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Sample records for resistant starch fighting

  1. Resistant starches and health.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Cyril W C; Emam, Azadeh; Augustin, Livia S A; Jenkins, David J A

    2004-01-01

    It was initially hypothesized that resistant starches, i.e., starch that enters the colon, would have protective effects on chronic colonic diseases, including reduction of colon cancer risk and in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Recent studies have confirmed the ability of resistant starch to increase fecal bulk, increase the molar ratio of butyrate in relation to other short-chain fatty acids, and dilute fecal bile acids. However the ability of resistant starch to reduce luminal concentrations of compounds that are damaging to the colonic mucosa, including fecal ammonia, phenols, and N-nitroso compounds, still requires clear demonstration. As such, the effectiveness of resistant starch in preventing or treating colonic diseases remains to be assessed. Nevertheless, there is a fraction of what has been termed resistant (RS1) starch, which enters the colon and acts as slowly digested or lente carbohydrate in the small intestine. Foods in this class are low glycemic index and have been shown to reduce the risk of chronic disease. They have been associated with systemic physiological effects such as reduced postprandial insulin levels and higher HDL cholesterol levels. Consumption of low glycemic index foods has been shown to be related to reductions in risk of coronary heart disease and Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has in turn been related to a higher risk of colon cancer. If carbohydrates have a protective role in colon cancer prevention this may lie partly in the systemic effects of low glycemic index foods. The colonic advantages of different carbohydrates, varying in their glycemic index and resistant starch content, therefore, remain to be determined. However, as recent positive research findings continue to mount, there is reason for optimism over the possible health advantages of those resistant starches, which are slowly digested in the small intestine. PMID:15287678

  2. Stop the Spread of Superbugs: Help Fight Drug Resistant Bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Spread of Superbugs Help Fight Drug-Resistant Bacteria For nearly a century, bacteria-fighting drugs known as antibiotics have helped to control and destroy many of the harmful bacteria that can make us sick. But in recent ...

  3. Antimicrobial Drugs in Fighting against Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Guyue; Dai, Menghong; Ahmed, Saeed; Hao, Haihong; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of antimicrobial resistance, together with the lack of newly developed antimicrobial drugs, represents an alarming signal for both human and animal healthcare worldwide. Selection of rational dosage regimens for traditional antimicrobial drugs based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles as well as development of novel antimicrobials targeting new bacterial targets or resistance mechanisms are key approaches in tackling AMR. In addition to the cellular level resistance (i.e., mutation and horizontal gene transfer of resistance determinants), the community level resistance (i.e., bilofilms and persisters) is also an issue causing antimicrobial therapy difficulties. Therefore, anti-resistance and antibiofilm strategies have currently become research hotspot to combat antimicrobial resistance. Although metallic nanoparticles can both kill bacteria and inhibit biofilm formation, the toxicity is still a big challenge for their clinical applications. In conclusion, rational use of the existing antimicrobials and combinational use of new strategies fighting against antimicrobial resistance are powerful warranties to preserve potent antimicrobial drugs for both humans and animals. PMID:27092125

  4. Starch characteristics influencing resistant starch content of cooked buckwheat groats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzyme resistant starch (RS), owing to its health benefits such as colon cancer inhibition, reduced glycemic response, reduced cholesterol level, prevention of gall stone formation and obesity, has received an increasing attention from consumers and food manufacturers, whereas intrinsic and extrinsi...

  5. Resistant Starch: Promise for Improving Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Birt, Diane F.; Boylston, Terri; Hendrich, Suzanne; Jane, Jay-Lin; Hollis, James; Li, Li; McClelland, John; Moore, Samuel; Phillips, Gregory J.; Rowling, Matthew; Schalinske, Kevin; Scott, M. Paul; Whitley, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing research to develop digestion-resistant starch for human health promotion integrates the disciplines of starch chemistry, agronomy, analytical chemistry, food science, nutrition, pathology, and microbiology. The objectives of this research include identifying components of starch structure that confer digestion resistance, developing novel plants and starches, and modifying foods to incorporate these starches. Furthermore, recent and ongoing studies address the impact of digestion-resistant starches on the prevention and control of chronic human diseases, including diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity. This review provides a transdisciplinary overview of this field, including a description of types of resistant starches; factors in plants that affect digestion resistance; methods for starch analysis; challenges in developing food products with resistant starches; mammalian intestinal and gut bacterial metabolism; potential effects on gut microbiota; and impacts and mechanisms for the prevention and control of colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Although this has been an active area of research and considerable progress has been made, many questions regarding how to best use digestion-resistant starches in human diets for disease prevention must be answered before the full potential of resistant starches can be realized. PMID:24228189

  6. The potential of resistant starch as a prebiotic.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Siti A; Sarbini, Shahrul R

    2016-06-01

    Resistant starch is defined as the total amount of starch and the products of starch degradation that resists digestion in the small intestine. Starches that were able to resist the digestion will arrive at the colon where they will be fermented by the gut microbiota, producing a variety of products which include short chain fatty acids that can provide a range of physiological benefits. There are several factors that could affect the resistant starch content of a carbohydrate which includes the starch granule morphology, the amylose-amylopectin ratio and its association with other food component. One of the current interests on resistant starch is their potential to be used as a prebiotic, which is a non-digestible food ingredient that benefits the host by stimulating the growth or activity of one or a limited number of beneficial bacteria in the colon. A resistant starch must fulfill three criterions to be classified as a prebiotic; resistance to the upper gastrointestinal environment, fermentation by the intestinal microbiota and selective stimulation of the growth and/or activity of the beneficial bacteria. The market of prebiotic is expected to reach USD 198 million in 2014 led by the export of oligosaccharides. Realizing this, novel carbohydrates such as resistant starch from various starch sources can contribute to the advancement of the prebiotic industry. PMID:25582732

  7. [Antibiotic resistance--bacteria fight back].

    PubMed

    Tambić Andrasević, Arjana

    2004-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has become one of the leading problems in modern medicine. Resistance to antibiotics emerges in bacteria due to genetic mutations and consecutive selection of resistant mutants through selective pressure of antibiotics present in large amounts in soil, plants, animals and humans. Exchange of genetic material coding for resistance is possible even between unrelated organisms and further promotes the spread of resistance. Constantly evolving resistance mechanisms force experts to redefine breakpoint concentrations and interpretation of in vitro antibiotic sensitivity testing. Developing new antimicrobial agents does not seem to be enough to keep up pace with ever changing bacteria. Using antibiotics prudently and developing new approaches to the treatment of infections is vital for the future. The European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS) data clearly show that Scandinavian countries and The Netherlands have the lowest rates of resistance, while Southern and Eastern European countries have the highest prevalence of resistance. This is linked to the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) data that show very low consumption of antibiotics in Scandinavian countries and The Netherlands. Compliance with strict infection control policies related to multidrug resistant organisms is also high in these countries. Although it is important to be aware of the resistance problems worldwide, rational use of antibiotics should be based on the knowledge of local resistance patterns in common pathogens. Since 1996 there is a continuous surveillance of resistance in Croatia through the Croatian Committee for Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance. There is a particular concern about the rising penicillin and macrolide resistance in pneumococci. In Croatia, data for 2002 suggest that resistance to penicillin in pneumococci was 30% (low level) and 2% (high level). Among invasive isolates, 19% had reduced susceptibility to

  8. Synthesis of resistant starches in plants.

    PubMed

    Morell, Matthew K; Konik-Rose, Christine; Ahmed, Regina; Li, Zhongyi; Rahman, Sadiq

    2004-01-01

    The increased incidence in many countries in lifestyle diseases such as colorectal cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes has led to an enhanced interest in disease-prevention measures that can be delivered to target populations through diet. Resistant starch (RS) is emerging as an important dietary component that has the potential to reduce the incidence of bowel health disorders. However, the range of crop species that can serve as effective sources of RS is limited. In this paper the state of knowledge of the starch biosynthesis pathway is reviewed and opportunities to manipulate crop genetics in order to generate additional sources of RS are discussed. The need for a "whole of chain" approach to delivery of RS to the consumer is highlighted because of the impact that different food-processing technologies can have in maintaining, enhancing, or destroying the RS potential of a raw material or food. PMID:15287674

  9. Characterization of enzyme-resistant starch in maize amylose-extender mutant starches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the human digestive system, a type of starch known as resistant starch (RS) can not be digested. RS is not absorbed in the small intestine, and is passed to the large intestine where it is fermented by bacteria to produce short-chain fatty acids, which have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory prop...

  10. Preparation and characterization of resistant starch III from elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeonifolius) starch.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy; Noor Mohamed, A; Suriya, M

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the properties of resistant starch (RS) III prepared from elephant foot yam starch using pullulanase enzyme. Native and gelatinized starches were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis (pullulanase, 40 U/g per 10h), autoclaved (121°C/30 min), stored under refrigeration (4°C/24h) and then lyophilized. After preparation of resistant starch III, the morphological, physical, chemical and functional properties were assessed. The enzymatic and retrogradation process increased the yield of resistant starch III from starch with a concomitant increase increase in its water absorption capacity and water solubility index. A decrease in swelling power was observed due to the hydrolysis and thermal process. Te reduced pasting properties and hardness of resistant starch III were associated with the disintegration of starch granules due to the thermal process. The viscosity was found to be inversely proportional to the RS content in the sample. The thermal properties of RS increased due to retrogradation and recrystallization (P<0.05). PMID:24594151

  11. Resistant Starch and Starch Thermal Characteristics in Exotic Corn Lines Grown in Temperate and Tropical Environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn as a food that is heated and cooled to allow starch retrogradation has higher levels of resistant starch (RS). Increasing the amount of RS can make corn an even healthier food and may be accomplished by breeding and selection, especially by using exotic germplasm. Sixty breeding lines of introg...

  12. Resistant-starch Formation in High-amylose Maize Starch During Kernel Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to understand the resistant-starch (RS) formation during the kernel development of high-amylose maize, GEMS-0067 line. RS content of the starch, determined using AOAC Method 991.43 for total dietary fiber, increased with kernel maturation and the increase in amylose/...

  13. Acetylated adipate of retrograded starch as RS 3/4 type resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Kapelko-Żeberska, M; Zięba, T; Spychaj, R; Gryszkin, A

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed at producing acetylated adipate of retrograded starch (ADA-R) with various degrees of substitution with functional groups and at determining the effect of esterification degree on resistance and pasting characteristics of the produced preparations. Paste was prepared from native potato starch, and afterwards frozen and defrosted. After drying and disintegration, the paste was acetylated and crosslinked using various doses of reagents. An increase in the total degree of esterification of the produced ADA-R-preparation caused an increase in its resistance to the action of amyloglucosidase. Viscosity of the paste produced from ADA-R-preparation in a wide range of acetylation degrees was increasing along with increasing crosslinking of starch. The study demonstrated that acetylated adipate of retrograded starch may be classified as a preparation of RS 3/4 type resistant starch (retrograded starch/chemically-modified starch) with good texture-forming properties. The conducted modification offers the possibility of modeling the level of resistance of the produced preparation. PMID:26041205

  14. Resistant starch improvement of rice starches under a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatments.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pham Van; Vien, Ngo Lam; Lan Phi, Nguyen Thi

    2016-01-15

    The effects of a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatment on formation of resistant starch (RS) and characteristics of high-amylose, normal and waxy rice starches were investigated in this study. The degrees of polymerization of the rice starches treated with citric acid, lactic acid or acetic acid were significantly reduced as compared to the native starches. The RS contents of acid and heat-moisture treated rice starches were in a range of 30.1-39.0%, significantly higher than those of native rice starches (6.3-10.2%) and those of heat-moisture treated rice starches (18.5-23.9%). The acid and heat-moisture treatments reduced swelling power and viscosity, but increased solubility of the starches, while the crystalline structure did not change. Among the organic acids used, citric acid had the most impact on starch characteristics and RS formation, followed by lactic acid and acetic acid. The results are useful in production of RS for functional food application. PMID:26258703

  15. In vitro analyses of resistant starch in retrograded waxy and normal corn starches.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xing; Chung, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Jong-Yea; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2013-04-01

    Gelatinized waxy and normal corn starches (40% starch) were subjected to temperature cycling between 4 and 30°C (1 day at each temperature) or isothermal storage (4°C) to induce retrogradation. The in vitro analysis methods that are currently used for the measurement of resistant starch (RS), i.e. Englyst, AACC 32-40 and Goni methods, were compared with homogenized retrograded starch gels and freeze-dried powders of the gels. RS contents obtained by the three analysis methods were in the following order: Goni>Englyst>AACC. Although different RS values were obtained among the analysis methods, similar trends in regards to the starch type and storage conditions could be observed. Little or no RS was found in freeze-dried powders of the retrograded starch gels and storage conditions had no effect, indicating that the physical state for RS analysis is important. More RS was found in normal corn starch gels than in waxy corn starch gels under identical storage conditions and in the gels stored under temperature cycling than those under isothermal storage (4°C), indicating that the presence of amylose inhibits starch digestion and the level of crystalline structure of re-crystallized amylopectin also affects the RS formation during retrogradation. PMID:23291029

  16. Cooking behavior and starch digestibility of NUTRIOSE® (resistant starch) enriched noodles from sweet potato flour and starch.

    PubMed

    Menon, Renjusha; Padmaja, G; Sajeev, M S

    2015-09-01

    The effect of a resistant starch source, NUTRIOSE® FB06 at 10%, 15% and 20% in sweet potato flour (SPF) and 5% and 10% in sweet potato starch (SPS) in reducing the starch digestibility and glycaemic index of noodles was investigated. While NUTRIOSE (10%) significantly reduced the cooking loss in SPF noodles, this was enhanced in SPS noodles and guar gum (GG) supplementation reduced CL of both noodles. In vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) was significantly reduced in test noodles compared to 73.6g glucose/100g starch in control SPF and 65.9 g in SPS noodles. Resistant starch (RS) was 54.96% for NUTRIOSE (15%)+GG (1%) fortified SPF noodles and 53.3% for NUTRIOSE (5%)+GG (0.5%) fortified SPS noodles, as against 33.8% and 40.68%, respectively in SPF and SPS controls. Lowest glycaemic index (54.58) and the highest sensory scores (4.23) were obtained for noodles with 15% NUTRIOSE+1% GG. PMID:25842330

  17. The use of platensimycin and platencin to fight antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Bagirova, Melahat; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Ates, Sezen Canim; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Miraloglu, Meral; Elcicek, Serhat; Yaman, Serkan; Unal, Gokce

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases are known as one of the most life-threatening disabilities worldwide. Approximately 13 million deaths related to infectious diseases are reported each year. The only way to combat infectious diseases is by chemotherapy using antimicrobial agents and antibiotics. However, due to uncontrolled and unnecessary use of antibiotics in particular, surviving bacteria have evolved resistance against several antibiotics. Emergence of multidrug resistance in bacteria over the past several decades has resulted in one of the most important clinical health problems in modern medicine. For instance, approximately 440,000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are reported every year leading to the deaths of 150,000 people worldwide. Management of multidrug resistance requires understanding its molecular basis and the evolution and dissemination of resistance; development of new antibiotic compounds in place of traditional antibiotics; and innovative strategies for extending the life of antibiotic molecules. Researchers have begun to develop new antimicrobials for overcoming this important problem. Recently, platensimycin - isolated from extracts of Streptomyces platensis - and its analog platencin have been defined as promising agents for fighting multidrug resistance. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that these new antimicrobials have great potential to inhibit methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae by targeting type II fatty acid synthesis in bacteria. Showing strong efficacy without any observed in vivo toxicity increases the significance of these antimicrobial agents for their use in humans. However, at the present time, clinical trials are insufficient and require more research. The strong antibacterial efficacies of platensimycin and platencin may be established in clinical trials and their use in humans for coping with multidrug resistance may be

  18. The use of platensimycin and platencin to fight antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Bagirova, Melahat; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Ates, Sezen Canim; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Miraloglu, Meral; Elcicek, Serhat; Yaman, Serkan; Unal, Gokce

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases are known as one of the most life-threatening disabilities worldwide. Approximately 13 million deaths related to infectious diseases are reported each year. The only way to combat infectious diseases is by chemotherapy using antimicrobial agents and antibiotics. However, due to uncontrolled and unnecessary use of antibiotics in particular, surviving bacteria have evolved resistance against several antibiotics. Emergence of multidrug resistance in bacteria over the past several decades has resulted in one of the most important clinical health problems in modern medicine. For instance, approximately 440,000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are reported every year leading to the deaths of 150,000 people worldwide. Management of multidrug resistance requires understanding its molecular basis and the evolution and dissemination of resistance; development of new antibiotic compounds in place of traditional antibiotics; and innovative strategies for extending the life of antibiotic molecules. Researchers have begun to develop new antimicrobials for overcoming this important problem. Recently, platensimycin – isolated from extracts of Streptomyces platensis – and its analog platencin have been defined as promising agents for fighting multidrug resistance. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that these new antimicrobials have great potential to inhibit methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae by targeting type II fatty acid synthesis in bacteria. Showing strong efficacy without any observed in vivo toxicity increases the significance of these antimicrobial agents for their use in humans. However, at the present time, clinical trials are insufficient and require more research. The strong antibacterial efficacies of platensimycin and platencin may be established in clinical trials and their use in humans for coping with multidrug resistance may be

  19. Measurement of resistant starch by enzymatic digestion in starch and selected plant materials: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V; McNally, Marian; Rossiter, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Interlaboratory performance statistics was determined for a method developed to measure the resistant starch (RS) content of selected plant food products and a range of commercial starch samples. Food materials examined contained RS (cooked kidney beans, green banana, and corn flakes) and commercial starches, most of which naturally contain, or were processed to yield, elevated RS levels. The method evaluated was optimized to yield RS values in agreement with those reported for in vivo studies. Thirty-seven laboratories tested 8 pairs of blind duplicate starch or plant material samples with RS values between 0.6 (regular maize starch) and 64% (fresh weight basis). For matrixes excluding regular maize starch, repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) values ranged from 1.97 to 4.2%, and reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) values ranged from 4.58 to 10.9%. The range of applicability of the test is 2-64% RS. The method is not suitable for products with <1% RS (e.g., regular maize starch; 0.6% RS). For such products, RSDr and RSDR values are unacceptably high. PMID:12374410

  20. Characterization of Maize Amylose-Extender (ae) Mutant Starches. Part I: Relationship Between Resistant Starch Contents and Molecular Structures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endosperm starches were isolated from kernels of seven maize amylose-extender (ae) lines. The resistant starch (RS) contents, measured using AOAC method 991.43, showed that three new ae-mutant starch lines developed by the USDA-ARS Germplasm Enhancement (GEM) and Truman State University had larger R...

  1. Role of resistant starch in improving gut health, adiposity, and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Michael J; Zhou, June; Hegsted, Maren; Pelkman, Christine; Durham, Holiday A; Coulon, Diana B; Martin, Roy J

    2015-03-01

    The realization that low-glycemic index diets were formulated using resistant starch led to more than a decade of research on the health effects of resistant starch. Determination of the metabolizable energy of the resistant starch product allowed for the performance of isocaloric studies. Fermentation of resistant starch in rodent studies results in what appears to be a healthier gut, demonstrated by increased amounts of short-chain fatty acids, an apparent positive change in the microbiota, and increased gene expression for gene products involved in normal healthy proliferation and apoptosis of potential cancer cells. Additionally, consumption of resistant starch was associated with reduced abdominal fat and improved insulin sensitivity. Increased serum glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) likely plays a role in promoting these health benefits. One rodent study that did not use isocaloric diets demonstrated that the use of resistant starch at 8% of the weight of the diet reduced body fat. This appears to be approximately equivalent to the human fiber requirement. In human subjects, insulin sensitivity is increased with the feeding of resistant starch. However, only 1 of several studies reports an increase in serum GLP-1 associated with resistant starch added to the diet. This means that other mechanisms, such as increased intestinal gluconeogenesis or increased adiponectin, may be involved in the promotion of improved insulin sensitivity. Future research may confirm that there will be improved health if human individuals consume the requirement for dietary fiber and a large amount of the fiber is fermentable. PMID:25770258

  2. Role of Resistant Starch in Improving Gut Health, Adiposity, and Insulin Resistance1234

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Michael J; Zhou, June; Hegsted, Maren; Pelkman, Christine; Durham, Holiday A; Coulon, Diana B; Martin, Roy J

    2015-01-01

    The realization that low–glycemic index diets were formulated using resistant starch led to more than a decade of research on the health effects of resistant starch. Determination of the metabolizable energy of the resistant starch product allowed for the performance of isocaloric studies. Fermentation of resistant starch in rodent studies results in what appears to be a healthier gut, demonstrated by increased amounts of short-chain fatty acids, an apparent positive change in the microbiota, and increased gene expression for gene products involved in normal healthy proliferation and apoptosis of potential cancer cells. Additionally, consumption of resistant starch was associated with reduced abdominal fat and improved insulin sensitivity. Increased serum glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) likely plays a role in promoting these health benefits. One rodent study that did not use isocaloric diets demonstrated that the use of resistant starch at 8% of the weight of the diet reduced body fat. This appears to be approximately equivalent to the human fiber requirement. In human subjects, insulin sensitivity is increased with the feeding of resistant starch. However, only 1 of several studies reports an increase in serum GLP-1 associated with resistant starch added to the diet. This means that other mechanisms, such as increased intestinal gluconeogenesis or increased adiponectin, may be involved in the promotion of improved insulin sensitivity. Future research may confirm that there will be improved health if human individuals consume the requirement for dietary fiber and a large amount of the fiber is fermentable. PMID:25770258

  3. Structural characteristics of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch isolated from heat-moisture treated waxy potato starch.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Joo; Moon, Tae Wha

    2015-07-10

    The objective of this study was to investigate the structural characteristics of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) fractions isolated from heat-moisture treated waxy potato starch. The waxy potato starch with 25.7% moisture content was heated at 120°C for 5.3h. Scanning electron micrographs of the cross sections of RS and SDS+RS fractions revealed a growth ring structure. The branch chain-length distribution of debranched amylopectin from the RS fraction had a higher proportion of long chains (DP ≥ 37) than the SDS+RS fraction. The X-ray diffraction intensities of RS and SDS+RS fractions were increased compared to the control. The SDS+RS fraction showed a lower gelatinization enthalpy than the control while the RS fraction had a higher value than the SDS+RS fraction. In this study we showed the RS fraction is composed mainly of crystalline structure and the SDS fraction consists of weak crystallites and amorphous regions. PMID:25857975

  4. Resistant starch and dietary fibers from cereal by-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried distillers grains (DDG) are a cereal byproduct from ethanol distillation process. On a dry weight basis, DDG is composed of 13% fat, 30% protein, 33% fiber, with the remainder various carbohydrates. Only 6-8% of starch in DDG is in resistant form (dietary fiber). Because only about 6% of DD...

  5. High pressure intensification of cassava resistant starch (RS3) yields.

    PubMed

    Lertwanawatana, Proyphon; Frazier, Richard A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-08-15

    Cassava starch, typically, has resistant starch type 3 (RS3) content of 2.4%. This paper shows that the RS3 yields can be substantially enhanced by debranching cassava starch using pullulanase followed by high pressure or cyclic high-pressure annealing. RS3 yield of 41.3% was obtained when annealing was carried out at 400MPa/60°C for 15 min, whereas it took nearly 8h to obtain the same yield under conventional atmospheric annealing at 60°C. The yield of RS3 could be further significantly increased by annealing under 400 MPa/60°C pressure for 15 min followed by resting at atmospheric pressure for 3h 45 min, and repeating this cycle for up to six times. Microstructural surface analysis of the product under a scanning electron microscope showed an increasingly rigid density of the crystalline structure formed, confirming higher RS3 content. PMID:25794725

  6. Is there variation in resistant starch among high amylose rice varieties?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistant starch (RS) is the fraction of the starch and the products of starch degradation that resist digestion in the small intestines of healthy humans and is partially or entirely fermented in the colon by the microbiota. RS in food lowers postprandial glucose concentration and has potential in ...

  7. Enzymatic modification of corn starch with 4-α-glucanotransferase results in increasing slow digestible and resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huan; Miao, Ming; Ye, Fan; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao

    2014-04-01

    In this study, partial 4-α-glucanotransferase (4αGT) treatment was used to modulate the fine structure responsible for the slow digestion and resistant property of starch. Normal corn starch modified using 4αGT for 4h showed an increase of slowly digestible starch from 9.40% to 20.92%, and resistant starch from 10.52 to 17.63%, respectively. The 4αGT treatment decreased the content of amylose from 32.6% to 26.8%. The molecular weight distribution and chain length distribution of 4αGT-treated starch showed a reduction of molecular weight and a great number of short (DP<13) and long (DP>30) chains through cleaving and reorganization of starch molecules. Both the short and long chain fractions of modified amylopectin were attributed to the low in vitro digestibility. The viscosity was inversely related to the digestibility of the 4αGT-treated starch. These results suggested that the 4αGT modified starch synthesized the novel amylopectin clusters with slow digestible and resistant character. PMID:24463262

  8. Resistant starch in Micronesian banana cultivars offers health benefits.

    PubMed

    Thakorlal, J; Perera, C O; Smith, B; Englberger, L; Lorens, A

    2010-04-01

    Resistant Starch (RS) is a type of starch that is resistant to starch hydrolyzing enzymes in the stomach and thus behaves more like dietary fibre. RS has been shown to have beneficial effects in disease prevention including modulation of glycaemic index diabetes, cholesterol lowering capability and weight management, which are critically important for many people in the Federated States of Micronesia. Green bananas are known to contain substantial concentrations of RS and are a common part of the Micronesian diet. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the RS content in banana cultivars from Pohnpei, Micronesia: Daiwang, Inahsio, Karat, Utin Kerenis and Utin Ruk, for which no such information was available. Utin Kerenis, Inahsio and Utin Ruk were found to contain the highest amounts of RS. The fate of RS after incorporation into a food product (i.e., pancakes) was also studied and a significant reduction in the RS content was found for each cultivar after cooking. Microscopy of the banana samples indicated that the overall morphology of the cultivars was similar. In conclusion, green banana, including these varieties, should be promoted in Micronesia and other places for their rich RS content and related health benefits including diabetes control. Further research is needed to more clearly determine the effects of cooking and food processing on RS. PMID:20968236

  9. Induced mutations in the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) genes increase amylose and resistant starch content in durum wheat

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Uauy, Cristobal; Beckles, Diane M.; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the largest component of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain and consists of approximately 70-80% amylopectin and 20-30% amylose. Amylopectin is a highly-branched, readily digested polysaccharide, whereas amylose has few branches and forms complexes that resist digestion and mimic dietary fiber (resistant starch). Down-regulation of the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) gene by RNA interference (RNAi) was previously shown to increase amylose content in both hexaploid and tetraploid wheat. We generated ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) mutants for the SBEIIa-A and SBEIIa-B homoeologs in the tetraploid durum wheat variety Kronos (T. turgidum ssp. durum L.). Single-gene mutants showed non-significant increases in amylose and resistant starch content, but a double mutant combining a SBEIIa-A knock-out mutation with a SBEIIa-B splice-site mutation showed a 22% increase in amylose content (P<0.0001) and a 115% increase in resistant starch content (P<0.0001). In addition, we obtained mutants for the A and B genome copies of the paralogous SBEIIb gene, mapped them 1-2 cM from SBEIIa, and generated double SBEIIa-SBEIIb mutants to study the effect of the SBEIIb gene in the absence of SBEIIa. These mutants are available to those interested in increasing amylose content and resistant starch in durum wheat. PMID:26924849

  10. Resistant starch: a functional food that prevents DNA damage and chemical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Navarro, S D; Mauro, M O; Pesarini, J R; Ogo, F M; Oliveira, R J

    2015-01-01

    Resistant starch is formed from starch and its degradation products and is not digested or absorbed in the intestine; thus, it is characterized as a fiber. Because fiber intake is associated with the prevention of DNA damage and cancer, the potential antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic capabilities of resistant starch from green banana flour were evaluated. Animals were treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and their diet was supplemented with 10% green banana flour according to the following resistant starch protocols: pretreatment, simultaneous treatment, post-treatment, and pre + continuous treatment. The results demonstrated that resistant starch is not genotoxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic. The results suggest that resistant starch acts through desmutagenesis and bio-antimutagenesis, as well as by reducing aberrant crypt foci, thereby improving disease prognosis. These findings imply that green banana flour has therapeutic properties that should be explored for human dietary applications. PMID:25867310

  11. Dietary resistant starch and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Jacobasch, G; Schmiedl, D; Kruschewski, M; Schmehl, K

    1999-11-01

    These studies were performed to test the benefit of resistant starch on ulcerative colitis via prebiotic and butyrate effects. Butyrate, propionate, and acetate are produced in the colon of mammals as a result of microbial fermentation of resistant starch and other dietary fibers. Butyrate plays an important role in the colonic mucosal growth and epithelial proliferation. A reduction in the colonic butyrate level induces chronic mucosal atrophy. Short-chain fatty acid enemas increase mucosal generation, crypt length, and DNA content of the colonocytes. They also ameliorate symptoms of ulcerative colitis in human patients and rats injected with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Butyrate, and also to a lesser degree propionate, are substrates for the aerobic energy metabolism, and trophic factors of the colonocytes. Adverse butyrate effects occur in normal and neoplastic colonic cells. In normal cells, butyrate induces proliferation at the crypt base, while inhibiting proliferation at the crypt surface. In neoplastic cells, butyrate inhibits DNA synthesis and arrests cell growth in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The improvement of the TNBS-induced colonic inflammation occurred earlier in the resistant starch (RS)-fed rats than in the RS-free group. This benefit coincided with activation of colonic epithelial cell proliferation and the subsequent restoration of apoptosis. The noncollagenous basement membrane protein laminin was regenerated initially in the RS-fed group, demonstrating what could be a considered lower damage to the intestinal barrier function. The calculation of intestinal short-chain fatty acid absorption confirmed this conclusion. The uptake of short-chain fatty acids in the colon is strongly inhibited in the RS-free group, but only slightly reduced in the animals fed with RS. Additionally, RS enhanced the growth of intestinal bacteria assumed to promote health. Further studies involving patients suffering from ulcerative colitis are necessary to

  12. Resistant Starch Contents of Native and Heat-Moisture Treated Jackfruit Seed Starch

    PubMed Central

    Kittipongpatana, Ornanong S.

    2015-01-01

    Native jackfruit seed starch (JFS) contains 30% w/w type II resistant starch (RS2) and can potentially be developed as a new commercial source of RS for food and pharmaceutical application. Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) was explored as a mean to increase RS content of native JFS. The effect of the conditions was tested at varied moisture contents (MC), temperatures, and times. Moisture levels of 20–25%, together with temperatures 80–110°C, generally resulted in increases of RS amount. The highest amount of RS (52.2%) was achieved under treatment conditions of 25% MC and 80°C, for 16 h (JF-25-80-16). FT-IR peak ratio at 1047/1022 cm−1 suggested increases in ordered structure in several HMT-JFS samples with increased RS. SEM showed no significant change in the granule appearance, except at high moisture/temperature treatment. XRD revealed no significant change in peaks intensities, suggesting the crystallinity within the granule was mostly retained. DSC showed increases in Tg and, in most cases, ΔT, as the MC was increased in the samples. Slight but significant decreases in ΔH were observed in samples with low RS, indicating that a combination of high moisture and temperature might cause partial gelatinization. HMT-JFS with higher RS exhibited less swelling, while the solubility remained mostly unchanged. PMID:25642454

  13. Resistant starch contents of native and heat-moisture treated jackfruit seed starch.

    PubMed

    Kittipongpatana, Ornanong S; Kittipongpatana, Nisit

    2015-01-01

    Native jackfruit seed starch (JFS) contains 30% w/w type II resistant starch (RS2) and can potentially be developed as a new commercial source of RS for food and pharmaceutical application. Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) was explored as a mean to increase RS content of native JFS. The effect of the conditions was tested at varied moisture contents (MC), temperatures, and times. Moisture levels of 20-25%, together with temperatures 80-110°C, generally resulted in increases of RS amount. The highest amount of RS (52.2%) was achieved under treatment conditions of 25% MC and 80°C, for 16 h (JF-25-80-16). FT-IR peak ratio at 1047/1022 cm(-1) suggested increases in ordered structure in several HMT-JFS samples with increased RS. SEM showed no significant change in the granule appearance, except at high moisture/temperature treatment. XRD revealed no significant change in peaks intensities, suggesting the crystallinity within the granule was mostly retained. DSC showed increases in T g and, in most cases, ΔT, as the MC was increased in the samples. Slight but significant decreases in ΔH were observed in samples with low RS, indicating that a combination of high moisture and temperature might cause partial gelatinization. HMT-JFS with higher RS exhibited less swelling, while the solubility remained mostly unchanged. PMID:25642454

  14. Characterization and Prebiotic Effect of the Resistant Starch from Purple Sweet Potato.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yafeng; Wang, Qi; Li, Baoyu; Lin, Liangmei; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Zheng, Baodong; Xiao, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Purple sweet potato starch is a potential resource for resistant starch production. The effects of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and enzyme debranching combined heat-moisture treatment (EHMT) on the morphological, crystallinity and thermal properties of PSP starches were investigated. The results indicated that, after HMT or EHMT treatments, native starch granules with smooth surface was destroyed to form a more compact, irregular and sheet-like structure. The crystalline pattern was transformed from C-type to B-type with decreasing relative crystallinity. Due to stronger crystallites formed in modified starches, the swelling power and solubility of HMT and EHMT starch were decreased, while the transition temperatures and gelatinization enthalpy were significantly increased. In addition, HMT and EHMT exhibited greater effects on the proliferation of bifidobacteria compared with either glucose or high amylose maize starch. PMID:27447598

  15. Fighting antibiotic resistance in Sweden--past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Struwe, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Sweden has been in the favorable situation of having limited antibiotic resistance and low antibiotic consumption. When pneumococci with reduced susceptibility to penicillin and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus emerged during the 1990s, professionals and relevant authorities called for extensive action plans to avoid the critical threshold levels of resistance experienced in other countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine Swedish experiences in light of new and future challenges by reviewing Swedish data on antibiotic resistance and antibiotic use, notifications, outbreak control, action plans and scientific papers. The tradition of liberal performance of clinical cultures, together with well functioning diagnostic laboratories, has formed a basis for close collaboration and development of surveillance within quality assurance programs. For more than 20 years the pharmacy monopoly in Sweden has made it possible to collect well defined data on antibiotic sales at the county level with almost 100% coverage. Multisectorial collaboration was set up in regional Strama (Swedish Strategic Programme Against Antibiotic Resistance) groups. Large diagnosis-prescribing surveys have been undertaken, and the concept of basic hygiene precautions was introduced, together with extensive programs for early case finding. However, surveillance has been hampered by inadequate IT systems and some difficulties in collecting relevant data on antibiotic sales at the national level. Also, a decentralized system with 21 counties and regions has resulted in divergence of action plans and rules. The containment of antibiotic resistance thus far may be explained by the early response in human and veterinary medicine and close multisectorial collaboration, supported by the government, before problems got out of hand. Nevertheless, rapidly growing problems with bacteria that produce extended beta-lactamases have recently emerged and antibiotic sales have started to increase

  16. Fighting Back in Appalachia: Traditions of Resistance and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Stephen L., Ed.

    Sixteen essays document the extent and variety of community resistance and struggle in Appalachia since 1960, and the origins and factors contributing to success or failure of particular efforts. They also relate the study of Appalachian dissent to issues informing scholarly discussions of dissent nationally. Of particular educational relevance…

  17. Production of resistant starch by enzymatic debranching in legume flours.

    PubMed

    Morales-Medina, Rocío; Del Mar Muñío, María; Guadix, Emilia M; Guadix, Antonio

    2014-01-30

    Resistant starch (RS) was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of flours from five different legumes: lentil, chickpea, faba bean, kidney bean and red kidney bean. Each legume was firstly treated thermally, then hydrolyzed with pullulanase for 24h at 50°C and pH 5 and lyophilized. At the end of each hydrolysis reaction, the RS amount ranged from 4.7% for red kidney beans to 7.5% for chickpeas. With respect to the curves of RS against hydrolysis time, a linear increase was observed initially and a plateau was generally achieved by the end of reaction. These curves were successfully modeled by a kinetic equation including three parameters: initial RS, RS at long operation time and a kinetic constant (k). Furthermore, the relative increase in hydrolysis, calculated using the kinetic parameters, was successfully correlated to the percentage of amylose. PMID:24299889

  18. Controlling the Resistive Switching Behavior in Starch-Based Flexible Biomemristors.

    PubMed

    Raeis-Hosseini, Niloufar; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-03-23

    Implementation of biocompatible materials in resistive switching memory (ReRAM) devices provides opportunities to use them in biomedical applications. We demonstrate a robust, nonvolatile, flexible, and transparent ReRAM based on potato starch. We also introduce a biomolecular memory device that has a starch-chitosan composite layer. The ReRAM behavior can be controlled by mixing starch with chitosan in the resistive switching layer. Whereas starch-based biomemory devices which show abrupt changes in current level; the memory device with mixed biopolymers undergoes gradual changes. Both devices exhibit uniform and robust programmable memory properties for nonvolatile memory applications. The explicated source of the bipolar resistive switching behavior is assigned to formation and rupture of carbon-rich filaments. The gradual set/reset behavior in the memory device based on a starch-chitosan mixture makes it suitable for use in neuromorphic devices. PMID:26919221

  19. Development and Characterization of Spaghetti with High Resistant Starch Content Supplemented with Banana Starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasta products, such as spaghetti, are relatively healthy foods traditionally manufactured from durum wheat semolina and water. Nutritionally improved spaghetti products with additional health benefits can be produced by supplementing durum wheat with suitable food additives, such as banana starch....

  20. Pasting, textural and thermal properties of resistant starch prepared from potato (Solanum tuberosum) starch using pullulanase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Pramila, S; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2015-03-01

    Pullulanase enzyme (40 U/g, 10 h) was used for enzymatic hydrolysis of potato starch which was autoclaved (121 °C/30 min), stored under refrigeration (4 °C/24 h) and lyophilized. Comparison of morphological, pasting, textural and thermal properties among native hydrolysed starch (V2) and gelatinized hydrolysed starch (V3) prepared using pullulanase enzyme on potato starch (V1) were studied. The round, elliptical, irregular and oval shape with smooth surface of V1 was replaced with amorphous mass of cohesive structure leading to loss of granular appearance in V2 and V3. The percentage of amylose and resistant starch content of V2 (27.16 %) and (24.16 %); V3 (51.44 %) and (29.35 %) was higher when compared to V1 (22.17 %) and (3.62 %). The swelling power of V1 observed at 60 °C (0.85 %) and 95 °C (8.64 %) were significantly different from V2 at 60 °C (4.97 %) and 95 °C (7.66 %) and that of V3 at 60 °C (5.82 %) and 95 °C (7.5 %). Significance difference in water solubility (7.62 %) and absorption capacity (6.11 %) was noted in V3 when compared with V1 and V2 owing to amylose/amylopectin content. Increase in water solubility and absorption capacity along with decrease in swelling power of V2 and V3 was noted due to hydrolytic and thermal process. RS obtained from hydrolysis showed a reduction in viscosity, indicating the rupture of starch molecules. The viscosity was found to be inversely proportional to the RS content in the sample. The thermal properties of RS increased due to the retrogradation and recrystallization (P < 0.05). PMID:25745229

  1. Analysis of Resistant Starches in Rat Cecal Contents Using Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Timothy J.; Ai, Yongfeng; Jones, Roger W.; Houk, Robert S.; Jane, Jay-lin; Zhao, Yinsheng; Birt, Diane F.; McClelland, John F.

    2013-01-29

    Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) qualitatively and quantitatively measured resistant starch (RS) in rat cecal contents. Fisher 344 rats were fed diets of 55% (w/w, dry basis) starch for 8 weeks. Cecal contents were collected from sacrificed rats. A corn starch control was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. To calibrate the FTIR-PAS analysis, samples from each diet were analyzed using an enzymatic assay. A partial least-squares cross-validation plot generated from the enzymatic assay and FTIR-PAS spectral results for starch fit the ideal curve with a R2 of 0.997. A principal component analysis plot of components 1 and 2 showed that spectra from diets clustered significantly from each other. This study clearly showed that FTIR-PAS can accurately quantify starch content and identify the form of starch in complex matrices.

  2. Dynamic moisture sorption characteristics of enzyme-resistant recrystallized cassava starch.

    PubMed

    Mutungi, Christopher; Schuldt, Stefan; Onyango, Calvin; Schneider, Yvonne; Jaros, Doris; Rohm, Harald

    2011-03-14

    The interaction of moisture with enzyme-resistant recrystallized starch, prepared by heat-moisture treatment of debranched acid-modified or debranched non-acid-modified cassava starch, was investigated in comparison with the native granules. Crystallinities of the powdered products were estimated by X-ray diffraction. Moisture sorption was determined using dynamic vapor sorption analyzer and data fitted to various models. Percent crystallinities of native starch (NS), non-acid-modified recrystallized starch (NAMRS), and acid-modified recrystallized starch (AMRS) were 39.7, 51.9, and 56.1%, respectively. In a(w) below 0.8, sorption decreased in the order NS > NAMRS > AMRS in line with increasing sample crystallinities but did not follow this crystallinity dependence at higher a(w) because of condensation and polymer dissolution effects. Adsorbed moisture became internally absorbed in NS but not in NAMRS and AMRS, which might explain the high resistance of the recrystallized starches to digestion because enzyme and starch cannot approach each other over fairly sufficient surface at the molecular level. PMID:21261261

  3. Banana resistant starch and its effects on constipation model mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Huang, Ji Hong; Cheng, Yan Feng; Yang, Gong Ming

    2014-08-01

    Banana resistant starch (BRS) was extracted to investigate the structural properties of BRS, its effects on the gastrointestinal transit, and dejecta of normal and experimentally constipated mice. The mouse constipation model was induced by diphenoxylate administration. The BRS administered mice were divided into three groups and gavaged with 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0 g/kg body weight BRS per day. The small intestinal movement, time of the first black dejecta, dejecta granules, weight and their moisture content, body weight, and food intake of mice were studied. Results showed that the BRS particles were oval and spindly and some light cracks and pits were in the surface. The degree of crystallinity of BRS was 23.13%; the main diffraction peaks were at 2(θ) 15.14, 17.38, 20.08, and 22.51. The degree of polymerization of BRS was 81.16 and the number-average molecular weight was 13147.92 Da, as determined by the reducing terminal method. In animal experiments, BRS at the dose of 4.0 g/kg body weight per day was able to increase the gastrointestinal propulsive rate, and BRS at the doses of 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg body weight per day was found to shorten the start time of defecation by observing the first black dejecta exhaust. However, there were no influences of BRS on the dejecta moisture content, the dejecta granules and their weight, body weight, or daily food intake in mice. BRS was effective in accelerating the movement of the small intestine and in shortening the start time of defecation, but did not impact body weight and food intake. Therefore, BRS had the potential to be useful for improving intestinal motility during constipation. PMID:25046686

  4. Effects of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] crude extracts on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (Rs) contents of porridges.

    PubMed

    Lemlioglu-Austin, Dilek; Turner, Nancy D; McDonough, Cassandra M; Rooney, Lloyd W

    2012-01-01

    Bran extracts (70% aqueous acetone) of specialty sorghum varieties (tannin, black, and black with tannin) were used to investigate the effects of sorghum phenolic compounds on starch digestibility, Estimated Glycemic Index (EGI), and Resistant Starch (RS) of porridges made with normal corn starch, enzyme resistant high amylose corn starch, and ground whole sorghum flours. Porridges were cooked with bran extracts in a Rapid Visco-analyser (RVA). The cooking trials indicated that bran extracts of phenolic-rich sorghum varieties significantly reduced EGI, and increased RS contents of porridges. Thus, there could be potential health benefits associated with the incorporation of phenolic-rich sorghum bran extracts into foods to slow starch digestion and increase RS content. PMID:22986923

  5. African Flora Has the Potential to Fight Multidrug Resistance of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Continuous efforts from scientists of diverse fields are necessary not only to better understand the mechanism by which multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer cells occur, but also to boost the discovery of new cytotoxic compounds to fight MDR phenotypes. Objectives. The present review reports on the contribution of African flora in the discovery of potential cytotoxic phytochemicals against MDR cancer cells. Methodology. Scientific databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Knowledge were used to retrieve publications related to African plants, isolated compounds, and drug resistant cancer cells. The data were analyzed to highlight cytotoxicity and the modes of actions of extracts and compounds of the most prominent African plants. Also, thresholds and cutoff points for the cytotoxicity and modes of action of phytochemicals have been provided. Results. Most published data related to the antiproliferative potential of African medicinal plants were from Cameroon, Egypt, Nigeria, or Madagascar. The cytotoxicity of phenolic compounds isolated in African plants was generally much better documented than that of terpenoids and alkaloids. Conclusion. African flora represents an enormous resource for novel cytotoxic compounds. To unravel the full potential, efforts should be strengthened throughout the continent, to meet the challenge of a successful fight against MDR cancers. PMID:25961047

  6. Identification of QTLs for resistant starch and total alkaloid content in brown and polished rice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Y W; Sun, D; Du, J; Pu, X Y; Yang, S M; Yang, X M; Yang, T; Yang, J Z

    2016-01-01

    An F3 population consisting of 117 F2:3 families derived from a cross between two varieties of rice, Gongmi No. 3 and Diantun 502, with a large difference in their resistant starch and total alkaloid content, was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Two QTLs of resistant starch for rice (qRS7-1, qRS7-2) were identified in a linkage group on chromosome 7, which could explain phenotypic variance from 7.6 to 17.3%, due to additive effects for resistant starch from Gongmi No. 3 or over-dominance effects for qRS7-2 of the marker interval (RM3404-RM478) on chromosome 7 from Gongmi No. 3, accounting for 13.8-17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Two QTLs of total alkaloids for brown rice (qALb7-1, qALb7-2) were identified in the same linkage group, which could explain phenotypic variance from 7.7 and 19.3%, respectively, due to dominance or over-dominance effects for total alkaloids on chromosome 7 from Diantun 502. To our knowledge, these are the first QTLs to be identified, which are related to resistant starch and total alkaloid content in rice. These results are beneficial for understanding the genetic basis of, as well as for developing markers linked with, resistant starch and total alkaloids of functional components for marker-assisted selection breeding in rice. PMID:27525873

  7. Effects of alpha-amylase reaction mechanisms on analysis of resistant-starch contents.

    PubMed

    Moore, Samuel A; Ai, Yongfeng; Chang, Fengdan; Jane, Jay-lin

    2015-01-22

    This study aimed to understand differences in the resistant starch (RS) contents of native and modified starches obtained using two standard methods of RS content analysis: AOAC Method 991.43 and 2002.02. The largest differences were observed in native potato starch, cross-linked wheat distarch phosphate, and high-amylose corn starch stearic-acid complex (RS5) between using AOAC Method 991.43 with Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BL) and AOAC Method 2002.02 with porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA). To determine possible reasons for these differences, we hydrolyzed raw-starch granules with BL and PPA with equal activity at pH 6.9 and 37°C for up to 84 h and observed the starch granules displayed distinct morphological differences after the hydrolysis. Starches hydrolyzed by BL showed erosion on the surface of the granules; those hydrolyzed by PPA showed pitting on granule surfaces. These results suggested that enzyme reaction mechanisms, including the sizes of the binding sites and the reaction patterns of the two enzymes, contributed to the differences in the RS contents obtained using different methods of RS analysis. PMID:25439920

  8. The effect of fermentation and addition of vegetable oil on resistant starch formation in wholegrain breads.

    PubMed

    Buddrick, Oliver; Jones, Oliver A H; Hughes, Jeff G; Kong, Ing; Small, Darryl M

    2015-08-01

    Resistant starch has potential health benefits but the factors affecting its formation in bread and baked products are not well studied. Here, the formation of resistant starch in wholemeal bread products was evaluated in relation to the processing conditions including fermentation time, temperature and the inclusion of palm oil as a vitamin source. The effects of each the factor were assessed using a full factorial design. The impact on final starch content of traditional sourdough fermentation of wholemeal rye bread, as well as the bulk fermentation process of wheat and wheat/oat blends of wholemeal bread, was also assessed by enzyme assay. Palm oil content was found to have a significant effect on the formation of resistant starch in all of the breads while fermentation time and temperature had no significant impact. Sourdough fermentation of rye bread was found to have a greater impact on resistant starch formation than bulk fermentation of wheat and wheat blend breads, most likely due the increased organic acid content of the sourdough process. PMID:25766816

  9. Carbohydrates, Dietary Fiber, and Resistant Starch in White Vegetables: Links to Health Outcomes12

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Joanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend that you make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Vegetables are diverse plants that vary greatly in energy content and nutrients. Vegetables supply carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in the diet, all of which have been linked to positive health outcomes. Fiber lowers the incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. In this paper, the important role of white vegetables in the human diet is described, with a focus on the dietary fiber and resistant starch content of white vegetables. Misguided efforts to reduce consumption of white vegetables will lower intakes of dietary fiber and resistant starch, nutrients already in short supply in our diets. PMID:23674804

  10. Suppression of azoxymethane-induced colon cancer development in rats by dietary resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Le Leu, Richard K; Brown, Ian L; Hu, Ying; Esterman, Adrian; Young, Graeme P

    2007-10-01

    Resistant starch is a complex carbohydrate that reaches the colon where it can be fermented by the colonic microflora resulting in production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), in particular butyrate. RS effects on colorectal tumourigenesis are contrasting and protection remains controversial. Butyrate has an important role as the preferred metabolic fuel and regulator of colonocyte proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis and may play a role in cancer prevention. Thus variation in butyrate production from different substrates might explain the variation in effect of RS. This study evaluated the hypothesis that feeding dietary resistant starch (as high amylose maize starch) would protect against azoxymethane (AOM)-colon carcinogenesis and favourably influence the colonic luminal environment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 90) were provided one of three diets: Control (without added dietary fibre or RS), 10% HAS (contained 100 g/kg raw high amylose maize starch) or 20% HAS (contained 200 g/kg high amylose maize starch). Rats were fed their experimental diets for four weeks after which they were injected with AOM (15 mg/kg) during the fifth and six week. Colons were resected (25 weeks post second injection) for evaluation of tumour formation, apoptosis, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labelling index and short chain fatty acid levels. Feeding resistant starch significantly reduced the incidence (p < 0.01) and multiplicity (p < 0.05) of adenocarcinomas in the colon compared to the Control diet. Both doses of HAS resulted in similar protection against colon tumourigenesis. Feeding RS significantly increased total SCFA concentrations, including butyrate in the distal colon. Apoptosis (p < 0.01) was also enhanced while PCNA labelling index was reduced (p < 0.01) in the distal colon with resistant starch feeding. The protective effect of consumption of RS as dietary high-amylose cornstarch against colon cancer development appears to be related to active

  11. Effect of Dietary-Resistant Starch on Inhibition of Colonic Preneoplasia and Wnt Signaling in Azoxymethane-Induced Rodent Models.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Bridget; Cray, Nicole; Ai, Yongfeng; Fang, Yinan; Liu, Peng; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Birt, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber has been reported to prevent preneoplastic colon lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of resistant starches, novel dietary fibers, on the development of colonic preneoplasia and Wnt signaling in azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rats and mice fed resistant starches at 55% of the diet after AOM treatment. Another objective was to determine the effect of resistant starches on the development of preneoplasia in rats treated with antibiotics (Ab), administered between AOM treatment and resistant starch feeding. Diets containing resistant starches, high-amylose (HA7), high-amylose-octenyl succinic anhydride (OS-HA7), or high-amylose-stearic acid (SA-HA7) were compared with control cornstarch (CS). The resistant starch content of the diets did not alter the yield of colonic lesions but animals treated with AOM and fed the diet with the highest resistant starch content, SA-HA7 developed the highest average aberrant crypt foci (ACF) per animal. Mice fed the OS-HA7 diet had decreased expression of some upstream Wnt genes in the colonic crypts. This study suggests that further research is needed to determine if resistant starch impacts colon carcinogenesis in rodents. PMID:27367460

  12. Inhibition by resistant starch of red meat-induced promutagenic adducts in mouse colon.

    PubMed

    Winter, Jean; Nyskohus, Laura; Young, Graeme P; Hu, Ying; Conlon, Michael A; Bird, Anthony R; Topping, David L; Le Leu, Richard K

    2011-11-01

    Population studies have shown that high red meat intake may increase colorectal cancer risk. Our aim was to examine the effect of different amounts and sources of dietary protein on induction of the promutagenic adduct O(6)-methyl-2-deoxyguanosine (O(6)MeG) in colonocytes, to relate these to markers of large bowel protein fermentation and ascertain whether increasing colonic carbohydrate fermentation modified these effects. Mice (n = 72) were fed 15% or 30% protein as casein or red meat or 30% protein with 10% high amylose maize starch as the source of resistant starch. Genetic damage in distal colonocytes was detected by immunohistochemical staining for O(6)MeG and apoptosis. Feces were collected for measurement of pH, ammonia, phenols, p-cresol, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). O(6)MeG and fecal p-cresol concentrations were significantly higher with red meat than with casein (P < 0.018), with adducts accumulating in cells at the crypt apex. DNA adducts (P < 0.01) and apoptosis (P < 0.001) were lower and protein fermentation products (fecal ammonia, P < 0.05; phenol, P < 0.0001) higher in mice fed resistant starch. Fecal SCFA levels were also higher in mice fed resistant starch (P < 0.0001). This is the first demonstration that high protein diets increase promutagenic adducts (O(6)MeG) in the colon and dietary protein type seems to be the critical factor. The delivery of fermentable carbohydrate to the colon (as resistant starch) seems to switch from fermentation of protein to that of carbohydrate and a reduction in adduct formation, supporting previous observations that dietary resistant starch opposes the mutagenic effects of dietary red meat. PMID:21885815

  13. Effects of amylosucrase treatment on molecular structure and digestion resistance of pre-gelatinised rice and barley starches.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum-Su; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Hong, Jung-Sun; Huber, Kerry C; Shim, Jae-Hoon; Yoo, Sang-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Structural modification of rice and barley starches with Neisseria polysaccharea amylosucrase (NpAS) was conducted, and relationship between structural characteristics and resistant starch (RS) contents of NpAS-treated starches was investigated. Pre-gelatinised rice and barley starches were treated with NpAS. NpAS-treated starches were characterised with respect to morphology, X-ray diffraction pattern, amylopectin branch-chain distribution, and RS content, and their structural characteristics were correlated to RS contents. Regardless of amylose contents of native starches, NpAS-treated (relative to native) starches possessed lower and higher proportions of shorter (DP 6-12) and intermediate (DP 13-36) amylopectin (AP) branch-chains, respectively. RS contents were higher for NpAS-treated starches relative to native starches, and maximum RS contents were obtained for NpAS-treated starches of waxy rice and barley genotypes. Amylose contents were not associated with RS contents of NpAS-treated starches. However, shorter and intermediate AP branch-chain portions were negatively and positively correlated to RS contents of NpAS-treated starches, respectively. PMID:23411202

  14. Baking Performance of Phosphorylated Cross-Linked Resistant Starch in Low-Moisture Bakery Goods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorylated cross-linked resistant starch (RS) is a type 4 RS, which can be used for enhancing the benefits of dietary fiber. The baking performance of the RS was explored using wire-cut cookie baking and benchtop chemically-leavened cracker baking methods to produce low-moisture baked goods (coo...

  15. Resistant starch does not affect zinc homeostasis in rural Malawian children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study tested the hypothesis that Malawian children at risk for zinc deficiency will have reduced endogenous fecal zinc (EFZ) and increased net absorbed zinc (NAZ) following the addition of high amylose maize resistant starch (RS) to their diet. This was a small controlled clinical trial to dete...

  16. Ruminococcus bromii is a keystone species for the degradation of resistant starch in the human colon

    PubMed Central

    Ze, Xiaolei; Duncan, Sylvia H; Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J

    2012-01-01

    The release of energy from particulate substrates such as dietary fiber and resistant starch (RS) in the human colon may depend on the presence of specialist primary degraders (or ‘keystone species') within the microbial community. We have explored the roles of four dominant amylolytic bacteria found in the human colon in the degradation and utilization of resistant starches. Eubacterium rectale and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron showed limited ability to utilize RS2- and RS3-resistant starches by comparison with Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Ruminococcus bromii. In co-culture, however, R. bromii proved unique in stimulating RS2 and RS3 utilization by the other three bacterial species, even in a medium that does not permit growth of R. bromii itself. Having previously demonstrated low RS3 fermentation in vivo in two individuals with undetectable populations of R. bromii-related bacteria, we show here that supplementation of mixed fecal bacteria from one of these volunteers with R. bromii, but not with the other three species, greatly enhanced the extent of RS3 fermentation in vitro. This argues strongly that R. bromii has a pivotal role in fermentation of RS3 in the human large intestine, and that variation in the occurrence of this species and its close relatives may be a primary cause of variable energy recovery from this important component of the diet. This work also indicates that R. bromii possesses an exceptional ability to colonize and degrade starch particles when compared with previously studied amylolytic bacteria from the human colon. PMID:22343308

  17. Peculiarities of enhancing resistant starch in ruminants using chemical methods: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Deckardt, Kathrin; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2013-06-01

    High-producing ruminants are fed high amounts of cereal grains, at the expense of dietary fiber, to meet their high energy demands. Grains consist mainly of starch, which is easily degraded in the rumen by microbial glycosidases, providing energy for rapid growth of rumen microbes and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) as the main energy source for the host. Yet, low dietary fiber contents and the rapid accumulation of SCFA lead to rumen disorders in cattle. The chemical processing of grains has become increasingly important to confer their starch resistances against rumen microbial glycosidases, hence generating ruminally resistant starch (RRS). In ruminants, unlike monogastric species, the strategy of enhancing resistant starch is useful, not only in lowering the amount of carbohydrate substrates available for digestion in the upper gut sections, but also in enhancing the net hepatic glucose supply, which can be utilized by the host more efficiently than the hepatic gluconeogenesis of SCFA. The use of chemical methods to enhance the RRS of grains and the feeding of RRS face challenges in the practice; therefore, the present article attempts to summarize the most important achievements in the chemical processing methods used to generate RRS, and review advantages and challenges of feeding RRS to ruminants. PMID:23736826

  18. Development of functional milk desserts enriched with resistant starch based on consumers' perception.

    PubMed

    Ares, Florencia; Arrarte, Eloísa; De León, Tania; Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2012-10-01

    Sensory characteristics play a key role in determining consumers' acceptance of functional foods. In this context, the aim of the present work was to apply a combination of sensory and consumer methodologies to the development of chocolate milk desserts enriched with resistant starch. Chocolate milk desserts containing modified waxy maize starch were formulated with six different concentrations of two types of resistant starch (which are part of insoluble dietary fiber). The desserts were evaluated by trained assessors using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. Moreover, consumers scored their overall liking and willingness to purchase and answered an open-ended question. Resistant starch caused significant changes in the sensory characteristics of the desserts and a significant decrease in consumers' overall liking and willingness to purchase. Consumer data was analyzed applying survival analysis on overall liking scores, considering the risk on consumers liking and willing to purchase the functional products less than their regular counterparts. The proposed methodologies proved to be useful to develop functional foods taking into account consumers' perception, which could increase their success in the market. PMID:23144240

  19. Peculiarities of Enhancing Resistant Starch in Ruminants Using Chemical Methods: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Deckardt, Kathrin; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2013-01-01

    High-producing ruminants are fed high amounts of cereal grains, at the expense of dietary fiber, to meet their high energy demands. Grains consist mainly of starch, which is easily degraded in the rumen by microbial glycosidases, providing energy for rapid growth of rumen microbes and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) as the main energy source for the host. Yet, low dietary fiber contents and the rapid accumulation of SCFA lead to rumen disorders in cattle. The chemical processing of grains has become increasingly important to confer their starch resistances against rumen microbial glycosidases, hence generating ruminally resistant starch (RRS). In ruminants, unlike monogastric species, the strategy of enhancing resistant starch is useful, not only in lowering the amount of carbohydrate substrates available for digestion in the upper gut sections, but also in enhancing the net hepatic glucose supply, which can be utilized by the host more efficiently than the hepatic gluconeogenesis of SCFA. The use of chemical methods to enhance the RRS of grains and the feeding of RRS face challenges in the practice; therefore, the present article attempts to summarize the most important achievements in the chemical processing methods used to generate RRS, and review advantages and challenges of feeding RRS to ruminants. PMID:23736826

  20. Physical Cross-Linking Starch-Based Zwitterionic Hydrogel Exhibiting Excellent Biocompatibility, Protein Resistance, and Biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lei; Zhang, Yabin; Wang, Qiangsong; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Boguang; Ji, Feng; Dong, Dianyu; Gao, Lina; Cui, Yuanlu; Yao, Fanglian

    2016-06-22

    In this work, a novel starch-based zwitterionic copolymer, starch-graft-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (ST-g-PSBMA), was synthesized via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. Starch, which formed the main chain, can be degraded completely in vivo, and the pendent segments of PSBMA endowed the copolymer with excellent protein resistance properties. This ST-g-PSBMA copolymer could self-assemble into a physical hydrogel in normal saline, and studies of the formation mechanism indicated that the generation of the physical hydrogel was driven by electrostatic interactions between PSBMA segments. The obtained hydrogels were subjected to detailed analysis by scanning electron microscopy, swelling ratio, protein resistance, and rheology tests. Toxicity and hemolysis analysis demonstrated that the ST-g-PSBMA hydrogels possess excellent biocompatibility and hemocompatibility. Moreover, the cytokine secretion assays (IL-6, TNF-α, and NO) confirmed that ST-g-PSBMA hydrogels had low potential to trigger the activation of macrophages and were suitable for in vivo biomedical applications. On the basis of these in vitro results, the ST-g-PSBMA hydrogels were implanted in SD rats. The tissue responses to hydrogel implantation and the hydrogel degradation in vivo were determined by histological analysis (Hematoxylin and eosin, Van Gieson, and Masson's Trichrome stains). The results presented in this study demonstrate that the physical cross-linking, starch-based zwitterionic hydrogels possess excellent protein resistance, low macrophage-activation properties, and good biocompatibility, and they are a promising candidate for an in vivo biomedical application platform. PMID:27249052

  1. A Putative Gene sbe3-rs for Resistant Starch Mutated from SBE3 for Starch Branching Enzyme in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods high in resistant starch (RS) are beneficial to prevent various diseases including diabetes, colon cancer, diarrhea and chronic renal or hepatic diseases. Elevated RS in rice is important for public health since rice is a staple food for half of the world’s population. A japonica mutant ‘Jiang...

  2. Maize and resistant starch enriched breads reduce postprandial glycemic responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Brites, Carla M; Trigo, Maria J; Carrapiço, Belmira; Alviña, Marcela; Bessa, Rui J

    2011-04-01

    White wheat bread is a poor source of dietary fiber, typically containing less than 2%. A demand exists for the development of breads with starch that is slowly digestible or partially resistant to the digestive process. The utilization of maize flour and resistant starch is expected to reduce the release and absorption of glucose and, hence, lower the glycemic index of bread. This study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that a diet of maize bread, as produced and consumed in Portugal, would have beneficial metabolic effects on rats compared to white wheat bread. We also hypothesized that the effect of resistant starch on glycemic response could be altered by the use of different formulations and breadmaking processes for wheat and maize breads. Resistant starch (RS) was incorporated into formulations of breads at 20% of the inclusion rate of wheat and maize flours. Assays were conducted with male Wistar rats (n = 36), divided into four groups and fed either wheat bread, RS-wheat bread, maize bread, and RS-maize bread to evaluate feed intake, body weight gain, fecal pH, and postprandial blood glucose response (glycemic response). Blood triglycerides, total cholesterol concentrations, and liver weights were also determined. The maize bread group presented higher body weight gain and cholesterol level, lower fecal pH, and postprandial blood glucose response than the wheat bread group. The RS-wheat bread group showed significant reductions in feed intake, fecal pH, postprandial blood glucose response, and total cholesterol. The RS-maize group displayed significant reductions of body weight gain, fecal pH, and total cholesterol levels; however, for the glycemic response, only a reduction in fasting level was observed. These results suggest that maize bread has a lower glycemic index than wheat bread, and the magnitude of the effect of RS on glycemic response depends of type of bread. PMID:21530804

  3. Resistant Starch Alters the Microbiota-Gut Brain Axis: Implications for Dietary Modulation of Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lyte, Mark; Chapel, Ashley; Lyte, Joshua M; Ai, Yongfeng; Proctor, Alexandra; Jane, Jay-Lin; Phillips, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    The increasing recognition that the gut microbiota plays a central role in behavior and cognition suggests that the manipulation of microbial taxa through diet may provide a means by which behavior may be altered in a reproducible and consistent manner in order to achieve a beneficial outcome for the host. Resistant starch continues to receive attention as a dietary intervention that can benefit the host through mechanisms that include altering the intestinal microbiota. Given the interest in dietary approaches to improve health, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of dietary resistant starch in mice to alter the gut microbiota also results in a change in behavior. Forty-eight 6 week-old male Swiss-Webster mice were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups (n = 16 per group) and fed either a normal corn starch diet (NCS) or diets rich in resistant starches HA7 diet (HA7) or octenyl-succinate HA7 diet (OS-HA7) for 6 week and monitored for weight, behavior and fecal microbiota composition. Animals fed an HA7 diet displayed comparable weight gain over the feeding period to that recorded for NCS-fed animals while OS-HA7 displayed a lower weight gain as compared to either NCS or HA7 animals (ANOVA p = 0.0001; NCS:HA7 p = 0.244; HA7:OS-HA7 p<0.0001; NCS:OS-HA7 p<0.0001). Analysis of fecal microbiota using 16s rRNA gene taxonomic profiling revealed that each diet corresponded with a unique gut microbiota. The distribution of taxonomic classes was dynamic over the 6 week feeding period for each of the diets. At the end of the feeding periods, the distribution of taxa included statistically significant increases in members of the phylum Proteobacteria in OS-HA7 fed mice, while the Verrucomicrobia increased in HA7 fed mice over that of mice fed OS-HA7. At the class level, members of the class Bacilli decreased in the OS-HA7 fed group, and Actinobacteria, which includes the genus Bifidobacteria, was enriched in the HA7 fed group compared to the control

  4. Resistant Starch Alters the Microbiota-Gut Brain Axis: Implications for Dietary Modulation of Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lyte, Mark; Chapel, Ashley; Lyte, Joshua M.; Ai, Yongfeng; Proctor, Alexandra; Jane, Jay-Lin; Phillips, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing recognition that the gut microbiota plays a central role in behavior and cognition suggests that the manipulation of microbial taxa through diet may provide a means by which behavior may be altered in a reproducible and consistent manner in order to achieve a beneficial outcome for the host. Resistant starch continues to receive attention as a dietary intervention that can benefit the host through mechanisms that include altering the intestinal microbiota. Given the interest in dietary approaches to improve health, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of dietary resistant starch in mice to alter the gut microbiota also results in a change in behavior. Forty-eight 6 week-old male Swiss-Webster mice were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups (n = 16 per group) and fed either a normal corn starch diet (NCS) or diets rich in resistant starches HA7 diet (HA7) or octenyl-succinate HA7 diet (OS-HA7) for 6 week and monitored for weight, behavior and fecal microbiota composition. Animals fed an HA7 diet displayed comparable weight gain over the feeding period to that recorded for NCS-fed animals while OS-HA7 displayed a lower weight gain as compared to either NCS or HA7 animals (ANOVA p = 0.0001; NCS:HA7 p = 0.244; HA7:OS-HA7 p<0.0001; NCS:OS-HA7 p<0.0001). Analysis of fecal microbiota using 16s rRNA gene taxonomic profiling revealed that each diet corresponded with a unique gut microbiota. The distribution of taxonomic classes was dynamic over the 6 week feeding period for each of the diets. At the end of the feeding periods, the distribution of taxa included statistically significant increases in members of the phylum Proteobacteria in OS-HA7 fed mice, while the Verrucomicrobia increased in HA7 fed mice over that of mice fed OS-HA7. At the class level, members of the class Bacilli decreased in the OS-HA7 fed group, and Actinobacteria, which includes the genus Bifidobacteria, was enriched in the HA7 fed group compared to the control

  5. Physico-chemical and functional properties of Resistant starch prepared from red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris.L) starch by enzymatic method.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Suriya, M; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the production, physico-chemical and functional properties of Resistant starch (RS) from red kidney bean starch by enzymatic method. Native and gelatinized starch were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis (pullulanase, 40 U/g/10 h), autoclaved (121 °C/30 min), stored under refrigeration (4 °C/24 h), and lyophilized. The enzymatic hydrolysis and thermal treatment of starch increased the formation of RS which showed an increase in water absorption and water solubility indexes and a decrease in swelling power due to hydrolytic and thermal process. The process for obtaining RS changed the crystallinity pattern from C to B and increased the crystallinity due to the retrogradation process. RS obtained from hydrolysis showed a reduction in viscosity, indicating the rupture of starch molecules. The viscosity was found to be inversely proportional to the RS content in the sample. The thermal properties of RS increased due to the retrogradation and recrystallization (P<0.05). PMID:23618263

  6. Rheological, physical, and sensory attributes of gluten-free rice cakes containing resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Tsatsaragkou, Kleopatra; Papantoniou, Maria; Mandala, Ioanna

    2015-02-01

    In this study the effect of resistant starch (RS) addition on gluten-free cakes from rice flour and tapioca starch physical and sensorial properties was investigated. Increase in RS concentration made cake batters less elastic (drop of G'(ω), G''(ω) values) and thinner (viscosity decreased). Cakes specific volume increased with an increase in RS level and was maximized for 15 g/100 g RS, although porosity values were significantly unaffected by RS content. Crumb grain analysis exhibited a decrease in surface porosity, number of pores and an increase in average pore diameter as RS concentration increased. During storage, cake crumb remained softer in formulations with increasing amounts of RS. Sensory evaluation of cakes demonstrated the acceptance of all formulations, with cake containing 20 g/100 g RS mostly preferred. Gluten-free cakes with improved quality characteristics and high nutritional value can be manufactured by the incorporation of RS. PMID:25604540

  7. [Research on Resistant Starch Content of Rice Grain Based on NIR Spectroscopy Model].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xi; Wu, Fang-xi; Xie, Hong-guang; Zhu, Yong-sheng; Zhang, Jian-fu; Xie, Hua-an

    2016-03-01

    A new method based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis was explored to determine the content of rice-resistant starch instead of common chemical method which took long time was high-cost. First of all, we collected 62 spectral data which have big differences in terms of resistant starch content of rice, and then the spectral data and detected chemical values are imported chemometrics software. After that a near-infrared spectroscopy calibration model for rice-resistant starch content was constructed with partial least squares (PLS) method. Results are as follows: In respect of internal cross validation, the coefficient of determination (R2) of untreated, pretreatment with MSC+1thD, pretreatment with 1thD+SNV were 0.920 2, 0.967 0 and 0.976 7 respectively. Root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were 1.533 7, 1.011 2 and 0.837 1 respectively. In respect of external validation, the coefficient of determination (R2) of untreated, pretreatment with MSC+ 1thD, pretreatment with 1thD+SNV were 0.805, 0.976 and 0.992 respectively. The average absolute error was 1.456, 0.818, 0.515 respectively. There was no significant difference between chemical and predicted values (Turkey multiple comparison), so we think near infrared spectrum analysis is more feasible than chemical measurement. Among the different pretreatment, the first derivation and standard normal variate (1thD+SNV) have higher coefficient of determination (R2) and lower error value whether in internal validation and external validation. In other words, the calibration model has higher precision and less error by pretreatment with 1thD+SNV. PMID:27400508

  8. Adaptation of the cecal bacterial microbiome of growing pigs in response to resistant starch type 4.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Mann, Evelyne; Grüll, Dietmar; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-12-01

    Resistant starch (RS) exacerbates health benefits on the host via modulation of the gut bacterial community. By far, these effects have been less well explored for RS of type 4. This study aimed at gaining a community-wide insight into the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on the cecal microbiota and hindgut fermentation in growing pigs. Castrated male pigs (n = 12/diet; 29-kg body weight) were fed diets with either 70% EMS or control starch for 10 days. The bacterial profile of each cecal sample was determined by sequencing of the V345 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina MiSeq platform. EMS diet reduced short-chain fatty acid concentrations in cecum and proximal colon compared to the control diet. Linear discriminant analyses and K means clustering indicated diet-specific cecal community profiles, whereby diversity and species richness were not different among diets. Pigs showed host-specific variation in their most abundant phyla, Firmicutes (55%), Proteobacteria (35%), and Bacteroidetes (10%). The EMS diet decreased abundance of Ruminococcus, Parasutterella, Bilophila, Enterococcus, and Lactobacillus operational taxonomic units (OTU), whereas Meniscus and Actinobacillus OTU were increased compared to those with the control diet (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR confirmed results for host effect on Enterobacteriaceae and diet effect on members of the Lactobacillus group. The presence of less cecal short-chain fatty acids and the imputed metabolic functions of the cecal microbiome suggested that EMS was less degradable for cecal bacteria than the control starch. The present EMS effects on the bacterial community profiles were different than the previously reported RS effects and can be linked to the chemical structure of EMS. PMID:26431973

  9. Adaptation of the Cecal Bacterial Microbiome of Growing Pigs in Response to Resistant Starch Type 4

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Mann, Evelyne; Grüll, Dietmar; Molnar, Timea; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2015-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) exacerbates health benefits on the host via modulation of the gut bacterial community. By far, these effects have been less well explored for RS of type 4. This study aimed at gaining a community-wide insight into the impact of enzymatically modified starch (EMS) on the cecal microbiota and hindgut fermentation in growing pigs. Castrated male pigs (n = 12/diet; 29-kg body weight) were fed diets with either 70% EMS or control starch for 10 days. The bacterial profile of each cecal sample was determined by sequencing of the V345 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina MiSeq platform. EMS diet reduced short-chain fatty acid concentrations in cecum and proximal colon compared to the control diet. Linear discriminant analyses and K means clustering indicated diet-specific cecal community profiles, whereby diversity and species richness were not different among diets. Pigs showed host-specific variation in their most abundant phyla, Firmicutes (55%), Proteobacteria (35%), and Bacteroidetes (10%). The EMS diet decreased abundance of Ruminococcus, Parasutterella, Bilophila, Enterococcus, and Lactobacillus operational taxonomic units (OTU), whereas Meniscus and Actinobacillus OTU were increased compared to those with the control diet (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR confirmed results for host effect on Enterobacteriaceae and diet effect on members of the Lactobacillus group. The presence of less cecal short-chain fatty acids and the imputed metabolic functions of the cecal microbiome suggested that EMS was less degradable for cecal bacteria than the control starch. The present EMS effects on the bacterial community profiles were different than the previously reported RS effects and can be linked to the chemical structure of EMS. PMID:26431973

  10. Production of l-Phenylalanine from Starch by Analog-Resistant Mutants of Bacillus polymyxa†

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Kalidas; Crawford, Don L.; Pometto, Anthony L.

    1986-01-01

    p-Fluorophenylalanine-resistant mutants of starch-degrading Bacillus polymyxa ATCC 842, generated by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis followed by incubation with caffeine, overproduced small amounts of l-phenylalanine (l-phe) from starch. A β-2-thienylalanine-resistant mutant (BTR-7) derived from p-fluorophenylalanine mutant (C-4000 FPR-4) and resistant to both p-fluorophenylalanine and β-2-thienylalanine produced 0.5 g of l-phe and 0.15 g of l-tyrosine per liter from 10 g of starch per liter when growing in a minimal medium. trans-Cinnamic acid (CA) was also excreted by both mutants, indicating the possibility of l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase-induced deamination of l-phe to CA. The amount of l-phe-derived CA detected in BTR-7 was less compared with mutant C-4000 FPR-4. CA production was induced in the parent only when l-phe was used as a sole nitrogen source. Time of CA production in the two mutants could be delayed by addition of other nitrogen sources, an indication of possible l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase inhibition or repression. The presence of l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in B. polymyxa mutant C-4000 FPR-4 was confirmed by assays of cell-free extracts from cells grown in starch minimal medium containing l-phe as the sole nitrogen source. Preliminary studies of the regulation of deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase and prephenate dehydratase in the wild-type strain showed that deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase was subject to feedback inhibition by l-phe, l-tyrosine, and l-tryptophan. Inhibition by each amino acid was to a similar extent singly or in combination at a 0.5 mM level of each amino acid. Prephenate dehydratase was feedback inhibited by l-phe, but not by l-tyrosine or l-tryptophan or both. In the double analog-resistant mutant BTR-7, deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase had specific activity similar to that in the wild type, and the enzyme was still subject to feedback inhibition. However

  11. Impact of Resistant Starch on Body Fat Patterning and Central Appetite Regulation

    PubMed Central

    So, Po-Wah; Yu, Wei-Sheng; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Wasserfall, Clive; Goldstone, Anthony P.; Bell, Jimmy D.; Frost, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Background Adipose tissue patterning has a major influence on the risk of developing chronic disease. Environmental influences on both body fat patterning and appetite regulation are not fully understood. This study was performed to investigate the impact of resistant starch (RS) on adipose tissue deposition and central regulation of appetite in mice. Methodology and Principle Findings Forty mice were randomised to a diet supplemented with either the high resistant starch (HRS), or the readily digestible starch (LRS). Using 1H magnetic resonance (MR) methods, whole body adiposity, intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL) and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) were measured. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) was used to investigate neuronal activity in hypothalamic regions involved in appetite control when fed ad libitum. At the end of the interventional period, adipocytes were isolated from epididymal adipose tissue and fasting plasma collected for hormonal and adipokine measurement. Mice on the HRS and LRS diet had similar body weights although total body adiposity, subcutaneous and visceral fat, IHCL, plasma leptin, plasma adiponectin plasma insulin/glucose ratios was significantly greater in the latter group. Adipocytes isolated from the LRS group were significantly larger and had lower insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. MEMRI data obtained from the ventromedial and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei suggests a satiating effect of the HRS diet despite a lower energy intake. Conclusion and Significance Dietary RS significantly impacts on adipose tissue patterning, adipocyte morphology and metabolism, glucose and insulin metabolism, as well as affecting appetite regulation, supported by changes in neuronal activity in hypothalamic appetite regulation centres which are suggestive of satiation. PMID:18074032

  12. A resistant-starch enriched yogurt: fermentability, sensory characteristics, and a pilot study in children

    PubMed Central

    Aryana, Kayanush; Greenway, Frank; Dhurandhar, Nikhil; Tulley, Richard; Finley, John; Keenan, Michael; Martin, Roy; Pelkman, Christine; Olson, Douglas; Zheng, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity and the vulnerability of the pediatric age group have highlighted the critical need for a careful consideration of effective, safe, remedial and preventive dietary interventions.  Amylose starch (RS2) from high-amylose maize (HAM) ferments in the gut and affects body weight.   One hundred and ten children, of 7-8 (n=91) or 13-14 (n=19) years of age scored the sensory qualities of a yogurt supplemented with either HAM-RS2 or an amylopectin starch.  The amylopectin starch yogurt was preferred to the HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt by 7-8 year old panelists ( P<0.0001).  Appearance, taste, and sandiness scores given by 13- to 14-year-old panelists were more favorable for the amylopectin starch yogurt than for HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt ( P<0.05).  HAM-RS2 supplementation resulted in acceptable (≥6 on a 1-9 scale) sensory and hedonic ratings of the yogurt in 74% of subjects.  Four children consumed a HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt for four weeks to test its fermentability in a clinical trial.  Three adolescents, but not the single pre-pubertal child, had reduced stool pH ( P=0.1) and increased stool short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) ( P<0.05) including increased fecal acetate ( P=0.02), and butyrate ( P=0.089) from resistant starch (RS) fermentation and isobutyrate ( P=0.01) from protein fermentation post-treatment suggesting a favorable change to the gut microbiota.  HAM-RS2 was not modified by pasteurization of the yogurt, and may be a palatable way to increase fiber intake and stimulate colonic fermentation in adolescents.  Future studies are planned to determine the concentration of HAM-RS2 that offers the optimal safe and effective strategy to prevent excessive fat gain in children. PMID:26925221

  13. A resistant-starch enriched yogurt: fermentability, sensory characteristics, and a pilot study in children.

    PubMed

    Aryana, Kayanush; Greenway, Frank; Dhurandhar, Nikhil; Tulley, Richard; Finley, John; Keenan, Michael; Martin, Roy; Pelkman, Christine; Olson, Douglas; Zheng, Jolene

    2015-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity and the vulnerability of the pediatric age group have highlighted the critical need for a careful consideration of effective, safe, remedial and preventive dietary interventions.  Amylose starch (RS2) from high-amylose maize (HAM) ferments in the gut and affects body weight.   One hundred and ten children, of 7-8 (n=91) or 13-14 (n=19) years of age scored the sensory qualities of a yogurt supplemented with either HAM-RS2 or an amylopectin starch.  The amylopectin starch yogurt was preferred to the HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt by 7-8 year old panelists ( P<0.0001).  Appearance, taste, and sandiness scores given by 13- to 14-year-old panelists were more favorable for the amylopectin starch yogurt than for HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt ( P<0.05).  HAM-RS2 supplementation resulted in acceptable (≥6 on a 1-9 scale) sensory and hedonic ratings of the yogurt in 74% of subjects.  Four children consumed a HAM-RS2-enriched yogurt for four weeks to test its fermentability in a clinical trial.  Three adolescents, but not the single pre-pubertal child, had reduced stool pH ( P=0.1) and increased stool short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) ( P<0.05) including increased fecal acetate ( P=0.02), and butyrate ( P=0.089) from resistant starch (RS) fermentation and isobutyrate ( P=0.01) from protein fermentation post-treatment suggesting a favorable change to the gut microbiota.  HAM-RS2 was not modified by pasteurization of the yogurt, and may be a palatable way to increase fiber intake and stimulate colonic fermentation in adolescents.  Future studies are planned to determine the concentration of HAM-RS2 that offers the optimal safe and effective strategy to prevent excessive fat gain in children. PMID:26925221

  14. Films from resistant starch-pectin dispersions intended for colonic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Meneguin, Andréia Bagliotti; Cury, Beatriz Stringhetti Ferreira; Evangelista, Raul Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Free films were obtained by the solvent casting method from retrograded starch-pectin dispersions at different polymer proportions and concentrations with and without plasticizer. Film forming dispersions were characterized according to their hardness, birefringence and rheological properties. The polymer dispersions showed a predominantly viscous behavior (G″>G') and the absence of plasticizers lead to building of stronger structures, while the occurrence of Maltese crosses in the retrograded dispersions indicates the occurrence of a crystalline organization. Analyses of the films included mechanical properties, thickness, superficial and cross sectional morphology, water vapor permeability, liquid uptake ability, X-ray diffractometry, in vitro dissolution and enzymatic digestion. The high resistant starch content (65.8-96.8%) assured the resistance of materials against enzymatic digestion by pancreatin. Changes in the X-ray diffraction patterns indicated a more organized and crystalline structure of free films in relation to isolated polymers. Increasing of pectin proportion and pH values favored the dissolution and liquid uptake of films. Films prepared with lower polymer concentration presented better barrier function (WVP and mechanical properties). PMID:24274490

  15. Production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Sebnem; El, Sedef Nehir

    2012-10-15

    The aim of the study was the production of resistant starch from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corm and determination of its effects on health by in vitro methods. Starch was isolated from taro corms with 98% purity, and 10.4±0.5% amylose content. By application of heating, autoclaving, enzymatic debranching, retrogradation, and drying processes to taro starch for two times, resistant starch (RS) content was increased 16 fold (35.1±1.9%, dry basis). The expected glycemic index (eGI) of taro starch and taro resistant starch was determined as 60.6±0.5 and 51.9±0.9, respectively and the decrease in the glycemic index of taro resistant starch was found as statistically significant (P<0.05). The in vitro binding of bile acids by taro starch and taro resistant starch relative to cholesterol decreasing drug cholestyramine were 5.2±0.2% and 7.6±1.7%, respectively. PMID:22939332

  16. Resistant starch content among several sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes and the effect of heat treatment on resistant starch retention in two genotypes.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Natália de Carvalho; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Rocha, Maria Clara; Amorim, Aline Cristina Pinheiro; Soares, Thayana Oliveira; Monteiro, Marlene Azevedo Magalhães; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Garcia, Maria Aparecida Vieira Teixeira; Junqueira, Roberto Gonçalves

    2016-04-15

    The resistant starch (RS) contents in 49 sorghum genotypes and the effects of heat treatment using dry and wet heat on the grain and flour from two sorghum genotypes were investigated. The results showed a wide variation in the RS contents of the genotypes analyzed. The RS mean values were grouped into six distinct groups and ranged from 0.31±0.33 g/100 g to 65.66±5.46 g/100 g sorghum flour on dry basis. Dry heat causes minor losses in the RS content with retentions of up to 97.19±1.92% of this compound, whereas wet heat retained at most 6.98±0.43% of the RS. The SC 59 and (SSN76)FC6608 RED KAFIR BAZINE (ASA N23) cultivars, which have an average RS content of 65.51 g/100 g, were appropriate for human consumption, and the use of dry heat is presented as a better alternative for the preservation of RS in heat-treated grains. PMID:26616952

  17. Effect of resistant starch on genotoxin-induced apoptosis, colonic epithelium, and lumenal contents in rats.

    PubMed

    Le Leu, Richard K; Brown, Ian L; Hu, Ying; Young, Graeme P

    2003-08-01

    The effect of different doses of a type-2 resistant starch (RS) in the form of high amylose cornstarch (HAS) on the intralumenal environment and the acute-apoptotic response to a genotoxic carcinogen (AARGC) in the colon was assessed to determine if changes in lumenal conditions were associated with an enhanced apoptotic response to DNA damage. The control diet was a modified form of the AIN-76 diet containing fully digestible starch but no dietary fibre. HAS was added to the control diet at the expense of digestible starch to give 10% HAS, 20% HAS and 30% HAS. Rats were fed the different experimental diets for a period of 4 weeks, after which a single injection of azoxymethane was given to induce DNA damage in the colonic epithelium; 6 h later AARGC was measured. Other measures included fecal and cecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and pH, and cell proliferation in the colonic epithelium. In HAS-supplemented rats, fermentation events were significantly increased in both cecum and feces. There was a progressive decrease in pH in both the cecum and feces as the amount of HAS in the diet increased. SCFA concentrations, including butyrate, were significantly elevated by HAS with higher levels being observed in the cecum than in the feces. There was a significant increase in colonic AARGC with HAS doses of 20 and 30% (P < 0.01) but not with 10% HAS. Cell proliferation was not affected by any dose of HAS. Correlations with AARGC, independent of dietary group, were seen for fecal SCFAs and pH, suggesting that fermentation events, might explain the effect of RS on AARGC. Altering amounts of dietary RS changes fermentative activity in the colon. Increased RS is associated with enhanced AARGC. Changes in amount of fermentable substrate are capable of changing the biological response to DNA damage. PMID:12807738

  18. Preparation and characterization of resistant starch type IV nanoparticles through ultrasonication and miniemulsion cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yongbo; Zheng, Jiong; Xia, Xuejuan; Ren, Tingyuan; Kan, Jianquan

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the properties of resistant starch type IV (chemically modified starch, RS4) prepared from a new and convenient synthesis route by using ultrasonication combined with water-in-oil miniemulsion cross-linking technique. A three-factor Box-Behnken design and optimization was used to minimize particle size through the developed RS4 nanoparticles. The predicted minimized Z-Avel (576.1nm) under the optimum conditions of the process variables (ultrasonic power, 214.57W; sonication time, 114.73min; and oil/water ratio, 10.54:1) was very close to the experimental value (651.0nm) determined in a batch experiment. After preparing the RS4 nanoparticles, morphological, physical, chemical, and functional properties were assessed. Results revealed that RS4 nanoparticle size reached about 600nm. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that ultrasonication induced notches and grooves on the surface. Under polarized light, the polarized cross was impaired. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the crystalline structure was disrupted. Smaller or no endotherms were exhibited in DSC analysis. In the FTIR graph, new peaks at 1532.91 and 1451.50cm(-1) were observed, and pasting properties were reduced. Amylose content, solubility, and SP increased, but RS content decreased. Anti-digestibility remained after ultrasonication. The prepared RS4 nanoparticles could be extensively used in biomedical applications and in the development of new medical materials. PMID:26877007

  19. Resistant starch analysis of commonly consumed potatoes: Content varies by cooking method and service temperature but not by variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistant starch (RS) has properties which may provide health benefits. We conducted a study to determine the contributions of cultivar, cooking method and service temperature on the RS contents of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). We hypothesized that the RS content would vary by variety, cooking me...

  20. Structural stability and prebiotic properties of resistant starch type 3 increase bile acid turnover and lower secondary bile acid formation.

    PubMed

    Dongowski, Gerhard; Jacobasch, Gisela; Schmiedl, Detlef

    2005-11-16

    Microbial metabolism is essential in maintaining a healthy mucosa in the large bowel, preferentially through butyrate specific mechanisms. This system depends on starch supply. Two structurally different resistant starches type 3 (RS3) have been investigated with respect to their resistance to digestion, fermentability, and their effects on the composition and turnover of bile acids in rats. RSA (a mixture of retrograded maltodextrins and branched high molecular weight polymers), which is more resistant than RSB (a retrograded potato starch), increased the rate of fermentation accompanied by a decrease of pH in cecum, colon, and feces. Because they were bound to RS3, less bile acids were reabsorbed, resulting in a higher turnover through the large bowel. Because of the rise of volume, the bile acid level was unchanged and the formation of secondary bile acids was partly suppressed. The results proved a strong relation between RS3, short chain fatty acid production, and microflora. However, butyrate specific benefits are only achieved by an intake of RS3 that result in good fermentation properties, which depend on the kind of the resistant starch structures. PMID:16277431

  1. The effect of dietary resistant starch type 2 on the microbiota and markers of gut inflammation in rural Malawi children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistant starch (RS) decreases intestinal inflammation in some settings. We tested the hypothesis that gut inflammation will be reduced with dietary supplementation with RS in rural Malawian children. Eighteen stunted 3-5-year-old children were supplemented with 8.5 g/day of RS type 2 for 4 weeks. ...

  2. How genomics is contributing to the fight against artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Cravo, Pedro; Napolitano, Hamilton; Culleton, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the malignant malaria parasite, has developed resistance to artemisinin, the most important and widely used antimalarial drug at present. Currently confined to Southeast Asia, the spread of resistant parasites to Africa would constitute a public health catastrophe. In this review we highlight the recent contributions of genomics to our understanding how the parasite develops resistance to artemisinin and its derivatives, and how resistant parasites may be monitored and tracked in real-time, using molecular approaches. PMID:25910626

  3. Resistant starch for modulation of gut microbiota: Promising adjuvant therapy for chronic kidney disease patients?

    PubMed

    Moraes, Cristiane; Borges, Natália A; Mafra, Denise

    2016-08-01

    The gut microbiota has been extensively studied in all health science fields because its imbalance is linked to many disorders, such as inflammation and oxidative stress, thereby contributing to cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) complications. Novel therapeutic strategies that aim to reduce the complications caused by this imbalance have increased in recent years. Studies have shown that prebiotic supplementation can beneficially modulate the gut microbiota in CKD patients. Prebiotics consist of non-digestible dietary soluble fiber, which acts as a substrate for the gut microbiota. Resistant starch (RS) is a type of dietary fiber that can reach the large bowel and act as a substrate for microbial fermentation; for these reasons, it has been considered to be a prebiotic. Few studies have analyzed the effects of RS on the gut microbiota in CKD patients. This review discusses recent information about RS and the potential role of the gut microbiota, with a particular emphasis on CKD patients. PMID:26830416

  4. Measurement of resistant starch content in cooked rice and analysis of gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nakayoshi, Yuuki; Nakamura, Sumiko; Kameo, Yoji; Shiiba, Daisuke; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Digestion-resistant starch (RS) has many physiologic functions. The RS content is measured by enzymatically degrading flour samples according to the method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Experiments have been performed with wheat, corn, and other grains, but there are no data for cooked rice grains in the form ingested by humans. Thus, we investigated a method to measure RS that is suitable for cooked rice grains using rice cultivars that are reported to differentially increase postprandial blood glucose in humans. Using a method for cooking individual rice grains and optimized enzyme reaction conditions, we established an RS measurement method. We also found that the amylopectin crystal condition affects the RS content measured using our method. PMID:25996617

  5. Fighting microbial drug resistance: a primer on the role of evolutionary biology in public health

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Gabriel G; Inglis, R Fredrik; Pennings, Pleuni S; Cobey, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Although microbes have been evolving resistance to antimicrobials for millennia, the spread of resistance in pathogen populations calls for the development of new drugs and treatment strategies. We propose that successful, long-term resistance management requires a better understanding of how resistance evolves in the first place. This is an opportunity for evolutionary biologists to engage in public health, a collaboration that has substantial precedent. Resistance evolution has been an important tool for developing and testing evolutionary theory, especially theory related to the genetic basis of new traits and constraints on adaptation. The present era is no exception. The articles in this issue highlight the breadth of current research on resistance evolution and also its challenges. In this introduction, we review the conceptual advances that have been achieved from studying resistance evolution and describe a path forward. PMID:25861380

  6. Resistant starch film-coated microparticles for an oral colon-specific polypeptide delivery system and its release behaviors.

    PubMed

    Situ, Wenbei; Chen, Ling; Wang, Xueyu; Li, Xiaoxi

    2014-04-23

    For the delivery of bioactive components to the colon, an oral colon-specific controlled release system coated with a resistant starch-based film through aqueous dispersion coating process was developed. Starch was modified by a high-temperature-pressure reaction, enzymatic debranching, and retrogradation, resulting in a dramatic increase in the resistibility against enzymatic digestion (meaning the formation of resistant starch, specifically RS3). This increase could be associated with an increase in the relative crystallinity, a greater amount of starch molecular aggregation structure, and the formation of a compact mass fractal structure, resulting from the treatment. The microparticles coated with this RS3 film showed an excellent controlled release property. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type II diabetic rats, the RS3 film-coated insulin-loaded microparticles exhibited the ability to steadily decrease the plasma glucose level initially and then maintain the plasma glucose level within the normal range for total 14-22 h with different insulin dosages after oral administration; no glycopenia or glycemic fluctuation was observed. Therefore, the potential of this new RS3 film-coated microparticle system has been demonstrated for the accurate delivery of bioactive polypeptides or protein to the colon. PMID:24684664

  7. Fighting fire with fire: mass antimalarial drug administrations in an era of antimalarial resistance.

    PubMed

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Dondorp, Arjen

    2015-06-01

    The emergence and spread of antimalarial resistance has been a major liability for malaria control. The spread of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains had catastrophic consequences for people in malaria-endemic regions, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The recent emergence of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum strains is of highest concern. Current efforts to contain artemisinin resistance have yet to show success. In the absence of more promising plans, it has been suggested to eliminate falciparum malaria from foci of artemisinin resistance using a multipronged approach, including mass drug administrations. The use of mass drug administrations is controversial as it increases drug pressure. Based on current knowledge it is difficult to conceptualize how targeted malaria elimination could contribute to artemisinin resistance, provided a full treatment course is ensured. PMID:25831482

  8. Formation of type 4 resistant starch and maltodextrins from amylose and amylopectin upon dry heating: A model study.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Fernando M; Lopes, Edgar S; Moreira, Ana S P; Simões, Joana; Coimbra, Manuel A; Domingues, Rosário M

    2016-05-01

    Starch is one of the main components of human diet. During food processing, starch is submitted to high temperatures in the presence or absence of water. Thus, the main goal of this work was to identify structural modifications caused by dry heating in starch polysaccharides (amylose and amylopectin) and structurally related oligosaccharides, maltotetraose (M4) and glucosyl-maltotriose (GM3), simulating processing conditions. The structural modifications were evaluated by methylation analysis, electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) and anionic chromatography after in vitro enzymatic digestion. Dry heating promoted dehydration, depolymerization, as well as changes in Glc glycosidic linkage positions and anomeric configuration. In oligosaccharides, polymerization was also observed. All these changes resulted in a lower in vitro digestibility, suggesting that dry heating of starch polysaccharides and related oligosaccharides may be associated with the formation of type 4 resistant starch and maltodextrins, non-digestible carbohydrates that are responsible for beneficial effects in human intestinal tract. PMID:26877020

  9. Photodynamic and Antibiotic Therapy in Combination to Fight Biofilms and Resistant Surface Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Barra, Federica; Roscetto, Emanuela; Soriano, Amata A.; Vollaro, Adriana; Postiglione, Ilaria; Pierantoni, Giovanna Maria; Palumbo, Giuseppe; Catania, Maria Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Although photodynamic therapy (PDT), a therapeutic approach that involves a photosensitizer, light and O2, has been principally considered for the treatment of specific types of cancers, other applications exist, including the treatment of infections. Unfortunately, PDT does not always guarantee full success since it exerts lethal effects only in cells that have taken up a sufficient amount of photosensitizer and have been exposed to adequate light doses, conditions that are not always achieved. Based on our previous experience on the combination PDT/chemotherapy, we have explored the possibility of fighting bacteria that commonly crowd infected surfaces by combining PDT with an antibiotic, which normally does not harm the strain at low concentrations. To this purpose, we employed 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), a pro-drug that, once absorbed by proliferating bacteria, is converted into the natural photosensitizer Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), followed by Gentamicin. Photoactivation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) which damage or kill the cell, while Gentamicin, even at low doses, ends the work. Our experiments, in combination, have been highly successful against biofilms produced by several Gram positive bacteria (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, etc.). This original approach points to potentially new and wide applications in the therapy of infections of superficial wounds and sores. PMID:26343645

  10. Fighting against FHB – an excellent novel resistance source for future wheat breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating wheat disease that causes tremendous economic losses by reducing grain yield and quality in wheat-growing areas worldwide. Sources of resistance are critical for genetically improving wheat for resistance to FHB. From a large-scale evaluation of tetraploid...

  11. Resistant starch is more effective than cholestyramine as a lipid-lowering agent in the rat.

    PubMed

    Younes, H; Levrat, M A; Demigné, C; Rémésy, C

    1995-09-01

    Amylase-resistant starch (RS) represents a substrate for the bacterial flora of the colon, and the question arises as whether RS shares with soluble fibers common mechanisms for their lipid-lowering effects. It is uncertain whether a cholesterol-lowering effect depends basically on an enhanced rate of steroid excretion or whether colonic fermentations also play a role in this effect. In the present study, the effect of RS (25% raw potato starch), of a steroid sequestrant (0.8% cholestyramine), or both were compared on bile acid excretion and lipid metabolism in rats fed semipurified diets. RS diets led to a marked rise in cecal size and the cecal pool of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), as well as SCFA absorption; cholestyramine did not noticeably affect cecal fermentation. Whereas cholestyramine was particularly effective at enhancing bile acid excretion, RS was more effective in lowering plasma cholesterol (-32%) and triglycerides (-29%). The activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase was increased fivefold by cholestyramine and twofold by RS. This induction in rats fed RS diets was concomittant to a depressed fatty acid synthase activity. In rats fed the RS diet, there was a lower concentration of cholesterol in all lipoprotein fractions, especially the (d = 1.040-1.080) fraction high-density lipoprotein (HDL1), while those fed cholestyramine had only a significant reduction of HDL1 cholesterol. In contrast to cholestyramine, RS also depressed the concentration of triglycerides in the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fraction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8577229

  12. Microbiome-Metabolome Responses in the Cecum and Colon of Pig to a High Resistant Starch Diet

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yue; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-01-01

    Currently, knowledge about the impact of long-term intake of high resistant starch diet on pig hindgut microbiota and metabolite profile is limited. In this study, a combination of the pyrosequencing and the mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics techniques were used to investigate the effects of a raw potato starch (RPS, high in resistant starch) diet on microbial composition and microbial metabolites in the hindgut of pig. The results showed that Coprococcus, Ruminococcus, and Turicibacter increased significantly, while Sarcina and Clostridium decreased in relative abundances in the hindgut of pigs fed RPS. The metabolimic analysis revealed that RPS significantly affected starch and sucrose metabolites, amino acid turnover or protein biosynthesis, lipid metabolites, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, inositol phosphate metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism. Furthermore, a Pearson's correlation analysis showed that Ruminococcus and Coprococcus were positively correlated with glucose-6-phosphate, maltose, arachidonic acid, 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid, oleic acid, phosphate, but negatively correlated with α-aminobutyric acid. However, the correlation of Clostridium and Sarcina with these compounds was in the opposite direction. The results suggest that RPS not only alters the composition of the gut microbial community but also modulates the metabolic pathway of microbial metabolism, which may further affect the hindgut health of the host. PMID:27303373

  13. Effect of storage time on in vitro digestion rate and resistant starch content of tortillas elaborated from commercial corn masas.

    PubMed

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Rendón-Villalobos, Rodolfo; Tovar, Juscelino; Trejo-Estrada, Sergio Rubén; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo

    2005-03-01

    Tortilla samples were elaborated by four small commercial factories in Mexico, employing masas prepared with the traditional nixtamalization process. Samples were stored at 4 degrees C for up to 72 hours and their chemical composition and in vitro starch digestibility features were evaluated. Chemical composition did not change with the storage time, but soluble carbohydrates decreased slightly during storage. A significant decrease in available starch content upon storage was observed, concomitant with increased resistant starch (RS) levels. These changes are possibly due to retrogradation. Retrograded resistant starch (RRS) values increased with storage time; in some samples, RRS represented more than 75% of total RS whereas in others it only accounted for 25%. The digestion rate (DR) in the freshly prepared tortillas was similar for the various samples, but after 72 h storage some differences among tortillas were found. Also, when a single tortilla sample was compared throughout the different storage times, lower DRs were determined in samples subjected to prolonged storage, which is related to the concomitant. increase in RRS. The differences found among the various tortilla samples may be due to minor variations in the commercial processing conditions and to the use of different corn varieties. PMID:16187683

  14. A new strategy to fight antimicrobial resistance: the revival of old antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Cassir, Nadim; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Brouqui, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of hospital and community-acquired infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens is limiting the options for effective antibiotic therapy. Moreover, this alarming spread of antimicrobial resistance has not been paralleled by the development of novel antimicrobials. Resistance to the scarce new antibiotics is also emerging. In this context, the rational use of older antibiotics could represent an alternative to the treatment of MDR bacterial pathogens. It would help to optimize the armamentarium of antibiotics in the way to preserve new antibiotics and avoid the prescription of molecules known to favor the spread of resistance (i.e., quinolones). Furthermore, in a global economical perspective, this could represent a useful public health orientation knowing that several of these cheapest “forgotten” antibiotics are not available in many countries. We will review here the successful treatment of MDR bacterial infections with the use of old antibiotics and discuss their place in current practice. PMID:25368610

  15. Strategies and molecular tools to fight antimicrobial resistance: resistome, transcriptome, and antimicrobial peptides

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Letícia S.; Silva, Carolina S. F.; de Souza, Vinicius C.; da Silva, Vânia L.; Diniz, Cláudio G.; Santos, Marcelo O.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic resistant bacteria motivates prospective research toward discovery of new antimicrobial active substances. There are, however, controversies concerning the cost-effectiveness of such research with regards to the description of new substances with novel cellular interactions, or description of new uses of existing substances to overcome resistance. Although examination of bacteria isolated from remote locations with limited exposure to humans has revealed an absence of antibiotic resistance genes, it is accepted that these genes were both abundant and diverse in ancient living organisms, as detected in DNA recovered from Pleistocene deposits (30,000 years ago). Indeed, even before the first clinical use of antibiotics more than 60 years ago, resistant organisms had been isolated. Bacteria can exhibit different strategies for resistance against antibiotics. New genetic information may lead to the modification of protein structure affecting the antibiotic carriage into the cell, enzymatic inactivation of drugs, or even modification of cellular structure interfering in the drug-bacteria interaction. There are still plenty of new genes out there in the environment that can be appropriated by putative pathogenic bacteria to resist antimicrobial agents. On the other hand, there are several natural compounds with antibiotic activity that may be used to oppose them. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are molecules which are wide-spread in all forms of life, from multi-cellular organisms to bacterial cells used to interfere with microbial growth. Several AMPs have been shown to be effective against multi-drug resistant bacteria and have low propensity to resistance development, probably due to their unique mode of action, different from well-known antimicrobial drugs. These substances may interact in different ways with bacterial cell membrane, protein synthesis, protein modulation, and protein folding. The analysis of bacterial transcriptome

  16. Fighting infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Cornaglia, G

    2009-03-01

    Growing bacterial resistance in Gram-positive pathogens means that what were once effective and inexpensive treatments for infections caused by these bacteria are now being seriously questioned, including penicillin and macrolides for use against pneumococcal infections and-in hospitals-oxacillin for use against staphylococcal infections. As a whole, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-positive pathogens are rapidly becoming an urgent and sometimes unmanageable clinical problem. Nevertheless, and despite decades of research into the effects of antibiotics, the actual risk posed to human health by antibiotic resistance has been poorly defined; the lack of reliable data concerning the outcomes resulting from antimicrobial resistance stems, in part, from problems with study designs and the methods used in resistence determination. Surprisingly little is known, too, about the actual effectiveness of the many types of intervention aimed at controlling antibiotic resistance. New antibiotics active against MDR Gram-positive pathogens have been recently introduced into clinical practice, and the antibiotic pipeline contains additional compounds at an advanced stage of development, including new glycopeptides, new anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) beta-lactams, and new diaminopyrimidines. Many novel antimicrobial agents are likely to be niche products, endowed with narrow antibacterial spectra and/or targeted at specific clinical problems. Therefore, an important educational goal will be to change the current, long-lasting attitudes of both physicians and customers towards broad-spectrum and multipurpose compounds. Scientific societies, such as the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID), must play a leading role in this process. PMID:19335367

  17. Integrating Antimicrobial Therapy with Host Immunity to Fight Drug-Resistant Infections: Classical vs. Adaptive Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gjini, Erida; Brito, Patricia H.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of infectious agents is a growing problem worldwide. To prevent the continuing selection and spread of drug resistance, rational design of antibiotic treatment is needed, and the question of aggressive vs. moderate therapies is currently heatedly debated. Host immunity is an important, but often-overlooked factor in the clearance of drug-resistant infections. In this work, we compare aggressive and moderate antibiotic treatment, accounting for host immunity effects. We use mathematical modelling of within-host infection dynamics to study the interplay between pathogen-dependent host immune responses and antibiotic treatment. We compare classical (fixed dose and duration) and adaptive (coupled to pathogen load) treatment regimes, exploring systematically infection outcomes such as time to clearance, immunopathology, host immunization, and selection of resistant bacteria. Our analysis and simulations uncover effective treatment strategies that promote synergy between the host immune system and the antimicrobial drug in clearing infection. Both in classical and adaptive treatment, we quantify how treatment timing and the strength of the immune response determine the success of moderate therapies. We explain key parameters and dimensions, where an adaptive regime differs from classical treatment, bringing new insight into the ongoing debate of resistance management. Emphasizing the sensitivity of treatment outcomes to the balance between external antibiotic intervention and endogenous natural defenses, our study calls for more empirical attention to host immunity processes. PMID:27078624

  18. New small-molecule drug design strategies for fighting resistant influenza A.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zuyuan; Lou, Kaiyan; Wang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Influenza A virus is the major cause of seasonal or pandemic flu worldwide. Two main treatment strategies-vaccination and small molecule anti-influenza drugs are currently available. As an effective vaccine usually takes at least 6 months to develop, anti-influenza small molecule drugs are more effective for the first line of protection against the virus during an epidemic outbreak, especially in the early stage. Two major classes of anti-influenza drugs currently available are admantane-based M2 protein blockers (amantadine and rimantadine) and neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir). However, the continuous evolvement of influenza A virus and the rapid emergence of resistance to current drugs, particularly to amantadine, rimantadine, and oseltamivir, have raised an urgent need for developing new anti-influenza drugs against resistant forms of influenza A virus. In this review, we first give a brief introduction of the molecular mechanisms behind resistance, and then discuss new strategies in small-molecule drug development to overcome influenza A virus resistance targeting mutant M2 proteins and neuraminidases, and other viral proteins not associated with current drugs. PMID:26579472

  19. New small-molecule drug design strategies for fighting resistant influenza A

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zuyuan; Lou, Kaiyan; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A virus is the major cause of seasonal or pandemic flu worldwide. Two main treatment strategies–vaccination and small molecule anti-influenza drugs are currently available. As an effective vaccine usually takes at least 6 months to develop, anti-influenza small molecule drugs are more effective for the first line of protection against the virus during an epidemic outbreak, especially in the early stage. Two major classes of anti-influenza drugs currently available are admantane-based M2 protein blockers (amantadine and rimantadine) and neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir). However, the continuous evolvement of influenza A virus and the rapid emergence of resistance to current drugs, particularly to amantadine, rimantadine, and oseltamivir, have raised an urgent need for developing new anti-influenza drugs against resistant forms of influenza A virus. In this review, we first give a brief introduction of the molecular mechanisms behind resistance, and then discuss new strategies in small-molecule drug development to overcome influenza A virus resistance targeting mutant M2 proteins and neuraminidases, and other viral proteins not associated with current drugs. PMID:26579472

  20. Indole Based Weapons to Fight Antibiotic Resistance: A Structure-Activity Relationship Study.

    PubMed

    Lepri, Susan; Buonerba, Federica; Goracci, Laura; Velilla, Irene; Ruzziconi, Renzo; Schindler, Bryan D; Seo, Susan M; Kaatz, Glenn W; Cruciani, Gabriele

    2016-02-11

    Antibiotic resistance represents a worldwide concern, especially regarding the outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause for serious skin and soft tissues infections. A major contributor to Staphylococcus aureus antibiotic resistance is the NorA efflux pump, which is able to extrude selected antibacterial drugs and biocides from the membrane, lowering their effective concentrations. Thus, the inhibition of NorA represents a promising and challenging strategy that would allow recycling of substrate antimicrobial agents. Among NorA inhibitors, the indole scaffold proved particularly effective and suitable for further optimization. In this study, some unexplored modifications on the indole scaffold are proposed. In particular, for the first time, substitutions at the C5 and N1 positions have been designed to give 48 compounds, which were synthesized and tested against norA-overexpressing S. aureus. Among them, 4 compounds have NorA IC50 values lower than 5.0 μM proving to be good efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) candidates. In addition, preliminary data on their ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) profile is reported. PMID:26757340

  1. Preparation and properties of a starch-based wood adhesive with high bonding strength and water resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhua; Ding, Longlong; Gu, Jiyou; Tan, Haiyan; Zhu, Libin

    2015-01-22

    A Highly efficient method was developed for preparing starch-based wood adhesives with high performance, using H2O2, a silane coupling agent and an olefin monomer as an oxidant, cross-linking agent and comonomer, respectively. The effects of various parameters on the shear adhesive strength were investigated in the dry state (DS) and wet state (WS). The results indicated that the bonding strength of starch-based wood adhesives could reach 7.88 MPa in dry state and 4.09 MPa in wet state. The oxidation could reduce the content of the hydroxyl transforming into carboxyl and aldehyde groups, and the graft copolymerization enhanced the thermal stability, which improved the bonding strength and water resistance. The starch-based adhesive and the fractures in the bonded joints were analyzed via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The improved properties were attributed to the modified of microstructure of the graft-copolymerized starch-based adhesive. PMID:25439864

  2. Sensory characteristics of high-amylose maize-resistant starch in three food products

    PubMed Central

    Maziarz, Mindy; Sherrard, Melanie; Juma, Shanil; Prasad, Chandan; Imrhan, Victorine; Vijayagopal, Parakat

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 resistant starch from high-amylose maize (HAM-RS2) is considered a functional ingredient due to its positive organoleptic and physiochemical modifications associated with food and physiological benefits related to human health. The sensory characteristics of three types of food products (muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry) with and without HAM-RS2 were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffins, focaccia bread, and chicken curry contained 5.50 g/100 g, 13.10 g/100 g, and 8.94 g/100 g RS, respectively, based on lyophilized dry weight. The HAM-RS2-enriched muffin had higher moisture content and was perceived as being significantly moister than the control according to the sensory evaluation. The addition of HAM-RS2 to muffins significantly enhanced all sensory characteristics and resulted in a higher mean overall likeability score. The HAM-RS2-enriched focaccia bread appeared significantly darker in color, was more dense, and had the perception of a well-done crust versus the control. A grainer texture was observed with the chicken curry containing HAM-RS2 which did not significantly affect overall likeability. We concluded that the addition of HAM-RS2 may not significantly alter consumer's acceptability in most food products. PMID:24804020

  3. Impact of dietary resistant starch type 4 on human gut microbiota and immunometabolic functions.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Bijaya; McCormack, Lacey; Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Juenemann, Robert; Nichenametla, Sailendra; Clapper, Jeffrey; Specker, Bonny; Dey, Moul

    2016-01-01

    Dietary modulation of the gut microbiota impacts human health. Here we investigated the hitherto unknown effects of resistant starch type 4 (RS4) enriched diet on gut microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in parallel with host immunometabolic functions in twenty individuals with signs of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cholesterols, fasting glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, and proinflammatory markers in the blood as well as waist circumference and % body fat were lower post intervention in the RS4 group compared with the control group. 16S-rRNA gene sequencing revealed a differential abundance of 71 bacterial operational taxonomic units, including the enrichment of three Bacteroides species and one each of Parabacteroides, Oscillospira, Blautia, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, and Christensenella species in the RS4 group. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed higher faecal SCFAs, including butyrate, propionate, valerate, isovalerate, and hexanoate after RS4-intake. Bivariate analyses showed RS4-specific associations of the gut microbiota with the host metabolic functions and SCFA levels. Here we show that dietary RS4 induced changes in the gut microbiota are linked to its biological activity in individuals with signs of MetS. These findings have potential implications for dietary guidelines in metabolic health management. PMID:27356770

  4. Resistant starch promotes equol production and inhibits tibial bone loss in ovariectomized mice treated with daidzein.

    PubMed

    Tousen, Yuko; Abe, Fumiko; Ishida, Tatsuya; Uehara, Mariko; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2011-10-01

    Daidzein is metabolized to equol in the gastrointestinal tract by gut microflora. Equol has greater estrogenic activity than genistein and daidzein, with its production shown to be promoted by dietary fiber. It is known that resistant starch (RS) is not absorbed in the proximal intestine and acts as dietary fiber in the colon. In this study, we investigated the combined effects of daidzein and RS intake on equol production, bone mineral density, and intestinal microflora in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Female mice of the ddY strain, aged 8 weeks, were either sham operated (n = 6) or OVX. The OVX mice were randomly divided into 5 groups: OVX control (n = 6), OVX fed 0.1% daidzein-supplemented diet (OVX + Dz, n = 8), OVX fed 0.1% daidzein- and 12% RS-supplemented diet (OVX + Dz + RS, n = 8), OVX fed 12% RS-supplemented diet (OVX + RS, n = 8), and OVX who received daily subcutaneous administration of 17 β-estradiol (n = 6). After 6 weeks, urinary equol concentration was significantly higher in the OVX + Dz + RS group than in the OVX + Dz group. The bone mineral density of the whole tibia was higher in the OVX + Dz +RS group compared with the OVX + Dz group. The occupation ratios of Bifidobacterium spp in the cecal microflora in groups fed RS were significantly higher than those in the other groups. The present study demonstrated that RS may increase the bioavailability of daidzein. PMID:21550090

  5. Changes in Bowel Microbiota Induced by Feeding Weanlings Resistant Starch Stimulate Transcriptomic and Physiological Responses

    PubMed Central

    Young, Wayne; Roy, Nicole C.; Lee, Julian; Lawley, Blair; Otter, Don; Henderson, Gemma; McCann, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to predictably engineer the composition of bowel microbial communities (microbiota) using dietary components is important because of the reported associations of altered microbiota composition with medical conditions. In a synecological study, weanling conventional Sprague-Dawley rats (21 days old) were fed a basal diet (BD) or a diet supplemented with resistant starch (RS) at 5%, 2.5%, or 1.25% for 28 days. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes and temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) profiles in the colonic digesta showed that rats fed RS had altered microbiota compositions due to blooms of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The altered microbiota was associated with changes in colonic short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations, colonic-tissue gene expression (Gsta2 and Ela1), and host physiology (serum metabolite profiles and colonic goblet cell numbers). Comparisons between germ-free and conventional rats showed that transcriptional and serum metabolite differences were mediated by the microbiota and were not the direct result of diet composition. Altered transcriptomic and physiological responses may reflect the young host's attempts to maintain homeostasis as a consequence of exposure to a new collection of bacteria and their associated biochemistry. PMID:22798356

  6. Impact of dietary resistant starch type 4 on human gut microbiota and immunometabolic functions

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Bijaya; McCormack, Lacey; Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Juenemann, Robert; Nichenametla, Sailendra; Clapper, Jeffrey; Specker, Bonny; Dey, Moul

    2016-01-01

    Dietary modulation of the gut microbiota impacts human health. Here we investigated the hitherto unknown effects of resistant starch type 4 (RS4) enriched diet on gut microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in parallel with host immunometabolic functions in twenty individuals with signs of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cholesterols, fasting glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, and proinflammatory markers in the blood as well as waist circumference and % body fat were lower post intervention in the RS4 group compared with the control group. 16S-rRNA gene sequencing revealed a differential abundance of 71 bacterial operational taxonomic units, including the enrichment of three Bacteroides species and one each of Parabacteroides, Oscillospira, Blautia, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, and Christensenella species in the RS4 group. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry revealed higher faecal SCFAs, including butyrate, propionate, valerate, isovalerate, and hexanoate after RS4-intake. Bivariate analyses showed RS4-specific associations of the gut microbiota with the host metabolic functions and SCFA levels. Here we show that dietary RS4 induced changes in the gut microbiota are linked to its biological activity in individuals with signs of MetS. These findings have potential implications for dietary guidelines in metabolic health management. PMID:27356770

  7. Influence of resistant starches on chemical and functional properties of tarhana.

    PubMed

    Bayrakçı, Hilal Arslan; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2015-08-01

    Two different commercial resistant starches (RSa and RSb) were used in tarhana formulation on the basis of its replacement with wheat flour at 15, 30 and 45 % levels. Color values, some chemical, functional and sensory properties of tarhana were determined. Tarhana containing 30-45 % RSa gave lower darkness and yellowness compared to other samples. Increasing levels of RSa/RSb in tarhana formulation decreased protein and Fe, K, Mg, P and Zn content of the final products. Development in acidity was negatively affected above 30 % RS addition level. Although long fermentation period of tarhana dough, RS content of the tarhana samples changed between 5.4 and 26.2 %. Control tarhana was found to have 0.9 % RS content. Cooked viscosity decreased in tarhana soup with RS addition from 1,454 cP (control) to 166 cP. RSb showed more remarkable effect on cooked viscosity than RSa. High levels of RSa improved foaming capacity, foam stability, water and oil absorption capacity of the tarhana samples. RSa successfully incorporated into tarhana formulation up to 30 % level with minimum adverse effect on chemical and sensory properties. PMID:26243962

  8. Greater satiety response with resistant starch and corn bran in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Willis, Holly J; Eldridge, Alison L; Beiseigel, Jeannemarie; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2009-02-01

    Some studies suggest high-fiber foods are more satiating than foods with little or no fiber. However, we hypothesized that certain types of dietary fiber may enhance satiety more than others. Healthy men and women (N = 20) participated in this acute, randomized double-blind, crossover study comparing the effects of 4 fibers and a low-fiber (LF) treatment on satiety. On 5 separate visits, fasting subjects consumed either a LF muffin (1.6 g fiber) or 1 of 4 high-fiber muffins (8.0-9.6 g fiber) for breakfast. The subjects used 4 questions on 100 mm visual analogue scales to rate satiety at baseline and at regular intervals for 180 minutes after muffin consumption. Responses were analyzed as area under the curve and significant differences from baseline. Satiety differed among treatments. Resistant starch and corn bran had the most impact on satiety, whereas polydextrose had little effect and behaved like the LF treatment. Results from this study indicate that not all fibers influence satiety equally. PMID:19285600

  9. A breakthrough in enzyme technology to fight penicillin resistance-industrial application of penicillin amidase.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    Enzymatic penicillin hydrolysis by penicillin amidase (also penicillin acylase, PA) represents a Landmark: the first industrially and economically highly important process using an immobilized biocatalyst. Resistance of infective bacteria to antibiotics had become a major topic of research and industrial activities. Solutions to this problem, the antibiotics resistance of infective microorganisms, required the search for new antibiotics, but also the development of derivatives, notably penicillin derivatives, that overcame resistance. An obvious route was to hydrolyse penicillin to 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), as a first step, for the introduction via chemical synthesis of various different side chains. Hydrolysis via chemical reaction sequences was tedious requiring large amounts of toxic chemicals, and they were cost intensive. Enzymatic hydrolysis using penicillin amidase represented a much more elegant route. The basis for such a solution was the development of techniques for enzyme immobilization, a highly difficult task with respect to industrial application. Two pioneer groups started to develop solutions to this problem in the late 1960s and 1970s: that of Günter Schmidt-Kastner at Bayer AG (Germany) and that of Malcolm Lilly of Imperial College London. Here, one example of this development, that at Bayer, will be presented in more detail since it illustrates well the achievement of a solution to the problems of industrial application of enzymatic processes, notably development of an immobilization method for penicillin amidase suitable for scale up to application in industrial reactors under economic conditions. A range of bottlenecks and technical problems of large-scale application had to be overcome. Data giving an inside view of this pioneer achievement in the early phase of the new field of biocatalysis are presented. The development finally resulted in a highly innovative and commercially important enzymatic process to produce 6-APA that

  10. Resistant Starch from High-Amylose Maize Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight and Obese Men123

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Kevin C.; Pelkman, Christine L.; Finocchiaro, E. Terry; Kelley, Kathleen M.; Lawless, Andrea L.; Schild, Arianne L.; Rains, Tia M.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of 2 levels of intake of high-amylose maize type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS2) on insulin sensitivity (SI) in participants with waist circumference ≥89 (women) or ≥102 cm (men). Participants received 0 (control starch), 15, or 30 g/d (double-blind) of HAM-RS2 in random order for 4-wk periods separated by 3-wk washouts. Minimal model SI was assessed at the end of each period using the insulin-modified i.v. glucose tolerance test. The efficacy evaluable sample included 11 men and 22 women (mean ± SEM) age 49.5 ± 1.6 y, with a BMI of 30.6 ± 0.5 kg/m2 and waist circumference 105.3 ± 1.3 cm. A treatment main effect (P = 0.018) and a treatment × sex interaction (P = 0.033) were present. In men, least squares geometric mean analysis for SI did not differ after intake of 15 g/d HAM-RS2 (6.90 × 10−5 pmol−1 · L−1 × min−1) and 30 g/d HAM-RS2 (7.13 × 10−5 pmol−1 · L−1 × min−1), but both were higher than after the control treatment (4.66 × 10−5 pmol−1 · L−1 × min−1) (P < 0.05). In women, there was no difference among the treatments (overall least squares ln-transformed mean ± pooled SEM = 1.80 ± 0.08; geometric mean = 6.05 × 10−5 pmol−1 · L−1 × min−1). These results suggest that consumption of 15–30 g/d of HAM-RS2 improves SI in men. Additional research is needed to understand the mechanisms that might account for the treatment × sex interaction observed. PMID:22357745

  11. Effects of resistant starch on behaviour, satiety-related hormones and metabolites in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Souza da Silva, C; Haenen, D; Koopmans, S J; Hooiveld, G J E J; Bosch, G; Bolhuis, J E; Kemp, B; Müller, M; Gerrits, W J J

    2014-09-01

    Resistant starch (RS) has been suggested to prolong satiety in adult pigs. The present study investigated RS-induced changes in behaviour, satiety-related hormones and metabolites in catheterized growing pigs to explore possible underlying mechanisms for RS-induced satiety. In a cross-over design with two 14-day periods, 10 pigs (initial BW: 58 kg) were assigned to two treatments comprising diets containing either 35% pregelatinized starch (PS) or 34% retrograded starch (RS). Diets were isoenergetic on gross energy. Pigs were fed at 2.8× maintenance. Postprandial plasma response of satiety-related hormones and metabolites was measured at the end of each period using frequent blood sampling. Faecal and urinary energy losses were measured at the end of each period. Behaviour was scored 24 h from video recordings using scan sampling. Energy digestibility and metabolizability were ~6% lower in RS compared with PS diet (P<0.001), and metabolizable energy (ME) intake was ~3% lower in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.001). RS-fed pigs showed less feeder-directed (P=0.001) and drinking (P=0.10) behaviours than PS-fed pigs throughout the day. Postprandial peripheral short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels were higher in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.001). Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were lower in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.001). Triglyceride levels were higher in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.01), and non-esterified fatty acid levels did not differ between diets (P=0.90). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were lower in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs (P<0.001), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) levels did not differ between diets (P=0.90). Blood serotonin levels were lower (P<0.001), whereas monoamine oxidase activity (P<0.05) and tryptophan (P<0.01) levels were higher in RS-fed than in PS-fed pigs. Despite a lower ME intake, RS seemed to prolong satiety, based on behavioural observations. Possible underlying mechanisms for RS-induced satiety include

  12. Impact of beta-cyclodextrin and resistant starch on bile acid metabolism and fecal steroid excretion in regard to their hypolipidemic action in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Trautwein, E A; Forgbert, K; Rieckhoff, D; Erbersdobler, H F

    1999-01-29

    To examine the impact on bile acid metabolism and fecal steroid excretion as a mechanism involved in the lipid-lowering action of beta-cyclodextrin and resistant starch in comparison to cholestyramine, male golden Syrian hamsters were fed 0% (control), 8% or 12% of beta-cyclodextrin or resistant starch or 1% cholestyramine. Resistant starch, beta-cyclodextrin and cholestyramine significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations compared to control. Distinct changes in the bile acid profile of gallbladder bile were caused by resistant starch, beta-cyclodextrin and cholestyramine. While cholestyramine significantly reduced chenodeoxycholate independently of its taurine-glycine conjugation, beta-cyclodextrin and resistant starch decreased especially the percentage of taurochenodeoxycholate by -75% and -44%, respectively. As a result, the cholate:chenodeoxycholate ratio was significantly increased by 100% with beta-cyclodextrin and by 550% with cholestyramine while resistant starch revealed no effect on this ratio. beta-Cyclodextrin and resistant starch, not cholestyramine, significantly increased the glycine:taurine conjugation ratio demonstrating the predominance of glycine conjugated bile acids. Daily fecal excretion of bile acids was 4-times higher with 8% beta-cyclodextrin and 19-times with 1% cholestyramine compared to control. beta-Cyclodextrin and cholestyramine also induced a 2-fold increase in fecal neutral sterol excretion, demonstrating the sterol binding capacity of these two compounds. Resistant starch had only a modest effect on fecal bile acid excretion (80% increase) and no effect on excretion of neutral sterols, suggesting a weak interaction with intestinal steroid absorption. These data demonstrate the lipid-lowering potential of beta-cyclodextrin and resistant starch. An impaired reabsorption of circulating bile acids and intestinal cholesterol absorption leading to an increase in fecal bile acid and neutral sterol

  13. Evaluation of Aromatic Plants and Compounds Used to Fight Multidrug Resistant Infections

    PubMed Central

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100 μg of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

  14. Evaluation of aromatic plants and compounds used to fight multidrug resistant infections.

    PubMed

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100  μ g of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

  15. Enhancement of corrosion resistance of carbon steel by Dioscorea Hispida starch in NaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulhusni, M. D. M.; Othman, N. K.; Lazim, Azwan Mat

    2015-09-01

    Starch is a one of the most abundant natural product in the world and has the potential as corrosion inhibitor replacing harmful synthetic chemical based corrosion inhibitor. This research was aimed to examines the potential of starch extracted from local Malaysian wild yam (Dioscorea hispida), as corrosion inhibitor to carbon steel in NaCl media replicating sea water. By using gravimetric test and analysis, in which the carbon steel specimens were immersed in NaCl media for 24, 48 and 60 hours with the starch as corrosion inhibitor. the corrosion rate (mmpy) and inhibition efficiencies (%) was calculated. The results obtained showed decrease in corrosion rate as higher concentration of starch was employed. The inhibition efficiencies also shows an increasing manner up to 95.97 % as the concentration of the inhibitor increased.

  16. A putative gene sbe3-rs for resistant starch mutated from SBE3 for starch branching enzyme in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruifang; Sun, Chunlong; Bai, Jianjiang; Luo, Zhixiang; Shi, Biao; Zhang, Jianming; Yan, Wengui; Piao, Zhongze

    2012-01-01

    Foods high in resistant starch (RS) are beneficial to prevent various diseases including diabetes, colon cancers, diarrhea and chronic renal or hepatic diseases. Elevated RS in rice is important for public health since rice is a staple food for half of the world population. A japonica mutant 'Jiangtangdao 1' (RS = 11.67%) was crossed with an indica cultivar 'Miyang 23' (RS = 0.41%). The mutant sbe3-rs that explained 60.4% of RS variation was mapped between RM6611 and RM13366 on chromosome 2 (LOD = 36) using 178 F(2) plants genotyped with 106 genome-wide polymorphic SSR markers. Using 656 plants from four F(3:4) families, sbe3-rs was fine mapped to a 573.3 Kb region between InDel 2 and InDel 6 using one STS, five SSRs and seven InDel markers. SBE3 which codes for starch branching enzyme was identified as a candidate gene within the putative region. Nine pairs of primers covering 22 exons were designed to sequence genomic DNA of the wild type for SBE3 and the mutant for sbe3-rs comparatively. Sequence analysis identified a missense mutation site where Leu-599 of the wild was changed to Pro-599 of the mutant in the SBE3 coding region. Because the point mutation resulted in the loss of a restriction enzyme site, sbe3-rs was not digested by a CAPS marker for SpeI site while SBE3 was. Co-segregation of the digestion pattern with RS content among 178 F(2) plants further supported sbe3-rs responsible for RS in rice. As a result, the CAPS marker could be used in marker-assisted breeding to develop rice cultivars with elevated RS which is otherwise difficult to accurately assess in crops. Transgenic technology should be employed for a definitive conclusion of the sbe3-rs. PMID:22937009

  17. Effects of Arabinoxylan and Resistant Starch on Intestinal Microbiota and Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomised Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Mary E.; Dige, Anders; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Agnholt, Jørgen; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Hermansen, Kjeld; Marco, Maria L.; Gregersen, Søren; Dahlerup, Jens F.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the intestinal microbiota has been emphasised as an important contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome. Dietary fibre may exert beneficial effects through modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolic end products. We investigated the effects of a diet enriched with two different dietary fibres, arabinoxylan and resistant starch type 2, on the gut microbiome and faecal short-chain fatty acids. Nineteen adults with metabolic syndrome completed this randomised crossover study with two 4-week interventions of a diet enriched with arabinoxylan and resistant starch and a low-fibre Western-style diet. Faecal samples were collected before and at the end of the interventions for fermentative end-product analysis and 16S ribosomal RNA bacterial gene amplification for identification of bacterial taxa. Faecal carbohydrate residues were used to verify compliance. The diet enriched with arabinoxylan and resistant starch resulted in significant reductions in the total species diversity of the faecal-associated intestinal microbiota but also increased the heterogeneity of bacterial communities both between and within subjects. The proportion of Bifidobacterium was increased by arabinoxylan and resistant starch consumption (P<0.001), whereas the proportions of certain bacterial genera associated with dysbiotic intestinal communities were reduced. Furthermore, the total short-chain fatty acids (P<0.01), acetate (P<0.01) and butyrate concentrations (P<0.01) were higher by the end of the diet enriched with arabinoxylan and resistant starch compared with those resulting from the Western-style diet. The concentrations of isobutyrate (P = 0.05) and isovalerate (P = 0.03) decreased in response to the arabinoxylan and resistant starch enriched diet, indicating reduced protein fermentation. In conclusion, arabinoxylan and resistant starch intake changes the microbiome and short-chain fatty acid compositions, with potential beneficial effects on colonic health

  18. Resistant starch does not affect zinc homeostasis in rural Malawian children☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Ordiz, M. Isabel; Maleta, Ken; Westcott, Jamie; Ryan, Kelsey; Hambidge, K. Michael; Miller, Leland V.; Young, Graeme; Mortimer, Elissa; Manary, Mark J.; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study tested the hypothesis that Malawian children at risk for zinc deficiency will have reduced endogenous fecal zinc (EFZ) and increased net absorbed zinc (NAZ) following the addition of high amylose maize resistant starch (RS) to their diet. Methods This was a small controlled clinical trial to determine the effects of added dietary RS on zinc homeostasis among 17 stunted children, aged 3–5 years consuming a plant-based diet and at risk for perturbed zinc homeostasis. Dual zinc stable isotope studies were performed before and after 28 d of intervention with RS, so that each child served as their own control. The RS was incorporated into fried wheat flour dough and given under direct observation twice daily for 28 d. Changes in zinc homeostatic measures were compared using paired Student's t-tests and linear regression analysis. Results Children had a mean height-for-age Z-score of −3.3, and consumed animal source foods ≤twice per month. Their habitual diet contained a phytate:zinc molar ratio of 34:1. Children avidly consumed the RS without complaints. EFZ was 0.8±0.4 mg/d (mean±SD) both before and after the intervention. Fractional absorption of zinc was 0.38±0.08 and 0.35±0.06 before and after the RS intervention respectively. NAZ was 1.1±0.5 and 0.6±0.7 before and after the RS intervention. This reduction of NAZ corresponded with diminished dietary zinc intake on the study day following intervention with RS. Regression analysis indicated no change in zinc absorption relative to dietary intake as a result of the RS intervention. Conclusion Consumption of RS did not improve zinc homeostasis in rural African children without zinc deficiency. RS was well tolerated in this setting. PMID:25744509

  19. Fighting Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a fight at Guilford College engaging athletes and students and the continued argument about what to call the incident. In their appeals for patience, officials have cited the college's Quaker traditions, including the "testimony of integrity," which is associated with honesty, fairness, and the search for truth. This…

  20. Fighting Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In this new feature of the "Academe" journal, work by faculty members is highlighted who are mobilizing in support of academic freedom on their campuses and beyond. This September-October issue of the journal includes the following brief reflections from faculty all relating to the central theme of "fighting back": "Free Speech Zones on Campus"…

  1. Consumption of Cross-Linked Resistant Starch (RS4XL) on Glucose and Insulin Responses in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tamimi, Enas K.; Seib, Paul A.; Snyder, Brian S.; Haub, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. The objective was to compare the postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses to nutrition bars containing either cross-linked RS type 4 (RS4XL) or standard wheat starch in normoglycemic adults (n = 13; age = 27 ± 5 years; BMI = 25 ± 3 kg/m2). Methods. Volunteers completed three trials during which they consumed a glucose beverage (GLU), a puffed wheat control bar (PWB), and a bar containing cross-linked RS4 (RS4XL) matched for available carbohydrate content. Serial blood samples were collected over two hours and glucose and insulin concentrations were determined and the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was calculated. Results. The RS4XL peak glucose and insulin concentrations were lower than the GLU and PWB (P < .05). The iAUC for glucose and insulin were lower following ingestion of RS4 compared with the GLU and PWB trials. Conclusions. These data illustrate, for the first time, that directly substituting standard starch with RS4XL, while matched for available carbohydrates, attenuated postprandial glucose and insulin levels in humans. It remains to be determined whether this response was due to the dietary fiber and/or resistant starch aspects of the RS4XL bar. PMID:20798767

  2. Physicochemical Changes and Resistant-Starch Content of Extruded Cornstarch with and without Storage at Refrigerator Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Neder-Suárez, David; Amaya-Guerra, Carlos A; Quintero-Ramos, Armando; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Alanís-Guzmán, María G de J; Báez-González, Juan G; García-Díaz, Carlos L; Núñez-González, María A; Lardizábal-Gutiérrez, Daniel; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Effects of extrusion cooking and low-temperature storage on the physicochemical changes and resistant starch (RS) content in cornstarch were evaluated. The cornstarch was conditioned at 20%-40% moisture contents and extruded in the range 90-130 °C and at screw speeds in the range 200-360 rpm. The extrudates were stored at 4 °C for 120 h and then at room temperature. The water absorption, solubility index, RS content, viscoelastic, thermal, and microstructural properties of the extrudates were evaluated before and after storage. The extrusion temperature and moisture content significantly affected the physicochemical properties of the extrudates before and after storage. The RS content increased with increasing moisture content and extrusion temperature, and the viscoelastic and thermal properties showed related behaviors. Microscopic analysis showed that extrusion cooking damaged the native starch structure, producing gelatinization and retrogradation and forming RS. The starch containing 35% moisture and extruded at 120 °C and 320 rpm produced the most RS (1.13 g/100 g) after to storage at low temperature. Although the RS formation was low, the results suggest that extrusion cooking could be advantageous for RS production and application in the food industry since it is a pollution less, continuous process requiring only a short residence time. PMID:27537864

  3. Feeding a diet containing resistant potato starch influences gastrointestinal tract traits and growth performance of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Heo, J M; Agyekum, A K; Yin, Y L; Rideout, T C; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of feeding resistant potato starch (RPS) as a natural source of resistant starch to weaned pigs for 28 d immediately after weaning. Sixty piglets (Yorkshire-Landrace × Duroc) weaned at 21 ± 2 d (1:1 male:female) with an initial BW of 7.2 ± 0.78 kg were assigned in a completely randomized design to 1 of 5 dietary treatments to give 6 observations per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a negative control corn-soybean meal-wheat-wheat middlings-based diet (NC; no antimicrobial agents added) or the NC supplemented with RPS either as powder or in capsules and each included at 0.5 or 1.0% as a top-dressing on each day. Diets were formulated to meet 1998 NRC specifications. Pigs were offered the experimental diets on an ad libitum basis for 28 d and water was available at all times. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F were determined weekly. Fecal score was determined daily for 14 d after weaning. At the conclusion of study, 1 pig from each pen was randomly selected and euthanized (n = 6 per treatment) to determine visceral organ weight, digesta pH, VFA, and ammonia N (NH3-N) concentrations. Resistant potato starch supplementation improved (P < 0.001) fecal score, and pigs offered 1.0% RPS had more solid feces (P < 0.05) than those offered 0.5% RPS during the first 14 d after weaning, independent of the form of RPS. Resistant potato starch supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) ileal and cecal digesta pH regardless of the levels of RPS or mode of delivery. The total VFA concentrations in cecal digesta were greater (P < 0.05) but the molar proportion of branched-chain fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the RPS-containing diets compared with those fed the NC, irrespective of the RPS levels or the form of RPS. However, there were no differences (P > 0.10) in visceral organ weights, growth performance, and digestibilities of DM, CP, Ca, and P among treatments. The results of this experiment indicate that

  4. Efficacy of increased resistant starch consumption in human type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bodinham, C L; Smith, L; Thomas, E L; Bell, J D; Swann, J R; Costabile, A; Russell-Jones, D; Umpleby, A M; Robertson, M D

    2014-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) has been shown to beneficially affect insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals and those with metabolic syndrome, but its effects on human type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of increased RS consumption on insulin sensitivity and glucose control and changes in postprandial metabolites and body fat in T2DM. Seventeen individuals with well-controlled T2DM (HbA1c 46.6±2 mmol/mol) consumed, in a random order, either 40 g of type 2 RS (HAM-RS2) or a placebo, daily for 12 weeks with a 12-week washout period in between. At the end of each intervention period, participants attended for three metabolic investigations: a two-step euglycemic–hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with an infusion of [6,6-2H2] glucose, a meal tolerance test (MTT) with arterio-venous sampling across the forearm, and whole-body imaging. HAM-RS2 resulted in significantly lower postprandial glucose concentrations (P=0.045) and a trend for greater glucose uptake across the forearm muscle (P=0.077); however, there was no effect of HAM-RS2 on hepatic or peripheral insulin sensitivity, or on HbA1c. Fasting non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were significantly lower (P=0.004) and NEFA suppression was greater during the clamp with HAM-RS2 (P=0.001). Fasting triglyceride (TG) concentrations and soleus intramuscular TG concentrations were significantly higher following the consumption of HAM-RS2 (P=0.039 and P=0.027 respectively). Although fasting GLP1 concentrations were significantly lower following HAM-RS2 consumption (P=0.049), postprandial GLP1 excursions during the MTT were significantly greater (P=0.009). HAM-RS2 did not improve tissue insulin sensitivity in well-controlled T2DM, but demonstrated beneficial effects on meal handling, possibly due to higher postprandial GLP1. PMID:24671124

  5. Development, relative retention, and productivity of red flour beetle on resistant starches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development, relative retention, and fecundity of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), on six different types of starches, flour, and flour plus yeast was investigated in the laboratory. The viability of T. castaneum eggs was checked initially by placin...

  6. In vivo degradation of alginate in the presence and in the absence of resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Jonathan, Melliana; Souza da Silva, Carol; Bosch, Guido; Schols, Henk; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the intestinal degradability of alginate during 74 days intake in pigs as models for humans. Diets contained pregelatinized starch, retrograded starch, alginate, or a mix of retrograded starch and alginate. Faeces were collected on day 1, 3, 7, 14, 39 and 74. Clear trends in intestinal alginate degradation were observed. Up to day 39, the total tract digestibility of alginate was limited (0.52 ± 0.10), and was lower with the inclusion of retrograded starch in the diet (0.34 ± 0.02). More than 90% of the faecal alginate was insoluble in water, which may explain the low digestibility of the alginate. The digestibility of mannuronic acid (M) was 2-3 times higher than that of guluronic acid (G). The changes of G:M ratio and the relative amounts of alginate oligosaccharides between day 39 and 74 indicated that the microbiota needed more than 39 days to adapt to alginate. This study demonstrated that in-depth analyses of dietary fibres are valuable in understanding the fate of the dietary fibres in the large intestine as it was shown that degradation of a dietary fibre depends not only on the properties of the fibre itself, but also on the other dietary fibres present in the diet and the adaptation time. PMID:25442531

  7. Starch poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  8. Metabolomic and transcriptomic responses induced in the livers of pigs by the long-term intake of resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Yu, K; Zhou, L; Fang, L; Su, Y; Zhu, W

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated metabolomic and transcriptomic responses in the livers of pigs to evaluate the effects of resistant starch on the body's metabolism at the extraintestinal level. Thirty-six Duroc× Landrace × Large White growing barrows (70 d of age) were randomly allocated to either the corn starch (CS) group or the raw potato starch (RPS) group with a randomized complete block design; each group consisted of 6 replicates (pens), with 3 pigs per pen. Pigs in the CS group were offered a corn-soybean-based diet, whereas pigs in the RPS group were put on a diet in which 230 (growing) or 280 g/kg (finishing) purified CS was replaced with purified RPS during a 100-d trial. The livers of pigs were collected for metabolome and gene expression analysis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that compared with the CS diet, the RPS diet decreased ( < 0.05) cholesterol and palmitic acid as well as increased ( < 0.05) 3-hydroxybutyric acid, which indicated the reduction of adipose weight and fatty acid biosynthesis and the elevation of fatty acid β-oxidation. In addition, 2-ketoglutaric acid and glucose-6-phosphate were increased (< 0.05) although pyruvic acid was decreased ( < 0.05) in the RPS group, indicating the upregulated capacity of glucose phosphorylation and glycolysis. Microarray analysis showed that the mRNA expression of (), (), and () were downregulated ( < 0.05) whereas (), (), and () were upregulated ( < 0.05) in the RPS diet, indicating a decrease in fatty acid intake and synthesis and an increase in fatty acid oxidation and glycerophospholipid synthesis. The results demonstrated that the long-term consumption of RPS could modulate hepatic lipid metabolism by decreasing fatty acid synthesis as well as increasing lipid oxidation and glycerophospholipid synthesis. PMID:27065270

  9. Responses in colonic microbial community and gene expression of pigs to a long-term high resistant starch diet

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yue; Zhou, Liping; Fang, Lingdong; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2015-01-01

    Intake of raw potato starch (RPS) has been associated with various intestinal health benefits, but knowledge of its mechanism in a long-term is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term intake of RPS on microbial composition, genes expression profiles in the colon of pigs. Thirty-six Duroc × Landrace × Large White growing barrows were randomly allocated to corn starch (CS) and RPS groups with a randomized block design. Each group consisted of six replicates (pens), with three pigs per pen. Pigs in the CS group were offered a corn/soybean-based diet, while pigs in the RPS group were put on a diet in which 230 g/kg (growing period) or 280 g/kg (finishing period) purified CS was replaced with purified RPS during a 100-day trial. Real-time PCR assay showed that RPS significantly decreased the number of total bacteria in the colonic digesta. MiSeq sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes showed that RPS significantly decreased the relative abundance of Clostridium, Treponema, Oscillospira, Phascolarctobacterium, RC9 gut group, and S24-7-related operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and increased the relative abundance of Turicibacter, Blautia, Ruminococcus, Coprococcus, Marvinbryantia, and Ruminococcus bromii-related OTUs in colonic digesta and mucosa. Analysis of the colonic transcriptome profiles revealed that the RPS diet changed the colonic expression profile of the host genes mainly involved in immune response pathways. RPS significantly increased proinflammartory cytokine IL-1β gene expression and suppressed genes involved in lysosome. Our findings suggest that long-term intake of high resistant starch (RS) diet may result in both positive and negative roles in gut health. PMID:26379652

  10. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, A; Marchant-Forde, J N; Richert, B T; Lay, D C

    2016-05-01

    Aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrates. Sows were housed in individual stalls 7 to 14 d after breeding (moving day was considered d 0 of treatment) and were fed (at 0700 h) with a CONTROL (corn-soybean meal based with no additional fiber sources), RSTARCH (10.8% resistant starch), BEETPULP (27.2% sugar beet pulp), SOYHULLS (19.1% soybean hulls), or INCSOY (14.05% soybean hulls) for 21 d (5 sows/diet × 5 diets × 8 replications = 200 sows). The CONTROL diet was targeted to contain 185 g(d∙sow) NDF and the other diets were targeted to contain 350 g(d∙sow) NDF. The INCSOY diet was fed at 2.2 kg/(d∙sow) and the other diets were fed at 2 kg(d∙sow). On d 22, sows were mixed in groups of 5 (at 1200 h). Behaviors in stalls (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21) and after mixing (d 22 and 23), heart rate (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21), blood metabolites (on d 2, 8, 15, 22, and 25), and the effects of diets on production were collected and analyzed. Sows stood more ( < 0.01) and rested less ( < 0.001) over time irrespective of the diet. Sows on BEETPULP stood more ( < 0.01) and sows on SOYHULLS rested more ( < 0.01). Sham chewing increased over days irrespective of the diet. Chewing behavior (bar and feeder) increased with days on diet ( < 0.001) and was lowest in sows on the SOYHULLS diet ( = 0.045). When mixed, biting frequency in the first hour was highest for sows on the CONTROL diet (236.5 ± 62.6) and lowest for sows on the RSTARCH diet (90.5 ± 30.5). Skin lesions increased ( < 0.001) 24 h after mixing sows irrespective of diet. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration was lowest in sows fed BEETPULP and SOYHULLS ( < 0.001). Serum glucose concentration was highest in sows fed RSTARCH and BEETPULP ( = 0.04), but there was no day effect ( = 0.62) or diet × day interaction ( = 0.60). The NEFA was greatest in sows fed

  11. Resistant starch analysis of commonly consumed potatoes: Content varies by cooking method and service temperature but not by variety.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Idso, Laura; Johnson, LuAnn K; Jackson, Matthew I; Combs, Gerald F

    2016-10-01

    Resistant starch (RS) has unique digestive and absorptive properties which may provide health benefits. We conducted a study to determine the contributions of cultivar, cooking method and service temperature on the RS contents of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). We hypothesized that the RS content would vary by variety, cooking method and service temperature. Potatoes of three common commercial varieties (Yukon Gold, Dark Red Norland, and Russet Burbank) were subjected to two methods of cooking (baking or boiling) and three service temperatures: hot (65°C), chilled (4°C) and reheated (4°C for 6d; reheated to 65°C) and analyzed the starch content by modification of a commercially available assay. Results showed that RS content (g/100g) varied by cooking method and service temperature but not variety. Baked potatoes had higher RS contents than boiled; chilled potatoes had more RS than either hot or reheated. These results may assist in dietary choices for reducing chronic disease risk. PMID:27132853

  12. A standardized method for preparation of potatoes and analysis of their resistant starch content: Variation by cooking method and service temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of resistant starch (RS) may lead to reduced glycemia, improved satiety, and beneficial changes in gut microbiota due to its unique digestive and absorptive properties. We developed a standardized protocol for preparation of potatoes in order to assess their RS content and modified a com...

  13. Effects of resistant starch type III polymorphs on human colon microbiota and short chain fatty acids in human gut models.

    PubMed

    Lesmes, Uri; Beards, Emma J; Gibson, Glenn R; Tuohy, Kieran M; Shimoni, Eyal

    2008-07-01

    This study probed the possible effects of type III resistant starch (RS) crystalline polymorphism on RS fermentability by human gut microbiota and the short chain fatty acids production in vitro. Human fecal pH-controlled batch cultures showed RS induces an ecological shift in the colonic microbiota with polymorph B inducing Bifidobacterium spp. and polymorph A inducing Atopobium spp. Interestingly, polymorph B also induced higher butyrate production to levels of 0.79 mM. In addition, human gut simulation demonstrated that polymorph B promotes the growth of bifidobacteria in the proximal part of the colon and double their relative proportion in the microbiota in the distal colon. These findings suggest that RS polymorph B may promote large bowel health. While the findings are limited by study constraints, they do raise the possibility of using different thermal processing to delineate differences in the prebiotic capabilities of RS, especially its butryrogenicity in the human colon. PMID:18543927

  14. Resistant starch alters gut microbiome and metabolomic profiles concurrent with amelioration of chronic kidney disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Dorothy A; Piccolo, Brian D; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Liu, Shuman; Lau, Wei L; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Nazertehrani, Sohrab; Moore, Mary E; Marco, Maria L; Martin, Roy J; Adams, Sean H

    2016-05-01

    Patients and animals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit profound alterations in the gut environment including shifts in microbial composition, increased fecal pH, and increased blood levels of gut microbe-derived metabolites (xenometabolites). The fermentable dietary fiber high amylose maize-resistant starch type 2 (HAMRS2) has been shown to alter the gut milieu and in CKD rat models leads to markedly improved kidney function. The aim of the present study was to identify specific cecal bacteria and cecal, blood, and urinary metabolites that associate with changes in kidney function to identify potential mechanisms involved with CKD amelioration in response to dietary resistant starch. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with adenine-induced CKD were fed a semipurified low-fiber diet or a high-fiber diet [59% (wt/wt) HAMRS2] for 3 wk (n = 9 rats/group). The cecal microbiome was characterized, and cecal contents, serum, and urine metabolites were analyzed. HAMRS2-fed rats displayed decreased cecal pH, decreased microbial diversity, and an increased Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio. Several uremic retention solutes were altered in the cecal contents, serum, and urine, many of which had strong correlations with specific gut bacteria abundances, i.e., serum and urine indoxyl sulfate were reduced by 36% and 66%, respectively, in HAMRS2-fed rats and urine p-cresol was reduced by 47% in HAMRS2-fed rats. Outcomes from this study were coincident with improvements in kidney function indexes and amelioration of CKD outcomes previously reported for these rats, suggesting an important role for microbial-derived factors and gut microbe metabolism in regulating host kidney function. PMID:26841824

  15. High-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting of metabolites from cecum and distal colon contents of rats fed resistant starch

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Timothy J.; Jones, Roger W.; Ai, Yongfeng; Houk, Robert S.; Jane, Jay-lin; Zhao, Yinsheng; Birt, Diane F.; McClelland, John F.

    2013-12-04

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometry along with statistical analysis was utilized to study metabolic profiles among rats fed resistant starch (RS) diets. Fischer 344 rats were fed four starch diets consisting of 55 % (w/w, dbs) starch. A control starch diet consisting of corn starch was compared against three RS diets. The RS diets were high-amylose corn starch (HA7), HA7 chemically modified with octenyl succinic anhydride, and stearic-acid-complexed HA7 starch. A subgroup received antibiotic treatment to determine if perturbations in the gut microbiome were long lasting. A second subgroup was treated with azoxymethane (AOM), a carcinogen. At the end of the 8-week study, cecal and distal colon content samples were collected from the sacrificed rats. Metabolites were extracted from cecal and distal colon samples into acetonitrile. The extracts were then analyzed on an accurate-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer to obtain their metabolic profile. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The PLS-DA analysis utilized a training set and verification set to classify samples within diet and treatment groups. PLS-DA could reliably differentiate the diet treatments for both cecal and distal colon samples. The PLS-DA analyses of the antibiotic and no antibiotic-treated subgroups were well classified for cecal samples and modestly separated for distal colon samples. PLS-DA analysis had limited success separating distal colon samples for rats given AOM from those not treated; the cecal samples from AOM had very poor classification. Mass spectrometry profiling coupled with PLS-DA can readily classify metabolite differences among rats given RS diets.

  16. Effects of alginate and resistant starch on feeding patterns, behaviour and performance in ad libitum-fed growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Souza da Silva, C; Bosch, G; Bolhuis, J E; Stappers, L J N; van Hees, H M J; Gerrits, W J J; Kemp, B

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the long-term effects of feeding diets containing either a gelling fibre (alginate (ALG)), or a fermentable fibre (resistant starch (RS)), or both, on feeding patterns, behaviour and growth performance of growing pigs fed ad libitum for 12 weeks. The experiment was set up as a 2×2 factorial arrangement: inclusion of ALG (yes or no) and inclusion of RS (yes or no) in the control diet, resulting in four dietary treatments, that is, ALG-RS- (control), ALG+RS-, ALG-RS+, and ALG+RS+. Both ALG and RS were exchanged for pregelatinized potato starch. A total of 240 pigs in 40 pens were used. From all visits to an electronic feeding station, feed intake and detailed feeding patterns were calculated. Apparent total tract digestibility of energy, dry matter (DM), and CP was determined in week 6. Pigs' postures and behaviours were scored from live observations in weeks 7 and 12. Dietary treatments did not affect final BW and average daily gain (ADG). ALG reduced energy and DM digestibility (P<0.01). Moreover, ALG increased average daily DM intake, and reduced backfat thickness and carcass gain : digestible energy (DE) intake (P<0.05). RS increased feed intake per meal, meal duration (P<0.05) and inter-meal intervals (P=0.05), and reduced the number of meals per day (P<0.01), but did not affect daily DM intake. Moreover, RS reduced energy, DM and CP digestibility (P<0.01). Average daily DE intake was reduced (P<0.05), and gain : DE intake tended to be increased (P=0.07), whereas carcass gain : DE intake was not affected by RS. In week 12, ALG+RS- increased standing and walking, aggressive, feeder-directed, and drinking behaviours compared with ALG+RS+ (ALG×RS interaction, P<0.05), with ALG-RS- and ALG-RS+ in between. No other ALG×RS interactions were found. In conclusion, pigs fed ALG compensated for the reduced dietary DE content by increasing their feed intake, achieving similar DE intake and ADG as control pigs. Backfat thickness and carcass efficiency

  17. Resistant Starches Types 2 and 4 Have Differential Effects on the Composition of the Fecal Microbiota in Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Inés; Kim, Jaehyoung; Duffy, Patrick R.; Schlegel, Vicki L.; Walter, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Background To systematically develop dietary strategies based on resistant starch (RS) that modulate the human gut microbiome, detailed in vivo studies that evaluate the effects of different forms of RS on the community structure and population dynamics of the gut microbiota are necessary. The aim of the present study was to gain a community wide perspective of the effects of RS types 2 (RS2) and 4 (RS4) on the fecal microbiota in human individuals. Methods and Findings Ten human subjects consumed crackers for three weeks each containing either RS2, RS4, or native starch in a double-blind, crossover design. Multiplex sequencing of 16S rRNA tags revealed that both types of RS induced several significant compositional alterations in the fecal microbial populations, with differential effects on community structure. RS4 but not RS2 induced phylum-level changes, significantly increasing Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes while decreasing Firmicutes. At the species level, the changes evoked by RS4 were increases in Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Parabacteroides distasonis, while RS2 significantly raised the proportions of Ruminococcus bromii and Eubacterium rectale when compared to RS4. The population shifts caused by RS4 were numerically substantial for several taxa, leading for example, to a ten-fold increase in bifidobacteria in three of the subjects, enriching them to 18–30% of the fecal microbial community. The responses to RS and their magnitudes varied between individuals, and they were reversible and tightly associated with the consumption of RS. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that RS2 and RS4 show functional differences in their effect on human fecal microbiota composition, indicating that the chemical structure of RS determines its accessibility by groups of colonic bacteria. The findings imply that specific bacterial populations could be selectively targeted by well designed functional carbohydrates, but the inter-subject variations in the response to RS

  18. Taking a break from chemotherapy to fight drug-resistance: The cases of cancer and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Hadjiandreou, Marios M; Mitsis, Georgios D

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present how optimized treatment interruptions during chemotherapy may be used to control drug-resistance, a major challenge for clinicians worldwide. Specifically, we examine resistance in cancer and HIV/AIDS. For each disease, we use mathematical models alongside real data to represent the respective complex biological phenomena and optimal control algorithms to design optimized treatment schedules aiming at controlling disease progression and patient death. In both diseases, it is shown that the key to controlling resistance is the optimal management of the frequency and magnitude of treatment interruptions as a way to facilitate the interplay between the competitive resistant/sensitive strains. PMID:24109658

  19. Formation of Elongated Starch Granules in High-amylose Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GEMS-0067 maize starch contains up to 32% elongated starch granules much higher than amylose-extender (ae) single-mutant maize starch (~7%) and normal (non-mutant) maize starch (0%). These elongated granules are highly resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis at 95-100 C, which function as resistant starc...

  20. Leadership, Feminism, and Classroom Politics--Or, How I Gave up the Fight and Learned to Love Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lee Burdette

    2004-01-01

    Most people resist learning to some extent or another, so it is not surprising that students do as well. Like many who spend time in the classroom, the resistance the author encountered in students has been a source of frustration. The author realizes how most students harbor negative feelings towards the concept of leadership and feminism. In…

  1. Fighting Asian Soybean Rust

    PubMed Central

    Langenbach, Caspar; Campe, Ruth; Beyer, Sebastian F.; Mueller, André N.; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several R genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR. PMID:27375652

  2. Gene cloning, functional expression and characterisation of a novel type I pullulanase from Paenibacillus barengoltzii and its application in resistant starch production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Liu, Yu; Yan, Feng; Jiang, Zhengqiang; Yang, Shaoqing; Yan, Qiaojuan

    2016-05-01

    A novel pullulanase gene (PbPulA) from Paenibacillus barengoltzii was cloned. PbPulA has an open reading frame of 2028 bp encoding 675 amino acids. It was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as an intracellular soluble protein. The recombinant pullulanase (PbPulA) was purified to homogeneity with a molecular mass of about 75 kDa on SDS-PAGE. PbPulA was optimally active at pH 5.5 and 50 °C. It was stable within pH 5.5-10.5. The enzyme exhibited strict substrate specificity towards pullulan, but showed relatively low activity towards amylopectin and no activity towards other tested polysaccharides. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme on pullulan were 2.94 mg/mL and 280.5 μmol/min/mg, respectively. The addition of PbPulA in gelatinized rice and maize starches significantly increased the resistant starch type 3 (RS3) yields. Final yields from rice and maize starches were 10.82 g/100 g and 11.41 g/100 g, respectively. These properties make PbPulA useful in starch industries. PMID:26763762

  3. Tolerance, fermentation, and cytokine expression in healthy aged male C57BL/6J mice fed resistant starch

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J.; Keller, Jeffrey; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Pistell, Paul J.; Tulley, Richard T.; Raggio, Anne M.; Shen, Li; Zhang, Hanjie; Martin, Roy J.; Blackman, Marc R.

    2013-01-01

    Health benefits of resistant starch (RS), a dietary fermentable fiber, have been well documented in young, but not in old populations. As the essential step of more comprehensive evaluations of RS on healthy aging, we examined the effects of dietary RS on tolerance, colonic fermentation, and cytokine expression in aged mice. Healthy older (18–20 months) C57BL/6J male mice were fed control, 18% RS, or 36% RS diets for 10 weeks. Body weight gain, body composition, and fat pad weights did not differ among the three groups after 10 weeks, indicating good tolerance of the RS diet. Fermentation indicators (cecum weights, and cecal proglucagon and PYY mRNA expression) were enhanced in a RS dose dependent manner (P<0.01). Serum concentrations of soluble cytokine receptors (sTNF-Rb; sIL-4R; sIL-2Rα sVEGFR1; and sRAGE) and TNFα expression (gene and protein) in visceral fat did not differ significantly among groups. Adiponectin protein concentrations, but not gene expression, were greater in epididymal fat of the 36% RS versus control groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: in aged mice, dietary RS is well tolerated, fermented in the colon, and stimulates colonic expression of proglucagon and PYY mRNA, and adiponectin protein in visceral fat. PMID:22174009

  4. Effect of extrusion cooking on the physicochemical properties, resistant starch, phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of green banana flour.

    PubMed

    Sarawong, Chonthira; Schoenlechner, Regine; Sekiguchi, Ken; Berghofer, Emmerich; Ng, Perry K W

    2014-01-15

    Green banana flour was extruded through a co-rotating twin-screw extruder with constant barrel temperature. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of extrusion cooking variables (feed moisture, FM, 20% and 50%; screw speed, SS, 200 and 400rpm) and storing of the extruded flours at 4°C for 24h on the physicochemical properties, resistant starch (RS), pasting properties and antioxidant capacities. Extrusion cooking at higher FM and lower SS increased the amylose content, which was expressed in highest RS content. Water adsorption index (WAI) and pasting properties were increased, while water solubility index (WSI), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities (FRAP, ABTS(+), DPPH) in free and bound phenolics were decreased compared to the other extruded samples. Storing the extruded flours at 4°C for 24h prior to oven drying was the main factor leading to a further increase in the content of amylose, RS, TPC and WSI values, as well as pasting properties - in particular peak viscosity. Compared to native banana flour, extrusion cooking caused significant changes in all studied properties of the extruded flours, except for soluble DF and antioxidant capacity (ABTS(+) and DPPH) of bound phenolics. PMID:24054209

  5. Impact of Short Term Consumption of Diets High in Either Non-Starch Polysaccharides or Resistant Starch in Comparison with Moderate Weight Loss on Indices of Insulin Sensitivity in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lobley, Gerald E.; Holtrop, Grietje; Bremner, David M.; Calder, A. Graham; Milne, Eric; Johnstone, Alexandra M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated if additional non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) or resistant starch (RS), above that currently recommended, leads to better improvement in insulin sensitivity (IS) than observed with modest weight loss (WL). Obese male volunteers (n = 14) were given an energy-maintenance (M) diet containing 27 g NSP and 5 g RS daily for one week. They then received, in a cross-over design, energy-maintenance intakes of either an NSP-enriched diet (42 g NSP, 2.5 g RS) or an RS-enriched diet (16 g NSP, 25 g RS), each for three weeks. Finally, a high protein (30% calories) WL diet was provided at 8 MJ/day for three weeks. During each dietary intervention, endogenous glucose production (EGP) and IS were assessed. Fasting glycaemia was unaltered by diet, but plasma insulin and C-peptide both decreased with the WL diet (p < 0.001), as did EGP (−11%, p = 0.006). Homeostatis model assessment of insulin resistance improved following both WL (p < 0.001) and RS (p < 0.05) diets. Peripheral tissue IS improved only with WL (57%–83%, p < 0.005). Inclusion of additional RS or NSP above amounts currently recommended resulted in little or no improvement in glycaemic control, whereas moderate WL (approximately 3 kg fat) improved IS. PMID:23752495

  6. Starch-Lignin Baked Foams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch-kraft lignin foams were prepared by a baking process. Replacing up to 20% of the starch with lignin has no effect on foam density or overall morphology. At 10% replacement, lignin marginally increases water resistance and modulus of elasticity but decreases strain at maximum stress. At 20% re...

  7. Physicochemical Properties of Starch Isolated from Bracken (Pteridium aquilinim) Rhizome.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xurun; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Zhong; Xiong, Fei

    2015-12-01

    Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) is an important wild plant starch resource worldwide. In this work, starch was separated from bracken rhizome, and the physicochemical properties of this starch were systematically investigated and compared with 2 other common starches, that is, starches from waxy maize and potato. There were significant differences in shape, birefringence patterns, size distribution, and amylose content between bracken and the 2 other starches. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that bracken starch exhibited a typical C-type crystalline structure. Bracken starch presented, respectively, lower and higher relative degree of crystallinity than waxy maize and potato starches. Ordered structures in particle surface differed among these 3 starches. The swelling power tendency of bracken starch in different temperature intervals was very similar to that of potato starch. The viscosity parameters during gelatinization were the lowest in waxy maize, followed by bracken and potato starches. The contents of 3 nutritional components, that is, rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches in native, gelatinized, and retrograded starch from bracken rhizome presented more similarities with potato starch than waxy maize starch. These finding indicated that physicochemical properties of bracken starch showed more similarities with potato starch than waxy maize starch. PMID:26551243

  8. Resistant starch modifies gut microflora and microbial metabolism in human flora-associated rats inoculated with faeces from Italian and UK donors.

    PubMed

    Silvi, S; Rumney, C J; Cresci, A; Rowland, I R

    1999-03-01

    The effect of sucrose and resistant starch ('CrystaLean'--a retrograded, amylose starch) on human gut microflora and associated parameters was studied in human flora-associated (HFA) rats, colonized with microfloras from UK or Italian subjects, to determine whether such floras were affected differently by dietary carbohydrates. Consumption of the resistant starch diet resulted in significant changes in four of the seven main groups of bacteria enumerated. In both the UK and Italian flora-associated rats, numbers of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were increased 10-100-fold, and there was a concomitant decrease in enterobacteria when compared with sucrose-fed rats. The induced changes in caecal microflora of both HFA rat groups were reflected in changes in bacterial enzyme activities and caecal ammonia concentration. Although it had little effect on caecal short-chain fatty acid concentration, CrystaLean markedly increased the proportion of n-butyric acid in both rat groups and was associated with a significant increase in cell proliferation in the proximal colon of the Italian flora-associated rats. CrystaLean appeared to play a protective role in the colon environment, lowering caecal ammonia concentration, caecal pH and beta-glucuronidase activity. PMID:10196757

  9. Role of Phenothiazines and Structurally Similar Compounds of Plant Origin in the Fight against Infections by Drug Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dastidar, Sujata G.; Kristiansen, Jette E.; Molnar, Joseph; Amaral, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Phenothiazines have their primary effects on the plasma membranes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Among the components of the prokaryotic plasma membrane affected are efflux pumps, their energy sources and energy providing enzymes, such as ATPase, and genes that regulate and code for the permeability aspect of a bacterium. The response of multidrug and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis to phenothiazines shows an alternative therapy for the treatment of these dreaded diseases, which are claiming more and more lives every year throughout the world. Many phenothiazines have shown synergistic activity with several antibiotics thereby lowering the doses of antibiotics administered to patients suffering from specific bacterial infections. Trimeprazine is synergistic with trimethoprim. Flupenthixol (Fp) has been found to be synergistic with penicillin and chlorpromazine (CPZ); in addition, some antibiotics are also synergistic. Along with the antibacterial action described in this review, many phenothiazines possess plasmid curing activities, which render the bacterial carrier of the plasmid sensitive to antibiotics. Thus, simultaneous applications of a phenothiazine like TZ would not only act as an additional antibacterial agent but also would help to eliminate drug resistant plasmid from the infectious bacterial cells. PMID:27029292

  10. Manipulation of the gut microbiota using resistant starch is associated with protection against colitis-associated colorectal cancer in rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Le Leu, Richard K; Christophersen, Claus T; Somashekar, Roshini; Conlon, Michael A; Meng, Xing Q; Winter, Jean M; Woodman, Richard J; McKinnon, Ross; Young, Graeme P

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated whether dietary resistant starch (RS) and green tea extract (GTE), which have anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties, protect against colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) using a rat model, also investigated potential mechanisms of action of these agents including their effects on the gut microbiota. Rats were fed a control diet or diets containing 10% RS, 0.5% GTE or a combination of the two (RS + GTE). CAC was initiated with 2 weekly azoxymethane (AOM) injections (10mg/kg) followed by 2% dextran sodium sulphate in drinking water for 7 days after 2 weeks on diets. Rats were killed 20 weeks after the first AOM. Colon tissues and tumours were examined for histopathology by H&E, gene/protein expression by PCR and immunohistochemistry and digesta for analyses of fermentation products and microbiota populations. RS and RS + GTE (but not GTE) diets significantly (P< 0.05) decreased tumour multiplicity and adenocarcinoma formation, relative to the control diet. Effects of RS + GTE were not different from RS alone. RS diet caused significant shifts in microbial composition/diversity, with increases in Parabacteroides, Barnesiella, Ruminococcus, Marvinbryantia and Bifidobacterium as primary contributors to the shift. RS-containing diets increased short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and expression of the SCFA receptor GPR43 mRNA, and reduced inflammation (COX-2, NF-kB, TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA) and cell proliferation P< 0.05. GTE had no effect. This is the first study that demonstrates chemopreventive effects of RS (but not GTE) in a rodent CAC model, suggesting RS might have benefit to patients with ulcerative colitis who are at an increased risk of developing CRC. PMID:26905582

  11. The combined effects of soya isoflavones and resistant starch on equol production and trabecular bone loss in ovariectomised mice.

    PubMed

    Tousen, Yuko; Matsumoto, Yu; Matsumoto, Chiho; Nishide, Yoriko; Nagahata, Yuya; Kobayashi, Isao; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-07-01

    Equol is a metabolite of the soya isoflavone (ISO) daidzein that is produced by intestinal microbiota. Equol has greater oestrogenic activity compared with other ISO, and it prevents bone loss in postmenopausal women. Resistant starch (RS), which has a prebiotic activity and is a dietary fibre, was reported to promote equol production. Conversely, the intestinal microbiota is reported to directly regulate bone health by reducing inflammatory cytokine levels and T-lymphocytes in bone. The present study evaluated the combined effects of diet supplemented with ISO and RS on intestinal microbiota, equol production, bone mineral density (BMD) and inflammatory gene expression in the bone marrow of ovariectomised (OVX) mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were either sham-operated (Sham, n 7) or OVX. OVX mice were randomly divided into the following four groups (seven per group): OVX control (OVX); OVX fed 0·05 % ISO diet (OVX+ISO); OVX fed 9 % RS diet (OVX+RS); and OVX fed 0·05 % ISO- and 9 % RS diet (OVX+ISO+RS). After 6 weeks, treatment with the combination of ISO and RS increased equol production, prevented the OVX-induced decline in trabecular BMD in the distal femur by modulating the enteric environment and altered OVX-induced inflammation-related gene expression in the bone marrow. However, there were no significant differences in bone parameters between the ISO+RS and ISO-alone groups in OVX mice. Our findings suggest that the combination of ISO and RS might alter intestinal microbiota and immune status in the bone marrow, resulting in attenuated bone resorption in OVX mice. PMID:27197747

  12. Effectiveness of resistant starch, compared to guar gum, in depressing plasma cholesterol and enhancing fecal steroid excretion.

    PubMed

    Levrat, M A; Moundras, C; Younes, H; Morand, C; Demigné, C; Rémésy, C

    1996-10-01

    Amylase-resistant starch (RS) represents a substrate that can be administered in substantial amounts in the diet, in contrast to gel-forming polysaccharides, such as guar gum (GG). The aim of this work was thus to compare the effects of GG and RS on cholesterol metabolism in rats adapted to 0.4% cholesterol diets, using dietary GG or RS levels (8 or 20%, respectively) that led to a similar development of fermentations, as assessed by the degree of enlargement of the cecum. The RS diet elicited a marked rise in the cecal pool of short-chain fatty acids, especially acetic and butyric acid, whereas the GG diet favored high-propionic acid fermentations. Both polysaccharides markedly altered the cholesterol excretion, from 50% of ingested cholesterol in controls, up to about 70% in rats adapted to the RS or GG diets. With these diets, the fecal excretion of bile acids was enhanced (67 and 144% with the RS and GG diets, respectively). RS and GG diets were effective in lowering plasma cholesterol (about -40%) and triglycerides (-36%). There was practically no effect of the diets on cholesterol in d > 1.040 lipoproteins (high density lipoproteins), whereas RS (and to a larger extent, GG) were very effective to depress cholesterol in d < 1.040 lipoproteins (especially in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins). Fermentable polysaccharides counteracted the accumulation of cholesterol in the liver, especially cholesterol esters. In parallel, liver acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase was depressed in rats fed the RS or GG diets, whereas only the GG diet counteracted the downregulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA by cholesterol. These data suggest that RS may be practically as effective as a gel-forming gum, such as GG, on steroid excretion and on cholesterol metabolism. PMID:8898306

  13. Development of formulae for estimating amylose content and resistant starch content based on the pasting properties measured by RVA of Japonica polished rice and starch.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Katsura, Junji; Kato, Kiyoko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2016-01-01

    We searched for the easy and simple method to measure the novel indicators which reflect not only AAC, but also (RS) based on pasting properties using RVA. Novel indexes such as SB/Con and Max/Fin (Maximum viscosity/Minimum viscosity) ratios had a very high correlation with proportion of intermediate and long chains of amylopectin; Fb1+2+3 (DP ≧ 13). In Japonica polished rice, estimation formulae for AAC and RS content were developed using novel indexes based on pasting properties by RVA, and these equations showed determination coefficients of 0.89 and 0.80 for calibration and 0.71 and 0.75 for validation test. We developed the estimation formulae for AAC and RS content for Japonica starch samples. These equations showed determination coefficients of 0.86 and 1.00 for calibration and 0.76 and 0.83 for validation test, which showed that these equations can be applied to the unknown rice samples. PMID:26399277

  14. Polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride-based disinfectant: a novel tool to fight meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and nosocomial infections.

    PubMed

    Oulé, Mathias K; Azinwi, Richard; Bernier, Anne-Marie; Kablan, Tano; Maupertuis, Anne-Marie; Mauler, Stephanie; Nevry, Rose K; Dembélé, Korami; Forbes, Lorraine; Diop, Lamine

    2008-12-01

    Polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMGH), an antimicrobial biocide of the guanidine family, was tested for efficacy against quality-control strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis, meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli. Bactericidal activity against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and Salmonella choleraesuis was determined using the official methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, with modifications as recommended by the Canadian General Standards Board. For MRSA and E. coli, the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration were determined using the broth dilution technique. The experiments were carried out at 20 degrees C under a range of conditions including varying PHMGH concentration (0.001-0.1 %), contact time (0.5-10 min) and water type (distilled, tap and hard water). The phenol coefficient values determined with S. aureus, Salmonella choleraesuis and P. aeruginosa were 7.5, 6.1 and 5, respectively. No matter what type of water was used to make the dilutions, PHMGH killed MRSA and E. coli at concentrations as low as 0.04 and 0.005 % (w/v), respectively, within 1.5 min. The mode of action of PHMGH was elucidated by transmission electron microscopy: the cell envelope was broken, resulting in cell content leakage into the medium. The ultimate aim of this study was to show that PHMGH can be used as an odourless, colourless, non-corrosive and harmless disinfectant for hospital and household facilities. PMID:19018024

  15. Properties of baked foams from citric acid modified cassava starch and native cassava starch blends.

    PubMed

    Pornsuksomboon, Kanlaya; Holló, Berta Barta; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2016-01-20

    Starch foams from native cassava starch (NS) and citric acid modified cassava starch (CNS) were prepared using baking processes with blend ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80. The density, thickness, morphology, thermal stability and water absorption of the NS, CNS and blended starch foams were determined. The ratio of the two starch components had a significant influence on the density and thickness of the blended starch foams. All blended starch foams showed good water resistance. Moreover, the morphology of the blended starch foam with the NS/CNS ratio of 50/50 showed a more ordered distribution of cell sizes with thicker cell walls than for the NS and CNS foams. The thermal stability of the blended starch foams was somewhat lower than the stability of the NS foam but not to the extent that it affected any potential practical applications. PMID:26572335

  16. Chemostat Enrichments of Human Feces with Resistant Starch Are Selective for Adherent Butyrate-Producing Clostridia at High Dilution Rates

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Richard; Macfarlane, George T.

    2000-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) enrichments were made using chemostats inoculated with human feces from two individuals at two dilution rates (D = 0.03 h−1 and D = 0.30 h−1) to select for slow- and fast-growing amylolytic communities. The fermentations were studied by analysis of short-chain fatty acids, amylase and α-glucosidase activities, and viable counts of the predominant culturable populations and the use of 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Considerable butyrate was produced at D = 0.30 h−1, which corresponded with reduced branched-chain fatty acid formation. At both dilution rates, high levels of extracellular amylase activity were produced, while α-glucosidase was predominantly cell associated. Bacteroides and bifidobacteria predominated at the low dilution rate, whereas saccharolytic clostridia became more important at D = 0.30 h−1. Microscopic examination showed that within 48 h of inoculation, one particular bacterial morphotype predominated in RS enrichments at D = 0.30 h−1. This organism attached apically to RS granules and formed rosette-like structures which, with glycocalyx formation, agglomerated to form biofilm networks in the planktonic phase. Attempts to isolate this bacterium in pure culture were repeatedly unsuccessful, although a single colony was eventually obtained. On the basis of its 16S rDNA sequence, this RS-degrading, butyrate-producing organism was identified as being a previously unidentified group I Clostridium sp. A 16S rRNA-targeted probe was designed using this sequence and used to assess the abundance of the population in the enrichments. At 240 h, its contributions to total rRNA in the chemostats were 5 and 23% at D = 0.03 and 0.30 h−1, respectively. This study indicates that bacterial populations with significant metabolic potential can be overlooked using culture-based methodologies. This may provide a paradigm for explaining the discrepancy between the low numbers of butyrate-producing bacteria that are

  17. Fighting Spam And Winning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBose, Cornelius B.

    2004-01-01

    E-mail has become a significant means of communication between teachers, students, parents and administrators in many school systems. The increasing amount of SPAM e-mail threatens to overload school email systems. The experience of Lake Forest, IL School District #67 in fighting e-mail spam is described. Spam basics, spam fighting tools, and…

  18. Fighting Fair for Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Fran; Friedman, Alice

    This document offers families the tools for handling conflict. Conflict is a normal and unavoidable part of life. We cannot avoid conflict, but we can learn to "fight fair," attacking the problem and not the person. Weapons that attack people and not problems are listed as fouls, destructive habits that can be changed. Fighting fair involves: (1)…

  19. The Fighting Mynahs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Leslie Ann

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a story from Hawaii about how it is better to share and cooperate than to squabble and fight. The story is about two large mynah birds fighting for a ripe mango hanging from a tree. In the midst of their battle, a mother and father sparrow pecked small pieces from the mango to feed their large hungry family. Flying back and…

  20. [Starch aspiration].

    PubMed

    Volk, O; Neidhöfer, M; Schregel, W

    1999-06-01

    Starch is a white, neutral smelling, insoluble and harmless powder. The case of a 24-year old worker with a pronounced bronchospasm and arterial hypoxaemia after a collapse and aspiration during working in a silo filled with corn starch will be reported. Medication consisted mainly in mucolytics. Intensive airway clearing consisted of repeated bronchoscopies, bedding, tapotement and vibration massage. The patient has made a complete recovery in 3 days. PMID:10429779

  1. Unique Organization of Extracellular Amylases into Amylosomes in the Resistant Starch-Utilizing Human Colonic Firmicutes Bacterium Ruminococcus bromii

    PubMed Central

    Ze, Xiaolei; Ben David, Yonit; Laverde-Gomez, Jenny A.; Dassa, Bareket; Sheridan, Paul O.; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Louis, Petra; Henrissat, Bernard; Juge, Nathalie; Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Bayer, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ruminococcus bromii is a dominant member of the human gut microbiota that plays a key role in releasing energy from dietary starches that escape digestion by host enzymes via its exceptional activity against particulate “resistant” starches. Genomic analysis of R. bromii shows that it is highly specialized, with 15 of its 21 glycoside hydrolases belonging to one family (GH13). We found that amylase activity in R. bromii is expressed constitutively, with the activity seen during growth with fructose as an energy source being similar to that seen with starch as an energy source. Six GH13 amylases that carry signal peptides were detected by proteomic analysis in R. bromii cultures. Four of these enzymes are among 26 R. bromii proteins predicted to carry dockerin modules, with one, Amy4, also carrying a cohesin module. Since cohesin-dockerin interactions are known to mediate the formation of protein complexes in cellulolytic ruminococci, the binding interactions of four cohesins and 11 dockerins from R. bromii were investigated after overexpressing them as recombinant fusion proteins. Dockerins possessed by the enzymes Amy4 and Amy9 are predicted to bind a cohesin present in protein scaffoldin 2 (Sca2), which resembles the ScaE cell wall-anchoring protein of a cellulolytic relative, R. flavefaciens. Further complexes are predicted between the dockerin-carrying amylases Amy4, Amy9, Amy10, and Amy12 and two other cohesin-carrying proteins, while Amy4 has the ability to autoaggregate, as its dockerin can recognize its own cohesin. This organization of starch-degrading enzymes is unprecedented and provides the first example of cohesin-dockerin interactions being involved in an amylolytic system, which we refer to as an “amylosome.” PMID:26419877

  2. Resistant starch reduces colonic and urinary p-cresol in rats fed a tyrosine-supplemented diet, whereas konjac mannan does not.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bixiao; Morioka, Sahya; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Hayakawa, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    The effect of resistant starch (RS) and konjac mannan (KM) to maintain and improve the large intestinal environment was compared. Wistar SPF rats were fed the following diets for 4 weeks: negative control diet (C diet), tyrosine-supplemented positive control diet (T diet), and luminacoid supplemented diets containing either high-molecular konjac mannan A (KMAT diet), low-molecular konjac mannan B (KMBT diet), high-amylose cornstarch (HAST diet), or heat-moisture-treated starch (HMTST diet). The luminacoid-fed group had an increased content of short-chain fatty acids in the cecum. HAS caused a significant decrease in p-cresol content in the cecum, whereas KM did not. Urinary p-cresol was reduced in the HAST group compared with the T group, but not the KM fed groups. Deterioration in the large intestinal environment was only improved completely in the HAST and HMTST groups, suggesting that RS is considerably more effective than KM in maintaining the large intestinal environment. PMID:27296718

  3. Physiochemical properties and kinetics of glucoamylase produced from deoxy-d-glucose resistant mutant of Aspergillus niger for soluble starch hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Muhammad; Rashid, Muhammad Hamid; Sawyer, Lindsay; Akhtar, Saeed; Javed, Muhammad Rizwan; Nadeem, Habibullah; Wear, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Glucoamylases (GAs) from a wild and a deoxy-d-glucose-resistant mutant of a locally isolated Aspergillus niger were purified to apparent homogeneity. The subunit molecular mass estimated by SDS–PAGE was 93 kDa for both strains, while the molecular masses determined by MALDI-TOF for wild and mutant GAs were 72.876 and 72.063 kDa, respectively. The monomeric nature of the enzymes was confirmed through activity staining. Significant improvement was observed in the kinetic properties of the mutant GA relative to the wild type enzyme. Kinetic constants of starch hydrolysis for A. niger parent and mutant GAs calculated on the basis of molecular masses determined through MALDI-TOF were as follows: kcat = 343 and 727 s−1, Km = 0.25 and 0.16 mg mL−1, kcat/Km (specificity constant) = 1374 and 4510 mg mL−1 s−1, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters for soluble starch hydrolysis also suggested that mutant GA was more efficient compared to the parent enzyme. PMID:24293795

  4. Effect of high-pressure treatment on the structural and rheological properties of resistant corn starch/locust bean gum mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Raza; Vatankhah, Hamed; Singh, Ajaypal; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2016-10-01

    In this study, effects of a 30min high pressure (HP) treatment (200-600MPa) at room temperature on the rheological, thermal and morphological properties of resistant corn starch (RS) (5% w/w) and locust bean gum (LBG) (0.25, 0.50 and 1.0% w/v) dispersions were evaluated. Results showed that the storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), and apparent viscosity values of starch/gum (RS/LBG) mixtures were enhanced with an increase pressure level, and demonstrated a bi-phasic behavior. HP treated RS/LBG samples were predominantly either solid like (G'>G'') or viscous (G''>G'), depending on the pressure level and LBG concentrations. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of the pressurized mixtures showed a major effect on gelatinization temperatures (To, Tp,), and it was observed that RS/LBG mixtures gelatinized completely at ≥400MPa with a 30min holding time. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images confirmed that at 600MPa, RS/LBG mixtures retained granular structures and their complete disintegration was not observed even at the endpoint of the gelatinization. PMID:27312641

  5. Enhanced oxidative stability of fish oil by encapsulating in culled banana resistant starch-soy protein isolate based microcapsules in functional bakery products.

    PubMed

    Nasrin, Taslima Ayesha Aktar; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Oil in water emulsions were produced by the mixture of culled banana resistant starch (CBRS) & soy protein isolate (SPI), mixture of Hylon VII & SPI and SPI with 7.5 and 5 % (w/w) Menhaden fish oil. The emulsions were further freeze- dried obtaining 33 and 50 % oil load microcapsules. The range of particles diameter was 4.11 to 7.25 μm and viscosity was 34.6 to 146.48 cP of the emulsions. Compressibility index (CI), Hasner ratio (HR) and angle of repose (AR) was significantly (p < 0.01) lower of the microcapsules made with starch and protein (CBRS & SPI and Hylon VII & SPI) than that made with protein (SPI) only. Microcapsules composed of CBRS & SPI with 33 % oil load had maximum microencapsulation efficiency (82.49 %) and highest oxidative stability. Muffin made with emulsions containing mixture of CBRS & SPI exhibited less fishy flavour than that containing mixture of Hylon VII & SPI. PMID:26243933

  6. Effects of a highly resistant rice starch and pre-incubation temperatures on the physicochemical properties of surimi gel from grass carp (Ctenopharyn Odon Idellus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Haiyan; Ye, Qingfu

    2014-02-15

    The effects of a specific rice starch (SRS), containing highly resistant starch (RSIII), on gel properties of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and the influence of five levels of SRS (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%w/w) on gel physicochemical properties at three different pre-incubation temperatures (4 °C, 25 °C, and 40 °C) were investigated. Gels with increasing amounts of SRS addition showed lower expressible water contents and cooking loss values than did control gels. SDS gel electrophoresis revealed no changes in protein patterns, regardless of different SRS-added levels at the same pre-incubation temperature, but an evident decrease in the MHC when the pre-incubation temperature increased. The texture properties, colour attributes, SEM were optimal in the treatments containing 4%w/w SRS at the pre-incubation temperature 25 °C. Thus, the optimum SRS addition level and pre-incubation temperature are proposed to be 4%w/w and 25 °C, respectively. PMID:24128470

  7. Resistant starch type 4-enriched diet lowered blood cholesterols and improved body composition in a double-blind controlled crossover intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nichenametla, Sailendra N.; Weidauer, Lee A.; Wey, Howard E.; Beare, Tianna M.; Specker, Bonny L.; Dey, Moul

    2014-01-01

    A metabolic health crisis is evident as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of mortality in the US. Effects of resistant starch type 4 (RS4), a prebiotic fiber, in comprehensive management of metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unknown. This study examined the effects of a blinded exchange of resistant starch type-4 (RS4)-enriched flour (30% v/v) with regular/control flour (CF) diet on multiple MetS comorbidities. In a double-blind (participants-investigators), placebo-controlled, cluster crossover intervention (n=86, age ≥18, 2–12week interventions, 2week washout) in the US, individuals were classified as having MetS (With-MetS) or not (No-MetS) following International Diabetes Federation (IDF)-criteria. RS4 consumption compared with CF resulted in 7.2% (p=0.002) lower mean total cholesterol (TC), 5.5% (p=0.04) lower non-HDL, and a 12.8% (p<0.001) lower HDL cholesterol in the With-MetS group. No-MetS individuals had a 2.6% (p=0.02) smaller waist circumference and 1.5% (p=0.03) lower percent body fat following RS4 intervention compared to CF. A small but significant 1% increase in fat-free mass was observed in all participants combined (p=0.02). No significant effect of RS4 was observed for glycemic variables and blood pressures. RS4 consumption improved dyslipidemia and body composition. Incorporation of RS4 in routine diets could offer an effective strategy for public metabolic-CVD health promotion. The clinicaltrials.gov-reference NCT01887964. PMID:24478107

  8. No Latex Starch Utilization in Euphorbia esula L.

    PubMed

    Nissen, S J; Foley, M E

    1986-06-01

    Utilization of leaf, stem, root, and latex starch was monitored in Euphorbia esula L. plants. Leaf, stem, and root starch decreased rapidly during a 52 day light starvation period while latex starch did not. Scanning electron and light microscope studies provided additional evidence that no changes in latex starch granules had occurred. Amylase activity (6.6 units per milligram protein) could be isolated from latex. However, latex starch granules were extremely resistant to enzymic hydrolysis by latex amylases, Bacillus subtilis alpha-amylase, and by amyloglucosidase from Aspergillus niger. Results indicate that latex starch grains do not function as utilizable carbohydrate in this species under these conditions. PMID:16664883

  9. Physicochemical properties and digestibility of hydrothermally treated waxy rice starch.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Feng; Ma, Fei; Kong, Fansheng; Gao, Qunyu; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-04-01

    Waxy rice starch was subjected to annealing (ANN) and heat-moisture treatment (HMT). These starches were also treated by a combination of ANN and HMT. The impact of single and dual modifications (ANN-HMT and HMT-ANN) on the molecular weight (M(w)), crystalline structure, thermal properties, and the digestibility were investigated. The relative crystallinity and short-range order on the granule surface increased on ANN, whereas decreased on HMT. All treated starches showed lower M(w) than that of the native starch. Gelatinization onset temperature, peak temperature and conclusion temperature increased for both single and dual treatments. Increased slowly digestible starch content was found on HMT and ANN-HMT. However, resistant starch levels decreased in all treated starches as compared with native starch. The results would imply that hydrothermal treatment induced structural changes in waxy rice starch significantly affected its digestibility. PMID:25442528

  10. Can resistant starch and/or aspirin prevent the development of colonic neoplasia? The Concerted Action Polyp Prevention (CAPP) 1 Study.

    PubMed

    Mathers, John C; Mickleburgh, Ian; Chapman, Pam C; Bishop, D Tim; Burn, John

    2003-02-01

    Loss of function of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor gene through truncating mutations or other means is an early event in most colo-rectal cancer (CRC). The APC gene encodes a large multifunctional protein that plays key roles in several cellular processes, including the wnt signalling pathway where an intact APC protein is essential for down regulation of beta-catenin. The APC protein also plays a role in regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell-cell adhesion, cell migration and chromosomal stability during mitosis. Acquisition of a non-functional APC gene can occur by inheritance (in the disease familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)) or by a sporadic event in a somatic cell. Whilst there is strong epidemiological evidence that variation in diet is a major determinant of variation in CRC incidence, conventional adenoma recurrence trials in sporadic cases of the disease have been relatively unsuccessful in identifying potentially protective food components. Since the genetic basis of CRC in FAP and in sporadic CRC is similar, intervention trials in FAP gene carriers provide an attractive strategy for investigation of potential chemo-preventive agents, since smaller numbers of subjects and shorter time frames are needed. The Concerted Action Polyp Prevention (CAPP) 1 Study is using a 2 x 2 factorial design to test the efficacy of resistant starch (30 g raw potato starch-Hylon VII (1:1, w/w)/d) and aspirin (600 mg/d) in suppressing colo-rectal adenoma formation in young subjects with FAP. Biopsies of macroscopically-normal rectal mucosa are also being collected for assay of putative biomarkers of CRC risk. PMID:12740057

  11. Resistant starch induces catabolic but suppresses immune and cell division pathways and changes the microbiome in the proximal colon of male pigs.

    PubMed

    Haenen, Daniëlle; Souza da Silva, Carol; Zhang, Jing; Koopmans, Sietse Jan; Bosch, Guido; Vervoort, Jacques; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Smidt, Hauke; Müller, Michael; Hooiveld, Guido J E J

    2013-12-01

    Consumption of resistant starch (RS) has been associated with various intestinal health benefits, but knowledge of its effects on global gene expression in the colon is limited. The main objective of the current study was to identify genes affected by RS in the proximal colon to infer which biologic pathways were modulated. Ten 17-wk-old male pigs, fitted with a cannula in the proximal colon for repeated collection of tissue biopsy samples and luminal content, were fed a digestible starch (DS) diet or a diet high in RS (34%) for 2 consecutive periods of 14 d in a crossover design. Analysis of the colonic transcriptome profiles revealed that, upon RS feeding, oxidative metabolic pathways, such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle and β-oxidation, were induced, whereas many immune response pathways, including adaptive and innate immune system, as well as cell division were suppressed. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ was identified as a potential key upstream regulator. RS significantly (P < 0.05) increased the relative abundance of several butyrate-producing microbial groups, including the butyrate producers Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Megasphaera elsdenii, and reduced the abundance of potentially pathogenic members of the genus Leptospira and the phylum Proteobacteria. Concentrations in carotid plasma of the 3 main short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate, and butyrate were significantly higher with RS consumption compared with DS consumption. Overall, this study provides novel insights on effects of RS in proximal colon and contributes to our understanding of a healthy diet. PMID:24132577

  12. Fast fight detection.

    PubMed

    Serrano Gracia, Ismael; Deniz Suarez, Oscar; Bueno Garcia, Gloria; Kim, Tae-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Action recognition has become a hot topic within computer vision. However, the action recognition community has focused mainly on relatively simple actions like clapping, walking, jogging, etc. The detection of specific events with direct practical use such as fights or in general aggressive behavior has been comparatively less studied. Such capability may be extremely useful in some video surveillance scenarios like prisons, psychiatric centers or even embedded in camera phones. As a consequence, there is growing interest in developing violence detection algorithms. Recent work considered the well-known Bag-of-Words framework for the specific problem of fight detection. Under this framework, spatio-temporal features are extracted from the video sequences and used for classification. Despite encouraging results in which high accuracy rates were achieved, the computational cost of extracting such features is prohibitive for practical applications. This work proposes a novel method to detect violence sequences. Features extracted from motion blobs are used to discriminate fight and non-fight sequences. Although the method is outperformed in accuracy by state of the art, it has a significantly faster computation time thus making it amenable for real-time applications. PMID:25860667

  13. Foundation Fighting Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Boston VisionWalk Kick Off 8th Annual Central Ohio Golf For Sight Golf Classic San Antonio/Austin Chapter Speaker Series Presentations ... Foundation Fighting Blindness’ 2015 Annual Report. Read More Learn more about the latest retinal research news and ...

  14. Fast Fight Detection

    PubMed Central

    Serrano Gracia, Ismael; Deniz Suarez, Oscar; Bueno Garcia, Gloria; Kim, Tae-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Action recognition has become a hot topic within computer vision. However, the action recognition community has focused mainly on relatively simple actions like clapping, walking, jogging, etc. The detection of specific events with direct practical use such as fights or in general aggressive behavior has been comparatively less studied. Such capability may be extremely useful in some video surveillance scenarios like prisons, psychiatric centers or even embedded in camera phones. As a consequence, there is growing interest in developing violence detection algorithms. Recent work considered the well-known Bag-of-Words framework for the specific problem of fight detection. Under this framework, spatio-temporal features are extracted from the video sequences and used for classification. Despite encouraging results in which high accuracy rates were achieved, the computational cost of extracting such features is prohibitive for practical applications. This work proposes a novel method to detect violence sequences. Features extracted from motion blobs are used to discriminate fight and non-fight sequences. Although the method is outperformed in accuracy by state of the art, it has a significantly faster computation time thus making it amenable for real-time applications. PMID:25860667

  15. Fighting Fires in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weick, Karl E.

    1996-01-01

    Recent research on wildland fire fighting supports educational administrators' use of the fire-fighting metaphor to describe the nature of their work. Fire-fighting nuances illuminate subtle conditions in educational organizations that increase their vulnerability to failure. These parallels suggest five management conditions that determine…

  16. Construction of local gene network for revealing different liver function of rats fed deep-fried oil with or without resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Liao, Tianqi; Zhou, Zhongkai; Wang, Yuyang; Diao, Yongjia; Strappe, Padraig; Prenzler, Paul; Ayton, Jamie; Blanchard, Chris

    2016-09-01

    To study the mechanism underlying the liver damage induced by deep-fried oil (DO) consumption and the beneficial effects from resistant starch (RS) supplement, differential gene expression and pathway network were analyzed based on RNA sequencing data from rats. The up/down regulated genes and corresponding signaling pathways were used to construct a novel local gene network (LGN). The topology of the network showed characteristics of small-world network, with some pathways demonstrating a high degree. Some changes in genes led to a larger probability occurrence of disease or infection with DO intake. More importantly, the main pathways were found to be almost the same between the two LGNs (30 pathways overlapped in total 48) with gene expression profile. This finding may indicate that RS supplement in DO-containing diet may mainly regulate the genes that related to DO damage, and RS in the diet may provide direct signals to the liver cells and modulate its effect through a network involving complex gene regulatory events. It is the first attempt to reveal the mechanism of the attenuation of liver dysfunction from RS supplement in the DO-containing diet using differential gene expression and pathway network. PMID:27363782

  17. Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on alpha-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of condensed tannins (CT) on in vitro starch digestibility in cooked, wholegrain sorghum flours and on corn starch was investigated. CT extracts were also tested for their inhibitory effect on alpha-amylases. Rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and resistant starch were n...

  18. An oral colon-targeting controlled release system based on resistant starch acetate: synthetization, characterization, and preparation of film-coating pellets.

    PubMed

    Pu, Huayin; Chen, Ling; Li, Xiaoxi; Xie, Fengwei; Yu, Long; Li, Lin

    2011-05-25

    An oral colon-targeting controlled release system based on resistant starch acetate (RSA) as a film-coating material was developed. The RSA was successfully synthesized, and its digestion resistibility could be improved by increasing the degree of substitution (DS), which was favorable for the colon-targeting purpose. As a delivery carrier material, the characteristics of RSA were investigated by polarized light microscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results revealed a decrease of the crystallinity of RSA and a change of its crystalline structure from B + V hydrid type to V type. To evaluate the colon-targeting release performance, the RSA film-coated pellets loaded with different bioactive components were prepared by extrusion-spheronization and then by fluid bed coating. The effects of the DS, plasticizer content, and coating thickness of the RSA film and those of the content and molecular weight of the loaded bioactive component on the colon-targeting release performance of the resulting delivery system were investigated. By adjusting the DS, the coating thickness, and the plasticizer content of the RSA film, either the pellets loaded with a small molecular bioactive component such as 5-aminosalicylic acid or those with a macromolecular bioactive peptide or protein such as bovine serum albumin, hepatocyte growth-promoting factor, or insulin showed a desirable colon-targeting release performance. The release percentage was less than 12% in simulated upper gastrointestinal tract and went up to 70% over a period of 40 h in simulated colonic fluid. This suggests that the delivery system based on RSA film has an excellent colon-targeting release performance and the universality for a wide range of bioactive components. PMID:21513356

  19. Properties of retrograded and acetylated starch produced via starch extrusion or starch hydrolysis with pullulanase.

    PubMed

    Kapelko, M; Zięba, T; Gryszkin, A; Styczyńska, M; Wilczak, A

    2013-09-12

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of serial modifications of starch, including firstly starch extrusion or hydrolysis with pullulanase, followed by retrogradation (through freezing and defrosting of pastes) and acetylation (under industrial conditions), on its susceptibility to amylolysis. The method of production had a significant effect on properties of the resultant preparations, whilst the direction and extent of changes depended on the type of modification applied. In the produced starch esters, the degree of substitution, expressed by the per cent of acetylation, ranged from 3.1 to 4.4 g/100 g. The acetylation had a significant impact on contents of elements determined with the atomic emission spectrometry, as it contributed to an increased Na content and decreased contents of Ca and K. The DSC thermal characteristics enabled concluding that the modifications caused an increase in temperatures and a decrease in heat of transition (or its lack). The acetylation of retrograded starch preparations increased their solubility in water and water absorbability. The modifications were found to exert various effects on the rheological properties of pastes determined based on the Brabender's pasting characteristics and flow curves determined with the use of an oscillatory-rotating viscosimeter. All starch acetates produced were characterized by ca. 40% resistance to amylolysis. PMID:23911484

  20. Relationship of cooked rice nutritionally-important starch fractions with other physicochemical properties.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen rice cultivars representing 5 cytosine-thymine repeat (CTn) microsatellite genetic marker groups were analyzed for their cooked rice nutritionally-important starch fractions (rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starch), basic grain quality indices (apparent amylose, crude pr...

  1. The battle against multi-resistant strains: Renaissance of antimicrobial essential oils as a promising force to fight hospital-acquired infections.

    PubMed

    Warnke, Patrick H; Becker, Stephan T; Podschun, Rainer; Sivananthan, Sureshan; Springer, Ingo N; Russo, Paul A J; Wiltfang, Joerg; Fickenscher, Helmut; Sherry, Eugene

    2009-10-01

    Hospital-acquired infections and antibiotic-resistant bacteria continue to be major health concerns worldwide. Particularly problematic is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and its ability to cause severe soft tissue, bone or implant infections. First used by the Australian Aborigines, Tea tree oil and Eucalyptus oil (and several other essential oils) have each demonstrated promising efficacy against several bacteria and have been used clinically against multi-resistant strains. Several common and hospital-acquired bacterial and yeast isolates (6 Staphylococcus strains including MRSA, 4 Streptococcus strains and 3 Candida strains including Candida krusei) were tested for their susceptibility for Eucalyptus, Tea tree, Thyme white, Lavender, Lemon, Lemongrass, Cinnamon, Grapefruit, Clove Bud, Sandalwood, Peppermint, Kunzea and Sage oil with the agar diffusion test. Olive oil, Paraffin oil, Ethanol (70%), Povidone iodine, Chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) served as controls. Large prevailing effective zones of inhibition were observed for Thyme white, Lemon, Lemongrass and Cinnamon oil. The other oils also showed considerable efficacy. Remarkably, almost all tested oils demonstrated efficacy against hospital-acquired isolates and reference strains, whereas Olive and Paraffin oil from the control group produced no inhibition. As proven in vitro, essential oils represent a cheap and effective antiseptic topical treatment option even for antibiotic-resistant strains as MRSA and antimycotic-resistant Candida species. PMID:19473851

  2. The effects of feeding resistant starch on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics and faecal fermentative end-products in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Alexander, Lucille G; Buff, Preston R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of whole grain consumption have been studied in human subjects, but little research exists on their effects in dogs. The objective of the present study was to test the effects of resistant starch (RS) in the diet of healthy adult dogs. Twelve adult Miniature Schnauzer dogs (eight males, four females; mean age: 3·3 (1·6) years; mean body weight: 8·4 (1·2) kg; mean body condition score: D/ideal) were randomly allotted to one of three treatment groups, which consisted of different amounts of RS supplied in a biscuit format. Dogs received either 0, 10 or 20 g biscuits per d (estimated to be 0, 2·5 or 5 g RS per d) that were fed within their daily energetic allowance. A balanced Latin square design was used, with each treatment period lasting 21 d (days 0-17 adaptation; days 18-21 fresh and total faecal collection). All dogs were fed the same diet to maintain body weight throughout the study. Dogs fed 5 g RS per d had lower (P = 0·03) fat digestibility than dogs fed 0 gRS per d, but DM, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were not affected. Faecal fermentative end-products, including SCFA and branched-chain fatty acids, ammonia, phenols and indoles, and microbial populations were not affected. The minor changes observed in the present study suggest the RS doses provided to the dogs were too low. Further work is required to assess the dose of RS required to affect gut health. PMID:26101607

  3. Characterization of starch from two ecotypes of andean achira roots (Canna edulis).

    PubMed

    Cisneros, Fausto H; Zevillanos, Roberto; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2009-08-26

    Starches from two ecotypes of achira roots (Canna edulis Ker-Gawler) were characterized and compared to commercial potato and corn starches. This included scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of starch granules and amylose content determination of starch. Starch solutions or gels were tested by rotational viscometry, Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA), and texture analysis. Some starch samples were subjected to various treatments: pH reduction, autoclaving at high temperature, and high shear before testing by rotational viscometry. Achira starch showed some unusual properties, such as very large oblong granules (approximately 45-52 microm major axis and approximately 33-34 microm minor axis) and relatively high amylose content (approximately 33-39%). The San Gaban achira ecotype formed high-consistency gels upon cooling, both in RVA study (5% starch) and in texture analysis (8% starch), compared to other starch gels and also exhibited higher thermal resistance to viscosity breakdown. PMID:19627148

  4. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Aller, Erik E. J. G.; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J. Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:22254101

  5. Ionic starch-based hydrogels for the prevention of nonspecific protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinmei; Sun, Hong; Li, Junjie; Dong, Dianyu; Zhang, Yabin; Yao, Fanglian

    2015-03-01

    Non-fouling materials bind water molecules via either hydrogen bonding or ionic solvation to form a hydration layer which is responsible for their resistance to protein adsorption. Three ionic starch-based polymers, namely a cationic starch (C-Starch), an anionic starch (A-Starch) and a zwitterionic starch (Z-Starch), were synthesized via etherification reactions to incorporate both hydrogen bonding and ionic solvation hydration groups into one molecule. Further, C-, A- and Z-Starch hydrogels were prepared via chemical crosslinking. The non-fouling properties of these hydrogels were tested with different proteins in solutions with different ionic strengths. The C-Starch hydrogel had low protein resistance at all ionic strengths; the A-Starch hydrogel resisted protein adsorption at ionic strengths of more than 10mM; and the Z-Starch hydrogel resisted protein adsorption at all ionic strengths. In addition, the A- and Z-Starch hydrogels both resisted cell adhesion. This work provides a new path for developing non-fouling materials using the integration of polysaccharides with anionic or zwitterionic moieties to regulate the protein resistance of materials. PMID:25498650

  6. Millennium hopes. Fighting taboos.

    PubMed

    Brueggemann, I

    1999-01-01

    The author's first wish is for International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) to be tenacious in its continuous, unstinting support of family planning in its original sense. Secondly, the author would like to see wider recognition of the urgency with which IPPF must move into the sexual and reproductive health arena, including fighting for the rights of women, men and young people in the many areas of the world still suffering from societal taboos. Thirdly, the author wants IPPF to be visionary in recognizing that young people, women and men need supportive social and economic environments to help them plan and space the children that they would like to have. Current educational and economic requirements and circumstances have become very child unfriendly, as the low birth-rate countries illustrate. Finally, the author hopes to see a much better understanding of intergenerational communication and support as IPPF steps up its efforts to support society in its sexual and reproductive needs. PMID:12295545

  7. Characterization of banana starches obtained from cultivars grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Barros Mesquita, Camila; Leonel, Magali; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Leonel, Sarita; Garcia, Emerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    The starch market is constantly evolving and studies that provide information about the physical and rheological properties of native starches to meet the diverse demands of the sector are increasingly necessary. In this study starches obtained from five cultivars of banana were analyzed for size and shape of granules, crystallinity, chemical composition, resistant starch, swelling power, solubility, thermal and paste properties. The granules of starch were large (36.58-47.24μm), oval, showed crystallinity pattern type B and the index of crystallinity ranged from 31.94 to 34.06%. The phosphorus content ranged from 0.003 to 0.011%, the amylose ranged from 25.13 to 29.01% and the resistant starch ranged from 65.70 to 80.28%. The starches showed high peak viscosity and breakdown, especially those obtained from 'Nanicão' and 'Grand Naine'. Peak temperature of gelatinization was around 71°C, the enthalpy change (ΔH) ranged from 9.45 to 14.73Jg(-1). The starch from 'Grand Naine' showed higher swelling power (15.19gg(-1)) and the starch from 'Prata-Anã' higher solubility (11.61%). The starches studied are highlighted by their physical and chemical characteristics and may be used in several applications. PMID:27180297

  8. Starch metabolism in leaves.

    PubMed

    Orzechowski, Sławomir

    2008-01-01

    Starch is the most abundant storage carbohydrate produced in plants. The initiation of transitory starch synthesis and degradation in plastids depends mainly on diurnal cycle, post-translational regulation of enzyme activity and starch phosphorylation. For the proper structure of starch granule the activities of all starch synthase isoenzymes, branching enzymes and debranching enzymes are needed. The intensity of starch biosynthesis depends mainly on the activity of AGPase (adenosine 5'-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase). The key enzymes in starch degradation are beta-amylase, isoamylase 3 and disproportionating enzyme. However, it should be underlined that there are some crucial differences in starch metabolism between heterotrophic and autotrophic tissues, e.g. is the ability to build multiprotein complexes responsible for biosynthesis and degradation of starch granules in chloroplasts. The observed huge progress in understanding of starch metabolism was possible mainly due to analyses of the complete Arabidopsis and rice genomes and of numerous mutants with altered starch metabolism in leaves. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge on transient starch metabolism in higher plants. PMID:18787712

  9. Plantain and banana starches: granule structural characteristics explain the differences in their starch degradation patterns.

    PubMed

    Soares, Claudinéia Aparecida; Peroni-Okita, Fernanda Helena Gonçalves; Cardoso, Mateus Borba; Shitakubo, Renata; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2011-06-22

    Different banana cultivars were used to investigate the influences of starch granule structure and hydrolases on degradation. The highest degrees of starch degradation were observed in dessert bananas during ripening. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed smooth granule surface in the green stage in all cultivars, except for Mysore. The small and round granules were preferentially degraded in all of the cultivars. Terra demonstrated a higher degree of crystallinity and a short amylopectin chain length distribution, resulting in high starch content in the ripe stage. Amylose content and the crystallinity index were more strongly correlated than the distribution of amylopectin branch chain lengths in banana starches. α- and β-amylase activities were found in both forms, soluble in the pulp and associated with the starch granule. Starch-phosphorylase was not found in Mysore. On the basis of the profile of α-amylase in vitro digestion and the structural characteristics, it could be concluded that the starch of plantains has an arrangement of granules more resistant to enzymes than the starch of dessert bananas. PMID:21591784

  10. Physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of potato starch/protein blends.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhan-Hui; Donner, Elizabeth; Yada, Rickey Y; Liu, Qiang

    2016-12-10

    This study aimed to investigate effects of starch-protein interactions on physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of composite potato starch/protein blends (0, 5, 10, or 15% protein) during processing (cooking, cooling and reheating). The effect on recrystallization and short-range ordering in starch was studied by light microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that protein in the blend proportionally restricted starch granule swelling during cooking and facilitated amylopectin recrystallization during cold-storage. The facilitating effect of protein diminished with increasing blend ratio. Resistant starch content in the processed blends was positively correlated to intensity ratio of 1053/1035cm(-1) in FTIR spectra arising from slow retrogradation of amylopectin (r(2)>0.88, P≤0.05), whose formation was favored by the presence of protein in the blends and further enhanced by cooling of cooked blends. As a conclusion, starch-protein interaction reduced starch digestibility of the processed blends. PMID:27577912

  11. Assessment of Blood Glucose Regulation and Safety of Resistant Starch Formula-Based Diet in Healthy Normal and Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Chang, Daw-Ming; Wu, Da-Jen; Peng, Hui-Yu; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the effects of the new resistant starch (RS) formula, PPB-R-203, on glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes. A cohort consisting of 40 healthy participants received test and control diets and was checked for up to 3 hours post-meal. A randomized, 2-regimen, cross-over, comparative study was conducted in 44 subjects with type 2 diabetes and glycemic control was assessed with a continuous glucose monitoring system. In healthy participants, serum glucose values and incremental areas under the glucose curves (AUC) were significantly lower in the PPB-R-203 than the control group (P < 0.05). In patients with type 2 diabetes, mean blood glucose concentrations for subjects on the control regimen were higher than those for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen (7.9 ± 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.4–8.4 vs 7.4 ± 1.6, 95% CI 6.9–7.9 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.023). AUCs for total blood glucose and hyperglycemia (glucose >10 mmol/L) were also reduced for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen as compared with those on control regimen (total blood glucose: 16.2 ± 4.0, 95% CI 14.9–17.4 vs 18.7 ± 4.0, 95% CI 17.6–20.1, P < 0.001; hyperglycemia: 4.9 ± 5.7, 95% CI 3.1–6.6 vs 6.3 ± 6.4, 95% CI 4.3–8.3 mmol/L × day, P = 0.021). However, AUC measurements for hypoglycemia (glucose <3.9 mmol/l) were not statistically significant. A PPB-R-203-based diet reduced postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia or glucose excursion. PMID:26287417

  12. Assessment of Blood Glucose Regulation and Safety of Resistant Starch Formula-Based Diet in Healthy Normal and Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Chang, Daw-Ming; Wu, Da-Jen; Peng, Hui-Yu; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of the new resistant starch (RS) formula, PPB-R-203, on glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes.A cohort consisting of 40 healthy participants received test and control diets and was checked for up to 3 hours post-meal. A randomized, 2-regimen, cross-over, comparative study was conducted in 44 subjects with type 2 diabetes and glycemic control was assessed with a continuous glucose monitoring system.In healthy participants, serum glucose values and incremental areas under the glucose curves (AUC) were significantly lower in the PPB-R-203 than the control group (P < 0.05). In patients with type 2 diabetes, mean blood glucose concentrations for subjects on the control regimen were higher than those for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen (7.9 ± 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.4-8.4 vs 7.4 ± 1.6, 95% CI 6.9-7.9 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.023). AUCs for total blood glucose and hyperglycemia (glucose >10 mmol/L) were also reduced for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen as compared with those on control regimen (total blood glucose: 16.2 ± 4.0, 95% CI 14.9-17.4 vs 18.7 ± 4.0, 95% CI 17.6-20.1, P < 0.001; hyperglycemia: 4.9 ± 5.7, 95% CI 3.1-6.6 vs 6.3 ± 6.4, 95% CI 4.3-8.3 mmol/L × day, P = 0.021). However, AUC measurements for hypoglycemia (glucose <3.9 mmol/l) were not statistically significant.A PPB-R-203-based diet reduced postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia or glucose excursion. PMID:26287417

  13. [Fight against schizophrenia stigma].

    PubMed

    López-Ibor Aliño, J J

    2001-01-01

    Stigma, discrimination and prejudice against mental diseases, those who suffer from them and their families are common everywhere. To reduce stigma in schizophrenia is essential for a better outcome of the disease in each patient. Stigma interferes with the detection of the illness, with adherence to treatment, with rehabilitation and with social reinsertion. Stigma is everywhere in schizophrenia, from within the family itself to the health care system and into society at large. The WPA has developed a Program to fight the stigma of schizophrenia consisting on several modules: 1) Instructions on how to implement a campaign. 2) A monograph in schizophrenia. 3) A summary of the experiences in the sites where the program has been tested. 4) Further modules which include information on similar campaigns and material such as leaflets, books and videos and concrete examples of discrimination. A pilot study of the WPA Program was carried out in Madrid in 1999. A survey was undertaken to identify target population and specific messages, showing little knowledge about the disease and a small stigma amount. It was decided not to carry out an awareness campaign in the population, which has the risk of increasing stigma in parallel to being increased in awareness but to explore the amount of stigma in the environment closer to the patient such as patients themselves, relatives, neighbours and health services staff. The stigma degree was much more significant. Activities related to this group of people were undertaken specially by training psychiatrists to identify stigma and discrimination and to fight it. The outcome showed a great satisfaction among patients, relatives and physicians. A pilot media campaign was also undertaken. In previous years there was no information about schizophrenia in mass media only news on incidental problems of patients with schizophrenia. After the campaign news on the disease itself appeared in mass media. The Madrid experience shows that the

  14. High Intensity Resistance Training Methods with and without Protein Supplementation to Fight Cardiometabolic Risk in Middle-Aged Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Wittke, Andreas; Bebenek, Michael; Fröhlich, Michael; von Stengel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Time-effective protocols may potentially increase people's compliance with exercise. The purpose of this paper was to compare the relative effects of 16 weeks of high intensity (resistance) training (HIT) with and without protein supplementation (HIT&P) and HVHIT (high volume/high intensity training) versus a nontraining control group on cardiometabolic risk factors. One hundred and twenty untrained males 30–50 years old were randomly assigned to 3 subgroups: (a) a HIT group; (b) a HIT&P group, and (c) a waiting-control group (phase I) that crossed over to (d) high volume/high intensity training (HVHIT) during the second study phase. HIT was defined as “single set to failure protocol” while HVHIT consistently applied two sets. Protein supplementation provided an overall intake of 1.5 g/kg/body mass. Primary study endpoint was the metabolic syndrome Z-Score (MetS-Z-Score). MetS-Z-Score significantly improved in all exercise groups (p ≤ 0.001) with no significant difference between HIT, HIT&P, and HVHIT (p ≥ 0.829). However, all the exercise groups differed significantly from the CG (p < 0.001) which deteriorated significantly (p = 0.039). In conclusion, all exercise protocols were similarly effective in improving cardiometabolic risk factors. Thus, HIT may be the best choice for people with low time budgets looking to improve their cardiometabolic health. PMID:26885526

  15. High Intensity Resistance Training Methods with and without Protein Supplementation to Fight Cardiometabolic Risk in Middle-Aged Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Wittke, Andreas; Bebenek, Michael; Fröhlich, Michael; von Stengel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Time-effective protocols may potentially increase people's compliance with exercise. The purpose of this paper was to compare the relative effects of 16 weeks of high intensity (resistance) training (HIT) with and without protein supplementation (HIT&P) and HVHIT (high volume/high intensity training) versus a nontraining control group on cardiometabolic risk factors. One hundred and twenty untrained males 30-50 years old were randomly assigned to 3 subgroups: (a) a HIT group; (b) a HIT&P group, and (c) a waiting-control group (phase I) that crossed over to (d) high volume/high intensity training (HVHIT) during the second study phase. HIT was defined as "single set to failure protocol" while HVHIT consistently applied two sets. Protein supplementation provided an overall intake of 1.5 g/kg/body mass. Primary study endpoint was the metabolic syndrome Z-Score (MetS-Z-Score). MetS-Z-Score significantly improved in all exercise groups (p ≤ 0.001) with no significant difference between HIT, HIT&P, and HVHIT (p ≥ 0.829). However, all the exercise groups differed significantly from the CG (p < 0.001) which deteriorated significantly (p = 0.039). In conclusion, all exercise protocols were similarly effective in improving cardiometabolic risk factors. Thus, HIT may be the best choice for people with low time budgets looking to improve their cardiometabolic health. PMID:26885526

  16. Flight and fight

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Honey bee nest defense involves guard bees that specialize in olfaction-based nestmate recognition and alarm-pheromone-mediated recruitment of nestmates to sting. Stinging is influenced by visual, tactile and olfactory stimuli. Both quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and behavioral studies point to guarding behavior as a key factor in colony stinging response. Results of reciprocal F1 crosses show that paternally inherited genes have a greater influence on colony stinging response than maternally inherited genes. The most active alarm pheromone component, isoamyl acetate (IAA) causes increased respiration and may induce stress analgesia in bees. IAA primes worker bees for ‘fight or flight’, possibly through actions of neuropeptides and/or biogenic amines. Studies of aggression in other species lead to an expectation that octopamine or 5-HT might play a role in honey bee defensive response. Genome sequence and QTL mapping identified 128 candidate genes for three regions known to influence defensive behavior. Comparative bioinformatics suggest possible roles of genes involved in neurogenesis and central nervous system (CNS) activity, and genes involved in sensory tuning through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as an arrestin (AmArr4) and the metabotropic GABAB receptor (GABA-B-R1). PMID:17379239

  17. Starch/fiber/poly(lactic acid) foam and compressed foam composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composites of starch, fiber, and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were made using a foam substrate formed by dehydrating starch or starch/fiber gels. PLA was infiltrated into the dry foam to provide better moisture resistance. Foam composites were compressed into plastics using force ranging from 4-76MPa. Te...

  18. High throughput screening of starch structures using carbohydrate microarrays.

    PubMed

    Tanackovic, Vanja; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Krunic, Susanne Langgaard; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In this study we introduce the starch-recognising carbohydrate binding module family 20 (CBM20) from Aspergillus niger for screening biological variations in starch molecular structure using high throughput carbohydrate microarray technology. Defined linear, branched and phosphorylated maltooligosaccharides, pure starch samples including a variety of different structures with variations in the amylopectin branching pattern, amylose content and phosphate content, enzymatically modified starches and glycogen were included. Using this technique, different important structures, including amylose content and branching degrees could be differentiated in a high throughput fashion. The screening method was validated using transgenic barley grain analysed during development and subjected to germination. Typically, extreme branching or linearity were detected less than normal starch structures. The method offers the potential for rapidly analysing resistant and slowly digested dietary starches. PMID:27468930

  19. High throughput screening of starch structures using carbohydrate microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Tanackovic, Vanja; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Krunic, Susanne Langgaard; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In this study we introduce the starch-recognising carbohydrate binding module family 20 (CBM20) from Aspergillus niger for screening biological variations in starch molecular structure using high throughput carbohydrate microarray technology. Defined linear, branched and phosphorylated maltooligosaccharides, pure starch samples including a variety of different structures with variations in the amylopectin branching pattern, amylose content and phosphate content, enzymatically modified starches and glycogen were included. Using this technique, different important structures, including amylose content and branching degrees could be differentiated in a high throughput fashion. The screening method was validated using transgenic barley grain analysed during development and subjected to germination. Typically, extreme branching or linearity were detected less than normal starch structures. The method offers the potential for rapidly analysing resistant and slowly digested dietary starches. PMID:27468930

  20. Agro-industrial residue from starch extraction of Pachyrhizus ahipa as filler of thermoplastic corn starch films.

    PubMed

    López, O V; Versino, F; Villar, M A; García, M A

    2015-12-10

    Biocomposites films based on thermoplastic corn starch (TPS) containing 0.5% w/w fibrous residue from Pachyrhizus ahipa starch extraction (PASR) were obtained by melt-mixing and compression molding. PASR is mainly constituted by remaining cell walls and natural fibers, revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Chemical composition of the residue indicated that fiber and starch were the principal components. Biocomposites thermo-stability was determined by Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis. A continuous PASR-TPS interface was observed by SEM, as a result of a good adhesion of the fibrous residue to starch matrix. Likewise, films containing PASR presented fewer superficial cracks than TPS ones, whereas their fracture surfaces were more irregular. Besides, the presence of PASR increased starch films roughness, due to fibers agglomerates. Films reinforced with PASR showed significantly lower water vapor permeability (WVP). In addition, PARS filler increased maximum tensile strength and Young's modulus of TPS films, thus leading to more resistant starch matrixes. PMID:26428131

  1. Recrystallization characteristics of high hydrostatic pressure gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhao; Tian, Xiaoling; Wang, Peng; Saleh, Ahmed S M; Luo, Qingui; Zheng, Jianmei; Ouyang, Shaohui; Zhang, Guoquan

    2016-02-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can lead to starch gelatinization at room temperature, while the retrogradation mechanism of HHP gelatinized starch is not well known. HHP gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches were stored at room temperature for 192 h in order to investigate the retrogradation characteristics. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarised light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis showed that the pressurization of normal and waxy corn starch suspensions with concentration of 30% (w/v) at 600 MPa for 15 min resulted in a complete gelatinization. In addition, the pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch gels were stored and subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, resistant starch content determination, swelling power and pasting behavior. The retrograded normal maize and waxy maize starch showed a substantial loss of A-type crystallinity. Both pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches showed an increase in resistant starch content and relative crystallinity degree with the increase of storage time. In addition, restricted starch swelling power and lower pasting viscosities were observed for these two retrograded starches. The amylose molecule within starch granules has been regarded as the main factor to affect the structural and physicochemical properties during the retrogradation process of HHP-gelatinized starch granules. PMID:26642841

  2. Starch nanoparticles: a review.

    PubMed

    Le Corre, Déborah; Bras, Julien; Dufresne, Alain

    2010-05-10

    Starch is a natural, renewable, and biodegradable polymer produced by many plants as a source of stored energy. It is the second most abundant biomass material in nature. The starch structure has been under research for years, and because of its complexity, an universally accepted model is still lacking (Buleon, A.; et al. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 1998, 23, 85-112). However, the predominant model for starch is a concentric semicrystalline multiscale structure that allows the production of new nanoelements: (i) starch nanocrystals resulting from the disruption of amorphous domains from semicrystalline granules by acid hydrolysis and (ii) starch nanoparticles produced from gelatinized starch. This paper intends to give a clear overview of starch nanoparticle preparation, characterization, properties, and applications. Recent studies have shown that they could be used as fillers to improve mechanical and barrier properties of biocomposites. Their use for industrial packaging, continuously looking for innovative solutions for efficient and sustainable systems, is being investigated. Therefore, recently, starch nanoparticles have been the focus of an exponentially increasing number of works devoted to develop biocomposites by blending starch nanoparticles with different biopolymeric matrices. To our knowledge, this topic has never been reviewed, despite several published strategies and conclusions. PMID:20405913

  3. Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Starch is stored in higher plants as granules composed of semi-crystalline amylopectin and amorphous amylose. Starch granules provide energy for the plant during dark periods and for germination of seeds and tubers. Dietary starch is also a highly glycemic carbohydrate being degraded to glucose and rapidly absorbed in the small intestine. But a portion of dietary starch, termed “resistant starch” (RS) escapes digestion and reaches the large intestine, where it is fermented by colonic bacteria producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA) which are linked to several health benefits. The RS is preferentially derived from amylose, which can be increased by suppressing amylopectin synthesis by silencing of starch branching enzymes (SBEs). However all the previous works attempting the production of high RS crops resulted in only partly increased amylose-content and/or significant yield loss. Results In this study we invented a new method for silencing of multiple genes. Using a chimeric RNAi hairpin we simultaneously suppressed all genes coding for starch branching enzymes (SBE I, SBE IIa, SBE IIb) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), resulting in production of amylose-only starch granules in the endosperm. This trait was segregating 3:1. Amylose-only starch granules were irregularly shaped and showed peculiar thermal properties and crystallinity. Transgenic lines retained high-yield possibly due to a pleiotropic upregualtion of other starch biosynthetic genes compensating the SBEs loss. For gelatinized starch, a very high content of RS (65 %) was observed, which is 2.2-fold higher than control (29%). The amylose-only grains germinated with same frequency as control grains. However, initial growth was delayed in young plants. Conclusions This is the first time that pure amylose has been generated with high yield in a living organism. This was achieved by a new method of simultaneous suppression of the entire complement of genes encoding starch branching enzymes. We

  4. Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    Antibiotics are medicines that fight bacterial infections. Used properly, they can save lives. But there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance. It happens when bacteria change and become able to resist the effects of an antibiotic. Using antibiotics can lead to resistance. ...

  5. Effect of Microwave Irradiation on the Physicochemical and Digestive Properties of Lotus Seed Starch.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shaoxiao; Chen, Bingyan; Zeng, Hongliang; Guo, Zebin; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-03-30

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of microwave irradiation on the physicochemical and digestive properties of lotus seed starch. The physicochemical properties of lotus seed starch were characterized by light microscopy, (1)H NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, and HPSEC-MALLS-RI. The starch-water interaction and crystalline region increased due to the changed water distribution of starch granules and the increase of the double-helix structure. The swelling power, amylose leaching, molecular properties, and radius of gyration reduced with the increasing microwave power, which further affected the sensitivity of lotus seed starch to enzymatic degradation. Furthermore, the resistant starch and slowly digestible starch increased with the increasing microwave irradiation, which further resulted in their decreasing hydrolysis index and glycemic index. The digestive properties of lotus seed starch were mainly influenced by the reduced branching degree of amylopectin and the strong amylose-amylose interaction. PMID:26912092

  6. A Relentless Illness—Fighting Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues A Relentless Illness— Fighting Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... the fight to control and cure type 1 diabetes. As international chairman of the Juvenile Diabetes Research ...

  7. Molecular rearrangement of waxy and normal maize starch granules during in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Teng, Anju; Witt, Torsten; Wang, Kai; Li, Ming; Hasjim, Jovin

    2016-03-30

    The objective of the present study is to understand the changes in starch structures during digestion and the structures contributing to slow digestion properties. The molecular, crystalline, and granular structures of native waxy maize, normal maize, high-amylose maize, and normal potato starch granules were monitored using SEC, XRD, DSC, and SEM. The amylose and amylopectin molecules of all four starches were hydrolyzed to smaller dextrins, with some having linear molecular structure. Neither the A- nor B-type crystallinity was resistant to enzyme hydrolysis. Starch crystallites with melting temperature above 120°C appeared in waxy and normal maize starches after digestion, suggesting that the linear dextrins retrograded into thermally stable crystalline structure. These crystallites were also observed for high-amylose maize starch before and after digestion, contributing to its low enzyme digestibility. On the contrary, the enzyme-resistant granular structure of native normal potato starch was responsible for its low susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. PMID:26794941

  8. Ferocious Fighting between Male Grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Tatarnic, Nikolai J.; Holwell, Gregory I.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual’s role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group. PMID:23166725

  9. Starch Metabolism in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Streb, Sebastian; Zeeman, Samuel C.

    2012-01-01

    Starch is the major non-structural carbohydrate in plants. It serves as an important store of carbon that fuels plant metabolism and growth when they are unable to photosynthesise. This storage can be in leaves and other green tissues, where it is degraded during the night, or in heterotrophic tissues such as roots, seeds and tubers, where it is stored over longer time periods. Arabidopsis accumulates starch in many of its tissues, but mostly in its leaves during the day. It has proven to be a powerful genetic system for discovering how starch is synthesised and degraded, and new proteins and processes have been discovered. Such work has major significance for our starch crops, whose yield and quality could be improved by the application of this knowledge. Research into Arabidopsis starch metabolism has begun to reveal how its daily turnover is integrated into the rest of metabolism and adapted to the environmental conditions. Furthermore, Arabidopsis mutant lines deficient in starch metabolism have been employed as tools to study other biological processes ranging from sugar sensing to gravitropism and flowering time control. This review gives a detailed account of the use of Arabidopsis to study starch metabolism. It describes the major discoveries made and presents an overview of our understanding today, together with some as-yet unresolved questions. PMID:23393426

  10. Characterization of starch nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymońska, J.; Targosz-Korecka, M.; Krok, F.

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials already attract great interest because of their potential applications in technology, food science and medicine. Biomaterials are biodegradable and quite abundant in nature, so they are favoured over synthetic polymer based materials. Starch as a nontoxic, cheap and renewable raw material is particularly suitable for preparation of nanoparticles. In the paper, the structure and some physicochemical properties of potato and cassava starch particles of the size between 50 to 100 nm, obtained by mechanical treatment of native starch, were presented. We demonstrated, with the aim of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM), that the shape and dimensions of the obtained nanoparticles both potato and cassava starch fit the blocklets - previously proposed as basic structural features of native starch granules. This observation was supported by aqueous solubility and swelling power of the particles as well as their iodine binding capacity similar to those for amylopectin-type short branched polysaccharide species. Obtained results indicated that glycosidic bonds of the branch linkage points in the granule amorphous lamellae might be broken during the applied mechanical treatment. Thus the released amylopectin clusters could escape out of the granules. The starch nanoparticles, for their properties qualitatively different from those of native starch granules, could be utilized in new applications.

  11. Why Adolescents Fight: A Qualitative Study of Youth Perspectives on Fighting and Its Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lee, Simon C.; Tillitski, John; Wilson, Connie; Flores, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Objective Identify risk factors for fighting, factors that protect against fighting, and strategies to prevent fighting, among adolescents who fight and those uninvolved in fighting. Methods Focus groups were conducted with middle and high-school students, stratified by fighting (fighter/non-fighter) status, race/ethnicity, and gender. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using margin coding and thematic content analysis. Themes were independently identified by three coders; disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results The 65 participants in the 12 focus groups were 13–17 years old. Reasons for fighting include self-defense, to gain/maintain respect, or due to anger; having goals for the future is protective. Non-fighters state that their parents condone fighting only when physically attacked, and teach adolescents strategies to avoid fighting. Fighters describe mixed messages from parents, and pro-fighting attitudes and modeling of aggressive behavior among some family members. Non-fighters avoid fighting by ignoring insults or walking away. Fighters feel unable to use nonviolent conflict-resolution methods effectively. Peers may instigate or encourage fights. Suggested prevention strategies include anger-management and conflict-resolution programs, relationships with caring adults, and physicians counseling youth about the consequences of fighting. Conclusions Non-fighters use various strategies to avoid fighting, whereas fighters are aware of few alternatives to fighting. Conflicting parental messages about fighting may enhance the likelihood of fighting. Physicians can counsel youth about the negative consequences of fighting. Interventions that teach anger management and conflict resolution, promote adolescent self-efficacy for using non-violent strategies, and address parental attitudes about fighting may be effective in preventing fighting. PMID:25528128

  12. Determination of dietary starch in animal feeds and pet food by an enzymatic-colorimetric method: collaborative study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch, glycogen, maltooligosaccharides, and other alpha-1,4- and alpha-1,6-linked glucose carbohydrates exclusive of resistant starch are collectively termed "dietary starch." This nutritionally important fraction is increasingly measured for use in diet formulation for animals, as it can have posi...

  13. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    PubMed Central

    Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. α-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination β-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and β-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. PMID:24642850

  14. Enzymatic acylation of starch.

    PubMed

    Alissandratos, Apostolos; Halling, Peter J

    2012-07-01

    Starch a cheap, abundant and renewable natural material has been chemically modified for many years. The popular modification acylation has been used to adjust rheological properties as well as deliver polymers with internal plasticizers and other potential uses. However the harsh reaction conditions required to produce these esters may limit their use, especially in sensitive applications (foods, pharmaceuticals, etc.). The use of enzymes to catalyse acylation may provide a suitable alternative due to high selectivities and mild reaction conditions. Traditional hydrolase-catalysed synthesis in non-aqueous apolar media is hard due to lack of polysaccharide solubility. However, acylated starch derivatives have recently been successfully produced in other non-conventional systems: (a) surfactant-solubilised subtilisin and suspended amylose in organic media; (b) starch nanoparticles dispersed in organic medium with immobilised lipase; (c) aqueous starch gels with lipase and dispersed fatty acids. We attempt a systematic review that draws parallels between the seemingly unrelated approaches described. PMID:22138593

  15. Films based on oxidized starch and cellulose from barley.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Deon, Vinícius Gonçalves; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Villanova, Franciene Almeida; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-11-20

    Starch and cellulose fibers were isolated from grains and the husk from barley, respectively. Biodegradable films of native starch or oxidized starches and glycerol with different concentrations of cellulose fibers (0%, 10% and 20%) were prepared. The films were characterized by morphological, mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties. Cellulose fibers isolated from the barley husk were obtained with 75% purity and high crystallinity. The morphology of the films of the oxidized starches, regardless of the fiber addition, was more homogeneous as compared to the film of the native starch. The addition of cellulose fibers in the films increased the tensile strength and decreased elongation. The water vapor permeability of the film of oxidized starch with 20% of cellulose fibers was lower than the without fibers. However the films with cellulose fibers had the highest decomposition with the initial temperature and thermal stability. The oxidized starch and cellulose fibers from barley have a good potential for use in packaging. The addition of cellulose fibers in starch films can contribute to the development of films more resistant that can be applied in food systems to maintain its integrity. PMID:26344323

  16. How to fight pertussis?

    PubMed

    Guiso, Nicole

    2013-07-01

    Universal pertussis vaccination has successfully decreased pertussis mortality and morbidity in childhood. However, despite intensive vaccination of young children, pertussis remains a major public health problem in both developing and industrialized regions. Recent epidemics in California and Australia demonstrated that the agent of the disease is still circulating. They also revealed several aspects that must not be neglected concerning vaccine-preventable diseases. Indeed, pertussis is one of the oldest vaccine-preventable bacterial diseases, so can provide a good illustration of all of the aspects associated with the need for surveillance after the introduction of vaccination. (i) The type of vaccine: two types of pertussis vaccine, whole cell and acellular, inducing different types of immunity are now used around the world. (ii) The vaccine strategy, the vaccine coverage and the duration of vaccine immunity: pertussis epidemics provide evidence that 90% of the infants must be vaccinated, vaccination must be sufficiently early and both vaccine-induced immunity and natural infection-induced immunity to pertussis wane with time indicating that pertussis is not only a pediatric disease. (iii) The agents of the disease, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis: the intensive vaccination of young infants modified the herd immunity, controlled bacteria similar to the vaccine strains but not all, revealing polymorphism of the agents of the disease evidencing the importance of continuing their isolation and their surveillance as well as monitoring their antibiotic resistance. (iv) The diagnosis of the disease: the epidemics showed the importance of specific diagnostic techniques that are easy to use by medical laboratories and the availability of the reagents required. (v) Communication with the public, the health authorities and the health providers: any changes of vaccine type, vaccine strategy, characteristics of the disease, and biological diagnosis must

  17. Starch chain interactions within the amorphous and crystalline domains of pulse starches during heat-moisture treatment at different temperatures and their impact on physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Ambigaipalan, P; Hoover, R; Donner, E; Liu, Q

    2014-01-15

    Pulse (faba bean [FB], black bean [BB] and pinto bean [PB]) starches were heat-moisture treated (HMT) at 80, 100 and 120°C for 12h at a moisture content of ∼23%. Structural changes on HMT were monitored by microscopy, HPAEC-PAD, ATR-FTIR, WAXS, DSC and susceptibility towards acid and enzyme hydrolysis. Amylopectin chain length distribution remained unchanged in all starches on HMT. In all starches, HMT increased crystallinity and gelatinisation temperatures. The gelatinization enthalpy remained unchanged in some starches, whereas it decreased slightly in other starches on HMT. Slowly digestible starch content decreased at all temperatures of HMT, whereas resistant starch content increased at HMT80 and HMT100 (HMT80>HMT100), but decreased at HMT120. Birefringence, B-type crystallites and acid hydrolysis decreased on HMT. The extent of the above changes varied amongst starch sources and genotypes. HMT altered the X-ray pattern from A+B→A. The results of this study showed that structural reorganisation of starch chains during HMT temperature was influenced by starch chain flexibility, starch chain interactions and crystalline stability of the native granules. PMID:24054228

  18. Structural changes of high-amylose rice starch residues following in vitro and in vivo digestion.

    PubMed

    Man, Jianmin; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Changquan; Zhou, Xinghua; Dong, Ying; Zhang, Fengmin; Liu, Qiaoquan; Wei, Cunxu

    2012-09-12

    High-amylose cereal starch has a great benefit on human health through its resistant starch content. In this paper, starches were isolated from mature grains of high-amylose transgenic rice line (TRS) and its wild-type rice cultivar Te-qing (TQ) and digested in vitro and in vivo. The structural changes of digestive starch residues were characterized using DSC, XRD, (13)C CP/MAS NMR, and ATR-FTIR. TQ starch was very susceptible to digestion; its residues following in vitro and in vivo digestion showed similar structural characteristics with TQ control starch, which suggested that both amorphous and crystalline structures were simultaneously digested. Both amorphous and the long-range order structures were also simultaneously hydrolyzed in TRS starch, but the short-range order (double helix) structure in the external region of TRS starch granule increased with increasing digestion time. The A-type polymorph of TRS C-type starch was hydrolyzed more rapidly than the B-type polymorph. These results suggested that B-type crystallinity and short-range order structure in the external region of starch granule made TRS starch resistant to digestion. PMID:22917081

  19. Characterization of Maize Amylose-extender (ae) Mutant Starches. Part II: Structures and Properties of Starch Residues Remaining After Enzymatic Hydrolyis at Boiling-water Temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GEMS-0067 maize ae-line starch developed by Truman State University and the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Project consisted of 39.4%-43.2% resistant-starch (RS), which was larger than the existing ae-line starches of H99ae, OH43ae, B89ae, and B84ae (11.5%-19.1%) as reported in part I of the s...

  20. Stress, fighting and neuroendocrine function.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, R. L.; Levine, S.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1971-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of pituitary adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and adrenocortical steroids in rats after testing in the shock-induced fighting paradigm were examined. The investigations provide data consistent with the view that psychological aspects of the stressful situation are important in determining the effects of shock on physiological function. The data indicate that the pituitary-adrenal response can be attenuated by the expression of an organized pattern of behavior.

  1. Stickleback fights: why do winners win? Influence of metabolic and morphometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Guderley, Helga; Couture, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    Pairs of reproductively mature male three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were introduced into unfamiliar aquaria and observed until one male became dominant. Skin carotenoid content, morphometric indexes, and metabolic capacities of the axial and pectoral muscles were examined to establish whether morphological or physiological parameters differentiated winners and losers. Stickleback that initiated fights typically won. Quick initiation led to quick victory. Overall, winners and losers differed in few morphological or metabolic characteristics, but these properties and the differences between these attributes for losers and winners of specific fights were linked with initiation time and fight duration. Morphometric indexes of losers were the primary determinants of initiation time and fight duration, whereas for winners muscle metabolic capacities were linked to these fight characteristics. The greater the hepatosomatic index (HSI) of losers, the longer the fight initiation times. Similarly, losers with high HSI and carotenoid levels resisted defeat longer. In winners, initiation time decreased as axial muscle phosphofructokinase levels increased and citrate synthase levels decreased, whereas the metabolic capacities of the pectoral muscle were linked with time to achieve victory. When losers had greater HSI values than the winners of a specific fight, fight initiation was delayed and fights lasted longer. When losers had higher carotenoid levels than winners, fights also lasted longer. On the other hand, when losers had more visceral fat (fat body mass over somatic mass) than winners, both initiation time and combat duration were reduced. These results suggest that male stickleback assess their physiological status and that of their opponents, in particular the HSI, and adjust their combat strategies accordingly. PMID:15778937

  2. Effects of thermo-resistant non-starch polysaccharide degrading multi-enzyme on growth performance, meat quality, relative weights of body organs and blood profile in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi Gheisar, M; Hosseindoust, A; Kim, I H

    2016-06-01

    This research was conducted to study the performance and carcass parameters of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with heat-treated non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzyme. A total of 432 one-day old Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to five treatments: (i) CON (basal diet), (ii) E1: CON + 0.05% multi-enzyme, (iii) E2: CON + 0.1% multi-enzyme, (iv) E3: CON + 0.05% thermo-resistant multi-enzyme and (v) E4: CON + 0.1% thermo-resistant multi-enzyme, each treatment consisted of six replications and 12 chickens in each replication. The chickens were housed in three floor battery cages during 28-day experimental period. On days 1-7, gain in body weight (BWG) improved by feeding the diets supplemented with thermo-resistant multi-enzyme. On days 7-21 and 1-28, chickens fed the diets containing thermo-resistant multi-enzyme showed improved (p < 0.05) BWG and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to CON group. Supplementing the diets with multi-enzyme or thermo-resistant multi-enzyme affected the percentage of drip loss on d 1 (p < 0.05). Drip loss percentage on days 3 and 5 and also meat colour were not affected significantly. Supplementing the diets with multi-enzyme or thermo-resistant multi-enzyme did not affect the relative weights of organs but compared to CON group, relative weight of breast muscle increased and abdominal fat decreased (p < 0.05). Among measured blood constituents, chickens fed supplemented diets with thermo-resistant multi-enzyme showed higher (p < 0.05) IgG. Counts of red and white blood cells and lymphocyte percentage were not affected. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that supplementing pelleted diets with thermo-resistant multi-enzyme improved performance of broiler chickens. PMID:26334023

  3. Centrifugally spun starch-based fibers from amylopectin rich starches.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianglong; Chen, Huanhuan; Yang, Bin

    2016-02-10

    Centrifugal spinning and electrospinning have proved to be effective techniques for fabricating micro-to-nanofibers. However, starches of amylopectin content above 65% cannot be fabricated to fiber by electrospinning. This paper is focus on the centrifugal spinnability of amylopectin rich starches. We investigated the amylopectin content of starches by Dual-wavelength colorimetry, studied the rheological properties of starch dopes to determine entanglement concentration (ce) by rotary rheometer. Results indicated that amylopectin rich native corn and potato starches, which with amylopectin content higher than 65%, were suitable for centrifugal spinning to micro-to-nanofibers. Additionally, starch-based fibers were successfully fabricated from the amylose rich corn starch as well. Rheological studies showed that the entanglement concentration (ce) of starch solution was crucial for successful centrifugal spinning. PMID:26686151

  4. Chemical composition and starch digestibility of tortillas prepared with non-conventional commercial nixtamalized maize flours.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salazar, M; Agama-Acevedo, E; Sáyago-Ayerdi, S G; Tovar, J; Bello-Pérez, L A

    2006-01-01

    Non-conventional nixtamalized maize flours elaborated by a factory in Mexico were used for tortilla preparation. Tortillas were stored at 4 degrees C for up to 72 h and the total starch, available starch, resistant starch and retrograded resistant starch were assessed. The traditional white tortilla, used as a control, showed higher protein and fat contents than blue maize tortilla, whereas a maize-bean mixed tortilla had the highest protein, ash and fat contents. Lower total starch was obtained in the maize-bean tortilla than in white and blue maize tortillas. The available starch content in all tortillas decreased with the cold-storage, although the change was more marked for blue-maize tortillas. The maize-bean mixed tortillas exhibited the lowest in vitro digestibility, which is consistent with the relatively high resistant starch levels in the bean. Differences in resistant starch content were found between the two maize tortillas, which might be related to the softer texture of blue-maize tortilla. The starch digestibility features of these new types of nixtamalized maize flours open up the possibility of producing tortillas with variable nutritional properties. PMID:16849122

  5. Production of an in Vitro Low-Digestible Starch via Hydrothermal Treatment of Amylosucrase-Modified Normal and Waxy Rice Starches and Its Structural Properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Kim, Ha Ram; Choi, Seung Jun; Park, Cheon-Seok; Moon, Tae Wha

    2016-06-22

    We investigated dual modification of normal and waxy rice starch, focusing on digestibility. Amylosucrase (AS) was applied to maximize the slowly digestible and resistant starch fractions. AS-modified starches were adjusted to 25-40% moisture levels and heated at 100 °C for 40 min. AS-modified starches exhibited a B-type crystalline structure, and hydrothermal treatment (HTT) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the relative crystallinity with moisture level. The thermal transition properties of modified starches were also affected by the moisture level. The contents of rapidly digestible starch fraction in AS-modified normal and waxy starches (43.3 ± 3.9 and 18.1 ± 0.6%) decreased to 13.0 ± 1.0 and 0.3 ± 0.3% after HTT, accordingly increasing the low digestible fractions. Although the strengthened crystalline structures of AS-modified starches by HTT were not stable enough to maintain their rigidity under cooking, application of AS and HTT was more effective in waxy rice starch than normal rice starch when lowering digestibility. PMID:27228544

  6. Effect on in vitro starch digestibility of Mexican blue maize anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Camelo-Méndez, Gustavo A; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Sanchez-Rivera, Mirna M; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2016-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of blue maize extracts obtained by acid-methanol treatment on the nutritional in vitro starch fractions such as: rapidly digestive starch (RDS), slowly digestive starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) of native and gelatinized commercial maize starch. Chromatographic analysis (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) of blue maize extracts showed the presence of seven anthocyanins, where cyanidin-3-(6″-malonylglucoside) was the main. Blue maize extracts modified nutritional in vitro starch fractions (decrease of RDS) while RS content increased (1.17 and 2.02 times for native and gelatinized commercial maize starch, respectively) when anthocyanins extracts were added to starch up to 75% (starch weight). This preliminary observation provides the basis for further suitability evaluation of blue maize extract as natural starch-modifier by the possible anthocyanins-starch interaction. Anthocyanin extracts can be a suitable to produce functional foods with higher RS content with potential human health benefits. PMID:27283633

  7. Physicochemical properties of flours and starches derived from traditional Indonesian tubers and roots.

    PubMed

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Vasiljevic, Todor; Bannikova, Anna; Kasapis, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Flours and starches isolated from traditional tubers and roots grown in Indonesia have physical and chemical properties suitable for certain food applications. Compared to other flour samples, cassava and canna flours contained the highest amount of total starch (TS) (77.4 and 77.1 %, respectively). Taro starch had the lowest amount of TS among other starch samples with 75.4 %. The highest amount of amylose was observed from yam and canna flours (25.2 and 23.2 %, respectively). Among starch samples, canna starch contained the highest amylose content (30.4 %), while taro had the lowest (7.6 %). In terms of protein content, arrowroot flour had the highest amount (7.7 %), in contrast to cassava flour which had the lowest (1.5 %). Compared to other flours, canna and konjac flour were the most slowly digested which indicated by their high amount of resistant starch (RS). Canna starch had the highest swelling power and viscosity than other starches and flours. The clearest paste was observed from cassava flour and starch as opposed to konjac starch which was the most opaque paste. PMID:25477633

  8. Polymeric tannins significantly alter properties and in vitro digestibility of partially gelatinized intact starch granule.

    PubMed

    Amoako, Derrick B; Awika, Joseph M

    2016-10-01

    Excess calorie intake is a growing global problem. This study investigated effect of complexing partially gelatinized starch with condensed tannins on in vitro starch digestibility. Extracts from tannin and non-tannin sorghum, and cellulose control, were reacted with normal and waxy maize starch in 30% (30E) and 50% ethanol (50E) solutions at 70°C/20min. More tannins complexed with the 30E than 50E starches (mean 6.2 vs 3.5mg/g, respectively). In the 30E treatments, tannins significantly increased crystallinity, pasting temperature, peak viscosity, and slow digesting starch (from 100 to 274mg/g) in normal, but not waxy starch, suggesting intragranular cross-linking with amylose. Tannins doubled resistant starch (RS) to approx. 300mg/g in both starches. In 50E treatments, tannins made both maize starches behave like raw potato starch (>90% RS), suggesting granule surface interactions dominated. Non-tannin treatments generally behaved similar to cellulose. Condensed tannins could be used to favorably alter starch digestion profile. PMID:27132818

  9. Preparation of slowly digestible sweet potato Daeyumi starch by dual enzyme modification.

    PubMed

    Jo, A Ra; Kim, Ha Ram; Choi, Seung Jun; Lee, Joon Seol; Chung, Mi Nam; Han, Seon Kyeong; Park, Cheon-Seok; Moon, Tae Wha

    2016-06-01

    Sweet potato Daeyumi starch was dually modified using glycogen branching enzyme (BE) from Streptococcus mutans and amylosucrase (AS) from Neisseria polysaccharea to prepare slowly digestible starch (SDS). Dually modified starches had higher SDS and resistant starch (RS) contents than control starch. The branched chain length distributions of the BE-modified starches indicated an increase in short side-chains [degree of polymerization (DP)≤12] compared with native starch. AS treatment of the BE-modified starches decreased the proportion of short side-chains and increased the proportion of long side-chains (DP≥25) and molecular mass. It also resulted in a B-type X-ray diffraction pattern and an increased relative crystallinity. Regarding thermal properties, the BE-modified starches showed no endothermic peak, whereas the BEAS-modified starches had a broader melting temperature range and lower melting enthalpy compared to native starch. The combined enzymatic treatment resulted in novel glucan polymers with slow digestion properties. PMID:27083356

  10. Structural properties of hydrolyzed high-amylose rice starch by α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fengling; Man, Jianmin; Xu, Bin; Hu, Maozhi; Gu, Minghong; Liu, Qiaoquan; Wei, Cunxu

    2011-12-14

    High-amylose cereal starch has a great benefit on human health through its resistant starch (RS) content. Enzyme hydrolysis of native starch is very helpful in understanding the structure of starch granules and utilizing them. In this paper, native starch granules were isolated from a transgenic rice line (TRS) enriched with amylose and RS and hydrolyzed by α-amylase. Structural properties of hydrolyzed TRS starches were studied by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and differential scanning calorimetry. The A-type polymorph of TRS C-type starch was hydrolyzed faster than the B-type polymorph, but the crystallinity did not significantly change during enzyme hydrolysis. The degree of order in the external region of starch granule increased with increasing enzyme hydrolysis time. The amylose content decreased at first and then went back up during enzyme hydrolysis. The hydrolyzed starches exhibited increased onset and peak gelatinization temperatures and decreased gelatinization enthalpy on hydrolysis. These results suggested that the B-type polymorph and high amylose that formed the double helices and amylose-lipid complex increased the resistance to BAA hydrolysis. Furthermore, the spectrum results of RS from TRS native starch digested by pancreatic α-amylase and amyloglucosidase also supported the above conclusion. PMID:22059442

  11. Development of maize starch granules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize kernels of self-pollinated inbred line B73 harvested on various days after pollination (DAP) were subjected for starch granule development studies. Starch in endosperms was first observed on 6 DAP. A small amount of starch granules (<2% of dry weight) was found in the endosperm on 12 DAP. S...

  12. Rheological and biochemical properties of Solanum lycocarpum starch.

    PubMed

    Di-Medeiros, Maria Carolina B; Pascoal, Aline M; Batista, Karla A; Bassinello, Priscila Z; Lião, Luciano M; Leles, Maria Inês G; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2014-04-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the rheological and physicochemical properties of Solanum lycocarpum starch. The thermogravimetric analysis of S. lycocarpum starch showed a typical three-step weight loss pattern. Microscopy revealed significant changes in the granule morphology after hydrothermal treatment. Samples hydrothermally treated at 50°C for 10 min lost 52% of their crystallinity, which was recovered after storage for 7 days at 4°C. However, samples hydrothermally treated at 65°C were totally amorphous. This treatment was sufficient to completely disrupt the starch granule, as evidenced by the absence of an endothermic peak in the DSC thermogram. The RVA of S. lycocarpum starch revealed 4440.7cP peak viscosity, 2660.5cP breakdown viscosity, 2414.1cP final viscosity, 834.3cP setback viscosity, and a pasting temperature of 49.6°C. The low content of resistant starch (10.25%) and high content of digestible starch (89.78%) in S. lycocarpum suggest that this starch may be a good source for the production of hydrolysates, such as glucose syrup and its derivatives. PMID:24607161

  13. Resistance to moist conditions of whey protein isolate and pea starch biodegradable films and low density polyethylene nondegradable films: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehyar, G. F.; Bawab, A. Al

    2015-10-01

    Biodegradable packaging materials are degraded under the natural environmental conditions. Therefore using them could alleviate the problem of plastics accumulation in nature. For effective replacement of plastics, with biodegradable materials, biodegradable packages should keep their properties under the high relative humidity (RH) conditions. Therefore the objectives of the study were to develop biodegradable packaging material based on whey protein isolate (WPI) and pea starch (PS). To study their mechanical, oxygen barrier and solubility properties under different RHs compared with those of low density polyethylene (LDPE), the most used plastic in packaging. Films of WPI and PS were prepared separately and conditioned at different RH (30-90%) then their properties were studied. At low RHs (<50%), WPI films had 2-3 times lower elongation at break (E or stretchability) than PS and LDPE. Increasing RH to 90% significantly (P<0.01) increased the elongation of PS but not WPI and LDPE films. LDPE and WPI films kept significantly (P<0.01) higher tensile strength (TS) than PS films at high RH (90%). Oxygen permeability (OP) of all films was very low (<0.5 cm3 μm m-2 d-1 kPa-1) below 40% RH but increased for PS films and became significantly (P<0.01) different than that of LDPE and WPI at > 40% RH. Oxygen permeability of WPI and LDPE did not adversely affected by increasing RH to 65%. Furthermore, WPI and LDPE films had lower degree of hydration at 50% and 90% RH and total soluble matter than PS films. These results suggest that WPI could be successfully replacing LDPE in packaging of moist products.

  14. SURFACE PROPERTIES OF WATER SOLUBLE STARCH, STARCH ACETATES AND STARCH ACETATES/ALKENYLSUCCINATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface and interfacial tensions with hexadecane were measured for starch and water soluble starch ester solutions in order to determine their potential as stabilizers or emulsifiers. The surface tension for an acid hydrolysed starch (maltodextrin) initially declined with concentration and then rea...

  15. Youth and Parental Attitudes toward Fighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Barry S.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Wright, Joseph; Cheng, Tina L.

    2008-01-01

    Certain parenting behaviors have been linked with youth aggression and violence, but less is known about whether parents' attitudes toward fighting are a risk factor for children's aggressive behavior problems and future injury risk. Social cognitive theory suggests that parents' beliefs about fighting and retaliation may influence their…

  16. Resistant Starch and Starch-Derived Oligosaccharides as Prebiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam-Perrot, A.; Gutton, L.; Sanders, L.; Bouvier, S.; Combe, C.; van den Abbeele, R.; Potter, S.; Einerhand, A. W. C.

    Dietary fiber has long been recommended as part of a healthy diet based on the observations made by Burkitt and Trowell (1975). Since then, epidemiological evidence has consistently shown that populations consuming higher levels of foods containing fiber have decreased risk of a variety of chronic health disorders such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and certain cancers. Average fiber intake in the United States is approximately 13 g/day for women and 18 g/day for men (National Academy of Sciences, 2006). The FDA recommends a minimum of 20-35 g/day for a healthy adult depending on calorific intake. In many EU countries including France, Germany and the UK (see Figure 9.1 ), fiber intakes are much lower than authorities recommend for men and women (Buttriss and Stokes, 2008; Gray, 2006). Thus, there is a need to increase fiber consumption and many newly isolated or developed fibers can easily be added to beverages and processed foods. The reasons for such low compliance is somewhat complex, however the most basic rationale for not consuming fiber-rich foods is perceived bad taste and mouthfeel and the availability of conventional food items containing fiber.

  17. Structure and Functional Properties of Sorghum Starches Differing in Amylose Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is an important cereal grain due to its drought-resistance and relative low cost. Starch is the major component of grain sorghum, and comprises ~70% of dry grain weight. Many important physicochemical, thermal, and rheological properties of starch are influenced by the ratio of amylose and ...

  18. Nutritionally-important starch fractions of rice cultivars grown in southern United States.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary starches can be classified into three major fractions, according to in vitro digestibility: rapidly digestible (RDS), slowly digestible (SDS), and resistant starch (RS). Literature indicates that SDS and/or RS have significant implications on human health, particularly, glucose metabolism, ...

  19. Fire Fighting from High Altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent; Ambrosia, Vince

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on high altitude fire fighting is shown. The topics include: 1) Yellowstone Fire - 1988; 2) 2006 Western States Fire Mission Over-View; 3) AMS-Wildfire Scanner; 4) October 24-25 Mission: Yosemite NP and NF; 5) October 24-25 Mission MODIS Overpass; 6) October 24-25 Mission Highlights; 7) October 28-29 Mission Esperanza Fire, California; 8) Response to the Esperanza Fire in Southern California -- Timeline Oct 27-29 2006; 9) October 28-29 Mission Esperanza Fire Altair Flight Routing; 10) October 28-29 Mission Esperanza Fire Altair Over-Flights; 11) October 28-29 Mission Highlights; 12) Results from the Esperanza Fire Response; 13) 2007 Western States Fire Mission; and 14) Western States UAS Fire Mission 2007

  20. Fighting pollution in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Roodman, D M

    1999-01-01

    This article investigates the fighting solution strategies in Vietnam where complaints against factories violating national pollution standards are common. Based on history, the people in Vietnam have been suffering from pollution of all sorts including air, land, water and noise. Precisely, their interaction with one another has been affected by how they interact with the natural environment and community. This worsening situation in the country gave rise to public criticisms, a foot in a door that opens different forms of people participation in the decision-making of the government. Although factories were not so much affected with public criticisms, yet public pressure played a significant role in increasing the compliance of many companies. The strategy adopted in Vietnam may be a powerful force for protecting the Vietnamese against pollution. PMID:12295336

  1. RHEOLOGY OF STARCH-LIPID COMPOSITES YOGURTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yogurt is traditionally made by fermenting liquid milk. The ability of starches to thicken, gel, and hold water has been exploited in yogurt manufacture. The addition of starch increases the viscosity of yogurt, but some starches impart an undesirable taste and promote phase separation. Starch-li...

  2. Effect of heat-moisture treatment on the structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of arrowroot starch.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Larissa S; Moraes, Jaqueline; Albano, Kivia M; Telis, Vânia R N; Franco, Célia M L

    2016-04-01

    The effect of heat-moisture treatment on structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of arrowroot starch was investigated. Heat-moisture treatment was performed with starch samples conditioned to 28% moisture at 100 ℃ for 2, 4, 8, and 16 h. Structural and physicochemical characterization of native and modified starches, as well as rheological assays with gels of native and 4 h modified starches subjected to acid and sterilization stresses were performed. Arrowroot starch had 23.1% of amylose and a CA-type crystalline pattern that changed over the treatment time to A-type. Modified starches had higher pasting temperature and lower peak viscosity while breakdown viscosity practically disappeared, independently of the treatment time. Gelatinization temperature and crystallinity increased, while enthalpy, swelling power, and solubility decreased with the treatment. Gels from modified starches, independently of the stress conditions, were found to have more stable apparent viscosities and higher G' and G″ than gels from native starch. Heat-moisture treatment caused a reorganization of starch chains that increased molecular interactions. This increase resulted in higher paste stability and strengthened gels that showed higher resistance to shearing and heat, even after acid or sterilization conditions. A treatment time of 4 h was enough to deeply changing the physicochemical properties of starch. PMID:26163566

  3. Morphology and structural properties of high-amylose rice starch residues hydrolysed by amyloglucosidase.

    PubMed

    Man, Jianmin; Yang, Yang; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Changquan; Zhang, Fengmin; Wang, Youping; Gu, Minghong; Liu, Qiaoquan; Wei, Cunxu

    2013-06-15

    High-amylose starches are attracting considerable attention because of their potential health benefits and industrial uses. Enzyme hydrolysis of starch is involved in many biological and industrial processes. In this paper, starches were isolated from high-amylose transgenic rice (TRS) and its wild type rice, Te-qing (TQ). The morphological and structural changes of starch residues following Aspergillus niger amyloglucosidase (AAG) hydrolysis were investigated. AAG hydrolysed TQ starch from the granule surface, and TRS starch from the granule interior. During AAG hydrolysis, the content of amorphous structure increased, the contents of ordered structure and single helix decreased, and gelatinisation enthalpy decreased in TQ and TRS starch residues. The A-type polymorph of TRS C-type starch was hydrolysed faster than the B-type polymorph. The short-range ordered structure and B-type polymorph in the peripheral region of the subgranule and the surrounding band of TRS starch increased the resistance of TRS starch to AAG hydrolysis. PMID:23497862

  4. Preparation and characterization of dry method esterified starch/polylactic acid composite materials.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yingfeng; Gu, Jiyou; Yang, Long; Qiao, Zhibang; Tan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yanhua

    2014-03-01

    Corn starch and maleic anhydride were synthesized from a maleic anhydride esterified starch by dry method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the qualitative analysis of the esterified starches. The reaction efficiency of dry method esterified starch reached 92.34%. The dry method esterified starch was blended with polylactic acid (PLA), and the mixture was melted and extruded to produce the esterified starch/polylactic acid (ES/PLA) composites. The degree of crystallinity of the ES/PLA was lower than that of the NS/PLA, indicating that the relative dependence between these two components of starch and polylactic acid was enhanced. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the dry method esterified starch increased the two-phase interface compatibility of the composites, thereby improving the tensile strength, bending strength, and elongation at break of the ES/PLA composite. The introduction of a hydrophobic ester bond and increase in interface compatibility led to an increase in ES/PLA water resistance. Melt index determination results showed that starch esterification modification had improved the melt flow properties of starch/PLA composite material. Strain scanning also showed that the compatibility of ES/PLA was increased. While frequency scanning showed that the storage modulus and complex viscosity of ES/PLA was less than that of NS/PLA. PMID:24315947

  5. Intactness of cell wall structure controls the in vitro digestion of starch in legumes.

    PubMed

    Dhital, Sushil; Bhattarai, Rewati R; Gorham, John; Gidley, Michael J

    2016-03-16

    Increasing the level of starch that is not digested by the end of the small intestine and therefore enters the colon ('resistant starch') is a major opportunity for improving the nutritional profile of foods. One mechanism that has been shown to be successful is entrapment of starch within an intact plant tissue structure. However, the level of tissue intactness required for resistance to amylase digestion has not been defined. In this study, intact cells were isolated from a range of legumes after thermal treatment at 60 °C (starch not gelatinised) or 95 °C (starch gelatinised) followed by hydrolysis using pancreatic alpha amylase. It was found that intact cells, isolated at either temperature, were impervious to amylase. However, application of mechanical force damaged the cell wall and made starch accessible to digestive enzymes. This shows that the access of enzymes to the entrapped swollen starch is the rate limiting step controlling hydrolysis of starch in cooked legumes. The results suggest that a single cell wall could be sufficient to provide an effective delivery of starch to the large intestine with consequent nutritional benefits, provided that mechanical damage during digestion is avoided. PMID:26786854

  6. Comparison of pasting and gel stabilities of waxy and normal starches from potato, maize, and rice with those of a novel waxy cassava starch under thermal, chemical, and mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Teresa; Dufour, Dominique; Moreno, Isabel Ximena; Ceballos, Hernán

    2010-04-28

    Functional properties of normal and waxy starches from maize, rice, potato, and cassava as well as the modified waxy maize starch COLFLO 67 were compared. The main objective of this study is to position the recently discovered spontaneous mutation for amylose-free cassava starch in relation to the other starches with well-known characteristics. Paste clarity, wavelength of maximum absorption (lambda(max)), pasting properties, swelling power, solubility, and dispersed volume fraction measurements and gel stability (acid and alkaline resistance, shear, refrigeration, and freeze/thaw stability) were evaluated in the different types and sources of starch included in this study. lambda(max) in the waxy cassava starch was reduced considerably in comparison with that of normal cassava starch (535 vs 592 nm). RVA peak viscosity of waxy cassava starch was larger than in normal cassava starch (1119 vs 937 cP) and assumed a position intermediate between the waxy potato and maize starches. Acid, alkaline, and shear stability of waxy cassava starch were similar to normal cassava except for alkaline pH, at which it showed a low effect. Gels from normal root and tuber starches after refrigeration and freeze/thaw had lower syneresis than cereal starches. Gels from waxy starches (except for potato) did not present any syneresis after 5 weeks of storage at 4 degrees C. Waxy cassava starch was the only one not showing any syneresis after 5 weeks of storage at -20 degrees C. Natural waxy cassava starch is, therefore, a promising ingredient to formulate refrigerated or frozen food. PMID:20356303

  7. Enzymatically hydrolysed, acetylated and dually modified corn starch: physico-chemical, rheological and nutritional properties and effects on cake quality.

    PubMed

    Sahnoun, Mouna; Ismail, Nouha; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-01-01

    Corn starch was treated by enzymatic hydrolysis with Aspergillus oryzae S2 α-amylase, acetylation with vinyl acetate, and dual modification. The dual modified starch displayed a higher substitution degree than the acetylated starch and lower reducing sugar content than the hydrolysed starch. The results revealed that the cooling viscosity and amylose content of those products decrease (P < 0.05). An increase in moisture, water, and oil absorption capacity was observed for the acetylated starch and, which was less pronounced for the enzymatically hydrolysed starch but more pronounced for the enzymatically hydrolysed acetylated product. The latter product underwent an increase in resistant starch content, which is induced by a rise in hydrolysis time to attain about 67 % after 1 h of reaction. The modified starch samples were added to cake formulations at 5 and 10 % concentrations on a wheat flour basis and compared to native starch. The results revealed that when applied at 5 % concentrations, the modified starches reduced the hardness, cohesion, adhesion and chewiness of baked cakes and enhanced their elasticity, volume, height, crust color, and appearance as compared to native starch. These effects were more pronounced for the cake incorporating the dually modified starch. PMID:26787967

  8. Slowly digestible waxy maize starch prepared by octenyl succinic anhydride esterification and heat-moisture treatment: glycemic response and mechanism.

    PubMed

    He, Jinhua; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Genyi

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism and molecular structure of the slowly digestible waxy maize starch prepared by octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) esterification and heat-moisture treatment were investigated. The in vitro Englyst test showed a proportion of 28.3% slowly digestible starch (SDS) when waxy maize starch was esterified with 3% OSA (starch weight based, and it is named OSA-starch), and a highest SDS content of 42.8% was obtained after OSA-starch (10% moisture) was further heated at 120 degrees C for 4 h (named HOSA-starch). The in vivo glycemic response of HOSA-starch, which showed a delayed appearance of blood glucose peak and a significant reduction (32.2%) of the peak glucose concentration, further confirmed its slow digestion property. Amylopectin debranching analysis revealed HOSA-starch had the highest resistance to debranching enzymes of isoamylase and pullulanase, and a simultaneous decrease of K m and V m (enzyme kinetics) was also shown when HOSA-starch was digested by either alpha-amylase or amyloglucosidase, indicating that the slow digestion of HOSA-starch resulted from an uncompetitive inhibition of enzyme activity during digestion. Size exclusion chromatography analysis of HOSA-starch showed fragmented amylopectin molecules with more nonreducing ends that are favorable for RS conversion to SDS by the action of amyloglucosidase in the Englyst test. Further solubility analysis indicates that the water-insolubility of HOSA-starch is caused by OSA-mediated cross-linking of amylopectin and the hydrophobic interaction between OSA-modified starch molecules. The water-insolubility of HOSA-starch would decrease its enzyme accessibility, and the digestion products with attached OSA molecules might also directly act as the uncompetitive inhibitor to reduce the enzyme activity leading to a slow digestion of HOSA-starch. PMID:18067261

  9. Prebiotics to fight diseases: reality or fiction?

    PubMed

    Di Bartolomeo, F; Startek, J B; Van den Ende, W

    2013-10-01

    Bacteria living in the gastrointestinal tract are crucial for human health and disease occurrence. Increasing the beneficial intestinal microflora by consumption of prebiotics, which are 'functional foods', could be an elegant way to limit the number and incidence of disorders and to recover from dysbiosis or antibiotic treatments. This review focuses on the short-chain low-digestible carbohydrates (LDCs) which are metabolized by gut microbiota serving as energy source, immune system enhancers or facilitators of mineral uptake. Intake of foods containing LDCs can improve the state of health and may prevent diseases as for example certain forms of cancer. Given the large number of different molecules belonging to LDCs, we focused our attention on fructans (inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides), galacto-oligosaccharides and resistant starches and their therapeutic and protective applications. Evidence is accumulating that LDCs can inhibit bacterial and viral infections by modulating host defense responses and by changing the interactions between pathogenic and beneficial bacteria. Animal studies and studies on small groups of human subjects suggest that LDCs might help to counteract colorectal cancer, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The action mechanisms of LDCs in the human body might be broader than originally thought, perhaps also including reactive oxygen species scavenging and signaling events. PMID:23280537

  10. Starch Suspensions with Different Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Melody; Melville, Audrey; Dijksman, Joshua; Behringer, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A suspension made of starch particles dispersed in water displays significant non-Newtonian behavior for high enough particulate concentration. This surprising behavior has recently inspired a series of experiments that have shed much light on the possible mechanism behind this phenomenon. In our studies we assess the role of the fluid phase in these suspensions. We find that using fluids other than water can significantly alter the behavior of starch suspensions. Through mechanical tests of various kinds, we assess the interaction between starch particles and different liquids, and how this interaction affects the non-Newtonian behavior of starch suspensions.