoweit-Ohl, Doris; Bosch, Thomas CG

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial surfaces of most animals are colonized by diverse microbial communities. Although it is generally agreed that commensal bacteria can serve beneficial functions, the processes involved are poorly understood. Here we report that in the basal metazoan Hydra, ectodermal epithelial cells are covered with a multilayered glycocalyx that provides a habitat for a distinctive microbial community. Removing this epithelial microbiota results in lethal infection by the filamentous fungus Fusarium sp. Restoring the complex microbiota in gnotobiotic polyps prevents pathogen infection. Although mono-associations with distinct members of the microbiota fail to provide full protection, additive and synergistic interactions of commensal bacteria are contributing to full fungal resistance. Our results highlight the importance of resident microbiota diversity as a protective factor against pathogen infections. Besides revealing insights into the in vivo function of commensal microbes in Hydra, our findings indicate that interactions among commensal bacteria are essential to inhibit pathogen infection. PMID:25514534

  7. The carriage of antibiotic resistance by enteric bacteria from imported tokay geckos (Gekko gecko) destined for the pet trade.

    PubMed

    Casey, Christine L; Hernandez, Sonia M; Yabsley, Michael J; Smith, Katherine F; Sanchez, Susan

    2015-02-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a growing public health concern and has serious implications for both human and veterinary medicine. The nature of the global economy encourages the movement of humans, livestock, produce, and wildlife, as well as their potentially antibiotic-resistant bacteria, across international borders. Humans and livestock can be reservoirs for antibiotic-resistant bacteria; however, little is known about the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harbored by wildlife and, to our knowledge, limited data has been reported for wild-caught reptiles that were specifically collected for the pet trade. In the current study, we examined the antibiotic resistance of lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae isolates from wild-caught Tokay geckos (Gekko gecko) imported from Indonesia for use in the pet trade. In addition, we proposed that the conditions under which wild animals are captured, transported, and handled might affect the shedding or fecal prevalence of antibiotic resistance. In particular we were interested in the effects of density; to address this, we experimentally modified densities of geckos after import and documented changes in antibiotic resistance patterns. The commensal enteric bacteria from Tokay geckos (G. gecko) imported for the pet trade displayed resistance against some antibiotics including: ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin and tetracycline. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria after experimentally mimicking potentially stressful transportation conditions reptiles experience prior to purchase. There were, however, some interesting trends observed when comparing Tokay geckos housed individually and those housed in groups. Understanding the prevalence of antibiotic resistant commensal enteric flora from common pet reptiles is paramount because of the potential for humans exposed to these animals to acquire antibiotic-resistant

  8. [Isolation and characterization of two bacteria with heavy metal resistance and phosphate solubilizing capability].

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiang; Peng, Xia-Wei; Li, Xia; Sun, Ya-Jun; Feng, Hong-Mei; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2014-06-01

    Two phosphate solubilizing bacteria (T PSB1 and T PSB 2) with high heavy metal resistance were isolated from soil of a lead-zinc mine in Huayuan of Hunan Province, China. These two bacteria were identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Burkholderia gladioli by 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, respectively. In the media containing insoluble inorganic calcium phosphate, the soluble phosphate amounts reached respectively 402.9 mg x L(-1) and 589.9 mg x L(-1) with the bacteria T PSB1 and T PSB2 after two weeks' growth. Moreover, the two bacteria developed solubilizing halos on the plates supplemented with the organic phosphate compounds, and the resulting soluble phosphate amounts in the broth media were respectively 2.97 mg x L(-1) and 4.69 mg x L(-1). In addition, these two bacteria showed the resistance to up to 2000 mg x L(-1) Zn2+, and their phosphate solubilizing amounts reached respectively 114.8 mg x L(-1) and 125.1 mg x L(-1). Similarly, their heavy metal resistance and phosphate solubilizing ability were also found in the Cr and Pb broth media with the concentration of 1000 mg x L(-1). In the Pb media, the soluble phosphate amounts reached respectively 57.9 mg x L(-1) and 71.7 mg x L(-1), and the soluble P amounts in the Cr media were 60.1 mg x L(-1) and 98.4 mg x L(-1) at the concentration of 1000 mg x L(-1). PMID:25158515

  9. Sewage sludge and liquid pig manure as possible sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hölzel, Christina S; Schwaiger, Karin; Harms, Katrin; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Kunz, Anne; Meyer, Karsten; Müller, Christa; Bauer, Johann

    2010-05-01

    Within the last decades, the environmental spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become a topic of concern. In this study, liquid pig manure (n=305) and sewage sludge (n=111) - used as agricultural fertilizers between 2002 and 2005 - were investigated for the presence of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Bacteria were tested for their resistance against 40 chemotherapeutics including several "reserve drugs". E. coli (n=613) from pig manure were at a significantly higher degree resistant to streptomycin, doxycycline, spectinomycin, cotrimoxazole, and chloramphenicol than E. coli (n=116) from sewage sludge. Enterococci (Ent. faecalis, n=387, and Ent. faecium, n=183) from pig manure were significantly more often resistant to high levels of doxycycline, rifampicin, erythromycin, and streptomycin than Ent. faecalis (n=44) and Ent. faecium (n=125) from sewage sludge. Significant differences in enterococcal resistance were also seen for tylosin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin high level, fosfomycin, clindamicin, enrofloxacin, moxifloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. By contrast, aminopenicillins were more effective in enterococci from pig manure, and mean MIC-values of piperacillin+tazobactam and third generation cefalosporines were significantly lower in E. coli from pig manure than in E. coli from sewage sludge. 13.4% (E. coli) to 25.3% (Ent. faecium) of pig manure isolates were high-level multiresistant to substances from more than three different classes of antimicrobial agents. In sewage sludge, high-level-multiresistance reached from 0% (Ent. faecalis) to 16% (Ent. faecium). High rates of (multi-) resistant bacteria in pig manure emphasize the need for a prudent - cautious - use of antibiotics in farm animals. PMID:20303077

  10. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Lavandula coronopifolia essential oil against antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ait Said, L; Zahlane, K; Ghalbane, I; El Messoussi, S; Romane, A; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the composition of the essential oil (EO) of Lavandula coronopifolia from Morocco and to evaluate its in vitro antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from clinical infections. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by a broth micro-well dilution method using multiresistant clinical isolates of 11 pathogenic bacteria: Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Providencia rettgeri, Citrobacter freundii, Hafnia alvei, Salmonella spp., Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The main compounds of the oil were carvacrol (48.9%), E-caryophyllene (10.8%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.7%). The oil showed activity against all tested strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging between 1% and 4%. For most of the strains, the MIC value was equivalent to the minimal bactericidal concentration value, indicating a clear bactericidal effect of L. coronopifolia EO. PMID:25174508

  11. Reprogrammable microbial cell-based therapeutics against antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Young; Koh, Elvin; Kim, Hye Rim; Yew, Wen Shan; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of antimicrobial drugs and their subsequent use has offered an effective treatment option for bacterial infections, reducing morbidity and mortality over the past 60 years. However, the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials in the clinical, community and agricultural settings has resulted in selection for multidrug-resistant bacteria, which has led to the prediction of possible re-entrance to the pre-antibiotic era. The situation is further exacerbated by significantly reduced antimicrobial drug discovery efforts by large pharmaceutical companies, resulting in a steady decline in the number of new antimicrobial agents brought to the market in the past several decades. Consequently, there is a pressing need for new antimicrobial therapies that can be readily designed and implemented. Recently, it has become clear that the administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics can lead to collateral damage to the human commensal microbiota, which plays several key roles in host health. Advances in genetic engineering have opened the possibility of reprogramming commensal bacteria that are in symbiotic existence throughout the human body to implement antimicrobial drugs with high versatility and efficacy against pathogenic bacteria. In this review, we discuss recent advances and potentialities of engineered bacteria in providing a novel antimicrobial strategy against antibiotic resistance. PMID:27449598

  12. Antibacterial activities of selected edible plants extracts against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In response to the propagation of bacteria resistant to many antibiotics also called multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, the discovery of new and more efficient antibacterial agents is primordial. The present study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activities of seven Cameroonian dietary plants (Adansonia digitata, Aframomum alboviolaceum, Aframomum polyanthum, Anonidium. mannii, Hibiscus sabdarifa, Ocimum gratissimum and Tamarindus indica). Methods The phytochemical screening of the studied extracts was performed using described methods whilst the liquid broth micro dilution was used for all antimicrobial assays against 27 Gram-negative bacteria. Results The results of the phytochemical tests indicate that all tested extracts contained phenols and triterpenes, other classes of chemicals being selectively present. The studied extracts displayed various degrees of antibacterial activities. The extracts of A. digitata, H. sabdarifa, A. polyanthum, A. alboviolaceum and O. gratissimum showed the best spectra of activity, their inhibitory effects being recorded against 81.48%, 66.66%, 62.96%, 55.55%, and 55.55% of the 27 tested bacteria respectively. The extract of A. polyanthum was very active against E. aerogenes EA294 with the lowest recorded minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 32 μg/ml. Conclusion The results of the present work provide useful baseline information for the potential use of the studied edible plants in the fight against both sensitive and MDR phenotypes. PMID:23837916

  13. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts of Aristolochia indica and Toddalia asiatica Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Venkatadri, B; Arunagirinathan, N; Rameshkumar, M R; Ramesh, Latha; Dhanasezhian, A; Agastian, P

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria have developed multidrug resistance against available antimicrobial agents. Infectious diseases caused by these multidrug-resistant bacteria are major causes of morbidity and mortality in human beings. Synthetic drugs are expensive and inadequate for the treatment of diseases, causing side effects and ineffective against multidrug-resistant bacteria. The medicinal plants are promising to have effective antimicrobial property due to presence of phytochemical compounds like alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. The present study aimed to find the antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were identified by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Production of β-lactamases (extended spectrum β-lactamases, metallo β-lactamase and AmpC β-lactamase) were identified by combination disc method. Antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol extract of Aristolochia indica and Toddalia asiatica were detected by agar well diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration. All bacteria used in this study showed antibiotic resistance to ≥3 antibiotics. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Vibrio cholerae were found to be positive for β-lactamase production. Ethanol extract of Aristolochia indica showed more significant antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria than Toddalia asiatica. Ethanol extracts of Aristolochia indica and Toddalia asiatica showed minimum inhibitory concentration values of 50-100 μg/ml and 100-200 μg/ml, respectively against multidrug-resistant bacteria. From this study, it was concluded that Aristolochia indica has more potential to treat multidrug-resistant bacteria than Toddalia asiatica. PMID:26997710

  14. Diversity of tet resistance genes in tetracycline-resistant bacteria isolated from a swine lagoon with low antibiotic impact.

    PubMed

    Macauley, John J; Adams, Craig D; Mormile, Melanie R

    2007-12-01

    Tetracycline resistance has been extensively studied and shown to be widespread. A number of previous studies have clearly demonstrated that a variety of tetracycline resistance genes are present in swine fecal material, treatment lagoons, and the environments surrounding concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The diversity of tetracycline resistance within a swine lagoon located at a CAFO that used only bacitricin methylene disalicylate as an antibiotic was evaluated by screening 85 tetracycline-resistant isolates for the presence of 18 different genes by performing PCR with primers that target tetracycline efflux genes of Gram-negative bacteria and ribosomal protection proteins. In addition, partial 16S rRNA sequences from each of these isolates were sequenced to determine the identity of these isolates. Of the 85 isolates examined, 17 may represent potential novel species based on BLAST results. Greater than 50% of the isolates (48 out of 85) were found to not contain targeted tet efflux genes. Though minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged widely (16 - >256 mg/L), these values did not give an indication of the tet genes present. Ten new genera were identified that contain at least one tet efflux gene. Five other genera possessed tet efflux genes that were not found in these organisms previously. Interestingly, none of the isolates possessed any of the selected ribosomal protection protein genes. Though tetracycline resistance was found in bacteria isolated from a swine CAFO lagoon, it appears that the limited antibiotic use at this CAFO might have impacted the presence and diversity of tetracycline resistance genes. PMID:18059563

  15. Nonchromosomal Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria: Genetic Transformation of Escherichia coli by R-Factor DNA*

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Stanley N.; Chang, Annie C. Y.; Hsu, Leslie

    1972-01-01

    Transformation of E. coli cells treated with CaCl2 to multiple antibiotic resistance by purified R-factor DNA is reported. Drug resistance is expressed in a small fraction of the recipient bacterial population almost immediately after uptake of DNA, but full genetic expression of resistance requires subsequent incubation in drugfree medium before antibiotic challenge. Transformed bacteria acquire a closed circular, transferable DNA species having the resistance, fertility, and sedimentation characteristics of the parent R factor. Covalently-closed, catenated, and open (nicked) circular forms of R-factor DNA are all effective in transformation, but denaturation and sonication abolish the transforming ability of R-factor DNA in this system. PMID:4559594

  16. Curing bacteria of antibiotic resistance: reverse antibiotics, a novel class of antibiotics in nature.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Igarashi, Masayuki; Morimoto, Yuh; Baba, Tadashi; Umekita, Maya; Akamatsu, Yuzuru

    2012-06-01

    By screening cultures of soil bacteria, we re-discovered an old antibiotic (nybomycin) as an antibiotic with a novel feature. Nybomycin is active against quinolone-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains with mutated gyrA genes but not against those with intact gyrA genes against which quinolone antibiotics are effective. Nybomycin-resistant mutant strains were generated from a quinolone-resistant, nybomycin-susceptible, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strain Mu 50. The mutants, occurring at an extremely low rate (<1 × 10(-11)/generation), were found to have their gyrA genes back-mutated and to have lost quinolone resistance. Here we describe nybomycin as the first member of a novel class of antibiotics designated 'reverse antibiotics'. PMID:22534508

  17. Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Enteric Bacteria in Sub-Saharan Africa: Clones, Implications and Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Chattaway, Marie A.; Aboderin, Aaron O.; Fashae, Kayode; Okoro, Chinyere K.; Opintan, Japheth A.; Okeke, Iruka N.

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones came into widespread use in African countries in the early 2000s, after patents for the first generation of these drugs expired. By that time, quinolone antibacterial agents had been used intensively worldwide and resistant lineages of many bacterial species had evolved. We sought to understand which Gram negative enteric pandemic lineages have been reported from Africa, as well as the nature and transmission of any indigenous resistant clones. A systematic review of articles indexed in the Medline and AJOL literature databases was conducted. We report on the findings of 43 eligible studies documenting local or pandemic fluoroquinolone-resistant enteric clones in sub-Sahara African countries. Most reports are of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella and Escherichia coli lineages and there have been three reports of cholera outbreaks caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1. Fluoroquinolone-resistant clones have also been reported from commensals and animal isolates but there are few data for non-Enterobacteriaceae and almost none for difficult-to-culture Campylobacter spp. Fluoroquinolone-resistant lineages identified in African countries were universally resistant to multiple other classes of antibacterial agents. Although as many as 972 non-duplicate articles refer to fluoroquinolone resistance in enteric bacteria from Africa, most do not report on subtypes and therefore information on the epidemiology of fluoroquinolone-resistant clones is available from only a handful of countries in the subcontinent. When resistance is reported, resistance mechanisms and lineage information is rarely investigated. Insufficient attention has been given to molecular and sequence-based methods necessary for identifying and tracking resistant clones in Africa and more research is needed in this area. PMID:27148238

  18. Suppression of Emergence of Resistance in Pathogenic Bacteria: Keeping Our Powder Dry, Part 1.

    PubMed

    Drusano, G L; Louie, Arnold; MacGowan, Alasdair; Hope, William

    2016-03-01

    We are in a crisis of bacterial resistance. For economic reasons, most pharmaceutical companies are abandoning antimicrobial discovery efforts, while, in health care itself, infection control and antibiotic stewardship programs have generally failed to prevent the spread of drug-resistant bacteria. At this point, what can be done? The first step has been taken. Governments and international bodies have declared there is a worldwide crisis in antibiotic drug resistance. As discovery efforts begin anew, what more can be done to protect newly developing agents and improve the use of new drugs to suppress resistance emergence? A neglected path has been the use of recent knowledge regarding antibiotic dosing as single agents and in combination to minimize resistance emergence, while also providing sufficient early bacterial kill. In this review, we look at the data for resistance suppression. Approaches include increasing the intensity of therapy to suppress resistant subpopulations; developing concepts of clinical breakpoints to include issues surrounding suppression of resistance; and paying attention to the duration of therapy, which is another important issue for resistance suppression. New understanding of optimizing combination therapy is of interest for difficult-to-treat pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae. These lessons need to be applied to our old drugs to preserve them as well and need to be put into national and international antibiotic resistance strategies. As importantly, from a regulatory perspective, new chemical entities should have a corresponding resistance suppression plan at the time of regulatory review. In this way, we can make the best of our current situation and improve future prospects. PMID:26711759

  19. Suppression of Emergence of Resistance in Pathogenic Bacteria: Keeping Our Powder Dry, Part 2.

    PubMed

    Drusano, G L; Hope, William; MacGowan, Alasdair; Louie, Arnold

    2016-03-01

    We are in a crisis of bacterial resistance. For economic reasons, most pharmaceutical companies are abandoning antimicrobial discovery efforts, while, in health care itself, infection control and antibiotic stewardship programs have generally failed to prevent the spread of drug-resistant bacteria. At this point, what can be done? The first step has been taken. Governments and international bodies have declared there is a worldwide crisis in antibiotic drug resistance. As discovery efforts begin anew, what more can be done to protect newly developing agents and improve the use of new drugs to suppress resistance emergence? A neglected path has been the use of recent knowledge regarding antibiotic dosing as single agents and in combination to minimize resistance emergence, while also providing sufficient early bacterial kill. In this review, we look at the data for resistance suppression. Approaches include increasing the intensity of therapy to suppress resistant subpopulations; developing concepts of clinical breakpoints to include issues surrounding suppression of resistance; and paying attention to the duration of therapy, which is another important issue for resistance suppression. New understanding of optimizing combination therapy is of interest for difficult-to-treat pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae. These lessons need to be applied to our old drugs as well to preserve them and to be put into national and international antibiotic resistance strategies. As importantly, from a regulatory perspective, new chemical entities should have a resistance suppression plan at the time of regulatory review. In this way, we can make the best of our current situation and improve future prospects. PMID:26711766

  20. Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Enteric Bacteria in Sub-Saharan Africa: Clones, Implications and Research Needs.

    PubMed

    Chattaway, Marie A; Aboderin, Aaron O; Fashae, Kayode; Okoro, Chinyere K; Opintan, Japheth A; Okeke, Iruka N

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones came into widespread use in African countries in the early 2000s, after patents for the first generation of these drugs expired. By that time, quinolone antibacterial agents had been used intensively worldwide and resistant lineages of many bacterial species had evolved. We sought to understand which Gram negative enteric pandemic lineages have been reported from Africa, as well as the nature and transmission of any indigenous resistant clones. A systematic review of articles indexed in the Medline and AJOL literature databases was conducted. We report on the findings of 43 eligible studies documenting local or pandemic fluoroquinolone-resistant enteric clones in sub-Sahara African countries. Most reports are of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella and Escherichia coli lineages and there have been three reports of cholera outbreaks caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1. Fluoroquinolone-resistant clones have also been reported from commensals and animal isolates but there are few data for non-Enterobacteriaceae and almost none for difficult-to-culture Campylobacter spp. Fluoroquinolone-resistant lineages identified in African countries were universally resistant to multiple other classes of antibacterial agents. Although as many as 972 non-duplicate articles refer to fluoroquinolone resistance in enteric bacteria from Africa, most do not report on subtypes and therefore information on the epidemiology of fluoroquinolone-resistant clones is available from only a handful of countries in the subcontinent. When resistance is reported, resistance mechanisms and lineage information is rarely investigated. Insufficient attention has been given to molecular and sequence-based methods necessary for identifying and tracking resistant clones in Africa and more research is needed in this area. PMID:27148238

  1. Thermodynamic Analysis of the Lipopolysaccharide-Dependent Resistance of Gram-Negative Bacteria against Polymyxin B

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Jörg; Andrä, Jörg; Conde, Raquel; Iriarte, Maite; Garidel, Patrick; Koch, Michel H. J.; Gutsmann, Thomas; Moriyón, Ignacio; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Cationic antimicrobial cationic peptides (CAMP) have been found in recent years to play a decisive role in hosts' defense against microbial infection. They have also been investigated as a new therapeutic tool, necessary in particular due to the increasing resistance of microbiological populations to antibiotics. The structural basis of the activity of CAMPs has only partly been elucidated and may comprise quite different mechanism at the site of the bacterial cell membranes or in their cytoplasm. Polymyxin B (PMB) is a CAMP which is effective in particular against Gram-negative bacteria and has been well studied with the aim to understand its interaction with the outer membrane or isolated membrane components such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to define the mechanism by which the peptides kill bacteria or neutralize LPS. Since PMB resistance of bacteria is a long-known phenomenon and is attributed to structural changes in the LPS moiety of the respective bacteria, we have performed a thermodynamic and biophysical analysis to get insights into the mechanisms of various LPS/PMB interactions in comparison to LPS from sensitive strains. In isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) experiments considerable differences of PMB binding to sensitive and resistant LPS were found. For sensitive LPS the endothermic enthalpy change in the gel phase of the hydrocarbon chains converts into an exothermic reaction in the liquid crystalline phase. In contrast, for resistant LPS the binding enthalpy change remains endothermic in both phases. As infrared data show, these differences can be explained by steric changes in the headgroup region of the respective LPS. PMID:17237210

  2. Characteristics of Hg-resistant bacteria isolated from Minamata Bay sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, K.; Fujisaki, T.; Tamashiro, H.

    1986-06-01

    Seventy-two strains of Hg-resistant bacteria (Pseudomonas) were isolated on agar plates containing 40 micrograms/ml of HgCl2 from Minamata Bay sediment, which was heavily polluted with mercury (45.8 micrograms/g). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of mercurial compounds were determined for the Hg-resistant pseudomonads and 65 strains (Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Vibrio sp., and Corynebacterium sp.) isolated from Sendai Bay sediment (1 microgram/g of mercury) as control. The MICs to HgCl/sub 2/, CH/sub 3/HgCl, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/HgCl, C/sub 3/H/sub 7/HgCl, and C/sub 6/H/sub 5/HgOCOCH/sub 3/ for the Hg-resistant pseudomonads from Minamata Bay were significantly higher than those of strains from Sendai Bay. The volatilization from liquid culture containing 20 micrograms/ml of HgCl2 was observed in all of the Hg-resistant pseudomonads from Minamata Bay (70 strains). The mean loss of mercury from liquid culture was 60.4 +/- 17.3%. Further study is warranted to determine what role the Hg-resistant bacteria, particularly the Pseudomonas species, play in the mercury cycle in Minamata Bay.

  3. Role of Mn2+ and compatible solutes in the radiation resistance of thermophilic bacteria and archaea.

    PubMed

    Webb, Kimberly M; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-resistant bacteria have garnered a great deal of attention from scientists seeking to expose the mechanisms underlying their incredible survival abilities. Recent analyses showed that the resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum is dependent upon Mn-antioxidant complexes responsible for the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by radiation. Here we examined the role of the compatible solutes trehalose, mannosylglycerate, and di-myo-inositol phosphate in the radiation resistance of aerobic and anaerobic thermophiles. We found that the IR resistance of the thermophilic bacteria Rubrobacter xylanophilus and Rubrobacter radiotolerans was highly correlated to the accumulation of high intracellular concentration of trehalose in association with Mn, supporting the model of Mn(2+)-dependent ROS scavenging in the aerobes. In contrast, the hyperthermophilic archaea Thermococcus gammatolerans and Pyrococcus furiosus did not contain significant amounts of intracellular Mn, and we found no significant antioxidant activity from mannosylglycerate and di-myo-inositol phosphate in vitro. We therefore propose that the low levels of IR-generated ROS under anaerobic conditions combined with highly constitutively expressed detoxification systems in these anaerobes are key to their radiation resistance and circumvent the need for the accumulation of Mn-antioxidant complexes in the cell. PMID:23209374

  4. Assessment of copper and zinc salts as selectors of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Becerra-Castro, Cristina; Machado, Rita A; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Manaia, Célia M

    2015-10-15

    Some metals are nowadays considered environmental pollutants. Although some, like Cu and Zn, are essential for microorganisms, at high concentrations they can be toxic or exert selective pressures on bacteria. This study aimed to assess the potential of Cu or Zn as selectors of specific bacterial populations thriving in wastewater. Populations of Escherichia coli recovered on metal-free and metal-supplemented culture medium were compared based on antibiotic resistance phenotype and other traits. In addition, the bacterial groups enriched after successive transfers in metal-supplemented culture medium were identified. At a concentration of 1mM, Zn produced a stronger inhibitory effect than Cu on the culturability of Enterobacteriaceae. It was suggested that Zn selected populations with increased resistance prevalence to sulfamethoxazole or ciprofloxacin. In non-selective culture media, Zn or Cu selected for mono-species populations of ubiquitous Betaproteobacteria and Flavobacteriia, such as Ralstonia pickettii or Elizabethkingia anophelis, yielding multidrug resistance profiles including resistance against carbapenems and third generation cephalosporins, confirming the potential of Cu or Zn as selectors of antibiotic resistant bacteria. PMID:26057541

  5. Assessment and characterization of heavy metal resistance in Palk Bay sediment bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nithya, Chari; Gnanalakshmi, Balasubramanian; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2011-05-01

    The present study aimed at characterizing the heavy metal resistance and assessing the resistance pattern to multiple heavy metals (300 mmol L⁻¹) by Palk Bay sediment bacteria. From 46 isolates, 24 isolates showed resistance to more than eight heavy metals. Among the 24 isolates S8-06 (Bacillus arsenicus), S8-10 (Bacillus pumilus), S8-14 (B. arsenicus), S6-01 (Bacillus indicus), S6-04 (Bacillus clausii), SS-06 (Planococcus maritimus) and SS-08 (Staphylococcus pasteuri) exhibited high resistance against arsenic, mercury, cobalt, cadmium, lead and selenium. Plasmid curing confirmed that the heavy metal resistance in S8-10 is chromosomal borne. Upon treatment with the heavy metals, the strain S8-10 showed many morphological and physiological changes as shown by SEM, FTIR and AAS analysis. S8-10 removed 47% of cadmium and 96% of lead from the growth medium. The study suggests that sediment bacteria can be biological indicators of heavy metal contamination. PMID:21377723

  6. Colistin and tigecycline resistance in carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria: emerging resistance mechanisms and detection methods.

    PubMed

    Osei Sekyere, J; Govinden, U; Bester, L A; Essack, S Y

    2016-09-01

    A literature review was undertaken to ascertain the molecular basis for tigecycline and colistin resistance mechanisms and the experimental basis for the detection and delineation of this resistance particularly in carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria. Pubmed, Google Scholar and Science Direct were searched with the keywords colistin, tigecycline, resistance mechanisms and detection methods. Trans-complementation and comparative MIC studies, mass spectrometry, chromatography, spectrofluorometry, PCR, qRT-PCR and whole genome sequencing (WGS) were commonly used to determine tigecycline and colistin resistance mechanisms, specifically modifications in the structural and regulatory efflux (acrAB, OqxAB, kpgABC adeABC-FGH-IJK, mexAB-XY-oprJM and soxS, rarA robA, ramRAB marRABC, adeLRS, mexRZ and nfxb) and lipid A (pmrHFIJFKLM, lpxA, lpxC lpxD and mgrB, pmrAB, phoPQ,) genes respectively. Mutations in the ribosomal 16S rRNA operon rrnBC, also yielded resistance to tigecycline through target site modifications. The mcr-1 gene conferring resistance to colistin was identified via WGS, trans-complementation and a murine thigh infection model studies. Common detection methods are mainly antibiotic sensitivity testing with broth microdilution while molecular identification tools are mostly PCR and WGS. Spectrofluorometry, MALDI-TOF MS, micro-array and real-time multiplex PCR hold much promise for the future as new detection tools. PMID:27153928

  7. High-throughput screening of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in picodroplets.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Painter, R E; Enesa, K; Holmes, D; Whyte, G; Garlisi, C G; Monsma, F J; Rehak, M; Craig, F F; Smith, C A

    2016-04-26

    The prevalence of clinically-relevant bacterial strains resistant to current antibiotic therapies is increasing and has been recognized as a major health threat. For example, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are of global concern. Novel methodologies are needed to identify new targets or novel compounds unaffected by pre-existing resistance mechanisms. Recently, water-in-oil picodroplets have been used as an alternative to conventional high-throughput methods, especially for phenotypic screening. Here we demonstrate a novel microfluidic-based picodroplet platform which enables high-throughput assessment and isolation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a label-free manner. As a proof-of-concept, the system was used to isolate fusidic acid-resistant mutants and estimate the frequency of resistance among a population of Escherichia coli (strain HS151). This approach can be used for rapid screening of rare antibiotic-resistant mutants to help identify novel compound/target pairs. PMID:27033300

  8. Thermotolerance and multidrug resistance in bacteria isolated from equids and their environment.

    PubMed

    Singh, B R

    2009-06-13

    Sixty-nine vaginal swabs and 138 rectal swabs collected from 195 equids were analysed for the presence of thermotolerant bacteria, that is, bacteria surviving at 60+/-0.1 degrees C for one hour. Thermotolerant Escherichia coli, Enterobacter species, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus species and Pseudomonas species were isolated from 41, 16, nine, three and three of the 138 rectal swabs, respectively; seven of the E coli and two of the Enterobacter species isolates survived pasteurisation at 63.8+/-0.1 degrees C for 30 minutes. All except three E coli, two Enterobacter species and one Proteus species isolate were resistant to three or more antimicrobial drugs, that is, they were multidrug resistant. Thermotolerant E coli, Enterobacter species and Proteus species were isolated from 11, two and two of the 69 vaginal swabs, respectively, but only one isolate of E coli survived pasteurisation at 63.8+/-0.1 degrees C for 30 minutes. All except two of the E coli isolates were multidrug resistant. None of the four thermotolerant isolates from nine soil samples collected on four of the farms where the equids were kept was pasteurisation resistant, but they were all multidrug resistant. Of the 10 pasteurisation-resistant isolates, nine were multidrug resistant but none was resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, cotrimazine, cotrimoxazole or streptomycin. All the isolates grew at 42+/-0.1 degrees C but none grew at 46+/-0.1 degrees C or above. The Enterobacter isolates were more tolerant to pasteurisation than the E coli isolates, particularly during the first few minutes of exposure. PMID:19525523

  9. Association of mercury resistance with antibiotic resistance in the gram-negative fecal bacteria of primates.

    PubMed Central

    Wireman, J; Liebert, C A; Smith, T; Summers, A O

    1997-01-01

    Gram-negative fecal bacterial from three longitudinal Hg exposure experiments and from two independent survey collections were examined for their carriage of the mercury resistance (mer) locus. The occurrence of antibiotic resistance was also assessed in both mercury-resistant (Hgr) and mercury-susceptible (Hgs) isolates from the same collections. The longitudinal studies involved exposure of the intestinal flora to Hg released from amalgam "silver" dental restorations in six monkeys. Hgr strains were recovered before the installation of amalgams, and frequently these became the dominant strains while amalgams were installed. Such persistent Hgr strains always carried the same mer locus throughout the experiments. In both the longitudinal and survey collections, certain mer loci were preferentially associated with one genus, whereas other mer loci were recovered from many genera. In general, strains with any mer locus were more likely to be multiresistant than were strains without mer loci; this clustering tendency was also seen for antibiotic resistance genes. However, the association of antibiotic multiresistance with mer loci was not random; regardless of source, certain mer loci occurred in highly multiresistant strains (with as many as seven antibiotic resistances), whereas other mer loci were found in strains without any antibiotic resistance. The majority of highly multiresistant Hgr strains also carried genes characteristic of an integron, a novel genetic element which enables the formation of tandem arrays of antibiotic resistance genes. Hgr strains lacking antibiotic resistance showed no evidence of integron components. PMID:9361435

  10. New biodiagnostics based on optical tweezers: typing red blood cells, and identification of drug resistant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jia-Wen; Lin, Chuen-Fu; Wang, Shyang-Guang; Lee, Yi-Chieh; Chiang, Chung-Han; Huang, Min-Hui; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Vitrant, Guy; Pan, Ming-Jeng; Lee, Horng-Mo; Liu, Yi-Jui; Baldeck, Patrice L.; Lin, Chih-Lang

    2013-09-01

    Measurements of optical tweezers forces on biological micro-objects can be used to develop innovative biodiagnostics methods. In the first part of this report, we present a new sensitive method to determine A, B, D types of red blood cells. Target antibodies are coated on glass surfaces. Optical forces needed to pull away RBC from the glass surface increase when RBC antigens interact with their corresponding antibodies. In this work, measurements of stripping optical forces are used to distinguish the major RBC types: group O Rh(+), group A Rh(+) and group B Rh(+). The sensitivity of the method is found to be at least 16-folds higher than the conventional agglutination method. In the second part of this report, we present an original way to measure in real time the wall thickness of bacteria that is one of the most important diagnostic parameters of bacteria drug resistance in hospital diagnostics. The optical tweezers force on a shell bacterium is proportional to its wall thickness. Experimentally, we determine the optical tweezers force applied on each bacteria family by measuring their escape velocity. Then, the wall thickness of shell bacteria can be obtained after calibrating with known bacteria parameters. The method has been successfully applied to indentify, from blind tests, Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including VSSA (NCTC 10442), VISA (Mu 50), and heto-VISA (Mu 3)

  11. No effect of Wolbachia on resistance to intracellular infection by pathogenic bacteria in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rottschaefer, Susan M; Lazzaro, Brian P

    2012-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that infection with the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis confers Drosophila melanogaster and other insects with resistance to infection by RNA viruses. Studies investigating whether Wolbachia infection induces the immune system or confers protection against secondary bacterial infection have not shown any effect. These studies, however, have emphasized resistance against extracellular pathogens. Since Wolbachia lives inside the host cell, we hypothesized that Wolbachia might confer resistance to pathogens that establish infection by invading host cells. We therefore tested whether Wolbachia-infected D. melanogaster are protected against infection by the intracellular pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium, as well as the extracellular pathogenic bacterium Providencia rettgeri. We evaluated the ability of flies infected with Wolbachia to suppress secondary infection by pathogenic bacteria relative to genetically matched controls that had been cured of Wolbachia by treatment with tetracycline. We found no evidence that Wolbachia alters host ability to suppress proliferation of any of the three pathogenic bacteria. Our results indicate that Wolbachia-induced antiviral protection does not result from a generalized response to intracellular pathogens. PMID:22808174

  12. Distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria isolated from cancer hospital in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Linjuan; Li, Qi; Zhang, Qingyun; Wang, Guohong; Xu, Guobin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria from a specialized cancer hospital in 2013 in order to provide a basis for rational clinical antimicrobial agents. Methods Pathogenic bacteria identification and drug sensitivity tests were performed with a VITEK 2 compact automatic identification system and data were analyzed using WHONET5.6 software. Results Of the 1,378 strains tested, 980 were Gram-negative bacilli, accounting for 71.1%, in which Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the dominant strains. We found 328 Gram-positive coccus, accounting for 23.8%, in which the amount of Staphylococcus aureus was the highest. We identified 46 fungi, accounting for 4.1%. According to the departmental distribution within the hospital, the surgical departments isolated the major strains, accounting for 49.7%. According to disease types, lung cancer, intestinal cancer and esophagus cancer were the top three, accounting for 20.9%, 17.3% and 14.2%, respectively. No strains were resistant to imipenem, ertapenem or vancomycin. Conclusions Pathogenic bacteria isolated from the specialized cancer hospital have different resistance rates compared to commonly used antimicrobial agents; therefore antimicrobial agents to reduce the morbidity and mortality of infections should be used. PMID:25561768

  13. Synergistic Antimicrobial Activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, Amber; Khan, Adnan; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kazmi, Shahana U.; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates.” We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens PMID:25719410

  14. Use of Shotgun Metagenome Sequencing To Detect Fecal Colonization with Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in Children.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Heidi; Connolly, Natalia; Bangar, Hansraj; Staat, Mary; Mortensen, Joel; Deburger, Barbara; Haslam, David B

    2016-07-01

    Prevention of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections relies on accurate detection of these organisms. We investigated shotgun metagenome sequencing for the detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), and MDR Enterobacteriaceae Fecal metagenomes were analyzed from high-risk inpatients and compared to those of low-risk outpatients and controls with minimal risk for a MDR bacterial infection. Principal-component analysis clustered patient samples into distinct cohorts, confirming that the microbiome composition was significantly different between cohorts (P = 0.006). Microbial diversity and relative anaerobe abundance were preserved in outpatients compared to those in controls. Relative anaerobe abundance was significantly reduced in inpatients compared to that in outpatients (P = 0.006). Although the potential for MDR bacteria was increased in inpatients and outpatients compared to that in controls (P < 0.001), there was no difference between inpatients and outpatients. However, 9 (53%) inpatients had colonization with a MDR bacterium that was not identified by culture. Unlike culture, shotgun sequencing quantitatively characterizes the burdens of multiple MDR bacteria relative to all of the microbiota within the intestinal community. We propose consideration of key microbiome features, such as diversity and relative anaerobe abundance, in addition to the detection of MDR bacteria by shotgun metagenome sequencing as a novel method that might better identify patients who are at increased risk of a MDR infection. PMID:27122381

  15. Potential Emergence of Multi-quorum Sensing Inhibitor Resistant (MQSIR) Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Koul, Shikha; Prakash, Jyotsana; Mishra, Anjali; Kalia, Vipin Chandra

    2016-03-01

    Expression of certain bacterial genes only at a high bacterial cell density is termed as quorum-sensing (QS). Here bacteria use signaling molecules to communicate among themselves. QS mediated genes are generally involved in the expression of phenotypes such as bioluminescence, biofilm formation, competence, nodulation, and virulence. QS systems (QSS) vary from a single in Vibrio spp. to multiple in Pseudomonas and Sinorhizobium species. The complexity of QSS is further enhanced by the multiplicity of signals: (1) peptides, (2) acyl-homoserine lactones, (3) diketopiperazines. To counteract this pathogenic behaviour, a wide range of bioactive molecules acting as QS inhibitors (QSIs) have been elucidated. Unlike antibiotics, QSIs don't kill bacteria and act at much lower concentration than those of antibiotics. Bacterial ability to evolve resistance against multiple drugs has cautioned researchers to develop QSIs which may not generate undue pressure on bacteria to develop resistance against them. In this paper, we have discussed the implications of the diversity and multiplicity of QSS, in acting as an arsenal to withstand attack from QSIs and may use these as reservoirs to develop multi-QSI resistance. PMID:26843692

  16. Transmission Dynamics of Resistant Bacteria in a Predator-Prey System

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xubin; Pan, Qiuhui

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact on human health caused by the addition of antibiotics in the feed of food animals. We use the established transmission rule of resistant bacteria and combine it with a predator-prey system to determine a differential equations model. The equations have three steady equilibrium points corresponding to three population dynamics states under the influence of resistant bacteria. In order to quantitatively analyze the stability of the equilibrium points, we focused on the basic reproduction numbers. Then, both the local and global stability of the equilibrium points were quantitatively analyzed by using essential mathematical methods. Numerical results are provided to relate our model properties to some interesting biological cases. Finally, we discuss the effect of the two main parameters of the model, the proportion of antibiotics added to feed and the predation rate, and estimate the human health impacts related to the amount of feed antibiotics used. We further propose an approach for the prevention of the large-scale spread of resistant bacteria and illustrate the necessity of controlling the amount of in-feed antibiotics used. PMID:25821510

  17. Incidence and transferability of antibiotic resistance in the enteric bacteria isolated from hospital wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Mohammad Zubair; Aqil, Farrukh; Ahmad, Iqbal; Ahmad, Shamim

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the occurrence of antibiotic resistance and production of β-lactamases including extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESβL) in enteric bacteria isolated from hospital wastewater. Among sixty-nine isolates, tested for antibiotic sensitivity, 73.9% strains were resistant to ampicillin followed by nalidixic acid (72.5%), penicillin (63.8%), co-trimoxazole (55.1%), norfloxacin (53.6%), methicillin (52.7%), cefuroxime (39.1%), cefotaxime (23.2%) and cefixime (20.3%). Resistance to streptomycin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, and doxycycline was recorded in less than 13% of the strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) showed a high level of resistance (800–1600 μg/mL) to one or more antibiotics. Sixty three (91%) isolates produced β-lactamases as determined by rapid iodometric test. Multiple antibiotic resistances were noted in both among ESβL and non-ESβL producers. The β-lactamases hydrolyzed multiple substrates including penicillin (78.8% isolates), ampicillin (62.3%), cefodroxil (52.2%), cefotoxime (21.7%) and cefuroxime (18.8%). Fifteen isolates producing ESβLs were found multidrug resistant. Four ESβL producing isolates could transfer their R-plasmid to the recipient strain E. coli K-12 with conjugation frequency ranging from 7.0 × 10−3 to 8.8 × 10−4. The findings indicated that ESβL producing enteric bacteria are common in the waste water. Such isolates may disseminate the multiple antibiotic resistance traits among bacterial community through genetic exchange mechanisms and thus requires immediate attention. PMID:24516448

  18. Antibiotic-resistant genes and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the effluent of urban residential areas, hospitals, and a municipal wastewater treatment plant system.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianan; Cheng, Weixiao; Xu, Like; Strong, P J; Chen, Hong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we determined the abundance of 8 antibiotics (3 tetracyclines, 4 sulfonamides, and 1 trimethoprim), 12 antibiotic-resistant genes (10 tet, 2 sul), 4 antibiotic-resistant bacteria (tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and combined resistance), and class 1 integron integrase gene (intI1) in the effluent of residential areas, hospitals, and municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) systems. The concentrations of total/individual targets (antibiotics, genes, and bacteria) varied remarkably among different samples, but the hospital samples generally had a lower abundance than the residential area samples. The WWTP demonstrated removal efficiencies of 50.8% tetracyclines, 66.8% sulfonamides, 0.5 logs to 2.5 logs tet genes, and less than 1 log of sul and intI1 genes, as well as 0.5 log to 1 log removal for target bacteria. Except for the total tetracycline concentration and the proportion of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (R (2) = 0.330, P < 0.05), there was no significant correlation between antibiotics and the corresponding resistant bacteria (P > 0.05). In contrast, various relationships were identified between antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (P < 0.05). Tet (A) and tet (B) displayed noticeable relationships with both tetracycline and combined antibiotic-resistant bacteria (P < 0.01). PMID:25323405

  19. Enhanced antibiotic multi-resistance in nasal and faecal bacteria after agricultural use of streptomycin.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Alexandre; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Vilei, Edy M; Frey, Joachim; Perreten, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Streptomycin is used in arboriculture to control fire blight. Using sheep as a model, multidrug-resistant bacteria in mammals were found to be selected after the intentional release of streptomycin into the environment. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from the faeces and nasal cavities, respectively, of sheep grazing on a field sprayed with streptomycin at concentrations used in orchards (test group) and on a field without streptomycin (control group). Before the application of streptomycin, the percentage of streptomycin-resistant E. coli isolates in faeces was 15.8% in the control group and 14.7% in the test group. After the application of streptomycin, the overall number of streptomycin-resistant E. coli isolates was significantly higher in the test group (39.9%) than in the control group (22.3%). Streptomycin-resistant Staphylococcus isolates were only detected after the application of streptomycin. Streptomycin resistance was frequently associated with resistance to sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol and less frequently to cefotaxime in E. coli, and to tetracycline, fusidic acid and tiamulin in Staphylococcus spp. This study shows that the application of low concentrations of streptomycin on grass, as occurs during the spraying of orchards, selects for multidrug-resistant nasal and enteric bacterial flora, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli. PMID:23157680

  20. Multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria on fluted pumpkin leaves, a herb of therapeutic value.

    PubMed

    Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A; Abdu, Abdulrasheed B

    2014-06-01

    Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) is a minimally-processed green leafy vegetable traditionally used for its antianaemic properties in the form of leaf juice without a heating or inactivation step before consumption. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of surface microbiota on T. occidentalis leaves and also to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms. Bacterial contaminants on 50 samples of T. occidentalis leaves were isolated and characterized using standard biochemical methods and the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms was determined using the antibiotic disc diffusion assay. The results obtained show that the leaves of T. occidentalis is contaminated with organisms which included Enterobacter agglomerans (25.9%), Proteus vulgaris (24.9%), Klebsiella spp. (2.6%), and Serratia liquefaciens (2.1%). Other bacterial isolates recovered in order of frequency included: Staphylococcus spp. (33.7%), Bacillus spp. (8.3%), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (2.6%). Of the 193 bacterial isolates from the leaves of T. occidentalis samples tested for antimicrobial resistance, all (100%) were found to be resistant to ampicillin, cloxacillin, augmentin, erythromycin, and tetracycline while 96% of the isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Resistance to trimethoprim (93%) and gentamicin (83%) was also observed. Approximately, 22% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin; however, only 11 (5.8%) were resistant to ofloxacin. Thus, uncooked T. occidentalis is a potential source of highly-resistant epiphytic bacteria which could be opportunistic pathogens in consumers. PMID:25076655

  1. CIPROFLOXACIN RESISTANCE PATTERN AMONG BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED URINARY TRACT INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    REIS, Ana Carolina Costa; SANTOS, Susana Regia da Silva; de SOUZA, Siane Campos; SALDANHA, Milena Góes; PITANGA, Thassila Nogueira; OLIVEIRA, Ricardo Riccio

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective: To identify the main bacterial species associated with community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) and to assess the pattern of ciprofloxacin susceptibility among bacteria isolated from urine cultures. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in all the patients with community-acquired UTI seen in Santa Helena Laboratory, Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil during five years (2010-2014). All individuals who had a positive urine culture result were included in this study. Results: A total of 1,641 individuals met the inclusion criteria. Despite the fact that participants were female, we observed a higher rate of resistance to ciprofloxacin in males. The most frequent pathogens identified in urine samples were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Antimicrobial resistance has been observed mainly for ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin. Moreover, E. coli has shown the highest rate of ciprofloxacin resistance, reaching 36% of ciprofloxacin resistant strains in 2014. Conclusion: The rate of bacterial resistance to ciprofloxacin observed in the studied population is much higher than expected, prompting the need for rational use of this antibiotic, especially in infections caused by E. coli. Prevention of bacterial resistance can be performed through control measures to limit the spread of resistant microorganisms and a rational use of antimicrobial policy. PMID:27410913

  2. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from drinking well water available in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Machado, A; Bordalo, A A

    2014-08-01

    The dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the spread of antibiotic resistance genes are a major public health concern worldwide, being even proposed as emerging contaminants. The aquatic environment is a recognized reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes have been recently detected in drinking water. In this study, the water quality and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of heterotrophic culturable bacteria were characterized seasonally in wells that serve the population of Guinea-Bissau (West Africa) as the sole source of water for drinking and other domestic proposes. The results revealed that well water was unfit for human consumption independently of the season, owing to high acidity and heavy fecal contamination. Moreover, potentially pathogenic bacteria, which showed resistance to the most prescribed antibiotics in Guinea-Bissau, were isolated from well water, posing an additional health risk. Our results suggest that well water not only fosters the transmission of potential pathogenic bacteria, but also represents an important reservoir for the proliferation of antibiotic resistant bacteria, that can aggravate the potential to cause disease in a very vulnerable population that has no other alternative but to consume such water. PMID:24846754

  3. Characterization of antibiotic resistance in commensal bacteria from an aquaculture ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Zhang, Lu; Tiu, Laura; Wang, Hua H.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to improve the understanding of antibiotic resistance (AR) ecology through characterization of antibiotic-resistant commensal isolates associated with an aquaculture production system. A total of 4767 isolates non-susceptible to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (Sul/Tri), tetracycline (Tet), erythromycin (Erm), or cefotaxime (Ctx), originated from fish, feed, and environmental samples of an aquaculture farm with no known history of antibiotic applications were examined. Close to 80% of the isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance in media containing the corresponding antibiotics, and representative AR genes were detected in various isolates by PCR, with feed isolates had the highest positive rate detected. Identified AR gene carriers involved 18 bacterial genera. Selected AR genes led to acquired resistance in other bacteria by transformation. The AR traits in many isolates were stable in the absence of selective pressure. AR-rich feed and possibly environmental factors may contribute to AR in the aquaculture ecosystem. For minimum inhibitory concentration test, brain heart infusion medium was found more suitable for majority of the bacteria examined than cation-adjusted Mueller Hinton broth, with latter being the recommended medium for clinical isolates by standard protocol. The data indicated a need to update the methodology due to genetic diversity of microbiota for better understanding of the AR ecology. PMID:26441859

  4. Molecular identification of arsenic-resistant estuarine bacteria and characterization of their ars genotype.

    PubMed

    Sri Lakshmi Sunita, M; Prashant, S; Bramha Chari, P V; Nageswara Rao, S; Balaravi, Padma; Kavi Kishor, P B

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, 44 arsenic-resistant bacteria were isolated through serial dilutions on agar plate with concentrations ≥0.05 mM of sodium arsenite and ≥10 mM of sodium arsenate from Mandovi and Zuari--estuarine water systems. The ars genotype characterization in 36 bacterial isolates (resistant to 100 mM of sodium arsenate) revealed that only 17 isolates harboured the arsA (ATPase), B (arsenite permease) and C (arsenate reductase) genes on the plasmid DNA. The arsA, B and C genes were individually detected using PCR in 16, 9 and 13 bacterial isolates respectively. Molecular identification of the 17 isolates bearing the ars genotype was carried using 16S rDNA sequencing. A 1300 bp full length arsB gene encoding arsenite efflux pump and a 409 bp fragment of arsC gene coding for arsenate reductase were isolated from the genera Halomonas and Acinetobacter. Phylogenetic analysis of arsB and arsC genes indicated their close genetic relationship with plasmid borne ars genes of E. coli and arsenate reductase of plant origin. The putative arsenate reductase gene isolated from Acinetobacter species complemented arsenate resistance in E. coli WC3110 and JM109 validating its function. This study dealing with isolation of native arsenic-resistant bacteria and characterization of their ars genes might be useful to develop efficient arsenic detoxification strategies for arsenic contaminated aquifers. PMID:21879358

  5. The role of nanotechnology in combating multi-drug resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajni; Smitha, M S; Singh, Surinder P

    2014-07-01

    The development of antibiotics has played a significant role in combating the dreaded infectious disease such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, typhoid fever and meningitis in 20th century. However, the improper use of antibiotics led to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in microbial flora raising a global public health concern of 21st century. This unforeseen threat demands the development of new drugs and strategies for combating antibiotic resistance shown by many microbial species. Recent developments in nanotechnology to engineer nanoparticles with desired physicochemical properties have been projected as a new line of defense against MDR micro-organism. In this review, we summarized and discussed the recent development demonstrating the potential of nanomaterials to evade the MDR. Nanoparticles have shown effective antimicrobial activity against MDR bacteria, such as Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, vancomycin resistant enterococci, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and others. Furthermore, new strategies like combination of radiation and drugs with nanoparticle that are being explored to potentiate the effectiveness against MDR bacteria have also been summarized. PMID:24757944

  6. Sustainability of water reclamation: long-term recharge with reclaimed wastewater does not enhance antibiotic resistance in sediment bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wastewater reclamation for municipal irrigation is an increasingly attractive option for extending water supplies. However, public health concerns include the potential for development of antibiotic resistance (AR) in soil bacteria after exposure to residual pharmaceuticals in reclaimed water. Thoug...

  7. Effective Targeted Photothermal Ablation of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria and Their Biofilms with NIR-Absorbing Gold Nanocrosses.

    PubMed

    Teng, Choon Peng; Zhou, Tielin; Ye, Enyi; Liu, Shuhua; Koh, Leng Duei; Low, Michelle; Loh, Xian Jun; Win, Khin Yin; Zhang, Lianhui; Han, Ming-Yong

    2016-08-01

    With the rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (in particular, multidrug-resistant bacteria) and their biofilms have been becoming more and more difficult to be effectively treated with conventional antibiotics. As such, there is a great demand to develop a nonantibiotic approach in efficiently eliminating such bacteria. Here, multibranched gold nanocrosses with strong near-infrared absorption falling in the biological window, which heat up quickly under near-infrared-light irradiation are presented. The gold nanocrosses are conjugated to secondary and primary antibodies for targeting PcrV, a type III secretion protein, which is uniquely expressed on the bacteria superbug, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The conjugated gold nanocrosses are capable of completely destroying P. aeruginosa and its biofilms upon near-infrared-light irradiation for 5 min with an 800 nm laser at a low power density of ≈3.0 W cm(-2) . No bacterial activity is detected after 48 h postirradiation, which indicates that the heat generated from the irradiated plasmonic gold nanocrosses attached to bacteria is effective in eliminating and preventing the re-growth of the bacteria. Overall, the conjugated gold nanocrosses allow targeted and effective photothermal ablation of multidrug-resistant bacteria and their biofilms in the localized region with reduced nonspecific damage to normal tissue. PMID:27336752

  8. Pinewood nematode-associated bacteria contribute to oxidative stress resistance of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is one of the most serious forest diseases in the world. The role of B. xylophilus-associated bacteria in PWD and their interaction with the nematode, have recently been under substantial investigation. Several studies report a potential contribution of the bacteria for the PWD development, either as a helper to enhance the pathogenicity of the nematode or as a pathogenic agent expressing interesting traits related to lifestyle host-adaptation. Results We investigated the nematode-bacteria interaction under a severe oxidative stress (OS) condition using a pro-oxidant hydrogen peroxide and explored the adhesion ability of these bacteria to the cuticle surface of the nematodes. Our results clearly demonstrated a beneficial effect of the Serratia spp. (isolates LCN-4, LCN-16 and PWN-146) to B. xylophilus under the OS condition. Serratia spp. was found to be extremely OS-resistant, and promote survival of B. xylophilus and down-regulate two B. xylophilus catalase genes (Bxy-ctl-1 and Bxy-ctl-2). In addition, we show that the virulent isolate (Ka4) of B. xylophilus survives better than the avirulent (C14-5) isolate under the OS condition. The bacterial effect was transverse for both B. xylophilus isolates. We could not observe a strong and specific adhesion of these bacteria on the B. xylophilus cuticle surface. Conclusions We report, for the first time, that B. xylophilus associated bacteria may assist the nematode opportunistically in the disease, and that a virulent B. xylophilus isolate displayed a higher tolerance towards the OS conditions than an avirulent isolate. PMID:24365493

  9. β-Lactam Resistance Mechanisms: Gram-Positive Bacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jed F; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2016-01-01

    The value of the β-lactam antibiotics for the control of bacterial infection has eroded with time. Three Gram-positive human pathogens that were once routinely susceptible to β-lactam chemotherapy-Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecium, and Staphylococcus aureus-now are not. Although a fourth bacterium, the acid-fast (but not Gram-positive-staining) Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has intrinsic resistance to earlier β-lactams, the emergence of strains of this bacterium resistant to virtually all other antibiotics has compelled the evaluation of newer β-lactam combinations as possible contributors to the multidrug chemotherapy required to control tubercular infection. The emerging molecular-level understanding of these resistance mechanisms used by these four bacteria provides the conceptual framework for bringing forward new β-lactams, and new β-lactam strategies, for the future control of their infections. PMID:27091943

  10. Combination antibiotic therapy for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Combination antibiotic therapy for Gram-negative sepsis is controversial. The present review provides a brief summary of the existing knowledge on combination therapy for severe infections with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., and Enterobacteriaceae. Empirical combination antibiotic therapy is recommended for severe sepsis and septic shock to reduce mortality related to inappropriate antibiotic treatment. Because definitive combination therapy has not been proven superior to monotherapy in meta-analyses, it is generally advised to de-escalate antibiotic therapy when the antibiotic susceptibility profile is known, although it cannot be excluded that some subgroups of patients might still benefit from continued combination therapy. Definitive combination therapy is recommended for carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and should also be considered for severe infections with Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp. when beta-lactams cannot be used. Because resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactams is increasing in Gram-negative bacteria and because no new antibiotics are expected to become available in the near future, the antibacterial potential of combination therapy should be further explored. In vitro data suggest that combinations can be effective even if the bacteria are resistant to the individual antibiotics, although existing evidence is insufficient to support the choice of combinations and explain the synergistic effects observed. In vitro models can be used to screen for effective combinations that can later be validated in animal or clinical studies. Further, in the absence of clinical evidence, in vitro data might be useful in supporting therapeutic decisions for severe infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24666223