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Sample records for resists palivizumab prophylaxis

  1. Updated guidance for palivizumab prophylaxis among infants and young children at increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    2014-08-01

    Guidance from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) for the use of palivizumab prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was first published in a policy statement in 1998. Guidance initially was based on the result from a single randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in 1996-1997 describing an overall reduction in RSV hospitalization rate from 10.6% among placebo recipients to 4.8% among children who received prophylaxis. The results of a second randomized, placebo-controlled trial of children with hemodynamically significant heart disease were published in 2003 and revealed a reduction in RSV hospitalization rate from 9.7% in control subjects to 5.3% among prophylaxis recipients. Because no additional controlled trials regarding efficacy were published, AAP guidance has been updated periodically to reflect the most recent literature regarding children at greatest risk of severe disease. Since the last update in 2012, new data have become available regarding the seasonality of RSV circulation, palivizumab pharmacokinetics, the changing incidence of bronchiolitis hospitalizations, the effects of gestational age and other risk factors on RSV hospitalization rates, the mortality of children hospitalized with RSV infection, and the effect of prophylaxis on wheezing and palivizumab-resistant RSV isolates. These data enable further refinement of AAP guidance to most clearly focus on those children at greatest risk. PMID:25070304

  2. Revised recommendations concerning palivizumab prophylaxis for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

    PubMed

    Bollani, Lina; Baraldi, Eugenio; Chirico, Gaetano; Dotta, Andrea; Lanari, Marcello; Del Vecchio, Antonello; Manzoni, Paolo; Boldrini, Antonio; Paolillo, Piermichele; Di Fabio, Sandra; Orfeo, Luigi; Stronati, Mauro; Romagnoli, Costantino

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus infections are one of the leading causes of severe respiratory diseases that require hospitalization and, in some cases, intensive care. Once resolved, there may be respiratory sequelae of varying severity. The lack of effective treatments for bronchiolitis and the lack of vaccines for RSV accentuate the role of prevention in decreasing the impact of this disease. Prevention of bronchiolitis strongly relies on the adoption of environment and the hygienic behavior measures; an additional prophylactic effect may be offered, in selected cases, by Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody produced by recombinant DNA technology, able to prevent RSV infection by blocking viral replication.After many years the Italian Society of Neonatology, on the basis of the most recent scientific knowledge, has decided to revise recommendations for the use of palivizumab in the prevention of RSV infection. PMID:26670908

  3. Respiratory infections in children up to two years of age on prophylaxis with palivizumab

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Ana Isabel M. P.; Bellei, Nancy Cristina J.; Sousa, Alessandra Ramos; dos Santos, Amélia Miyashiro N.; Weckx, Lily Yin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the viruses involved in acute respiratory tract infections and to analyze the rates of hospitalization and death in children on palivizumab prophylaxis. METHODS: Prospective cohort of 198 infants up to one year old who were born before 29 weeks of gestational age and infants under two years old with hemodynamically unstable cardiopathy or chronic pulmonary disease who received prophylactic palivizumab against severe respiratory syncytial virus infections in 2008. During the study period, in each episode of acute respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngeal aspirate was collected to identify respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3, influenza A and B by direct immunofluorescence, rhinovirus and metapneumovirus by polymerase chain reaction preceded by reverse transcription. Data regarding hospitalization and deaths were monitored. RESULTS: Among the 198 studied infants, 117 (59.1%) presented acute respiratory tract infections, with a total of 175 episodes. Of the 76 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected during respiratory tract infections, 37 were positive, as follow: rhinovirus (75.7%), respiratory syncytial virus (18.9%), parainfluenza (8.1%), adenovirus 2 (2.7%), metapneumovirus (2.7%) and three samples presented multiple agents. Of the 198 children, 48 (24.4%) were hospitalized: 30 (15.2%) for non-infectious etiology and 18 (9.1%) for respiratory causes. Among these 18 children, one case of respiratory syncytial virus was identified. Two deaths were reported, but respiratory syncytial virus was not identified. CONCLUSIONS: During the prophylaxis period, low frequency of respiratory syncytial virus infections and low rates of hospitalization were observed, suggesting the benefit of palivizumab prophylaxis. PMID:25119744

  4. [Update of recommendations on the use of palivizumab as prophylaxis in RSV infections].

    PubMed

    Figueras Aloy, J; Carbonell Estrany, X

    2015-03-01

    The Standards Committee of the Spanish Neonatology Society (SENeo) considers that the new document from the American Academy of Pediatrics, including recommendations for palivizumab use to prevent serious infections produced by the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), provides no new scientific evidence which would justify the modification of the current recommendations of the SENeo. However, some adjustments to the criteria of the existing recommendations are proposed to reduce the cost of the drug by its correct and judicious management. PMID:25453311

  5. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... solution becomes clear. After 20 minutes, you are ready to give your child palivizumab. The solution should ... must be used within 6 hours once you mix it. Your health care provider will give you ...

  6. Serious Adverse Events in the Canadian Registry of Children Receiving Palivizumab (CARESS) for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinghan Jenny; Chan, Parco; Paes, Bosco; Mitchell, Ian; Li, Abby; Lanctôt, Krista L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the safety and tolerability of palivizumab for RSV prophylaxis in high-risk children in everyday practice. Methods High-risk children prophylaxed against RSV infection were recruited into a prospective, observational, Canadian RSV Evaluation Study of Palivizumab (CARESS) registry with active, serious adverse event (SAE) monitoring from 2008 to 2013. SAE reports were systematically collected and assessed for severity and relationship to palivizumab. Data were analyzed by Chi-square or Fisher Exact Tests to examine group differences in proportions. Results 13025 infants received 57392 injections. Hospitalizations for respiratory-related illness (RIH) were reported in 915 patients, and SAEs other than RIH were reported in 52 patients. Of these, 6 (0.05%) patients had a total of 14 hypersensitivity reactions that were deemed possibly or probably related to palivizumab (incidence: 2.8 per 10,000 patient-months). The SAEs of 42 patients were assessed as not related to palivizumab. SAEs in the remaining 4 patients were not classifiable as their records were incomplete. There were no significant demographic predictors of SAE occurrence. Conclusions Under active surveillance, a small proportion of infants in the CARESS registry experienced SAEs that had a potential relationship with palivizumab and these appeared to be unpredictable in terms of onset. Palivizumab appears to be a safe and well-tolerated antibody for RSV prophylaxis in high-risk children in routine practice. PMID:26237402

  7. [Palivizumab: four seasons in Russia].

    PubMed

    Baranov, A A; Ivanov, D O; Aliamovskaia, G A; Amirova, V R; Antoniuk, I V; Asmolova, G A; Beliaeva, I A; Bokeria, E L; Briukhanova, O A; Vinogradova, I V; Vlasova, E V; Galustian, A N; Gafarova, G V; Gorev, V V; Davydova, I V; Degtiarev, D N; Degtiareva, E A; Dolgikh, V V; Donits, I M; Zakharova, N I; Zernova, L Iu; Zimina, E P; Zuev, V V; Keshishian, E S; Kovalev, I A; Koltunov, I E; Korsunskiĭ, A A; Krivoshchekov, E V; Krsheminskaia, I V; Kuznetsova, S N; Liubimenko, V A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Nesterenko, É V; Nikolaev, S V; Ovsiannikov, D Iu; Pavlova, T I; Potapova, M V; Rychkova, L V; Safarov, A A; Safina, A I; Skachkova, M A; Soldatova, I G; Turti, T V; Filatova, N A; Shakirova, R M; Ianulevich, O S

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the Russian Federation (RF) registered palivizumab--innovative drug, based on monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization of seasonal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children of disease severe progress risk group, which include primarily premature infants, children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease. Currently, palivizumab is included in the list of recommended medicines and medical care standards of different countries, including Russia. In the review the results of Russian research on the progress of RSV infection, its epidemiology and immunization experience gained over the 2010-2014 period are summarized in relation to the foreign data. During the four epidemic seasons palivizumab immunization covered more than 3,200 children of severe RSV infection risk group with a progressive annual increase in the number of patients who received the drug. Geography of palivizumab immunization is also greatly expanded in our country during this time. If during the first two seasons measures of immunization were taken mainly in Moscow and St. Petersburg, at the present time, thirty one territorial entities of the Russian Federation have the experience in the drug application. Analysis of the results of RSV infection immunization (made in several regions) confirms the high clinical efficacy and palivizumab safety already demonstrated in international studies. In addition, the analysis presents the potential to improve the efficiency of the integrated RSV infection immunization programs, realizing in the establishment of high-risk child group register, adequate counseling for parents, as well as the development of the routing of patients and coordination of interaction between different health institutions during the immunization. PMID:25563005

  8. Comparison of Intravenous Palivizumab and Standard of Care for Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Mechanically Ventilated Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ragsdale, Carolyn E.; Peterson, Evan J.; Merkel, Kathryn G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests palivizumab may be beneficial for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in pediatric patients, although it is only approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for RSV prophylaxis. The objective of this study is to compare outcomes among pediatric patients with RSV infection who received intravenous palivizumab and standard of care versus standard of care alone. METHODS: This is a retrospective, single-center cohort study conducted between November 2003 and October 2013. Pediatric patients with active RSV infection treated with intravenous (IV) palivizumab after initiation of mechanical ventilation were matched 1:1 to a control selected from ventilated patients who received standard of care. The primary end point evaluated the duration of mechanical ventilation between groups. Secondary end points included hospital length of stay, intensive care unit length of stay, duration of respiratory support over baseline, time to RSV microbiologic cure, duration of antibiotic therapy, and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 22 patients with a median age of 3 months were included in the study. Patients in the treatment group received a median of 2 doses of IV palivizumab, with a mean dose of 14.2 mg/kg. All patients received bronchodilators and corticosteroids, with the exception of 1 patient in the control group, and only 1 treatment group patient received IV ribavirin. Duration of mechanical ventilation was longer in the treatment group (18.9 ± 9.5 vs. 14.3 ± 9.3 days; p = 0.26). No statistically significant differences were observed between groups for any of the secondary end points. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients who received IV palivizumab in addition to standard of care for treatment of RSV infection following initiation of mechanical ventilation experienced similar outcomes to those who received standard of care alone. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the potential benefit of IV palivizumab in addition to

  9. [Recommendations for palivizumab use. Update 2015].

    PubMed

    Fernández Jonusas, Silvia; Albas Maubett, Deleys; Satragno, Daniela; Cattaino, Adriana; Martin Alonso, Margarita; Rubio, Cecilia; Nieto, Ricardo

    2016-02-01

    This recommendation updates the Argentinean Pediatrics' Neonatal Committee (CEFEN) ones published in 2007. The respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequent agent for lower respiratory infection. Tiny premature, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and significant hemodynamic congenital heart disease babies are the most vulnerable populations. Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against respiratory syncytial virus used in the cold season. These recommendations are based on the scientific review of the literature published up to date. We reinforce the importance of general prevention measures like hand hygiene and family education among others. During the predominant season of respiratory syncytial virus in our country (April to September) a monthly dose of intramuscular 15 mg/kg of palivizumab is recommended. The safety and effectiveness has been proved as well as a reduction in the hospitalizations rates. In addition, epidemiological data of previous years are provided here. PMID:26914078

  10. Antibiotic surgical prophylaxis increases nasal carriage of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Claire L; Hardy, Katherine J; Verlander, Neville Q; Hawkey, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococci are a significant cause of hospital-acquired infection. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is an important risk factor for infection in surgical patients and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a major cause of prosthetic joint infections. The impact that antibiotic surgical prophylaxis has on the nasal carriage of staphylococci has not been studied. Daily nasal swabs were taken from 63 patients who received antibiotic surgical prophylaxis and 16 patients who received no antibiotics. Total aerobic bacterial count, S. aureus and CNS were enumerated by culture from nasal swabs. Representative isolates were typed by staphylococcal interspersed repeat units (SIRU) typing and PFGE, and MICs to nine antibiotics were determined. After antibiotic administration, there was a reduction in S. aureus counts (median - 2.3 log(10)c.f.u. ml(- 1)) in 64.0 % of S. aureus carriers, compared with only a 0.89 log(10)c.f.u. ml(- 1) reduction in 75.0 % of S. aureus carriers who did not receive antibiotics. A greater increase in the nasal carriage rate of meticillin-resistant CNS was observed after antibiotic surgical prophylaxis compared with hospitalization alone, with increases of 16.4 and 4.6 %, respectively. Antibiotic-resistant S. epidermidis carriage rate increased by 16.6 % after antibiotic administration compared with 7.5 % with hospitalization alone. Antibiotic surgical prophylaxis impacts the nasal carriage of both S. aureus and CNS. PMID:26445858

  11. Surveillance for mupirocin resistance following introduction of routine peri-operative prophylaxis with nasal mupirocin.

    PubMed

    Fawley, W N; Parnell, P; Hall, J; Wilcox, M H

    2006-03-01

    The authors have previously described the successful use of a five-day peri-operative prophylaxis regimen using nasal mupirocin and topical triclosan (PPNMTT) to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. The present article describes the results of repeated point-prevalence surveillance for four years to determine whether mupirocin resistance has emerged in surgical units using empirical, short-term, peri-operative prophylaxis with nasal mupirocin. Before starting PPNMTT and every six months thereafter for four years, point-prevalence surveillance was performed for nasal S. aureus carriage in all patients on five orthopaedic surgery wards, one vascular surgery ward and one elderly medicine control ward. S. aureus screening and clinical isolates (surgical patients) were undertaken for low- [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 8-128 mg/L] and high-level (MIC > 128 mg/L) mupirocin resistance. All isolates were phage typed to determine whether there was evidence of the spread of clonal mupirocin-resistant strains. Of 593, 139 and 206 nasal screening swabs (taken after the regimen had started) from orthopaedic, vascular and control patients, 28%, 24% and 48% (orthopaedic/vascular surgery vs elderly medicine, P < 0.001) yielded S. aureus isolates, respectively, and 12%, 11% and 30% (P < 0.001) were MRSA positive, respectively. Of the S. aureus nasal screen isolates from orthopaedic/vascular surgery and control patients, 5% and 4%, respectively, were low-level mupirocin resistant (P > 0.1). Of 286 (orthopaedic/vascular surgery) and 68 (elderly medicine) clinical S. aureus isolates obtained after the regimen had started, 7% and 9% (P > 0.1), respectively, were low-level mupirocin resistant. No high-level mupirocin-resistant isolates were isolated from mupirocin (orthopaedic/vascular surgery) or elderly medicine control ward patients. There was no trend towards increasing prevalence of low-level mupirocin resistance during the four-year study

  12. Escape from neutralization by the respiratory syncytial virus-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody palivizumab is driven by changes in on-rate of binding to the fusion protein

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, John T.; Keefer, Christopher J.; Slaughter, James C.; Kulp, Daniel W.; Schief, William R.

    2014-04-15

    The role of binding kinetics in determining neutralizing potency for antiviral antibodies is poorly understood. While it is believed that increased steady-state affinity correlates positively with increased virus-neutralizing activity, the relationship between association or dissociation rate and neutralization potency is unclear. We investigated the effect of naturally-occurring antibody resistance mutations in the RSV F protein on the kinetics of binding to palivizumab. Escape from palivizumab-mediated neutralization of RSV occurred with reduced association rate (K{sub on}) for binding to RSV F protein, while alteration of dissociation rate (K{sub off}) did not significantly affect neutralizing activity. Interestingly, linkage of reduced K{sub on} with reduced potency mirrored the effect of increased K{sub on} found in a high-affinity enhanced potency palivizumab variant (motavizumab). These data suggest that association rate is the dominant factor driving neutralization potency for antibodies to RSV F protein antigenic site A and determines the potency of antibody somatic variants or efficiency of escape of viral glycoprotein variants. - Highlights: • The relationship of affinity to neutralization for virus antibodies is uncertain. • Palivizumab binds to RSV escape mutant fusion proteins, but with reduced affinity. • Association rate (K{sub on}) correlated well with the potency of neutralization.

  13. A cost-effectiveness analysis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis in infants in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of respiratory infection that is highly prevalent in infants. Severe cases of RSV infection require hospitalisation; this is most likely to occur in infant populations at high risk. The study assesses the cost-effectiveness of palivizumab versus no prophylaxis in infants at high risk of hospitalisation with RSV in the United Kingdom (UK). Methods A decision tree model was developed to reflect the clinical pathway of infants at high risk of severe RSV infection who receive either prophylaxis with palivizumab or no prophylaxis. The main outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the degree of uncertainty surrounding the results. A threshold analysis considered the impact of clinical and environmental risk factors on the cost-effectiveness in the subgroup of preterm infants 33–35 weeks gestational age (wGA). Results Prophylaxis with palivizumab compared with no prophylaxis is associated with the following ICERs; £33,216 for infants with congenital heart disease; £19,168 for infants with chronic lung disease; £3,845 for preterm infants < 29 wGA; £30,205 for preterm infants 29–32 wGA; and £99,056 for preterm infants 33–35 wGA. One-way sensitivity analysis suggests that these results are highly sensitive to the input data. Threshold analysis in the preterm 33–35 wGA subgroup demonstrates that an adjusted RSV-hospitalisation baseline risk of 17.94% or higher would result in an ICER below the £30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year threshold. Discussion Palivizumab is cost-effective compared to no prophylaxis in the United Kingdom in many of the subgroups considered, showing that palivizumab would be a cost-effective use of National Health Service resources. PMID:23919494

  14. Prophylaxis of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Malaria prevention in travelers to endemic areas remains dependent principally on chemoprophylaxis. Although malaria chemoprophylaxis refers to all malaria species, a distinction should be drawn between falciparum malaria prophylaxis and the prophylaxis of the relapsing malaria species (vivax & ovale). While the emergence of drug resistant strains, as well as the costs and adverse reactions to medications, complicate falciparum prophylaxis use, there are virtually no drugs available for vivax prophylaxis, beside of primaquine. Based on traveler’s malaria data, a revised recommendation for using chemoprophylaxis in low risk areas should be considered. PMID:22811794

  15. Negligible risk of inducing resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis with single-dose rifampicin as post-exposure prophylaxis for leprosy.

    PubMed

    Mieras, Liesbeth; Anthony, Richard; van Brakel, Wim; Bratschi, Martin W; van den Broek, Jacques; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Cavaliero, Arielle; Kasang, Christa; Perera, Geethal; Reichman, Lee; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Saunderson, Paul; Steinmann, Peter; Yew, Wing Wai

    2016-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for leprosy is administered as one single dose of rifampicin (SDR) to the contacts of newly diagnosed leprosy patients. SDR reduces the risk of developing leprosy among contacts by around 60 % in the first 2-3 years after receiving SDR. In countries where SDR is currently being implemented under routine programme conditions in defined areas, questions were raised by health authorities and professional bodies about the possible risk of inducing rifampicin resistance among the M. tuberculosis strains circulating in these areas. This issue has not been addressed in scientific literature to date. To produce an authoritative consensus statement about the risk that SDR would induce rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis, a meeting was convened with tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy experts. The experts carefully reviewed and discussed the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and risk factors for the development of (multi) drug-resistance in M. tuberculosis with a view to the special situation of the use of SDR as PEP for leprosy. They concluded that SDR given to contacts of leprosy patients, in the absence of symptoms of active TB, poses a negligible risk of generating resistance in M. tuberculosis in individuals and at the population level. Thus, the benefits of SDR prophylaxis in reducing the risk of developing leprosy in contacts of new leprosy patients far outweigh the risks of generating drug resistance in M. tuberculosis. PMID:27268059

  16. Antibiotic prophylaxis in orthopaedic surgery: difficult decisions in an era of evolving antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Bryson, D J; Morris, D L J; Shivji, F S; Rollins, K R; Snape, S; Ollivere, B J

    2016-08-01

    Prophylactic antibiotics can decrease the risk of wound infection and have been routinely employed in orthopaedic surgery for decades. Despite their widespread use, questions still surround the selection of antibiotics for prophylaxis, timing and duration of administration. The health economic costs associated with wound infections are significant, and the judicious but appropriate use of antibiotics can reduce this risk. This review examines the evidence behind commonly debated topics in antibiotic prophylaxis and highlights the uses and advantages of some commonly used antibiotics. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1014-19. PMID:27482011

  17. Respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis--the story so far.

    PubMed

    Simoes, E A F; Groothuis, J R

    2002-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common and highly contagious pathogen that infects nearly all children by the age of 2 years. It is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide among certain high-risk paediatric populations. Therapy is sub-optimal for RSV, thus treatment focuses on ameliorating symptoms. Since discovery of the virus in the 1950s, efforts have been ongoing to develop a safe and effective vaccine. These efforts have met with serious obstacles. Passive immunoprophylaxis presents a viable alternative to active immunization. In 1998, the genetically engineered humanized monoclonal antibody (palivizumab) was granted FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approval for prophylaxis of high-risk children in the United States; EMEA (European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products) approval followed in 1999 for Europe. It is now approved in over 45 countries worldwide. Palivizumab was shown to significantly reduce RSV-related hospitalizations in North America and Europe with few adverse effects. Clinical trial and outcomes data documenting experience with palivizumab to date continue to extend the initial safety and efficacy observations. PMID:11996400

  18. Antibiotic prophylaxis in otolaryngologic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ottoline, Ana Carolina Xavier; Tomita, Shiro; Marques, Marise da Penha Costa; Felix, Felippe; Ferraiolo, Priscila Novaes; Laurindo, Roberta Silveira Santos

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim: Antibiotic prophylaxis aims to prevent infection of surgical sites before contamination or infection occurs. Prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis does not enhance the prevention of surgical infection and is associated with higher rates of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. This review of the literature concerning antibiotic prophylaxis, with an emphasis on otolaryngologic surgery, aims to develop a guide for the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in otolaryngologic surgery in order to reduce the numbers of complications stemming from the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. PMID:25991999

  19. Changes in bacterial resistance patterns in children with urinary tract infections on antimicrobial prophylaxis at University Hospital in Split

    PubMed Central

    Ilić, Tanja; Gračan, Sanda; Arapović, Adela; Čapkun, Vesna; Šubat-Dežulović, Mirna; Saraga, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background We assessed prevalence and resistance of uropathogens on antimicrobial agents (AA) from urine cultures (UC) in children hospitalized with urinary tract infections (UTI) at University Hospital in Split. Material/Methods During the 7-year period, children hospitalized only once with UTI alone were compared to those repeatedly hospitalized, and who received long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis (LTAP), as well as those with associated anomalies of the urinary system (US). Results E. coli was the most frequent isolate (67.7%) with resistance to ampicillin by 69.5%, amoxicillin/clavulonic acid by 3.5%, cephalexin by 6.6%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) by 27.5%, and nitrofurantoin by 0.4%. For other uropathogens, AA resistance rates were the following: 64.3%, 5.8%, 10.5%, 21.3%, and 7.9%. The high or increasing resistance to TMP-SMX is characterized by all uropathogens. Patients with anomalies of US showed a lower prevalence of E. coli and Enterococcus sp., but a higher prevalence of Pseudomonas sp., ESBL-producing E. coli and Klebsiella sp. than those without US anomalies. Repeatedly hospitalized patients showed a lower prevalence of E. coli, but a higher prevalence of Pseudomonas sp. and Klebsiella sp. than patients hospitalized only once. Both groups displayed significantly less resistance of Enterococcus sp. In patients receiving LTAP before hospitalization, E. coli was significantly more resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulonic acid and TMP/SMX than in those without LTAP. Conclusions Based on our results, we recommend excluding ampicillin altogether, and reconsideration of further use of TMP-SMX, as well as use of nitrofurantoin, cephalexin and amoxicillin/clavulonic acid for LTAP in our region. PMID:21709628

  20. Antibiotic resistance and virulence: Understanding the link and its consequences for prophylaxis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Guillard, Thomas; Pons, Stéphanie; Roux, Damien; Pier, Gerald B; Skurnik, David

    2016-07-01

    "Antibiotic resistance is usually associated with a fitness cost" is frequently accepted as common knowledge in the field of infectious diseases. However, with the advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing that allows for a comprehensive analysis of bacterial pathogenesis at the genome scale, including antibiotic resistance genes, it appears that this paradigm might not be as solid as previously thought. Recent studies indicate that antibiotic resistance is able to enhance bacterial fitness in vivo with a concomitant increase in virulence during infections. As a consequence, strategies to minimize antibiotic resistance turn out to be not as simple as initially believed. Indeed, decreased antibiotic use may not be sufficient to let susceptible strains outcompete the resistant ones. Here, we put in perspective these findings and review alternative approaches, such as preventive and therapeutic anti-bacterial immunotherapies that have the potential to by-pass the classic antibiotics. PMID:27248008

  1. An outbreak of scrub typhus in military personnel despite protocols for antibiotic prophylaxis: doxycycline resistance excluded by a quantitative PCR-based susceptibility assay.

    PubMed

    Harris, Patrick N A; Oltvolgyi, Csongor; Islam, Aminul; Hussain-Yusuf, Hazizul; Loewenthal, Mark R; Vincent, Gemma; Stenos, John; Graves, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Scrub typhus is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi and is endemic to many countries in the Asia-Pacific region, including tropical Australia. We describe a recent large outbreak amongst military personnel in north Queensland. A total of 45 clinical cases were identified (36% of all potentially exposed individuals). This occurred despite existing military protocols stipulating the provision of doxycycline prophylaxis. Doxycycline resistance in O. tsutsugamushi has been described in South-East Asia, but not Australia. In one case, O. tsutsugamushi was cultured from eschar tissue and blood. Using quantitative real-time PCR to determine susceptibility to doxycycline for the outbreak strain, a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≤0.04 μg/mL was found, indicating susceptibility to this agent. It seems most probable that failure to adhere to adequate prophylaxis over the duration of the military exercise accounted for the large number of cases encountered rather than doxycycline resistance. PMID:27005452

  2. RSV neutralization by palivizumab, but not by monoclonal antibodies targeting other epitopes, is augmented by Fc gamma receptors.

    PubMed

    van Mechelen, Lenny; Luytjes, Willem; de Haan, Cornelis A M; Wicht, Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Palivizumab efficiently blocks respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in vitro. However, virus neutralization assays generally omit Fc region-mediated effects. We investigated the neutralization activity of RSV-specific monoclonal antibodies on cells with Fc receptors. Subneutralizing concentrations of antibodies resulted in antibody-dependent enhancement of RSV infection in monocytic cells. Contrary to antibodies targeting other epitopes, the neutralization by palivizumab was augmented in cells with Fc receptors. This unrecognized characteristic of palivizumab may be relevant for its performance in vivo. PMID:27185625

  3. [Methodological aspects of economic evaluation in pediatrics: illustration by RSV infection prophylaxis in the French setting].

    PubMed

    Hascoet, J-M; Fagnani, F; Charlemagne, A; Vieux, R; Rozé, J-C; Bendjenana, H

    2008-12-01

    The methodological approach of the economic evaluation of drugs in pediatrics is illustrated by the case study of the prophylaxis for RSV infections using palivizumab in the French setting. The indications for the reimbursement of this treatment have been restricted to premature children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or hemodynamically significant congenital-heart disease. A model was developed primarily using the results of the pivotal clinical studies on palivizumab. Unit costs were estimated (2006 values) in both societal and payer's perspectives. An assumption was made and discussed on the benefits of the prophylaxis on mortality. Based on the different data available and the estimated costs and benefits, different cost-effectiveness ratios (CERs) were estimated from both the society's and payer's points of view. A discount rate of 3% was applied to benefit. The CER obtained in the most unfavorable case is considered acceptable for the innovative-medical technologies in the French-healthcare system. Some of the parameters used by the model will be illustrated from the EPIPAGE study data from 2 of the 9 regions involved in this study: this evaluation suggests that the children not having an RSV infection during their 1st year of life will continue to require significantly fewer hospitalizations in the following years. These additional evaluations also suggest that the model overestimates the costs of the treatment with regard to the true medical situation. This could be explained by the model not using the children's exact weight or the real number of injections because the children had been discharged from the maternity ward based on their date of birth and the epidemic period. In spite of these factors, RSV prophylaxis using palivizumab in premature children with BPD or hemodynamically significant congenital-heart disease can be considered cost-effective in France. PMID:18990549

  4. Palivizumab epitope-displaying virus-like particles protect rodents from RSV challenge.

    PubMed

    Schickli, Jeanne H; Whitacre, David C; Tang, Roderick S; Kaur, Jasmine; Lawlor, Heather; Peters, Cory J; Jones, Joyce E; Peterson, Darrell L; McCarthy, Michael P; Van Nest, Gary; Milich, David R

    2015-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of serious viral bronchiolitis in infants, young children, and the elderly. Currently, there is not an FDA-approved vaccine available for RSV, though the mAb palivizumab is licensed to reduce the incidence of RSV disease in premature or at-risk infants. The palivizumab epitope is a well-characterized, approximately 24-aa helix-loop-helix structure on the RSV fusion (F) protein (F254-277). Here, we genetically inserted this epitope and multiple site variants of this epitope within a versatile woodchuck hepadnavirus core-based virus-like particle (WHcAg-VLP) to generate hybrid VLPs that each bears 240 copies of the RSV epitope in a highly immunogenic arrayed format. A challenge of such an epitope-focused approach is that to be effective, the conformational F254-277 epitope must elicit antibodies that recognize the intact virus. A number of hybrid VLPs containing RSV F254-277 were recognized by palivizumab in vitro and elicited high-titer and protective neutralizing antibody in rodents. Together, the results from this proof-of-principle study suggest that the WHcAg-VLP technology may be an applicable approach to eliciting a response to other structural epitopes. PMID:25751145

  5. The incidence and risk factors of resistant E. coli infections after prostate biopsy under fluoroquinolone prophylaxis: a single-centre experience with 2215 patients.

    PubMed

    Kandemir, Özlem; Bozlu, Murat; Efesoy, Ozan; Güntekin, Onur; Tek, Mesut; Akbay, Erdem

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of resistant Escherichia coli infections after the prostate biopsy under flouroquinolone prophylaxis. From January 2003 to December 2012, we retrospectively evaluated the records of 2215 patients. The risk factors were described for infective complications and resistant E. coli in positive cultures was calculated. Of 2215 patients, 153 had positive urine cultures, such as 129 (84·3%) E. coli, 8 (5·2%) Enterococcus spp., 6 (3·9%) Enterobacter spp., 5 (3·2%) Pseudomonas spp., 3 (1·9%) MRCNS, and 2 (1·3%) Klebsiella spp. Of the positive urine cultures which yielded E. coli, 99 (76·7%) were evaluated for fluoroquinolone resistance. Of those, 83 (83·8%) were fluoroquinolone-resistant and composed of 51 (61·4%) extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive. Fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli ratios were 73·4 and 95·9% before 2008 and after 2008, respectively (P = 0·002). The most sensitive antibiotics for fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains were imipenem (100%), amikacin (84%) and cefoperazone (83%). The use of quinolones in the last 6 months and a history of hospitalization in the last 30 days were found to be significant risk factors. We found that resistant E. coli strains might be a common microorganism in patients with this kind of complication. The risk factors for development of infection with these resistant strains were history of the use of fluoroquinolones and hospitalization. PMID:25630553

  6. Comparison of sparfloxacin, temafloxacin, and ciprofloxacin for prophylaxis and treatment of experimental foreign-body infection by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Cagni, A; Chuard, C; Vaudaux, P E; Schrenzel, J; Lew, D P

    1995-01-01

    The prophylactic and therapeutic activities of three broad-spectrum fluoroquinolones were evaluated in two different experimental models of foreign-body infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) susceptible to quinolones. In a guinea pig model of prophylaxis, subcutaneously implanted tissue cages were infected at a > 90% rate by 10(2) CFU of MRSA in control animals. A single dose of 50 mg of ciprofloxacin per kg of body weight administered intraperitoneally 3 h before bacterial challenge was less effective than an equivalent regimen of either sparfloxacin or temafloxacin in decreasing the rate of experimental infection in tissue cages challenged with increasing inocula of MRSA. In a rat model evaluating the therapy of chronic tissue cage infection caused by MRSA, the efficacy of a 7-day high-dose (50-mg/kg twice-daily) regimen of sparfloxacin, temafloxacin, or ciprofloxacin was compared to that of vancomycin (50 mg/kg twice daily). Active levels of sparfloxacin, temfloxacin, or ciprofloxacin were continuously present in tissue cage fluid during therapy, exceeding their MBCs for MRSA by 6- to 20-fold. Either temafloxacin, sparfloxacin, or vancomycin was significantly (P < 0.01) more active than ciprofloxacin in decreasing the viable counts of MRSA in tissue cage fluids. The different activities of ciprofloxacin compared with those of the other two quinolones against chronic tissue cage infections caused by MRSA did not involve the selective emergence of quinolone-resistant mutants. Temafloxacin and ciprofloxacin, which showed the most prominent differences in their in vivo activities, however, exhibited similar bactericidal properties and pharmacokinetic parameters in the rat model. In conclusion, both temafloxacin and sparfloxacin were significantly more active than ciprofloxacin for the prophylaxis or treatment of experimental foreign-body infections caused by a quinolone-susceptible strain of MRSA. PMID:7486895

  7. Risk of Drug Resistance Among Persons Acquiring HIV Within a Randomized Clinical Trial of Single- or Dual-Agent Preexposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Dara A.; Baeten, Jared M.; McCoy, Connor O.; Weis, Julie F.; Peterson, Dylan; Mbara, Gerald; Donnell, Deborah; Thomas, Katherine K.; Hendrix, Craig W.; Marzinke, Mark A.; Frenkel, Lisa; Ndase, Patrick; Mugo, Nelly R.; Celum, Connie; Overbaugh, Julie; Matsen, Frederick A.; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M.; Donnell, Deborah; Coombs, Robert W.; Frenkel, Lisa; Hendrix, Craig W.; Marzinke, Mark A.; Lingappa, Jairam; McElrath, M. Juliana; Fife, Kenneth; Were, Edwin; Tumwesigye, Elioda; Ndase, Patrick; Katabira, Elly; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Cohen, Craig; Wangisi, Jonathan; Campbell, James; Tappero, Jordan; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey; John-Stewart, Grace; Mugo, Nelly Rwamba; Campbell, James; Tappero, Jordan; Wangisi, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) or TDF alone reduces the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Understanding the risk of antiretroviral resistance selected by PrEP during breakthrough infections is important because of the risk of treatment failure during subsequent antiretroviral use. Methods. Within the largest randomized trial of FTC/TDF versus TDF as PrEP, plasma samples were tested for HIV with resistance mutations associated with FTC (K65R and M184IV) and TDF (K65R and K70E), using 454 sequencing. Results. Of 121 HIV seroconverters, 25 received FTC/TDF, 38 received TDF, and 58 received placebo. Plasma drug levels in 26 individuals indicated PrEP use during or after HIV acquisition, of which 5 had virus with resistance mutations associated with their PrEP regimen. Among those with PrEP drug detected during infection, resistance was more frequent in the FTC/TDF arm (4 of 7 [57%]), compared with the TDF arm (1 of 19 [5.3%]; P = .01), owing to the FTC-associated mutation M184IV. Of these cases, 3 had unrecognized acute infection at PrEP randomization, and 2 were HIV negative at enrollment. Conclusions. These results suggest that resistance selected by PrEP is rare but can occur both with PrEP initiation during acute seronegative HIV infection and in PrEP breakthrough infections and that FTC is associated with a greater frequency of resistance mutations than TDF. PMID:25587020

  8. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Pneumonia Treated with Lower-Dose Palivizumab in a Heart Transplant Recipient

    PubMed Central

    Grodin, J. L.; Wu, K. S.; Kitchell, E. E.; Le, J.; Mishkin, J. D.; Drazner, M. H.; Markham, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important community-acquired pathogen that can cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients who have compromised pulmonary function, are elderly, or are immunosuppressed. This paper describes a 70-year-old man with a remote history of heart transplantation who presented with signs and symptoms of pneumonia. Chest computed tomography (CT) imaging demonstrated new patchy ground glass infiltrates throughout the upper and lower lobes of the left lung, and the RSV direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) was positive. The patient received aerosolized ribavirin, one dose of intravenous immunoglobulin, and one dose of palivizumab. After two months of followup, the patient had improved infiltrates on chest CT, improved pulmonary function testing, and no evidence of graft rejection or dysfunction. There are few data on RSV infections in heart transplant patients, but this case highlights the importance of considering this potentially serious infection and introduces a novel method of treatment. PMID:24826271

  9. Respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia treated with lower-dose palivizumab in a heart transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Grodin, J L; Wu, K S; Kitchell, E E; Le, J; Mishkin, J D; Drazner, M H; Markham, D W

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important community-acquired pathogen that can cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients who have compromised pulmonary function, are elderly, or are immunosuppressed. This paper describes a 70-year-old man with a remote history of heart transplantation who presented with signs and symptoms of pneumonia. Chest computed tomography (CT) imaging demonstrated new patchy ground glass infiltrates throughout the upper and lower lobes of the left lung, and the RSV direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) was positive. The patient received aerosolized ribavirin, one dose of intravenous immunoglobulin, and one dose of palivizumab. After two months of followup, the patient had improved infiltrates on chest CT, improved pulmonary function testing, and no evidence of graft rejection or dysfunction. There are few data on RSV infections in heart transplant patients, but this case highlights the importance of considering this potentially serious infection and introduces a novel method of treatment. PMID:24826271

  10. Teicoplanin alone or combined with rifampin compared with vancomycin for prophylaxis and treatment of experimental foreign body infection by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Schaad, H J; Chuard, C; Vaudaux, P; Waldvogel, F A; Lew, D P

    1994-01-01

    The prophylactic and therapeutic activities of teicoplanin were evaluated in two different experimental models of foreign body infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In a guinea pig model of prophylaxis, subcutaneously implanted tissue cages were infected at a > 90% rate by 10(2) CFU of MRSA in control animals. A single dose of 30 mg of teicoplanin per kg of body weight administered intraperitoneally 6 h before bacterial challenge was as effective as vancomycin in preventing experimental infection in tissue cages injected with either 10(2), 10(3), or 10(4) CFU of MRSA. In a rat model evaluating the therapy of chronic tissue cage infection caused by MRSA, the efficacy of a 7-day high-dose (30 mg/kg once daily) regimen of teicoplanin was compared with that of vancomycin (50 mg/kg twice daily). Whereas high levels of teicoplanin were found in tissue cage fluid, continuously exceeding its MBC for MRSA by 8- to 16-fold, no significant reduction in the viable counts of MRSA occurred during therapy. In contrast, either vancomycin alone or a combined regimen of high-dose teicoplanin plus rifampin (25 mg/kg twice daily) could significantly decrease the viable counts in tissue cage fluids. Whereas the bacteria recovered from tissue cage fluids during therapy showed no evidence of teicoplanin resistance, they failed to be killed even by high levels of this antimicrobial agent. The altered susceptibility of in vivo growing bacteria to teicoplanin killing might in part explain the defective activity of this antimicrobial agent when used as monotherapy against chronic S. aureus infections. These data may indicate the need for a combined regimen of teicoplanin with other agents such as rifampin to optimize the therapy of severe staphylococcal infections. PMID:7985998

  11. Comparison of Levofloxacin, Alatrofloxacin, and Vancomycin for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Experimental Foreign-Body-Associated Infection by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Vaudaux, Pierre; Francois, Patrice; Bisognano, Carmelo; Schrenzel, Jacques; Lew, Daniel P.

    2002-01-01

    The prophylactic and therapeutic activities of two fluoroquinolones, levofloxacin and alatrofloxacin (the l-Ala-l-Ala prodrug of trovafloxacin), were compared to those of vancomycin in two different experimental models of foreign-body-associated infections caused by methicillin-resistant but quinolone-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. In a guinea pig model of prophylaxis, subcutaneously implanted tissue cages were infected with 103 CFU of MRSA, which was a 100% infectious dose in control animals. A single dose of 50 mg of levofloxacin per kg of body weight, administered intraperitoneally 3 h before bacterial challenge, was more efficient than vancomycin for the prevention of infections in tissue cages with MRSA inocula of 104 and 105 CFU. In a rat model used to evaluate therapy of chronic tissue cage infection caused by MRSA, the efficacies of 7-day high-dose regimens of levofloxacin (100 mg/kg once a day [q.d.] or 50 mg/kg twice a day [b.i.d.]) or alatrofloxacin (50 mg/kg q.d.) were compared to the efficacy of vancomycin (50 mg/kg b.i.d.). Active levels of levofloxacin, trovafloxacin, and vancomycin were continuously present in tissue cage fluid, with the levels exceeding the minimal bactericidal concentrations for MRSA during therapy. The q.d. and b.i.d. regimens of levofloxacin had equivalent activities and were significantly (P < 0.05) more active than alatrofloxacin or vancomycin in decreasing the viable counts of MRSA in tissue cage fluids. No quinolone-resistant mutants emerged during therapy with either fluoroquinolone. The mechanisms explaining the inferior activity of alatrofloxacin compared to the activity of levofloxacin against chronic foreign-body-associated infections by MRSA are unknown. PMID:11959588

  12. Topiramate for migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    2006-08-01

    About 14% of adults in the UK have migraines. Drugs used in migraine prophylaxis include beta-blockers (e.g. propranolol), 5HT antagonists (e.g. pizotifen), antidepressants (e.g. amitriptyline), antiepileptics (e.g. sodium valproate) and NSAIDs. The antiepileptic topiramate (Topamax-Janssen-Cilag) is licensed for the prophylaxis of migraine headache in patients aged over 16 years. Here we discuss the place of topiramate in migraine prophylaxis. PMID:16903488

  13. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... this medicine each month during RSV season. Your health care provider will let you know when the monthly injections are no longer needed.Your child's health care provider (doctor, nurse, or pharmacist) may measure ...

  14. [Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery].

    PubMed

    Stastník, Miloslav

    2004-04-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis is an important factor influencing the risk of infection at the spot of surgical interventions (SSI). SSIs are the most important nosocomial infections of hospitalized surgical patients; they are responsible for increases of 10 to 20 % in the total costs of treatment. The efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis hinges on four basic factors. The first is a correctly indicated prophylaxis (in surgical operations with a confirmed reduction of SSI risk after prophylaxis and/or in cases of surgical operations, where a possible early or organ SSI could have tragic consequences). The second factor is the choice of the best possible antimicrobial for a specific indication. The third factor is the best possible time for the administration of prophylaxis (in most indications at the beginning of anaesthesia). The fourth factor influencing the efficacy of prophylaxis is its administration for only the absolutely minimum time period necessary (in most indications best is a single administration, possibly including a second peroperative ATB dose). The high rate of errors in the actual practice of prophylaxis and the confirmed efficacy of implementing local recommendations indicate that it is absolutely necessary to define national and local recommendations for antimicrobial prophylaxis, to ensure that surgeons adhere to these recommendations and to initiate SSI surveillance in the Czech Republic. PMID:15146385

  15. [Antibiotical prophylaxy in gynecology].

    PubMed

    Záhumenský, J; Menzlová, E; Zmrhal, J; Kučera, E

    2013-08-01

    Gynecological surgery is considered to be clear with possible contamination by gram-positive cocci from the skin, gram-negatives from the perineum or groins or polymicrobial biocenosis from vagina, depending on the surgical approach. Antibiotical prophylaxy enforces the natural mechanisms of immunity and helps to exclude present infection. There were presented many studies comparing useful effect of prophylaxis in gynecological surgery. The benefits of antibiotical prophylaxy before IUD insertion, before the cervical surgery and before hysteroscopies were not verified. On the other hand the prophylaxy of vaginal surgery including vaginal hysterectomy decreases the number of postoperative febrile complications. The positive influence of prophylaxis before the simple laparoscopy and laparoscopy without bowel injury or the opening of the vagina was not evidently verified. In abdominal hysterectomy the antibiotical prophylaxy decreases the incidence of postoperative complications significantly. The administration of 2 g of cefazolin can be recommended. In procedures taking more than 3 hours the repeated administration of cefazolin is suitable. New urogynecological procedures, using mesh implants, were not sufficiently evaluated as for postoperative infections and the posible antibiotical effect. The presence of implant in possibly non sterile area should be considered as high risc of postoperative complications. PMID:24040985

  16. Comparison of 454 Ultra-Deep Sequencing and Allele-Specific Real-Time PCR with Regard to the Detection of Emerging Drug-Resistant Minor HIV-1 Variants after Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for Vertical Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Andrea; Kuecherer, Claudia; Kunz, Andrea; Dabrowski, Piotr Wojtek; Radonić, Aleksandar; Nitsche, Andreas; Theuring, Stefanie; Bannert, Norbert; Sewangi, Julius; Mbezi, Paulina; Dugange, Festo; Harms, Gundel; Meixenberger, Karolin

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnant HIV-infected women were screened for the development of HIV-1 drug resistance after implementation of a triple-antiretroviral transmission prophylaxis as recommended by the WHO in 2006. The study offered the opportunity to compare amplicon-based 454 ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) and allele-specific real-time PCR (ASPCR) for the detection of drug-resistant minor variants in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). Methods Plasma samples from 34 Tanzanian women were previously analysed by ASPCR for key resistance mutations in the viral RT selected by AZT, 3TC, and NVP (K70R, K103N, Y181C, M184V, T215Y/F). In this study, the RT region of the same samples was investigated by amplicon-based UDS for resistance mutations using the 454 GS FLX System. Results Drug-resistant HIV-variants were identified in 69% (20/29) of women by UDS and in 45% (13/29) by ASPCR. The absolute number of resistance mutations identified by UDS was twice that identified by ASPCR (45 vs 24). By UDS 14 of 24 ASPCR-detected resistance mutations were identified at the same position. The overall concordance between UDS and ASPCR was 61.0% (25/41). The proportions of variants quantified by UDS were approximately 2–3 times lower than by ASPCR. Amplicon generation from samples with viral loads below 20,000 copies/ml failed more frequently by UDS compared to ASPCR (limit of detection = 650 copies/ml), resulting in missing or insufficient sequence coverage. Conclusions Both methods can provide useful information about drug-resistant minor HIV-1 variants. ASPCR has a higher sensitivity than UDS, but is restricted to single resistance mutations. In contrast, UDS is limited by its requirement for high viral loads to achieve sufficient sequence coverage, but the sequence information reveals the complete resistance patterns within the genomic region analysed. Improvements to the UDS limit of detection are in progress, and UDS could then facilitate monitoring of drug-resistant minor variants in

  17. The use of preexposure treatments for HIV prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Adrian; Redfield, Robert R; Gilliam, Bruce L

    2012-01-01

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus remains a global concern with a significant number of incident infections still reported worldwide. The use of prophylaxis prior to exposure to the virus to prevent infection has been a growing area of recent research. Results in nonhuman primates and clinical trials in high-risk patient populations using preexposure prophylaxis have shown promising results in terms of efficacy and safety, especially relating to oral preexposure prophylaxis. The potential use of oral antiretroviral agents traditionally used for human immunodeficiency virus treatment as prophylaxis raises interesting considerations, such as the best agents available for such a role, long-term safety in healthy individuals, and the potential development of resistance to these agents should infection occur. From a public health perspective, the cost-effectiveness of implementing this preventive strategy has not been fully defined at this point in time. PMID:22347807

  18. Prophylaxis for Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Jean D.

    1987-01-01

    Although antibiotic prophylaxis for patients at risk for bacterial endocarditis has never been scientifcally tested, it is now an accepted practice in medicine. Patients at risk include all individuals with prosthetic valves, congenital or rheumatic heart disease, previous endocarditis, idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS), and mitral valve prolapse with a holosytolic murmur. Dental, upper respiratory tract, genitourinary and gastrointestinal procedures associated with bacteremia are reviewed. New antibiotic regimens utilizing oral agents for shorter periods have recently been published and are outlined here. Patients at high risk of endocarditis (especially those with prosthetic valves) should continue to receive prophylactic antibiotics by the parenteral route. PMID:21263914

  19. Prophylaxis for infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Gray, J D

    1987-04-01

    Although antibiotic prophylaxis for patients at risk for bacterial endocarditis has never been scientifcally tested, it is now an accepted practice in medicine. Patients at risk include all individuals with prosthetic valves, congenital or rheumatic heart disease, previous endocarditis, idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS), and mitral valve prolapse with a holosytolic murmur. Dental, upper respiratory tract, genitourinary and gastrointestinal procedures associated with bacteremia are reviewed. New antibiotic regimens utilizing oral agents for shorter periods have recently been published and are outlined here. Patients at high risk of endocarditis (especially those with prosthetic valves) should continue to receive prophylactic antibiotics by the parenteral route. PMID:21263914

  20. Effectiveness of sealed dental prophylaxis angles inoculated with Bacillus stearothermophilus in preventing leakage.

    PubMed

    Barnes, C M; Anderson, N A; Michalek, S M; Russell, C M

    1994-01-01

    It was the purpose of this in vitro investigation to evaluate the effectiveness of several brands of sealed, reusable prophylaxis angles to keep internal materials within the internal portions of the head of the prophylaxis angle, and not allowing contaminates to leak out. Three brands of sealed, reusable dental prophylaxis angles were autoclaved and then taken apart under a biocontainment flow hood. Testing conditions were designed to prevent a "worst case scenario" by inoculating dental prophylaxis angles with 10(6) of the heat resistant spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus and 20% bovine serum albumin to simulate the presence of human serum. The concentration of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores was verified before testing procedures were initiated. The internal portions of the sterile prophylaxis angles were inoculated with a 1:1 mixture of the Bacillus stearothermophilus spores and bovine serum albumin, at a concentration of 1.15 x 10(6) spores/inoculation. The prophylaxis angles were reassembled under sterile conditions, and a sterile rubber cup was inserted into each of the prophylaxis angles. The prophylaxis angles were attached to a sterile dental handpiece and then submerged in a 50 ml tube containing sterile trypticase soy broth and run at 3000 rpm for 30 seconds. The tube of medium was incubated for 7 days. No growth of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores could be cultured from one of the brands of prophylaxis angles at any time during the incubation period. The other two brands of prophylaxis angles did produce some leakage of the Bacillus stearothermophilus spores. PMID:7999287

  1. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in minor and major surgery.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, M; Righi, E; Astilean, A; Corcione, S; Petrolo, A; Farina, E C; De Rosa, F G

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a frequent cause of morbidity following surgical procedures. Gram-positive cocci, particularly staphylococci, cause many of these infections, although Gram-negative organisms are also frequently involved. The risk of developing a SSI is associated with a number of factors, including aspects of the operative procedure itself, such as wound classification, and patient-related variables, such as preexisting medical conditions. Antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) plays an important role in reducing SSIs, especially if patient-related risk factors for SSIs are present. The main components of antimicrobial prophylaxis are: timing, selection of drugs and patients, duration and costs. Compliance with these generally accepted preventive principles may lead to overall decreases in the incidence of these infections. Ideally the administration of the prophylactic agent should start within 30 minutes from the surgical incision. The duration of the AP should not exceed 24 hours for the majority of surgical procedures. The shortest effective period of prophylactic antimicrobial administration is not known and studies have demonstrated that post-surgical antibiotic administration is unnecessary. Furthermore, there were no proven benefits in multiple dose regimens when compared to single-dose regimens. The choice of an appropriate prophylactic antimicrobial agent should be based primarily on efficacy and safety. Broad spectrum antibiotics should be avoided due to the risk of promoting bacterial resistance. Cephalosporins are the most commonly used antibiotics in surgical prophylaxis; specifically, cefazolin or cefuroxime are mainly used in the prophylaxis regimens for cardio-thoracic surgery, vascular surgery, hip or knee arthroplasty surgery, neurosurgical procedures and gynecologic and obstetric procedures. A review of the prophylactic regimens regarding the main surgical procedures is presented. PMID:24561611

  2. 21 CFR 872.6290 - Prophylaxis cup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prophylaxis cup. 872.6290 Section 872.6290 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6290 Prophylaxis cup. (a) Identification. A prophylaxis... agents during prophylaxis (cleaning). The dental handpiece spins the rubber cup holding the...

  3. Preexposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kelesidis, Theodoros; Landovitz, Raphael J.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing the incidence of HIV remains one of our greatest public health challenges. However, there is growing optimism that preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could have a major impact on preventing incident HIV infection. Recently presented data on the use of oral PrEP in men who have sex with men (MSM) have provided proof-of-principle for this strategy. Additional clinical trials are evaluating whether PrEP provides similar protection to risk groups other than MSM, such as heterosexual persons and injection drug users. Still unanswered questions include optimal dosing strategies, long-term safety, maximizing adherence and minimizing costs, addressing drug resistance in the face of PrEP failure, optimizing access, and assessing effects on risk behavior. Future implementation will be guided by the results of clinical trials in progress. This article provides a review of the data on the potential strengths and limitations of PrEP as an HIV prevention strategy, identifies challenges to implementation of this approach, and outlines knowledge gaps. PMID:21465112

  4. [Drugs for migraine prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Takao

    2012-01-01

    Migraine is a prevalent and disabling neurologic disorder. The aims of migraine management are lifting the burden of migraine and improvement of quality of life (QOL) of the sufferers. Chronification of episodic migraine would introduce refractory chronic migraine or medication overuse headache. The prevention of chronification of migraine is one of the major roles of prophylactic medication. There are some classes of prophylactic drugs against migraine headache. The calcium blocker (lomeridine, verapamil), anti-epileptic drugs (valproate), beta-blockers (propranorol), and anti-depressant (amytriptyline) have high quality evidence in migraine prophylaxis. Migraine has varied cormorbid disorders, such as hypertension, cardiac diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, psychiatric disorders, epilepsy, and allergic disorders. Upon choosing preventive drug, neurologists should consider the comorbid disorders. Recent studies revealed possible association of migraine and cerebrovascular diseases, especially in migraine with aura and in young women. Not only headache expert but every neurologist should have broad knowledge concerning migraine management. PMID:23196487

  5. Antimicrobial Blue Light Therapy for Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Infection in a Mouse Burn Model: Implications for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Combat-related Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunsong; Zhu, Yingbo; Gupta, Asheesh; Huang, Yingying; Murray, Clinton K.; Vrahas, Mark S.; Sherwood, Margaret E.; Baer, David G.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Dai, Tianhong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the utility of antimicrobial blue light therapy for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infection in a mouse burn model. A bioluminescent clinical isolate of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii was obtained. The susceptibility of A. baumannii to blue light (415 nm)–inactivation was compared in vitro to that of human keratinocytes. Repeated cycles of sublethal inactivation of bacterial by blue light were performed to investigate the potential resistance development of A. baumannii to blue light. A mouse model of third degree burn infected with A. baumannii was developed. A single exposure of blue light was initiated 30 minutes after bacterial inoculation to inactivate A. baumannii in mouse burns. It was found that the multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strain was significantly more susceptible than keratinocytes to blue light inactivation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed blue light–induced ultrastructural damage in A. baumannii cells. Fluorescence spectroscopy suggested that endogenous porphyrins exist in A. baumannii cells. Blue light at an exposure of 55.8 J/cm2 significantly reduced the bacterial burden in mouse burns. No resistance development to blue light inactivation was observed in A. baumannii after 10 cycles of sublethal inactivation of bacteria. No significant DNA damage was detected in mouse skin by means of a skin TUNEL assay after a blue light exposure of 195 J/cm2. PMID:24381206

  6. Antifungal prophylaxis during neutropenia and immunodeficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Lortholary, O; Dupont, B

    1997-01-01

    Fungal infections represent a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients with almost all types of immunodeficiencies. These infections may be nosocomial (aspergillosis) or community acquired (cryptococcosis), or both (candidiasis). Endemic mycoses such as histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and penicilliosis may infect many immunocompromised hosts in some geographic areas and thereby create major public health problems. With the wide availability of oral azoles, antifungal prophylactic strategies have been extensively developed. However, only a few well-designed studies involving strict criteria have been performed, mostly in patients with hematological malignancies or AIDS. In these situations, the best dose and duration of administration of the antifungal drug often remain to be determined. In high-risk neutropenic or bone marrow transplant patients, fluconazole is effective for the prevention of superficial and/or systemic candidal infections but is not always able to prolong overall survival and potentially selects less susceptible or resistant Candida spp. Primary prophylaxis against aspergillosis remains investigative. At present, no standard general recommendation for primary antifungal prophylaxis can be proposed for AIDS patients or transplant recipients. However, for persistently immunocompromised patients who previously experienced a noncandidal systemic fungal infection, prolonged suppressive antifungal therapy is often indicated to prevent a relapse. Better strategies for controlling immune deficiencies should also help to avoid some potentially life-threatening deep mycoses. When prescribing antifungal prophylaxis, physicians should be aware of the potential emergence of resistant strains, drug-drug interactions, and the cost. Well-designed, randomized, multicenter clinical trials in high-risk immunocompromised hosts are urgently needed to better define how to prevent severe invasive mycoses. PMID:9227863

  7. Clinical aspects of antimicrobial prophylaxis for invasive urological procedures.

    PubMed

    Mirone, Vincenzo; Franco, Marco

    2014-10-01

    The essential value of antimicrobial prophylaxis is to defend the patient undergoing invasive diagnostic procedures or surgery against infectious complications by reducing the bacterial load. Escherichia coli remains the predominant uropathogen (70-80%) isolated in acute community-acquired uncomplicated infections, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus (10 to 15%). Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus species, and enterococci infrequently cause uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis. The pathogens traditionally associated with UTI are altering many of their features, particularly because of antimicrobial resistance. Currently, only transurethral resection of prostate and prostate biopsy has been well studied and has high and moderately high levels of evidence in favor of using antibiotic prophylaxis. Other urological interventions have not been well studied. The moderate to low evidence suggests that there is no need for antibiotic prophylaxis in cystoscopy, urodynamic investigations, and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, whereas the low evidence favors the use of antibiotic prophylaxis for therapeutic ureterorenoscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. The scarce data from studies on transurethral resection of bladder tumors cannot provide a definitive indication for antibiotic prophylaxis for this intervention. PMID:25245706

  8. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis outbreak in an Italian prison: tolerance of pyrazinamide plus levofloxacin prophylaxis and serial interferon gamma release assays.

    PubMed

    Bedini, A; Garlassi, E; Stentarelli, C; Petrella, S; Meacci, M; Meccugni, B; Meschiari, M; Franceschini, E; Cerri, S; Brasacchio, A; Rumpianesi, F; Richeldi, L; Mussini, C

    2016-07-01

    The optimal treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in subjects exposed to multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) remains unclear, and the change in response of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QTB-IT) test during and after treatment is unknown. Between May 2010 and August 2010, 39 prisoners at the 'Casa Circondariale' of Modena, Italy, were exposed to a patient with active pulmonary MDR TB. All contacts were tested with the tuberculin skin test and QTB-IT. Upon exclusion of active TB, subjects positive to both tests were offered 6 months' treatment with pyrazinamide (PZA) and levofloxacin (LVX). QTB-IT testing was repeated at 3 and 6 months after initial testing in all subjects who were offered LTBI treatment. Seventeen (43.5%) of 39 subjects tested positive to both tuberculin skin test and QTB-IT test, and 12 (70.5%) agreed to receive therapy with PZA and LVX at standard doses. Only five (41.6%) of 12 subjects completed 6 months' treatment. Reasons for discontinuation were asymptomatic hepatitis, gastritis and diarrhoea. The QTB-IT values decreased in all subjects who completed the treatment, in two (33%) of six of those who received treatment for less than 3 months and in one (50%) of two patients who discontinued therapy after 3 months. The QTB-IT test results never turned negative. Despite the small number of subjects, the study confirmed that PZA plus LVX is a poorly tolerated option for MDR LTBI treatment. We observed a large degree of variation in the results of the QTB-IT test results among participants. The study confirmed that the interferon gamma release assay is not a reliable tool for monitoring the treatment of MDR LTBI in clinical practice. PMID:27222718

  9. [Beta blockers in migraine prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Toshihiko

    2009-10-01

    Beta blockers (beta-adrenoceptor blockers) are known to be used for the prophylactic treatment of migraine. The improvement of migraine in the patients who recieved propranolol for angina pectoris revealed the effectiveness of propranolol in migraine prophylaxis. Many clinical trials have confirmed that propranolol is effective in the prophylactic treatment of migraine. Other beta-blocking drugs, namely nadolol, metoprolol, atenolol, timolol and bisoprolol, have also been demonstrated to be effective in the prophylaxis of migraine. In contrast, several beta blockers with intrinsic sympathetic activity (ISA), such as alprenolol, oxprenolol, pindolol and acebutolol, have not been demonstrated to be effective in migraine prophylaxis. In this review, we have descrived the pharmacologic background and pharmacokinetics of the beta blockers that demonstrated a prophylactic effect for migraine will be described. We have also reviewed the results of clinical trials of beta-blocking drugs for migraine. PMID:19882938

  10. 21 CFR 872.6290 - Prophylaxis cup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prophylaxis cup. 872.6290 Section 872.6290 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6290 Prophylaxis cup. (a) Identification. A prophylaxis cup is a device made of rubber intended to be held by a dental handpiece and used to apply...

  11. Analysis of Mutations in the Gene Encoding Cytomegalovirus DNA Polymerase in a Phase 2 Clinical Trial of Brincidofovir Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, E. Randall; Foster, Scott; Brundage, Tom; Chou, Sunwen; Prichard, Mark N.; Kleiboeker, Steven; Wilson, Chad; Colville, Donella; Mommeja-Marin, Herve

    2016-01-01

    Brincidofovir is an oral antiviral in development for prevention of cytomegalovirus disease. Cytomegalovirus genotyping results from a phase 2 trial comparing brincidofovir to placebo for prophylaxis against cytomegalovirus infection in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients provided initial data on the clinical resistance profile for brincidofovir. In this study, no known resistance-associated mutations were detected in brincidofovir-treated subjects; identified genotypic substitutions did not confer resistance to cytomegalovirus antivirals in vitro, suggesting that these changes represent polymorphisms unrelated to brincidofovir resistance. Lack of evidence for genotypic resistance during prophylaxis suggests that first-line use of brincidofovir for prevention of cytomegalovirus infection may preserve downstream options for patients. PMID:26941282

  12. Analysis of Mutations in the Gene Encoding Cytomegalovirus DNA Polymerase in a Phase 2 Clinical Trial of Brincidofovir Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Lanier, E Randall; Foster, Scott; Brundage, Tom; Chou, Sunwen; Prichard, Mark N; Kleiboeker, Steven; Wilson, Chad; Colville, Donella; Mommeja-Marin, Herve

    2016-07-01

    Brincidofovir is an oral antiviral in development for prevention of cytomegalovirus disease. Cytomegalovirus genotyping results from a phase 2 trial comparing brincidofovir to placebo for prophylaxis against cytomegalovirus infection in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients provided initial data on the clinical resistance profile for brincidofovir. In this study, no known resistance-associated mutations were detected in brincidofovir-treated subjects; identified genotypic substitutions did not confer resistance to cytomegalovirus antivirals in vitro, suggesting that these changes represent polymorphisms unrelated to brincidofovir resistance. Lack of evidence for genotypic resistance during prophylaxis suggests that first-line use of brincidofovir for prevention of cytomegalovirus infection may preserve downstream options for patients. PMID:26941282

  13. Primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Jawad A; Kanwal, Fasiha

    2014-12-01

    Gastroesophageal varices are present in almost half of patients with cirrhosis at the time of initial diagnosis. Variceal bleeding occurs in 25% to 35% of patients with cirrhosis. Effective and timely care can prevent variceal bleeding (primary prophylaxis). For example, clinical studies demonstrate that both beta-blockers and endoscopic variceal ligation are effective in preventing a first episode of variceal bleeding. The major challenge is to screen patients in a timely manner and institute a form of therapy that has the highest chance of success in terms of patient compliance and effectiveness. PMID:25440925

  14. PROPHYLAXIS OF VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM IN ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Leme, Luiz Eugênio Garcez; Sguizzatto, Guilherme Turolla

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism and its complications in orthopedic surgery is increasingly significant. This review discusses the pathophysiology of thrombus formation in general and orthopedic surgery, its incidence, predisposing factors and complications. It also presents an updated presentation and critique of prophylaxis currently available in our environment. PMID:27047885

  15. The European preexposure prophylaxis revolution

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Gus; McCormack, Sheena; Molina, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The review describes the European epidemic and the challenges in moving from clinical trials of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to routine practice. Recent findings Two European trials conducted in gay and other MSM and transgender women reported a high and consistent reduction in HIV incidence using oral PrEP with tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC). The incidence of HIV infection in the control group was much higher than anticipated, based on routine surveillance data in MSM, in spite of the highest standard of HIV prevention available. Summary Recent results have highlighted the urgent need to make PrEP available to key populations in Europe as an additional prevention tool. Gilead has not yet submitted an application to use TDF/FTC as PrEP in Europe. Although regulatory approval would accelerate implementation, countries are already dispensing TDF/FTC as postexposure prophylaxis without this. Services for prevention are diverse across countries ranging from free, walk-in services for the diagnosis and treatment of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, to insurance-dependent reimbursement of private clinical services. Momentum is gathering in Europe with PrEP demonstration projects in MSM and a growing demand from community organizations. Each Member State urgently needs to identify their key populations and determine the service best placed to provide this new prevention strategy within a comprehensive prevention package. PMID:26599164

  16. Pathophysiological basis of migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Galletti, Francesca; Cupini, Letizia Maria; Corbelli, Ilenia; Calabresi, Paolo; Sarchielli, Paola

    2009-10-01

    Several cellular and molecular mechanisms have been implicated in migraine pathophysiology including abnormal neuronal excitability and vascular events. Drugs from different pharmacological classes are used for migraine prophylaxis. These agents may normalize neuronal excitability by modulating distinct ionic channels and various neurotransmitter systems. They can also block cortical spreading depression, prevent peripheral and/or central pain sensitization, and normalize brainstem function. Most of the drugs recently used in migraine prophylaxis have been identified by serendipidy and they have been originally approved for other indications. Subsequently, their use has been extended to migraine prevention, according to their putative mechanisms of action. More recently, trials on adequate samples of migraine patients have been conducted for several drugs. In the present review, we will present and discuss the pathophysiological bases for the use of antidepressants, beta-adrenergic blockers, calcium channel blockers and antiepileptic drugs in migraine prevention. Currently, the major classes of conventional migraine preventive drugs include the antidepressant amitriptyline, the beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol, and the antiepileptic drugs topiramate and valproic acid. Promising results have recently been obtained for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers. Some limited clinical findings have also been reported for atypical antipsychotic agents, nutritional supplements and also botulinum toxin. Targets of migraine preventive treatment are to reduce frequency and intensity of attacks and to decrease disability related to chronic headache. PMID:19654035

  17. Preexposure Prophylaxis and Patient Centeredness

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, Jonathan M.; Rodriguez, Maria I.; Jackson, Skyler D.; Marcus, Julia L.

    2016-01-01

    Preexposure prophylaxis has transformed HIV prevention, becoming widespread in communities of gay and bisexual men in the developed world in a short time. There is a broad concern that preexposure prophylaxis will discourage condom use among gay men (i.e., “risk compensation”). This commentary argues for broadening the focus on gay men’s health beyond sexual health to address the holistic health and well-being of gay men. Gay men may benefit from being offered candid, nonjudgmental health promotion/HIV prevention messages not requiring condom use for anal sex. Lessons can be drawn from the family planning movement, which has undergone a similar shift in focus. The principle of patient centeredness supports such a shift in gay men’s health toward the goal of providing men with the knowledge to evaluate various prevention approaches according to the specifics of their life circumstances and health needs. Bringing more nuance to discussions of sexual risk and sexual pleasure could facilitate more universally healthy attitudes regarding sex among gay men, in turn enabling healthier decisions more compatible with men’s own values and preferences. PMID:27387042

  18. Clinical consequences and cost of limiting use of vancomycin for perioperative prophylaxis: example of coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, G.; Goldie, S. J.; Platt, R.

    2001-01-01

    Routine us of vancomycin for perioperative prophylaxis is discouraged, principally to minimize microbial resistance to it. However, outcomes and costs of this recommendation have not been assessed. We used decision-analytic models to compare clinical results and cost-effectiveness of no prophylaxis, cefazolin, and vancomycin, in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. In the base case, vancomycin resulted in 7% fewer surgical site infections and 1% lower all-cause mortality and saved $117 per procedure, compared with cefazolin. Cefazolin, in turn, resulted in substantially fewer infections and deaths and lower costs than no prophylaxis. We conclude that perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis with vancomycin is usually more effective and less expensive than cefazolin. Data on vancomycin's impact on resistance are needed to quantify the trade-off between individual patients' improved clinical outcomes and lower costs and the future long-term consequences to society. PMID:11747694

  19. Antimicrobial agents in orthopaedic surgery: Prophylaxis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Trampuz, Andrej; Zimmerli, Werner

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of implant-associated infection involves interaction between the microorganisms (biofilm formation), the implant and the host. Despite improvement of perioperative prophylaxis, orthopaedic implants still remain highly susceptible to bacterial or fungal contamination, generally resulting in persistent implant-associated infection. Therefore, perioperative and life-long prevention of infection is important. For perioperative prophylaxis, a first- or second-generation cephalosporin is recommended, which should be administered between 60 and 30 minutes before incision. The duration of prophylaxis should not exceed 1 day. In centres with a low incidence of infection, a single dose is sufficient. Treatment of infections associated with orthopaedic devices usually requires appropriate surgical intervention combined with prolonged antimicrobial therapy. The choice of the antimicrobial regimen depends on the duration and pathogenesis of infection, stability of the implant, antimicrobial susceptibility of the pathogen and condition of the surrounding soft tissue. The role of rifampicin (rifampin), which has excellent activity on adherent staphylococci, in combination with beta-lactams, glycopeptides, fluoroquinolones, minocycline, cotrimoxazole or fusidic acid, in the treatment of staphylococcal infections is outlined. Increasing antimicrobial resistance requires the use of alternative agents, such as quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid and daptomycin, but results of clinical trials with these agents are limited. Also reviewed are potential new antimicrobial agents currently undergoing investigation, such as the novel oxazolidinone RWJ-416457, the new glycopeptide dalbavancin, the glycylcycline compound tigecycline, the new carbacephem BP-102 and novel rifamycin derivatives. Vaccination against Staphylococcus aureus with StaphVAX induced specific antibodies potentially preventing bacteraemia; however, there are no studies on efficacy in the prophylaxis of

  20. Efficacy of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsin-Hsiao S.; Gbadegesin, Rasheed A.; Foreman, John W.; Nagaraj, Shashi K.; Wigfall, Delbert R.; Wiener, John S.; Routh, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Controversy exists regarding the use of continuous antibiotic prophylaxis vs observation in the management of children with vesicoureteral reflux. The reported effectiveness of continuous antibiotic prophylaxis in children with reflux varies widely. We determined whether the aggregated evidence supports use of continuous antibiotic prophylaxis in children with vesicoureteral reflux. Materials and Methods We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, clinicaltrials.gov, MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, Google Scholar and recently presented meeting abstracts for reports in any language. Bibliographies of included studies were then hand searched for any missed articles. The study protocol was prospectively registered at PROSPERO (No. CRD42014009639). Reports were assessed and data abstracted in duplicate, with differences resolved by consensus. Risk of bias was assessed using standardized instruments. Results We identified 1,547 studies, of which 8 are included in the metaanalysis. Pooled results demonstrated that continuous antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced the risk of recurrent febrile or symptomatic urinary tract infection (pooled OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.96) but, if urinary tract infection occurred, increased the risk of antibiotic resistant organism (pooled OR 8.75, 95% CI 3.52–21.73). A decrease in new renal scarring was not associated with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis use. Adverse events were similar between the 2 groups. Significant heterogeneity existed between studies (I2 50%, p = 0.03), specifically between those trials with significant risk of bias (eg unclear protocol descriptions and/or lack of blinding). Conclusions Compared to no treatment, continuous antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced the risk of febrile and symptomatic urinary tract infections in children with vesicoureteral reflux, although it increased the risk of infection due to antibiotic resistant bacteria. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis did not significantly

  1. [Vascular graft infection by Staphylococcus epidermidis: efficacy of various perioperative prophylaxis protocols in an animal model].

    PubMed

    Giacometti, A; Cirioni, O; Ghiselli, R; Mocchegiani, F; Riva, A; Saba, V; Scalise, G

    2001-03-01

    A rat model was used to investigate the efficacy of levofloxacin, cefazolin and teicoplanin in the prevention of vascular prosthetic graft infection. Graft infections were established in the subcutaneous tissue of 300 male Wistar rats by implantation of Dacron prostheses followed by topical inoculation with methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis. The study included a group without contamination, two contaminated groups without prophylaxis, two contaminated groups with intraperitoneal levofloxacin prophylaxis (10 mg/kg), two contaminated groups with intraperitoneal cefazolin prophylaxis (30 mg/kg), two contaminated groups with intraperitoneal teicoplanin prophylaxis (10 mg/kg) and six contaminated groups with rifampin-soaked graft and intraperitoneal levofloxacin, cefazolin or te- icoplanin prophylaxis. The grafts were removed after 7 days and evaluated by quantitative culture. The efficacy of levofloxacin against the methicillin- susceptible strain did not differ from that of cefazolin or teicoplanin. Levofloxacin showed slight less efficacy than teicoplanin against the methicillin-resistant strain. The levofloxacin-rifampin combination proved to be similarly effective to the rifampin-teicoplanin combination and more effective than the rifampin-cefazolin combination against both strains. The rifampin-levofloxacin combination may be useful for the prevention of late-appearing vascular graft infections caused by S. epidermidis because it takes advantage of the good anti-staphylococcal activity of both drugs. PMID:12082344

  2. New developments in migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Bigal, Marcelo E; Krymchantowski, Abouch V; Rapoport, Alan M

    2003-04-01

    Migraine is a common neurological disorder that afflicts > or = 12% of the adult US population. Severe, frequent and disabling attacks require effective prophylaxis. Traditional preventive drugs such as beta-blockers, antidepressants and calcium antagonists, despite their documented efficacy, fail to offer relief for a significant proportion of migraine sufferers. Multiple threads of research over the last 15 years have led to the concept that migraine is generated from a hyperexcitable brain. This opens new perspectives in terms of preventive options, especially regarding the anticonvulsants agents. Additionally, different groups of substances, some of which nominated as non-orthodox agents, have been recently subjected to clinical trials and found to be effective. The aim of this review is to present and discuss the new options for migraine prevention. PMID:12667107

  3. Laboratory-confirmed influenza B infection in immunized long-term care facility residents receiving oseltamivir prophylaxis in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Winter, Anne-Luise; Peci, Adriana; Eshaghi, Alireza; Baird, Michelle; Memari, Nader; Kristjanson, Erik; Balogun, Elizabeth; Higgins, Rachel R; Li, Aimin; Farrell, David J; Gubbay, Jonathan B

    2013-11-01

    We report on an influenza B outbreak in an Ontario long-term care facility in which 2 immunized residents receiving oseltamivir prophylaxis for at least 5 days developed laboratory-confirmed influenza B infection. All isolates were tested for the most common oseltamivir resistance, and none of them had resistance identified. PMID:24113612

  4. LITHIUM PROPHYLAXIS IN AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Rao, A. Venkoba; Hariharasubramanian, N.; Devi, S. Parvathi; Sugumar, A.; Srinivasan, V.

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY Out of 108 patients on the rolls in the Lithium clinic, Madurai Medical College and Govt. Rajaji Hospital, Madurai, India, 47 patients suffering from affective disorders receiving lithium continuously for more than three years were analysed with a view to study the recurrences. Thirteen suffered no relapses while on lithium while nineteen experienced them while on lithium. Four were free from recurrences after lithium was withdrawn- Seven defaulted but suffered recurrences while in four the drug was withdrawn and in both the groups remission was achieved with re-administration of lithium. The study reveals that lithium besides averting the recurrences can reduce the frequency, number, duration, intensity of episodes and improve the amenability to drugs. Among the symptoms, suicidal ideas and behaviour and insight were found to be influenced favourably by lithium. Among the factors that help favourable response to lithium were a positive family history of affective disorder, in the first degree relatives and lesser frequency and number of episodes in the pre-lithium period. A reappraisal of the natural history of the illness is called for in the light of lithium prophylaxis of manic depressive psychosis. PMID:21965880

  5. Mechanical methods for thrombosis prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Caprini, Joseph A

    2010-12-01

    Prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains the number one preventable cause of death in hospitalized patients. The pathogenesis of thrombosis involves the triad of venous stasis, dilatation of the leg veins, and changes in coagulability of the blood. These changes can be modified by the use of intermittent pneumatic compression devices (IPC) and, to a much lesser extent, by graduated compression hose (GCS). Studies have shown the effectiveness of GCS in preventing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) compared to placebo, but there is no evidence that they reduce the incidence of pulmonary emboli (PE). No venographic data are available regarding the efficacy of GCS; however, IPC have shown excellent efficacy in several venographic studies over the past 25 years. Mechanical methods are important to use in situations where the risk of bleeding exists, thereby making the use of anticoagulants hazardous. One of the key uses for mechanical methods is in combination with anticoagulants in patients at the highest risk of developing VTE. Chest consensus guidelines assigns a 2A recommendation for the use of combination prophylaxis in the highest risk patients. Unfortunately, studies to show which type of leg compression device is optimal for DVT prevention are not available, so individual preference, ease of use, and company support are the determining factors at the present time. Finally, compliance using these devices is a major problem, and until systems have been developed to easily monitor and ensure compliance, these methods will enjoy only limited use. PMID:19850588

  6. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in caesarean section delivery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ronghua; Lin, Lin; Wang, Dujuan

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis is used routinely for pre-, intra- and post-operative caesarean section. One of the most important risk factors for postpartum infection is caesarean delivery. Caesarean section shows a higher incidence of infection than vaginal delivery. It is complicated by surgical site infections, endometritis or urinary tract infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the usage of antimicrobials in women undergoing caesarean section at a Tertiary Care Hospital. A prospective study was conducted in 100 women during the period of February 2013 to August 2013 in the inpatient Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Data collected included the age of the patient, gravidity, and type of caesarean section, which was analyzed for the nature and number of antimicrobials prescribed, duration of treatment, polypharmacy, fixed-dose combinations, generic/brand names used and failure of prophylaxis. Antimicrobial prophylaxis was administered to the patients. The most commonly prescribed antimicrobial was a combination of ceftriaxone and sulbactam. Of 100 patients, 87% were aged 20–35 years. The highest proportion of patients were primigravida 72%. Elective procedure was carried out in 38%, the remaining were emergency C-section in whom intra- and post-operative antimicrobial prophylaxis was given for a duration of 7 days. In total, 27% of patients were reported with infection even after the antimicrobial prophylaxis. In conclusion, pre-operative prophylaxis was given in the early rupture of membranes. Fixed-dose combinations were preferred. Incidence of infection even after antimicrobial prophylaxis was reported due to pre-existing infection, debilitating disease or prolonged rupture of membranes. Patients with recurrent infection were shifted to amoxicillin and clavulinic acid combination. Drugs were prescribed only by brand names which is of concern. PMID:27446303

  7. Treatment and prophylaxis of melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Dance, David

    2014-01-01

    Melioidosis, infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei, is being recognised with increasing frequency and is probably more common than currently appreciated. Treatment recommendations are based on a series of clinical trials conducted in Thailand over the past 25 years. Treatment is usually divided into two phases: in the first, or acute phase, parenteral drugs are given for ≥10 days with the aim of preventing death from overwhelming sepsis; in the second, or eradication phase, oral drugs are given, usually to complete a total of 20 weeks, with the aim of preventing relapse. Specific treatment for individual patients needs to be tailored according to clinical manifestations and response, and there remain many unanswered questions. Some patients with very mild infections can probably be cured by oral agents alone. Ceftazidime is the mainstay of acute-phase treatment, with carbapenems reserved for severe infections or treatment failures and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (co-amoxiclav) as second-line therapy. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) is preferred for the eradication phase, with the alternative of co-amoxiclav. In addition, the best available supportive care is needed, along with drainage of abscesses whenever possible. Treatment for melioidosis is unaffordable for many in endemic areas of the developing world, but the relative costs have reduced over the past decade. Unfortunately there is no likelihood of any new or cheaper options becoming available in the immediate future. Recommendations for prophylaxis following exposure to B. pseudomallei have been made, but the evidence suggests that they would probably only delay rather than prevent the development of infection. PMID:24613038

  8. Intermittent local prophylaxis against recurrent vaginal candidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Bushell, T E; Evans, E G; Meaden, J D; Milne, J D; Warnock, D W

    1988-01-01

    Women with recurrent vaginal candidosis were treated until the infection cleared and were then given one clotrimazole 500 mg vaginal tablet a month or an identical placebo as prophylaxis. Of 21 women who received placebo, 16 developed symptoms or signs within three months, compared with nine of 17 women given active treatment. Women who relapsed were treated and then given active prophylaxis once a month. Of 30 women given such treatment, 13 relapsed within three months. Women who relapsed were treated and then given two clotrimazole 500 mg vaginal tablets a month. Of 17 women given prophylaxis twice a month, four developed symptoms or signs within three months, but 10 remained clear for 12 months. No appreciable difference was seen in the incidence of mycological recurrence between the different regimens; within three months over half the women in all treatment groups had become recolonised. PMID:3060424

  9. Epidemiology of bloodstream infections in patients with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing levofloxacin prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infections are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The evidence for efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing the mortality rates and the incidence of bacterial infections was also reported by a systematic review published by Cochrane in 2012. The objective of our study was to report the incidence and the etiology of bloodstream infections in patients with AML undergoing levofloxacin prophylaxis during neutropenic episodes. Methods This was a retrospective study of patients with diagnosis of AML during 2001–2007. Results A total of 81 patients were included in the study. Two hundred and ninetyone neutropenic episodes were studied, of which 181 were febrile. Bacteria isolated from blood cultures were mostly Gram-positives during the induction (80%) and Gram-negatives during the consolidation (72.4%) phases of chemotherapy. Resistance to ciprofloxacin was found in 78.9% of isolated E. coli and it was higher during consolidation and higher than the hospital rate. The production of extended spectrum betalactamases (ESBL) in E. coli strains was reported in 12.1%, below the reported hospital rate during the study period. Conclusions Regular microbiology surveillance is needed to better understand the impact of levofloxacin prophylaxis in neutropenic patients. Our study shows that Gram-positive bacteria are predominant during the induction phase of chemotherapy and Gram-negatives during the consolidation. The rate of fluoroquinolone resistance in the latter setting, even higher than the hospital rate, may suggest to reconsider levofloxacin prophylaxis. PMID:24289496

  10. Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients following chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gafter-Gvili, Anat; Fraser, Abigail; Paul, Mical; Vidal, Liat; Lawrie, Theresa A; van de Wetering, Marianne D; Kremer, Leontien CM; Leibovici, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    (48 trials, 5758 participants; RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.76), microbiologically documented infection (53 trials, 6383 participants; RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.62) and other indicators of infection. There were no significant differences between quinolone prophylaxis and TMP-SMZ prophylaxis with regard to death from all causes or infection, however, quinolone prophylaxis was associated with fewer side effects leading to discontinuation (seven trials, 850 participants; RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.87) and less resistance to the drugs thereafter (six trials, 366 participants; RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.74). Authors’ conclusions Antibiotic prophylaxis in afebrile neutropenic patients significantly reduced all-cause mortality. In our review, the most significant reduction in mortality was observed in trials assessing prophylaxis with quinolones. The benefits of antibiotic prophylaxis outweighed the harm such as adverse effects and the development of resistance since all-cause mortality was reduced. As most trials in our review were of patients with haematologic cancer, we strongly recommend antibiotic prophylaxis for these patients, preferably with a quinolone. Prophylaxis may also be considered for patients with solid tumours or lymphoma. PMID:22258955

  11. Post-injury Hyperfibrinogenemia Compromises Efficacy of Heparin-Based VTE Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Harr, Jeffrey N.; Moore, Ernest E.; Chin, Theresa L.; Ghasabyan, Arsen; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Wohlauer, Max V.; Sauaia, Angela; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis remains debated following trauma, and recommendations have not been established. Although hyperfibrinogenemia is a marker of pro-inflammatory states, it is also contributes to thrombus formation. Post-injury hyperfibrinogenemia is common, but the effect of hypefibrinogenemia on VTE prophylaxis has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we hypothesized that heparin is less effective for VTE prophylaxis following severe injury due to hyperfibrinogenemia. Methods In vitro studies evaluated TEG parameters in 10 healthy volunteers after the addition of fibrinogen concentrate and heparin. Data from a recent randomized controlled trial, conducted at an academic level-1 trauma center surgical intensive care unit, were reviewed. Critically injured patients were randomized to standard VTE prophylaxis (5,000 Units LMWH daily) or TEG-guided prophylaxis (up to 10,000 Units LMWH daily), and were followed for 5 days. Analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between fibrinogen levels, measures of anticoagulation, and TEG parameters. Results In vitro studies revealed increased fibrinogen reversed the effects of heparin as measured by TEG. Fifty patients were enrolled in the clinical study with 25 in each arm. TEG parameters, fibrinogen, platelet count, and anti-Xa levels did not differ between groups despite treatment provided. Fibrinogen levels increased over the 5-day study period (597±24.0 to 689.3±25.0), as well as clot strength (9.8±0.4 to 14.5±0.6), which had a significant correlation coefficient (p<0.01). Moreover, there was a moderate inverse correlation between fibrinogen level and the effect of heparin (RF), which was significant on study days 1 and 3, implicating hyperfibrinogenemia in heparin resistance. Conclusion Hypercoagulablity and heparin resistance are common following trauma. The preclinical and clinical relationships between fibrinogen levels and hypercoagulability implicate hyperfibrinogenemia

  12. Non-Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Beerepoot, Mariëlle; Geerlings, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance has stimulated interest in non-antibiotic prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Well-known steps in the pathogenesis of UTIs are urogenital colonization and adherence of uropathogens to uroepithelial cell receptors. To prevent colonization in postmenopausal women, vaginal, but not oral, estrogens have been shown to restore the vagina lactobacilli flora, reduce vaginal colonization with Enterobacteriaceae, and reduce the number of UTIs compared to placebo. Different lactobacilli strains show different results in the prevention of recurrent UTIs. Intravaginal suppositories with Lactobacillus crispatus in premenopausal women and oral capsules with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 in postmenopausal women are promising. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) cannot be recommended for the prevention of UTIs. Cranberries are thought to contain proanthocyanidins that can inhibit adherence of P-fimbriated E. coli to the uroepithelial cell receptors. Cranberry products decreased UTI recurrences about 30%–40% in premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs, but are less effective than low-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis. However, the optimal dose of cranberry product has still to be determined. Initially OM-89, a vaccine with 18 heat-killed E. coli extracts, seemed promising, but this was not confirmed in a recently randomized trial. PMID:27092529

  13. Non-Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Beerepoot, Mariëlle; Geerlings, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance has stimulated interest in non-antibiotic prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Well-known steps in the pathogenesis of UTIs are urogenital colonization and adherence of uropathogens to uroepithelial cell receptors. To prevent colonization in postmenopausal women, vaginal, but not oral, estrogens have been shown to restore the vagina lactobacilli flora, reduce vaginal colonization with Enterobacteriaceae, and reduce the number of UTIs compared to placebo. Different lactobacilli strains show different results in the prevention of recurrent UTIs. Intravaginal suppositories with Lactobacillus crispatus in premenopausal women and oral capsules with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 in postmenopausal women are promising. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) cannot be recommended for the prevention of UTIs. Cranberries are thought to contain proanthocyanidins that can inhibit adherence of P-fimbriated E. coli to the uroepithelial cell receptors. Cranberry products decreased UTI recurrences about 30%-40% in premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs, but are less effective than low-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis. However, the optimal dose of cranberry product has still to be determined. Initially OM-89, a vaccine with 18 heat-killed E. coli extracts, seemed promising, but this was not confirmed in a recently randomized trial. PMID:27092529

  14. Levetiracetam for Pediatric Posttraumatic Seizure Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Nita, Dragos A; Hahn, Cecil D

    2016-03-01

    Investigators from Nationwide Children's Hospital performed an observational cohort study of early post-traumatic seizures (EPTS) among 34 children with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) who received levetiracetam (LEV) prophylaxis following admission to their pediatric intensive care unit. PMID:27396956

  15. Migraine prophylaxis: who, why, and how.

    PubMed

    Loj, Jadwiga; Solomon, Glen D

    2006-09-01

    If a patient has frequent, severely debilitating migraine headaches, prophylactic treatment may help. Beta-blockers, tricyclic antidepressants, and anticonvulsants have the best evidence of efficacy; calcium channel blockers and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are also popular because they are well tolerated and inexpensive. We review migraine treatment with emphasis on prophylaxis. PMID:16970133

  16. Analysis of the duration of migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Silva-Néto, Raimundo Pereira; Almeida, Kelson James; Bernardino, Silvya Neri

    2014-02-15

    To determine the minimum duration of migraine prophylaxis, after patients become pain-free. Migraine patients diagnosed according to criteria of International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 were treated prophylactically. After becoming pain-free, they were divided into two equal groups: in group 1, prophylaxis was maintained for another 12 months and in group 2, for 24 months. Each group was followed for more three years after prophylaxis period. Of the 50 patients, 39 (78%) were female and 11 (22%) were male. The age ranged from 18 to 50 years. Before treatment, the attack frequency for groups 1 and 2 was, respectively, 16.3 ± 12.8 and 16.4 ± 11.8 days per month (p = 0.769). Patients in groups 1 and 2 have become pain-free, respectively, with 21.4 ± 11.2 and 16.8 ± 9.9 months (p = 0.161). During three years without treatment, groups 1 and 2 maintained an annual frequency of respectively 3.2 and 0.5 headache days. Of the patients in group 2, 76.0% (19/25) remained pain-free during follow-up, versus 44.0% (11/25) of group 1, with a significant difference (p=0.001). The best results were obtained when migraine prophylaxis was maintained for 24 months after patients became pain-free. PMID:24308946

  17. [Successes and failures in rhesus-prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Speiser, P

    1983-12-31

    The medical history of hemolytic disease of the newborn (h. d. n.) due to Rh is reviewed from 1928-1963 and a very common and widespread error in the international literature on statistical data of h. d. n. has been critically analysed and corrected on the basis of the Viennese material over a period of 25 years. It is shown the first time that the morbidity is not as high as 6 to 7 in 1000 newborns but approximately 3 to 4 taking into account the origin of their mothers. The frequency of h. d. n. in Vienna is strongly influenced by mothers who come from abroad with and without foreign citizenship. In 13,34% of h. d. n. the women produce Rh antibodies during pregnancy, and therefore the Rh prophylaxis given after birth is not able to prevent the immunization which means that 0,55 per thousand of the h. d. n. rate of 4,1 per thousand is caused by Rh antibodies developed intra graviditatem and 3,55 per thousand post partum. These figures are derived from observations between 1948 and 1971 in the Pre-Prophylaxis-Time. The success of the Anti-D-IgG application dropped the h. d. n. rate from 4,1 per thousand to 1,7 per thousand in 1981. If the figure of 0,55 per thousand is taken into account as a wrong "failure" of the post partum prophylaxis, 1,15 per thousand (1,7-0,55) of h. d. n. have to be noted as true failures. There are many causes possible for the high rate of failure in the post partum prophylaxis which is to be eliminated before one could think of a systematic ante partum Rh prophylaxis. In our population 17% are Rh negative, 10% of all mothers are Rh negative giving birth to a Rh positive child and 3,5 per thousand of mothers of h. d. n. develop Rh antibodies post partum, 0,55 per thousand before. Out of 1000 Anti-D-IgG injections given after birth 965 are without any consequence and therefore only 35 are effective. Making use of the ante partum prophylaxis (mother Rh negative, baby's Rh factor unknown) 17% of all pregnant women have to be treated for

  18. Systematic Review of the Literature and Evidence-Based Recommendations for Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Trauma: Results from an Italian Consensus of Experts

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Daniele; Chieregato, Arturo; Langer, Martin; Viaggi, Bruno; Cingolani, Emiliano; Malacarne, Paolo; Mengoli, Francesca; Nardi, Giuseppe; Nascimben, Ennio; Riccioni, Luigi; Turriziani, Ilaria; Volpi, Annalisa; Coniglio, Carlo; Gordini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Background Antibiotic prophylaxis is frequently administered in severe trauma. However, the risk of selecting resistant bacteria, a major issue especially in critical care environments, has not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of the present study was to provide guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis for four different trauma-related clinical conditions, taking into account the risks of antibiotic-resistant bacteria selection, thus innovating previous guidelines in the field. Methods The MEDLINE database was searched for studies comparing antibiotic prophylaxis to controls (placebo or no antibiotic administration) in four clinical traumatic conditions that were selected on the basis of the traumatic event frequency and/or infection severity. The selected studies focused on the prevention of early ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) in comatose patients with traumatic brain injury, of meningitis in severe basilar skull fractures, of wound infections in long-bone open fractures. Since no placebo-controlled study was available for deep surgical site-infections prevention in abdominal trauma with enteric contamination, we compared 24-hour and 5-day antibiotic prophylaxis policies. A separate specific research focused on the question of antibiotic-resistant bacteria selection caused by antibiotic prophylaxis, an issue not adequately investigated by the selected studies. Randomised trials, reviews, meta-analyses, observational studies were included. Data extraction was carried out by one author according to a predefined protocol, using an electronic form. The strength of evidence was stratified and recommendations were given according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Results Uncertain evidence deserving further studies was found for two-dose antibiotic prophylaxis for early VAP prevention in comatose patients. In the other cases the risk of resistant-bacteria selection caused by antibiotic administration

  19. [PROPHYLAXIS OF AN ACUTE ADHESIVE ILEUS RECURRENCE].

    PubMed

    Evtushenko, D A

    2015-10-01

    The results of treatment of 56 patients were studied, in whom for adhesive abdominal disease, complicated by an acute adhesive ileus (AAI), the adhesiolysis with intraabdominal introduction of antiadhesive measures, named Mezogel, Defensal were conducted, as well as in 42 patients, operated on in emergency for AAI, using a routine method. Application of videolaparoscopy gives a possibility to control the adhesive process in the early postoperative period, what is necessary for prophylaxis of the adhesive disease occurence. Application of the apparatus, we have elaborated, permitted to conduct a precisional viscerolysis due to good visualization of organs, pathologically changed and healthy tissues. Application of the procedures elaborated for prophylaxis of the AAI recurrence have promoted the reduction of risk for the AAI occurence down to 1.8%, and of disorders of the gut contents transit in terms up to 1 yr - to 3.6%. PMID:26946653

  20. Prophylaxis of Human Hydrophobia in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Domestic human hydrophobia has not been reported since the one case of 2004 in South Korea, but still a few animal rabies occur persistently since the reemerging stage of rabies from 1993. The government has made efforts to control animal rabies in many aspects, but whether prophylactic strategy for human hydrophobia is performed adequately is in question. The rate of proper post-exposure prophylaxis for animal bite case in 'high-risk region' of rabies is very low with 20% between 2011 and 2013. The National Animal Bite Patient Surveillance targeting 'high-risk region' is missing out animal bite cases who visit directly to hospitals in 'suspect-risk region' of rabies. Little data seems to exist for pre-exposure prophylaxis of domestic hydrophobia. Danger of reoccurrence of human hydrophobia always remain in South Korea. The medical personnel needs to have greater interest on the matter and the government strengthen the management system. PMID:25298903

  1. Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-08-01

    Quinine, a bitter-tasting, short-acting alkaloid drug extracted from cinchona bark, was the first drug used widely for malaria chemoprophylaxis from the 19th century. Compliance was difficult to enforce even in organized groups such as the military, and its prophylaxis potential was often questioned. Severe adverse events such as blackwater fever occurred rarely, but its relationship to quinine remains uncertain. Quinine prophylaxis was often counterproductive from a public health viewpoint as it left large numbers of persons with suppressed infections producing gametocytes infective for mosquitoes. Quinine was supplied by the first global pharmaceutical cartel which discouraged competition resulting in a near monopoly of cinchona plantations on the island of Java which were closed to Allied use when the Japanese Imperial Army captured Indonesia in 1942. The problems with quinine as a chemoprophylactic drug illustrate the difficulties with medications used for prevention and the acute need for improved compounds. PMID:27185766

  2. Antibiotic prophylaxis is unnecessary in clean surgery.

    PubMed

    Hasan, G Z; Saleh, F M; Hossain, M Z; Amin, M R; Siddiqui, T H; Islam, M D; Chakraborty, S

    2013-04-01

    A significant number of paediatric surgical patients undergone clean surgical procedures. Most of the paediatric surgeon use perioperative prophylactic antibiotic in this clean procedure because of undue fear of infection in their mind. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether the use of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics have an effect to prevent post operative wound infection in clean operation in paediatric surgical patients. This study was conducted in the paediatric surgery department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and some private clinics of Dhaka city from January 2009 to December 2009. Two hundred patients who were undergone clean elective surgical procedure on day case basis were included in this study. They were divided into two equal groups (Group A and Group B). The patients of Group A were given intransverse Cephradine 30 minutes before incision and then oral Cephradine was advised postoperatively for 7 days. The patients of Group B were not given any perioperative antibiotic. All the patients of both groups were advised to come on 3rd, 6th and 10th postoperative day for examination of wound. In Group A (With chemo prophylaxis), five patients (5%) developed postoperative wound infection and in Group B (without chemo prophylaxis), three patients (3%) developed postoperative wound infection. Thus the rate of postoperative wound infection is slightly more in patients with chemo prophylaxis but it was not statistically significant by chi-square test. Based on the result of this study, it may be concluded that the antibiotic prophylaxis is not necessary in clean surgery in paediatric age group. PMID:23715359

  3. Prophylaxis and treatment of HIV-1 infection in pregnancy: Swedish recommendations 2010.

    PubMed

    Navér, Lars; Albert, Jan; Belfrage, Erik; Flamholc, Leo; Gisslén, Magnus; Gyllensten, Katarina; Josephson, Filip; Karlström, Olof; Lindgren, Susanne; Pettersson, Karin; Svedhem, Veronica; Sönnerborg, Anders; Westling, Katarina; Yilmaz, Aylin; Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy

    2011-07-01

    Prophylaxis and treatment with antiretroviral drugs and the use of elective caesarean section have resulted in a very low mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during recent years. The availability of new antiretroviral drugs, updated general treatment guidelines and increasing knowledge of the importance of drug resistance, have necessitated regular revisions of the "Prophylaxis and treatment of HIV-1 infection in pregnancy" recommendations. For these reasons, The Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) updated the 2007 recommendations at an expert meeting that took place on 25 March 2010. The most important revisions from the previous recommendations are: (1) it is recommended that treatment during pregnancy starts at the latest at gestational week 14-18; (2) ongoing efficient treatment at confirmed pregnancy may, with a few exceptions, be continued; (3) lopinavir/r and atazanavir/r are equally recommended protease inhibitors; (4) if maternal HIV RNA is >50 copies/ml close to delivery, a planned caesarean section, intravenous zidovudine, oral nevirapine for the mother and post-exposure prophylaxis for the infant with 3 antiretroviral drugs are recommended; (5) for delivery at <34 gestational weeks, intravenous zidovudine and oral nevirapine for the mother and at 48-72 h for the infant is recommended, in addition to other prophylaxis; (6) intravenous zidovudine is not recommended when HIV RNA is <50 copies/ml and a caesarean section is performed; (7) it is recommended that prophylaxis for the infant is started within 4 h; (8) prophylactic zidovudine for the infant may be administered twice daily instead of 4 times a day, as was the case previously; and (9) the number of sampling occasions for the infant has been decreased. PMID:21438788

  4. Self-assessment of striae gravidarum prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Sobczak, Małgorzata; Kasielska-Trojan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Striae are the most frequently occurring pathology of connective tissue during pregnancy. According to the statistical data, 70–90% of women suffer from striae gravidarum. Aim To assess effectiveness of topical products and massage used by pregnant women in striae gravidarum prophylaxis. Material and methods The questionnaire study was conducted among 299 women who were maximum 6 months after delivery at term. The questionnaire included questions concerning age, occurrence of striae gravidarum during pregnancy, their location, week of gestation when the lesions appeared and used striae prophylaxis as well as its effectiveness in respondents’ opinion. Results Analysis of the correlation between striae gravidarum occurrence and use of different types of cosmetics showed that this kind of prophylaxis is effective when applied at least twice a day (63.7% vs. 77.6%). No correlation between the type of cosmetics and presence of striae was observed (p > 0.05). Conclusions Use of prophylactic measures like skin emollients and oils with the appropriate frequency significantly reduces the risk of striae gravidarum occurrence. PMID:26755911

  5. [Organizational principles in prophylaxis of stroke].

    PubMed

    Shappo, V V; Simonenko, V B; Shirokov, E A; Denishchuk, I S

    2008-05-01

    Modern system of insult prophylaxis intends development of 2 directions: population strategy and individual tactics. The effectiveness of population strategy depends on quality of health survey and of sanitarian-educational work. The effectiveness of individual tactics depends on intensity of clinical, laboratorial and instrumental checkup and elaborating an adequate correction of representative syndromes. Model of an individual prophylaxis of insult exists in the 2nd Central Military Clinical Hospital of P.V. Mandryka more then 15 years. According to the result of yearly health survey, therapist, in cooperation with cardiologist and neurologist, elaborates a "plan of health", which intends decrease of negative factor's influence and using medicinal substances, correcting the representative syndromes. High-technological algorithms of checkup include ultrasonics surveys of brachycephaly vessel and of the heart, an entire-day electrocardiogram monitoring or loading test, large bio-chemistry tests, directed to finding hyper-coagulation and dislipidemia. The experience of work demonstrates large capabilities in increasing of effectiveness of prophylaxis programs. These capabilities permit decrease sickness rate of insult--to the 30% during latter years. PMID:18589695

  6. Antibiotic prophylaxis versus no prophylaxis for preventing infection after cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Smaill, Fiona M; Gyte, Gillian ML

    2014-01-01

    Background The single most important risk factor for postpartum maternal infection is cesarean section. Routine prophylaxis with antibiotics may reduce this risk and should be assessed in terms of benefits and harms. Objectives To assess the effects of prophylactic antibiotics compared with no prophylactic antibiotics on infectious complications in women undergoing cesarean section. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (May 2009). Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing the effects of prophylactic antibiotics versus no treatment in women undergoing cesarean section. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. Main results We identified 86 studies involving over 13,000 women. Prophylactic antibiotics in women undergoing cesarean section substantially reduced the incidence of febrile morbidity (average risk ratio (RR) 0.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39 to 0.51, 50 studies, 8141 women), wound infection (average RR 0.39; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.48, 77 studies, 11,961 women), endometritis (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.34 to 0.42, 79 studies, 12,142 women) and serious maternal infectious complications (RR 0.31; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.48, 31 studies, 5047 women). No conclusions can be made about other maternal adverse effects from these studies (RR 2.43; 95% CI 1.00 to 5.90, 13 studies, 2131 women). None of the 86 studies reported infant adverse outcomes and in particular there was no assessment of infant oral thrush. There was no systematic collection of data on bacterial drug resistance. The findings were similar whether the cesarean section was elective or non elective, and whether the antibiotic was given before or after umbilical cord clamping. Overall, the methodological quality of the trials was unclear and in only a few studies was it obvious that potential other sources of bias had been

  7. The prophylaxis of nonindustrial urothelial tumours

    PubMed Central

    Mount, Balfour M.

    1973-01-01

    Present knowledge concerning carcinogenesis and the natural history of urothelial tumours precludes firm conclusions relative to nonindustrial prophylaxis. However, a number of measures are consistent with current data and may be instituted for those patients with a demonstrated propensity to urothelial tumours. Their acceptability is based on the lack of associated toxicity for the patient. These measures include the elimination of significant infection, cigarettes, artificial sweeteners, analgesic abuse and coffee, the administration of vitamins C and B6, and in selected cases, the use of thiotepa. It is emphasized that the merit of these steps in altering the natural history of urothelial tumours is uncertain. PMID:4197537

  8. [Radiation therapy for heterotopic ossification prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Utzon, Henrik; Skov, Ole; Johansen, Jørgen

    2014-06-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a well-known condition of bone formation in soft tissues due to trauma (e.g. surgery) or neurological injury, but the exact aetiology is unknown. In most cases, HO is asymptomatic, but it may cause pain, reduced mobility of joints, and loss of functioning. Various patient groups have a significant risk of developing HO after surgery and should be offered prophylactic treatment. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and radiotherapy are internationally accepted treatments. This review discusses the potential for radiotherapy as prophylaxis against HO. PMID:25352198

  9. [Postoperative pulmonary complications: prophylaxis after noncardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Hofer, S; Plachky, J; Fantl, R; Schmidt, J; Bardenheuer, H J; Weigand, M A

    2006-04-01

    Postoperative pulmonary complications are a major problem after upper abdominal or thoracoabdominal surgery. They lead to a prolonged ICU stay as well as increased costs and are one of the main causes of early postoperative mortality. Even after uncomplicated operations, postoperative hypoxemia occurs in 30-50% of patients. Acute respiratory failure involves a disturbance in gas exchange. The mortality ranges from 10 to 60% according to the severity of respiratory failure. The most important complications are interstitial and alveolar pulmonary edema, atelectasis, postoperative pneumonia, hypoventilation, and aspiration. Preoperative optimization, postoperative prophylaxis according to a stepwise approach, and early mobilization decrease the rate of complications. PMID:16575614

  10. Use of Postexposure Prophylaxis After Occupational Exposure to Zaire ebolavirus.

    PubMed

    Wong, Karen K; Davey, Richard T; Hewlett, Angela L; Kraft, Colleen S; Mehta, Aneesh K; Mulligan, Mark J; Beck, Allison; Dorman, William; Kratochvil, Christopher J; Lai, Lilin; Palmore, Tara N; Rogers, Susan; Smith, Philip W; Suffredini, Anthony F; Wolcott, Mark; Ströher, Ute; Uyeki, Timothy M

    2016-08-01

    From September 2014 to April 2015, 6 persons who had occupational exposures to Zaire ebolavirus in West Africa received investigational agent rVSV-ZEBOV or TKM-100802 for postexposure prophylaxis and were monitored in the United States. All patients experienced self-limited symptoms after postexposure prophylaxis; none developed Ebola virus disease. PMID:27118786

  11. HIV post exposure prophylaxis induced bicytopenia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Long and short term side effects of antiretroviral drugs are not fully understood yet. Here a case of reversible blood count changes following post exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir/emtricitabin and lopinavir/ritonavir is reported. We propose that antiretroviral drugs used in post exposure prophylaxis may have a significant impact on hematopoiesis. PMID:24506969

  12. Antimicrobial Postexposure Prophylaxis for Anthrax: Adverse Events and Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Gabarro, Montse; Zell, Elizabeth R.; Hayslett, James; Lukacs, Susan; Goldstein, Susan; Factor, Stephanie; Jones, Joshua; Ridzon, Renee; Williams, Ian; Rosenstein, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    We collected data during postexposure antimicrobial prophylaxis campaigns and from a prophylaxis program evaluation 60 days after start of antimicrobial prophylaxis involving persons from six U.S. sites where Bacillus anthracis exposures occurred. Adverse events associated with antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent anthrax were commonly reported, but hospitalizations and serious adverse events as defined by Food and Drug Administration criteria were rare. Overall adherence during 60 days of antimicrobial prophylaxis was poor (44%), ranging from 21% of persons exposed in the Morgan postal facility in New York City to 64% of persons exposed at the Brentwood postal facility in Washington, D.C. Adherence was highest among participants in an investigational new drug protocol to receive additional antibiotics with or without anthrax vaccine—a likely surrogate for anthrax risk perception. Adherence of <60 days was not consistently associated with adverse events. PMID:12396927

  13. Guidelines on prophylaxis to prevent infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Thornhill, M H; Dayer, M; Lockhart, P B; McGurk, M; Shanson, D; Prendergast, B; Chambers, J B

    2016-01-22

    Infective endocarditis is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality. The link to oral bacteria has been known for many decades and has caused ongoing concern for dentists, patients and cardiologists. Since 2008, the UK has been out of step with the rest of the world where antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for high-risk patients undergoing invasive dental procedures. Recent evidence that identified an increase in endocarditis incidence prompted a guideline review by NICE and the European Society for Cardiology--which produces guidance for the whole of Europe. Despite reviewing the same evidence they reached completely opposing conclusions. The resulting conflict of opinions and guidance is confusing and poses difficulties for dentists, cardiologists and their patients. Recent changes in the law on consent, however, may provide a patient-centred and pragmatic solution to these problems. This Opinion piece examines the evidence and opposing guidance on antibiotic prophylaxis in the context of the recent changes in the law on consent and provides a framework for how patients at risk of endocarditis might be managed in practice. PMID:26794105

  14. HIV Prevention by Oral Preexposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Heneine, Walid; Kashuba, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The impressive advances in antiretroviral (ARV) therapy of chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections during the last decade and the availability of potent ARV drugs have fueled interest in using chemoprophylaxis as a novel HIV prevention strategy. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) refers to the use of ARV drugs in HIV-negative persons to prevent HIV infection. The rationale for PrEP builds on the success of ARV prophylaxis in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV and on a large body of animal studies that show the efficacy of PrEP against mucosal and parenteral infection. We focus on oral administration of ARV drugs for prevention of HIV infection. Identifying an effective prophylactic pill that individuals can take outside the setting of sexual intercourse precludes the necessity to disclose such use to their partners, thereby empowering those who might not be in a position to negotiate with their partners. Several human clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of daily regimens of the HIV reverse-transcriptase (RT) inhibitors tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or Truvada (TDF and emtricitabine [FTC]) are under way among high-risk populations. The results of one trial among men who have sex with men showed that daily Truvada was safe and effective, providing the first support for oral PrEP as a prevention strategy. Here we outline the preclinical and clinical research on oral PrEP, pharmacologic considerations, and future directions and challenges. PMID:22393535

  15. Current perspectives on rabies postexposure prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Blaise, Agathe; Gautret, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is a zoonose affecting wild and domestic animals and transmitted to humans through bites or scratches, causing over 60,000 human deaths, annually. The disease results from the transmission of a neurotropic virus leading to invariably deadly encephalitis. The post-exposure prophylaxis consists of careful washing and disinfection of the wound, antibiotherapy and tetanus prophylaxis when needed. Furthermore, rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin [RIG] administration should be applied according to the type of wound, and the animal involved, according to the WHO protocols that are regularly updated. Unfortunately it is sometimes difficult to obtain RIG in some countries due to their high cost, leading to suboptimal treatment and possible death. Also, observance can be weak, due to the number of repeated visits required with protocols [up to five visits over 28 days]. These limitations justify research on new vaccines which were not conclusive at the moment. New RIGs are under development, including a monoclonal antibody cocktail which is more promising in a near future. Finally, vaccination protocols are in the way of being shortened in given conditions. Further studies are needed to validate these new practices. PMID:25809623

  16. Quinolone prophylaxis in transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy: an eight-year single center experience.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Bing-Juin; Pu, Yeong Shiau; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Liu, Shih-Ping; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Wang, Shuo-Meng; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Chiang, I-Ni; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of prophylaxis with pipemidic acid and levofloxacin in transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUSP-Bx). From January 2002 to December 2004, patients receiving oral pipemidic acid 500 mg twice daily for three days with or without a preoperative intravenous cefazolin 1 gm injection comprised group A. Between January 2005 and December 2009, patients receiving oral levofloxacin 500 mg one hour before biopsy comprised group B. We calculated the annual febrile urinary tract infection (fUTI) rates. Patients' characteristics, including age, prophylactic antibiotics, biopsy core numbers, pathologic results, PSA, and the spectrums and susceptibility of pathogens, were also evaluated. A total of 1313 (35.5%) patients belonged to group A, while 2381 (64.5%) patients belonged to group B. Seventy-three patients experienced postoperative infectious complications. There was a significant difference in the fUTI rate between groups A and B (3.7% versus 1.0%, P < 0.001). The yearly fUTI rates varied from 0.6 to 3.9% between 2002 and 2009. Of the 73 patients with fUTI, those receiving levofloxacin prophylaxis were more likely to harbor fluoroquinolone-resistant pathogens (P < 0.001). E. coli was the most common pathogen in both groups. Levofloxacin remains effective and appears superior to pipemidic acid based prophylaxis. PMID:24453852

  17. Perioperative Pharmacologic Prophylaxis for Venous Thromboembolism in Colorectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Steve; Meissner, Mark; Symons, Rebecca; Steele, Scott; Thirlby, Richard; Billingham, Rick; Flum, David

    2011-01-01

    Background To determine the effectiveness of pharmacologic prophylaxis on preventing clinically relevant venothromboembolic (VTE) events and deaths after surgery. Surgical Care Improvement Project recommends that VTE pharmacologic prophylaxis be given within 24 hours of the operation. The bulk of evidence supporting this recommendation uses radiographic endpoints. Study Design The Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program (SCOAP) is a Washington State quality improvement initiative with data linked to hospital admission/discharge and vital status records. We compared the rates of death, clinically relevant VTE and a composite adverse event (CAE) in the 90-days after elective, colon/rectal resections, based on the receipt of pharmacologic prophylaxis (within 24 hours of surgery) at 36 SCOAP hospitals (2005-2009). Results Of 4,195 (61.1±15.6 yrs; 54.1% women) patients, 56.5% received pharmacologic prophylaxis. 90-day death (2.5% vs. 1.6%, p-value=0.03), VTE (1.8% vs. 1.1%, p-value=0.04), and CAE (4.2% vs. 2.5%, p-value=0.002) were lower in those who received pharmacologic prophylaxis. After adjustment for patient and procedure characteristics, the odds were 36% lower for CAE (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44-0.93) with pharmacologic prophylaxis. In any given quarter, hospitals where patients more often received pharmacologic prophylaxis (highest tertile of use) had the lowest rates of CAE (2.3% vs. 3.6%, p=0.05) compared to hospitals in the lowest tertile. Conclusions Using clinical endpoints this study demonstrates the effectiveness of VTE pharmacologic prophylaxis in patients having elective colorectal surgery. Hospitals that used pharmacologic prophylaxis more often had the lowest rates of adverse events. PMID:21871823

  18. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis for women.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Anandi N; Rolle, Charlotte P; Gandhi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Women and girls comprise nearly half of HIV-infected individuals globally and 20% of new infections in the United States, indicating an urgent need to optimise HIV prevention options in this population. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) - where antiretrovirals are administered to HIV-non-infected individuals at risk of HIV acquisition - is a promising, female-controlled HIV prevention strategy but has so far been underutilised in women. Clinical trial data demonstrate efficacy of daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) for reduction of HIV acquisition among women when used consistently. Limited HIV risk perception and suboptimal PrEP awareness among women and healthcare personnel are among the challenges with PrEP delivery for women. Future research into the development of new drugs and delivery systems, and integrating PrEP delivery with reproductive healthcare services, provide opportunities to optimise this prevention strategy for women. PMID:27482454

  19. [Aerosinusitis: part 1: Fundamentals, pathophysiology and prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Weber, R; Kühnel, T; Graf, J; Hosemann, W

    2014-01-01

    The relevance of aerosinusitis stems from the high number of flight passengers and the impaired fitness for work of the flight personnel. The frontal sinus is more frequently affected than the maxillary sinus and the condition generally occurs during descent. Sinonasal diseases and anatomic variations leading to obstruction of paranasal sinus ventilation favor the development of aerosinusitis. This Continuing Medical Education (CME) article is based on selective literature searches of the PubMed database (search terms: "aerosinusitis", "barosinusitis", "barotrauma" AND "sinus", "barotrauma" AND "sinusitis", "sinusitis" AND "flying" OR "aviator"). Additionally, currently available monographs and further articles that could be identified based on the publication reviews were also included. Part 1 presents the pathophysiology, symptoms, risk factors, epidemiology and prophylaxis of aerosinusitis. In part 2, diagnosis, conservative and surgical treatment will be discussed. PMID:24337391

  20. Migraine prophylaxis: what is new and what we need?

    PubMed

    Barbanti, P; Aurilia, C; Egeo, G; Fofi, L

    2011-05-01

    A wide array of options are now available for migraine prophylaxis. Conventional treatments include beta-blockers, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, calcium antagonists and antiserotoninergic drugs. Emerging medications such as ACE inhibitors, sartans and nutritional supplements are gaining favour for migraine prophylaxis. Botulinum toxin type A is a promising therapeutic tool for chronic migraine. Tonabersat is likely to be a step forward for the treatment of migraine with aura. However, much work is needed to identify predictive clinical features of successful responsiveness and to better define the duration of prophylaxis. PMID:21533725

  1. [Antibiotic prophylaxis with ++vancomycin in corrective surgery with alloplastic material].

    PubMed

    Massaioli, N; Marchesa, P; Bacino, A; Galliano, R; Borello, G; Bonatti, L; Lorenzini, L

    1995-09-01

    The authors report a controlled series of 40 patients treated for recidivating inguinal hernia and laparocele with the implant of alloplastic material. Short-term prophylaxis with vancomycin was performed in all cases. The antibiotic was found to be well tolerated at the doses used and this was associated with a good clinical success rate. The use of vancomycin in prophylaxis for this type of surgery is considered a rational choice and the use of short-term prophylaxis reduces the risks linked to possible collateral effects. PMID:8587722

  2. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of voriconazole prophylaxis for prevention of invasive aspergillosis in high-risk liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Julius; Gordon Burroughs, Sherilyn; Boktour, Maha; Patel, Samir; Saharia, Ashish; Ochoa, Robert A; McFadden, Robert; Victor, David W; Ankoma-Sey, Victor; Galati, Joseph; Monsour, Howard P; Fainstein, Victor; Li, Xian C; Grimes, Kevin A; Gaber, A Osama; Aloia, Thomas; Ghobrial, R Mark

    2016-02-01

    Aspergillus infection remains a significant and deadly complication after liver transplantation (LT). We sought to determine whether the antifungal prophylactic use of voriconazole reduces the incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in high-risk LT recipients without prohibitively increasing cost. During the study era (April 2008 to April 2014), 339 deceased donor LTs were performed. Of those patients, 174 high-risk recipients were administered antifungal prophylaxis with voriconazole. The median biological Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score at the time of LT was 33 (range, 18-49) with 56% requiring continuous renal replacement therapy and 50% requiring ventilatory support immediately before transplantation. Diagnosis of IA was stratified as proven, probable, or possible according to previously published definitions. No IA was documented in patients receiving voriconazole prophylaxis. At 90 days after LT, the institutional cost of prophylaxis was $5324 or 5.6% of the predicted cost associated with post-LT aspergillosis. There was no documentation of resistant strains isolated from any recipient who received voriconazole. In conclusion, these data suggest that voriconazole prophylaxis is safe, clinically effective, and cost-effective in high-risk LT recipients. PMID:26515643

  3. [Spanish Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases guidelines on tuberculosis in pregnant women and neonates (ii): Prophylaxis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Baquero-Artigao, F; Mellado Peña, M J; del Rosal Rabes, T; Noguera Julián, A; Goncé Mellgren, A; de la Calle Fernández-Miranda, M; Navarro Gómez, M L

    2015-10-01

    In pregnant women who have been exposed to tuberculosis (TB), primary isoniazid prophylaxis is only recommended in cases of immunosuppression, chronic medical conditions or obstetric risk factors, and close and sustained contact with a patient with infectious TB. Isoniazid prophylaxis for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is recommended in women who have close contact with an infectious TB patient or have risk factors for progression to active disease. Otherwise, it should be delayed until at least three weeks after delivery. Treatment of TB disease during pregnancy is the same as for the general adult population. Infants born to mothers with disseminated or extrapulmonary TB in pregnancy, with active TB at delivery, or with postnatal exposure to TB, should undergo a complete diagnostic evaluation. Primary isoniazid prophylaxis for at least 12 weeks is recommended for those with negative diagnostic tests and no evidence of disease. Repeated negative diagnostic tests are mandatory before interrupting prophylaxis. Isoniazid for 9 months is recommended in LTBI. Treatment of neonatal TB disease is similar to that of older children, but should be maintained for at least 9 months. Respiratory isolation is recommended in congenital TB, and in postnatal TB with positive gastric or bronchial aspirate acid-fast smears. Separation of mother and infant is only necessary when the mother has received treatment for less than 2 weeks, is sputum smear-positive, or has drug-resistant TB. Breastfeeding is not contraindicated, and in case of mother-infant separation expressed breast milk feeding is recommended. PMID:25754314

  4. Screening and Prophylaxis for Varices in Children with Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Bozic, Molly A; Puri, Kanika; Molleston, Jean P

    2015-07-01

    Esophageal varices in children with portal hypertension are quite common. Bleeding from these varices frequently occurs. Prophylactic measures to prevent such bleeding can be undertaken either before ("primary," prompted by a screening endoscopy) or after ("secondary") an initial variceal bleed. There are no clear pediatric guidelines for primary or secondary prophylaxis of esophageal varices. Adult studies clearly support the use of pharmacologic (beta blockers) and endoscopic (endoscopic band ligation, EBL) management for both primary and secondary prophylaxis of esophageal varices in patients with portal hypertension. Pediatric studies are limited. There are inadequate data to recommend use of beta blockers to prevent variceal bleeding or rebleeding in children with portal hypertension. There is very limited support for EBL for primary prophylaxis in children and more compelling support for EBL for secondary prophylaxis. Further randomized controlled studies are needed but are difficult to implement in this vulnerable population. PMID:26122248

  5. A change in the NICE guidelines on antibiotic prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Thornhill, M H; Dayer, M; Lockhart, P B; McGurk, M; Shanson, D; Prendergast, B; Chambers, J B

    2016-08-12

    Since 2008, NICE clinical guidelines have stated: 'Antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis is not recommended for people undergoing dental procedures'. This put UK guidance at odds with guidance in the rest of the world, where antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for patients at high-risk of infective endocarditis undergoing invasive dental procedures. Many dentists also felt this wording prohibited the use of antibiotic prophylaxis, regardless of the wishes of the patient or their personal risk of infective endocarditis and made it difficult for them to use their clinical judgment to deliver individualised care in the best interests of their patients. NICE have now changed this guidance to 'Antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis is not recommended routinely for people undergoing dental procedures.' This article examines the implications of this small but important change. PMID:27514339

  6. [Filamentous fungal infections in immunosuppressed patients: prophylaxis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Camps, Isabel; Peghin, Maddalena

    2015-09-01

    Although the incidence of invasive aspergillosis has decreased in haematologic patients and solid organ transplant recipients due to the use of prophylaxis; aspergillosis has emerged in other populations undergoing immunosuppressive drugs where prophylaxis is not well defined presenting different clinical patterns. Voriconazole is the gold standard in the treatment of aspergillosis and probably combined therapy, with voriconazole plus anidulafungin, could have a role in the initial management of the infection. PMID:26365733

  7. Update on the prophylaxis of migraine.

    PubMed

    Schürks, Markus; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Goadsby, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Migraine prophylaxis is a stepwise procedure with lifestyle advice followed by consideration of medications. Patients should be advised to try to maintain a regular lifestyle, with regular sleep, meals, exercise, and management of stress, perhaps through relaxation techniques or other ways that are sensible for them. If this regimen does not adequately control their migraines, preventatives are indicated. Patients can choose between evidence-based nutraceuticals such as riboflavin, feverfew, butterbur, or coenzyme Q10, or more traditional pharmacotherapeutics. Medicine choices are somewhat limited by what is available in each country, but from the full range, the medicines of first choice are beta-adrenoceptor blockers, flunarizine, topiramate, and valproic acid. Beta-adrenoceptor blockers are particularly useful in patients also suffering from hypertension or tachycardia. Following recent studies, topiramate has become a first choice for episodic as well as chronic migraine. It is the only prophylactic drug that may lead to weight loss, but it is sometimes associated with adverse cognitive effects. Valproic acid and flunarizine also have very good prophylactic properties. However, valproic acid is often associated with adverse effects, and flunarizine is unavailable in many countries, including the United States. If sequential monotherapies are ineffective, combinations of first-line drugs should be tried before advancing to drugs of second choice, which are associated with more adverse effects or have less well-established prophylactic properties. Amitriptyline should be used carefully because of its anticholinergic effects, although it is useful in comorbid tension-type headache, depression, and sleep disorders. Methysergide is very effective, but it has been supplanted or even made unavailable in many countries because of its well-described association with retroperitoneal fibrosis. Pizotifen has a slightly better safety profile but is unavailable in the United

  8. Prophylaxis of migraine in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kacperski, Joanne

    2015-06-01

    While it has been established that headaches in the pediatric age group are relatively common, the characterization of headache disorders and their treatment in this group has historically been limited. Due to the paucity of controlled studies on prophylaxis of the primary headache disorders in children, the diagnosis of migraine often rests on criteria similar to those used in adults. Data from adult studies are often extrapolated and applied to the pediatric patient. Although it appears that many prophylactic agents are safe, well tolerated and efficacious in children, currently only topiramate is FDA-approved for use in patients 12 years and over. As a result, despite often experiencing significant disability, many children who present to their physician with migraines do not receive preventive therapy. One-third of adolescents meet the criteria for warranting prophylactic therapy, yet few are offered a preventative medication. Moreover, controlled clinical trials investigating the use of both abortive and prophylactic medications in children have suffered from high placebo response rates. A diverse group of medications are used to prevent migraine attacks, including antidepressants, antiepileptics, antihistamines and antihypertensive agents, yet there still remains a serious lack of controlled studies on the pharmacological treatment of pediatric migraine. PMID:25792525

  9. Antibiotic prophylaxis in pediatric odontology. An update.

    PubMed

    Planells del Pozo, Paloma; Barra Soto, Ma José; Santa Eulalia Troisfontaines, Eva

    2006-07-01

    Most orofacial infections are of odontogenic origin, and are of a self-limiting nature, characterized by spontaneous drainage. The causal bacteria are generally saprophytes. On the other hand, invasive dental interventions give rise to transient bacteremia. When an oral lesion is contaminated by extrinsic bacteria, the required antibiotic treatment should be provided as soon as possible. In the case of pulpitis, such treatment is usually not indicated if the infection only reaches the pulp tissue or the immediately adjacent tissues. In the event of dental avulsion, local antibiotic application is advised, in addition to the provision of systemic antibiotics. The dental professional must know the severity of the infection and the general condition of the child in order to decide referral to a medical center. Prophylaxis is required in all immunocompromised patients, as well as in individuals with cardiac problems associated with endocarditis, vascular catheters or prostheses. Penicillin V associated to clavulanic acid and administered via the oral route is known to be effective against odontogenic infections. In the case of allergies to penicillin, an alternative drug is clindamycin. Most acute infections are resolved within 3-7 days. In recent years, the tendency is to reduce general antibiotic use for preventive or therapeutic purposes. PMID:16816822

  10. [Lyme disease: prophylaxis after tick bite].

    PubMed

    Patey, O

    2007-01-01

    Lyme disease is a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by infected ticks. The transmission depends on several factors, especially on the duration of the tick's presence in the host body (the nymph which is smaller than the adults and thus less visible, is in this case the most frequently involved) and on whether the tick is infected or not. The interpretation of results in the few available studies is made difficult by the lack of information obtained (due to difficulty to collect information and examination costs). The comparison is made even more difficult by the difference between Borrelia ticks species in various regions. Today, the best methods are preventive: protective clothing, tick repellents, checking and removal of ticks after a journey in an endemic zone, and in case of tick bite, regular examination of the bite site during the following weeks in order to initiate an early curative treatment if ECM is diagnosed. The currently available data seems to be insufficient to suggest systematic antimicrobial prophylaxis in case of tick bite. PMID:17399928

  11. Anthrax prophylaxis: recent advances and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, E. Diane; Dyson, Edward Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax is a serious, potentially fatal disease that can present in four distinct clinical patterns depending on the route of infection (cutaneous, gastrointestinal, pneumonic, or injectional); effective strategies for prophylaxis and therapy are therefore required. This review addresses the complex mechanisms of pathogenesis employed by the bacterium and describes how, as understanding of these has developed over many years, so too have current strategies for vaccination and therapy. It covers the clinical and veterinary use of live attenuated strains of anthrax and the subsequent identification of protein sub-units for incorporation into vaccines, as well as combinations of protein sub-units with spore or other components. It also addresses the application of these vaccines for conventional prophylactic use, as well as post-exposure use in conjunction with antibiotics. It describes the licensed acellular vaccines AVA and AVP and discusses the prospects for a next generation of recombinant sub-unit vaccines for anthrax, balancing the regulatory requirement and current drive for highly defined vaccines, against the risk of losing the “danger” signals required to induce protective immunity in the vaccinee. It considers novel approaches to reduce time to immunity by means of combining, for example, dendritic cell vaccination with conventional approaches and considers current opportunities for the immunotherapy of anthrax. PMID:26441934

  12. [Prophylaxis of Pulmonary Aspiration during General Anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Mori, Yosuke; Sumikura, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary aspiration of gastric or esophageal contents is uncommon; however, it is one of the most severe complications in the perioperative period. The aspiration is associated with possible clinical outcomes, ranging from mild asymptomatic limited episodes of bronchial injury up to the development of a severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. To reduce the incidence of pulmonary aspiration, rapid sequence induction and intubation and awake tracheal intubation are commonly chosen anesthetic techniques for the management of patients at risk of aspiration of gastric or esophageal contents. Although there have been innumerable reports that describe prophylaxis of pulmonary aspiration, currently, there is insufficient evidence to prevent passive regurgitation in at-risk anesthetized patients. Some techniques to prevent pulmonary aspiration entered medical practice on a limited evidence base, but with common sense supporting its use. Properly applied techniques are probably effective at preventing regurgitation in the perioperative period although more randomized controlled trials are awaited to confirm this. Pulmonary aspiration should be prevented using multidisciplinary techniques and considerations that have been shown to improve effectiveness of prophylaxes. However, further research is necessary to support this strategy. PMID:27004384

  13. Anthrax prophylaxis: recent advances and future directions.

    PubMed

    Williamson, E Diane; Dyson, Edward Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax is a serious, potentially fatal disease that can present in four distinct clinical patterns depending on the route of infection (cutaneous, gastrointestinal, pneumonic, or injectional); effective strategies for prophylaxis and therapy are therefore required. This review addresses the complex mechanisms of pathogenesis employed by the bacterium and describes how, as understanding of these has developed over many years, so too have current strategies for vaccination and therapy. It covers the clinical and veterinary use of live attenuated strains of anthrax and the subsequent identification of protein sub-units for incorporation into vaccines, as well as combinations of protein sub-units with spore or other components. It also addresses the application of these vaccines for conventional prophylactic use, as well as post-exposure use in conjunction with antibiotics. It describes the licensed acellular vaccines AVA and AVP and discusses the prospects for a next generation of recombinant sub-unit vaccines for anthrax, balancing the regulatory requirement and current drive for highly defined vaccines, against the risk of losing the "danger" signals required to induce protective immunity in the vaccinee. It considers novel approaches to reduce time to immunity by means of combining, for example, dendritic cell vaccination with conventional approaches and considers current opportunities for the immunotherapy of anthrax. PMID:26441934

  14. Cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in pediatric kidney transplantation: the Dutch experience.

    PubMed

    Jongsma, Hidde; Bouts, Antonia H; Cornelissen, Elisabeth A M; Beersma, Matthias F C; Cransberg, Karlien

    2013-09-01

    Many children receiving a kidney transplant are seronegative for CMV and therefore, highly susceptible to a primary CMV infection. This study aims at evaluating incidence, time of occurrence, and severity of CMV infection in the first year post-transplantation in relation to different types of CMV prophylaxis. Transplantations in three centers in the Netherlands between 1999 and 2010 were included. Retrospective, observational, multicenter study. Clinical data and PCR measurements of CMV were collected. Prophylaxis in high-risk patients (CMV serostatus D+R-) consisted of (val)ganciclovir during three months, or acyclovir plus CMV immunoglobulin at a former stage. Intermediate-risk patients (R+) received (val)acyclovir, or acyclovir plus CMV immunoglobulin at a former stage. Low-risk patients (D-R-) did not receive prophylaxis. Infection was defined as CMV PCR above 50 geq/mL plasma or whole blood, a clinically relevant infection above 1000 geq/mL. One hundred and fifty-nine transplantations were included. CMV infection was documented for 41% of high-risk, 24% of intermediate-risk, and 13% of low-risk patients, in the latter two groups typically during the first three months. The infection rate was highest in the high-risk group after cessation of valganciclovir prophylaxis. Valganciclovir provided better protection than did acyclovir + CMV immunoglobulin. Adding an IL2-receptor blocker to the immunosuppressive regimen did not affect the infection rate. Acute graft rejection was not related with CMV infection. Valganciclovir prophylaxis effectively prevents CMV infection in high-risk pediatric kidney recipients, but only during prophylaxis. Valacyclovir prophylaxis in intermediate-risk patients is less effective. PMID:23890076

  15. Effects of an Educational Module in Rationalizing Surgical Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Nagdeo, Neena; Sonarkar, R; Thombare, V R; Akhtar, M; Dasgupta, S

    2015-08-01

    Assessment of current antibiotic prescribing patterns is an important step towards appropriate use of antimicrobial agents. This study was planned to know the surgical prophylaxis practices and the influence of educational intervention. In this educational interventional study, only clean and clean-contaminated surgeries were included. Preinterventional study was done by collecting data regarding the use of surgical prophylaxis in the Department of Surgery. After analyzing the preinterventional data, educational intervention was done. A pretest questionnaire was given to all the surgeons to assess knowledge and practice of surgical prophylaxis in our institute. The questionnaire was designed to collect information regarding the use of prophylactic antibiotic, its duration, time of administration, and prevention of surgical site infections (SSI). In our study, third-generation cephalosporin was used in maximum cases in preinterventional analysis and prophylaxis was continued for 3-5 days. Surgeon's decision in selecting a prophylactic agent was based on information taken from departmental colleagues or drug companies. Two or more doses of antibiotic were used even when duration of surgery did not exceed more than two and half hours. Definite improvement was seen after the education where single antibiotic was used as prophylactic drug and the first dose of antibiotic was administered 30 to 60 min before incision. This shows that educational intervention makes a change in antibiotic prescribing habit. Hence, there is an urgent need for adoption of specific guidelines to ensure standardization of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis practices in hospitals. PMID:26702236

  16. [Antibody detection after antepartal rhesus prophylaxis: normal values or sensitization].

    PubMed

    Behrens, O; Bader, W; Holle, W; Maas, D H; Schneider, J

    1993-05-01

    Antibody screening tests were performed in 29 unsensitized pregnant women after antepartum Rh immune prophylaxis, using the indirect Coombs test (ICT) and a more sensitive ID-microtyping-system (IDM). With the ICT, anti-D antibodies were detected in 85% for at least 4 weeks and at most 8 weeks after immunisation. The maximum titer was 1:8. With the IDM, 97% showed antibodies against 'D' for at least 4 weeks and at most 11 weeks with a maximum of 1:16. The IDM titer was always 1 to 3 steps more sensitive than the ICT. After postpartum Rh immune prophylaxis, anti-D titers were again positive in many of the patients (ICT: 42%; IDM: 60%). In conclusion, it is nearly always possible to measure antibodies against 'D' after antepartum Rh immune prophylaxis and IDM was superior in comparison to ICT. However, maternal isoimmunisation to the rhesus antigen cannot be excluded for sure and patients have then to be controlled. As isoimmunisation could not be confirmed in any of our patients, postpartum Rh immune prophylaxis has to be administered even after detection of an antibody titer against 'D' after antepartum Rh prophylaxis. PMID:8514107

  17. Comparison of sublingual therapeutic vaccine with antibiotics for the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Gómez, María F.; Padilla-Fernández, Bárbara; García-Cenador, María B.; Virseda-Rodríguez, Álvaro J.; Martín-García, Isidoro; Sánchez-Escudero, Alfonso; Vicente-Arroyo, Manuel J.; Mirón-Canelo, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical impact of a prophylactic treatment with sublingual immunostimulation in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs) with the use of antibiotics. Material and Methods: Retrospective cohort study evaluating the medical records of 669 women with rUTIs; 339 had a 6-month prophylaxis with antibiotics and 360 a 3-month prophylaxis with a sublingual bacterial preparation (MV 140-Uromune®). The time frame after the prophylaxis-period until the appearance of a new infection (assessed by uroculture) was scored and followed during 1 year. The absolute risk reduction (ARR) and number needed to treat (NNT) were also calculated. Results: All patients treated with antibiotics experienced a new UTI during the scoring period of 12 months, being 19 days the median number of days free of UTIs (range 5–300). In the group treated with the bacterial preparation, 35 (9.7%) patients experienced an UTI in the same period. Kaplan-Meier curves comparing the accumulated survival (disease-free time) between both groups were significant different (P < 0.0001). The absolute risk reduction (ARR) was 90.28% (87.18–93.38) and the number needed to treat (NNT) 1.1 (1.1–1.1). Conclusions: These results suggest that the treatment with this bacterial preparation significantly reduces the incidence of rUTIs, arising as an effective strategy to reduce the frequency of rUTIs. It reduces antibiotic consumption, matching the current recommendations due to the raise of antimicrobial resistance. Randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled, clinical trials are needed to establish, more accurately, the clinical impact of this bacterial preparation in patients with rUTIs. PMID:26090341

  18. The Role of Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Win Shun; Assimos, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative sepsis is the most common cause of mortality after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) procedures. Studies investigating the use of antibiotics in PCNL patients have shown that prophylactic antibiotic regimens can reduce the rate of postoperative infectious complications. In addition, several studies have identified risk factors for sepsis development that can help guide antibiotic treatment and perioperative care overall. This has led the American Urological Association to recommend antibiotic prophylaxis for PCNL as a best practice policy statement. However, despite prophylaxis, postoperative sepsis has continued to remain the leading cause of mortality in PCNL patients. In addition, multiple antibiotic protocols exist within the guideline realms. This review assesses the development and role of antibiotic prophylaxis for PCNL procedures. PMID:27162507

  19. [Postoperative prophylaxis of thromboembolism. Present position.(author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Flemming, F; Thomas, E; Widera, R

    1976-01-01

    Only anti-coagulators and aggregation-stoppers may be said to be the medicamental prophylaxis of thromboembolism. The Cumarin-Indandion group is burdened with continuous laboratory controls. Contraindications excluding a general prophylaxis for this group as well as for Heparin and ASS exist. Infukoll, which is virtually always applicable, has the disadvantage that it has to be infused. Heparin- and Dextranspreparations however can already be used preoperatively, which means that a further decline of the coagulation complications can be expected. PMID:952105

  20. Role of calcium entry blockers in the prophylaxis of migraine.

    PubMed

    Olesen, J

    1986-01-01

    Published double-blind studies of the effectiveness of Ca2+ entry blockers in migraine prophylaxis are critically reviewed. The evidence in case of flunarizine is satisfactory, and the drug exerts few and minor side effects. Nimodipine also seems to be effective, but the evidence is not quite satisfactory. The interpretation of two studies with verapamil is hampered by serious methodological problems, and the evidence is clearly insufficient to recommend the use of verapamil in migraine prophylaxis. Mechanisms of action are understandable in classic migraine, but still completely unknown in common migraine. Ca2+ entry blockers open up new and fascinating aspects of migraine research. PMID:3530775

  1. Management of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Prophylaxis in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Paydar, Shahram; Sabetian, Golnar; Khalili, Hosseinali; Fallahi, Javad; Tahami, Mohammad; Ziaian, Bizhan; Abbasi, Hamid Reza; Bolandparvaz, Shahram; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Ghahramani, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PTE) are known as venous thromboembolism (VTE). DVT occurs when a thrombus (a blood clot) forms in deep veins of the body, usually in the lower extremities. It can cause swelling or leg pain, but sometimes may occur with no symptoms. Awareness of DVT is the best way to prevent the VTE. Patients with trauma are at increased risk of DVT and subsequent PE because of coagulopathy in patients with multiple trauma, DVT prophylaxis is essential but the VTE prophylaxis strategy is controversial for the trauma patients. The risk factors for VTE includes pelvic and lower extremity fractures, and head injury. PMID:27162921

  2. Antibiotic resistance in pediatric urology

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Hillary L.

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are a mainstay in the treatment of bacterial infections, though their use is a primary risk factor for the development of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in pediatric urology as demonstrated by increased uropathogen resistance. Lack of urine testing, nonselective use of prophylaxis, and poor empiric prescribing practices exacerbate this problem. This article reviews antibiotic utilization in pediatric urology with emphasis on modifiable practice patterns to potentially help mitigate the growing rates of antibiotic resistance. This includes urine testing to only treat when indicated and tailor broad-spectrum therapy as able; selective application of antibiotic prophylaxis to patients with high-grade vesicoureteral reflux and hydronephrosis with counseling regarding the importance of compliance; and using local antiobiograms, particularly pediatric-specific antiobiograms, with inpatient versus outpatient data. PMID:24688601

  3. Assessment of sodium hyaluronate gel as vehicle for intracameral delivery of cefuroxime in endophthalmitis prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Uhart, M; Pirot, F; Boillon, A; Senaux, E; Tall, L; Diouf, E; Burillon, C; Padois, K; Falson, F; Leboucher, G; Pivot, C

    2010-10-15

    Sodium cefuroxime is a second-generation cephalosporin widely used at 10mg/mL for endophthalmitis prophylaxis after cataract surgery. Sodium cefuroxime solution is usually conditioned in pre-filled syringes then frozen for storage. In the present study, 0.2% sodium hyaluronate gel, natural extracellular polymer used in wound healing, was compared to conventional saline solution (0.9% sodium chloride) as drug delivery systems for cefuroxime loading in pre-filled syringes. Therefore, the temperature (4 and 25 degrees C) and time of storage (up to 21 days) varied in order to appreciate both cefuroxime and vehicle stability. Furthermore, the kinetics of drug release from both hyaluronate gel and saline solution were compared since in vitro sets of dialysis experiments. Results indicated that cefuroxime loaded in either saline solution or hyaluronate hydrogel was found stable in pre-filled syringes stored at 4 degrees C for 21 days, whereas cefuroxime degradations products appeared from the 2nd day of storage at 25 degrees C. Both drug delivery systems were found bioequivalent, although statistically slower cefuroxime dialysis was evidenced by using sodium hyaluronate vehicle. Noteworthy, cefuroxime concentration in drug delivery systems during dialysis experiment remained greater than the minimum inhibitory concentrations reported for resistant strains. In conclusion, the present stability and release study confirmed that sodium hyaluronate hydrogel is a promising vehicle for cefuroxime intracameral delivery in endophthalmitis prophylaxis. PMID:20637851

  4. Sucrose-Formulated Recombinant Factor VIII Dosing Flexibility in Prophylaxis Regimens: Experience from Postmarketing Surveillance Studies

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Thomas J.; Rauchensteiner, Stephan; Tückmantel, Claudia; Pieper, Alexander; Maas Enriquez, Monika; Mathew, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Prophylaxis regimens for severe hemophilia A allowing more flexible dosing while maintaining efficacy may improve adherence and decrease the cost of prophylaxis. Here, we compared the clinical effectiveness of once- or twice-weekly versus ≥3-times-weekly prophylaxis with sucrose-formulated recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII-FS) in a “real-world” practice setting. Methods. Data from 3 postmarketing studies were pooled. Patients with severe hemophilia A receiving ≥1 prophylaxis infusion/wk of rFVIII-FS for ≥80% of a prophylaxis observation period (≥5 months) were included. Patients were categorized based on physician-assigned treatment regimens of 1-2 prophylaxis injections/wk (n = 63) or ≥3 prophylaxis injections/wk (n = 76). Descriptive statistics were determined for annualized bleeding rates (ABRs). Results. Median (quartile 1; quartile 3) ABR for all bleeds was 2.0 (0; 4.0) in the 1-2 prophylaxis injections/wk group and 3.9 (1.5; 9.3) in the ≥3 prophylaxis injections/wk group. Median ABRs for joint, spontaneous, and trauma-related bleeds were numerically lower with 1-2 prophylaxis injections/wk. As an estimate of prophylaxis success, 63% (≥3 prophylaxis injections/wk) to 84% of patients (1-2 prophylaxis injections/wk) had ≤4 annualized joint bleeds. Conclusions. Dosing flexibility and successful prophylaxis with rFVIII-FS were demonstrated. Very good bleeding control was achieved with both once-twice-weekly and ≥3-times-weekly prophylaxis dosing regimens. PMID:26356675

  5. Antibiotic prophylaxis in antenatal nonrefluxing hydronephrosis, megaureter and ureterocele.

    PubMed

    Castagnetti, Marco; Cimador, Marcello; Esposito, Ciro; Rigamonti, Waifro

    2012-06-01

    Observation is a conservative management option in infants with nonrefluxing hydronephrosis, primary nonrefluxing megaureter and ureterocele diagnosed postnatally following antenatal detection of hydronephrosis. Antibiotic prophylaxis might be a sensible regimen under these circumstances to prevent UTI in this population who are potentially at increased risk. However, studies examining the efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics are sparse in this setting. For each condition, prophylactic policies seem extremely variable, and UTI rates vary widely with comparable rates reported between patients followed on and off antibiotics. Overall, antibiotic prophylaxis seems unnecessary in patients with isolated low-grade hydronephrosis. Patients with high-grade nonrefluxing hydronephrosis seem at increased risk of UTI, with risk further increasing in patients with associated ureteral dilatation (hydroureteronephrosis) irrespective of the presence of a ureterocele. Obstruction might be an additional independent risk factor, but the diagnosis of obstruction is often possible only in retrospect. The data available suggest that infants are the most at risk of UTI during the first 6 months of life, particularly if they undergo catheterization during workup examinations. Thus, antibiotic prophylaxis might be prudent during the first 6-12 months of life in patients with high-grade hydronephrosis and hydroureteronephrosis with or without ureterocele, and particularly before completion of the diagnostic workup. Paediatric urologists are urged to embark on controlled trials to compare patients followed with and without antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:22565372

  6. [Low-temperature sterilization for the surgical infection prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Kornev, I I; Baranov, G A; Ul'ianov, V I

    2011-01-01

    The comparative characteristic of the accepted methods of low-temperature sterilization of medical equipment is given. Special attention is devoted to the surgical infection prophylaxis. The efficacy, expediency and safety of gas sterilization with ethilenoxide is proved. Plasmic methods of sterilization is recommended for use together with other methods of low-temperature sterilization. PMID:21716218

  7. Pentamidine in Pneumocystis jirovecii prophylaxis in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Diken, Adem Ilkay; Diken, Ozlem Erçen; Hanedan, Onur; Yılmaz, Seyhan; Ecevit, Ata Niyazi; Erol, Emir; Yalçınkaya, Adnan

    2016-03-24

    Despite advances in transplantation techniques and the quality of post-transplantation care, opportunistic infections remain an important cause of complications. Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) is an opportunistic organism, represents an important cause of infections in heart transplantation patients. Almost 2% to 10% of patients undergoing cardiac transplantation have Pneumocystis pneumonia. Prophylaxis is essential after surgery. Various prophylaxis regimes had been defined in past and have different advantages. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) has a key role in prophylaxis against P. jirovecii. Generally, although TMP/SMX is well tolerated, serious side effects have also been reported during its use. Pentamidine is an alternative prophylaxis agent when TMP/SMX cannot be tolerated by the patient. Structurally, pentamidine is an aromatic diamidine compound with antiprotozoal activity. Since it is not effectively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, it is frequently administered via the intravenous route. Pentamidine can alternatively be administered through inhalation at a monthly dose in heart transplant recipients. Although, the efficiency and safety of this drug is well studied in other types of solid organ transplantations, there are only few data about pentamidine usage in heart transplantation. We sought to evaluate evidence-based assessment of the use of pentamidine against P. jirovecii after heart transplantation. PMID:27011917

  8. Pentamidine in Pneumocystis jirovecii prophylaxis in heart transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Diken, Adem Ilkay; Diken, Ozlem Erçen; Hanedan, Onur; Yılmaz, Seyhan; Ecevit, Ata Niyazi; Erol, Emir; Yalçınkaya, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in transplantation techniques and the quality of post-transplantation care, opportunistic infections remain an important cause of complications. Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) is an opportunistic organism, represents an important cause of infections in heart transplantation patients. Almost 2% to 10% of patients undergoing cardiac transplantation have Pneumocystis pneumonia. Prophylaxis is essential after surgery. Various prophylaxis regimes had been defined in past and have different advantages. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) has a key role in prophylaxis against P. jirovecii. Generally, although TMP/SMX is well tolerated, serious side effects have also been reported during its use. Pentamidine is an alternative prophylaxis agent when TMP/SMX cannot be tolerated by the patient. Structurally, pentamidine is an aromatic diamidine compound with antiprotozoal activity. Since it is not effectively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, it is frequently administered via the intravenous route. Pentamidine can alternatively be administered through inhalation at a monthly dose in heart transplant recipients. Although, the efficiency and safety of this drug is well studied in other types of solid organ transplantations, there are only few data about pentamidine usage in heart transplantation. We sought to evaluate evidence-based assessment of the use of pentamidine against P. jirovecii after heart transplantation. PMID:27011917

  9. Actinomycosis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation despite penicillin prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Barraco, F; Labussière-Wallet, H; Valour, F; Ducastelle-Leprêtre, S; Nicolini, F-E; Thomas, X; Ferry, T; Dumitrescu, O; Michallet, M; Ader, F

    2016-08-01

    Actinomycosis is a rare chronic and multifaceted disease caused by Actinomyces species frequently mimicking malignancy or other chronic granulomatous lung diseases. We report 4 original presentations of actinomycosis arising under supposed penicillin prophylaxis in allogeneic stem cell transplantation recipients. PMID:27203624

  10. Nutrition Reconciliation and Nutrition Prophylaxis: Toward Total Health

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip; Beattie, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common and debilitating condition in the acute hospital setting that is associated with many adverse outcomes, including prolonged length of hospital stay, increased readmission rates, and increased mortality. However, malnutrition by definition may be an abnormality in either under- or overnutrition. With obesity rates rising, many patients admitted to the hospital may be overnourished from unhealthy eating habits. Unhealthy eating habits and obesity increase a patient’s risk for cardiovascular events and complications in the hospital setting. Nutrition risk screening or nutrition reconciliation is an underutilized tool in the hospital that would identify patients with over- and undernutrition. Nutrition intervention or nutrition prophylaxis initiated in the hospital may help reduce hospital days, readmissions, and mortality. Nutrition reconciliation is a new term developed to increase the awareness of nutrition in total health. Nutrition reconciliation means that all patients have their nutritional status reconciled on admission to and discharge from the hospital. Nutrition reconciliation is defined as the process of maximizing health by helping align an individual’s current diet to the diet prescribed for him or her by the health care team. Nutrition prophylaxis is a proactive intervention to prevent a medical complication. Mandatory nutrition reconciliation and nutrition prophylaxis is not widely performed in most hospitals. Such an intervention may help our patients by improving their short-and long-term health. In addition, nutrition reconciliation and nutrition prophylaxis may allow for a more effective use of resources to prevent a preventable disease. PMID:25902344

  11. The Potential of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for Women in Violent Relationships.

    PubMed

    Braksmajer, Amy; Senn, Theresa E; McMahon, James

    2016-06-01

    HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV) are significant intersecting threats to women's health. Women in violent relationships have few feasible HIV risk reduction options as traditional prevention methods are largely dependent on a partner's cooperation. The purpose of this review is to explore potential benefits and drawbacks of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among women in the United States experiencing IPV. Advantages of PrEP use in this population include the potential for covert or autonomous use, coital independence, dual protection against sexual and injection risk, and facilitated connections to social services. A number of barriers, however, may interfere with the effective use of PrEP, including partner resistance, cost, frequent medical visits, gendered norms regarding sexuality, and stigma. To realize its potential for women in violent relationships, it will be necessary to incorporate PrEP into behavioral and structural interventions that encourage uptake, facilitate adherence, ensure women's safety, and challenge existing gender norms. PMID:27286296

  12. Antibiotic prophylaxis may not be necessary in patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria undergoing intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections for neurogenic detrusor overactivity.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Lorenz; Sammer, Ulla; Walter, Matthias; Knüpfer, Stephanie C; Schneider, Marc P; Seifert, Burkhardt; Tornic, Jure; Mehnert, Ulrich; Kessler, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Many of the patients undergoing intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections for refractory neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) present with chronic bacteriuria. In these patients, antibiotic prophylaxis has been widely recommended since bacteriuria might impair treatment efficacy and cause urinary tract infections (UTI) but the evidence is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate if an antibiotic prophylaxis is needed in patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria undergoing intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections. Between 06/2012 and 12/2014, a consecutive series of 154 patients undergoing a total of 273 treatment cycles were prospectively evaluated. Before treatment urine samples were collected, patients with no clinical signs for UTI underwent onabotulinumtoxinA injections, no antibiotic prophylaxis was given. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was found in 73% (200/273 treatments). Following treatment, UTI occurred in 5% (9/200) and 7% (5/73) of patients with and without bacteriuria, respectively. Intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections were clinically and urodynamically successful in 70% (192/273). There was no association between bacteriuria and treatment-related adverse events (odds ratio 0.64, 95% CI 0.23-1.81, p = 0.4) nor between bacteriuria and therapy failure (odds ratio 0.78, 95% CI 0.43-1.43, p = 0.4). Thus, we conclude that antibiotic prophylaxis needs to be critically reconsidered in patients undergoing intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injections, especially taking into account the alarming antibiotic resistance worldwide. PMID:27616488

  13. Comparative Effectiveness of Single versus Combination Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Infections after Transrectal Prostate Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Marino, Kaylee; Parlee, Anne; Orlando, Ralph; Lerner, Lori; Strymish, Judith; Gupta, Kalpana

    2015-12-01

    An increase in fluoroquinolone resistance and transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate (TRUS) biopsy infections has prompted the need for alternative effective antibiotic prophylaxis. We aimed to compare ciprofloxacin and other single-agent therapies to combination therapy for efficacy and adverse effects. Men who underwent a TRUS biopsy within the VA Boston health care system with documented receipt of prophylactic antibiotics periprocedure were eligible for inclusion. Postprocedure infections within 30 days were ascertained by chart review from electronic records, including any inpatient, outpatient, or urgent-care visits. Among 455 evaluable men over a 3-year period, there were 25 infections (5.49%), with sepsis occurring in 2.4%, urinary tract infections (UTI) in 1.54%, and bacteremia in 0.44% of patients. Escherichia coli was the most common urine (89%) and blood (92%) pathogen, with fluoroquinolone resistance rates of 88% and 91%, respectively. Ciprofloxacin alone was associated with significantly more infections than ciprofloxacin plus an additional agent (P = 0.014). Intramuscular gentamicin alone was also significantly associated with a higher infection rate obtained with all other regimens (P = 0.004). Any single-agent regimen, including ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, or gentamicin, was associated with significantly higher infection rates than any combination regimen (odds ratio [OR], 4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47, 10.85; P = 0.004). Diabetes, immunosuppressive condition or medication, hospitalization within the previous year, and UTI within the previous 6 months were not associated with infection risk. Clostridium difficile infections were similar. These findings suggest that ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and gentamicin alone are inferior to a combination regimen. Institutions with high failure rates of prophylaxis for TRUS biopsies should consider combination regimens derived from their local data. PMID:26369958

  14. [Advancement of prophylaxis and therapy for venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takao

    2008-07-01

    Recently in Japan, venous thromboembolism (VTE) [deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE)] has increased with the Westernization of eating habits and aging of society. In the West, the prophylaxis guidelines have been discussed for many years. Unfortunately, Japan falls far behind the West in this area. Therefore, the necessity of thromboprophylaxis in Japanese people should be emphasized based on reliable VTE studies in Japan. In orthopedic surgery, prospective multicenter studies in Japan indicate that the incidence of DVT/PTE in total hip or knee replacement surgery and hip fracture surgery were almost equal to those in Western people. Furthermore, a multi-center, prospective epidemiological study in Japan revealed that the incidence of VTE following major abdominal surgery was 24.3%. We developed Japanese Guidelines for VTE prophylaxis based on the 6th ACCP guideline in 2004. The incidence of perioperative PTE in Japan has been investigated by the Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists since 2002. The rate of perioperative PTE was estimated to be 4.41 per 10,000 operations in 2002, and 4.76 in 2003; however, it decreased to 3.61 immediately after the guideline for thromboprophylaxis was issued and the management fee for PTE prophylaxis became covered by health insurance in April 2004. Furthermore, it markedly decreased in 2005. However, mechanical prophylaxis is not sufficient to prevent PTE, and advanced prophylaxis by anticoagulants, such as low-molecular-weight heparin/selective Xa inhibitor along with unfractionated heparin (UFH)/vitamin K antagonists (VKA) will be essential. The advanced revised guidelines for VTE prophylaxis based on our clinical evidence will be established in the near future. As for treatment for VTE, anticoagulant and thrombolytic therapies are essential. In cases with VTE, UFH followed by VKA (INR: 1.5-2.5) is standard. In cases of PTE with shock, thrombolytic therapy such as tissue plasminogen activator or urokinase

  15. Integrating Preexposure Prophylaxis for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Into Women's Health Care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Dominika; Weber, Shannon

    2016-07-01

    Women comprise one in five new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnoses in the United States. Trials and implementation projects demonstrate preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention is effective in women. Preexposure prophylaxis is a method of preventing HIV acquisition by having an HIV-negative individual take antiretroviral medication before exposure. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate coformulated with emtricitabine as preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in 2012. Preexposure prophylaxis is highly dependent on adherence for effectiveness. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends offering preexposure prophylaxis to individuals at significant risk of infection and estimates 468,000 women in the United States are eligible for preexposure prophylaxis. Although variable individual and structural forces affect each woman's medication adherence, and therefore the effectiveness of preexposure prophylaxis, women's health care providers are uniquely positioned to screen, counsel about, and offer preexposure prophylaxis. Shared decision-making provides a framework for these clinical encounters, allowing patients and clinicians to make health care decisions together based on scientific evidence and patient experiences. By incorporating fertility desires and contraceptive needs, health care providers effectively integrate sexual and reproductive health care. Including preexposure prophylaxis in women's health services requires health care provider training and attention to lessons learned from family planning and HIV prevention. Nevertheless, obstetrician-gynecologists have an opportunity to play a critical role in reducing sexual transmission of HIV in the United States by integrating preexposure prophylaxis education and provision into their practices. PMID:27275793

  16. [PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION: PRINCIPLE CHARACTERISTICS, CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS, VACCINE PROPHYLAXIS].

    PubMed

    Lopukhov, P D; Briko, N I; Khaldin, A A; Tsapkova, N N; Lupashko, O V

    2016-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are a large and diverse group of viruses. It includes approximately 200 fully described types that have been detected in humans. Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are etiologic agents during various, benign and malignant lesions of mucous membrane and skin epithelium. Very importantly, persistent HPV infection of certain types is a leading cause of carcinoma of uterine cervix, penis, vulva; vagina, anal canal and fauces (including tongue base and tonsils). HPV infection prophylaxis is the best means to control HPV-conditioned diseases, and vaccination, as had been demonstrated, --the most effective method of its prophylaxis. In this paper principle characteristics and clinical manifestations of papillomavirus infection, as well as effectiveness of vaccination against HPV are examined. PMID:27029121

  17. Prophylaxis of heterotopic ossification – an updated review

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Evan O; Kang, Qian K

    2009-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is defined as the process by which trabecular bone forms outside of the skeletal structure, occupying space in soft tissue where it does not normally exist. The current popular prophylactic treatment modalities include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and radiation therapy, although the literature remains inconclusive as to which is superior. Additionally, both treatments can lead to adverse effects to the patient. Recently there have been several studies attempting to identify new aspects of the etiology of heterotopic bone formation and introduce new prophylactic modalities with increased efficacy and fewer side effects. For this review, we selectively retrieved articles from Medline published from 1958–2008 on the prophylaxis of HO with the aim of assisting readers in quickly grasping the current status of research and clinical aspects of HO prophylaxis. PMID:19379483

  18. Primary Prophylaxis of Bleeding from Esophageal Varices in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Merkel, Carlo; Montagnese, Sara; Amodio, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Prophylaxis of the first bleeding from esophageal varices became a clinical option more than 20 years ago, and gained a large diffusion in the following years. It is based on the use of nonselective beta-blockers, which decreases portal pressure, or on the eradication of esophageal varices by endoscopic band ligation of varices. In patients with medium or large varices either of these treatments is indicated. In patients with small varices only medical treatment is feasible, and in patients with medium and large varices with contraindication or side-effects due to beta-blockers, only endoscopic band ligation may be used. In this review the rationale and the results of the prophylaxis of bleeding from esophageal varices are discussed. PMID:25755501

  19. EFFICACY OF LITHIUM PROPHYLAXIS IN BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Manu R.K.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Shreeram, S.S.; Anand, I.

    1995-01-01

    Forty four patients attending the affective disorder clink at J1PMER Hospital who were on prophylactic lithium for bipolar affective disorder were studied, Intra-individual comparison for severity of illness was made between periods of similar duration with and without lithium prophylaxis. It was found that during lithium prophylaxis patients did significantly better on the following parameters: number of episodes of illness, duration of episodes, hospital admission, neuroleptic dosages and duration of antidepressant treatment. Of the 44 patients included in the study, 45% were good responders, 39% were partial responders and 16% were poor responders. Late age of onset was found to be a significant predictor of good response to lithium. PMID:21743706

  20. Factor VIII/factor IX prophylaxis for severe hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Carcao, Manuel; Srivastava, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Experience with clotting factor concentrate (CFC) replacement products over several decades has shown that regular replacement (prophylaxis) is the only way to prevent musculoskeletal damage in hemophilia and impact the natural history of hemophilia. Yet there is a lack of data on the optimal age to start such replacement therapy and the regimens to be used. While very early administration of high doses is certainly more effective in preventing bleeding, cost and compliance are major constraints all over the world. Starting prophylaxis with even lower doses comparable to that used in episodic therapies leads to major reduction in bleeding. Recognition of the clinical heterogeneity of hemophilia even among patients with a label of severe hemophilia in terms of their spontaneous bleeding has led to efforts aimed at individualizing CFC replacement, based on clinical responses or pharmacokinetic data of the CFC. The importance of long-term outcome assessment being combined with CFC replacement therapy cannot be overemphasized. PMID:26805901

  1. Swine Dialyzable Spleen Extract as Antiviral Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Merchand-Reyes, Giovanna; Pavón, Lenin; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Salinas-Jazmín, Nohemí; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco; Medina-Rivero, Emilio; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2015-11-01

    Worldwide, the most highly consumed meat is of porcine origin. The production and distribution of swine meat are affected by diverse health matters, such as influenza and diarrhea, which cause head losses and require the use of antibiotics and other drugs in hog farms. To stimulate newborn piglet immune responses and increase resistance to infections, we developed a spray-drying technique to produce dried swine dialyzable spleen extract (sDSE), an immunomodulator. Based on the size-exclusion ultra performance liquid chromatography quantitative analysis, it was possible to recover up to 58% of the product after the drying process. The biological activity of orally administered dried sDSE increased mouse survival and induced cytokine production in a herpes infection model. PMID:25867497

  2. [Perioperative metronidazole-prophylaxis for cesarian section (author's transl].

    PubMed

    Gerstner, G; Kofler, E; Huber, J

    1980-12-01

    A prospective, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 103 patients undergoing cesarian section to assess the efficacy of prophylactic, intravenously administered Metronidazole on the infectious morbidity. A group of 53 patients with perioperative Metronidazol-prophylaxis was compared to a similar controll-group without prophylaxis. Bacteriologic swabs were taken from the cervix pre- and postoperatively, using anaerobic transport media. Prophylactic Metronidazole reduced postoperative fever of more than 38 degrees C on two subsequent days from 60% in the controll-group to 30,2% in the Metronidazole-group (p less than 0,01) wound infections were reduced from 18% without to 5,7% with prophylaxis (p less than 0,05) and Endometritis from 30% without to 13,2% with prophylaxis (p less than 0,05). An additional antibiotic therapy was necessary in 44% of the cases in the controllgroup, compared to 24,5% of the cases in the Metronidazolegroup (p less than 0,05). The mean duration of hospitalisation was reduced from 12,1 +/- 3,2 days in the controll-group to 11,2 +/- 2,1 in the Metronidazole-group (p less than 0,01). Anaerobic bacteria were isolated from the servical swabs in 60% preoperatively, with a still increasing incidence to 72% postoperatively, compared to 7% in the Metronidazole-group. Our results suggest, that prophylactic, intravenously administered Metronidazol reduces the infectious morbidity following cesarian section due to the reduction of the anaerobic flora at the female genital-tract. PMID:7222872

  3. Pharmacist initiation of postexposure doxycycline for Lyme disease prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Anita N; Orr, K Kelly; Bratberg, Jeffrey P; Silverblatt, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To enhance public access to prophylaxis for Lyme disease following an identified Ixodes scapularis tick bite through pharmacist-initiated antibiotic therapy and to assess patient satisfaction with the pharmacy-based service provided. SETTING Independent community pharmacy in Charlestown, RI, from May to October 2012. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION Under a collaborative practice agreement, trained pharmacists at an independent pharmacy identified patients eligible for postexposure antibiotic prophylaxis following attachment and removal of an I. scapularis tick (commonly known as a deer tick) and dispensed two 100 mg tablets of doxycycline. Patients were included if they were 18 years or older, provided informed consent, had an estimated time of tick attachment of 36 hours or more, had the tick removed within 72 hours of visit, denied contraindications to doxycycline therapy, and reported telephone access for follow-up. Patients enrolled in the study protocol were given counseling related to doxycycline, signs and symptoms of Lyme disease, and future tick prevention strategies. PRACTICE INNOVATION Pharmacist initiation of doxycycline prophylaxis has not been described in the literature previously. Successful pharmacist initiation of antibiotic prophylaxis may have broader implications for states with endemic Lyme disease or other infectious disease public health concerns. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Patient self-reported adverse outcomes and satisfaction with the pharmacy-based service. RESULTS Eight patients enrolled in the study and completed the follow-up survey. The results indicated a high level of satisfaction with the pharmacy services provided, with no reports of the subsequent development of Lyme disease symptoms or major adverse events. CONCLUSION The project has expanded to three community pharmacy sites in southern Rhode Island based on this experience. Similar pharmacy-based collaborative practice models should be considered in highly endemic Lyme disease

  4. Maintenance of tooth color after prophylaxis: comparison of three dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, R L; Bartizek, R D; Owens, T S; Walters, P A; Gerlach, R W

    2001-01-01

    Pellicle rapidly accumulates on tooth surfaces after prophylaxis and may acquire cosmetically unacceptable levels of stain. A three-month clinical trial was conducted to evaluate stain prevention by a new silica-based tartar control whitening dentifrice (Crest Extra Whitening) compared to marketed tartar control baking soda peroxide whitening and regular dentifrice controls. Prior to the trial, a one-month screening exercise was conducted to identify adult subjects who accumulated extrinsic tooth stain after dental prophylaxis. A total of 672 subjects were stratified based on tooth whiteness, gender and tobacco usage, then given a dental prophylaxis and randomized into one of three dentifrice treatment groups. All product use was unsupervised. Change in tooth whiteness (delta L*) was determined by comparing colorimeter measurements collected on the facial surfaces of the four central incisors at months 1 and 3 to baseline. Ninety-six percent of subjects completed the three-month study. At both one and three months, the two whitening dentifrices did not differ from baseline in terms of delta L*. In contrast, the regular control had delta L* values of -0.26 and -0.39 at one and three months, respectively, differing significantly from baseline at both time points. Each of the whitening dentifrices differed statistically from the regular control in stain accumulation (p < or = 0.001) at one and three months, but were not different from each other. In general, all three test dentifrices were well tolerated. These data demonstrate the effectiveness of the new tartar control whitening dentifrice in preventing stain accumulation after dental prophylaxis compared to the marketed regular dentifrice control. PMID:11476015

  5. Can migraine prophylaxis prevent acute mountain sickness at high altitude?

    PubMed

    Kim, M W; Kim, M

    2011-11-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) develops in people trekking at high altitude. The underlying mechanism is vasodilation due to low pressure of oxygen. However, individual susceptibility for AMS is unknown, thus, one cannot predict when or to whom it happens. Because AMS usually begins with headache, and because migraineurs are more vulnerable to AMS, we studied by the literatures review on the mechanism and clinical features in common, and assessed the treatment modalities for both disorders. This led to us the following hypothesis that, migraine prophylaxis may prevent or delay the onset of AMS at high altitude. Clinical features of AMS include nausea or vomiting when it progresses. Hypobaric hypoxia, dehydration or increased physical exertion trigger or aggravate both disorders. In migraine, cerebral vasodilation can happen following alteration of neuronal activity, whereas the AMS is associated with peripheral vessel dilation. Medications that dilate the vessels worsen both conditions. Acute treatment strategies for migraine overlap with to those of AMS, including drugs such as vasoconstrictors, or other analgesics. To prevent AMS, adaptation to high altitude or pharmacological prophylaxis, i.e., acetazolamide has been recommended. This carbonic anhydrase inhibitor lowers serum potassium level, and thus stabilizes membrane excitability. Acetazolamide is also effective on specific forms of migraine. Taken together, these evidences implicate that migraine prophylaxis may prevent or delay the onset of AMS by elevating the threshold for high altitude. PMID:21856088

  6. Prophylaxis in von Willebrand Disease: Coming of Age?

    PubMed

    Saccullo, Giorgia; Makris, Mike

    2016-07-01

    Although in most cases von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a mild disorder, a subgroup of patients experience frequent bleeding. In contrast to severe hemophilia in which prophylaxis is the accepted standard of care, this is less frequently used in VWD. Most type 1 VWD patients can be adequately managed with episodic desmopressin and tranexamic acid. In patients with more severe disease, especially those with type 3 VWD, joint bleeds, epistaxis, menorrhagia, and gastrointestinal bleeding are problematic and usually require treatment with von Willebrand factor/factor VIII (VWF/FVIII) concentrate. While in the past these patients were managed with on-demand VWF/FVIII concentrate, several recent reports have demonstrated the value of prophylactic treatment. Despite some uncertainties about the economic impact of treatment of severe VWD, prophylaxis with VWF concentrate should now be considered as the standard of care for the more severe end of the spectrum of affected individuals. The recent introduction of recombinant VWF concentrate is likely to improve the acceptability of prophylaxis in VWD. PMID:27253087

  7. Prophylaxis in hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 inhibitor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Greve, Jens; Strassen, Ulrich; Gorczyza, Marina; Dominas, Nina; Frahm, Uta-Marie; Mühlberg, Heike; Wiednig, Michaela; Zampeli, Vasiliki; Magerl, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of subcutaneous or submucosal edema. Laryngeal manifestations can be life-threatening. In the majority of cases, the disease can be adequately treated with an on-demand approach - in some cases, however, short- or long-term prophylaxis is indicated. Attenuated androgens used to be the drugs of choice, but they are associated with considerable side effects and no longer commercially available in the German-speaking countries of the EU. They are currently being replaced by more effective and more tolerable agents such C1-inhibitors, the kallikrein inhibitor ecallantide, and the B2 receptor antagonist icatibant, which have recently obtained market authorization. These new drugs have had a major impact, especially on the indications and procedures for long-term prophylaxis. According to the most recent international consensus papers and our own experience, self-administered C1-inhibitors are now the first option for long-term prophylactic therapy. The decision for prophylaxis should no longer be based on single parameters such as the frequency of attacks but on adequate overall disease control including quality of life. More drugs are currently being developed, which may lead to further changes in the treatment algorithms of HAE. PMID:26972189

  8. Xylitol as a prophylaxis for acute otitis media: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Danhauer, Jeffrey L; Johnson, Carole E; Corbin, Nicole E; Bruccheri, Kaitlyn G

    2010-10-01

    A systematic review was conducted to evaluate evidence regarding xylitol, a sugar alcohol, as a prophylaxis for acute otitis media (AOM) in children. The authors searched PubMed and other databases to identify evidence. Criteria for included studies were: appear in English-language, peer-reviewed journals; at least quasi-experimental designs; use xylitol; and present outcome data. The authors completed evaluation forms for the included studies at all phases of the review. The authors reviewed 1479 titles and excluded 1435. Abstracts and full texts were reviewed for the remaining 44; four randomized controlled trials met inclusion criteria. Xylitol was a generally well accepted prophylaxis for AOM with few side effects when administered via chewing gum or syrup at 10 g/day given five times daily. Meta-analysis revealed significant treatment effects (Risk ratio = 0.68; 95% confidence interval = 0.57 to 0.83). Xylitol can be a prophylaxis for AOM, but warrants further study, especially of vehicles other than chewing gum for young children, and information is needed regarding cost, duration of administration required, and expected long-term effects. PMID:20874048

  9. Medical rota changes and venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in orthopaedic patients.

    PubMed

    Bohler, Iain; George Mackenzie Jardine, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of clinical guidelines to improve patient care is highly dependent on the ability of hospital teams to interpret and implement advised standards of care. Trimester and bi-annual rotation changes often see transference and loss of acquired experience and knowledge from wards with ensuing shortfalls in patient safety and care quality. Such shortfalls were noticed in the ability of our unit to adhere to national venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis measures. A prospective quality improvement audit was embarked upon to address this. An initial audit of VTE prophylaxis in 112 patients demonstrated just 71% compliance with suggested measures. Errors were predominantly medical in origin and secondary to poor understanding, interpretation, and knowledge of VTE guidelines. Errors were also noted in nursing and patient compliance to measures. Repeated re-auditing demonstrated increased error (following initial improvement post audit) after periods of medical staff rotation. Through education of junior medical and nursing staff, and of patients, the unit was able to achieve 100% compliance. Rota changes often induce conflict of interest between maintaining adequate services and high levels of patient care or providing suitable and informed induction programmes for new medical staff. Emphasised education of VTE prophylaxis guidelines has now become part of induction of junior medical staff, whilst ward based measures ensure daily compliance. The success of the audit strategy has led to its use throughout other surgical units within the hospital. PMID:26734265

  10. Antibiotic prophylaxis for transurethral urological surgeries: Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Alsaywid, Basim S.; Smith, Grahame H. H.

    2013-01-01

    The use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent urinary tract infection and bacteremia (sepsis) following endoscopic urologic procedures is a controversial topic. Evidence in the literature revealed that urological instrumentation is associated with increased incidence of urinary tract infection and bacteremia. The aim of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing the risk of urinary tract infection in patients who had transurethral urological surgeries. We have selected all RCTs of adult population who underwent all different types of transurethral urological surgery, including cystoscopy, transurethral resection of prostate and transurethral resection of bladder tumor, and received prophylactic antibiotics or placebo/no treatment. At first, more than 3000 references were identified and reviewed; of which 42 studies with a total of 7496 patients were included in the final analysis. All those trials were analyzing antibiotic prophylaxis versus placebo/no treatment, and they were significantly favoring antibiotic use in reducing all outcomes, including bacteriuria (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.46, P < 0.0001) with moderate heterogeneity detected (I2 48%), symptomatic UTI (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.51, P < 0.0001) with no significant heterogeneity was detected (I2= 17%), bacteremia (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.82, P < 0.0001) with no noted heterogeneity (I2 = 0%), and fever ≥38.5 Celsius (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.73, P = 0.003); also, there was no noted heterogeneity (I2 = 0%). However, using antibiotic prophylaxis did not reduce the incidence of low grade temperature (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.11, P = 0.20) or in moderate grade temperature (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.48, P = 0.89). Antibiotic prophylaxis appears to be an effective intervention in preventing urinary tract infections and its sequels following transurethral urological surgeries in patients with preoperative sterile urine. PMID:23798859

  11. Antibiotic concentrations in serum and wound fluid after local gentamicin or intravenous dicloxacillin prophylaxis in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Friberg, Orjan; Jones, Ian; Sjöberg, Lennart; Söderquist, Bo; Vikerfors, Thomas; Källman, Jan

    2003-01-01

    One important aim of antibiotic prophylaxis in cardiac surgery is preventing mediastinitis and thus it would appear to be relevant to study the antibiotic concentrations in pericardial/mediastinal fluid. Local administration of gentamicin in the wound before sternal closure is a novel way of antibiotic prophylaxis and could be effective against bacteria resistant to intravenous antibiotics. This study measured dicloxacillin concentrations in 101 patients in serum and wound fluid following intravenous administration of dicloxacillin. Similarly, concentrations of gentamicin in serum and wound fluid were determined in 30 patients after administration of 260 mg gentamicin in the wound at sternal closure. Median dicloxacillin concentrations in serum and wound fluid at sternal closure were 59.4 and 55.35 mg/l, respectively. Gentamicin levels in the wound were very high (median 304 mg/l), whereas serum concentrations were low (peak median 2.05 mg/l). Dicloxacillin, 1 g given intravenously, according to the clinical protocol, resulted in levels in serum and wound fluid at sternal closure likely to prevent Staphylococcus aureus infections. Locally administered gentamicin resulted in high local concentrations, potentially effective against agents normally considered resistant. PMID:12839154

  12. Stress ulcer prophylaxis in critically ill patients: review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Alhazzani, Waleed; Alshahrani, Mohammed; Moayyedi, Paul; Jaeschke, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Critically ill patients are at risk of developing stress ulcers in the upper digestive tract. Multiple risk factors have been associated with the development of this condition, with variable risk of association. Decades of research have suggested the benefit of using pharmacologic prophylaxis to reduce the incidence of clinically important upper gastrointestinal bleeding, with no reduction in overall mortality. It has been the standard of care to provide prophylaxis to patients at risk. Options for prophylaxis include: proton‑pump inhibitors, histamine(2)‑receptor antagonists, or sucralfate. The choice of prophylaxis depends on multiple factors including the presence of risk factors, risk for nosocomial pneumonia, and possibly cost. PMID:22354363

  13. Adherence To Malaria Prophylaxis Among Peace Corps Volunteers in the Africa Region, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Landman, Keren Z.; Tan, Kathrine R.; Arguin, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although malaria can be prevented with prophylaxis, it is diagnosed in over 100 Africa-region Peace Corps Volunteers annually. This suggests that prophylaxis non-adherence is a problem in these non-immune travelers. Methods We investigated Volunteers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding prophylaxis using an internet-based survey during August 19–September 30, 2013. Adherence was defined as taking doxycycline or atovaquone-proguanil daily, or taking mefloquine doses no more than 8 days apart. Results The survey was sent to 3,248 Volunteers. Of 781 whose responses were analyzed, 514 (73%) reported adherence to prophylaxis. The most common reasons for non-adherence were forgetting (n=530, 90%); fear of long-term adverse effects (LTAEs; n=316, 54%); and experiencing adverse events that Volunteers attributed to prophylaxis (n=297, 51%). Two hundred fourteen (27%) Volunteers reported not worrying about malaria. On multivariate analysis controlling for sex and experiencing adverse events Volunteers attributed to prophylaxis, the factor most strongly associated with non-adherence was being prescribed mefloquine (OR 5.4, 95% confidence interval 3.2–9.0). Conclusions We found moderate adherence and a prevailing fear of LTAEs among Volunteers. Strategies to improve prophylaxis adherence may include medication reminders, increasing education about prophylaxis safety and malaria risk, and promoting prompt management of prophylaxis side effects. PMID:25534297

  14. Pharmacologic Prophylaxis for Venous Thromboembolism Among Patients With Total Joint Replacement: An Electronic Medical Records Study.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, Marc; Liu, Xianchen; Phatak, Hemant; Qi, Rong; Teal, Evgenia; Nisi, Daniel; Liu, Larry Z; Parr, J Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Patients who have total hip (THR) or knee (TKR) replacement have an elevated risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The American College of Chest Physicians guidelines recommend prophylactic anticoagulation. The aim of the study was to examine pharmacologic prophylaxis against VTE among patients with THR or TKR and to assess demographic and clinical correlates related to VTE prophylaxis. Using 15 years of data (1995-2009) from an electronic medical record system for an inner-city public hospital in the United States, we examined pharmacologic prophylaxis against VTE and associated factors in patients after THR (n = 242) and TKR (n = 317). Before the early 2000s, aspirin was the most common prophylaxis agent (THR, 61% and TKR, 65%), and 26% of patients with THR and 19% of patients with TKR did not receive prophylaxis. Enoxaparin use has increased since 2000, and warfarin is now the most common prophylaxis agent (THR, 70% and TKR, 61%). After controlling for time period, factors associated with prophylaxis pattern included obesity, hip fracture, and the surgeon's number of years in practice. VTE prophylaxis medications in patients with total joint replacement have changed over 15 years, in trends generally consistent with the evolution of guidelines. Obesity, history of hip fracture, and physician's experience are associated with the prescription of VTE prophylaxis medications. PMID:26736015

  15. Venous thromboembolism risk and prophylaxis in hospitalised medically ill patients. The ENDORSE Global Survey.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jean-Francois; Cohen, Alexander T; Tapson, Victor F; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Kakkar, Ajay K; Deslandes, Bruno; Huang, Wei; Anderson, Frederick A

    2010-04-01

    Limited data are available regarding the risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and VTE prophylaxis use in hospitalised medically ill patients. We analysed data from the global ENDORSE survey to evaluate VTE risk and prophylaxis use in this population according to diagnosis, baseline characteristics, and country. Data on patient characteristics, VTE risk, and prophylaxis use were abstracted from hospital charts. VTE risk and prophylaxis use were evaluated according to the 2004 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify factors associated with use of ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. Data were evaluated for 37,356 hospitalised medical patients across 32 countries. VTE risk varied according to medical diagnosis, from 31.2% of patients with gastrointestinal/hepatobiliary diseases to 100% of patients with acute heart failure, active non-infectious respiratory disease, or pulmonary infection (global rate, 41.5%). Among those at risk for VTE, ACCP-recommended prophylaxis was used in 24.4% haemorrhagic stroke patients and 40-45% of cardiopulmonary disease patients (global rate, 39.5%). Large differences in prophylaxis use were observed among countries. Markers of disease severity, including central venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, and admission to intensive care units, were strongly associated with use of ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. In conclusion, VTE risk varies according to medical diagnosis. Less than 40% of at-risk hospitalised medical patients receive ACCP-recommended prophylaxis. Prophylaxis use appears to be associated with disease severity rather than medical diagnosis. These data support the necessity to improve implementation of available guidelines for evaluating VTE risk and providing prophylaxis to hospitalised medical patients. PMID:20135072

  16. Roughness of human enamel surface submitted to different prophylaxis methods.

    PubMed

    Castanho, Gisela Muassab; Arana-Chavez, Victor E; Fava, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate alterations in the surface roughness and micromorphology of human enamel submitted to three prophylaxis methods. Sixty-nine caries-free molars with exposed labial surfaces were divided into three groups. Group I was treated with a rotary instrument set at a low speed, rubber cup and a mixture of water and pumice; group II with a rotary instrument set at a low speed, rubber cup and prophylaxis paste Herjos-F (Vigodent S/A Indústria e Comércio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); and group III with sodium bicarbonate spray Profi II Ceramic (Dabi Atlante Indústrias Médico Odontológicas Ltda, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil). All procedures were performed by the same operator for 10 s, and samples were rinsed and stored in distilled water Pre and post-treatment surface evaluation was completed using a surface profilometer (Perthometer S8P, Marh, Perthen, Germany) in 54 samples. In addition, the other samples were coated with gold and examined in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results of this study were statistically analyzed with the paired t-test (Student), the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Dunn (5%) test. The sodium bicarbonate spray led to significantly rougher surfaces than the pumice paste. The use of prophylaxis paste showed no statistically significant difference when compared with the other methods. Based on SEM analysis, the sodium bicarbonate spray presented an irregular surface with granular material and erosions. Based on this study, it can be concluded that there was an increased enamel surface roughness when teeth were treated with sodium bicarbonate spray when compared with teeth treated with pumice paste. PMID:18767461

  17. Prophylaxis of thrombosis with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH).

    PubMed

    Holzheimer, René G

    2004-03-30

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, affecting approximately 4 million people each year in the United States. The identification of risk factors for the development of DVT and PE helped to develop a system for risk stratification. The risk to develop a deep vein thrombosis has been estimated to be up to 80% in some populations without prophylaxis. In multiple studies LMWHs demonstrated to be efficient and safe for reduction of DVT of patients in general and visceral surgery, orthopedic surgery, and trauma. Three compounds have been studied best, e.g., dalteparin, enoxaparin, nadroparin, which may help to decide which type of LMWH to use. There is clearly an expanding role for LMWHs in gynecology, cancer, intensive care, patients with acute medical illness and bedridden patients. In summary, LMWHs have chemical, physical, and clinical similarities. They have greater bioavailability, longer half-lifes, more predictable pharmacological response, possible improved safety, and similar or greater efficacy compared with UH. However, the evaluation of clinical trials does not allow the determination of therapeutic equivalence due to different diagnostic methods, drug administration times, dose equivalencies, and outcome measurements The scoring of the quality of clinical trials for meta-analysis is problematic and it has been recommended to assess the methodological aspects individually. Despite clear evidence of effectiveness, deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis is underused. This has been recognized by law firms as evidenced by internet advertisement where patients are informed on the prevention of venous thromboembolism or economy class syndrome. "If you or a family member has been injured, contact a personal injury attorney today. Just fill out Injury.Board.com's on-line questionnaire and have a personal injury lawyer review your potential personal injury claim -- free of charge.". The medico legal

  18. [Visual development and amblyopia prophylaxis in pediatric glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Steffen, H

    2011-07-01

    In children with congenital glaucoma the functional long-term result is often disappointing even if the intraocular pressure is well controlled. The reason for this discrepancy is attributed to amblyogenic factors responsible for interfering with normal visual development. These amblyogenic factors are corneal edema, irregular astigmatism and non-corrected ametropia as monocular causes. Binocular causes are anisometropia-induced suppression and strabismus. Full ametropic correction and a very early prophylaxis and treatment of amblyopia with a close follow-up are mandatory to reduce amblyogenic visual impairment in children with congenital glaucoma. PMID:21725660

  19. From prophylaxis to atomic cocktail: circulation of radioiodine.

    PubMed

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a history of iodine. To trace the trajectory of this element, goiter is used as a guideline for the articulation of a historical account, as a representation of thyroid disorders and of the spaces of knowledge and practices related to iodine. Iodine's journey from goiter treatment and prophylaxis in the late interwar period took on a new course after WWII by including the element's radioactive isotopes. I intend to show how the introduction of radioiodine contributed to stabilize the epistemic role of iodine, in both its non-radioactive and radioactive form, in thyroid gland studies and in the treatment of its disorders. PMID:19852395

  20. Nonadherence to Primary Prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Heffelfinger, James D.; Voetsch, Andrew C.; Nakamura, Glenn V.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; McNaghten, A. D.; Huang, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the effectiveness of prophylaxis, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) continues to be the most common serious opportunistic infection among HIV-infected persons. We describe factors associated with nonadherence to primary PCP prophylaxis. Methodology/Principal Findings We used 2000–2004 data from the Supplement to HIV/AIDS Surveillance (SHAS) project, a cross-sectional interview project of HIV-infected persons ≥18 years conducted in 18 states. We limited the analysis to persons who denied having prior PCP, reported having a current prescription to prevent PCP, and answered the question “In the past 30 days, how often were you able to take the PCP medication(s) exactly the way your doctor told you to take them?” We used multivariable logistic regression to describe factors associated with nonadherence. Of 1,666 subjects prescribed PCP prophylaxis, 305 (18.3%) were nonadherent. Persons were more likely to be nonadherent if they reported using marijuana (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1–2.4), non-injection drugs other than marijuana (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0–2.1), or injection drugs (aOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.3–4.1) in the past year; their mental health was “not good” for ≥1 day during the past month (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2–2.2); their most recent CD4 count was <200 cells/μL (aOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1–2.2); or taking ART usually (aOR = 9.6, 95% CI = 6.7–13.7) or sometimes/rarely/never (aOR = 18.4, 95% CI = 11.1–30.4), compared with always, as prescribed. Conclusion/Significance Providers should inquire about and promote strategies to improve adherence to PCP prophylaxis, particularly among persons who use illicit drugs, have mental health issues, and who are not compliant with ART to reduce the occurrence of PCP. PMID:19319199

  1. Tinidazole in the prophylaxis of post-appendicectomy infections.

    PubMed

    Salo, J; Silvennoinen, E; Hulkko, A; Ervasti, E; Holopainen, O

    1981-01-01

    A total of 223 consecutive suspected appendicitis patients were treated preoperatively with parenteral tinidazole or physiological saline (control group). An infusion of 500 mg tinidazole was given to 110 patients over 30 minutes beginning about 30 minutes before the start of the operation, the control group comprised 111 patients. Postoperative infections were diagnosed in three patients in the group receiving tinidazole (3%) and in 17 patients in the control group (15%). The difference was statistically significant. There were no side-effects due to the drugs. Tinidazole appears to be well suited to the prophylaxis of post-appendicectomy infections. PMID:7032413

  2. Comparison between valganciclovir and aciclovir/valaciclovir for CMV prophylaxis in pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fila, M; Dechartes, A; Maisin, A; Dossier, C; Zhao, W; Deschênes, G; Baudouin, V

    2015-01-01

    Prophylaxis has dramatically decreased the occurrence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after renal transplantation. Optimal regimens of treatment remain controversial, especially in pediatric recipients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of valganciclovir (VGC) versus aciclovir/valaciclovir (ACV) in a pediatric renal transplant population. Data from 101 renal transplantations were retrospectively analyzed. Except those with R-/Dstatus, all patients received prophylaxis either with ACV, n = 39 or VGC, n = 38. Incidences of positive CMV antigenemia and disease, as well as the delay in relation to the prophylaxis, were collected during at least 12 months after the end of treatment. Positive CMV antigenemia was reported in 34 patients (ACV: 16, VGC: 16, no prophylaxis: 2). CMV disease occurred in 15 patients (ACV: 5; VGC: 8) (ns). For the majority of patients under VGC, positive CMV antigenemia occurred within the year following the withdrawal of prophylaxis (VGC: 14; ACV: 5, P <0.05), whereas it occurred during prophylaxis in 11 patients under ACV versus two under VGC (P <0.05). The over-all incidence of positive CMV antigenemia was similar between ACV and VGC prophylaxis. However, VGC was more efficient to prevent early CMV infection while patients treated with ACV had less CMV infection or disease after the end of the prophylaxis. PMID:26022014

  3. ONE WEEK VERSUS FOUR WEEK HEPARIN PROPHYLAXIS AFTER LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY FOR COLORECTAL CANCER.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-04-28

    The Primary Study Objective is to Assess the Efficacy and; Safety of Extended 4-week Heparin Prophylaxis Compared to; Prophylaxis Given for 8±2 Days After Planned Laparoscopic; Surgery for Colorectal Cancer.; The Clinical Benefit Will be Evaluated as the Difference in; the Incidence of VTE or VTE-related Death Occurring Within 30 Days; From Surgery in the Two Study Groups.

  4. Risks and benefits HIV preexposure prophylaxis with tenofovir/emtricitabine in an older male with comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Girometti, Nicolò; Jones, Rachael; Levy, Jeremy; McCormack, Sheena; Sullivan, Ann; Barber, Tristan J

    2016-08-24

    Renal toxicity in a 73-year-old male, using tenofovir/emtricitabine as preexposure prophylaxis, is described. Reduced renal reserve, a higher exposure to comedications and comorbidities can present a challenge when assessing the risks and benefits of tenofovir-based preexposure prophylaxis in the ageing population. PMID:27219131

  5. Preliminary consultation on preferred product characteristics of benzathine penicillin G for secondary prophylaxis of rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Wyber, Rosemary; Boyd, Ben J; Colquhoun, Samantha; Currie, Bart J; Engel, Mark; Kado, Joseph; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Sullivan, Mark; Saxena, Anita; Sheel, Meru; Steer, Andrew; Mucumbitsi, Joseph; Zühlke, Liesl; Carapetis, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    Rheumatic fever is caused by an abnormal immune reaction to group A streptococcal infection. Secondary prophylaxis with antibiotics is recommended for people after their initial episode of rheumatic fever to prevent recurrent group A streptococcal infections, recurrences of rheumatic fever and progression to rheumatic heart disease. This secondary prophylaxis must be maintained for at least a decade after the last episode of rheumatic fever. Benzathine penicillin G is the first line antibiotic for secondary prophylaxis, delivered intramuscularly every 2 to 4 weeks. However, adherence to recommended secondary prophylaxis regimens is a global challenge. This paper outlines a consultation with global experts in rheumatic heart disease on the characteristics of benzathine penicillin G formulations which could be changed to improve adherence with secondary prophylaxis. Characteristics included dose interval, pain, administration mechanism, cold chain independence and cost. A sample target product profile for reformulated benzathine penicillin G is presented. PMID:27465618

  6. Anti-D prophylaxis: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    de Haas, M; Finning, K; Massey, E; Roberts, D J

    2014-02-01

    The new British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH) guidelines for the use of anti-D immunoglobulin in pregnancy provide a welcome clarification of the use of anti-D in ectopic pregnancy and after red cell salvage during caesarean section, of dosing with different preparations and distinguishing non-immune and immune anti-D. The routine use of anti-D prophylaxis (RAADP) to prevent Rhesus (Rh) D alloimmunisation during the third trimester is well established and requires careful and well-audited local implementation to achieve the maximum public health benefit. In the UK, such scrutiny may be provided by the reporting of failed anti-D prophylaxis at women who have produced an immune anti-D that is detectable for the first time in the current pregnancy through the voluntary Serious Hazards of Transfusion reporting scheme (SHOT). Application of fetal RHD genotyping would avoid giving anti-D to RhD negative women carrying an RhD negative fetus. RAADP is directed by fetal RHD genotyping in some countries in Northern Europe led by the Netherlands and Denmark. The economic case for RAADP directed by fetal RHD genotyping needs to be carefully evaluated and in England is under consideration by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Possible future developments include the use of monoclonal anti-D preparations, now in advanced clinical trials, and also testing the hypothesis that directed RAADP from early in the second trimester may further reduce anti-D immunisation. PMID:25121157

  7. UVC Light Prophylaxis for Cutaneous Wound Infections in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Garcia, Barbara; Murray, Clinton K.; Vrahas, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    UVC light has long been known to be highly germicidal but has not been much developed as a therapy for infections. This study investigated the potential of UVC light for the prophylaxis of infections developing in highly contaminated superficial cutaneous wounds. In vitro studies demonstrated that the pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were inactivated at UVC light exposures much lower than those needed for a similar effect on mammalian keratinocytes. Mouse models of partial-thickness skin abrasions infected with bioluminescent P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were developed. Approximately 107 bacterial cells were inoculated onto wounds measuring 1.2 by1.2 cm on the dorsal surfaces of mice. UVC light was delivered at 30 min after bacterial inoculation. It was found that for both bacterial infections, UVC light at a single radiant exposure of 2.59 J/cm2 reduced the bacterial burden in the infected mouse wounds by approximately 10-fold in comparison to those in untreated mouse wounds (P < 0.00001). Furthermore, UVC light increased the survival rate of mice infected with P. aeruginosa by 58.3% (P = 0.0023) and increased the wound healing rate in mice infected with S. aureus by 31.2% (P < 0.00001). DNA lesions were observed in the UVC light-treated mouse wounds; however, the lesions were extensively repaired by 48 h after UVC light exposure. These results suggested that UVC light may be used for the prophylaxis of cutaneous wound infections. PMID:22564833

  8. Renin angiotensin system: A novel target for migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Nandha, Ruchika; Singh, Harpal

    2012-03-01

    Migraine constitutes 16% of primary headaches affecting 10-20% of general population according to International Headache Society. Till now nonsteroidalanti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), opioids and triptans are the drugs being used for acute attack of migraine. Substances with proven efficacy for prevention include β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, antiepileptic drugs and antidepressants. All the already available drugs have certain limitations. Either they are unable to produce complete relief or 30-40% patients are no responders or drugs produce adverse effects. This necessitates the search for more efficacious and well-tolerated drugs. A new class of drugs like angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists have recently been studied for their off label use in prophylaxis of migraine. Studies, done so far, have shown results in favour of their clinical use because of the ability to reduce number of days with headache, number of days with migraine, hours with migraine, headache severity index, level of disability, improved Quality of life and decrease in consumption of specific or nonspecific analgesics. This article reviews the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of these drugs in prophylaxis of migraine and can give physician a direction to use these drugs for chronic migraineurs. Searches of pubmed, Cochrane database, Medscape, Google and clinicaltrial.org were made using terms like ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists and migraine. Relevant journal articles were chosen to provide necessary information. PMID:22529467

  9. Efficacy of Favipiravir (T-705) in Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kentaro; Noguchi, Kazuko; Komeno, Takashi; Furuta, Yousuke; Nishizono, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by rabies virus (RABV), and no antiviral drugs for RABV are currently available. We report for the first time the efficacy of favipiravir (T-705) against RABV in vitro and in vivo. T-705 produced a significant, 3–4 log10 reduction in the multiplication of street and fixed RABV strains in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 32.4 µM and 44.3 µM, respectively. T-705 significantly improved morbidity and mortality among RABV-infected mice when orally administered at a dose of 300 mg/kg/day for 7 days, beginning 1 hour after inoculation. T-705 significantly reduced the rate of virus positivity in the brain. Furthermore, the effectiveness of T-705 was comparable to that of equine rabies virus immunoglobulin for postexposure prophylaxis. Collectively, our results suggest that T-705 is active against RABV and may serve as a potential alternative to rabies immunoglobulin in rabies postexposure prophylaxis. PMID:26655300

  10. Long term outcome of prophylaxis for febrile convulsions.

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, F U; Paerregaard, A; Andersen, R; Andresen, J

    1996-01-01

    A cohort of 289 children with febrile convulsions who had been randomised in early childhood to either intermittent prophylaxis (diazepam at fever) or no prophylaxis (diazepam at seizures) was followed up 12 years later. The study focused on the occurrence of epilepsy and on neurological, motor, intellectual, cognitive, and scholastic achievements in the cohort. At follow up the two groups were of almost identical age (14.0 v 14.1 years), body weight (58.2 v 57.2 kg), height (168.2 v 167.7 cm), and head circumference (55.9 v 56.2 cm). The occurrence of epilepsy (0.7% v 0.8%), neurological examination, fine and gross motor development on the Stott motor test, intellectual performance on the Wechsler intelligence scale for children verbal IQ (105 v 105), performance IQ (114 v 111), and full scale IQ (110 v 108), cognitive abilities on a neuropsychological test battery, including short and long term, auditory and visual memory, visuomotor tempo, computer reaction time, reading test, and scholastic achievement were also very similar. Children with simple and complex febrile convulsions had the same benign outcome. The long term prognosis in terms of subsequent epilepsy, neurological, motor, intellectual, cognitive, and scholastic ability was not influenced by the type of treatment applied in early childhood. Preventing new febrile convulsions appears no better in the long run than abbreviating them. PMID:8660037

  11. Efficacy of Favipiravir (T-705) in Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kentaro; Noguchi, Kazuko; Komeno, Takashi; Furuta, Yousuke; Nishizono, Akira

    2016-04-15

    Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by rabies virus (RABV), and no antiviral drugs for RABV are currently available. We report for the first time the efficacy of favipiravir (T-705) against RABV in vitro and in vivo. T-705 produced a significant, 3-4 log10 reduction in the multiplication of street and fixed RABV strains in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 32.4 µM and 44.3 µM, respectively. T-705 significantly improved morbidity and mortality among RABV-infected mice when orally administered at a dose of 300 mg/kg/day for 7 days, beginning 1 hour after inoculation. T-705 significantly reduced the rate of virus positivity in the brain. Furthermore, the effectiveness of T-705 was comparable to that of equine rabies virus immunoglobulin for postexposure prophylaxis. Collectively, our results suggest that T-705 is active against RABV and may serve as a potential alternative to rabies immunoglobulin in rabies postexposure prophylaxis. PMID:26655300

  12. [Thrombosis prophylaxis with heparins in intensive care patients].

    PubMed

    Greinacher, A; Janssen, D

    2005-03-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a common complication in critically ill patients, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Most patients treated in intensive care units (ICU) face a high risk of thromboembolic complications. There is a need for well-defined strategies for prevention of thrombosis in ICU patients. Mechanical methods such as compression stockings are frequently used, even though evidence for these measures in ICU patients is limited. Unfractionated heparin (UFH) is still the leading drug for thromboprophylaxis in ICU patients, but pharmacokinetic disadvantages such as low predictability of effect on anticoagulation are relevant, especially in ICU patients. Additionally, there is no sufficient evidence from clinical trials to support subcutaneous or intravenous prophylaxis with UFH. At least equivalent efficacy and safety of subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) compared with subcutaneous UFH have been shown in numerous studies investigating non-ICU high-risk groups. First studies on the use of LMWH in critically ill patients are promising. Some conclusions for safe use of subcutaneous LMWH in ICU patients can be drawn. Intravenous LMWH may be the optimal prophylaxis in most ICU patients, but there is a lack of sufficient data on dosing. Precautions such as monitoring of anticoagulation in patients with renal insufficiency are fundamental if LMWH is given. Further investigations into prevention of venous thromboembolism in ICU patients are urgently needed. PMID:15770559

  13. Pharmacologic Considerations for Preexposure Prophylaxis in Transgender Women

    PubMed Central

    Reirden, Daniel; Castillo-Mancilla, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Studies of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-emtricitabine (FTC)–based preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have not focused on transgendered women who are at disproportionate risk of HIV acquisition. Concerns exist for drug interactions between cross-sex therapy (estradiol, progestins, and spironolactone) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate–emtricitabine. This review assessed the experimental and theoretical risk for such drug interactions. It was found that none of these medications are implicated as major perpetrators of drug interactions, and the classes use different metabolic pathways for clearance, suggesting a low likelihood for interactions in either direction. Subanalyses of transgender women in Preexposure Prophylaxis Initiative suggested PrEP efficacy if adherence was high. Nevertheless, several research gaps were identified, particularly the need for controlled interaction studies in transgendered women, including effects on renal clearance, intracellular tenofovir diphosphate and emtricitabine triphosphate in target cells, as well as hormone effects on HIV susceptibility and immunity. PrEP should continue to be offered to transgender women while additional research is planned or pending. PMID:27429188

  14. Pharmacologic Considerations for Preexposure Prophylaxis in Transgender Women.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter L; Reirden, Daniel; Castillo-Mancilla, Jose

    2016-08-15

    Studies of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-emtricitabine (FTC)-based preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have not focused on transgendered women who are at disproportionate risk of HIV acquisition. Concerns exist for drug interactions between cross-sex therapy (estradiol, progestins, and spironolactone) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine. This review assessed the experimental and theoretical risk for such drug interactions. It was found that none of these medications are implicated as major perpetrators of drug interactions, and the classes use different metabolic pathways for clearance, suggesting a low likelihood for interactions in either direction. Subanalyses of transgender women in Preexposure Prophylaxis Initiative suggested PrEP efficacy if adherence was high. Nevertheless, several research gaps were identified, particularly the need for controlled interaction studies in transgendered women, including effects on renal clearance, intracellular tenofovir diphosphate and emtricitabine triphosphate in target cells, as well as hormone effects on HIV susceptibility and immunity. PrEP should continue to be offered to transgender women while additional research is planned or pending. PMID:27429188

  15. Integrating Antiretroviral Strategies for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention: Post- and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Early Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Robert M.; Smith, Dawn K.

    2015-01-01

    Best practices for integrating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and antiretroviral interventions for prevention and treatment are suggested based on research evidence and existing normative guidance. The goal is to provide high-impact prevention services during periods of substantial risk. Antiretroviral medications are recommended for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and treatment of HIV infection. We reviewed research evidence and current normative guidelines to identify best practices for integrating these high-impact prevention strategies. More sensitive HIV tests used for screening enable earlier diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection, more appropriate counseling, and help limit drug resistance. A fully suppressive PEP regimen should be initiated based on exposure history or physical findings when sensitive diagnostic testing is delayed or not available and antibody tests are negative. Transitions from PEP to PrEP are often warranted because HIV exposure events may continue to occur. This algorithmic approach to integrating PEP, PrEP, and early treatment decisions may increase the uptake of these interventions by a greater number and diversity of knowledgeable healthcare providers. PMID:26512356

  16. Randomized, double-blind trial of anidulafungin versus fluconazole for prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in high-risk liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Winston, D J; Limaye, A P; Pelletier, S; Safdar, N; Morris, M I; Meneses, K; Busuttil, R W; Singh, N

    2014-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a common complication in liver transplant recipients. There are no previous randomized trials of an echinocandin for the prevention of IFIs in solid organ transplant recipients. In a randomized, double-blind trial conducted at University-affiliated transplant centers, 200 high-risk liver transplant recipients (100 patients per group) received either anidulafungin or fluconazole for antifungal prophylaxis. Randomization was stratified by Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score ≥30 and receipt of a pretransplant antifungal agent. The primary end point was IFI in a modified intent-to-treat analysis. The overall incidence of IFI was similar for the anidulafungin (5.1%) and the fluconazole groups (8.0%) (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.19-1.94, p = 0.40). However, anidulafungin prophylaxis was associated with less Aspergillus colonization or infection (3% vs. 9%, p = 0.08), lower breakthrough IFIs among patients who had received pretransplant fluconazole (0% vs. 27%, p = 0.07), and fewer cases of antifungal resistance (no cases vs. 5 cases). Both drugs were well-tolerated. Graft rejection, fungal-free survival, and mortality were similar for both groups. Thus, anidulafungin and fluconazole have similar efficacy for antifungal prophylaxis in most liver transplant recipients. Anidulafungin may be beneficial if the patient has an increased risk for Aspergillus infection or received fluconazole before transplantation. PMID:25376267

  17. Evaluation of the duration of thromboembolic prophylaxis after high-risk orthopaedic surgery: the ETHOS observational study.

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, David; Arcelus, Juan I; Felicissimo, Paulo

    2012-02-01

    Real-life data on post-discharge venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis practices and treatments are lacking. We assessed post-operative VTE prophylaxis prescribed and received in a prospective registry, compared with the 2004 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines in high-risk orthopaedic surgery patients. Consecutive patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA), hip fracture surgery (HFS), or knee arthroplasty (KA) were enrolled at discharge from 161 centres in 17 European countries if they had received in-hospital VTE prophylaxis that was considered in accordance with the ACCP guidelines by the treating physician. Data on prescribed and actual prophylaxis were obtained from hospital charts and patient post-discharge diaries. Post-operative prophylaxis prescribed and actual prophylaxis received were considered adherent or adequate, respectively, if recommended therapies were used for ≥28 days (HFS and THA) or ≥10 days (KA). Among 4,388 patients, 69.9% were prescribed ACCP-adherent VTE prophylaxis (THA: 1,411/2,217 [63.6%]; HFS: 701/1,112 [63.0%]; KA: 955/1,059 [90.2%]). Actual prophylaxis received was described in 3,939 patients with an available diary after discharge (non-evaluability rate of 10%). Mean actual durations of pharmacological prophylaxis from surgery were: 28.4 ± 13.7 (THA), 29.3 ± 13.9 (HFS), and 28.7 ± 14.1 days (KA). ACCP-adequate VTE prophylaxis was received by 66.5% of patients (60.9% THA, 55.4% HFS, and 88.7% KA). Prophylaxis inadequacies were mainly due to inadequate prescription, non-recommended prophylaxis prescription at discharge, or too short prophylaxis prescribed. In high-risk orthopaedic surgery patients with hospital-initiated prophylaxis, there is a gap between ACCP recommendations, prescribed and actual prophylaxis received, mainly due to inadequate prescription at discharge. PMID:22186708

  18. Effectiveness and safety of oral HIV preexposure prophylaxis for all populations

    PubMed Central

    Fonner, Virginia A.; Dalglish, Sarah L.; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Baggaley, Rachel; O’Reilly, Kevin R.; Koechlin, Florence M.; Rodolph, Michelle; Hodges-Mameletzis, Ioannis; Grant, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) offers a promising new approach to HIV prevention. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the evidence for use of oral PrEP containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate as an additional HIV prevention strategy in populations at substantial risk for HIV based on HIV acquisition, adverse events, drug resistance, sexual behavior, and reproductive health outcomes. Design: Rigorous systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A comprehensive search strategy reviewed three electronic databases and conference abstracts through April 2015. Pooled effect estimates were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Eighteen studies were included, comprising data from 39 articles and six conference abstracts. Across populations and PrEP regimens, PrEP significantly reduced the risk of HIV acquisition compared with placebo. Trials with PrEP use more than 70% demonstrated the highest PrEP effectiveness (risk ratio = 0.30, 95% confidence interval: 0.21–0.45, P < 0.001) compared with placebo. Trials with low PrEP use did not show a significantly protective effect. Adverse events were similar between PrEP and placebo groups. More cases of drug-resistant HIV infection were found among PrEP users who initiated PrEP while acutely HIV-infected, but incidence of acquiring drug-resistant HIV during PrEP use was low. Studies consistently found no association between PrEP use and changes in sexual risk behavior. PrEP was not associated with increased pregnancy-related adverse events or hormonal contraception effectiveness. Conclusion: PrEP is protective against HIV infection across populations, presents few significant safety risks, and there is no evidence of behavioral risk compensation. The effective and cost-effective use of PrEP will require development of best practices for fostering uptake and adherence among people at substantial HIV risk. PMID:27149090

  19. Spanish Consensus Guidelines on prophylaxis with bypassing agents in patients with haemophilia and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    López-Fernández, Maria Fernanda; Altisent Roca, Carmen; Álvarez-Román, Maria Teresa; Canaro Hirnyk, Mariana Isabel; Mingot-Castellano, Maria Eva; Jiménez-Yuste, Víctor; Cid Haro, Ana Rosa; Pérez-Garrido, Rosario; Sedano Balbas, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    Prophylaxis with the blood clotting factor, factor VIII (FVIII) is ineffective for individuals with haemophilia A and high-titre inhibitors to FVIII. Prophylaxis with the FVIII bypassing agents activated prothrombin complex concentrates (aPCC; FEIBA® Baxalta) or recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa; Novo-Seven®, Novo Nordisk) may be an effective alternative. It was our aim to develop evidence -and expert opinion- based guidelines for prophylactic therapy for patients with high-titre inhibitors to FVIII. A panel of nine Spanish haematologists undertook a systematic review of the literature to develop consensus-based guidance. Particular consideration was given to prophylaxis in patients prior to undergoing immune tolerance induction (ITI) (a process of continued exposure to FVIII that can restore sensitivity for some patients), during the ITI period and for those not undergoing ITI or for whom ITI had failed. These guidelines offer guidance for clinicians in deciding which patients might benefit from prophylaxis with FVIII bypassing agents, the most appropriate agents in various clinical settings related to ITI, doses and dosing regimens and how best to monitor the efficacy of prophylaxis. The paper includes recommendations on when to interrupt or stop prophylaxis and special safety concerns during prophylaxis. These consensus guidelines offer the most comprehensive evaluation of the clinical evidence base to date and should be of considerable benefit to clinicians facing the challenge of managing patients with severe haemophilia A with high-titre FVIII inhibitors. PMID:26842562

  20. [Pre-exposure prophylaxis in HIV--a vision or soon a reality?].

    PubMed

    Reuter, S; Meyer, D; Knechten, H; Oette, M; Mitrenga, D; Rockstroh, J; Fätkenheuer, G; Häussinger, D

    2009-12-01

    Condom use is propagated as the most efficient measure to prevent HIV-transmission. For several reasons, condoms are NOT ALWAYS used or misapplied during sexual intercourse. Therefore, alternative preventive measures through intake of antiretroviral drugs before sexual intercourse with a (presumably) HIV-positive person are being considered, so called Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). In animal models the efficacy of HIV-PrEP was shown for Tenofovir alone or in combination with Emtricitabine). Several clinical studies are currently being conducted in different HIV-risk groups on various continents. First results from these studies are anticipated for the year 2010. In case of proven efficacy for HIV-PrEP, our health system would face a large interdisciplinary challenge. It would be a difficult task to define the appropriate recipients. Measures would have to be taken to limit possible misuse of antiretroviral drugs, due to the negative consequences with development of resistance, adverse events and illegal trading. It is already evident that HIV-PrEP will not provide absolute protection, nor will it replace other preventive strategies. However, if used cautiously, HIV-PrEP might be established as a useful supplement in the prevention of HIV. Paramount questions from the fields of epidemiology, behavioural science, logistics, health politics and ethics should be answered in advance. PMID:19998229

  1. Antiretroviral agents used by HIV-uninfected persons for prevention: pre- and postexposure prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Grant, Robert M

    2010-05-15

    Prophylactic use of antimicrobial agents and microbicides has been proven for many infections, including surgical, gastrointestinal, upper respiratory, and meningococcal infections. Antiretroviral therapy for pregnant women prevents mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which has become rare in settings where access to therapy is widespread. Postexposure prophylaxis after needlestick injury or significant sexual exposure is recommended on the basis of animal studies and case-control observational studies, although use of these interventions is limited to those who recognize exposure, have access, and have the power to use the interventions. Clinical trials are evaluating whether regular or preexposure use of antiretroviral therapy provides additional protection for persons at high risk of infection who are also offered standard prevention care, including HIV testing, counseling, condoms, and management of sexually transmitted infections. Trials are evaluating topical or oral use. Concerns have arisen with regard to optimal dosing strategies, costs, access, drug resistance, risk behavior, and the role of communities. Future implementation, if warranted, will be guided by the results of clinical trials in progress and engagement of communities exposed to HIV. PMID:20397962

  2. Assessment of Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Neurological Patients with Restricted Mobility – VTE-NEURO Study

    PubMed Central

    BAJENARU, Ovidiu; ANTOCHI, Florina; BALASA, Rodica; BURAGA, Ioan; PATRICHI, Sanda; SIMU, Mihaela; SZABOLCS, Szatmari; TIU, Cristina; ZAHARIA, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    The authors present the data of a medical registry which evaluated if the physicians assess VTE risk in stroke patients, during hospitalization period and at hospital discharge and if the thromboprophylaxis is used according to National Guidelines for VTE Prophylaxis. 884 patients with acute ischemic stroke patients were enrolled between June 2010 and December 2011, from 62 centers, 51.4% male and 48.6% female with mean age 70.07 years (68.25 years in the male group and 71.92 years in the female one). There were two co-primary endpoints: the percentage of patients at risk for VTE at hospital admission assessed by the physician, and the percentage of patients with risk factors for VTE that persist at hospital discharge from the total number of patients hospitalized with ischemic stroke. The secondary endpoints were: the percentage of hospitalized patients receiving prophylaxis according to the National Guidelines of VTE Prophylaxis from the total number of patients at risk of VTE, the percentage of hospitalized patients with VTE risk receiving recommendation for thromboprophylaxis at discharge, the duration and the type of VTE prophylaxis in hospitalized patients, the duration and the type of VTE prophylaxis at discharge. Results: 879 (99.4%) of the total number of patients at risk of VTE have received prophylaxis during hospitalization. The most frequently types of prophylaxis used during hospitalisation were LMWH in 96.3% of the patients and mechanic method in 16.6% that were in accordance with the National Guidelines of VTE Prophylaxis recommendations. Conclusions: There is a clear improvement in both assessment and thromprophylaxis recommendation in acute stroke patients with restricted mobility at VTE risk and in our country. LMWH is preferred to unfractionated heparin for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in this high-risk patient population in view of its better clinical benefits to risk ratio and convenience of once daily administration. PMID:25553119

  3. Cost–utility analysis of prophylaxis versus treatment on demand in severe hemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Giorgio L; Di Matteo, Sergio; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; Santagostino, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Background: Individuals with severe hemophilia A have reduced blood levels of clotting factor VIII (FVIII) leading to recurrent bleeding into joints and muscles. Primary prophylaxis with clotting factor concentrates started early in childhood prevents joint bleeds, thus avoiding joint damage and improving people’s quality of life. There remain significant differences in the implementation of primary prophylaxis worldwide mainly due to the cost of prophylaxis compared with treatment on demand. Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of primary prophylaxis with FVIII concentrates versus secondary prophylaxis, versus treatment on demand, and versus a “hybrid” (primary prophylaxis followed by on-demand treatment in adults) in individuals with severe hemophilia A. Methods: A Markov model was developed and run using different sources of clinical, cost, and utility data. The model was populated with a hypothetical cohort of 100 individuals with severe hemophilia A. The perspective of the Italian National Health System was used. Results: The baseline results showed that primary and secondary prophylaxis is cost-effective compared both with treatment on demand and with a hybrid strategy. The incremental costs per quality-adjusted life-year gained for individuals with hemophilia A receiving primary and secondary prophylaxis were €40,229 to €40,236 versus an on-demand strategy. However, the sensitivity analyses performed showed that the results were sensitive to the unit cost of clotting FVIII, bleeding frequency, and the discount rate. Conclusion: Although primary prophylaxis is a costly treatment, our results show that it is cost-effective compared with treatment on demand. PMID:21935333

  4. Pre-exposure prophylaxis in Southern Africa: feasible or not?

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Willem Daniel François; Cowan, Frances; Black, Vivian; Rebe, Kevin; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Southern and Eastern Africa bear the brunt of the AIDS epidemic, and current prevention interventions remain inadequate. Antiretroviral-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is gaining momentum as an effective prevention intervention. Discussion Discussions have been started on how this strategy could be employed in Africa such that the populations most in need can be reached urgently for the greatest impact. This requires the selection of specific risk groups and service environments in which PrEP can be distributed safely and cost effectively while being mindful of any ethical issues. Conclusions Given the need for an integrated public health approach to this, a number of potential populations and opportunities for PrEP distribution exist and are discussed in this commentary. PMID:26198344

  5. Monodrug efficacies of sulfonamides in prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, W T; Killmar, J

    1996-01-01

    A remarkably high rate of adverse events is associated with the use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. We examined the efficacies of sulfonamides alone in the prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis, with the assumption that at least some of the adverse events with the drug combination might be due to trimethoprim. With the immunosuppressed rat model, eight sulfonamides were studied at 100, 10, and 1.0 mg/kg/day (10 rats per dosage and drug). P. carinii infection was prevented in all animals (100%) receiving dosages of as little as 1.0 mg of sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethoxypyridazine, and sulfadimethoxine per kg per day, as little as 10 mg of sulfameter, sulfachlorpyridazine, and sulfaquinoxaline per kg per day; and 100 mg of sulfaguanidine and sulfanilamide per kg per day. These studies suggest that a sulfonamide, such as sulfamethoxazole, might provide effective prophylaxis for P. carinii pneumonitis without trimethoprim. PMID:8849260

  6. How beneficial is bacterial prophylaxis to periodontal health?

    PubMed

    Reddy, Manchala Sesha; Narendera Babu, Mandalapu

    2011-05-01

    The term "probiotics" has become common among general practitioners. There has been an explosion in the interest regarding this topic, which is reflected in the number of scientific publications. The World Health Organization defined probiotics as: "Living microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount confirms a health benefit on the host". Probiotics have been studied extensively in the gastrointestinal tract for their health-promoting effects and have shown promising results. However, in recent times, probiotics have also been used in periodontal health and have shown promising results in controlling gastrointestinal tract infections. Probiotics have potential, but as with many other clinical situations, multicenter or randomized, controlled studies on humans are still required before they can be recommended as prophylaxis for caries or periodontal disease. In the present study, we review the effects of probiotics on maintaining periodontal health. Relevant studies were identified from 1970 to February 2010 using Old Medline, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. PMID:25426602

  7. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Plastic Surgery: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Sergio; Valdes, Jorge; Salama, Moises

    2016-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major health concern because it increases morbidity and mortality after a surgical procedure. A number of well-defined, evidence-based guidelines are available delineating suitable use of prophylaxis to prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Despite the available literature, there are clear gaps between recommendations and clinical practice, affecting the incidence of VTE. Plastic surgeons underuse the substantiated literature and risk stratification tools that are available to decrease the incidence of VTE in the office-based surgical setting because of fear of bleeding or hematoma complications postoperatively. Venous thromboembolism creates an economic burden on both the patient and the healthcare system. The intent of this literature review is to determine existing VTE risk using assessment models available to aid in the implementation of protocols for VTE prevention, specifically for high-risk cosmetic surgical patients in office-based settings. PMID:27501651

  8. Treatment and Prophylaxis in Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nickavar, Azar; Sotoudeh, Kambiz

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common serious bacterial infection in early life. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment prevent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria and end stage renal disease. A computerized search of MEDLINE, Embase and other databases was done to find the latest results about the treatment and prevention in pediatric UTI. Randomized control trials, systematic reviews and original articles were assessed. Search terms were “UTI, treatment, prophylaxis, prevention, and children”. All children with complicated or simple UTI were included in our search study from neonatal period to late childhood and medical aspects of treatment were reviewed. Recently, treatment approaches have been changed by simplification of drug administration. Oral treatment is recommended especially in older infants and children instead of strict intravenous treatment and patient admission. In addition, prophylactic treatment becomes easier and limited to certain cases. In this article, we review the recent information and approaches in this setting. PMID:21448397

  9. Selection of dental procedures for antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Tan, S Y; Gill, G

    1992-12-01

    A dental source of infection remains the most common identifiable risk factor in infective endocarditis and this may be particularly important in patients at 'high risk'. We therefore performed a questionnaire survey of dental practitioners to assess acceptance of The British Society of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) recommendations, especially with regards to selection of dental procedures for antibiotic prophylaxis. The results showed that the dental practitioners surveyed treated the 'high risk' patient group differently by extending the range of dental procedures covered by antibiotics but the BSAC only recommend that they be treated differently by hospital treatment and/or parenteral antibiotics. This must be an area of concern and deserves further attention, especially with regards to the need for wider publicity and the range of dental procedures that should be covered in the 'high risk' group where morbidity and mortality from infective endocarditis are higher. PMID:1452880

  10. Topical Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention in Women: Becoming a Reality

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Natasha A.; Lee, Anna C.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2011-01-01

    Strategies to protect against sexual transmission of HIV include the development of products formulated for topical application, which limit the toxicities associated with systemic oral pre-exposure prophylaxis. Following several clinical trial failures, attention is now focused on antiretroviral (ARV) agents. Highly potent ARV topical formulations provide a female-controlled, targeted, and feasible option for HIV prevention. A recently completed tenofovir gel trial was the first to demonstrate significant protection against HIV acquisition. Topical ARVs have the advantage of delivering high concentration of drug at the site of transmission of HIV, with low systemic absorption. Sustained-release formulations, such as intravaginal rings, will likely improve adherence and can be designed to provide controlled and continuous delivery of ARV combinations. Further studies to test alternative dosing strategies and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships in the genital tract will provide valuable information as the field strives to improve upon the promising tenofovir gel trial results. PMID:21424725

  11. Cranial radiation necessary for CNS prophylaxis in pediatric NHL

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, L.R.; Wollner, N.; Fuks, Z.

    1987-03-01

    The records of 95 consecutive children less than or equal to 21 years of age with previously untreated diffuse histology NHL registered in our protocols from 1978 to 1983 were reviewed. Seventy-nine patients were considered eligible for analysis. The histologic subtypes represented included lymphoblastic (LB) 37%; histiocytic (DHL) 29%; undifferentiated (DU) 19%; poorly differentiated (DPDL) 9%; and unclassified (UNHL) 6%. Distribution of the patients according to stage showed Stage I, 0%; Stage II, 11%; Stage III, 53%; Stage IV, 36%. Four different Memorial Hospital protocols for systemic chemotherapy were used (LSA2L2 73%; L10 9%; L17 10%; L17M 8%); however, the IT (intrathecal) chemotherapy was uniform (Methotrexate: 6.0-6.25 mg/M2 per treatment course) and was included in the induction, consolidation, and maintenance phases of all treatment protocols. Cranial radiation was included in the induction, consolidation, and maintenance phases of all treatment protocols. Cranial radiation was not included in the CNS prophylaxis program. The overall median time of follow-up was 43 months. The overall CNS relapse rate was 6.3%; however, the incidence of CNS lymphoma presenting as the first isolated site of relapse in patients in otherwise complete remission (minimum follow-up of 19 months with 97% of patients off treatment) was only 1/58 (1.7%). Our data suggest that IT chemotherapy when given in combination with modern aggressive systemic combination chemotherapy, and without cranial radiation appears to be a highly effective modality for CNS prophylaxis regardless of stage, histology, or bone marrow or mediastinal involvement. (Abstract Truncated)

  12. Current perspectives in HIV post-exposure prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Binta; Benn, Paul; Waters, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to rise among core groups and efforts to reduce the numbers of new infections are being redoubled. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is the use of short-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) to reduce the risk of acquisition of HIV infection following exposure. Current guidelines recommend a 28-day course of ART within 36–72 hours of exposure to HIV. As long as individuals continue to be exposed to HIV there will be a role for PEP in the foreseeable future. Nonoccupational PEP, the vast majority of which is for sexual exposure (PEPSE), has a significant role to play in HIV prevention efforts. Awareness of PEP and its availability for both clinicians and those who are eligible to receive it are crucial to ensure that PEP is used to its full potential in any HIV prevention strategy. In this review, we provide current evidence for the use of PEPSE, assessment of the risk of HIV transmission, indications for PEP, drug regimens, and management of patients started on PEP. We summarize national and international guidelines for the use of PEPSE. We explore the place of PEP within the wider strategy of reducing HIV incidence rates in the era of treatment as prevention and pre-exposure prophylaxis. We also consider the implications of recent data from interventional and observational studies demonstrating significant reductions in the risk of HIV transmission within a serodiscordant relationship if the HIV-positive partner is taking effective ART upon PEP guidelines. PMID:25368534

  13. 10 years of prophylaxis with nebulized liposomal amphotericin B and the changing epidemiology of Aspergillus spp. infection in lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Peghin, Maddalena; Monforte, Victor; Martin-Gomez, Maria-Teresa; Ruiz-Camps, Isabel; Berastegui, Cristina; Saez, Berta; Riera, Jordi; Ussetti, Piedad; Solé, Juan; Gavaldá, Joan; Roman, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome and tolerability of prophylactic nebulized liposomal amphotericin B (n-LAB) in lung transplant recipients (LTR) and the changing epidemiology of Aspergillus spp. infection and colonization. We performed an observational study including consecutive LTR recipients (2003-2013) undergoing n-LAB prophylaxis lifetime. A total of 412 patients were included (mean postoperative follow-up 2.56 years; IQR 1.01-4.65). Fifty-three (12.8%) patients developed 59 Aspergillus spp. infections, and 22 invasive aspergillosis (overall incidence 5.3%). Since 2009, person-time incidence rates of Aspergillus spp. colonization and infection decreased (2003-2008, 0.19; 2009-2014, 0.09; P = 0.0007), but species with reduced susceptibility or resistance to amphotericin significantly increased (2003-2008, 38.1% vs 2009-2014, 58.1%; P = 0.039). Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) was associated with Aspergillus spp. colonization and infection (HR 24.4, 95% CI 14.28-41.97; P = 0.00). Only 2.9% of patients presented adverse effects, and 1.7% required discontinuation. Long-term administration of prophylaxis with n-LAB has proved to be tolerable and can be used for preventing Aspergillus spp. infection in LTR. Over the last years, the incidence of Aspergillus spp. colonization and infection has decreased, but species with reduced amphotericin susceptibility or resistance are emerging. CLAD is associated with Aspergillus spp. colonization and infection. PMID:26339864

  14. Antibiotic prophylaxis of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery: Results of the 2014 ASCRS member survey.

    PubMed

    Chang, David F; Braga-Mele, Rosa; Henderson, Bonnie An; Mamalis, Nick; Vasavada, Abhay

    2015-06-01

    A 2014 online survey of the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery members indicated increasing use of intracameral antibiotic injection prophylaxis compared with a comparable survey from 2007. Forty-seven percent of respondents already used or planned to adopt this measure. One half of all surgeons not using intracameral prophylaxis expressed concern about the risks of noncommercially prepared antibiotic preparations. Overall, the large majority (75%) said they believe it is important to have a commercially available antibiotic approved for intracameral injection. Assuming reasonable cost, the survey indicates that commercial availability of Aprokam (cefuroxime) would increase the overall percentage of surgeons using intracameral antibiotic injection prophylaxis to nearly 84%. Although the majority used topical perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, and gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin were still the most popular agents, there was a trend toward declining use of fourth-generation fluoroquinolones (60%, down from 81% in 2007) and greater use of topical ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin (21%, up from 9% in 2007). PMID:26189384

  15. Pharmacoepidemiology of cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in a large retrospective cohort of kidney transplant recipients with Medicare Part D coverage.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carlos A Q; Brennan, Daniel C; Saeed, Mohammed J; Fraser, Victoria J; Olsen, Margaret A

    2016-04-01

    We assembled a cohort of 21 117 kidney transplant patients from July 2006 to June 2011 with Medicare Part D coverage using US Renal Database System data to determine real-world use of cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis. CMV prophylaxis was defined as filled prescriptions for daily oral valganciclovir (≤900 mg), ganciclovir (≤3 g), or valacyclovir (6-8 g) within 28 d of transplant. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to determine factors associated with CMV prophylaxis. CMV prophylaxis (97% valganciclovir) was identified in 61% of kidney transplant recipients (median duration, 64 d); 71% of seronegative recipients of kidneys from seropositive donors (D+/R-); 63% of R+ patients; 60% of patients with unknown serostatus; and 34% of D-/R- patients. Variability in usage of prophylaxis among transplant centers was greater than variability within transplant centers. One in four transplant centers prescribed CMV prophylaxis to >60% of their D-/R- patients. CMV donor/recipient serostatus, lymphocyte-depleting agents for induction and mycophenolate for maintenance were associated with CMV prophylaxis. CMV prophylaxis was commonly used among kidney transplant recipients. Routine prescription of CMV prophylaxis to D-/R- patients may have occurred in some transplant centers. Limiting unnecessary use of CMV prophylaxis may decrease healthcare costs and drug-related harms. PMID:26841129

  16. [SOME ASPECTS OF NON-SPECIFIC PROPHYLAXIS AND THERAPY OF ESPECIALLY DANGEROUS INFECTIONS].

    PubMed

    Filippenko, A V; Omelchenko, N D; Ivanova, I A; Bespalova, I A; Doroshenko, E P; Galicheva, A L

    2015-01-01

    Recently, due to spread of dangerous and especially dangerous infections much attention is given to development of complex approaches to their prophylaxis and therapy. Data on use of immune modulators, cytokines, probiotics, preparations of plant origin for non-specific prophylaxis of especially dangerous infections are analyzed in the review, and expediency of their combined use with specific and emergency prophlaxis of these diseases is evaluated. PMID:26829862

  17. Tick Bite Prophylaxis: Results From a 2012 Survey of Healthcare Providers.

    PubMed

    Perea, A E; Hinckley, A F; Mead, P S

    2015-08-01

    In a recent national survey, over 30% of healthcare providers (HCPs) reported prescribing tick bite prophylaxis in the previous year. To clarify provider practices, we surveyed HCPs to determine how frequently and for what reasons they prescribed tick bite prophylaxis. We included four questions regarding tick bite prophylaxis in the DocStyles 2012 survey, a computer-administered questionnaire of 2205 US primary care physicians, paediatricians and nurse practitioners. Responses in 14 states with high Lyme disease incidence (high LDI) were compared with responses from other states (low LDI). Overall, 56.4% of 1485 providers reported prescribing tick bite prophylaxis at least once in the previous year, including 73.9% of HCPs in high LDI and 48.2% in low LDI states. The reasons given were 'to prevent Lyme disease' (76.9%), 'patients request it' (40.4%) and 'to prevent other tickborne diseases' (29.4%). Among HCPs who provided prophylaxis, 45.2% did so despite feeling that it was not indicated. Given a hypothetical scenario involving a patient with an attached tick, 38.1% of HCPs from high LDI states and 15.1% from low LDI states would prescribe a single dose of doxycycline; 19.0% from high LDI states and 27.5% from low LDI states would prescribe a full course of doxycycline. HCPs prescribe tick bite prophylaxis frequently in areas where Lyme disease is rare and for tickborne diseases for which it has not been shown effective. HCPs may be unaware of current tick bite prophylaxis guidelines or find them difficult to implement. More information is needed regarding the efficacy of tick bite prophylaxis for diseases other than Lyme disease. PMID:25244410

  18. Prophylaxis for Venous Thromboembolism Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Survey of Korean Knee Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Ki; Kim, Tae Kyun; Kim, Jong Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide information on the actual status and prevailing trend of prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in South Korea. Materials and Methods The Korean Knee Society (KKS) developed a questionnaire with 6 clinical questions on VTE. The questionnaire was distributed to all members of KKS by both postal and online mail. Participants were asked to supply details on their specialty and to select methods of prophylaxis they employ. Of the total members of KKS, 27.9% participated in the survey. Results The percentage of surgeons who routinely performed prophylaxis for VTE was 60.4%; 19.4% performed prophylaxis depending on the patient's health condition; and the remaining 20.2% never implemented prophylaxis after surgery. The common prophylactic methods among the responders were compression stocking (72.9%), pneumatic leg compression (63.3%), perioral direct factor Xa inhibitor (46.9%), and low-molecular-weight heparin (39.5%). For the respondents who did not perform prophylaxis, the main reason (51.5%) was the low risk of postoperative VTE considering the low incidences in Asians. Conclusions The present study involving members of the KKS will help to comprehend the actual status of VTE prevention in South Korea. The results of this study may be useful to design VTE guidelines appropriate for Koreans in the future. PMID:27595074

  19. Effect of Different Prophylaxis Methods on Microleakage of Microfilled Composite Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Kimyai, Soodabeh; Mohammadi, Narmin; Alizadeh Oskoee, Parnian; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi Chaharom, Mohammad Esmaeel; Amini, Melina

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of different prophylaxis methods on microleak-age of microfilled composite restorations. Materials and methods In this in vitro study, class V cavities were prepared on buccal surfaces of 84 bovine teeth. The teeth were restored with Tetric N-Bond adhesive and Heliomolar composite resin. Subsequent to a thermocycling procedure and three months of storage in distilled water, the teeth were randomly assigned to four groups (n=21): (1) prophylaxis with a rubber cup and pumice; (2) prophylaxis with a brush and pumice; (3) prophylaxis with air/powder polishing device; and (4) no prophylaxis (the control group). Then the teeth were immersed in 2% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and sectioned for microleakage evaluation under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon Signed Rankstests. Statistical significance was defined at p<0.05. Results There were no statistically significant differences in occlusal and gingival microleakage between the groups (p=0.996 and p=0.860, respectively). In all the groups gingival margins exhibited significantly higher microleakage values compared to occlusal margins (p<0.0005). Conclusion Prophylaxis methods had no adverse effect on marginal leakage of microfilled composite resin restorations. PMID:22991639

  20. Preexposure Prophylaxis for HIV Infection among African Women

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Lut; Corneli, Amy; Ahmed, Khatija; Agot, Kawango; Lombaard, Johan; Kapiga, Saidi; Malahleha, Mookho; Owino, Fredrick; Manongi, Rachel; Onyango, Jacob; Temu, Lucky; Monedi, Modie Constance; Mak’Oketch, Paul; Makanda, Mankalimeng; Reblin, Ilse; Makatu, Shumani Elsie; Saylor, Lisa; Kiernan, Haddie; Kirkendale, Stella; Wong, Christina; Grant, Robert; Kashuba, Angela; Nanda, Kavita; Mandala, Justin; Fransen, Katrien; Deese, Jennifer; Crucitti, Tania; Mastro, Timothy D.; Taylor, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preexposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs has been effective in the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in some trials but not in others. METHODS In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned 2120 HIV-negative women in Kenya, South Africa, and Tanzania to receive either a combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF–FTC) or placebo once daily. The primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of TDF–FTC in preventing HIV acquisition and to evaluate safety. RESULTS HIV infections occurred in 33 women in the TDF–FTC group (incidence rate, 4.7 per 100 person-years) and in 35 in the placebo group (incidence rate, 5.0 per 100 person-years), for an estimated hazard ratio in the TDF-FTC group of 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.59 to 1.52; P = 0.81). The proportions of women with nausea, vomiting, or elevated alanine aminotransferase levels were significantly higher in the TDF–FTC group (P = 0.04, P<0.001, and P = 0.03, respectively). Rates of drug discontinuation because of hepatic or renal abnormalities were higher in the TDF–FTC group (4.7%) than in the placebo group (3.0%, P = 0.051). Less than 40% of the HIV-uninfected women in the TDF–FTC group had evidence of recent pill use at visits that were matched to the HIV-infection window for women with seroconversion. The study was stopped early, on April 18, 2011, because of lack of efficacy. CONCLUSIONS Prophylaxis with TDF–FTC did not significantly reduce the rate of HIV infection and was associated with increased rates of side effects, as compared with placebo. Despite substantial counseling efforts, drug adherence appeared to be low. (Supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development and others; FEM-PrEP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00625404.) PMID:22784040

  1. Primary Isoniazid Prophylaxis against Tuberculosis in HIV-Exposed Children

    PubMed Central

    Madhi, Shabir A.; Nachman, Sharon; Violari, Avy; Kim, Soyeon; Cotton, Mark F.; Bobat, Raziya; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; McSherry, George; Mitchell, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Background The dual epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis is a major cause of sickness and death in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of preexposure isoniazid prophylaxis against tuberculosis in HIV-infected children and uninfected children exposed to HIV during the perinatal period. Methods We randomly assigned 548 HIV-infected and 804 HIV-uninfected infants (91 to 120 days of age) to isoniazid (10 to 20 mg per kilogram of body weight per day) or matching placebo for 96 weeks. All patients received bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination against tuberculosis within 30 days after birth. HIV-infected children had access to antiretroviral therapy. The primary outcome measures were tuberculosis disease and death in HIV-infected children and latent tuberculosis infection, tuberculosis disease, and death in HIV-uninfected children within 96 to 108 weeks after randomization. Results Antiretroviral therapy was initiated in 98.9% of HIV-infected children during the study. Among HIV-infected children, protocol-defined tuberculosis or death occurred in 52 children (19.0%) in the isoniazid group and 53 (19.3%) in the placebo group (P = 0.93). Among HIV-uninfected children, there was no significant difference in the combined incidence of tuberculosis infection, tuberculosis disease, or death between the isoniazid group (39 children, 10%) and the placebo group (45 children, 11%; P = 0.44). The rate of tuberculosis was 121 cases per 1000 child-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 95 to 153) among HIV-infected children as compared with 41 per 1000 child-years (95% CI, 31 to 52) among HIV-uninfected children. There were no significant differences in clinical or severe laboratory toxic effects between treatment groups. Conclusions Primary isoniazid prophylaxis did not improve tuberculosis-disease–free survival among HIV-infected children or tuberculosis-infection–free survival among HIV

  2. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains are highly prevalent in Ugandan piggeries but disease outbreaks are masked by antibiotic prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Okello, Emmanuel; Moonens, Kristof; Erume, Joseph; De Greve, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important disease of newly weaned piglets. ETEC strains commonly express F4 and/or F18 fimbriae that attach to carbohydrate receptors present on the intestinal epithelium during colonization. The disease status in the Ugandan piggeries had previously not been studied. In this cross-sectional sero-survey and clinical outbreak monitoring, we found very high sero-prevalence levels of both anti-F4 (70.5%) and anti-F18 (73.7%) antibodies, despite limited cases of clinical outbreaks. Strains isolated from these cases were typically F18(+) ETEC. High antibiotic resistance and multi-drug resistance were characteristics of the isolates, with highest resistance level of over 95% to commonly used antibiotics such as penicillin and tetracycline. We conclude that ETEC infections are widely spread on farms in Central Uganda but clinical disease outbreaks were masked by the management practices on these farms, like the use of extensive antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:25311441

  3. [Prophylaxis of thromboembolic complications in gynecological surgery (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schorr, D M; Gruber, U F

    1977-04-01

    Eight prospective, controlled, randomised studies on the incidence of postoperative thrombosis in gynaecological patients receiving various drugs for prevention of thromboembolism are analysed. In all patients diagnosis had been established by objective means. The rate of thrombosis in patients without drug prophylaxis has been found to vary between 14 and 29%. Infusions of dextran as well as administration of low-dose subcutaneous heparin significantly reduce the incidence of deep vein thrombosis, even as compared to postoperative oral anticoagulation with cumarins. No difference has been found between dextran and oral anticoagulants, when cumarin adminstration was started before operation, nor between dextran and heparin. Aescin did not show any prophylactic effect. High age, severe leg-vein varicosis as well as surgery for malignant disease increase the risk of thrombosis. No significant influence of overweight, previous deep venous thrombosis, epidural anaesthesia or vaginal operation as compared to abdominal approach could be demonstrated. There are no properly controlled, prospective, randomised studies on the incidence of postoperative fatal pulmonary embolism as influenced by drugs in gynaecological surgery. PMID:870388

  4. Problems concerning the prophylaxis, pathogenesis and therapy of diphtheria

    PubMed Central

    Tasman, A.; Lansberg, H. P.

    1957-01-01

    The first part of this article on the prophylaxis, pathogenesis and therapy of diphtheria is devoted to an epidemiological survey of the results achieved with active immunization against the disease. From these results it can be concluded that active immunization has been largely responsible for the decrease in the morbidity and mortality rates which has taken place in the past half-century. In the second part, the authors deal at length with problems relating to the pathogenesis and therapy of the disease, discussing such subjects as the different types of diphtheria bacteria, the significance of non-virulent strains, the action of bacteriophages, the plurality of diphtheria toxin, the use of antibacterial sera, and the importance of the “avidity” of antitoxic sera. Finally, taking into consideration the data presented in the preceding parts, the authors put forward their views as to the cause of diphtheria, the measures which should be taken to control it, and the most satisfactory form of therapy. PMID:13472439

  5. Social prophylaxis through distant corpse removal in ants.

    PubMed

    Diez, Lise; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Detrain, Claire

    2012-10-01

    Living in groups raises important issues concerning waste management and related sanitary risks. Social insects such as ants live at high densities with genetically related individuals within confined and humid nests, all these factors being highly favorable for the spread of pathogens. Therefore, in addition to individual immunity, a social prophylaxis takes place, namely, by the removal of risky items such as corpses and their rejection at a distance from the ant nest. In this study, we investigate how Myrmica rubra workers manage to reduce encounters between potentially hazardous corpses and nestmates. Using both field and laboratory experiments, we describe how the spatial distribution and the removal distance of waste items vary as a function of their associated sanitary risks (inert item vs. corpse). In the field, corpse-carrying ants walked in a rather linear way away from the nest entrance and had an equal probability of choosing any direction. Therefore, they did not aggregate corpses in dedicated areas but scattered them in the environment. In both field and laboratory experiments, ants carrying corpses dropped their load in more remote-and less frequented-areas than workers carrying inert items. However, for equidistant areas, ants did not avoid dropping corpses at a location where they perceived area marking as a cue of high occupancy level by nestmates. Our results suggest that ants use distance to the nest rather than other occupancy cues to limit sanitary risks associated with dead nestmates. PMID:22955492

  6. Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in elective surgeries in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Foroutan, Behzad; Foroutan, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: The use of antibiotic prior to surgery is widely accepted. The WHO has recommended the use of ATC/DDD (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical / Defined Daily Dose) for the analysis of drug utilization. The aims of the present study are 1) to analyze the assessment of prophylactic antibiotic usage prior to surgery, 2) to assess the drug administration based on antibiograms and 3) to compare the results with the national and international standards. Methods: The present study used ATC/DDD, in a retrospective manner. Cefazolin, ceftazidime, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, vancomycin, imipenem and penicillin G from 21st March to 21st June 2011 were analyzed in a hospital. Out of 516 medical records, 384 patients had received prophylactic antibiotics. Results: In comparison, the orthopaedic ward had used more antibiotics. The results showed that antibiotics were not selected based on the antibiogram antibiotic programs. Patients in the age range of 20-30 years were the most recipients of the antibiotics. Men had received more antibiotic in comparison with women. About 75% (384 out of 516) of patients in the study received antibiotics as prophylaxis. Cefazolin was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic. Conclusion: Our findings showed differences in comparison with national and international studies, but insignificant differences. Data on in-hospital antibiotic usage are varying widely not only due to different antibiotic policies but also due to different methods of mesurement. These differences make the comparison difficult. PMID:25405131

  7. Social prophylaxis: group interaction promotes collective immunity in ant colonies.

    PubMed

    Ugelvig, Line V; Cremer, Sylvia

    2007-11-20

    Life in a social group increases the risk of disease transmission. To counteract this threat, social insects have evolved manifold antiparasite defenses, ranging from social exclusion of infected group members to intensive care. It is generally assumed that individuals performing hygienic behaviors risk infecting themselves, suggesting a high direct cost of helping. Our work instead indicates the opposite for garden ants. Social contact with individual workers, which were experimentally exposed to a fungal parasite, provided a clear survival benefit to nontreated, naive group members upon later challenge with the same parasite. This first demonstration of contact immunity in Social Hymenoptera and complementary results from other animal groups and plants suggest its general importance in both antiparasite and antiherbivore defense. In addition to this physiological prophylaxis of adult ants, infection of the brood was prevented in our experiment by behavioral changes of treated and naive workers. Parasite-treated ants stayed away from the brood chamber, whereas their naive nestmates increased brood-care activities. Our findings reveal a direct benefit for individuals to perform hygienic behaviors toward others, and this might explain the widely observed maintenance of social cohesion under parasite attack in insect societies. PMID:17980590

  8. Pet ownership and prophylaxis of headache and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, A R; Whitman, B W

    1994-10-01

    The belief that having household pets promotes good health is ubiquitous among Americans. Recent studies support this belief where certain medical conditions are concerned. To investigate the advantages of pet ownership in the prophylaxis of headache and other chronic pain conditions, we queried 62 patients suffering from such diseases about whether they owned pets and whether children and other adults shared their households. We similarly queried a control group of 38 patients with various conditions not involving headache or chronic pain. We found that statistically, the experimental group and the control group were not significantly different in their household compositions. In fact, those with headaches and chronic pain, on average, owned slightly more pets and had slightly more children and other adults sharing their households than did those without headache or chronic pain conditions. Thus, contrary to our expectations, pet ownership apparently conferred no analgesic benefits, nor did the presence of children or of other adults in the household confer any benefit to headache and other chronic pain sufferers. PMID:8002331

  9. Current Perspectives of Prophylaxis and Management of Acute Infective Endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Tranos, Paris; Dervenis, Nikolaos; Vakalis, Athanasios N; Asteriadis, Solon; Stavrakas, Panagiotis; Konstas, Anastasios G P

    2016-05-01

    Endophthalmitis is an intraocular inflammatory condition which may or may not be caused by infective agents. Noninfectious (sterile) endophthalmitis may be attributable to various causes including postoperative retained soft lens matter or toxicity following introduction of other agents into the eye. Infectious endophthalmitis is further subdivided into endogenous and exogenous. In endogenous endophthalmitis there is hematogenous spread of organisms from a distant source of infection whereas in exogenous endophthalmitis direct microbial inoculation may occur usually following ocular surgery or penetrating eye injury with or without intraocular foreign bodies. Acute infective endophthalmitis is usually exogenous induced by inoculation of pathogens following ocular surgery, open-globe injury and intravitreal injections. More infrequently the infective source is internal and septicemia spreads to the eye resulting in endogenous endophthalmitis. Several risk factors have been implicated including immunosuppression, ocular surface abnormalities, poor surgical wound construction, complicated cataract surgery with vitreous loss and certain types of intraocular lens. Comprehensive guidelines and recommendations on prophylaxis and monitoring of surgical cases have been proposed to minimize the risk of acute endophthalmitis. Early diagnosis and prompt management of infective endophthalmitis employing appropriately selected intravitreal antibiotics are essential to optimize visual outcome. PMID:26935830

  10. Aerosinusitis: pathophysiology, prophylaxis, and management in passengers and aircrew.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, K Christopher; Rajapaksa, Suresh; Wormald, Peter-John

    2008-01-01

    Patients presenting before flight with an upper respiratory infection are at risk for aerosinusitis. Prophylaxis of this condition consists of an oral decongestant before flight and nasal decongestant spray during the flight just prior to descent. Evaluation of the patient presenting with aerosinusitis consists of a careful physical exam with emphasis on diagnosing treatable nasal and sinus pathology. Categorization of the patient into the Weissman classification is important for determining prognostic factors for recovery. Management of this condition is based on the Weissman stage. Stage I or II lesions are generally treated conservatively with a 1-wk course of topical sprays, analgesics, a tapering course of steroids, and oral decongestants. Use of antibiotics is reserved for those cases initiated by bacterial sinusitis. Additionally, antihistamines are reserved for cases where allergies were the inciting cause. Stage III lesions are rarely seen in civilian air travelers due to the relatively low fluctuations in ambient air pressure. Aircrew that suffer Stage III aerosinusitis are at risk for recurrent sinus barotrauma that may require an expertly performed functional endoscopic sinus surgery to successfully manage it. PMID:18225779

  11. Social prophylaxis through distant corpse removal in ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, Lise; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Detrain, Claire

    2012-10-01

    Living in groups raises important issues concerning waste management and related sanitary risks. Social insects such as ants live at high densities with genetically related individuals within confined and humid nests, all these factors being highly favorable for the spread of pathogens. Therefore, in addition to individual immunity, a social prophylaxis takes place, namely, by the removal of risky items such as corpses and their rejection at a distance from the ant nest. In this study, we investigate how Myrmica rubra workers manage to reduce encounters between potentially hazardous corpses and nestmates. Using both field and laboratory experiments, we describe how the spatial distribution and the removal distance of waste items vary as a function of their associated sanitary risks (inert item vs. corpse). In the field, corpse-carrying ants walked in a rather linear way away from the nest entrance and had an equal probability of choosing any direction. Therefore, they did not aggregate corpses in dedicated areas but scattered them in the environment. In both field and laboratory experiments, ants carrying corpses dropped their load in more remote—and less frequented—areas than workers carrying inert items. However, for equidistant areas, ants did not avoid dropping corpses at a location where they perceived area marking as a cue of high occupancy level by nestmates. Our results suggest that ants use distance to the nest rather than other occupancy cues to limit sanitary risks associated with dead nestmates.

  12. Rational Basis for Optimizing Short and Long-term Hepatitis B Virus Prophylaxis Post Liver Transplantation: Role of Hepatitis B Immune Globulin

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Bruno; Roque-Afonso, Anne Marie; Nevens, Frederik; Samuel, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Antiviral therapy using newer nucleos(t)ide analogues with lower resistance rates, such as entecavir or tenofovir, suppress hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, improve liver function in patients with compensated or decompensated cirrhosis, and delay or obviate the need for liver transplantation in some patients. After liver transplantation, the combination of long-term antiviral and low-dose hepatitis B Immune globulin (HBIG) can effectively prevent HBV recurrence in greater than 90% of transplant recipients. Some forms of HBV prophylaxis need to be continued indefinitely after transplantation but, in patients with a low-risk of HBV recurrence (i.e., HBV DNA levels undetectable before transplantation), it is possible to discontinue HBIG and maintain only long-term nucleos(t)ide analogue(s) therapy. A more cautious approach is necessary for those patients with high pretransplant HBV DNA levels, those with limited antiviral options if HBV recurrence occurs (i.e., HIV or hepatitis D virus coinfection, preexisting drug resistance), those with a high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence, and those at risk of noncompliance with antiviral therapy. In this group, HBIG-free prophylaxis cannot be recommended. PMID:26038873

  13. Hollow-fiber pharmacodynamic studies and mathematical modeling to predict the efficacy of amoxicillin for anthrax postexposure prophylaxis in pregnant women and children.

    PubMed

    Louie, Arnold; Vanscoy, Brian; Liu, Weiguo; Kulawy, Robert; Drusano, G L

    2013-12-01

    Amoxicillin is considered an option for postexposure prophylaxis of Bacillus anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women who are breastfeeding and in children because of the potential toxicities of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline to the fetus and child. The amoxicillin regimen that effectively kills B. anthracis and prevents resistance is unknown. Fourteen-day dose range and dose fractionation studies were conducted in in vitro pharmacodynamic models to identify the exposure intensity and pharmacodynamic index of amoxicillin that are linked with optimized killing of B. anthracis and resistance prevention. Studies with dicloxacillin, a drug resistant to B. anthracis beta-lactamase, evaluated the role of beta-lactamase production in the pharmacodynamic indices for B. anthracis killing and resistance prevention. Dose fractionation studies showed that trough/MIC and not time above MIC was the index for amoxicillin that was linked to successful outcome through resistance prevention. Failure of amoxicillin regimens was due to inducible or stable high level expression of beta-lactamases. Studies with dicloxacillin demonstrated that a time above MIC of ≥94% was linked with treatment success when B. anthracis beta-lactamase activity was negated. Recursive partitioning analysis showed that amoxicillin regimens that produced peak concentrations of <10.99 μg/ml and troughs of >1.75 μg/ml provided a 100% success rate. Other amoxicillin peak and trough values produced success rates of 28 to 67%. For postpartum and pregnant women and children, Monte Carlo simulations predicted success rates for amoxicillin at 1 g every 8 h (q8h) of 53, 33, and 44% (30 mg/kg q8h), respectively. We conclude that amoxicillin is suboptimal for postexposure prophylaxis of B. anthracis in pregnant and postpartum women and in children. PMID:24041894

  14. Principles of antidote pharmacology: an update on prophylaxis, post-exposure treatment recommendations and research initiatives for biological agents

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, S; Liu, CQ; Tran, H; Gubala, A; Gauci, P; McAllister, J; Vo, T

    2010-01-01

    The use of biological agents has generally been confined to military-led conflicts. However, there has been an increase in non-state-based terrorism, including the use of asymmetric warfare, such as biological agents in the past few decades. Thus, it is becoming increasingly important to consider strategies for preventing and preparing for attacks by insurgents, such as the development of pre- and post-exposure medical countermeasures. There are a wide range of prophylactics and treatments being investigated to combat the effects of biological agents. These include antibiotics (for both conventional and unconventional use), antibodies, anti-virals, immunomodulators, nucleic acids (analogues, antisense, ribozymes and DNAzymes), bacteriophage therapy and micro-encapsulation. While vaccines are commercially available for the prevention of anthrax, cholera, plague, Q fever and smallpox, there are no licensed vaccines available for use in the case of botulinum toxins, viral encephalitis, melioidosis or ricin. Antibiotics are still recommended as the mainstay treatment following exposure to anthrax, plague, Q fever and melioidosis. Anti-toxin therapy and anti-virals may be used in the case of botulinum toxins or smallpox respectively. However, supportive care is the only, or mainstay, post-exposure treatment for cholera, viral encephalitis and ricin – a recommendation that has not changed in decades. Indeed, with the difficulty that antibiotic resistance poses, the development and further evaluation of techniques and atypical pharmaceuticals are fundamental to the development of prophylaxis and post-exposure treatment options. The aim of this review is to present an update on prophylaxis and post-exposure treatment recommendations and research initiatives for biological agents in the open literature from 2007 to 2009. PMID:20860656

  15. Prevention of delirium in trauma patients: Are we giving thiamine prophylaxis a fair chance?

    PubMed Central

    Blackmore, Christopher; Ouellet, Jean-Francois; Niven, Daniel; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Ball, Chad G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Delirium is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in injured patients. Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is delirium linked to malnutrition and chronic alcoholism. It is prevented with administration of thiamine. Our primary goal was to evaluate current blood alcohol level (BAL) testing and thiamine prophylaxis in severely injured patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 1000 consecutive severely injured patients admitted to hospital between Mar. 1, 2009, and Dec. 31, 2009. We used the patients’ medical records and the Alberta Trauma Registry. Results Among 1000 patients (mean age 48 yr, male sex 70%, mean injury severity score 23, mortality 10%), 627 underwent BAL testing at admission; 221 (35%) had a BAL greater than 0 mmol/L, and 189 (30%) had a BAL above the legal limit of 17.4 mmol/L. The mean positive BAL was 41.9 mmol/L. More than 4% had a known history of alcohol abuse. More patients were assaulted (20% v. 9%) or hit by motor vehicles (10% v. 6%) when intoxicated (both p < 0.05). Most injuries occurred after falls (37%) and motor vehicle collisions (33%). Overall, 17% of patients received thiamine prophylaxis. Of the 221 patients with elevated BAL, 44% received thiamine prophylaxis. Of those with a history of alcohol abuse, 77% received thiamine prophylaxis. Conclusion Despite the strong link between alcohol abuse, trauma and WE, more than one-third of patients were not screened for alcohol use. Furthermore, a minority of intoxicated patients received adequate prophylaxis against WE. Given the low risk and cost of BAL testing and thiamine prophylaxis and the high cost of delirium, standard protocols for prophylaxis are essential. PMID:24666443

  16. Outcome of empirical or targeted antifungal therapy after antifungal prophylaxis in febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Hahn-Ast, C; Felder, L; Mayer, K; Mückter, S; Ruhnke, M; Hein, R; Hellmich, M; Schwab, K; Rachow, T; Brossart, P; von Lilienfeld-Toal, M

    2016-05-01

    Azole prophylaxis has been shown to be effective in preventing invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and increasing survival in patients with prolonged neutropenia after myelosuppressive chemotherapy for haematological malignancies. Similarly, empirical antifungal therapy for persistent neutropenic fever has been shown to reduce IFI-related mortality. However, to date, there is little information with regard to the outcome of patients who receive both strategies. Here, we present our retrospective data on three cohorts of patients receiving empirical or targeted antifungal therapy after different antifungal prophylaxis regimens. All records from patients who received myelosuppressive induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in our centre from 2004-2010 were analysed. From 2004-2006, itraconazole was used as antifungal prophylaxis; for the first 6 months in 2007, local polyenes and from mid-2007 till 2010, posaconazole. Data of 315 courses of chemotherapy in 211 patients were analysed. Antifungal therapy (empirical or targeted, time point and antifungal agent at the physician's discretion) was initiated in 50/174 (29 %), 7/18 (39 %) and 34/123 courses (28 %, p = 0.615) in the itra cohort, the cohort without systemic prophylaxis and the posa cohort, respectively, and was effective in 24/50 (48 %), 5/7 (71 %) and 22/34 courses (65 %, p = 0.221), respectively. IFI occurred in 25/174 (14 %), 4/18 (22 %) and 16/123 (13 %) courses, respectively (p = 0.580). IFI-related survival was not different in the three cohorts. Antifungal treatment in patients with AML who received azole prophylaxis resulted in the expected efficacy-importantly, prior posaconazole prophylaxis did not render subsequent antifungal treatment less effective than prior itraconazole prophylaxis. PMID:27021301

  17. Indomethacin Prophylaxis to Prevent Intraventricular Hemorrhage: Association between Incidence and Timing of Drug Administration

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Hussnain; Oh, William; Laptook, Abbot; Vohr, Betty; Tucker, Richard; Stonestreet, Barbara S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that administration of indomethacin prophylaxis before 6 hours of life results in a lower incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) compared with administration after 6 hours of life, and that the effects of early prophylaxis depend on gestational age (GA) and sex in very low birth weight infants (birth weight <1250 g). Study design Very low birth weight infants admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit between 2003 and 2010 who received indomethacin prophylaxis were analyzed retrospectively. Exclusion criteria included unknown time of indomethacin prophylaxis, death at <12 hours of life, congenital anomalies, and unavailable head ultrasound report. Infants were dichotomized based on the timing of indomethacin prophylaxis (<6 hours or >6 hours of life) to compare incidence of IVH all grades and severe (grade 3–4) IVH. Secondary analyses examined the effects of the time of indomethacin prophylaxis initiation by GA and sex on the incidence of IVH. Results A total of 868 infants (431 males and 437 females) met the criteria for analysis. Indomethacin prophylaxis was given at <6 hours of life in 730 infants and at >6 hours of life to 168 infants. The 2 groups differed with respect to antenatal steroid exposure, GA, outborn prevalence, and pneumothoraces. After multivariate analysis, there were no between-group differences in all-grade or severe IVH. However, females, but not males, treated at <6 hours of life had a lower incidence of severe IVH (P < .05), particularly at lower GAs. Conclusion Prophylactic indomethacin administered before 6 hours of life is not associated with lower incidence of IVH. PMID:23522865

  18. What primary care providers need to know about preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Krakower, Douglas; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2012-10-01

    As HIV prevalence climbs globally, including more than 50 000 new infections per year in the United States, we need more effective HIV prevention strategies. The use of antiretrovirals for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among high-risk persons without HIV is emerging as one such strategy. Randomized, controlled trials have demonstrated that once-daily oral PrEP decreased HIV incidence among at-risk men who have sex with men and African heterosexuals, including serodiscordant couples. An additional randomized, controlled trial of a topical pericoital antiretroviral microbicide gel decreased HIV incidence among at-risk heterosexual South African women. Two other studies in African women did not demonstrate the efficacy of oral or topical PrEP, raising concerns about adherence patterns and efficacy in this population. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee reviewed these studies and additional data in May 2012 and voted to advise the approval of oral tenofovir-emtricitabine for PrEP in high-risk populations. On 16 July 2012, the FDA recommended that this combination medication be approved for use as PrEP in high-risk persons without HIV. Patients may seek PrEP from their primary care providers, and those receiving PrEP require monitoring. Thus, primary care providers should become familiar with PrEP. This review outlines current knowledge about PrEP as it pertains to primary care, including identifying persons likely to benefit from PrEP; counseling to maximize adherence and reduce potential increases in risky behavior; and monitoring for potential drug toxicities, HIV acquisition, and antiretroviral drug resistance. Issues related to cost and insurance coverage are also discussed. Recent data suggest that PrEP, combined with other prevention strategies, holds promise in helping to curtail the HIV epidemic. PMID:22821365

  19. Prophylaxis of invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole or caspofungin during building work in patients with acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chabrol, Amélie; Cuzin, Lise; Huguet, Françoise; Alvarez, Muriel; Verdeil, Xavier; Linas, Marie Denise; Cassaing, Sophie; Giron, Jacques; Tetu, Laurent; Attal, Michel; Récher, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background Invasive aspergillosis is a common life-threatening infection in patients with acute leukemia. The presence of building work near to hospital wards in which these patients are cared for is an important risk factor for the development of invasive aspergillosis. This study assessed the impact of voriconazole or caspofungin prophylaxis in patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia in a hematology unit exposed to building work. Design and Methods This retrospective cohort study was carried out between June 2003 and January 2006 during which building work exposed patients to a persistently increased risk of invasive aspergillosis. This study compared the cumulative incidence of invasive aspergillosis in patients who did or did not receive primary antifungal prophylaxis. The diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis was based on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycosis Study Group criteria. Results Two-hundred and fifty-seven patients (213 with acute myeloid leukemia, 44 with acute lymphocytic leukemia) were included. The mean age of the patients was 54 years and the mean duration of their neutropenia was 21 days. Eighty-eight received antifungal prophylaxis, most with voriconazole (n=74). The characteristics of the patients who did or did not receive prophylaxis were similar except that pulmonary antecedents (chronic bronchopulmonary disorders or active tobacco use) were more frequent in the prophylaxis group. Invasive aspergillosis was diagnosed in 21 patients (12%) in the non-prophylaxis group and four (4.5%) in the prophylaxis group (P=0.04). Pulmonary antecedents, neutropenia at diagnosis and acute myeloid leukemia with high-risk cytogenetics were positively correlated with invasive aspergillosis, whereas primary prophylaxis was negatively correlated. Survival was similar in both groups. No case of zygomycosis was observed. The 3-month mortality rate was 28% in patients with invasive aspergillosis. Conclusions

  20. AIDS Vaccines and Preexposure Prophylaxis: Is Synergy Possible?

    PubMed Central

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Rida, Wasima; Priddy, Frances; Gilmour, Jill; McDermott, Adrian B.; Kamali, Anatoli; Anzala, Omu; Mutua, Gaudensia; Sanders, Eduard J.; Koff, Wayne; Berkley, Seth

    2011-01-01

    Abstract While the long-term goal is to develop highly effective AIDS vaccines, first generation vaccines may be only partially effective. Other HIV prevention modalities such as preexposure prophylaxis with antiretrovirals (PrEP) may have limited efficacy as well. The combined administration of vaccine and PrEP (VAXPREP), however, may have a synergistic effect leading to an overall benefit that is greater than the sum of the individual effects. We propose two test-of-concept trial designs for an AIDS vaccine plus oral or topical ARV. In one design, evidence that PrEP reduces the risk of HIV acquisition is assumed to justify offering it to all participants. A two-arm study comparing PrEP alone to VAXPREP is proposed in which 30 to 60 incident infections are observed to assess the additional benefit of vaccination on risk of infection and setpoint viral load. The demonstrated superiority of VAXPREP does not imply vaccine alone is efficacious. Similarly, the lack of superiority does not imply vaccine alone is ineffective, as antagonism could exist between vaccine and PrEP. In the other design, PrEP is assumed not to be in general use. A 2 × 2 factorial design is proposed in which high-risk individuals are randomized to one of four arms: placebo vaccine given with placebo PrEP, placebo vaccine given with PrEP, vaccine given with placebo PrEP, or VAXPREP. Between 60 and 210 infections are required to detect a benefit of vaccination with or without PrEP on risk of HIV acquisition or setpoint viral load, with fewer infections needed when synergy is present. PMID:21043994

  1. Parsonage-Turner syndrome following post-exposure prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The ‘Parsonage-Turner syndrome’ (PTS) is a rare but distinct disorder with an abrupt onset of shoulder pain, followed by weakness and atrophy of the upper extremity musculature, and a slow recovery requiring months to years. To our best knowledge, this is the first case describing symptoms and signs of PTS following the administration of a post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimen against possible human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Case presentation A 25-year-old Caucasian man presented with pain and unilateral scapular winging following PEP against possible HIV and HBV infection. Although atrophy and weakness were observed for the right supraspinatus muscle, a full range of motion was achievable. Neurological examination, plain radiography of the right shoulder and electromyography showed no additional abnormalities. The patient was diagnosed with post-vaccination PTS and treated non-operatively. During the following 15 months the scapular winging receded and full muscle strength was regained. Conclusion Parsonage-Turner syndrome is a rare clinical diagnosis. The precise pathophysiological mechanism of PTS remains unclear, but it seems to involve an interaction between genetic predisposition, mechanical vulnerability and an autoimmune trigger. An immunological event, such as – in this case – a vaccination as part of PEP treatment, can trigger the onset of PTS. The clinical presentation is distinctive with acute severe pain followed by patchy paresis, atrophy and sensory symptoms that persist for months to years. No currently available tests can provide a definite confirmation or exclusion of PTS. Routine blood examination, electromyography (EMG), and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) serve mainly to exclude other disorders. The recovery can be quite lengthy, non-operative treatment is the accepted practice. Supplementary administration of oral prednisolone could shorten the

  2. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PROPHYLAXIS METHODS ON SOUND AND DEMINERALIZED ENAMEL

    PubMed Central

    Honório, Heitor Marques; Rios, Daniela; Abdo, Ruy César Camargo; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira

    2006-01-01

    Considering the importance of professional plaque control for caries prevention, this study comprised an in vitro evaluation of wear by two prophylaxis methods (sodium bicarbonate jet – Profident and pumice and brush) on sound bovine enamel and with artificial carious lesions. Sixty enamel fragments were employed (4x4mm), which were divided into 4 groups: GI – 15 sound blocks treated with pumice and brush; GII – 15 sound blocks treated with Profident; GIII – 15 demineralized blocks treated with pumice and brush, and GIV – 15 demineralized blocks treated with Profident. In the fragments of Groups III and IV, artificial carious lesions were simulated by immersion in 0.05M acetic acid solution 50% saturated with bovine enamel powder at 37oC for 16h. The specimens were submitted to the prophylactic treatments for 10 seconds. Wear analysis was performed by profilometer and revealed the following results: 0.91μm – GI; 0.42μm – GII; 1.6μm – GIII, and 0.94μm – GIV. The two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05) revealed significant difference between all groups. Scanning electron microscopy images were employed to illustrate the wear pattern, with observation of larger alteration on the demineralized enamel surface (GIII; GIV), round-shaped wear on GI and GIII and blasted aspect on GII and GIV. The study indicated that the demineralized enamel presented more wear than the sound enamel, and the brush led to larger wear when compared to Profident. PMID:19089042

  3. Transgender Women in Clinical Trials of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Grant, Robert M; Sevelius, Jae M; Guanira, Juan V; Aguilar, Jana Villayzan; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Deutsch, Madeline B

    2016-08-15

    Lessons were learned with trans women who participated (as volunteers and investigators) in trials of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Trans women are not men. Compared with men who have sex with men, trans women trial participants were more likely to be involved with transactional sex, had more sexual partners, and were less likely to have PrEP medications detected in blood. Trans women define themselves differently in different cultures. One best practice is to ask at least 2 gender questions: sex assigned at birth and current gender. More information is needed to fully situate PrEP efficacy for trans women, including analysis of drug-drug interactions between PrEP medications and feminizing hormones and PrEP drug penetration into neovaginal tissues. Including trans women in studies is helpful only if their participation is specifically reported, as could occur in a table of baseline characteristics of the enrolled cohort. Gender-affirming care is important to foster appropriate uptake and use of PrEP. Such care includes use of preferred pronouns and names, safety to use the bathroom of choice, and access to gender-affirming hormone therapy and surgery. The consistent finding that PrEP works when taken across diverse populations having diverse practices related to gender, sexual intercourse, and hormone use provides a basis for offering PrEP to people at substantial risk of acquiring HIV although some subgroups may not have been fully represented in trials. Nonetheless, specific PrEP implementation science for trans women (and men) is essential to develop best practices for PrEP delivery and use. PMID:27429187

  4. Transgender Women in Clinical Trials of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Sevelius, Jae M.; Guanira, Juan V.; Aguilar, Jana Villayzan; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Deutsch, Madeline B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Lessons were learned with trans women who participated (as volunteers and investigators) in trials of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Trans women are not men. Compared with men who have sex with men, trans women trial participants were more likely to be involved with transactional sex, had more sexual partners, and were less likely to have PrEP medications detected in blood. Trans women define themselves differently in different cultures. One best practice is to ask at least 2 gender questions: sex assigned at birth and current gender. More information is needed to fully situate PrEP efficacy for trans women, including analysis of drug–drug interactions between PrEP medications and feminizing hormones and PrEP drug penetration into neovaginal tissues. Including trans women in studies is helpful only if their participation is specifically reported, as could occur in a table of baseline characteristics of the enrolled cohort. Gender-affirming care is important to foster appropriate uptake and use of PrEP. Such care includes use of preferred pronouns and names, safety to use the bathroom of choice, and access to gender-affirming hormone therapy and surgery. The consistent finding that PrEP works when taken across diverse populations having diverse practices related to gender, sexual intercourse, and hormone use provides a basis for offering PrEP to people at substantial risk of acquiring HIV although some subgroups may not have been fully represented in trials. Nonetheless, specific PrEP implementation science for trans women (and men) is essential to develop best practices for PrEP delivery and use. PMID:27429187

  5. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after total hip or knee arthroplasty: a survey of Canadian orthopedic surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Michael; Anderson, David R.; Nagpal, Seema; O’Brien, Bernie

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine the pharmacologic and physical modalities used by orthopedic surgeons in Canada to prevent venous thromboembolism (deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) after total hip or knee arthroplasty. Design Mail survey sent to all members of the Canadian Orthopaedic Association. Setting A nation-wide study. Methods A total of 828 questionnaires, designed to identify the type and frequency of prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism that were used after hip and knee arthroplasty were mailed to orthopedic surgeons. Outcome measures Demographic data and the frequency and type of thromboprophylaxis. Results Of the 828 surveys mailed 445 (54%) were returned, and 397 were included in this analysis. Of the respondents, 97% used prophylaxis routinely for patients who undergo total hip or knee arthroplasty. Three of the 397 (0.8%) did not use any method of prophylaxis. Warfarin was the most common agent used (46%), followed by low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) (36%). Combination therapy with both mechanical and pharmacologic methods were used in 39% of patients. Objective screening tests were not frequently performed before discharge. Extended prophylaxis beyond the duration of hospitalization was used by 36% of physicians. Conclusion Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism with warfarin or LMWH has become standard care after total hip or knee arthroplasty in Canada. PMID:10593248

  6. What do women know about breast cancer prophylaxis and a healthy style of life?

    PubMed Central

    Sielska, Jolanta; Matecka, Monika; Dąbrowska, Eliza; Jakubek, Ewa; Urbaniak, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to determine the factors influencing women's knowledge concerning breast cancer prophylaxis and find out the sources of the knowledge. Background In the Greater Poland region, breast cancer has been the most frequently detected tumour for years. The percentage of breast cancer cases has increased by 31% in the last decade. Materials and methods The study encompassed 337 women aged 40–59 who participated in the mammographic examinations. An original research tool was used which assessed the level of knowledge concerning breast cancer prophylaxis, the knowledge of health-oriented behaviour in this regard and the influence of the medical personnel on women's education. Results Age is a factor diversifying the knowledge of the breast self-examination method. Doctors and nurses were rarely indicated as a source of knowledge concerning breast cancer prophylaxis. The subjects presented a high level of knowledge of the factors increasing the risk of developing cancer. Conclusions A correlation between the level of education and the knowledge of one's own breast to a degree which enables a woman to detect even a slight change was observed. Vital findings also concern the sources of knowledge concerning breast cancer prophylaxis. The results of the studies indicated little informative support on the part of the medical personnel; therefore, one should call for supplementing training courses for doctors and nurses focusing on the issues of prophylaxis, including the method of breast self-examination. PMID:26549989

  7. Effectiveness of Primary Anti-Aspergillus Prophylaxis during Remission Induction Chemotherapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ying; Mulanovich, Victor E.; Lewis, Russell E.

    2014-01-01

    Although antifungal prophylaxis is frequently administered to patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) during remission-induction chemotherapy (RIC), its impact on reducing invasive fungal infections (IFIs) outside clinical trials is rarely reported. We performed a retrospective observational study to identify risk factors for development of IFIs (definite or probable, using revised European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] criteria) and all-cause mortality in a cohort of 152 AML patients receiving RIC (2009 to 2011). We also compared rates of IFI and mortality in patients who received echinocandin versus anti-Aspergillus azole (voriconazole or posaconazole) prophylaxis during the first 120 days of RIC. In multivariate analysis, clofarabine-based RIC (hazard ratio [HR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 8.3; P = 0.004) and echinocandin prophylaxis (HR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.8 to 11.9; P = 0.002) were independently associated with higher rates of IFI rates during RIC. Subsequent analysis failed to identify any malignancy- or chemotherapy-related covariates linked to echinocandin prophylaxis that accounted for the higher rates of breakthrough IFI. Although the possibility of other confounding variables cannot be excluded, our findings suggest that echinocandin-based prophylaxis during RIC for AML may be associated with a higher risk of breakthrough IFI. PMID:24590477

  8. Intravenous Versus Oral Antibiotic Prophylaxis Efficacy for Elective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomies: a Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Karaca, A Serdar; Gündoğdu, Haldun; Özdoğan, Mehmet; Ersoy, Eren

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present prospective randomized controlled trial is to compare the effectiveness of intravenous and oral antibiotic prophylaxis for cost and surgical site infection in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Three hundred twenty patients were split into two groups as to include 160 patients in each, and they were evaluated in a prospective and randomized fashion. While one group was subjected to 1 g cefazolin via intravenous route during anesthesia induction, other group received 1 g cephalexin monohydrate via oral route 1 h prior to the operation. Demographic findings and operation results of the patients were compared by analyses. Our 320 patients (278 females and 42 males) received elective cholecystectomy and were followed up for a period of 6-26 months. Each group had 160 patients. Both groups were similar with regard to demographic characteristics and inclusion criteria. Among all, only five (1.5 %) cases demonstrated postoperative surgical site infection. Surgical site infection at postoperative period was determined in three (1.8 %) cases of intravenous prophylaxis group and two (1.2 %) cases of oral prophylaxis group. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of surgical site infection. Oral antibiotic prophylaxis can be used in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy prophylaxis due to its cost-effective, reliable nature, and low surgical site infection rate. PMID:26730079

  9. Central nervous system prophylaxis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Mohammad Faizan; Khan, Nadia; Hashmi, Shahrukh K; Kizilbash, Sani Haider; Barta, Stefan K

    2016-08-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a relatively uncommon manifestation; with most cases of CNS involvement occuring during relapse after primary therapy. CNS dissemination typically occurs early in the disease course and is most likely present subclinically at the time of diagnosis in many patients who later relapse in the CNS. CNS relapse in these patients is associated with poor outcomes. Based on a CNS relapse rate of 5% in DLBCL and weighing the benefits against the toxicities, universal application of CNS prophylaxis is not justified. The introduction of rituximab has significantly reduced the incidence of CNS relapse in DLBCL. Different studies have employed other agents for CNS prophylaxis, such as intrathecal chemotherapy and high-dose systemic agents with sufficient CNS penetration. If CNS prophylaxis is to be given, it should be preferably administered during primary chemotherapy. However, there is no strong evidence that supports any single approach for CNS prophylaxis. In this review, we outline different strategies of administering CNS prophylaxis in DLBCL patients reported in literature and discuss their advantages and drawbacks. PMID:27096423

  10. A cohort study of the usefulness of primary prophylaxis in patients with severe haemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Nagae, Chiai; Yamashita, Atsuki; Ashikaga, Tomoko; Mori, Mika; Akita, Mieko; Kitsukawa, Kaoru; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Kimie; Taki, Masashi

    2016-08-01

    Primary prophylaxis is a method of haemostatic management to prevent bleeding and arthropathy in patients with severe haemophilia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of primary prophylaxis in patients with severe haemophilia A. This study included 15 patients with haemophilia A who received primary prophylaxis at our institution for a minimum of 5 years. We evaluated the annualized bleeding ratio of joints or other sites, current joint function, and X-ray images and MRI scans taken when patients were 6 years old. The range of patients' ages at the end of the study was 6.2-16.8 years, and at the start of primary prophylaxis it was 0.8-2.4 years. Factor VIII concentrates (25-40 units kg(-1) dose(-1)) were administered 3 times/week or every other day, according to the Swedish protocol. Mean joint and non-joint annualized bleeding ratios were 0.49 ± 0.5 and 1.54 ± 1.69, respectively. At the final evaluation, all patients displayed a normal range of motion for both elbows, knees, and ankles. The radiography and MRI findings at the age of 6 were unremarkable in all patients. Overall, primary prophylaxis for patients with severe haemophilia A was performed safely, reduced the number of bleeding events, and prevented progression to arthropathy. PMID:27125646

  11. Effectiveness of primary anti-Aspergillus prophylaxis during remission induction chemotherapy of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marisa Z R; Jiang, Ying; Mulanovich, Victor E; Lewis, Russell E; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2014-05-01

    Although antifungal prophylaxis is frequently administered to patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) during remission-induction chemotherapy (RIC), its impact on reducing invasive fungal infections (IFIs) outside clinical trials is rarely reported. We performed a retrospective observational study to identify risk factors for development of IFIs (definite or probable, using revised European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] criteria) and all-cause mortality in a cohort of 152 AML patients receiving RIC (2009 to 2011). We also compared rates of IFI and mortality in patients who received echinocandin versus anti-Aspergillus azole (voriconazole or posaconazole) prophylaxis during the first 120 days of RIC. In multivariate analysis, clofarabine-based RIC (hazard ratio [HR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 8.3; P = 0.004) and echinocandin prophylaxis (HR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.8 to 11.9; P = 0.002) were independently associated with higher rates of IFI rates during RIC. Subsequent analysis failed to identify any malignancy- or chemotherapy-related covariates linked to echinocandin prophylaxis that accounted for the higher rates of breakthrough IFI. Although the possibility of other confounding variables cannot be excluded, our findings suggest that echinocandin-based prophylaxis during RIC for AML may be associated with a higher risk of breakthrough IFI. PMID:24590477

  12. Prophylaxis in gynaecological and obstetric surgery: a comparative randomised multicentre study of single-dose cefotetan versus two doses of cefazolin.

    PubMed

    Periti, P; Mazzei, T; Periti, E

    1988-08-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis is recommended in all clean-contaminated surgery where the critical threshold of number and virulence of the contaminating organisms with respect to host resistance is reached. Obstetric and gynaecological surgery is clean-contaminated and risk of infection due to aerobic and anaerobic bacteria without prophylaxis can be quantified at 30-40% for vaginal hysterectomy, 10-35% for abdominal hysterectomy and 10-34% for caesarean section. To assess the role of two different cephalosporins as short term prophylaxis, we carried out a multicentre randomised study involving a single 2 g i.v. dose of cefotetan in comparison with two doses of cefazolin (2 g i.v. before surgery and after 8 hours). Criteria for exclusion were: exposure to antibiotics within 7 days, preoperative infection, hypersensitivity to beta-lactams. Four hundred and sixty patients entered the study, of which 229 received cefotetan and 231 cefazolin. No significant differences in mean age, obesity, preoperative weight loss, diabetes, type of disease, type of surgery (vaginal or abdominal hysterectomies and caesarean sections) and number of pregnancies and abortions existed between the two groups of patients. The total rate of infected patients undergoing hysterectomy was 8.6% (13/151) in the cefotetan group and 17.4% (29/167) in the cefazolin group (p less than 0.05). This difference was due to cases of symptomatic bacteriuria and antibiotic retreatment, while wound infections were not significantly different (2.6% and 1.8% respectively). Among patients undergoing caesarean section, 9 of 78 (11.5%) and 7 of 64 (10.9%) were infected following cefotetan and cefazolin, respectively (not significant). Cefotetan mean tissue concentrations in gynaecological organs were higher than those of cefazolin (25.5-44.8 vs. 7.4-9.5 mg/kg).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3052893

  13. How I use bypassing therapy for prophylaxis in patients with hemophilia A and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Leissinger, Cindy A; Singleton, Tammuella; Kruse-Jarres, Rebecca

    2015-07-01

    Inhibitor development poses a significant challenge in the management of hemophilia because once an inhibitor is present, bleeding episodes can no longer be treated with standard clotting factor replacement therapy. Consequently, patients with inhibitors are at increased risk for difficult-to-control bleeding and complications, particularly arthropathy and physical disability. Three clinical trials in patients with inhibitors have demonstrated that prophylaxis with a bypassing agent reduces joint and other types of bleeding and improves health-related quality of life compared with on-demand bypassing therapy. In hemophilia patients without inhibitors, the initiation of prophylaxis with factor (F) VIII or FIX prior to the onset of recurrent hemarthroses can prevent the development of joint disease. Whether this is also true for bypassing agent prophylaxis remains to be determined. PMID:25827834

  14. Estimates of utility weights in hemophilia: implications for cost-utility analysis of clotting factor prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, Scott D; Chaugule, Shraddha S; Hay, Joel W

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of preference-weighted health outcomes or health state utilities are needed to assess improvements in health in terms of quality-adjusted life-years. Gains in quality-adjusted life-years are used to assess the cost–effectiveness of prophylactic use of clotting factor compared with on-demand treatment among people with hemophilia, a congenital bleeding disorder. Published estimates of health utilities for people with hemophilia vary, contributing to uncertainty in the estimates of cost–effectiveness of prophylaxis. Challenges in estimating utility weights for the purpose of evaluating hemophilia treatment include selection bias in observational data, difficulty in adjusting for predictors of health-related quality of life and lack of preference-based data comparing adults with lifetime or primary prophylaxis versus no prophylaxis living within the same country and healthcare system. PMID:25585817

  15. Is there a need for bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis in patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy?

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore

    2014-04-01

    Heart valve repair or replacement is a serious problem. Patients can benefit from an open dialogue between both cardiologists and gastroenterologists for the optimal effective patients care. The focused update on infective endocarditis of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2008 (ACC/AHA guidelines) and guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infective endocarditis (new version 2009) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC guidelines) describe prophylaxis against infective endocarditis (IE) as not recommended for gastroscopy and colonoscopy in the absence of active infection but increasing evidence suggests that the role of IE antibiotic prophylaxis remains a dark side of the cardio-oncology prevention. New evidences concerning infective endocarditis due to Streptococcus bovis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans, and new findings indicate that there is a need for bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis in patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy especially in elderly patients and in cancer and immunocompromised patients, to avoid serious consequences. PMID:24566725

  16. Heterotopic ossification: Pathophysiology, clinical features, and the role of radiotherapy for prophylaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Balboni, Tracy A.; Gobezie, Reuben; Mamon, Harvey J. . E-mail: hmamon@partners.org

    2006-08-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a benign condition of abnormal formation of bone in soft tissue. HO is frequently asymptomatic, though when it is more severe it typically manifests as decreased range of motion at a nearby joint. HO has been recognized to occur in three distinct contexts-trauma, neurologic injury, and genetic abnormalities. The etiology of HO is incompletely understood. A posited theory is that HO results from the presence of osteoprogenitor cells pathologically induced by an imbalance in local or systemic factors. Individuals at high risk for HO development frequently undergo prophylaxis to prevent HO formation. The two most commonly employed modalities for prophylaxis are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and radiation therapy. This review discusses HO pathophysiology, clinical features, and the role of radiotherapy for prophylaxis.

  17. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Prophylaxis and treatment controversies

    PubMed Central

    Cheuk, Daniel KL

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, is a major complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and it carries a high mortality. Prophylaxis for hepatic VOD is commonly given to transplant recipients from the start of conditioning through the early weeks of transplant. However, high quality evidence from randomized controlled trials is scarce with small sample sizes and the trials yielded conflicting results. Although various treatment options for hepatic VOD are available, most have not undergone stringent evaluation with randomized controlled trial and therefore it remains uncertain which treatment offers real benefit. It remains controversial whether VOD prophylaxis should be given, which prophylactic therapy should be given, who should receive prophylaxis, and what treatment should be offered once VOD is established. PMID:24175193

  18. [Prophylaxis and health promotion--whether and for whom they provide profit?].

    PubMed

    Szozda, Ryszard J

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this article is employee and his family, employer, the state in all aspects and health as a profit and a lack of health as a loss. Healthy employee brings a profit to himself, to the employer and to the state. Up to these times nobody has thought about the health value. Work is a commodity. Prophylaxis and health promotion are work. Health can be sold as each commodity. Prophylaxis and health promotion incur expenses but they must be compared with illness results expenses (including immeasurable ones). Having analysed the literature the author claims that the thesis is right so it means that the effects of prophylaxis and health promotion determine the profit to employees and their families, to employers and to the state--which means to all of us. PMID:15002291

  19. Use of Provider-Level Dashboards and Pay-for-Performance in Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis*

    PubMed Central

    Michtalik, Henry J.; Carolan, Howard T.; Haut, Elliott R.; Lau, Brandyn D.; Streiff, Michael B.; Finkelstein, Joseph; Pronovost, Peter J.; Durkin, Nowella; Brotman, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite safe and cost-effective venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention measures, VTE prophylaxis rates are often suboptimal. Healthcare reform efforts emphasize transparency through programs to report performance, and payment incentives through programs to pay-for-performance. Objective To sequentially examine an individualized physician dashboard and pay-for-performance program to improve VTE prophylaxis rates amongst hospitalists. Design Retrospective analysis of 3144 inpatient admissions. After a baseline observation period, VTE prophylaxis compliance was compared during both interventions. Setting 1060-bed tertiary care medical center. Participants 38 part- and full-time academic hospitalists. Interventions A Web-based hospitalist dashboard provided VTE prophylaxis feedback. After 6 months of feedback only, a pay-for-performance program was incorporated, with graduated payouts for compliance rates of 80-100%. Measurements Prescription of American College of Chest Physicians guideline-compliant VTE prophylaxis and subsequent pay-for-performance payments. Results Monthly VTE prophylaxis compliance rates were 86% (95% CI: 85, 88), 90% (95% CI: 88, 93), and 94% (95% CI: 93, 96) during the baseline, dashboard, and combined dashboard/pay-for-performance periods, respectively. Compliance significantly improved with the use of the dashboard (p=0.01) and addition of the pay-for-performance program (p=0.01). The highest rate of improvement occurred with the dashboard (1.58%/month; p=0.01). Annual individual physician performance payments ranged from $53 to $1244 (mean $633; SD ±350). Conclusions Direct feedback using dashboards was associated with significantly improved compliance, with further improvement after incorporating an individual physician pay-for-performance program. Real-time dashboards and physician-level incentives may assist hospitals in achieving higher safety and quality benchmarks. PMID:25545690

  20. Venous Thromboembolism in Critically Ill Cirrhotic Patients: Practices of Prophylaxis and Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dorzi, Hasan M.; Tamim, Hani M.; Aldawood, Abdulaziz S.; Arabi, Yaseen M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We compared venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis practices and incidence in critically ill cirrhotic versus noncirrhotic patients and evaluated cirrhosis as a VTE risk factor. Methods. A cohort of 798 critically ill patients followed for the development of clinically detected VTE were categorized according to the diagnosis of cirrhosis. VTE prophylaxis practices and incidence were compared. Results. Seventy-five (9.4%) patients had cirrhosis with significantly higher INR (2.2 ± 0.9 versus 1.3 ± 0.6, P < 0.0001), lower platelet counts (115,000 ± 90,000 versus 258,000 ± 155,000/μL, P < 0.0001), and higher creatinine compared to noncirrhotic patients. Among cirrhotics, 31 patients received only mechanical prophylaxis, 24 received pharmacologic prophylaxis, and 20 did not have any prophylaxis. Cirrhotic patients were less likely to receive pharmacologic prophylaxis (odds ratio, 0.08; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.04–0.14). VTE occurred in only two (2.7%) cirrhotic patients compared to 7.6% in noncirrhotic patients (P = 0.11). The incidence rate was 2.2 events per 1000 patient-ICU days for cirrhotic patients and 3.6 events per 1000 patient-ICU days for noncirrhotics (incidence rate ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.15–2.52). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, cirrhosis was not associated with VTE risk (hazard ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.10–1.67). Conclusions. In critically ill cirrhotic patients, VTE incidence did not statistically differ from that in noncirrhotic patients. PMID:24386564

  1. Factors Associated with Coverage of Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis in HIV-Exposed Children in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Dhayendre; Reddy, Leanne; Mahungo, Wisani; Masha, Rebotile

    2013-01-01

    Background The World Health Organisation and the Joint United Nations Programme in 2006 reaffirmed the earlier recommendation of 2000 that all HIV-exposed infants in resource-poor countries should commence cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis at 6-weeks of life. CTX prophylaxis should be continued until the child is confirmed HIV-uninfected and there is no further exposure to breastmilk transmission. We determined CTX coverage and explored factors associated with CTX administration in HIV-exposed infants at a primary health clinic in South Africa. Methods In a cross-sectional study of HIV-exposed infants 6–18 months of age attending a child immunisation clinic, data from the current visit and previous visits related to CTX prophylaxis, feeding practice and infant HIV testing were extracted from the child's immunisation record. Further information related to the administration of CTX prophylaxis was obtained from an interview with the child's mother. Results One-third (33.0%) HIV-exposed infants had not initiated CTX at all and breastfed infants were more likely to have commenced CTX prophylaxis as compared to their non-breastfed counterparts (78.7% vs 63.4%) (p = 0.008). Availability of infant's HIV status was strongly associated with continuation or discontinuation of CTX after 6 months of age or after breastfeeding cessation. Maternal self-reports indicated that only 52.5% (95%CI 47.5–57.5) understood the reason for CTX prophylaxis, 126 (47%) did not dose during weekends; 55 (21%) dosed their infants 3 times a day and 70 (26%) dosed their infants twice daily. Conclusion A third of HIV-exposed children attending a primary health care facility in this South African setting did not receive CTX prophylaxis. Not commencing CTX prophylaxis was strongly associated with infants not breastfeeding and unnecessary continued exposure to CTX in this paediatric population was due to limited availability of early infant diagnosis. Attendance at immunization clinics can be

  2. Vitamin K prophylaxis for prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sankar, M J; Chandrasekaran, A; Kumar, P; Thukral, A; Agarwal, R; Paul, V K

    2016-05-01

    We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the burden of late vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) and the effect of vitamin K prophylaxis on the incidence of VKDB. We searched MEDLINE and other electronic databases, and included all observational studies including population surveys as well as randomized controlled trials (RCT). The median (interquartile range) burden of late VKDB was 35 (10.5 to 80) per 100 000 live births in infants who had not received prophylaxis at birth; the burden was much higher in low- and middle-income countries as compared with high-income countries-80 (72 to 80) vs 8.8 (5.8 to 17.8) per 100 000 live births. Two randomized trials evaluated the effect of intramuscular (IM) prophylaxis on the risk of classical VKDB. Although one trial reported a significant reduction in the incidence of any bleeding (relative risk (RR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56 to 0.96) and moderate to severe bleeding (RR 0.19, 0.08 to 0.46; number needed to treat (NNT) 74, 47 to 177), the other trial demonstrated a significant reduction in the risk of secondary bleeding after circumcision in male neonates (RR 0.18, CI 0.08 to 0.42; NNT 9, 6 to 15). No RCTs evaluated the effect of vitamin K prophylaxis on late VKDB. Data from four surveillance studies indicate that the use of IM/subcutaneous vitamin K prophylaxis could significantly reduce the risk of late VKDB when compared with no prophylaxis (pooled RR 0.02; 95% CI 0.00 to 0.10). When compared with IM prophylaxis, a single oral dose of vitamin K increased the risk of VKDB (RR 24.5; 95% CI 7.4 to 81.0) but multiple oral doses did not (RR 3.64; CI 0.82 to 16.3). There is low-quality evidence from observational studies that routine IM administration of 1 mg of vitamin K at birth reduces the incidence of late VKDB during infancy. Given the high risk of mortality and morbidity in infants with late VKDB, it seems appropriate to administer IM vitamin K prophylaxis to all neonates at birth. Future studies

  3. Evaluating the optimal timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Surgical site infections are the most common hospital-acquired infections among surgical patients. The administration of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the risk of surgical site infections . The optimal timing of this procedure is still a matter of debate. While most studies suggest that it should be given as close to the incision time as possible, others conclude that this may be too late for optimal prevention of surgical site infections. A large observational study suggests that surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis should be administered 74 to 30 minutes before surgery. The aim of this article is to report the design and protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the optimal timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis. Methods/Design In this bi-center randomized controlled trial conducted at two tertiary referral centers in Switzerland, we plan to include 5,000 patients undergoing general, oncologic, vascular and orthopedic trauma procedures. Patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio into two groups: one receiving surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the anesthesia room (75 to 30 minutes before incision) and the other receiving surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the operating room (less than 30 minutes before incision). We expect a significantly lower rate of surgical site infections with surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis administered more than 30 minutes before the scheduled incision. The primary outcome is the occurrence of surgical site infections during a 30-day follow-up period (one year with an implant in place). When assuming a 5% surgical site infection risk with administration of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the operating room, the planned sample size has an 80% power to detect a relative risk reduction for surgical site infections of 33% when administering surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in the anesthesia room (with a two-sided type I error of 5%). We expect the study to be completed within three

  4. Should we definitively abandon prophylaxis for patent ductus arteriosus in preterm new-borns?

    PubMed Central

    Fanos, Vassilios; Pusceddu, Michele; Dessì, Angelica; Marcialis, Maria Antonietta

    2011-01-01

    Although the prophylactic administration of indomethacin in extremely low-birth weight infants reduces the frequency of patent ductus arteriosus and severe intraventricular hemorrhage, it does not appear to provide any long-term benefit in terms of survival without neurosensory and cognitive outcomes. Considering the increased drug-induced reduction in renal, intestinal, and cerebral blood flow, the use of prophylaxis cannot be routinely recommended in preterm neonates. However, a better understanding of the genetic background of each infant may allow for individualized prophylaxis using NSAIDs and metabolomics. PMID:22189742

  5. Vitamin K prophylaxis for prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, M J; Chandrasekaran, A; Kumar, P; Thukral, A; Agarwal, R; Paul, V K

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the burden of late vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) and the effect of vitamin K prophylaxis on the incidence of VKDB. We searched MEDLINE and other electronic databases, and included all observational studies including population surveys as well as randomized controlled trials (RCT). The median (interquartile range) burden of late VKDB was 35 (10.5 to 80) per 100 000 live births in infants who had not received prophylaxis at birth; the burden was much higher in low- and middle-income countries as compared with high-income countries-80 (72 to 80) vs 8.8 (5.8 to 17.8) per 100 000 live births. Two randomized trials evaluated the effect of intramuscular (IM) prophylaxis on the risk of classical VKDB. Although one trial reported a significant reduction in the incidence of any bleeding (relative risk (RR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56 to 0.96) and moderate to severe bleeding (RR 0.19, 0.08 to 0.46; number needed to treat (NNT) 74, 47 to 177), the other trial demonstrated a significant reduction in the risk of secondary bleeding after circumcision in male neonates (RR 0.18, CI 0.08 to 0.42; NNT 9, 6 to 15). No RCTs evaluated the effect of vitamin K prophylaxis on late VKDB. Data from four surveillance studies indicate that the use of IM/subcutaneous vitamin K prophylaxis could significantly reduce the risk of late VKDB when compared with no prophylaxis (pooled RR 0.02; 95% CI 0.00 to 0.10). When compared with IM prophylaxis, a single oral dose of vitamin K increased the risk of VKDB (RR 24.5; 95% CI 7.4 to 81.0) but multiple oral doses did not (RR 3.64; CI 0.82 to 16.3). There is low-quality evidence from observational studies that routine IM administration of 1 mg of vitamin K at birth reduces the incidence of late VKDB during infancy. Given the high risk of mortality and morbidity in infants with late VKDB, it seems appropriate to administer IM vitamin K prophylaxis to all neonates at birth. Future studies

  6. Methemoglobinemia in a Pediatric Oncology Patient Receiving Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Timothy G; Carroll, Megan G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Methemoglobinemia due to the administration of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim has been documented in a series of case reports. However, all of these reports are on adult patients, and all patients received at least daily administration of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim for the treatment of active or suspected infection. CASE REPORT Herein we report the development of methemoglobinemia in a pediatric patient receiving sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim three times weekly for the prophylaxis of opportunistic infections. CONCLUSIONS The clinician should always consider sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, even when administered for opportunistic infection prophylaxis at reduced doses and intervals, as a possible cause of methemoglobinemia. PMID:27424851

  7. [Prophylaxis and therapy of post-traumatic stress disorder with propranolol: evidence and ethical analysis].

    PubMed

    Kühlmeyer, K; Jox, R J

    2013-10-01

    The beta-antagonistic agent propranolol is increasingly being used in clinical trials for the prophylaxis and treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article discusses the evidence for the effectiveness of propranolol in the prophylaxis and treatment of PTSD and the ethical implications of research on these treatment approaches. The efficacy of a prophylactic or therapeutic use could not be shown during the last decade. Both treatment approaches raise ethical questions that should already be addressed during the clinical trials. PMID:24036701

  8. Pharmacological Prophylaxis for Venous Thromboembolism Among Hospitalized Patients With Acute Medical Illness: An Electronic Medical Records Study.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, Marc; Liu, Xianchen; Phatak, Hemant; Qi, Rong; Teal, Evgenia; Nisi, Daniel; Liu, Larry Z; Ramacciotti, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Patients hospitalized with acute medical illness have an elevated risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). American College of Chest Physicians guidelines list various chronic illnesses, sepsis, advanced age, history of VTE, and immobility as risk factors and recommend prophylactic anticoagulation using fondaparinux, low-molecular weight heparin, or low-dose unfractionated heparin. The objectives of this study were to examine pharmacological prophylaxis against VTE among hospitalized medically ill patients and to assess demographic and clinical correlates related to VTE prophylaxis. A retrospective (1999-2010) electronic medical records study included patients aged 40 years and older hospitalized for at least 3 days, with significant medical illness or with a VTE hospitalization 30-365 days before admission. Each patient's first qualifying hospitalization was analyzed. Exclusions were if VTE treatment was started within 1 day of admission, or if warfarin (and not heparin or enoxaparin) was used. Prophylaxis was defined if the first inpatient dose of subcutaneous heparin or enoxaparin was at prophylaxis levels (lower than treatment levels). Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with VTE prophylaxis. Among 12,980 patients, 22.1% received prophylaxis (11.8% with enoxaparin, 10.3% with heparin). VTE prophylaxis was positively associated with year of hospitalization, subcutaneous heparin in the month before admission, aspirin, self-pay status, age, and sepsis. VTE prophylaxis was negatively associated with smoking, alcohol, warfarin in the past 30 days, and primary diagnoses of stroke, infectious disease, or inflammatory bowel disease. Pharmacological VTE prophylaxis has increased significantly over the past 12 years but is still largely underused in patients hospitalized with acute medical illness. Multiple demographic, behavioral, and clinical factors are associated with inpatient VTE prophylaxis. PMID:26720163

  9. Adult severe haemophilia A patients under long-term prophylaxis with factor VIII in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Mingot-Castellano, María E; González-Díaz, Laura; Tamayo-Bermejo, Rocio; Heiniger-Mazo, Anabel I

    2015-07-01

    There is no clear consensus on the best practice for long-term prophylaxis in adults with severe haemophilia A. This is a single-centre prospective case series study. We describe here the demographic data, type and reason of prophylaxis in adult patients (>18 years old) with severe (<1%) haemophilia A, treated in our centre from 2006 to 2013. Prophylaxis was tailored according to pharmacokinetic studies and posterior factor VIII (FVIII) trough level adjustment. We analysed FVIII consumption, bleeding rate, adherence and adverse events in this group of patients. In adult patients who initiated long-term prophylaxis during this period, we compared FVIII consumption and bleeding rate with the previous on-demand period. We analysed data from 18 patients. Median annual FVIII consumption was 2374.2 IU/kg/year. Among the patients receiving tertiary prophylaxis, initiated from 2006 onwards, the annual FVIII consumption was 2557.8 vs. 1696.8 IU/kg per year during the on-demand period (P = 0.312). In this group of patients, there was a decrease in annual bleeding events of 88.3% during prophylaxis compared with the on-demand therapy (P < 0.0001). A high adherence to prophylaxis was observed (84%). No cases of anaphylaxis or symptomatic thromboembolic events were recorded. In adult severe haemophilia A patients, the type of and reason to indicate long-term prophylaxis are diverse nowadays. FVIII consumption varies depending on the justification of prophylaxis. The observations reported provide further support for the efficacy of long-term prophylaxis in adult haemophilia A patients. PMID:25767895

  10. Is selective prenatal iron prophylaxis better than routine prophylaxis: final results of a trial (PROFEG) in Maputo, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, Elina; Nwaru, Bright I; Salomé, Graca; Parkkali, Saara; Abacassamo, Fatima; Augusto, Orvalho; Cliff, Julie; Regushevskaya, Elena; Dgedge, Martinho; Sousa, Cesar; Chilundo, Baltazar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare routine versus selective (ie, screening and treatment for anaemia) prenatal iron prophylaxis in a malaria-endemic and HIV-prevalent setting, an extended analysis including previously missing data. Design A pragmatic randomised controlled clinical trial. Setting 2 health centres in Maputo, Mozambique. Participants Pregnant women (≥18 years old; non-high-risk pregnancy) were randomly allocated to routine iron (n=2184) and selective iron (n=2142) groups. Interventions In the routine group, women received 60 mg ferrous sulfate plus 400 μg folic acid daily. In the selective group, women received 1 mg of folic acid daily and haemoglobin (Hb) screening at each visit; with low Hb (cut-off 9 g/dL) treatment (120 mg+800 μg of folic acid daily) for a month. Outcome measures Primary outcomes: preterm birth, low birth weight; secondary outcomes: self-reported malaria, labour complications, caesarean section, perinatal death, woman's death. Nurses collected pregnancy data. Birth data were abstracted from hospital records for 52% of women and traced using various methods and linked with probabilistic matching for 24%. Women's deaths were collected from death registers. Results Birth data were available for 3301 (76%) of the women. Outcomes were similar in the two groups: preterm births (27.1% in the selective vs 25.3% in the routine group), low birthweight infants (11.0% vs 11.7%), perinatal deaths (2.4% vs 2.4%) and caesarean sections (4.0% vs 4.5%). Women's deaths during pregnancy or <42 days postpartum were more common in the selective group (0.8% among the two best matched women) than in the routine group (0.4%). Extra deaths could not be explained by the cause of death, Hb level or HIV status at recruitment. Conclusions Birth outcomes were similar in the two iron groups. There might have been more women's deaths in the selective iron group, but it is unclear whether this was due to the intervention, other factors or chance finding

  11. Antifungal prophylaxis in lung transplantation--a world-wide survey.

    PubMed

    Neoh, C F; Snell, G I; Kotsimbos, T; Levvey, B; Morrissey, C O; Slavin, M A; Stewart, K; Kong, D C M

    2011-02-01

    While variations in antifungal prophylaxis have been previously reported in lung transplant (LTx) recipients, recent clinical practice is unknown. Our aim was to determine current antifungal prophylactic practice in LTx centers world-wide. One nominated LTx clinician from each active center was invited by e-mail to participate in a web-based survey between September 2009 and January 2010. Fifty-seven percent (58/102) responded. The majority of responses were from medical directors of LTx centers (72.4%), and from the United States (44.8%). Within the first 6 months post-LTx, most centers (58.6%) employed universal prophylaxis, with 97.1% targeting Aspergillus species. Voriconazole alone, and in combination with inhaled amphotericin B (AmB), were the preferred first-line agents. Intolerance to side effects of voriconazole (69.2%) was the main reason for switching to alternatives. Beyond 6 months post-LTx, most (51.8%) did not employ antifungal prophylaxis. Fifteen centers (26.0%) conducted routine antifungal therapeutic drug monitoring during prophylactic period. There are differences in strategies employed between U.S. and European centers. Most respondents indicated a need for antifungal prophylactic guidelines. In comparison to earlier findings, there was a major shift toward prophylaxis with voriconazole and an increased use of echinocandins, posaconazole and inhaled lipid formulation AmB. PMID:21272239

  12. [Prophylaxis of thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation: new oral anticoagulants and left atrial appendage closure].

    PubMed

    Zeus, Tobias; Kelm, Malte; Bode, Christoph

    2015-08-01

    Thrombo-embolic prophylaxis is a key element within the therapy of atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter. Besides new oral anticoagulants the concept of left atrial appendage occlusion has approved to be a good alternative option, especially in patients with increased risk of bleeding. PMID:26261929

  13. Effects of different forms of central nervous system prophylaxis on neuropsychologic function in childhood leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, J.H.; Glidewell, O.J.; Sibley, R.F.; Holland, J.C.; Tull, R.; Berman, A.; Brecher, M.L.; Harris, M.; Glicksman, A.S.; Forman, E.

    1984-12-01

    A comparison of the late effects on intellectual and neuropsychologic function of three different CNS prophylaxis regimens was conducted in 104 patients treated for childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Of the children studied, 33 were randomized to treatment with intrathecal (IT) methotrexate alone, 36 to IT methotrexate plus 2,400 rad cranial irradiation, and 35 to IT methotrexate plus intravenous intermediate dose methotrexate. All patients were in their first (complete) continuous remission, were a minimum of one year post-CNS prophylaxis and had no evidence of CNS disease at the time of evaluation. In contrast to the other two treatment groups, children whose CNS prophylaxis included cranial irradiation attained significantly lower mean Full Scale IQs, performed more poorly on the Wide Range Achievement Test, a measure of school abilities, and exhibited a greater number of difficulties on a variety of other neuropsychologic measures. The poorer performance of the irradiated group was independent of sex of the patient, time since treatment and age at diagnosis. These data suggest that the addition of 2,400 rad cranial irradiation to CNS prophylaxis in ALL puts these children at greater risk for mild global loss in intellectual and neuropsychologic ability.

  14. Assessing safety and immunogenicity of post-exposure prophylaxis following interchangeability of rabies vaccines in humans.

    PubMed

    Ravish, Hardanahalli S; Sudarshan, Mysore K; Madhusudana, Shampur N; Annadani, Rachana R; Narayana, Doddabele H Ashwath; Belludi, Ashwin Y; Anandaiah, Gangaboraiah; Vijayashankar, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Rabies post exposure prophylaxis with cell culture vaccines by either intramuscular route or intradermal route spans over a period of one month. World Health Organization recommends completing post exposure prophylaxis against rabies with the same cell culture or embryonated egg rabies vaccine and with same route of administration and any deviation from this shall be an exception. In the present study, the safety and immunogenicity of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was studied prospectively in 90 animal bite cases that had interchangeability of rabies vaccines either by route of administration or brand/type and such changes had occurred due to logistical/financial problems. Among them, 47 had change in route of administration from intramuscular to intradermal or vice versa and 43 had change in the brand/type of cell culture rabies vaccine. All of them had category III rabies exposure and received equine rabies immunoglobulin along with the rabies vaccine. None of the study subjects had any adverse reactions. The rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers was assessed by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test and all the vaccinees had titers ≥0.5 IU per mL on day 14 which is considered as adequate for protection against rabies. Thus, the present study showed that, rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was safe and immunogenic despite changes in the route of administration and brand/type of rabies vaccine. PMID:24584134

  15. Risk-assessment algorithm and recommendations for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in medical patients

    PubMed Central

    T Rocha, Ana; F Paiva, Edison; Lichtenstein, Arnaldo; Milani, Rodolfo; Cavalheiro-Filho, Cyrillo; H Maffei, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in medical patients is high, but risk assessment is rarely performed because there is not yet a good method to identify candidates for prophylaxis. Purpose To perform a systematic review about VTE risk factors (RFs) in hospitalized medical patients and generate recommendations (RECs) for prophylaxis that can be implemented into practice. Data sources A multidisciplinary group of experts from 12 Brazilian Medical Societies searched MEDLINE, Cochrane, and LILACS. Study selection Two experts independently classified the evidence for each RF by its scientific quality in a standardized manner. A risk-assessment algorithm was created based on the results of the review. Data synthesis Several VTE RFs have enough evidence to support RECs for prophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients (eg, increasing age, heart failure, and stroke). Other factors are considered adjuncts of risk (eg, varices, obesity, and infections). According to the algorithm, hospitalized medical patients ≥40 years-old with decreased mobility, and ≥1 RFs should receive chemoprophylaxis with heparin, provided they don’t have contraindications. High prophylactic doses of unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight-heparin must be administered and maintained for 6–14 days. Conclusions A multidisciplinary group generated evidence-based RECs and an easy-to-use algorithm to facilitate VTE prophylaxis in medical patients. PMID:17969384

  16. Using a point-of-dispensing clinic for prophylaxis of meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Van P; Civen, Rachel H; Dassey, David E; Davenport, Deborah; Mascola, Laurene

    2010-03-01

    A point-of-dispensing clinic was held to distribute ciprofloxacin prophylaxis when 2 high school students were reported to the health department with invasive meningococcal disease. Of more than 3,100 school staff and students in attendance, 2,861 received prophylaxis. A survey was administered to students 2 weeks postclinic to better understand the motivations for clinic attendance and to quantify side effects of oral 500-mg ciprofloxacin prophylaxis. Data collected included reasons for attendance and perception of risk for acquiring meningococcal disease, rated on a 1-to-5 scale; type of contact with cases; and side effects. Of 2,888 students, 1,624 completed surveys; 1,390 took ciprofloxacin. The students rated parental influence and directives from the high school as reasons for attendance a mean of 3.97 and 3.34, respectively. The mean rating for risk of acquiring meningococcal disease was 1.49. Only 3% reported direct contact with case(s). Side effects, most commonly headache (17%) and stomachache (10%), were reported in 40% of students. Serious side effects such as rash and facial swelling were reported in <1%. In this adolescent population, few serious side effects and no joint disorders were reported after they ingested single-dose ciprofloxacin; however, many received the prophylaxis unnecessarily. Students were motivated by parents and school officials. Health departments should collaborate with schools to prepare and disseminate messages that balance the risks of unnecessary antibiotic use with those of exposure to disease. PMID:20230232

  17. Assessing safety and immunogenicity of post-exposure prophylaxis following interchangeability of rabies vaccines in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ravish, Hardanahalli S; Sudarshan, Mysore K; Madhusudana, Shampur N; Annadani, Rachana R; Narayana, Doddabele H Ashwath; Belludi, Ashwin Y; Anandaiah, Gangaboraiah; Vijayashankar, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Rabies post exposure prophylaxis with cell culture vaccines by either intramuscular route or intradermal route spans over a period of one month. World Health Organization recommends completing post exposure prophylaxis against rabies with the same cell culture or embryonated egg rabies vaccine and with same route of administration and any deviation from this shall be an exception. In the present study, the safety and immunogenicity of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was studied prospectively in 90 animal bite cases that had interchangeability of rabies vaccines either by route of administration or brand/type and such changes had occurred due to logistical/financial problems. Among them, 47 had change in route of administration from intramuscular to intradermal or vice versa and 43 had change in the brand/type of cell culture rabies vaccine. All of them had category III rabies exposure and received equine rabies immunoglobulin along with the rabies vaccine. None of the study subjects had any adverse reactions. The rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers was assessed by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test and all the vaccinees had titers ≥0.5 IU per mL on day 14 which is considered as adequate for protection against rabies. Thus, the present study showed that, rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was safe and immunogenic despite changes in the route of administration and brand/type of rabies vaccine. PMID:24584134

  18. Survey of Intraocular Antibiotics Prophylaxis Practice after Open Globe Injury in China

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Junlian; Yang, Yao; Yuan, Zhaohui; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the Chinese practice of intraocular antibiotics administration for prophylaxis after open globe injury. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed online by scanning a Quickmark (QR) code with smartphones at the 20th Chinese National Conference of Ocular Trauma in November 2014. Results A total of 153 (30.6%) of all participators at the conference responded. Of the respondents, 20.9% were routinely administered with prophylactic intraocular injection of antibiotics at the conclusion of the primary eye repair, and 56.9% were used only in cases with high risk of endophthalmitis development. The intraocular route of delivery was mainly included with intracameral injection (47.9%) and intravitreal injection (42.0%). Cephalosporins (53.8%) and vancomycin (42.0%) were the main choices of antibiotic agents, followed by fluoroquinolones (24.3%), and aminoglycosides (13.4%). Only 21.9% preferred a combination of two or more two drugs routinely. In addition, significantly more respondents from the referral eye hospital (92.7%) replied using intraocular antibiotics injection for prophylaxis compared to those respondents from the primary hospital (69.4%) (p = 0.001, Fisher’s exact test). Conclusions Intraocular antibiotics injection for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis is widely used in China. However, the choice of antibiotic agents and the intraocular route of delivery vary. A well-designed clinical trial is needed to establish a standardized protocol of intraocular antibiotics administration for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis. PMID:27275777

  19. Adherence to prophylaxis and bleeding outcome in haemophilia: a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Schrijvers, LieSbeth H; Beijlevelt-van der Zande, Marlene; Peters, Marjolein; Lock, Janske; Cnossen, Marjon H; Schuurmans, Marieke J; Fischer, Kathelijn

    2016-08-01

    Prevention of bleeding and joint damage in severe haemophilia is dependent on adherence to prophylactic replacement therapy. The aim of this study was to assess adherence to prophylaxis, including associations with age, bleeding and clotting factor consumption (CFC). In three Dutch haemophilia centres, semi-structured interviews about adherence to prophylaxis in the previous 2 weeks were conducted with patients or parents of a child with haemophilia. Patients were classified, according to pre-specified definitions, as adherent, sub-optimally adherent or non-adherent based on missing, timing, and dose of infusions. Association of annual bleeding rates, mean CFC, person performing the infusion (parents verus patients) with adherence categories were analysed. Overall, 241 patients with haemophilia using prophylaxis were studied. Parents were more adherent (66%; n = 48/73) than patients (43%; n = 72/168). Sub-optimal adherence occurred in 29% of parents and 37% of patients and was characterized by changes in timing of infusion (mostly from morning to evening), while missing <6% of infusions. Non-adherence occurred less often: in 5% of parents and 20% of patients. Reduced adherence was associated with lower CFC, but not with joint bleeding. In conclusion, non-adherence in haemophilia was relatively rare, yet 1/3 of patients struggled to administer prophylaxis at the appropriate time of day. PMID:27098446

  20. Discrete Choice Experiment to Evaluate Factors That Influence Preferences for Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Pediatric Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Dean A.; Diorio, Caroline; Ethier, Marie-Chantal; Alli, Amanda; Alexander, Sarah; Boydell, Katherine M.; Gassas, Adam; Taylor, Jonathan; Kellow, Charis; Mills, Denise; Sung, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial and fungal infections in pediatric oncology patients cause morbidity and mortality. The clinical utility of antimicrobial prophylaxis in children is uncertain and the personal utility of these agents is disputed. Objectives were to use a discrete choice experiment to: (1) describe the importance of attributes to parents and healthcare providers when deciding between use and non-use of antibacterial and antifungal prophylaxis; and (2) estimate willingness-to-pay for prophylactic strategies. Methods Attributes were chances of infection, death and side effects, route of administration and cost of pharmacotherapy. Respondents were randomized to a discrete choice experiment outlining hypothetical treatment options to prevent antibacterial or antifungal infections. Each respondent was presented 16 choice tasks and was asked to choose between two unlabeled treatment options and an opt-out alternative (no prophylaxis). Results 102 parents and 60 healthcare providers participated. For the antibacterial discrete choice experiment, frequency of administration was significantly associated with utility for parents but not for healthcare providers. Increasing chances of infection, death, side effects and cost were all significantly associated with decreased utility for parents and healthcare providers in both the antibacterial and antifungal discrete choice experiment. Parental willingness-to-pay was higher than healthcare providers for both strategies. Conclusion Chances of infection, death, side effects and costs were all significantly associated with utility. Parents have higher willingness-to-pay for these strategies compared with healthcare providers. This knowledge can help to develop prophylaxis programs. PMID:23082169

  1. Fatal case due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants in an AIDS patient.

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, H.; von Eiff, C.; Fätkenheuer, G.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the first known case of a fatal infection with small colony variants of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a patient with AIDS. Recovered from three blood cultures as well as from a deep hip abscess, these variants may have resulted from long-term antimicrobial therapy with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. PMID:10341185

  2. [WHO recommended pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies using Japanese rabies vaccine].

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Naoki; Takayama, Naohide; Suganuma, Akihiko

    2008-09-01

    After severe exposure to suspected rabid animal, WHO recommends a complete vaccine series using a potent effective vaccine that meets WHO criteria, and administration of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). RIG is not available globally, and is not marketed in Japan. If pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies is given, RIG is unnecessary even after severe exposure. It is thus important to give pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies to people who plan to go to rabies-endemic areas. In Japan, pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies consists of 3 doses of cell-culture rabies vaccine. The first two doses are given 4 weeks apart, and the third dose is given 6-12 months after the first dose, all of which are injected subcutaneously (standard regimen). People who plan to travel abroad to rabies-endemic areas may know of their destinations only 1 or 2 months in advance at best. Therefore, it is virtually impossible to complete the 3 dose regimen for rabies in Japan. Pre-exposure prophylaxis recommended by WHO consists of 3 doses given intramuscularly on days 0, 7, and 28, making it possible to complete pre-exposure prophylaxis in one month. This WHO recommended pre-exposure prophylaxis using Japanese cell-cultured rabies vaccine (PCEC-K) has not been studied, so we elected to fill the gap using PCEC-K, administered based on the WHO recommendation and examined its efficacy and safety. Subjects were 26 healthy volunteers with no previous rabies vaccination giving oral and written consent. Vaccine was administered on days 0, 7, and 28, and rabies antibody levels were tested on days 7, 28, and 42. On day 7, every antibody level was negative. On day 28, antibody levels were between 0.7-3.5 EU/ mL, with the exception of 3 cases still negative. On day 42, all cases, including the 3 negative cases, exceeded 1.6 EU/mL, providing sufficient protection against rabies. This result was not inferior compared to the standard regimen. Local adverse effects such as erythema and pain were noted, but none were

  3. Adherence to Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention in a Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Madeline C.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Nunn, Amy S.; Mena, Leandro; Anderson, Peter; Liegler, Teri; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Patel, Rupa; Almonte, Alexi; Chan, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic in the United States (US) disproportionately affects gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using co-formulated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) has demonstrated high efficacy in reducing HIV incidence among MSM. However, low adherence was reported in major efficacy trials and may present a substantial barrier to successful PrEP implementation. Rates of adherence to PrEP in “real-world” clinical settings in the US remain largely unknown. Methods We reviewed demographic and clinical data for the first 50 patients to enroll in a clinical PrEP program in Providence, Rhode Island. We analyzed self-reported drug adherence as well as drug concentrations in dried blood spots (DBS) from patients who attended either a three- or six-month follow-up appointment. We further assessed drug concentrations and the resistance profile of a single patient who seroconverted while taking PrEP. Results Of the first 50 patients to be prescribed PrEP, 62% attended a follow-up appointment at three months and 38% at six months. Of those who attended an appointment at either time point (70%, n = 35), 92% and 95% reported taking ±4 doses/week at three and six months, respectively. Drug concentrations were performed on a random sample of 20 of the 35 patients who attended a follow-up appointment. TDF levels consistent with ±4 doses/week were found in 90% of these patients. There was a significant correlation between self-reported adherence and drug concentrations (r = 0.49, p = 0.02). One patient who had been prescribed PrEP seroconverted at his three-month follow-up visit. The patient’s drug concentrations were consistent with daily dosing. Population sequencing and ultrasensitive allele-specific PCR detected the M184V mutation, but no other TDF- or FTC-associated mutations, including those present as minor variants. Conclusion In this clinical PrEP program, adherence was high

  4. Selected overview of nongynecologic surgical intra-abdominal infections. Prophylaxis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Levin, S; Goodman, L J

    1985-11-29

    True prophylaxis of intra-abdominal nongynecologic infections is limited to elective, nonemergency surgery and is best shown in three clean-contaminated surgical procedures. All of these have an infection rate of approximately 10 to 20 percent and include all colon resection surgery, most gastric surgery, and about one third of the cholecystectomies for chronic calculous cholecystitis. Each of these three surgical procedures has a somewhat different pattern of bacterial pathogens. The most useful comparative studies of early preoperative therapy have been performed in cases of suspected appendicitis (50 percent of which usually show perforation or gangrene at the time of surgery) and penetrating abdominal wounds (80 percent of which usually enter some part of the bowel and theoretically soil the peritoneum). These procedures are usually classified as contaminated, with a 20 to 30 percent infection rate, or dirty, with a more than 30 percent infection rate, depending upon several factors. Comparative investigations of intraoperative and postoperative antibiotic therapy of established intra-abdominal infections are more difficult to obtain because of the heterogeneity of the sites, organisms, and medical and surgical therapy. The initial pathogens causing secondary peritonitis and hepatic, perirectal, diverticular, and most other types of intraperitoneal abscesses are mixed coliforms and anaerobes, with emphasis on the anaerobes. Retroperitoneal abscesses, pancreatic abscesses, and biliary tract infections are predominantly caused by coliforms. The organisms responsible for these early infections are usually community-acquired rather than more antibiotic-resistant hospital-acquired bacteria. Considering the availability of a large number of effective broad-spectrum antibacterial agents and therapeutic combinations, it has become increasingly difficult to assess the rightful place of any new prospective antimicrobial regimen unless it has quite unique characteristics

  5. Risk factors for RhD immunisation despite antenatal and postnatal anti-D prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Koelewijn, JM; de Haas, M; Vrijkotte, TGM; van der Schoot, CE; Bonsel, GJ

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for Rhesus D (RhD) immunisation in pregnancy, despite adequate antenatal and postnatal anti-D prophylaxis in the previous pregnancy. To generate evidence for improved primary prevention by extra administration of anti-D Ig in the presence of a risk factor. Design Case–control study. Setting Nation-wide evaluation of the Dutch antenatal anti-D-prophylaxis programme. Population Cases: 42 RhD-immunised parae-1, recognised by first-trimester routine red cell antibody screening in their current pregnancy, who received antenatal and postnatal anti-D Ig prophylaxis (gifts of 1000 iu) in their first pregnancy. Controls: 339 parae-1 without red cell antibodies. Methods Data were collected via obstetric care workers and/or personal interviews with women. Main outcome measure Significant risk factors for RhD immunisation in multivariate analysis. Results Independent risk factors were non-spontaneous delivery (assisted vaginal delivery or caesarean section) (OR 2.23; 95% CI:1.04–4.74), postmaturity (≥42 weeks of completed gestation: OR 3.07; 95% CI:1.02–9.02), pregnancy-related red blood cell transfusion (OR 3.51; 95% CI:0.97–12.7 and age (OR 0.89/year; 95% CI:0.80–0.98). In 43% of cases, none of the categorical risk factors was present. Conclusions In at least half of the failures of anti-D Ig prophylaxis, a condition related to increased fetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH) and/or insufficient anti-D Ig levels was observed. Hence, RhD immunisation may be further reduced by strict compliance to guidelines concerning determination of FMH and accordingly adjusted anti-D Ig prophylaxis, or by routine administration of extra anti-D Ig after a non-spontaneous delivery and/or a complicated or prolonged third stage of labour. PMID:19538414

  6. Prophylaxis on gout flares after the initiation of urate-lowering therapy: a retrospective research

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xin; Li, Yao; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety associated with treatment available to prevent an acute attack of gout when initiating a urate-lowering therapy (ULT). We retrospectively reviewed patients who were diagnosed with gout and treated with ULT during the period from January 2000 to January 2014. They were divided into three groups, 75 patients without prophylaxis treatment, 103 patients treated with etoricoxib, and 129 patients with colchicine treatment. Both demographic and clinical characteristics associated with gout were analyzed. At baseline, demographic and clinical characteristics were generally similar in three groups. SU target level was achieved in 49.3% of the patients without prophylaxis treatment, 66.4% in the etoricoxib group and 65.1% in colchicine group, respectively. During the first 16 weeks, patients without prophylaxis treatment exhibited higher flare rates than patients in other two groups. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between patients in etoricoxib group and colchicine group. In the 16-24 weeks, the proportion of patients who reported flares were all decreased similarly in three groups. The mean number of acute gout flares per patient and gout flare days per patient was significantly higher in patients without prophylaxis treatment than patients in other groups. The mean number of acute gout flares was lower (4.2±2.3 vs 3.2±1.8) in patients with etoricoxib treatment than that in patients with colchicine treatment. Gout flare days per patient were significantly higher in patients without prophylaxis treatment. Compared to colchicine group, gout flare days per patient in etoricoxib were lower (1.2±0.5 vs 2.6±0.6). In term of AEs, patients receiving colchicine had higher rates of gastrointestinal AEs than those who received etoricoxib. In summary, our survey revealed that etoricoxib was more effective and safe than colchicine in preventing acute attack during ULT. PMID:26885092

  7. Controlled, cross-sectional MRI evaluation of joint status in severe haemophilia A patients treated with prophylaxis vs. on demand

    PubMed Central

    Oldenburg, J; Zimmermann, R; Katsarou, O; Theodossiades, G; Zanon, E; Niemann, B; Kellermann, E; Lundin, B

    2015-01-01

    In patients with haemophilia A, factor VIII (FVIII) prophylaxis reduces bleeding frequency and joint damage compared with on-demand therapy. To assess the effect of prophylaxis initiation age, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate bone and cartilage damage in patients with severe haemophilia A. In this cross-sectional, multinational investigation, patients aged 12–35 years were assigned to 1 of 5 groups: primary prophylaxis started at age <2 years (group 1); secondary prophylaxis started at age 2 to <6 years (group 2), 6 to <12 years (group 3), or 12−18 years (group 4); or on-demand treatment (group 5). Joint status at ankles and knees was assessed using Compatible Additive MRI scoring (maximum and mean ankle; maximum and mean of all 4 joints) and Gilbert scores in the per-protocol population (n = 118). All prophylaxis groups had better MRI joint scores than the on-demand group. MRI scores generally increased with current patient age and later start of prophylaxis. Ankles were the most affected joints. In group 1 patients currently aged 27−35 years, the median of maximum ankle scores was 0.0; corresponding values in groups 4 and 5 were 17.0 and 18.0, respectively [medians of mean index joint scores: 0.0 (group 1), 8.1 (group 2) and 13.8 (group 4)]. Gilbert scores revealed outcomes less pronounced than MRI scores. MRI scores identified pathologic joint status with high sensitivity. Prophylaxis groups had lower annualized joint bleeds and MRI scores vs. the on-demand group. Primary prophylaxis demonstrated protective effects against joint deterioration compared with secondary prophylaxis. PMID:25470205

  8. Controlled, cross-sectional MRI evaluation of joint status in severe haemophilia A patients treated with prophylaxis vs. on demand.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, J; Zimmermann, R; Katsarou, O; Theodossiades, G; Zanon, E; Niemann, B; Kellermann, E; Lundin, B

    2015-03-01

    In patients with haemophilia A, factor VIII (FVIII) prophylaxis reduces bleeding frequency and joint damage compared with on-demand therapy. To assess the effect of prophylaxis initiation age, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate bone and cartilage damage in patients with severe haemophilia A. In this cross-sectional, multinational investigation, patients aged 12-35 years were assigned to 1 of 5 groups: primary prophylaxis started at age <2 years (group 1); secondary prophylaxis started at age 2 to <6 years (group 2), 6 to <12 years (group 3), or 12-18 years (group 4); or on-demand treatment (group 5). Joint status at ankles and knees was assessed using Compatible Additive MRI scoring (maximum and mean ankle; maximum and mean of all 4 joints) and Gilbert scores in the per-protocol population (n = 118). All prophylaxis groups had better MRI joint scores than the on-demand group. MRI scores generally increased with current patient age and later start of prophylaxis. Ankles were the most affected joints. In group 1 patients currently aged 27-35 years, the median of maximum ankle scores was 0.0; corresponding values in groups 4 and 5 were 17.0 and 18.0, respectively [medians of mean index joint scores: 0.0 (group 1), 8.1 (group 2) and 13.8 (group 4)]. Gilbert scores revealed outcomes less pronounced than MRI scores. MRI scores identified pathologic joint status with high sensitivity. Prophylaxis groups had lower annualized joint bleeds and MRI scores vs. the on-demand group. Primary prophylaxis demonstrated protective effects against joint deterioration compared with secondary prophylaxis. PMID:25470205

  9. Sexually transmitted infections and pre-exposure prophylaxis: challenges and opportunities among men who have sex with men in the US.

    PubMed

    Scott, Hyman M; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has shown high efficacy in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in several large clinical trials, and more recently in "real world" reports of clinical implementation and a PrEP demonstration project. Those studies also demonstrated high bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence and raised the discussion of how PrEP may impact STI control efforts, especially in the setting of increasing Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance and the increase in syphilis cases among MSM. Here, we discuss STIs as a driver of HIV transmission risk among MSM, and the potential opportunities and challenges for STI control afforded by expanded PrEP implementation among high-risk MSM. PMID:26793265

  10. Complete withdrawal of hepatitis B virus prophylaxis after liver transplantation in a recipient at high risk of recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Tian; Ye, Yufu; Geng, Lei; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-01-01

    With the potent nucleos (t) ide analogues developed, necessity of life-long combined prophylaxis against hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence after HBV-related liver transplantation has been challenged. But complete withdrawal of HBV prophylaxis has not been previously observed in patients at high recurrence risk who showed active HBV replication before transplant. Herein, we describe a patient with positive HBeAg and HBV-DNA at the time of liver transplantation, who experienced complete HBV prophylaxis withdrawal after 3 years’ application of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and entecavir, and showed no HBV recurrence during a long term of follow-up. PMID:26221402

  11. Antibiotic Therapies in Maxillofacial Surgery in the Context of Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Orzechowska-Wylęgała, Bogusława; Wylęgała, Adam; Buliński, Michał; Niedzielska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. There is no single pattern for preventive action as to the duration and type of antibiotic therapy in maxillofacial surgery. In these circumstances, it appears reasonable to set relevant standards for prophylactic procedures after such surgeries. Methods. Retrospective analysis of bacteriological tests has been carried out as well as a susceptibility evaluation of cultured bacterial and fungal strains to antibiotics over a five-year period in subjects treated at the Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Clinic in Katowice. A total of 726 bacterial and fungal strains were cultured in 484 patients (200 women and 284 males). The age of the patients was 40.2 on average. Results. The most frequent bacteria isolated from the patients were Gram-positive 541 (74.5%). Gram-negative bacteria were present in 177 (24.4%) cases. Fungi of the Candida genus were isolated in eight cases (1.1%). Conclusions. The most often isolated bacteria were Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis, whose number has grown over the last two years. Empiric therapies should be based on ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. It has been observed that all the Gram-positive bacteria are becoming more resistant to all antibiotics. Ampicillin and imipenem were antibiotics with the steepest resistance reduction while vancomycin showed the lowest resistance drop. PMID:25710028

  12. Antibiotic Prescriptions and Prophylaxis in Italian Children. Is It Time to Change? Data from the ARPEC Project

    PubMed Central

    Montagnani, Carlotta; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Romanengo, Marta; Tagliabue, Claudia; Centenari, Chiara; D’Argenio, Patrizia; Lundin, Rebecca; Giaquinto, Carlo; Galli, Luisa; Guarino, Alfredo; Esposito, Susanna; Sharland, Mike; Versporten, Ann; Goossens, Herman; Nicolini, Giangiacomo

    2016-01-01

    Background Antimicrobials are the most commonly prescribed drugs. Many studies have evaluated antibiotic prescriptions in the paediatric outpatient but few studies describing the real antibiotic consumption in Italian children’s hospitals have been published. Point-prevalence survey (PPS) has been shown to be a simple, feasible and reliable standardized method for antimicrobials surveillance in children and neonates admitted to the hospital. In this paper, we presented data from a PPS on antimicrobial prescriptions carried out in 7 large Italian paediatric institutions. Methods A 1-day PPS on antibiotic use in hospitalized neonates and children was performed in Italy between October and December 2012 as part of the Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children project (ARPEC). Seven institutions in seven Italian cities were involved. The survey included all admitted patients less than 18 years of age present in the ward at 8:00 am on the day of the survey, who had at least one on-going antibiotic prescription. For all patients data about age, weight, underlying disease, antimicrobial agent, dose and indication for treatment were collected. Results The PPS was performed in 61 wards within 7 Italian institutions. A total of 899 patients were eligible and 349 (38.9%) had an on-going prescription for one or more antibiotics, with variable rates among the hospitals (25.7% - 53.8%). We describe antibiotic prescriptions separately in neonates (<30 days old) and children (> = 30 days to <18 years old). In the neonatal cohort, 62.8% received antibiotics for prophylaxis and only 37.2% on those on antibiotics were treated for infection. Penicillins and aminoglycosides were the most prescribed antibiotic classes. In the paediatric cohort, 64.4% of patients were receiving antibiotics for treatment of infections and 35.5% for prophylaxis. Third generation cephalosporins and penicillin plus inhibitors were the top two antibiotic classes. The main reason for

  13. A Systematic Appraisal of Neurosurgical Seizure Prophylaxis: Guidance for Critical Care Management.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, David; Singatullina, Nataliya; Reilly, Charles

    2016-07-01

    Clinical decisions are often made in the presence of some uncertainty. Health care should be based on a combination of scientific evidence, clinical experience, economics, patient value judgments, and preferences. Seizures are not uncommon following brain injury, surgical trauma, hemorrhage, altered brain metabolism, hypoxia, or ischemic events. The impact of seizures in the immediate aftermath of injury may be a prolonged intensive care stay or compounding of the primary injury. The aim of brain injury management is to limit the consequences of the secondary damage. The original intention of seizure prophylaxis was to limit the incidence of early-onset seizures. However, clinical trials have been equivocal on this point, and there is concern about the adverse effects of antiepileptic drug therapy. This review of the literature raises concerns regarding the arbitrary division of seizures into early onset (7 d) and late onset (8 d and beyond). In many cases it would appear that seizures present within 24 hours of the injury or after 7 days, which would be outside of the scope of current seizure prophylaxis guidance. There also does not appear to be a pathophysiological reason to divide brain injury-related seizures into these timeframes. Therefore, a solution to the conundrum is to reevaluate current practice. Prophylaxis could be offered to those receiving intensive care for the primary brain injury, where the impact of seizure would be detrimental to the management of the brain injury, or other clinical judgments where prophylaxis is prudent. Neurosurgical seizure management can then focus attention on which agent has the best adverse effect profile and the duration of therapy. The evidence seems to support levetiracetam as the most appropriate agent. Although previous reviews have identified an increase cost associated with the use of levetiracetam, current cost comparisons with phenytoin demonstrate a marginal price differential. The aim of this review is to

  14. Correlation of antibiotic prophylaxis and difficulty of extraction with postoperative inflammatory complications in the lower third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, J Y; Do, H S; Lim, J H; Jang, H S; Rim, J S; Kwon, J J; Lee, E S

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the correlation among antibiotic prophylaxis, difficulty of extraction, and postoperative complications in the removal of lower 3rd molars. A total of 1222 such extractions in 890 patients between January 2010 and January 2012 were analysed retrospectively. The difficulty of extraction measured by Pederson's index, antibiotic prophylaxis with cefditoren, and postoperative complications were recorded. The difficulty of extraction was significantly associated with postoperative complications (p=0.03). There were no significant associations between antibiotic prophylaxis and postoperative complications in groups of equal difficulty ("easy" group (class I) p=1.00; "moderate" group (class II) p=1.00; and "difficult" group (class III) p=0.65). There was a small but insignificant increase in the number of dry sockets and infections in class III cases. In conclusion, this study provides further evidence that antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of postoperative inflammatory complications is unnecessary for extraction of 3rd molars. PMID:24029441

  15. Central nervous system prophylaxis in patients with aggressive diffuse large B cell lymphoma: an analysis of 3,258 patients in a single center.

    PubMed

    Avilés, Agustin; Jesús Nambo, M; Neri, Natividad

    2013-06-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) relapse continues to be a frequent and usually fatal complication in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Multiple factors identify the possibility of relapse and justify neurological prophylaxis; however, most of these have not been confirmed. Thus, the use of prophylaxis has not been defined. From 1988 to 2008, 3,258 patients with DLBCL with higher clinical risks and multiple extranodal involvement that have been treated with standard anthracycline-based chemotherapy: CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) or CHOP-R (CHOP plus rituximab) and that achieve complete response were retrospectively analyzed to assess the efficacy of CNS prophylaxis. One thousand five patients received different schedules for CNS prophylaxis, and 2,253 patients did not receive CNS prophylaxis. CNS relapse was similar in patients who receive prophylaxis (6 %) compared to patients who did not receive prophylaxis (5.9 %). Overall survival of patients who either receive or did not receive prophylaxis was not statistically significant: 49 % versus 53 % (p = 0.802). Thus, it seems that CNS prophylaxis did not improve outcome in this special setting of patients, and no prognostic factors to predict the presence of CNS relapse were identified. It is evident that multicentric studies are necessary to define the role of prophylaxis in order to prevent CNS relapse and that the therapeutic procedure will be carefully revised. PMID:23456620

  16. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia in a patient with sickle cell anemia on penicillin prophylaxis.

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, W.; Salah, H.; Khakoo, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Serious invasive bacterial infections, particularly those due to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Hemophilus influenzae, are a well-known complication in patients with sickle cell disease. Early penicillin prophylaxis has been shown to prevent these infections and also to improve survival. This article describes a child with sickle cell anemia who, while on penicillin prophylaxis, developed a group A streptococcal bacteremia, a pathogen not commonly associated with bacteremia in sickle cell disease. PMID:7783241

  17. Substantial variation in post-engraftment infection prophylaxis and revaccination practice in autologous stem cell transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, H Y; Grigg, A

    2016-03-01

    There is a paucity of evidence supporting the necessity or duration of Pneumocystis jirovecii and antiviral prophylaxis as well as revaccination following autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). A survey aimed at evaluating these policies was distributed to 34 ASCT centres across Australasia. The 26 survey respondents demonstrated significant heterogeneity in their infection prophylaxis and revaccination strategy post-transplant despite the availability of consensual guidelines. PMID:26968596

  18. Methemoglobinemia in a Pediatric Oncology Patient Receiving Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Timothy G.; Carroll, Megan G.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 6-month Final Diagnosis: Methemoglobinemia Symptoms: — Medication: Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim Clinical Procedure: Methylene blue administration Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: Methemoglobinemia due to the administration of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim has been documented in a series of case reports. However, all of these reports are on adult patients, and all patients received at least daily administration of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim for the treatment of active or suspected infection. Case Report: Herein we report the development of methemoglobinemia in a pediatric patient receiving sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim three times weekly for the prophylaxis of opportunistic infections. Conclusions: The clinician should always consider sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, even when administered for opportunistic infection prophylaxis at reduced doses and intervals, as a possible cause of methemoglobinemia. PMID:27424851

  19. A review of nanotechnological approaches for the prophylaxis of HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Date, Abhijit A.; Destache, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Successful treatment and control of HIV/AIDS is one of the biggest challenges of 21st century. More than 33 million individuals are infected with HIV worldwide and more than 2 million new cases of HIV infection have been reported. The situation demands development of effective prevention strategies to control the pandemic of AIDS. Due to lack of availability of an effective HIV vaccine, antiretroviral drugs and nucleic acid therapeutics like siRNA have been explored for HIV prophylaxis. Clinical trials shave shown that antiretroviral drugs, tenofovir and emtricitabine can offer some degree of HIV prevention. However, complete prevention of HIV infection has not been achieved yet. Nanotechnology has brought a paradigm shift in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of many diseases. The current review discusses potential of various nanocarriers such as dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, lipid nanocarriers, drug nanocrystals, inorganic nanocarriers and nanofibers in improving efficacy of various modalities available for HIV prophylaxis. PMID:23726227

  20. Wound infection during the Yom Kippur war: observations concerning antibiotic prophylaxis and therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, R S; Berger, S A; Yekutiel, P

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-eight episodes of wound associated infection were identified among 624 consecutively admitted battlefield casualties. Ninety-one per cent of infections occurred during the administration of antibiotic therapy or prophylaxis and 65% were associated with the use of multiple antibacterial agents. Gram negative bacillary and mixed microbial infection predominated and were found to increase in relative incidence after the second day of hospitalization. Appropriate therapy, based on disc sensitivity testing, was administered in only 33% of infectious episodes. The practice of antibiotic wound prophylaxis may contribute to the incidence and nature of infection in battlefield wounds. Problems unique to the handling of battlefield wounded are discussed in comparing the present data with those of other war associated and civilian studies. PMID:167666

  1. Antibiotic prophylaxis: different practice patterns within and outside the United States

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Flynn, Harry W

    2016-01-01

    Endophthalmitis remains a rare but important cause of visual loss. Prophylaxis strategies are important to reduce rates of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery, intravitreal injection, and other procedures. There is substantial variability between the US and the rest of the world. During cataract surgery, intracameral antibiotics are commonly used in many nations, especially in Europe, but are less commonly used in the US. A randomized clinical trial from the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons reported an approximately fivefold reduction in endophthalmitis rates associated with intracameral cefuroxime but these results are controversial. There are no randomized clinical trials regarding endophthalmitis associated with intravitreal injection. Topical antibiotics are commonly used in many nations, but are less commonly used in the US. At this time, there is no global consensus and it appears unlikely that additional major clinical trials will conclusively define the optimal endophthalmitis prophylaxis techniques. PMID:26869761

  2. Flunarizine-pizotifen single-dose double-blind cross-over trial in migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Cerbo, R; Casacchia, M; Formisano, R; Feliciani, M; Cusimano, G; Buzzi, M G; Agnoli, A

    1986-03-01

    The results of a double-blind cross-over clinical trial involving 27 patients with classical or common migraine are described to compare the prophylactic effect of the calcium entry blocker flunarizine with that of pizotifen. Duration of the treatment was two months, with an evening single-dose administration of both drugs. For most parameters, there was no definite difference between flunarizine and pizotifen in migraine prophylaxis. It has been demonstrated previously that pizotifen is an effective drug in migraine prophylaxis, and these results suggest that flunarizine is effective, too. Weight gain as a side effect was less frequent and less severe with flunarizine than with pizotifen; other side effects showed the same incidence with both drugs. PMID:3516406

  3. Cost-effective prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism after total joint arthroplasty: warfarin versus aspirin.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi Tabatabaee, Reza; Rasouli, Mohammad R; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Parvizi, Javad

    2015-02-01

    Although recent guidelines suggest aspirin for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in low risk patients following total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA), there are no cost-effectiveness studies comparing aspirin and warfarin. In a Markov cohort cost-effectiveness analysis, we found that aspirin cost less and saved more quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) than warfarin in all age groups. Cost per QALY gained by aspirin was $24,506.20 at age of 55 and $47,148.10 at the age of 85 following THA and $15,117.20 and $24,458.10 after TKA, which were greater than warfarin. In patients undergoing THA/TKA without prior VTE, aspirin is more cost-effective prophylactic agent than warfarin. Warfarin might be a better prophylaxis in TKA patients with high probability of VTE and very low probability of bleeding. PMID:25534862

  4. Direct Costs of Aspirin versus Warfarin for Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis after Total Knee or Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Christina J; Zmistowski, Benjamin M; Lonner, Jess H; Purtill, James J; Parvizi, Javad

    2015-09-01

    Interest in aspirin as an alternative strategy for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after arthroplasty has grown, as studies have suggested improved clinical efficacy and lower complication rates with aspirin compared to warfarin. The goal of this study was to compare the direct costs of an episode of arthroplasty care, when using aspirin instead of warfarin. The charts of patients who either received aspirin or warfarin after arthroplasty from January 2008 to March 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Charges were recorded for their index admission, and for subsequent admissions related to either VTE or complications of prophylaxis. Multivariate analysis revealed that aspirin was an independent predictor of decreased cost of index hospitalization, and total episode of care charges, achieved largely through a shorter length of hospitalization. PMID:26073347

  5. Treatment for life for severe haemophilia A- A cost-utility model for prophylaxis vs. on-demand treatment.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, A; Cassar, J; Kimber, M C; Bansal, M; Fischer, K; Auserswald, G; O'Mahony, B; Tolley, K; Noone, D; Balboni, S

    2013-07-01

    Prophylaxis has been established as the treatment of choice in children with haemophilia and its continuation into the adult years has been shown to decrease morbidity throughout life. The cost of factor therapy has made the option questionable in cost-effectiveness studies. The role of prophylaxis in pharmacokinetic dosage and tolerization against inhibitor formation were used to model the cost utility of prophylaxis vs. on-demand (OD) therapy over a lifetime horizon in severe haemophilia A. The model was applied to a single provider national health system exemplified by the United Kingdom's National Health Service and a third party provider in the United States. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated and compared to threshold values used by payer agencies to guide reimbursement decisions. A cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was also estimated for Sweden. Prophylaxis was dominant over OD treatment in the UK. The model resulted in an ICER - $68 000 - within the range of treatments reimbursed in the USA. In Sweden, a cost/QALY of SEK 1.1 million was also within the range of reimbursed treatments in that country. Dosage- and treatment-induced inhibitor incidence were the most important variables in the model. Subject to continuing clinical evidence of the effectiveness of pharmacokinetic dosage and the role of prophylaxis in decreasing inhibitor incidence, treatment for life with prophylaxis is a cost-effective therapy, using current criteria for the reimbursement of health care technologies in a number of countries. PMID:23534877

  6. Emerging resistance in Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Paola

    2011-02-01

    The value of monitoring antimicrobial resistance is particularly significant for Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae diseases, even if it is for different reasons. Although there is no global alert for the spread of resistant meningococcal strains, the emergence of resistance is correlated to the outcome of treatment and the successful prophylaxis of close contacts. Few cases of resistance among meningococci have been recorded worldwide; it remains unclear what intriguing mechanism is responsible for maintaining resistance in these cases in the absence of significant antibiotic selective pressure, as in the case of penicillin; on the contrary, although rifampicin is the antibiotic of choice in the prophylaxis of close contacts, there is a very low rate of resistance. The emergence of multidrug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae is a great challenge in controlling gonorrhea as one of the main sexually transmitted bacterial diseases. International surveillance programs permit the monitoring of the susceptibility of the pathogen and allow the revision of the standardized treatment regimen when the situation changes. PMID:21342071

  7. Postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis from an economic point of view.

    PubMed

    Dzwonczyk, Roger; Weaver, Tristan E; Puente, Erika G; Bergese, Sergio D

    2012-01-01

    Patients rank postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in the top five most undesirable outcomes of surgery. Thirty percent of all surgical patients experience PONV. We conducted an economic study to determine the financial implications of providing surgical patients with PONV prophylaxis to increase patient satisfaction and minimize postoperative complications. Our main objective was to develop an economic model of PONV prophylaxis. We retrospectively reviewed all surgical cases who received care at our institution from June 2005 to June 2007 in which the surgical patient was billed for treatment of nausea and vomiting while in the hospital. The PONV risk factors for these patients were assessed as well as the revenue stream associated with those patients who returned to the hospital within 5 days with nausea and vomiting as their chief complaint. Of the total number of medical charts reviewed (56,532), 28 (1.57%) of 1783 patients who were billed for PONV while in the hospital returned to the hospital with PONV. The total billable charges for PONV for these returning patients were $83,674; the total reimbursements were $25,816 yielding a 31% reimbursement rate. The total hospital expenses were $24,123 yielding a net hospital profit of $1693 for treating these 28 patients. The average hospital cost and charge per antiemetic drug dose was $0.304 and $3.66, respectively. Using these figures, we determined that our hospital's net profit increases linearly with increased PONV prophylaxis administration. Our economic analysis shows that PONV prophylaxis is economically beneficial for the hospital when weighed against the expenses generated by treating patients returning to the hospital with PONV. PMID:20634672

  8. The Role of Prophylaxis of Bacterial Infections in Children With Acute Leukemia/Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Castagnola, Elio

    2014-01-01

    Infections represent a well-known complication of antineoplastic chemotherapy that may cause delay of treatment, with alteration of the antineoplastic program and dose-intensity, or even the death of a patient that could heal from his/her neoplasia. Bacterial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who are neutropenic following chemotherapy for malignancy. Therefore a program of antibiotic prophylaxis for febrile neutropenia may be considered in the management strategy of cancer patients. PMID:24987511

  9. [Using safocid for antibiotic prophylaxis in minimally-invasive endoscopic operations and manipulations].

    PubMed

    Proskurin, A A; Asfandiiarov, F R; Kalashnikov, E S; Miroshnikov, V M

    2010-01-01

    Efficacy of safocid (1 g of seknidasol, 1 g of azitromycin, 150 mg of fluconasol) was studied in antibiotic prophylaxis before conduction of urological endoscopic operations: diagnostic cystoscopy, renal stenting, ureteroscopy with contact lithotripsy. A total of 128 patients of the urological department received a single safocid dose 90 min before surgical intervention. Safocid efficacy in prevention of infectious complications reached 96.2%. PMID:21427992

  10. Neonatal Prophylaxis: Prevention of Vitamin K Deficiency Haemorrhage and Neonatal Ophthalmia

    PubMed Central

    JUG DOŠLER, Anita; PETROČNIK, Petra; MIVŠEK, Ana Polona; ZAKŠEK, Teja; SKUBIC, Metka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to explore two aspects of neonatal prophylaxis: the application of the vitamin K injection to the newborns and the prophylaxis against chlamydial and gonococcal eye infections, comparing Slovenian and Croatian practices. Methods A causal non-experimental method of quantitative empirical approach was used. The data was collected by means of predesigned questionnaires. The questionnaires were sent to 14 Slovenian and 32 Croatian birth hospitals. The data was analysed with descriptive statistics and the Kullback test. Results Vitamin K is applied to all newborns in 9 (out of 14) Slovene and 22 (out of 32) Croatian birth hospitals that returned the questionnaire. The prophylaxis against chlamydial gonococcal eye infections is applied to all newborns in 9 Slovene and 16 Croatian birth hospitals that offered answers to the questionnaire. The majority of Slovene and Croatian birth hospitals perform these procedures in the first hour after birth. The majority of Slovene birth hospitals still apply vitamin K in the gluteal muscle, whereas the majority of Croatian birth hospitals usually use the thigh as an injection site. In Slovenia, 1 % Targesin is used for the prophylaxis against chlamydial and gonococcal eye infections, whereas in Croatia the prevailing medicine is Erythromycin. Conclusions The possibility of oral vitamin K application should be offered to parents, and pain management in practice should be discussed. The form of written informed consent could be offered to parents. Health professionals should provide intimacy and exclude routine procedures in the first couple of hours after birth. However, more research is needed as delayed administration might be related to lower efficacy and, as a consequence of that, the safety of newborns is questionable.

  11. Influence of a prophylaxis paste on surface roughness of different composites, porcelain, enamel and dentin surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yurdaguven, Haktan; Aykor, Arzu; Ozel, Emre; Sabuncu, Hilmi; Soyman, Mubin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a prophylaxis paste on surface roughness of different composites, enamel, dentin and porcelain surfaces. Methods: Three different composites (FiltekZ250/Group1, Filtek Supreme XT/Group2, Premise/Group3), enamel/Group4, dentin/Group5 and porcelain/Group6 samples were used in this study. All specimens were prepared flat by SiC discs and polished with a diamond polishing paste. The surface roughness measurements were determined with a profilometer after polishing (initial surface roughness). Prophylaxis paste was applied to the samples for 12 seconds, renewing every 6 seconds. After cleaning the samples, roughness values were measured again. Data were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis and Dunn’s multiple comparison test. Wilcoxon test was performed for the comparison of the initial and final surface roughness values (P<.05). The results were evaluated within the P<.05 confidence level. Results: The initial and final surface roughness values (μm) were determined as follows: Group1: 0.039±0.009 and 0.157±0.018, Group2: 0.023±0.005 and 0.145±0.027, Group3: 0.028±0.008 and 0.109±0.012, Group4: 0.024±0.006 and 0.071±0.015, Group5: 0.030±0.007 and 0.143±0.029, Group6: 0.024±0.006 and 0.064±0.014. Significant difference was determined between the initial and final values for all groups. Conclusions: Composite and dentin surfaces were more affected by the application of prophylaxis paste than enamel and porcelain surfaces. The prophylaxis paste increased the surface roughness of all groups, but did not reach the bacterial retention roughness rate of 0.2μm. PMID:22229001

  12. Reviewing current and emerging antiemetics for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Natale, James J

    2015-01-01

    This review provides background information on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) classification and pathophysiology and reviews various antiemetic agents for CINV prophylaxis, including corticosteroids, serotonin receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RAs), tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists (NK1 RAs), and olanzapine. Other less commonly used agents are briefly discussed. Practical considerations are reviewed as well, including emetogenicity of chemotherapeutic regimens, patient-specific risk factors for CINV, principles of CINV management, health economics outcome research, and quality of life. Available data on the newly FDA-approved antiemetic combination netupitant/palonosetron (NEPA) is also reviewed. Prevention of CINV is an important goal in managing patients with cancer and is especially difficult with respect to nausea and delayed CINV. Corticosteroids are a mainstay of CINV prophylaxis and are usually given in combination with other therapies. The 5-HT3 RA palonosetron has shown increased efficacy over other agents in the same class for prevention of delayed emesis with moderately emetogenic chemotherapy and NK1 RAs improve emesis prevention in combination with 5-HT3 RAs and dexamethasone. Olanzapine has shown efficacy for CINV prophylaxis and the treatment of breakthrough CINV. The new combination therapy, NEPA, has been shown to be efficacious for the prevention of acute, delayed, and overall CINV. Risk factors that have been identified for CINV include gender, age, and alcohol intake. It is important to assess the emetogenicity of chemotherapy regimens as well as the potential impact of patient risk factors in order to provide adequate prophylaxis. Acute and delayed CINV are severe, burdensome side effects of chemotherapy; however, new data on prevention and the discovery of new agents can further improve CINV control. PMID:26308912

  13. The geko™ electro-stimulation device for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis: a NICE medical technology guidance.

    PubMed

    Summers, Jennifer A; Clinch, James; Radhakrishnan, Muralikrishnan; Healy, Andy; McMillan, Viktoria; Morris, Elizabeth; Rua, Tiago; Ofuya, Mercy; Wang, Yanzhong; Dimmock, Paul W; Lewis, Cornelius; Peacock, Janet L; Keevil, Stephen F

    2015-04-01

    The geko™ device is a single-use, battery-powered, neuromuscular electrostimulation device that aims to reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) selected the geko™ device for evaluation, and invited the manufacturer, Firstkind Ltd, to submit clinical and economic evidence. King's Technology Evaluation Centre, an External Assessment Centre (EAC) commissioned by the NICE, independently assessed the evidence submitted. The sponsor submitted evidence related to the geko™ device and, in addition, included studies of other related devices as further clinical evidence to support a link between increased blood flow and VTE prophylaxis. The EAC assessed this evidence, conducted its own systematic review and concluded that there is currently limited direct evidence that geko™ prevents VTE. The sponsor's cost model is based on the assumption that patients with an underlying VTE risk and subsequently treated with geko™ will experience a reduction in their baseline risk. The EAC assessed this cost model but questioned the validity of some model assumptions. Using the EACs revised cost model, the cost savings for geko™ prophylaxis against a 'no prophylaxis' strategy were estimated as £197 per patient. Following a second public consultation, taking into account a change in the original draft recommendations, the NICE medical technologies guidance MTG19 was issued in June 2014. This recommended the adoption of the geko™ for use in people with a high risk of VTE and when other mechanical/pharmacological methods of prophylaxis are impractical or contraindicated in selected patients within the National Health Service in England. PMID:25403719

  14. Rheumatic heart disease among school children in Addis Ababa City: awareness and adequacy of its prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Oli, K; Porteous, J

    1999-07-01

    One of the objectives of this large scale cross-sectional study of school children of the Addis Ababa city was to assess the status of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) prophylaxis among rheumatic heart disease patients identified during the survey. Awareness about the presence of the illness in those affected and reasons for poor coverage, when detected, were also assessed. Sixty of the 9388 school children surveyed were found to have rheumatic heart disease. On interviewing parents of the children with rheumatic heart disease, ten acknowledged being informed of their children's cardiac illness. Of these parents, 15% (or 9/60) had some idea that their children had heart disease related to some form of infection. However, only two of the nine (22%) children whose parents had some idea about their disease were on regular monthly benzathine penicillin prophylaxis in the previous 12 months preceding the interview. Three (33%) of the nine children had six or fewer injections in the 12 months preceding the interview. The remaining 4 parents (44%) reported that their children took treatment that included injections only at the time of initial diagnosis several years earlier and had not had any follow up since then. Their reasons for not seeking medical care for their children included lack of information on prophylaxis, inability to pay for the treatment and distance of the health facilities. The lack of awareness and the extremely low rate of regular prophylaxis, therefore, highlight the need for an urgent control programme that takes active case detection, treatment access and health education into consideration. PMID:11957312

  15. [The PROMET study: Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolic disease in at-risk patients hospitalized in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Guermaz, R; Belhamidi, S; Amarni, A

    2015-07-01

    PROMET is an observational study aimed to assess the management of patients at venous thromboembolism risk in the Algerian hospitals and to evaluate the proportion of at-risk patients treated with an adequate prophylaxis. Following the ENDORSE study achieved five years before with a similar protocol, PROMET included 435hospitalized patients (229 in medical units and 206 in surgical units). Compared to the ENDORSE results, the PROMET data reflect progress in the management of venous thromboembolism: 73.3% of at-risk patients received prophylaxis (57.6% of medical patients and 90.8% of surgical patients). In 93.1% of cases, this prophylaxis was provided by a low molecular weight heparin, mainly at the dose of one injection per day. In medical population, the prescription was triggered by long-term immobilization (P=0.01; OR=5.8 95%CI [1.5-23.0]), associated risk factors (P=0.025; OR=4.13 [1.2-14.2]) and the cause of hospitalization (P=0.056). In surgical departments, the therapeutic decision depended on the nature of the surgical intervention and was influenced by the presence of a contraindication for prophylaxis (P<0.001; OR=0.02 [0.00-0.14]) or a high hemorrhagic risk (P<0.001; OR=0.02). The assessment and management of thromboembolic risk were in accordance with ACCP recommendations for surgical patients. However efforts are needed for medical patients for whom the risk is underestimated and insufficiently supported. Unlike surgery where procedures are well established, there are real difficulties in medicine to define the at-risk patients who will benefit from thromboprophylaxis. The process of preventive treatment (particularly the optimal duration) needs to be clarified. PMID:26051861

  16. Venous Thromboembolism Risk and Adequacy of Prophylaxis in High Risk Pregnancy in the Arabian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Alsayegh, Faisal; Al-Jassar, Waleed; Wani, Salima; Tahlak, Muna; Al-Bahar, Awatef; Al-Kharusi, Lamya; Al-Tamimi, Halima; El-Taher, Faten; Mahmood, Naeema; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factors in pregnancy and the proportion of pregnancies at risk of VTE that received the recommended prophylaxis according to the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) 2012 published guidelines in antenatal clinics in the Arabian Gulf. Methods: The evaluation of venous thromboembolism (EVE)-Risk project was a non-interventional, cross-sectional, multi-centre, multi-national study of all eligible pregnant women (≥17 years) screened during antenatal clinics from 7 centres in the Arabian Gulf countries (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Oman). Pregnant women were recruited during a 3-month period between September and December 2012. Results: Of 4,131 screened pregnant women, 32% (n=1,337) had ≥1 risk factors for VTE. Common VTE risk factors included obesity (76%), multiparity (33%), recurrent miscarriages (9.1%), varicose veins (6.9%), thrombophilia (2.6%), immobilization (2.0%), sickle cell disease (2.8%) and previous VTE (1.6%). Only 8.3% (n=111) of the high risk patients were on the recommended VTE prophylaxis. Enoxaparin was used in 80% (n=89) of the cases followed by tinzaparin (4%; n=4). Antiplatelet agents were prescribed in 11% (n=149) of pregnant women. Of those on anticoagulants (n=111), 59% (n=66) were also co-prescribed antiplatelet agents. Side effects (mainly local bruising at the injection site) were reported in 12% (n=13) of the cases. Conclusion: A large proportion of pregnant women in the Arabian Gulf countries have ≥1 VTE risk factor with even a smaller fraction on prophylaxis. VTE risk assessment must be adopted to identify those at risk who would need VTE prophylaxis.

  17. Oral preexposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV infection: clinical and public health implications.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jonathan; OʼHara, Kevin Michael

    2014-12-01

    This article reviews the use of combination emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-negative patients at high risk of acquiring HIV, including heterosexual men and women, men who have sex with men, and IV drug users. When used with classic prevention strategies such as condoms, PrEP has been found effective in reducing the risk of HIV transmission. PMID:25390822

  18. Platelet transfusion prophylaxis for patients with haematological malignancies: where to now?

    PubMed

    Stanworth, S J; Hyde, C; Brunskill, S; Murphy, M F

    2005-12-01

    National guidelines for platelet transfusion in many countries recommend that the general platelet transfusion trigger for prophylaxis is 10x10(9)/l. This annotation reviews the evidence for this threshold level and discusses other current unresolved issues relevant to platelet transfusion practice such as the optimal dose and the clinical benefit of a strategy for the prophylactic use of platelet transfusions when the platelet count falls below a given threshold. PMID:16351634

  19. Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in clean-contaminated head and neck oncologic surgery: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Busch, C-J; Knecht, R; Münscher, A; Matern, J; Dalchow, C; Lörincz, B B

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis is commonly used in head and neck oncologic surgery, due to the clean-contaminated nature of these procedures. There is a wide variety in the use of prophylactic antibiotics regarding the duration of application and the choice of agent. The purpose of this study was to determine whether short-term or long-term antibiotic prophylaxis has an impact on the development of head and neck surgical wound infection (SWI). Retrospective chart review was carried out in 418 clean-contaminated head and neck surgical oncology cases at our department. More than 50 variables including tumour type and stage, type of surgical treatment, co-morbidities, duration and choice of antibiotic prophylaxis, and the incidence of SWI were analysed. Following descriptive data analysis, Chi square test by Pearson and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical evaluation. Fifty-eight of the 418 patients (13.9 %) developed SWI. Patients with advanced disease and tracheotomy showed a significantly higher rate of SWI than those with early stage disease and without tracheotomy (p = 0.012 and p = 0.00017, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between the SWI rates in the short term and long term treatment groups (14.6 and 13.2 %, respectively; p = 0.689). Diabetes and body weight were not found to be risk factors for SWI. Long-term antibiotic prophylaxis was not associated with a decrease in SWI in the entire cohort of patients undergoing clean-contaminated major head and neck oncologic surgery. Our data confirmed the extent of surgery and tracheotomy as being risk factors for postoperative SWI. PMID:26683471

  20. An effective and more convenient drug regimen for prophylaxis against paclitaxel-associated hypersensitivity reactions.

    PubMed

    Markman, M; Kennedy, A; Webster, K; Peterson, G; Kulp, B; Belinson, J

    1999-07-01

    "Standard" prophylaxis for paclitaxel-associated hypersensitivity reactions has included the systemic administration of H1 and H2 histamine antagonists, along with oral dexamethasone taken both the night prior to, and the morning of, each paclitaxel treatment. To improve patient convenience and compliance with steroid delivery, the Gynecologic Cancer Program of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation has treated patients with an all-intravenous prophylaxis regimen (diphenhydramine 50 mg, famotidine 20 mg, dexamethasone 20 mg) given 30 min prior to paclitaxel (without any earlier oral steroid dosing). To date, we have treated more than 200 patients who received all courses of paclitaxel with this simplified prophylactic regimen, of whom approximately 9% developed hypersensitivity reactions (major or minor). This incidence is comparable to our previously reported experience with hypersensitivity reactions in a similar number of patients receiving the standard prophylaxis (including oral dexamethasone) with their initial course of paclitaxel, and subsequent cycles employing this all-intravenous program. We conclude that this "modified" regimen for paclitaxel-associated hypersensitivity reactions (with all drugs administered approximately 30 min prior to the delivery of paclitaxel) is as effective as, and more convenient than, the standard regimen, and avoids delaying chemotherapy as a result of a patient failing to remember to take one or both oral steroid doses. PMID:10394964

  1. [Sexual exposure to HIV, sexual behaviour and use of pharmacological post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP)].

    PubMed

    Franco, Alfredo; Starace, Fabrizio; Aprea, Lucia; Faella, Francesco Saverio; Giordano, Antonio; Maiorino, Cosimo; Manzillo, Elio; Marocco, Alessandro; Martucci, Fiorella; Pizzella, Teresa; Simioli, Francesco; Izzo, Crescenzo Maria

    2009-06-01

    In this study we examined the characteristics of 60 subjects (49 M and 11 F, average age 32.3) out of 195 post-exposure pharmacological prophylaxis (PEP) to HIV, taken in our hospital from 2001 to 2008. The above-mentioned subjects are sexually exposed (or presumably exposed) to HIV. We considered both their sexual intercourse behaviour and protective measures, and sought to infer some trends in sexual behaviour in Italy. All the subjects were monitored until 180 days after exposure, as established by the national guidelines. Only one of the 60 people presented a seroconversion (he dropped out after a 15-day follow-up and after an inadequate 19-day prophylaxis). Another subject, a homosexual male, never previously tested, resulted positive at time 0 both for HIV-Ab and syphilis tests (due to previous risk-sexual exposure), which caused the suspension of the prophylaxis. No HBV, HCV or syphilis seroconversion occurred. Two other homosexual males showed a previously latent positivity to syphilis tests at time 0. PMID:19602921

  2. Implementation of vertical clinical pharmacist service on venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Celina Setsuko; Mancio, Cassio Massashi; Pioner, Micheline da Costa; Alves, Fabricia Aparecida de Lima; Lira, Andreia Ramos; da Silva, João Severino; Ferracini, Fábio Teixeira; Borges, Wladimir Mendes; Guerra, João Carlos de Campos; Laselva, Claudia Regina

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the vertical clinical pharmacist service's interventions in prevention of venous thromboembolism. Methods: This prospective study was done at a private hospital. From January to May 2012, the clinical pharmacist evaluated medical patients without prophylaxis for thromboembolism. If the patient fulfilled criteria for thromboembolism and did not have contraindications, the clinical pharmacist suggested inclusion of pharmacologic agents and/or mechanical methods for venous thromboembolism prevention. In addition, the appropriate dose, route of administration, duplicity and replacement of the drug were suggested. Results: We evaluated 9,000 hospitalized medical patients and carried out 77 pharmaceutical interventions. A total of 71 cases (92.21%) adhered to treatment so that non-adherence occurred in 6 cases (7.79%). In 25 cases pharmacologic agents were included and in 20 cases mechanical prophylaxis. Dose adjustments, route, frequency, duplicity and replacement made up 32 cases. Conclusion: The vertical clinical pharmacist service included the prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism and promotion of appropriate use of medicines in the hospital. PMID:24728242

  3. Nebulised amphotericin B-polymethacrylic acid nanoparticle prophylaxis prevents invasive aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Shirkhani, Khojasteh; Teo, Ian; Armstrong-James, Darius; Shaunak, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus species are the major life threatening fungal pathogens in transplant patients. Germination of inhaled fungal spores initiates infection, causes severe pneumonia, and has a mortality of > 50%. This is leading to the consideration of pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent infection. We made a very low MWt amphotericin B-polymethacrylic acid nanoparticle. It was not toxic to lung epithelial cells or monocyte-derived-macrophages in-vitro, or in an in-vivo transplant immuno-suppression mouse model of life threatening invasive aspergillosis. Three days of nebuliser based prophylaxis delivered the nanoparticle effectively to lung and prevented both fungal growth and lung inflammation. Protection from disease was associated with > 99% killing of the Aspergillus and a 90% reduction in lung TNF-α; the primary driver of tissue destructive immuno-pathology. This study provides in-vivo proof-of-principle that very small and cost-effective nanoparticles can be made simply, and delivered safely and effectively to lung by the aerosol route to prevent fungal infections. From the Clinical Editor Aspergillus is an opportunistic pathogen, which affects immunocompromised patients. One novel way to help fight against this infection is pre-exposure prophylaxis. The authors here made PMA based anionic hydrogels carrying amphotericin B, with mucoadhesive behavior. They showed that aerosol route of the drug was very effective in protecting against the disease in an in-vivo model and should provide a stepping-stone towards clinical trials in the future. PMID:25791815

  4. Comparison of Levetiracetam and sodium Valproate in migraine prophylaxis: A randomized placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghian, Homa; Motiei-Langroudi, Rouzbeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Migraine is a chronic and disabling disorder. Treatment of migraine often comprises of symptomatic (abortive) and preventive (prophylactic) treatment. The current drugs used in migraine prophylaxis include antidepressant drugs (Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, Tricyclic antidepressants), and anti-epileptic drugs (valproate, gabapentin, etc). Objective: The objective of our study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam in adult migraine prophylaxis, compared to valproate and placebo. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. A total of 85 patients were randomized to receive levetiracetam 500 mg/d (n = 27), valproate 500 mg/d (n = 32) or placebo (n = 26). The patients were evaluated for treatment efficacy after 6 months. Efficacy was assessed as a more than 50% decrease in headache frequency. Results: In levetiracetam group, 17 (63.0%) patients experienced a more than 50% decrease in headache frequency, while this efficacy number was 21 (65.6%) for valproate group and 4 (15.4%) for placebo group. The difference was not statistically significant between levetiracetam and valproate, while it was significant when comparing either levetiracetam or valproate to placebo. Conclusion: Compared to placebo, levetiracetam offers improvement in headache frequency in patients with migraine. The efficacy of levetiracetam in migraine prophylaxis is comparable to currently used drugs such as valproate. PMID:25745310

  5. Extended venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after colorectal cancer surgery: the current state of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sammour, Tarik; Chandra, Raaj; Moore, James W

    2016-07-01

    There is level one evidence to support combined mechanical and chemical thromboprophylaxis for 7-10 days after colorectal cancer surgery, but there remains a paucity of data to support extended prophylaxis after discharge. The aim of this clinical review is to summarise the currently available evidence for extended venous thromboprophylaxis after elective colorectal cancer surgery. Clinical review of the major clinical guidelines and published clinical data evaluating extended venous thromboprophylaxis after elective colorectal cancer surgery. Five major guideline recommendations are outlined, and the results of the five published randomised controlled trials are summarised and reviewed with a specific focus on the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of extended heparin prophylaxis to prevent clinically relevant post-operative venous thromboembolism (VTE) after colorectal cancer surgery. Extended VTE prophylaxis after colorectal cancer surgery reduces the incidence of asymptomatic screen detected deep venous thrombosis (DVT) only, with no demonstrable reduction in symptomatic DVT, symptomatic PE, or VTE related death. Evidence for cost-effectiveness is limited. As the incidence of clinical VTE is very low in this patient subgroup overall, future research should be focused on higher risk patient subgroups in whom a reduction in VTE may be both more demonstrable and clinically relevant. PMID:26590997

  6. Current rabies vaccines and prophylaxis schedules: preventing rabies before and after exposure.

    PubMed

    Warrell, M J

    2012-01-01

    Travellers are probably the largest group in the general population to receive rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis. The dangerous consequences of the unavailability of rabies immune globulin in many countries could be ameliorated if pre-exposure rabies vaccination were practised more widely, especially in children, living in dog rabies enzootic countries. The WHO has recommended several different regimens for post-exposure prophylaxis, while individual countries decide on protocols for local use. Intramuscular regimens are expensive and waste vaccine. Although failure to receive vaccine is usually the due to the cost, the economical potential of intradermal vaccination has still not been realised 19 years after its introduction. The currently recommended 2-site intradermal post-exposure regimen is not economical for use in rural areas where 80% of Indian rabies deaths occur. Most countries using it demand higher potency vaccine, indicating that they do not have complete confidence in the method. This intradermal regimen has only been used where immunoglobulin is likely to be available for severely bitten patients. Increased intradermal doses are sometimes used for selected patients. Provision of economical rabies prophylaxis can be improved. Decisions to change recommendations should take account of the immunological, financial, practical and logistical aspects of dog bite treatment in remote areas. PMID:22342356

  7. Do medical patients need to receive pharmacologic prophylaxis for the prevention of venous thromboembolism?

    PubMed

    Ageno, Walter

    2012-10-01

    Acutely ill medical patients with reduced mobility are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism, which can occur during hospitalization or after discharge. A number of clinical trials and meta-analyses have shown that pharmacologic prophylaxis with anticoagulant drugs in these patients significantly reduces the risk of fatal pulmonary embolism as compared to placebo or no treatment, without significant increase in the risk of major bleeding. Thus, the use of anticoagulant prophylaxis is recommended for all high risk medical patients during hospitalization. To identify these high risk patients, clinicians may use the inclusion criteria applied in the trials, with a selection that is mostly qualitative, or risk assessment models, with a selection that is both qualitative and quantitative. With both approaches, about 40 % of medical patients would be at increased risk of venous thrombosis. Because in the real world medical patients tend to be much older and with more comorbidities than in clinical trials, patient selection needs to also take into account risk factors for bleeding. Among others, estimation of creatinine clearance appears to be particularly important to prevent excessive exposure to anticoagulant drugs. Finally, although the risk of venous thrombosis may persist in some patients after hospital discharge, clinical trials assessing extended prophylaxis in this setting have failed to show a convincing clinical benefit with this approach. PMID:23073856

  8. Clinical Utility of Antithrombotic Prophylaxis in ART Procedures: An Italian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Grandone, Elvira; Villani, Michela; Tiscia, Giovanni L.; Dentali, Francesco; Colaizzo, Donatella; Cappucci, Filomena; Fischetti, Lucia; Ageno, Walter; Margaglione, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background The usefulness of antithrombotic prophylaxis in management of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) is questionable. Objectives We prospectively examined the contribution of an antithrombotic prophylaxis in influencing clinical pregnancy and live-birth in an unselected cohort of women approaching ART. Patients/Methods 1107 women with fertility problems and a valid indication for ART were recruited. Baseline and follow-up information of obstetric outcomes and antithrombotic treatment were collected. Results and Conclusions Median follow-up time was 34.5 months (range: 2–143). During the follow-up period, 595 (53.8%) women underwent ART (total 1234 cycles); 202 (33.9%) women achieved a pregnancy for a total of 255 clinical pregnancies. The concomitant use of LMWH and aspirin was significantly associated with a higher rate of clinical pregnancies (p: 0.003, OR: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.7–14.2). The pregnancy rate was also significantly increased by the use of LMWH alone (p: 0.005, OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.3–5.0). Carriership of inherited or acquired thrombophilia did not affect clinical outcomes of the ART. The efficacy of antithrombotic treatment was confirmed when the outcome “ live-birth” was considered. Present data suggest a potential benefit of antithrombotic prophylaxis during ART in improving the number of live-births. PMID:24870449

  9. Adverse Reactions to Chloroquine and Amodiaquine as Used for Malaria Prophylaxis: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wittes, Robert

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the published material on adverse reactions to chloroquine (CQ) and amodiaquine (ADQ) as used for anti-malarial chemophrophylaxis. Dermatologic reactions, including pruritus and photosensitivity, appear to be rather common. Ophthalmologic reactions include difficulty in visual accommodation, corneal deposits, and retinopathy, the last a serious condition that is reversible in its early stage by drug withdrawal, and that generally will not occur with less than four years of weekly CQ use. Neuromyopathy is a rare and serious reaction that may develop idiosyncratically after a small cumulative dose; it, too, is reversible by drug withdrawal. Seizures, syndromes of involuntary movements, psychosis, and ototoxicity have been reported occasionally. Fatal toxic overdoses may occur, especially following accidental ingestion by children. ADQ should not be used for anti-malarial prophylaxis because of associated agranulocytosis. Rabies vaccine given intradermally is less effective for pre-exposure prophylaxis while the patient is taking CQ. Care should be taken when prescribing prophylactic CQ to patients with heart block. In spite of its adverse effects, however, CQ is generally an extremely safe drug. Cq prophylaxis is recommended for pregnant women in CQ-sensitive malarial areas. PMID:21264010

  10. Prophylaxis of traveler's diarrhea in Egypt: results of a double blind controlled study.

    PubMed

    Raedsch, R; Walter-Sack, I; Galle, P R; Kommerell, B

    1991-11-26

    Diarrhea represents the most frequent health problem of Western tourists visiting subtropical and tropical areas. Antibiotic prophylaxis has been suggested by some authors but may not be generally advisable because of adverse drug effects. In the present study we investigated the prophylaxis of traveler's diarrhea using a combination of tannalbuminate and ethacridin-lactate. During a 16-day cruise in Egypt, 77 tourists were assigned to either placebo or prophylactic doses of tannalbuminate (500 mg) and ethacridin-lactate (50 mg), 1 tbl. b.i.d., in a randomized double-blind fashion. The number of bowel movements, consistency of stools, and clinical symptoms like nausea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, and fever were monitored daily. In the placebo group (n = 43) 35 tourists developed diarrhea (81.4%), whereas in the verum group (n = 34) only 18 tourists (52.9%) had diarrhea (p less than 0.0125). In the travelers receiving verum and developing diarrhea the clinical symptoms were less pronounced than in the placebo group. These results demonstrate that the events of traveler's diarrhea may be reduced; moreover, symptoms are attenuated by medical prophylaxis with tannalbuminate and ethacridin-lactate. PMID:1812314

  11. In search for better pharmacological prophylaxis for acute mountain sickness: looking in other directions.

    PubMed

    Lu, H; Wang, R; Xiong, J; Xie, H; Kayser, B; Jia, Z P

    2015-05-01

    Despite decades of research, the exact pathogenic mechanisms underlying acute mountain sickness (AMS) are still poorly understood. This fact frustrates the search for novel pharmacological prophylaxis for AMS. The prevailing view is that AMS results from an insufficient physiological response to hypoxia and that prophylaxis should aim at stimulating the response. Starting off from the opposite hypothesis that AMS may be caused by an initial excessive response to hypoxia, we suggest that directly or indirectly blunting-specific parts of the response might provide promising research alternatives. This reasoning is based on the observations that (i) humans, once acclimatized, can climb Mt Everest experiencing arterial partial oxygen pressures (PaO2) as low as 25 mmHg without AMS symptoms; (ii) paradoxically, AMS usually develops at much higher PaO2 levels; and (iii) several biomarkers, suggesting initial activation of specific pathways at such PaO2, are correlated with AMS. Apart from looking for substances that stimulate certain hypoxia triggered effects, such as the ventilatory response to hypoxia, we suggest to also investigate pharmacological means aiming at blunting certain other specific hypoxia-activated pathways, or stimulating their agonists, in the quest for better pharmacological prophylaxis for AMS. PMID:25778288

  12. Mechanisms of echinocandin antifungal drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Perlin, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections due to Candida and Aspergillus species cause extensive morbidity and mortality, especially among immunosuppressed patients, and antifungal therapy is critical to patient management. Yet only a few drug classes are available to treat invasive fungal diseases, and this problem is compounded by the emergence of antifungal resistance. Echinocandin drugs are the preferred choice to treat candidiasis. They are the first cell wall–active agents and target the fungal-specific enzyme glucan synthase, which catalyzes the biosynthesis of β-1,3-glucan, a key cell wall polymer. Therapeutic failures occur rarely among common Candida species, with the exception of Candida glabrata, which are frequently multidrug resistant. Echinocandin resistance in susceptible species is always acquired during therapy. The mechanism of resistance involves amino acid changes in hot-spot regions of Fks subunits of glucan synthase, which decrease the sensitivity of the enzyme to drug. Cellular stress response pathways lead to drug adaptation, which promote the formation of resistant fks strains. Clinical factors promoting echinocandin resistance include empiric therapy, prophylaxis, gastrointestinal reservoirs, and intra-abdominal infections. A better understanding of the echinocandin resistance mechanism, along with cellular and clinical factors promoting resistance, will promote more effective strategies to overcome and prevent echinocandin resistance. PMID:26190298

  13. Comparison of the effect of co-trimoxazole and co-trimoxazole plus ciprofloxacin in urinary tract infection prophylaxis in kidney transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Khorvash, Farzin; Mortazavi, Mojgan; Hakamifard, Atousa; Ataei, Behrooz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) as an important infection in the setting of renal transplantation carries the high mortality and morbidity rate. Thus, the prevention of this infection should receive higher priority. However, bacterial resistance to antibiotics is on the rise, with limited data to guide prophylaxis. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP) and SMZ/TMP plus ciprofloxacin for prophylaxis of UTI in renal transplant recipients. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial study, 50 patients were included and divided into two groups of 25 using block randomization. Patients in Group I received prophylactic SMZ/TMP and those in Group II received ciprofloxacin plus SMZ/TMP. The incidence of UTI in the two groups at 1, 3, and 6 months after transplantation was evaluated. This study was registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial (IRCT number: IRCT 2015120823743N1). Results: Of the 61 patients older than 18 years at the time of transplantation, 50 were included. UTI was documented in 8 patients (32%) in Group I and 3 (12%) in Group II (P = 0.026). The average time for the development of the first case of infection was the same for both groups (P = 0.241), and it was at its maximum in the 1st month. Urinary infections caused by Escherichia coli, the dominant strain, were the same in both groups (P = 0.673). Conclusions: Our study shows that the addition of 1 month course of ciprofloxacin lowered the incidence of UTI. More studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of this approach.

  14. Comprehensive outcomes of on- and off-antiviral prophylaxis in hepatitis B patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy: A competing risks analysis.

    PubMed

    An, Jihyun; Shim, Ju Hyun; Kim, Seon-Ok; Choi, Jonggi; Kim, Sang-We; Lee, Danbi; Kim, Kang Mo; Lim, Young-Suk; Lee, Han Chu; Chung, Young-Hwa; Lee, Yung Sang; Suh, Dong Jin

    2016-09-01

    Although antiviral prophylaxis is essential in hepatitis B patients in the context of cancer chemotherapy, there is little evidence-based consensus regarding the appropriate prevention strategy depending on the underlying type of cancer and viral status. This retrospective study included a comprehensive cohort of 302 hepatitis B surface antigen-positive patients with various cancers undergoing chemotherapy and antiviral prophylaxis. The rates of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation during antiviral therapy (>1 log10 IU/mL increase or positive conversion of serum HBV DNA) and relapse when off antivirals ([re]appearance of HBV DNA >2,000 IU/ml with related alanine aminotransferase elevation) were evaluated, together with the associated risk factors, in a competing risks analysis where cancer death was considered as the competing event. During antiviral prophylaxis, HBV was reactivated in six patients (1.9%), who had leukemia (n = 4) or lymphoma (n = 2) and were treated with lamivudine (n = 4) or entecavir (n = 2). The incidence rate of HBV relapse in 127 off-prophylaxis patients was 21.3% during a median post-antiviral period of 11.7 months. Lymphoma, pre-prophylactic HBV DNA ≥2,000 IU/ml, and age ≥50 years were independent predictors of off-treatment HBV relapse (adjusted hazard ratios 5.25, 3.07, and 0.34, respectively; Ps < 0.05). Antiviral and anticancer drugs, duration of consolidation on antiviral prophylaxis, and HBeAg positivity were not independent predictors. In conclusion, hepatitis B flare-ups are not rare in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy during and after anti-HBV prophylaxis, even when potent antivirals are used. Patients with hematopoietic or lymphoid neoplasms or high viral burdens should receive prolonged and powerful HBV prophylaxis. J. Med. Virol. 88:1576-1586, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26945543

  15. Benefits of prophylaxis versus on-demand treatment in adolescents and adults with severe haemophilia A: the POTTER study.

    PubMed

    Tagliaferri, Annarita; Feola, Giulio; Molinari, Angelo Claudio; Santoro, Cristina; Rivolta, Gianna Franca; Cultrera, Dorina Bianca; Gagliano, Fabio; Zanon, Ezio; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; Valdré, Lelia; Mameli, Luciana; Amoresano, Susanna; Mathew, Prasad; Coppola, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Rigorous evidence is lacking on long-term outcomes of factor VIII (FVIII) prophylaxis initiated in adolescent or adult patients with severe haemophilia A. The prospective, open-label Prophylaxis versus On-demand Therapy Through Economic Report (POTTER) study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01159587) compared long-term late secondary prophylaxis (recombinant FVIII-FS 20-30 IU/kg thrice weekly) with on-demand treatment in patients aged 12 to 55 years with severe haemophilia A. The annual number of joint bleeding episodes (primary endpoint), total bleeding episodes, orthopaedic and radiologic (Pettersson) scores, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), pharmacoeconomic impact, and safety were evaluated over a > 5-year period (2004-2010). Fifty-eight patients were enrolled at 11 centres in Italy; 53 (27 prophylaxis, 26 on demand) were evaluated and stratified into 2 age subgroups (12-25 and 26-55 years). Patients receiving prophylaxis experienced a significantly lower number of joint bleeding episodes vs the on-demand group (annualised bleeding rate, 1.97 vs 16.80 and 2.46 vs 16.71 in younger and older patients, respectively; p=0.0043). Results were similar for total bleeding episodes. Prophylaxis was associated with significantly fewer target joints (p< 0.001), better orthopaedic (p=0.0019) and Pettersson (p=0.0177) scores, better HRQoL, and fewer days of everyday activities lost (p< 0.0001) but required significantly higher FVIII product consumption. The POTTER study is the first prospective, controlled trial documenting long-term benefits of late secondary prophylaxis in adolescents and adults with severe haemophilia A. The benefits of reduced bleeding frequency, improved joint status, and HRQoL may offset the higher FVIII consumption and costs. PMID:25855376

  16. Contrast-Induced Nephropathy After Computed Tomography in Stable CKD Patients With Proper Prophylaxis: 8-Year Experience of Outpatient Prophylaxis Program.

    PubMed

    Park, Sehoon; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kang, Eunjeong; Park, Seokwoo; Jo, Hyung Ah; Lee, Hajeong; Kim, Sun Moon; Lee, Jung Pyo; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki

    2016-05-01

    Conflicting data have been reported on the clinical significance of contrast-induced nephropathy after CT scan (CT-CIN). In addition, the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical outcomes of CT-CIN following proper prophylactic intervention remain elusive.We examined the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of CT-CIN in stable chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients using data collected from our outpatient CT-CIN prophylaxis program conducted between 2007 and 2014. The program recruited patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m using an electronic health record-based pop-up alert system and provided an identical protocol of CIN prophylaxis to all patients.A total of 1666 subjects were included in this study, and 61 of the 1666 subjects (3.7%) developed CT-CIN. Multivariate analysis showed that baseline eGFR, diabetes mellitus, and low serum albumin were significant risk factors for CT-CIN. The generalized additive model analysis revealed a nonlinear relationship between the baseline eGFR and the risk of CT-CIN. In this analysis, the risk of CT-CIN began to increase below an eGFR threshold of 36.8 mL/min/1.73 m. To assess the outcomes of CT-CIN, patients with and without CT-CIN were compared after propensity score-based 1:2 matching. CT-CIN did not increase the mortality rate of patients. However, patients with CT-CIN were significantly more likely to start dialysis within 6 months of follow-up, but not after those initial 6 months.CT-CIN developed in only a small number of stable CKD patients who received proper prophylactic intervention, and the risk of CT-CIN was increased in patients with more advanced CKD. Despite the low incidence, CT-CIN conferred a non-negligible risk for the initiation of dialysis in the acute period, even after prophylaxis. PMID:27149474

  17. Two's a Crowd: Phenotypic Adjustments and Prophylaxis in Anticarsia gemmatalis Larvae Are Triggered by the Presence of Conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Farley W. S.; Viol, Daniel L.; Faria, Sirlene V.; Lima, Eraldo; Valicente, Fernando H.; Elliot, Simon L.

    2013-01-01

    Defence from parasites and pathogens involves a cost. Thus, it is expected that organisms use this only at high population densities, where the risk of pathogen transmission may be high, as proposed by the "density-dependent prophylaxis" (DDP) hypothesis. These predictions have been tested in a wide range of insects, both in comparative and experimental studies. We think it pertinent to consider a continuum between solitarious and gregarious living insects, wherein: (1) solitarious insects are those that are constitutively solitary and do not express any phenotypic plasticity, (2) the middle of the continuum is represented by insects that are subject to fluctuations in local density and show a range of facultative and plastic changes; and (3) constitutively gregarious forms live gregariously and show the gregarious phenotype even in the absence of crowding stimuli. We aimed to chart some of the intermediary continuum with an insect that presents solitarious aspects, but that is subject to fluctuations in density. Thus, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae reared at higher densities showed changes in coloration, a greater degree of encapsulation, had higher hemocyte densities and were more resistant to Baculovirus anticarsia, but not to Bacillus thuringiensis. Meanwhile, with increased rearing density there was reduced capsule melanization. Hemocyte density was the only variable that did not vary according to larval phenotype. The observed responses were not a continuous function of larval density, but an all-or-nothing response to the presence of a conspecific. As A. gemmatalis is not known for gregarious living, yet shows these density-dependent changes, it thus seems that this plastic phenotypic adjustment may be a broader phenomenon than previously thought. PMID:23626700

  18. Lopinavir/Ritonavir versus Lamivudine peri-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV-1 transmission by breastfeeding: the PROMISE-PEP trial Protocol ANRS 12174

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Postnatal transmission of HIV-1 through breast milk remains an unsolved challenge in many resource-poor settings where replacement feeding is not a safe alternative. WHO now recommends breastfeeding of infants born to HIV-infected mothers until 12 months of age, with either maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) or peri-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in infants using nevirapine. As PEP, lamivudine showed a similar efficacy and safety as nevirapine, but with an expected lower rate of resistant HIV strains emerging in infants who fail PEP, and lower restrictions for future HIV treatment. Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is an attractive PEP candidate with presumably higher efficacy against HIV than nevirapine or lamivudine, and a higher genetic barrier to resistance selection. It showed an acceptable safety profile for the treatment of very young HIV-infected infants. The ANRS 12174 study aims to compare the risk of HIV-1 transmission during and safety of prolonged infant PEP with LPV/r (40/10 mg twice daily if 2-4 kg and 80/20 mg twice daily if >4 kg) versus Lamivudine (7,5 mg twice daily if 2-4 kg, 25 mg twice daily if 4-8 kg and 50 mg twice daily if >8 kg) from day 7 until one week after cessation of BF (maximum 50 weeks of prophylaxis) to prevent postnatal HIV-1 acquisition between 7 days and 50 weeks of age. Methods The ANRS 12174 study is a multinational, randomised controlled clinical trial conducted on 1,500 mother-infant pairs in Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. We will recommend exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) until 26th week of life and cessation of breastfeeding at a maximum of 49 weeks in both trial arms. HIV-uninfected infants at day 7 (± 2 days) born to HIV-1 infected mothers not eligible for HAART who choose to breastfeed their infants. The primary endpoint is the acquisition of HIV-1 (as assessed by HIV-1 DNA PCR) between day 7 and 50 weeks of age. Secondary endpoints are safety (including resistance, adverse events and

  19. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in patients treated with systemic immunosuppressive agents for dermatologic conditions: a systematic review with recommendations for prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Santiago, Tania M; Wetter, David A; Kalaaji, Amer N; Limper, Andrew H; Lehman, Julia S

    2016-08-01

    Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is an opportunistic infection associated with substantial rates of mortality in immunosuppressed patients. Prophylaxis recommendations are mostly targeted toward patients with non-dermatologic diagnoses. This study was conducted to determine when dermatology patients treated with immunosuppressive medications should be offered P. jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis. We searched the literature from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 2013, using terms relating to P. jiroveci pneumonia and dermatologic diagnoses to analyze the clinical characteristics of previously affected patients. Guidelines for P. jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis from other medical fields were also analyzed. Of 17 dermatology patients reported to have contracted P. jiroveci pneumonia, eight (47.1%) died of the pneumonia. Risk factors included lack of prophylaxis, systemic corticosteroid therapy, lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia, low serum CD4 counts, comorbid pulmonary or renal disease, malignancy, and prior organ transplantation. The present conclusions are limited by heterogeneity among the selected studies and limitations in their identification and selection. However, P. jiroveci pneumonia in dermatology patients is associated with a high mortality rate. Based on our analysis, we propose that prophylaxis be considered in dermatology patients in whom treatment with systemic corticosteroids at doses exceeding 20 mg/day or treatment with corticosteroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents is anticipated for at least 4 weeks, and in patients with additional risk factors for P. jiroveci pneumonia. PMID:27009930

  20. Actual Situation of Thromboembolic Prophylaxis in Obesity Surgery: Data of Quality Assurance in Bariatric Surgery in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stroh, Christine; Luderer, D.; Weiner, R.; Horbach, T.; Ludwig, K.; Benedix, F.; Wolff, Stefanie; Knoll, C.; Lippert, H.; Manger, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Evidence-based data on optimal approach for prophylaxis of deep venous thrombosis (VTE) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in bariatric operations is discussed. Using antithrombotic prophylaxis weight adjusted the risk of VTE and its complications have to be balanced with the increased bleeding risk. Methods. Since 2005 the current situation for bariatric surgery has been examined by quality assurance study in Germany. As a prospective multicenter observational study, data on the type, regimen, and time course of VTE prophylaxis were documented. The incidences of clinically diagnosed VTE or PE were derived during the in-hospital course and follow up. Results. Overall, 11,835 bariatric procedures were performed between January 2005 and December 2010. Most performed procedures were 2730 gastric banding (GB); 4901 Roux-en-Y-gastric bypass (RYGBP) procedures, and 3026 sleeve gastrectomies (SG). Study collective includes 72.5% (mean BMI 48.1 kg/m2) female and 27.5% (mean BMI 50.5 kg/m2) male patients. Incidence of VTE was 0.06% and of PE 0.08%. Conclusion. VTE prophylaxis regimen depends on BMI and the type of procedure. Despite the low incidence of VTE and PE there is a lack of evidence. Therefore, prospective randomized studies are necessary to determine the optimal VTE prophylaxis for bariatric surgical patients. PMID:22848807

  1. HIV risk and awareness and interest in pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis among sheltered women in Miami.

    PubMed

    Doblecki-Lewis, Susanne; Lester, Larissa; Schwartz, Bryanna; Collins, Constance; Johnson, Rai; Kobetz, Erin

    2016-09-01

    SummaryPre- and non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection are recommended for adults at substantial risk of HIV. Women experiencing homelessness have increased risk of HIV infection compared with stably-housed women. We conducted a survey of 74 sheltered women at Lotus House Women's Shelter (Lotus House) in Miami to assess risk behaviour as well as knowledge and perception of pre- and non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis in this population. Of surveyed women, 58.1% engaged in vaginal and/or anal sex while sheltered, and of sexually-active women 55.4% reported inconsistent condom use. 83.8% of women reported no concern regarding HIV acquisition due to their behaviour. Few women surveyed (20.8%) had previously heard of pre- or non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis. The majority (58.3%) of respondents indicated receptiveness to these prevention methods when introduced. Those indicating that they would consider pre- or non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis were significantly younger than those indicating that they would not consider these prevention strategies (p = 0.004). Education and referral for pre- and non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis should be considered for sheltered women at risk of HIV infection. Additional research to optimise implementation of biomedical prevention strategies in this population is needed. PMID:26384947

  2. Long-Term Outcomes of Pre-emptive Valganciclovir Compared with Valacyclovir Prophylaxis for Prevention of Cytomegalovirus in Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hribova, Petra; Jindra, Pavel; Hes, Ondrej; Bouda, Mirko; Treska, Vladislav; Viklicky, Ondrej

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of cytomegalovirus (CMV) is essential in organ transplantation. The two main strategies are pre-emptive therapy, in which one screens for and treats asymptomatic CMV viremia, and universal antiviral prophylaxis. We compared these strategies and examined long-term outcomes in a randomized, open-label, single-center trial. We randomly assigned 70 renal transplant recipients (CMV-seropositive recipient or donor) to 3-month prophylaxis with valacyclovir (n=34) or pre-emptive valganciclovir for significant CMV viremia detected at predefined assessments through month 12 (n=36). Among the 55 patients who had a protocol biopsy specimen available at 3 years to allow assessment of the primary outcome, 9 (38%) of 24 patients in the prophylaxis group and 6 (19%) of 31 patients in the pre-emptive therapy group had moderate to severe interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (odds ratio, 2.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.74–8.43; P=0.22). The prophylaxis group had significantly higher intrarenal mRNA expression of genes involved in fibrogenesis. The occurrence of CMV disease was similar in both groups, but pre-emptive therapy improved 4-year graft survival (92% versus 74%; P=0.049) as a result of worse outcomes in patients with late-onset CMV viremia. In conclusion, compared with valacyclovir prophylaxis, pre-emptive valganciclovir therapy may lead to less severe interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy and to significantly better graft survival. PMID:22917575

  3. Prophylaxis of mucosal toxicity by oral propantheline and cryotherapy in children with malignancies undergoing myeloablative chemo-radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsushi; Saisho-Hattori, Takako; Koizumi, Yoshitsugu; Minegishi, Masayoshi; Iinuma, Kazuie; Imaizumi, Masue

    2006-12-01

    Mucosal toxicity is an incapacitating complication of intensive chemo-radiotherapy for children with malignant disorders, and is physically and psychologically distressful. It is therefore important to minimize mucosal toxicity in those patients. In this report, the effects of the combined prophylaxis of oral cooling (cryotherapy) and administration of propantheline, an anticholinergic drug, were studied in patients (aged 2-16 year) with acute leukemias or solid tumors, who underwent myeloablative chemo-radiotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell rescue from 1993 to 1997. Patients were pretreated with the combined prophylaxis (n = 12) or single prophylaxis (n = 5), or left untreated (n = 7). The combined prophylaxis significantly reduced the severe mucositis (combined, 8.3%; single, 20.0%; and untreated, 42.9%) and severe diarrhea (combined, 16.7%; single, 60.0%; and untreated, 57.1%). Moreover, the combined prophylaxis tended to shorten the periods of febrile episodes defined as temperature > 38 degrees C (combined, 3.8 days; single, 4.6 days; and untreated, 5.6 days). Therefore, the combination of propantheline and oral cryotherapy may be feasible and effective for reduction of mucosal toxicity in patients with malignancy who undergo high-dose chemotherapy. PMID:17146197

  4. Acute liver graft failure due to emergence of lamivudine resistant hepatitis B virus: rapid resolution during treatment with adefovir

    PubMed Central

    Mutimer, D; Feraz-Neto, B; Harrison, R; O'Donnell, K; Shaw, J; Cane, P; Pillay, D

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Strategies for prevention of liver graft reinfection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been developed during recent years. Initially, passive immunoprophylaxis with high titre HBV immunoglobulin (HBIg), followed by lamivudine prophylaxis, and then the combination of lamivudine and HBIg have been employed. However, suboptimal use of the combination may be associated with failure of prophylaxis reflected by the emergence of HBV species with genetic changes that confer resistance to lamivudine and HBIg. Reinfection of the graft by HBV can be associated with rapid development of liver failure.
CASE REPORT—A 43 year old HBV infected man received lamivudine before transplantation, and lamivudine and HBIg after transplantation. Despite prophylaxis, graft reinfection and severe hepatitis were observed. The observed serological evolution and genetic sequencing of the emergent HBV species suggested selection of lamivudine resistant and surface antigen escape mutants consecutively. Adefovir treatment began after the devlopment of graft failure.
OUTCOME—A rapid exponential decline in serum HBV titre was observed. Liver function tests normalised and signs of liver failure resolved.
CONCLUSION—The use of HBIg and lamivudine permits prevention of graft reinfection by HBV for the majority of patients. Adefovir, a potent inhibitor of lamivudine resistant HBV, should be used when failure of prophylaxis is associated with graft hepatitis.


Keywords: hepatitis B virus; adefovir; liver graft; lamivudine PMID:11709523

  5. Prophylaxis and Treatment of Anthrax in Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review of Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Meaney-Delman, Dana; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Beigi, Richard H.; Zotti, Marianne E.; Hutchings, Yalonda; Bower, William A.; Treadwell, Tracee A.; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the safety and pharmacokinetics of antibiotics recommended for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis and treatment in pregnant women. Data Sources Articles were identified in the PUBMED database from inception through December 2012 by searching the keywords ([“pregnancy]” and [generic antibiotic name]). Additionally, hand searches of references from REPROTOX, TERIS, review articles and Briggs’ Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation were performed. Methods of Study Selection Articles included in the review contain primary data related to the safety and pharmacokinetics among pregnant women of five antibiotics recommended for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis and treatment (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, doxycycline, amoxicillin), and of nine additional antibiotics recommended as part of the treatment regimen (penicillin, ampicillin, linezolid, clindamycin, meropenem, doripenem, rifampin, chloramphenicol, or vancomycin). Tabulation, Integration and Results The PUBMED search identified 3850 articles for review. Reference hand searching yielded nine additional articles. In total, 112 articles met the inclusion criteria. Conclusions Overall, safety and pharmacokinetic information is limited for these antibiotics. Although small increases in risks for certain anomalies have been observed with some antibiotics recommended for prophylaxis and treatment of anthrax, the absolute risk of these antibiotics appears low. Given the high morbidity and mortality associated with anthrax, antibiotics should be dosed appropriately to ensure that antibiotic levels can be achieved and sustained. Dosing adjustments may be necessary for the beta lactam antibiotics and the fluoroquinolones to achieve therapeutic levels in pregnant women. Data indicate that the beta lactam antibiotics, the fluoroquinolones, and, to a lesser extent, clindamycin enter the fetal compartment, an important consideration in the treatment of anthrax, as these antibiotics may provide

  6. Efficacy and tolerability of a combined gatifloxacin plus prednisolone formulation for topical prophylaxis after LASIK

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Mauro; Muccioli, Cristina; Malta, João BNS; Gerade, Rafael A; LA Salame, André; Belfort, Rubens

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of a fixed-dose combination of 0.3% gatifloxacin and 1% prednisolone formulation versus the same agents administered separately for prophylaxis in a laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) population. Methods: In a prospective, randomized, double-masked, parallel-group study, 97 patients were evaluated for signs and symptoms of ocular infection or inflammation after bilateral LASIK. Group 1 (50 patients, 100 eyes) received a combined formulation of 0.3% gatifloxacin + 1% prednisolone acetate (Zypred®) plus placebo. Group 2 (47 patients, 94 eyes) received conventional treatment with the same agents from separate vials. The cohorts were similar in age, sex, race, and refractive error. Baseline and postoperative assessments were made on surgery days −2, 1, 3, and 15 and consisted of visual acuity; intraocular pressure; severity of inflammation of eyelids, conjunctiva, and cornea; tearing; ocular discomfort (foreign-body sensation, itching, or photophobia); and ocular pain. The posterior segment was evaluated at the screening and exit visits. Results: No ocular infection or persistent inflammation was detected in either group at any time. All objective and subjective criteria of efficacy were similar regardless of treatment, with no significant differences between the groups. More patients who were dosed with the combined agent complained of mild ocular discomfort on day 3, but this difference had disappeared by day 15. Conclusion: Post-LASIK topical prophylaxis with combined gatifloxacin + prednisolone eye drops (Zypred®) was well tolerated. This formulation appears to be therapeutically equivalent to conventional dosing with gatifloxacin and prednisolone from individual bottles for topical prophylaxis after laser refractive surgery. PMID:21386913

  7. Retrospective Analysis of Levetiracetam Compared to Phenytoin for Seizure Prophylaxis in Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, G. Christina; Hughes, Darrel W.; Maxwell, Pamela R.; Green, Kay; Gamboa, Conrado D.; Barthol, Colleen A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Phenytoin is standard of care for seizure prophylaxis following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Levetiracetam, an alternative antiepileptic drug, is utilized for seizure prophylaxis despite limited data supporting its use. Objective: Our primary outcome was post-TBI seizure activity measured by electroencephalogram (EEG) for levetiracetam versus phenytoin. Secondary outcomes were length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, requirement for additional antiepileptic drugs (AED), and drug and monitoring costs. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of patients admitted to neurosurgical or surgical trauma ICU. Adult patients with at least 1 day of EEG monitoring were included. Patients were excluded if they had history of epilepsy, prior TBI, less than 48 hours of AED therapy, or additional AED prior to EEG monitoring. Results: A total 90 patients met inclusion criteria, with 18 receiving levetiracetam and 72 receiving phenytoin. Prevalence of EEG-confirmed seizure activity was similar between the levetiracetam and phenytoin groups (28% vs 29%; P = .99). ICU length of stay (13 vs 18 days; P = .28), time to EEG-confirmed seizure activity (4 vs 6 days; P = .24), and duration of seizure prophylaxis (9 vs 14 days; P = .18) were also similar. The median daily cost of levetiracetam therapy was $43 compared to $55 for phenytoin therapy and monitoring (P = .08). When all anticonvulsant therapy and monitoring were included, costs were lower for the levetiracetam group ($45 vs $83; P = .02). Conclusion: Levetiracetam may provide an alternative treatment option for seizure prevention in TBI patients in the ICU. Total antiepileptic drug and monitoring costs were lower for levetiracetam patients. PMID:24421550

  8. Early Gut Microbiota Perturbations Following Intrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis to Prevent Group B Streptococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ross, R. Paul; Biavati, Bruno; Corvaglia, Luigi T.; Faldella, Giacomo; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The faecal microbiota composition of infants born to mothers receiving intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with ampicillin against group B Streptococcus was compared with that of control infants, at day 7 and 30 of life. Recruited newborns were both exclusive breastfed and mixed fed, in order to also study the effect of dietary factors on the microbiota composition. Massive parallel sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene and qPCR analysis were performed. Antibiotic prophylaxis caused the most marked changes on the microbiota in breastfed infants, mainly resulting in a higher relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae, compared with control infants (52% vs. 14%, p = 0.044) and mixed-fed infants (52% vs. 16%, p = 0.13 NS) at day 7 and in a lower bacterial diversity compared to mixed-fed infants and controls. Bifidobacteria were also particularly vulnerable and abundances were reduced in breastfed (p = 0.001) and mixed-fed antibiotic treated groups compared to non-treated groups. Reductions in bifidobacteria in antibiotic treated infants were also confirmed by qPCR. By day 30, the bifidobacterial population recovered and abundances significantly increased in both breastfed (p = 0.025) and mixed-fed (p = 0.013) antibiotic treated groups, whereas Enterobacteriaceae abundances remained highest in the breastfed antibiotic treated group (44%), compared with control infants (16%) and mixed-fed antibiotic treated group (28%). This study has therefore demonstrated the short term consequences of maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on the infant faecal microbial population, particularly in that of breastfed infants. PMID:27332552

  9. Long-acting Neuraminidase Inhibitor Laninamivir Octanoate as Post-exposure Prophylaxis for Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwagi, Seizaburo; Watanabe, Akira; Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Uemori, Mitsutoshi; Awamura, Shinichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. A single administration of laninamivir octanoate, a long-acting neuraminidase inhibitor, has been proven to be effective in the treatment of influenza but not for post-exposure prophylaxis. Methods. We conducted a double-blind, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled study to determine if a single administration of laninamivir octanoate 40 mg was superior to placebo for post-exposure prophylaxis. Eligible participants who had cohabited with an influenza patient within 48 hours of symptom onset were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to 1 of 3 groups: 40 mg of laninamivir octanoate single administration (LO-40SD), 20 mg of laninamivir octanoate once daily for 2 days (LO-20TD), or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of participants who developed clinical influenza (defined as influenza virus positive, an axillary temperature >37.5°C, and at least 2 symptoms) over a 10-day period. Results. A total of 803 participants were enrolled, with 801 included in the primary analysis. The proportions of participants with clinical influenza were 4.5% (12/267), 4.5% (13/269), and 12.1% (32/265) in the LO-40SD, LO-20TD, and placebo groups, respectively. A single administration of laninamivir octanoate 40 mg significantly reduced the development of influenza compared with placebo (P = .001). The relative risk reductions compared with the placebo group were 62.8% and 63.1% for the LO-40SD and LO-20TD groups, respectively. The incidence of adverse events in the LO-40SD group was similar to that of the LO-20TD and placebo groups. Conclusions. A single administration of laninamivir octanoate was effective and well tolerated as post-exposure prophylaxis to prevent the development of influenza. Clinical Trials Registration. JapicCTI-142679. PMID:27118785

  10. Dose Response for Starting and Stopping HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis for Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Sharon M.; Glidden, David V.; Meditz, Amie L.; Castillo-Mancilla, Jose R.; Gardner, Edward M.; Predhomme, Julie A.; Rower, Caitlin; Klein, Brandon; Kerr, Becky J.; Guida, L. Anthony; Zheng, Jia-Hua; Bushman, Lane R.; Anderson, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study estimated the number of daily tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) doses required to achieve and maintain (after discontinuation) intracellular drug concentrations that protect against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection for men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. Tenofovir diphosphate (TFV-DP) concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and rectal mononuclear cells from an intensive pharmacokinetic study (“Cell-PrEP” [preexposure prophylaxis]) of 30 days of daily TDF/FTC followed by 30 days off drug were evaluated. A regression formula for HIV risk reduction derived from PBMCs collected in the preexposure prophylaxis initiative study was used to calculate inferred risk reduction. The time required to reach steady state for TFV-DP in rectal mononuclear cells was also determined. Results. Twenty-one HIV-uninfected adults participated in Cell-PrEP. The inferred HIV risk reduction, based on PBMC TFV-DP concentration, reached 99% (95% confidence interval [CI], 69%–100%) after 5 daily doses, and remained >90% for 7 days after stopping drug from steady-state conditions. The proportion of participants reaching the 90% effective concentration (EC90) was 77% after 5 doses and 89% after 7 doses. The percentage of steady state for natural log [TFV-DP] in rectal mononuclear cells was 88% (95% CI, 66%–94%) after 5 doses and 94% (95% CI, 78%–98%) after 7 doses. Conclusions. High PrEP activity for MSM was achieved by approximately 1 week of daily dosing. Although effective intracellular drug concentrations persist for several days after stopping PrEP, a reasonable recommendation is to continue PrEP dosing for 4 weeks after the last potential HIV exposure, similar to recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. PMID:25409469

  11. An Evaluation of Surgical Prophylaxis Procedures in Turkey: A Multi-Center Point Prevalence Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Selcuk; Aktas, Seyhan; Senbayrak, Seniha; Tekin, Recep; Oztoprak, Nefise; Aksoy, Firdevs; Firat, Pinar; Yenice, Sevinc; Oncul, Ahsen; Gunduz, Alper; Solak, Semiha; Kadanali, Ayten; Cakar, Sule Eren; Caglayan, Derya; Yilmaz, Hava; Bozkurt, Ilkay; Elmaslar, Tulin; Tartar, Ayse Sagmak; Aynioglu, Aynur; Kocyigit, Nilgun Fidan; Koksal, Iftihar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate compliance with guidelines in surgical prophylaxis (SP) procedures in Turkey. Materials and Methods: A point prevalence study involving 4 university, 5 education and research and 7 public hospitals was performed assessing compliance with guidelines for antibiotic use in SP. Compliance was based on the “Clinical Practice Guidelines for Antimicrobial Surgery (CPGAS) 2013” guideline. Results: Sixteen centers were included in the study, with 166 operations performed at these being evaluated. Parenteral antibiotic for SP was applied in 161 (96.9%) of these. Type of antibiotic was inappropriate in 66 (40.9%) cases and duration of use in 47 (29.1%). The main antibiotics used inappropriately in SP were ceftriaxone, glycopeptides and aminoglycosides. No significant difference was observed between secondary and tertiary hospitals in terms of inappropriate selection. Duration of prophylaxis was also incompatible with guideline recommendations in approximately half of surgical procedures performed in both secondary and tertiary hospitals, however statistical significance was observed between institutions in favor of tertiary hospitals. Conclusion: Antibiotics are to a considerable extent used in a manner incompatible with guidelines even in tertiary hospitals in Turkey. It must not be forgotten that several pre-, intra- and postoperative factors can be involved in the development of surgical site infections (SSI), and antibiotics are not the only option available for preventing these. A significant improvement can be achieved in prophylaxis with close observation, educational activities, collaboration with the surgical team and increasing compliance with guidelines. All health institutions must establish and apply their own SP consensus accompanied by the guidelines in order to achieve success in SP. PMID:27026760

  12. Primary venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in patients with solid tumors: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Minh; John, Sonia; Casanegra, Ana I.; Rathbun, Suman; Mansfield, Aaron; Stoner, Julie A.; Tafur, Alfonso J.

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of death among outpatient chemotherapy patients. However the VTE preventive measures for outpatients are not widely advocated. We did a meta-analysis to evaluate the outpatient VTE prevention's effectiveness and safety. We searched electronic databases until the end of December 2012 and reviewed the abstracts and manuscripts following the PRISMA guidelines. Occurrence of first VTE event was the efficacy outcome. The safety end point was major bleeding. We calculated Q statistic and a homogeneity formal test. The odds ratio (OR) estimates were pooled by using the Mantel–Haenszel fixed-effects method in the absence of heterogeneity. Data were analyzed using the R META package). We identified 1,485 articles and reviewed 37 articles based on initial screening. The number of patients included in 11 selected trials was 7,805. The odds of VTE was lower in the prophylaxis group (OR 0.56; 95 % CI 0.45–0.71) and improved when heparin-based prevention was analyzed (OR 0.53; 95 % CI 0.41–0.70). We found strong prevention among patients with lung cancer (OR 0.46; 95 % CI 0.29–0.74) and pancreatic cancer (OR 0.33; 95 % CI 0.16–0.67). Major bleeding events were frequent in the intervention group (OR 1.65; 95 % CI 1.12–2.44). Thromboprophylaxis reduced VTE episodes. The VTE events were reduced by 47 % in heparin-based prophylaxis trials compared to placebo. The patients receiving heparin-based prophylaxis had a 60 % increase in bleeding events. Improving risk stratification tools to personalize prevention strategies may enhance the VTE prevention applicability in cancer patients. PMID:24233387

  13. The effect of prophylaxis method on microtensile bond strength of indirect restorations to dentin.

    PubMed

    Soares, C J; Pereira, J C; Souza, S J B; Menezes, M S; Armstrong, S R

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different materials used for dentin prophylaxis on the microtensile bond strengths (μTBS) of adhesively cemented indirect composite restorations. Sixty bovine incisors had the buccal surface ground with wet #600-grit silicon carbide abrasive paper to obtain a flat exposed superficial dentin and were submitted to different prophylaxis protocols, as follows: 3% hydrogen peroxide (HydP); 0.12% chlorhexidine (Chlo); sodium bicarbonate jet (SodB); 50-μm aluminum oxide air abrasion (AirA); pumice paste (PumP), and control group-water spray (Cont). After prophylaxis protocols a resin composite block (3.0 mm × 5.0 mm × 5.0 mm) was adhesively cemented using dual resin cement (Rely X ARC). After 24 hours of water storage, specimens were serially sectioned perpendicular to the bonded interface into 1-mm-thick slices. Each specimen was trimmed with a diamond bur to an hourglass shape with a cross-sectional area of approximately 1.0 mm(2) at the bonded area. Specimens were tested (μTBS) at 0.5 mm/min using a universal testing machine. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the effects of prophylaxis techniques on dentin. Bond strength data (MPa) were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and failure mode by Fisher test (α=0.05). μTBS data, means (SD), were (different superscripted letters indicate statistically significant differences): AirA, 25.2 (7.2)(a); PumP, 24.1 (7.8)(a); Chlo, 21.5 (5.6)(a); Cont, 20.6 (8.1)(a); HydP(,) 15.5 (7.6)(b); and SodB(,) 11.5 (4.4)(c). The use of aluminum oxide air abrasion, pumice paste, and chlorhexidine before acid etching did not significantly affect μTBS to dentin; however, the use of hydrogen peroxide and sodium bicarbonate jet significantly reduced μTBS. PMID:22616925

  14. Commentary on Inhaled 239PuO2 in Dogs — A Prophylaxis against Lung Cancer?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cuttler, Jerry M.; Feinendegen, Ludwig E.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies on the effect of inhaled plutonium-dioxide particulates and the incidence of lung tumors in dogs reveal beneficial effects when the cumulative alpha-radiation dose is low. There is a threshold at an exposure level of about 100 cGy for excess tumor incidence and reduced lifespan. The observations conform to the expectations of the radiation hormesis dose-response model and contradict the predictions of the LNT hypothesis. These studies suggest investigating the possibility of employing low-dose alpha-radiation, such as from 239PuO2 inhalation, as a prophylaxis against lung cancer.

  15. Antifungal Prophylaxis in Pediatric Hematology/Oncology: New Choices & New Data

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Christopher C.; Fisher, Brian T.; Sung, Lillian; Steinbach, William J.; Nieder, Michael; Alexander, Sarah; Zaoutis, Theoklis E.

    2012-01-01

    A severe complication of the treatment of pediatric cancers is the development of an invasive fungal infection (IFI). The data to support antifungal prophylaxis in pediatric oncology patients derive primarily from adult patients, and thus the optimal agent to utilize is not clear. Fluconazole has been a standard option, but agents with antimold activity are now available, each with limitations. Pediatric dosing for voriconazole and posaconazole is uncertain and multiple drug interactions exist. The echinocandins are well-tolerated, but only available in intravenous form. Ultimately, studies demonstrating biologic risk factors for the development of IFI may lead to personalized prophylactic strategies. PMID:22102607

  16. Evidence-base for aspirin as venous thromboembolic prophylaxis following joint replacement

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, S. S.; Baker, P. N.; Deehan, D. J.; Port, A.; Reed, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has thus far relied on historical data and predominantly industry-sponsored trials to provide evidence for venous thromboembolic (VTE) prophylaxis in joint replacement patients. We argue that the NICE guidelines may be reliant on assumptions that are in need of revision. Following the publication of large scale, independent observational studies showing little difference between low-molecular-weight heparins and aspirin, and recent changes to the guidance provided by other international bodies, should NICE reconsider their recommendations? Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:146–9. PMID:24837005

  17. Commentary on Inhaled 239PUO2 in Dogs — A Prophylaxis Against Lung Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Feinendegen, Ludwig E.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies on the effect of inhaled plutonium-dioxide particulates and the incidence of lung tumors in dogs reveal beneficial effects when the cumulative alpha-radiation dose is low. There is a threshold at an exposure level of about 100 cGy for excess tumor incidence and reduced lifespan. The observations conform to the expectations of the radiation hormesis dose-response model and contradict the predictions of the LNT hypothesis. These studies suggest investigating the possibility of employing low-dose alpha-radiation, such as from 239PuO2 inhalation, as a prophylaxis against lung cancer. PMID:26675366

  18. Elemental diets in the prophylaxis and therapy for intestinal lesions: an update

    SciTech Connect

    Bounous, G.

    1989-05-01

    The recognition of potentially noxious physiologic substances in the intestinal milieu prompted the use of an elemental semihydrolyzed formula diet in the prophylaxis of experimental acute ischemic enteropathy. Elemental diets have been used in the management of a variety of digestive diseases. An elemental diet protects the intestinal mucosa of rodents from radiation injury and facilitates mucosal healing. Clinical trials have shown the benefits of this form of treatment in the prevention of acute radiation enteropathy and in the therapy for delayed radiation enteropathy and Crohn's disease.90 references.

  19. Perspective for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Cervical Cancer: An Immunological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Marjorie; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Mirandola, Leonardo; Tonroy, Catherine; Tedjarati, Sean S.; Davis, Nicole; D’Cunha, Nicholas; Tijani, Lukman; Hardwick, Fred; Nguyen, Diane; Kast, W. Martin; Cobos, Everardo

    2014-01-01

    As the second most common cause of cancer-related death in women, human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines have been a major step in decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with cervical cancer. An estimated 490,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year. Increasing knowledge of the HPV role in the etiology of cervical cancer has led to the development and introduction of HPV-based vaccines for active immunotherapy of cervical cancer. Immunotherapies directed at preventing HPV-persistent infections. These vaccines are already accessible for prophylaxis and in the near future, they will be available for the treatment of preexisting HPV-related neoplastic lesions. PMID:22251005

  20. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV type 1: the role of neonatal and infant prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Stacey A; Appelgren, Kristie E; Kourtis, Athena P

    2015-02-01

    The prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV is one of the great public health successes of the past 20 years. Much concerted research efforts and dedicated work have led to the achievement of very low rates of PMTCT of HIV in settings that can implement optimal prophylaxis. Though several implementation challenges remain, global elimination of pediatric HIV infection seems now more than ever to be an attainable goal. Often overlooked, the role of prophylaxis of the newborn is nevertheless a very important component of PMTCT. In this paper, we focus on the role of neonatal and infant prophylaxis, discuss mechanisms of protection, and present the clinical trial-generated evidence that led to the current recommendations for preventing infections in breastfed and non-breastfed infants. PMTCT of HIV should not end at birth; a continuum of care extending postpartum and postnatally is required to minimize the risk of new pediatric HIV infections. PMID:25578882

  1. Patient-reported outcomes of caries prophylaxis among Swedish caries active adults in a long-term perspective.

    PubMed

    Flink, Håkan; Tegelberg, Åke; Arnetz, Judy; Birkhed, Dowen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure patient-reported outcomes of caries prophylaxis and to compare them with previously documented efforts in dental offices. A questionnaire was mailed to 134 caries active (CA) and 40 caries inactive (CI) adult patients treated at a Swedish public dental service clinic. The overall response rate was 69%. The questionnaire included items regarding patient perceived caries prophylaxis in relation to: 1) treatment and recommendations given by the dental personnel, 2) performed self-care and 3) perceived and expected effects.The responses were studied for their association to clinical data, extracted retrospectively from the patients' dental records.The mean follow up time was > 16 years. Information about caries prophylaxis (p = 0.01) and recommendations for self-care (p = 0.04) were given more often to the CA group than to the CI group. Supplementary examinations and recommendations of self-care risk treatments were more frequent in the CA group (p < 0.001). CA patients also made more frequent extra efforts at home to avoid caries by changing their eating habits (p < 0.001), improving their oral hygiene (p = 0.04) and using extra fluoride (p = 0.001). In the CA group, 60% did not considerthat the extra prophylaxis efforts had made them caries inactive, and 40% were not satisfied with the outcome. Most patients (> 90%) hoped that the outcome of caries prophylactics would be a reduced number of cavities.The patient-perceived experiences of caries prophylaxis-were in concordance with dental records. Both the dentists and the caries active middle-aged Swedish adults were aware of the need for extra prophylaxis.The caries active patients perceived having made extra home care efforts, but had not experienced that they had become free from caries. PMID:27464386

  2. Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Swine Waste Treatment Systems▿

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Archana; Kocherginskaya, Svetlana; Mehboob, Asma; Robert, Matthew; Mackie, Roderick I.; Raskin, Lutgarde; Zilles, Julie L.

    2006-01-01

    Chlortetracycline and the macrolide tylosin were identified as commonly used antimicrobials for growth promotion and prophylaxis in swine production. Resistance to these antimicrobials was measured throughout the waste treatment processes at five swine farms by culture-based and molecular methods. Conventional farm samples had the highest levels of resistance with both culture-based and molecular methods and had similar levels of resistance despite differences in antimicrobial usage. The levels of resistance in organic farm samples, where no antimicrobials were used, were very low by a culture-based method targeting fecal streptococci. However, when the same samples were analyzed with a molecular method detecting methylation of a specific nucleotide in the 23S rRNA that results in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B (MLSB), an unexpectedly high level of resistant rRNA (approximately 50%) was observed, suggesting that the fecal streptococci were not an appropriate target group to evaluate resistance in the overall microbial community and that background levels of MLSB resistance may be substantial. All of the feed samples tested, including those from the organic farm, contained tetracycline resistance genes. Generally, the same tetracycline resistance genes and frequency of detection were found in the manure and lagoon samples for each commercial farm. The levels of tetracycline and MLSB resistance remained high throughout the waste treatment systems, suggesting that the potential impact of land application of treated wastes and waste treatment by-products on environmental levels of resistance should be investigated further. PMID:17041160

  3. Antimicrobial use and resistance in swine waste treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Archana; Kocherginskaya, Svetlana; Mehboob, Asma; Robert, Matthew; Mackie, Roderick I; Raskin, Lutgarde; Zilles, Julie L

    2006-12-01

    Chlortetracycline and the macrolide tylosin were identified as commonly used antimicrobials for growth promotion and prophylaxis in swine production. Resistance to these antimicrobials was measured throughout the waste treatment processes at five swine farms by culture-based and molecular methods. Conventional farm samples had the highest levels of resistance with both culture-based and molecular methods and had similar levels of resistance despite differences in antimicrobial usage. The levels of resistance in organic farm samples, where no antimicrobials were used, were very low by a culture-based method targeting fecal streptococci. However, when the same samples were analyzed with a molecular method detecting methylation of a specific nucleotide in the 23S rRNA that results in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramin B (MLSB), an unexpectedly high level of resistant rRNA (approximately 50%) was observed, suggesting that the fecal streptococci were not an appropriate target group to evaluate resistance in the overall microbial community and that background levels of MLSB resistance may be substantial. All of the feed samples tested, including those from the organic farm, contained tetracycline resistance genes. Generally, the same tetracycline resistance genes and frequency of detection were found in the manure and lagoon samples for each commercial farm. The levels of tetracycline and MLSB resistance remained high throughout the waste treatment systems, suggesting that the potential impact of land application of treated wastes and waste treatment by-products on environmental levels of resistance should be investigated further. PMID:17041160

  4. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for the primary prevention of HIV in at-risk women: empowerment and equity revisited.

    PubMed

    Kofman, Aaron; Adashi, Eli Y

    2014-01-01

    Women continue to bear a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic's impact. The last three years have witnessed the explosive emergence of pre-exposure prophylaxis as a viable, woman-initiated, and woman-controlled candidate for the primary prevention of HIV in women. These developments have proven particularly significant for at-risk women in environments where negotiation of safe sex is difficult. In this review, we trace the recent evolution of the pre-exposure prophylaxis vision for women, delineate the clinical trials that made it all possible, and discuss ongoing efforts required for its full actualization. PMID:25102335

  5. Resistance-Resistant Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    New antibiotics are needed because as drug resistance is increasing, the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. Here, we discuss six possible approaches to develop ‘resistance-resistant’ antibiotics. First, multi-target inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy due to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, re-purposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multi-target therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and in some cases suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored, in otherwise drug resistant organisms. PMID:25458541

  6. Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism: a great global divide between expert guidelines and clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Bikdeli, Behnood; Sharif-Kashani, Babak

    2012-03-01

    Our understanding of development and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has improved dramatically since Virchow described the triad of stasis, hypercoagulability, and endothelial dysfunction during the mid-1800s. A full arsenal of effective pharmacological and mechanical methods can help prevent VTE and many professional organizations have provided extensive evidence-based statements for VTE prophylaxis. Disappointingly, however, VTE has remained the major preventable cause of hospital death. Adherence rate to clinical guidelines is undesirably low. Many real-world patients have also been excluded from VTE prevention trials and hence practice guidelines recommendations. The comprehensive and repetitious formats of many available guidelines also limit their readability and applicability by nonthrombosis specialists. Moreover, some patients suffer from VTE despite complying with the contemporary prophylaxis regimens. Besides, significant heterogeneity exists in thromboprophylaxis practice and pitfalls between different countries. Last but not the least; although many at-risk patients are underprophylaxed, there is evidence to suggest that overprophylaxis (i.e., prescription of thromboprophylaxis in low-risk patients) comprises another important problem. We review the thromboprophylaxis practice and pitfalls around the world and provide recommendations on how the major obstacles can be overcome. PMID:22422329

  7. Evaluating awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Mohanty, Vikrant; Mahajan, Ananya; Oberoi, Avneet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene is intimated in health of all parts of the body including oral cavity. The understanding of actual practices in keeping the oral heath at standard based on patient's perceptions of oral health care is vital. Understanding the effect of gender on oral health would facilitate the development of successful attitude and behavior modification approach towards sustainable oral health. Purpose of Study: To evaluate awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 250 patients attending the department of periodontology, Maulana Azad institute of dental sciences for oral prophylaxis. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding practices and perception about oral hygiene. Results: Majority of the patients (60.4%) felt that oral hygiene is mandatory for overall health of the body. The use of toothpaste and toothbrush (83.6%) was the most preferred cleaning aid among the study population in the present study. The major constraint for avoiding dental examination was no felt need (41.2%) followed by cost of dental treatment (26.8%) and time constraints (24.0%). Conclusions: Professional plaque removal and regular follow-up combined with oral hygiene instructions to the patients can minimize the level of gingival inflammation and swelling. The poor resources for dental care, common malpractices and nonavailability of professional care are the main barriers in seeking optimum oral hygiene. PMID:25024553

  8. Antibiotic prophylaxis during dental procedures in patients with in situ lower limb prosthetic joints.

    PubMed

    Alao, U; Pydisetty, R; Sandiford, N A

    2015-02-01

    The average age of patients presenting for total joint arthroplasty is decreasing. The number of primary and revision arthroplasty procedures performed in the UK, Europe and USA is increasing annually. As number of procedures performed increases, the life expectancy of our patients and therefore the in vivo duration of prosthetic joints increase, and the potential for complications such as infection increases. One potential source for this is bacterial dissemination during dental surgery. Many attempts have been made to address this issue in the form of national guidelines, but there is no clear consensus on antibiotic prophylaxis before these procedures in order to decrease the risk of prosthetic joint infection. This continues to be an area of indecision and uncertainty resulting in patients having delays in their treatment while decisions are made by oral and orthopaedic surgeons about prophylactic antibiotic use. This article reviews the existing national guidelines, highlighting the current views and issues surrounding this subject, and a critical appraisal of current evidence for the use of prophylactic antibiotics in this patient population is presented. We will also review the response in literature to the 2009 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons information statement release on antibiotic prophylaxis in joint arthroplasty patients undergoing dental procedures. PMID:24811854

  9. Estimated Prevalence of Venous Thromboembolism in Iran: Prophylaxis Still an Unmet Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Sharif-Kashani, Babak; Mohebi-Nejad, Azin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inappropriate thromboprophylaxis is a serious problem in Iran. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the most important causes of morbidity in patients in surgical and obstetrics departments and intensive care units (ICUs). It is a leading preventable cause of mortality among in-patients. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of VTE and its epidemiology in an Iranian population for the first time. Materials and Methods: There is no national registry system for keeping VTE records in Iran. To statistically calculate the annual prevalence of VTE, we used the prevalence of VTE in presence of each VTE predisposing condition and the annual prevalence of each VTE predisposing condition in Iran. Results: The average annual number of total adult patients with predisposing conditions of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in Iran was 5,288,272 people. The mean annual prevalence of DVT in Iran was between 686,928 and 2,089,738 cases. The mean annual prevalence rate of DVT among the hospitalized Iranian adult patients with the risk of DVT was approximately between 129.90 and 395.16 cases per 1000 patients. Conclusion: The mean annual prevalence of DVT among the hospitalized Iranian adult patients not receiving prophylaxis is high. We also found that appropriate prophylaxis was provided for less than half the patients in need. PMID:26221149

  10. Efficacy and safety of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with apixaban in major orthopedic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Werth, Sebastian; Halbritter, Kai; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) have been accepted as the “gold standard” for pharmaceutical thromboprophylaxis in patients at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in most countries around the world. Patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery (MOS) represent a population with high risk of VTE, which may remain asymptomatic or become symptomatic as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Numerous trials have investigated LMWH thromboprophylaxis in this population and demonstrated high efficacy and safety of these substances. However, LMWHs have a number of disadvantages, which limit the acceptance of patients and physicians, especially in prolonged prophylaxis up to 35 days after MOS. Consequently, new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were developed that are of synthetic origin and act as direct and very specific inhibitors of different factors in the coagulation cascade. The most developed NOACs are dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, all of which are approved for thromboprophylaxis in MOS in a number of countries around the world. This review is focused on the pharmacological characteristics of apixaban in comparison with other NOACs, on the impact of NOAC on VTE prophylaxis in daily care, and on the management of specific situations such as bleeding complications during NOAC therapy. PMID:22547932

  11. Prophylaxis and therapy of influenza pneumonia in mice by intratracheal instillation of monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    This study on passive immunity dealt principally with the following topics: pathogenesis of the pneumonia produced by influenza virus (PR8) in CF-1 mice; the distribution and retention of monoclonal antibody instilled intratracheally (IT) into the lung; and prophylaxis and therapy of influenza pneumonia using specific monoclonal antibody (IgG 2a/k anti-HA). The fate of a single 50 ul bolus of antibody instilled IT was determined by monitoring the activity of /sup 125/I-labelled monoclonal IgG in the lungs and by lavage recovery of functional antibody.Antibody was demonstrated in high concentrations for the first 3 days and was present in the lungs for a period of 7 days. For prophylaxis several trials indicated that monoclonal antibody provided significant protection from lethal effects of the virus. Antibody given to clinically ill mice on day 3 produced a highly significant reduction in mortality (P < 0.001) when compared to control mice. The treatment reversed the weight loss and apparently arrested the development of lesions in most of the mice within 2 days following antibody administration.

  12. Successful gestation and delivery using clopidogrel for secondary stroke prophylaxis: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Christopher R; Cuesta-Fernandez, Ana; Kayaleh, Omar R

    2014-09-01

    Literature is scarce regarding the use of clopidogrel during pregnancy and the potential hazard to maternal and fetal health. We report a 33-year-old female, who presented to our clinic at 40 weeks gestation with a history of multiple prior ischemic strokes and transient ischemic attacks. The patient was placed on clopidogrel for secondary stroke prophylaxis prior to conception and maintained therapy throughout pregnancy without interruption or complication. Clopidogrel was discontinued 7 days prior to induction of labor, and a healthy baby was vaginally delivered without bleeding complications or congenital anomalies. Clopidogrel was restarted 12 hours postpartum without an incident. To our knowledge, this is the first report of clopidogrel use in pregnancy for secondary stroke prophylaxis. We also provide a current review of the literature of the use of clopidogrel in pregnancy. Based on the limited data available, clopidogrel use in pregnancy has not demonstrated significant toxicity to either the mother or the newborn. However, additional studies are needed to further assess the efficacy and safety of this medication in this patient population. PMID:24798936

  13. [The role of pharmacology in the comprehensive prophylaxis of post-traumatic fat embolism].

    PubMed

    Kroupa, J

    1993-01-01

    Immediate high-standard provisions implemented as soon as possible after serious injuries with the aim to prevent the development of shock or to treat incipient and developing shock is one of the most important aspects of prophylaxis of the syndrome of traumatic fat embolism (FE). An important place is held by the rostoration of normal microcirculation, replacement of blood losses and the control of hypoxia, in particular by artificial pulmonary ventilation. A high caloric intake both by the parenteral and enteral route has among others the objective to prevent excessive development of lipolysis. Surgical operations with the exception of urgent ones which must not be delayed should be postponed till complete regression of clinical manifestations of traumatic shock. The group of comprehensive provisions comprises pharmacological provisions against traumatic shock and pharmacological participation in the prophylaxis of the FE syndrome: Lipostabil; Trasylol; heparin and other anticoagulants in small doses; hydrocortisone; dextrans, CaCl2 and possibly other effective substances or drugs in rational individually recommended doses and expedient combinations. PMID:8342376

  14. Amifostine Prophylaxis on Bone Densitometry, Biomechanical Strength and Union in Mandibular Pathologic Fracture Repair

    PubMed Central

    Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N.; Donneys, Alexis; Sarhaddi, Deniz; Poushanchi, Behdod; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Weiss, Daniela M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathologic fractures (Fx) of the mandibles are severely debilitating consequences of radiation (XRT) in the treatment of craniofacial malignancy. We have previously demonstrated Amifostine’s effect (AMF) in the remediation of radiation-induced cellular damage. We posit that AMF prophylaxis will preserve bone strength and drastically reverse radiotherapy-induced non-union in a murine mandibular model of pathologic fracture repair. Materials and Methods Twenty-nine rats were randomized into 3 groups: Fx, XRT/Fx, and AMF/XRT/Fx. A fractionated human equivalent dose of radiation was delivered to the left hemimandibles of XRT/Fx and AMF/XRT/Fx. AMF/XRT/Fx was pre-treated with AMF. All groups underwent left mandibular osteotomy with external fixation and setting of a 2.1mm fracture gap post-operatively. Utilizing micro-computed tomography and biomechanical testing, the healed fracture was evaluated for strength. Results All radiomorphometrics and biomechanical properties were significantly diminished in XRT/Fx compared to both Fx and AMF/XRT/Fx. No difference was demonstrated between Fx and AMF/XRT/Fx in both outcomes. Conclusion Our investigation establishes the significant and substantial capability of AMF prophylaxis to preserve and enhance bone union, quality and strength in the setting of human equivalent radiotherapy. Such novel discoveries establish the true potential to utilize pharmacotherapy to prevent and improve the treatment outcomes of radiation-induced late pathologic fractures. PMID:23860272

  15. Pharmacologic Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Critical Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Despite the frequency and morbidity of venous thromboembolism (VTE) development after traumatic brain injury (TBI), no national standard of care exists to guide TBI caregivers for the use of prophylactic anticoagulation. Fears of iatrogenic propagation of intracranial hemorrhage patterns have led to a dearth of research in this field, and it is only relatively recently that studies dedicated to this question have been performed. These have generally been limited to retrospective and/or observational studies in which patients are classified in a binary fashion as having the presence or absence of intracranial blood. This methodology does not account for the fact that smaller injury patterns stabilize more rapidly, and thus may be able to safely tolerate earlier initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation than larger injury patterns. This review seeks to critically assess the literature on this question by examining the existing evidence on the safety and efficacy of pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis in the setting of elective craniotomy (as this is the closest model available from which to extrapolate) and after TBI. In doing so, we critique studies that approach TBI as a homogenous or a heterogenous study population. Finally, we propose our own theoretical protocol which stratifies patients into low, moderate, and high risk for the likelihood of natural progression of their hemorrhage pattern, and which allows one to tailor a unique VTE prophylaxis regimen to each individual arm. PMID:22651698

  16. Antiretrovirals for Primary HIV Prevention: The Current Status of Pre- and Post-Exposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Krakower, Douglas S.; Jain, Sachin; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the 2 million HIV infections that occur globally each year, there is a need to optimize strategies that integrate biomedical and behavioral approaches to HIV prevention. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) immediately after acute high-risk exposures and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for those who engage in recurrent high-risk behaviors are promising bio-behavioral approaches to decreasing HIV transmission. Guidelines have recommended PEP for occupational and non-occupational exposures for over 15 years, but uptake of PEP has been limited, partly as a result of insufficient awareness of this intervention among persons at highest risk for acquiring HIV. However, since the publication of large randomized clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy of PrEP, and the dissemination of guidelines endorsing its use, there is a renewed focus on bio-behavioral prevention. Numerous studies have recently assessed the acceptability of bio-behavioral prevention programs among diverse populations or described experiences implementing these programs in “real-world” settings. As research and clinical data informing optimal utilization of PEP and PrEP are rapidly accumulating, this review provides a timely summary of recent progress in bio-behavioral prevention. By contextualizing the most noteworthy recent findings regarding PEP and PrEP, this review seeks to inform successful implementation of these promising prevention approaches. PMID:25600106

  17. Central Nervous System Involvement in Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Diagnostic Tools, Prophylaxis, and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Maurillo, Luca; Buccisano, Francesco; Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Cefalo, Mariagiovanna; De Santis, Giovanna; Di Veroli, Ambra; Ditto, Concetta; Nasso, Daniela; Postorino, Massimiliano; Refrigeri, Marco; Attrotto, Cristina; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Amadori, Sergio; Venditti, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    In adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement is associated with a very poor prognosis. The diagnostic assessment of this condition relies on the use of neuroradiology, conventional cytology (CC) and flow cytometry (FCM). Among these approaches, which is the gold standard it is still a matter of debate. Neuroradiology and CC have a limited sensitivity with a higher rate of false negative results. FCM demonstrated a superior sensitivity over CC, particularly when low levels of CNS infiltrating cells are present. Although prospective studies of a large series of patients are still awaited, a positive finding by FCM appears to anticipate an adverse outcome even if CC shows no infiltration. Current strategies for adult ALL CNS-directed prophylaxis or therapy involve systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy and radiation therapy. An early and frequent intrathecal injection of cytostatic combined with systemic chemotherapy is the most effective strategy to reduce the frequency of CNS involvement. In patients with CNS overt ALL, at diagnosis or upon relapse, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation might be considered. This review discusses risk factors, diagnostic techniques for identification of CNS infiltration and modalities of prophylaxis and therapy to manage it. PMID:25408861

  18. [Caries prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Riethe, P

    1977-07-14

    The extent of dental caries incidence has reached such proportions that it may no longer be kept under control by restorative methods alone. Parodontopathy is besides tooth caried the most wide spread ailment. Bacterial plaque can be considered as main cause and key-factor for caries incidence and parodontopathy. All other causes are co-factors. It follows that decrease of dental plaque must be the most urgent goal in prophylactic dentistry. The combination of all caries and parodontal prophylactic remedies and methods determines as a complex the fate of hard and soft tissues exposed to bacterial plaque. PMID:885457

  19. Influenza A Virus Hemagglutinin Antibody Escape Promotes Neuraminidase Antigenic Variation and Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Scott E.; Das, Suman R.; Gibbs, James S.; Bailey, Adam L.; Schmidt, Loren M.; Bennink, Jack R.; Yewdell, Jonathan W.

    2011-01-01

    Drugs inhibiting the influenza A virus (IAV) neuraminidase (NA) are the cornerstone of anti-IAV chemotherapy and prophylaxis in man. Drug-resistant mutations in NA arise frequently in human isolates, limiting the therapeutic application of NA inhibitors. Here, we show that antibody-driven antigenic variation in one domain of the H1 hemagglutinin Sa site leads to compensatory mutations in NA, resulting in NA antigenic variation and acquisition of drug resistance. These findings indicate that influenza A virus resistance to NA inhibitors can potentially arise from antibody driven HA escape, confounding analysis of influenza NA evolution in nature. PMID:21364978

  20. Drug Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment Drug Resistance (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points As HIV multiplies in the ... the risk of drug resistance. What is HIV drug resistance? Once a person becomes infected with HIV, ...

  1. Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... lives. But there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance. It happens when bacteria change and become able ... resistant to several common antibiotics. To help prevent antibiotic resistance Don't use antibiotics for viruses like colds ...

  2. Preparing for pre-exposure prophylaxis: perceptions and readiness of Canadian pharmacists for the implementation of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Yoong, Deborah; Naccarato, Mark; Sharma, Malika; Wilton, James; Senn, Heather; Tan, Darrell Hs

    2016-07-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been shown to reduce the risk of HIV transmission but has the potential to cause harm if not used properly. Pharmacists are well-positioned to foster PrEP's efficacy but little is known whether they would endorse it as an HIV prevention tool. The objective of the study was to determine Canadian HIV pharmacists' support for PrEP and to identify current barriers to promoting PrEP. Canadian pharmacists with experience in HIV care were invited to complete an online survey about their experiences, opinions, and learning needs regarding PrEP from December 2012 to January 2013. Among the 59 surveys received, 48 met criteria for final analysis. Overall, 33 (69%) respondents would provide education positively supporting the use of PrEP and 26 (54%) believed Health Canada should approve PrEP for use in Canada. Familiarity with the concept of PrEP and practice characteristics examined did not appear to be significantly associated with support for PrEP in univariable analyses. The principal barriers to promoting PrEP included inadequate drug coverage and insufficient knowledge to educate others. Many Canadian HIV pharmacists would endorse PrEP for high-risk patients; however, wider dissemination of information and lower drug costs may be needed to make PrEP more widely promoted. PMID:26025254

  3. The Influential Roles of Antibiotics Prophylaxis in Cirrhotic Patients with Peptic Ulcer Bleeding after Initial Endoscopic Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Wei-Chen; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Wang, Jing-Houng; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2014-01-01

    The influential roles of antibiotic prophylaxis on cirrhotic patients with peptic ulcer bleeding are still not well documented. The purpose of this study is to clarify these influential roles and to identify the risk factors associated with rebleeding, bacterial infection and in-hospital mortality. A cross-sectional, chart review study was conducted on 210 cirrhotic patients with acute peptic ulcer hemorrhage who underwent therapeutic endoscopic procedures. Patients were divided into group A (with prophylactic intravenous ceftriaxone, n = 74) and group B (without antibiotics, n = 136). The outcomes were length of hospital days, prevention of infection, rebleeding rate and in-hospital mortality. Our results showed that more patients suffered from rebleeding and infection in group B than group A (31.6% vs. 5.4%; p<0.001 and 25% vs. 10.8%; p = 0.014 respectively). The risk factors for rebleeding were active alcoholism, unit of blood transfusion, Rockall score, model for end-stage liver disease score and antibiotic prophylaxis. The risk factors for infection were active alcoholism, Child-Pugh C, Rockall score and antibiotic prophylaxis. Rockall score was the predictive factor for in-hospital mortality. In conclusions, antibiotic prophylaxis in cirrhotic patients after endoscopic interventions for acute peptic ulcer hemorrhage reduced infections and rebleeding rate but not in-hospital mortality. Rockall score was the predictive factor of in-hospital mortality. PMID:24788341

  4. Methicillin-susceptible strains responsible for postoperative orthopedic infection are not selected by the use of cefazolin in prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Trouillet-Assant, Sophie; Valour, Florent; Mouton, William; Martins-Simões, Patrícia; Lustig, Sébastien; Laurent, Frédéric; Ferry, Tristan

    2016-03-01

    Comparison of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolates responsible for bone and joint infection (BJI, n=73) and nasal colonization (n=57) revealed similar prevalence of β-lactamase (blaZ) type A production, associated with cefazolin hydrolysis, suggesting that blaZ type A-carrying MSSA isolates implicated in postoperative BJI are not selected by cefazolin prophylaxis. PMID:26707070

  5. Density-dependent prophylaxis in the coral-eating crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, S. C.

    2012-06-01

    The density-dependent prophylaxis hypothesis predicts that individuals at high density will invest more resources into immune defence than individuals at lower densities as a counter-measure to density-dependent pathogen transmission rates. Evidence has been found for this hypothesis in insects, but not in a non-arthropod taxon. To investigate this hypothesis in the coral-eating crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci, density treatments were set up over 21 days, and pathogen infection was simulated with bacterial injection. Five immune responses: amoebocyte count, amoebocyte viability, lysosomal membrane integrity, respiratory burst and peroxidase activity were all upregulated at high density. These results demonstrate that immune investment shows phenotypic plasticity with adult population density in agreement with the density-dependent prophylaxis hypothesis. Here I show that the density-dependent prophylaxis hypothesis is neither dependent on larval density nor restricted to insects, and hence may potentially have important consequences on disease dynamics in any species with widely fluctuating population densities. This is the first demonstration of the density-dependent prophylaxis hypothesis outside arthropods.

  6. A Prospective Randomized Study to Assess the Optimal Duration of Intravenous Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Elective Gastric Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Norihiro; Ishida, Hideyuki; Ishiguro, Toru; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Tsuji, Yoshitaka; Miyazaki, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    The duration of antimicrobial prophylaxis in gastric cancer surgery is not yet established. This prospective randomized study was performed to confirm the noninferiority of single-dose versus multiple-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis in terms of the incidence of surgical-site infection in gastric cancer surgery. Three hundred twenty-five patients undergoing elective resection for gastric cancer were randomized to receive only single-dose cefazolin (1 g) during surgery (single-dose group) or an additional 5 doses every 12 hours postoperatively (multiple-dose group). The overall incidence of surgical-site infections was 9.1% in the single-dose group and 6.2% in the multiple-dose group [difference (95% confidence interval): −2.9% (−5.9%–0.0%)]. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified blood loss, being overweight, and advanced age as significant independent risk factors for surgical-site infection. Single-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis seemed to be acceptable, and choosing multiple-dose prophylaxis may have little impact on the prevention of surgical-site infections in elective gastric cancer surgery. PMID:23102084

  7. Beta-blocker migraine prophylaxis affects the excitability of the visual cortex as revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gerwig, Marcus; Niehaus, L; Stude, P; Katsarava, Z; Diener, H C

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess effects of beta-blocker migraine prophylaxis on cortical excitability determined by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Phosphene and motor thresholds (PT, MT) were investigated in 29 patients with migraine, in 15 of them prior to and following preventive medication with metoprolol and in 14 patients without prophylaxis. Following prophylaxis headache frequency significantly decreased (p = 0.005) and mean PT were significantly increased (51.5 ± 7.5 vs. 63.6 ± 8.4%) compared to patients without preventive treatment (53.7 ± 5.3 vs. 52.3 ± 6.3%; p = 0.040). Mean MT did not significantly differ either between groups or due to treatment. In the group of all patients, a significant inverse correlation between headache frequency and the level of PT was found (R = -0.629; p < 0.01). There was, however, no significant correlation in the subgroups of patients. We conclude that (a) clinical efficacy of beta-blocker treatment in migraine could be (at least partly) linked to its ability to modulate the excitability of the visual cortex and (b) the PT determined by TMS appears suitable to assess the effects of prophylaxis on cortical excitability in the individual patient. This may be useful in clinical trials investigating migraine preventive drugs. PMID:22089539

  8. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis and Treatment in Cancer: A Consensus Statement of Major Guidelines Panels and Call to Action

    PubMed Central

    Khorana, Alok A.; Streiff, Michael B.; Farge, Dominique; Mandala, Mario; Debourdeau, Philippe; Cajfinger, Francis; Marty, Michel; Falanga, Anna; Lyman, Gary H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an increasingly frequent complication of cancer and its treatments, and is associated with worsened mortality and morbidity in patients with cancer. Design The Italian Association of Medical Oncology, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the French National Federation of the League of Centers Against Cancer, and the European Society of Medical Oncology have recently published guidelines regarding VTE in patients with cancer. This review, authored by a working group of members from these panels, focuses on the methodology and areas of consensus and disagreement in the various clinical guidelines as well as directions for future research. Results There is broad consensus regarding the importance of thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients with cancer, including prolonged prophylaxis in high-risk surgical patients. Prophylaxis is not currently recommended for ambulatory patients with cancer (with exceptions) or for central venous catheters. All of the panels agree that low molecular weight heparins are preferred for the long-term treatment of VTE in cancer. Areas that warrant further research include the benefit of prophylaxis in the ambulatory setting, the risk/benefit ratio of prophylaxis for hospitalized patients with cancer, an understanding of incidental VTE, and the impact of anticoagulation on survival. Conclusion We call for a sustained research effort to investigate the clinical issues identified here to reduce the burden of VTE and its consequences in patients with cancer. PMID:19720907

  9. Adherence to Published Antimicrobial Prophylaxis Guidelines for Wounded Service Members in the Ongoing Conflicts in Southwest Asia

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Colonel Bradley A.; Weintrob, Amy C.; Hinkle, Major Mary K.; Fortuna, Lieutenant Colonel Gerald R.; Murray, Colonel Clinton K.; Bradley, William; Millar, Eugene V.; Shaikh, Faraz; Vanderzant, Kristen; Gregg, Stacie; Lloyd, Gina; Stevens, Julie; Carson, M. Leigh; Aggarwal, Deepak; Tribble, David R.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, a clinical practice guideline (CPG) was developed for the prevention of infections among military personnel with combat-related injuries. Our analysis expands on a prior 6-month evaluation and assesses CPG adherence with respect to antimicrobial prophylaxis for U.S. combat casualties medically evacuated to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center over a 1-year period (June 2009 through May 2010), with an eventual goal of continuously monitoring CPG adherence and measuring outcomes as a function of compliance. We classified adherence to the CPG as receipt of recommended antimicrobials within 48 hours of injury. A total of 1106 military personnel eligible for CPG assessment were identified and 74% received antimicrobial prophylaxis. Overall, CPG compliance within 48 hours of injury was 75%. Lack of antimicrobial prophylaxis contributed 2 to 22% to noncompliance varying by injury category, whereas receipt of antibiotics other than preferred was 11 to 30%. For extremity injuries, antimicrobial prophylaxis adherence was 60 to 83%, whereas it was 80% for closed injuries and 68% for penetrating abdominal injuries. Overall, the results of our analysis suggest an ongoing need to improve adherence, monitor CPG compliance, and assess effectiveness. PMID:24594469

  10. Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Gynecologic Procedures prior to and during the Utilization of Assisted Reproductive Technologies: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Anne P.; Lekovich, Jovana P.; Hobeika, Elie; Elias, Rony T.

    2016-01-01

    The use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has increased steadily. There has been a corresponding increase in the number of ART-related procedures such as hysterosalpingography (HSG), saline infusion sonography (SIS), hysteroscopy, laparoscopy, oocyte retrieval, and embryo transfer (ET). While performing these procedures, the abdomen, upper vagina, and endocervix are breached, leading to the possibility of seeding pelvic structures with microorganisms. Antibiotic prophylaxis is therefore important to prevent or treat any procedure-related infections. After careful review of the published literature, it is evident that routine antibiotic prophylaxis is generally not recommended for the majority of ART-related procedures. For transcervical procedures such as HSG, SIS, hysteroscopy, ET, and chromotubation, patients at risk for pelvic infections should be screened and treated prior to the procedure. Patients with a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or dilated fallopian tubes are at high risk for postprocedural infections and should be given antibiotic prophylaxis during procedures such as HSG, SIS, or chromotubation. Antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended prior to oocyte retrieval in patients with a history of endometriosis, PID, ruptured appendicitis, or multiple prior pelvic surgeries. PMID:27047692

  11. Shielding of the Hip Prosthesis During Radiation Therapy for Heterotopic Ossification is Associated with Increased Failure of Prophylaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Balboni, Tracy A.; Gaccione, Peter; Gobezie, Reuben; Mamon, Harvey J. . E-mail: hmamon@partners.org

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently administered to prevent heterotopic ossification (HO) after total hip arthroplasty (THA). The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an increased risk of HO after RT prophylaxis with shielding of the THA components. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective analysis of THA patients undergoing RT prophylaxis of HO at Brigham and Women's Hospital between June 1994 and February 2004. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess the relationships of all variables to failure of RT prophylaxis. Results: A total of 137 patients were identified and 84 were eligible for analysis (61%). The median RT dose was 750 cGy in one fraction, and the median follow-up was 24 months. Eight of 40 unshielded patients (20%) developed any progression of HO compared with 21 of 44 shielded patients (48%) (p = 0.009). Brooker Grade III-IV HO developed in 5% of unshielded and 18% of shielded patients (p 0.08). Multivariate analysis revealed shielding (p = 0.02) and THA for prosthesis infection (p = 0.03) to be significant predictors of RT failure, with a trend toward an increasing risk of HO progression with age (p = 0.07). There was no significant difference in the prosthesis failure rates between shielded and unshielded patients. Conclusions: A significantly increased risk of failure of RT prophylaxis for HO was noted in those receiving shielding of the hip prosthesis. Shielding did not appear to reduce the risk of prosthesis failure.

  12. Effect of dorzolamide-timolol fixed combination prophylaxis on intraocular pressure spikes after intravitreal bevacizumab injection

    PubMed Central

    Ozcaliskan, Sehnaz; Ozturk, Faruk; Yilmazbas, Pelin; Beyazyildiz, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of topical dorzolamide-timolol fixed combination prophylaxis on short term intraocular pressure (IOP) changes in patients who had intravitreal bevacizumab injection. METHODS One hundred and fifty one eyes of 151 patients which were followed up in retina clinic in Ulucanlar Eye Training and Research Hospital were evaluated in this study. Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 consists of 75 patients who had topical dorzolamid-timolol medication two hours before injection; while Group 2 consists of 76 patients without prophylaxis. Demographic data, IOP measurements prior to the injection and one, thirty and sixty minutes and twenty-four hours after the injection were recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). RESULTS There were no significant difference between two groups in age, gender distrubition and indications for injections. The mean IOPs in Groups 1 and 2 prior to the injection (T0) were 17.84±0.43 and 18.15±0.43 mm Hg, one minute after the injection (T1) were 29.75±1.6 and 34.44±1.59 mm Hg, 30min after the injection (T30) were 20.06±0.6 and 21.71±0.59 mm Hg respectively. The mean IOPs were 18.26±0.56 mm Hg in Group 1 and 19.78±0.56 mm Hg in Group 2 sixty minutes after the injection (T60). All IOP values after the injection were compared between two groups, there was a significant difference between two groups only on T1; one minute after the injection (P=0.04). There were a statiscially significant difference between the baseline values and other recorded values; except on T60, in Groups 1 and 2 (P<0.05). CONCLUSION After intravitreal bevacizumab injection; we observe a transient IOP elevation which normalizes about one hour after intravitreal injection. In patients who had topical dorzolamid-timolol combination prophylaxis before injections, a significant decrease is seen in IOP spikes due to this injection. The appropiate approach will monitor IOP after

  13. The effect of migraine prophylaxis on migraine-related resource use and productivity.

    PubMed

    Láinez, Miguel J A

    2009-09-01

    In the US, it is estimated that up to 10% of men and 25% of women, particularly those aged 25-55 years, experience debilitating migraines, such that the condition presents an enormous economic burden for patients, health systems, employers and society. Migraine headache is a particularly prevalent condition associated with major reductions in patients' quality of life. From a payer perspective, the implementation of relevant programmes of migraine prophylaxis is highly desirable. Consistent evidence exists, from several randomized, controlled studies, of the efficacy of amitriptyline, divalproex sodium, propranolol, timolol and topiramate in migraine prophylaxis. Considering resource utilization, various studies suggest that migraine prophylaxis with antiepileptics, antidepressants, beta-blockers or calcium channel antagonists markedly reduces triptan use and visits to physician offices and emergency departments (EDs), without compromising quality of care or treatment outcomes. Over recent years, the effects of topiramate in reducing resource utilization in patients with migraine have been relatively widely studied. In US claims database analyses involving >4000 patients with migraine, topiramate significantly reduced triptan use by up to 20% in the 12-month period after starting treatment. Reductions were also noted in the numbers of ED visits, diagnostic procedures, hospital admissions and migraine-related hospitalization days. These long-term benefits of topiramate manifested without any increase in overall headache-related costs. Furthermore, in detailed modelling analyses based on UK and US data, topiramate-induced savings in acute medical services were estimated to offset about one-quarter of the monthly per patient cost of the topiramate regimen, which was shown to be a dominant cost-effective intervention relative to no preventive therapy: cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated as pound 5728 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) [2005 costings] and $US10

  14. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic assessment of faropenem in a lethal murine Bacillus anthracis inhalation postexposure prophylaxis model.

    PubMed

    Gill, Stanley C; Rubino, Christopher M; Bassett, Jennifer; Miller, Lynda; Ambrose, Paul G; Bhavnani, Sujata M; Beaudry, Amber; Li, Jinfang; Stone, Kimberly Clawson; Critchley, Ian; Janjic, Nebojsa; Heine, Henry S

    2010-05-01

    There are few options for prophylaxis after exposure to Bacillus anthracis, especially in children and women of childbearing potential. Faropenem is a beta-lactam in the penem subclass that is being developed as an oral prodrug, faropenem medoxomil, for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. Faropenem was shown to have in vitro activity against B. anthracis strains that variably express the bla1 beta-lactamase (MIC range, prophylaxis inhalation model. The plasma PKs and PKs-PDs of faropenem were evaluated in BALB/c mice following the intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of doses ranging from 2.5 to 160 mg/kg of body weight. For the evaluation of efficacy, mice received by inhalation aerosol doses of B. anthracis (Ames strain; faropenem MIC, 0.06 microg/ml) at 100 times the 50% lethal dose. The faropenem dosing regimens (10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg/day) were administered i.p. at 24 h postchallenge at 4-, 6-, and 12-h intervals for 14 days. The sigmoid maximum-threshold-of-efficacy (E(max)) model fit the survival data, in which the free-drug area under the concentration-time curve (fAUC)/MIC ratio, the maximum concentration of free drug in plasma (fC(max))/MIC ratio, and the cumulative percentage of a 24-h period that the free-drug concentration exceeds the MIC under steady-state pharmacokinetic conditions (f %T(MIC)) were each evaluated. Assessment of f %T(MIC) demonstrated the strongest correlation with survival (R(2) = 0.967) compared to the correlations achieved by assessment of fAUC/MIC or fC(max)/MIC, for which minimal correlations were observed. The 50% effective dose (ED(50)), ED(90), and ED(99) corresponded to f %T(MIC) values of 10.6, 13.4, and 16.4%, respectively, and E(max) was 89.3%. Overall, faropenem demonstrated a high

  15. Contrast-Induced Nephropathy After Computed Tomography in Stable CKD Patients With Proper Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sehoon; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kang, Eunjeong; Park, Seokwoo; Jo, Hyung Ah.; Lee, Hajeong; Kim, Sun Moon.; Lee, Jung Pyo.; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Joo, Kwon Wook.; Kim, Yon Su.; Kim, Dong Ki.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Conflicting data have been reported on the clinical significance of contrast-induced nephropathy after CT scan (CT-CIN). In addition, the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical outcomes of CT-CIN following proper prophylactic intervention remain elusive. We examined the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of CT-CIN in stable chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients using data collected from our outpatient CT-CIN prophylaxis program conducted between 2007 and 2014. The program recruited patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 using an electronic health record-based pop-up alert system and provided an identical protocol of CIN prophylaxis to all patients. A total of 1666 subjects were included in this study, and 61 of the 1666 subjects (3.7%) developed CT-CIN. Multivariate analysis showed that baseline eGFR, diabetes mellitus, and low serum albumin were significant risk factors for CT-CIN. The generalized additive model analysis revealed a nonlinear relationship between the baseline eGFR and the risk of CT-CIN. In this analysis, the risk of CT-CIN began to increase below an eGFR threshold of 36.8 mL/min/1.73 m2. To assess the outcomes of CT-CIN, patients with and without CT-CIN were compared after propensity score-based 1:2 matching. CT-CIN did not increase the mortality rate of patients. However, patients with CT-CIN were significantly more likely to start dialysis within 6 months of follow-up, but not after those initial 6 months. CT-CIN developed in only a small number of stable CKD patients who received proper prophylactic intervention, and the risk of CT-CIN was increased in patients with more advanced CKD. Despite the low incidence, CT-CIN conferred a non-negligible risk for the initiation of dialysis in the acute period, even after prophylaxis. PMID:27149474

  16. Improving tetanus prophylaxis in the emergency department: a prospective, double‐blind cost‐effectiveness study

    PubMed Central

    Stubbe, Muriel; Mortelmans, Luc J M; Desruelles, Didier; Swinnen, Rohnny; Vranckx, Marc; Brasseur, Edmond; Lheureux, Philippe E

    2007-01-01

    Background The choice of tetanus prophylaxis for patients with wounds depends on obtaining their vaccination history, which has been demonstrated to be unreliable. Use of a rapid immunoassay (Tétanos Quick Stick, the TQS), combined with knowledge of certain demographic characteristics, may improve the evaluation of tetanus immunity and thus help to avoid inadequate prophylactic measures and reduce costs. Objectives To evaluate the contribution of the TQS in the choice of tetanus prophylaxis and to perform a cost‐effectiveness analysis. The final aim was to define the place of the TQS in a modified algorithm for assessment of tetanus immunity in the emergency department. Method In this Belgian prospective, double‐blind, multicentre study, 611 adult patients with a wound were included; 498 (81.5%) records were valid. The TQS test was performed by a nurse before the vaccination history was taken and the choice of prophylaxis was made, using the official algorithm (Belgian Superior Health Council), by a doctor who was unaware of the TQS result. Results The prevalence of protective anti‐tetanus immunity was 74.1%. Immunity was lower in older patients and in female patients. The TQS was a cost‐effective tool for patients presenting with a tetanus‐prone wound and considered from the vaccination history to be unprotected. Use of the TQS would have improved management in 56.9% (95% CI 47.7% to 65.7%) of patients by avoiding unnecessary treatments, leading to a reduction in the mean cost per patient (€10.58/patient with the TQS versus €11.34/patient without). The benefits of the TQS use were significantly greater in patients <61 years old: unnecessary treatment would have been avoided in 76.9% (95% CI 65.8% to 85.4%) of cases and the mean cost per patient reduced to €8.31. Conclusion In selected patients, the TQS is a cost‐effective tool to evaluate tetanus immunity. An algorithm is proposed for ED assessment of tetanus immunity integrating age and the

  17. Single high dose gentamicin for perioperative prophylaxis in orthopedic surgery: Evaluation of nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Dubrovskaya, Yanina; Tejada, Rainer; Bosco, Joseph; Stachel, Anna; Chen, Donald; Feng, Melinda; Rosenberg, Andrew; Phillips, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies described an increase in acute kidney injury when high dose gentamicin was included in perioperative prophylaxis for orthopedic surgeries. To this effect, we compared the rate of nephrotoxicity for selected orthopedic surgeries where gentamicin was included (Gentamicin Group) to those where it was not included (Control Group) for perioperative prophylaxis and evaluated risk factors for nephrotoxicity. Methods: Spine, hip and knee surgeries performed between April 2011 and December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Gentamicin was given to eligible patients based on age, weight and Creatinine Clearance. Nephrotoxicity was assessed using Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) criteria. Results: Among selected surgeries (N = 1590 in Gentamicin Group: hip = 926, spine = 600, knee = 64; N = 2587 in Control Group: hip = 980, spine = 902, knee = 705), patients’ body weight, serum creatinine, comorbidities and surgery duration were similar in Gentamicin Group and Control Group. Gentamicin median dose was 4.5 mg/kg of dosing weight. Nephrotoxicity rate was 2.5% in Gentamicin Group and 1.8% in Control Group, p = 0.17. Most cases of nephrotoxicity were Risk category by RIFLE criteria (67% in Gentamicin Group and 72% in Control Group, p = 0.49). In logistic regression, risk factors for nephrotoxicity were hospital stay >1 day prior to surgery (odds ratio = 8.1; 95% confidence interval = 2.25–28.97, p = 0.001), knee or hip surgery (odds ratio = 4.7; 95% confidence interval = 2.9–9.48, p = 0.0005) and diabetes (odds ratio = 1.95; 95% confidence interval = 1.13–3.35, p = 0.016). Receipt of gentamicin was not an independent predictor of nephrotoxicity (odds ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval = 0.97–2.35, p = 0.07). Conclusion: In this cohort, rate of nephrotoxicity was similar between Gentamicin Group and Control Group. Single

  18. A Survey of the Knowledge of Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis among the Medical Staff of Intensive Care Units in North China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiao; Sun, Bing; Yang, Yuanhua; Tong, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Background Guideline concordance for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) varies across different countries. Objective To explore how the medical staff of ICUs in China comprehend and practice VTE prophylaxis. Method Questionnaires comprising 39 questions and including 4 dimensions of thromboprophylaxis were administered in ICUs in North China. Results In all, 52 ICUs at 23 tertiary hospitals in 7 Chinese provinces and municipalities were surveyed. A total of 2500 questionnaires were sent, and 1861 were returned, corresponding to a response rate of approximately 74.4%. Of all surveyed medical staff, 36.5% of physicians and 22.2% of nurses were aware of the guidelines in China, and 19.0% of physicians and 9.5% of nurses comprehended the 9th edition of the guidelines of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP). Additionally, 37.6% of the medical staff chose a prophylaxis method based on the related guidelines, and 10.3% could demonstrate the exact indication for mechanical pattern application. Worries about skin injury, difficulty with removal and discomfort during mechanical thromboprophylaxis were cited by more than 30% of nurses, which was significantly more frequent than for physicians (graduated compression stockings: 54.3% VS 34.1%, 60.7% VS 49%, and 59.4% VS 54%, p = 0.000; intermittent pneumatic compression: 31% VS 22.2%, 19.2% VS 13.9%, and 37.8% VS 27.2%, p = 0.000). Conclusions and Relevance The knowledge of VTE prophylaxis among the medical staff of ICUs in North China remains limited, which may lead to a lack of standardization of VTE prophylaxis. Strengthened, standardized training may help medical staff to improve their comprehension of the relevant guidelines and may finally reduce the occurrence of VTE in ICUs and improve the prognosis of critically ill patients with VTE. PMID:26418162

  19. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis and Treatment in Patients With Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Update 2014

    PubMed Central

    Lyman, Gary H.; Bohlke, Kari; Khorana, Alok A.; Kuderer, Nicole M.; Lee, Agnes Y.; Arcelus, Juan Ignacio; Balaban, Edward P.; Clarke, Jeffrey M.; Flowers, Christopher R.; Francis, Charles W.; Gates, Leigh E.; Kakkar, Ajay K.; Key, Nigel S.; Levine, Mark N.; Liebman, Howard A.; Tempero, Margaret A.; Wong, Sandra L.; Somerfield, Mark R.; Falanga, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To provide current recommendations about the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer. Methods PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical practice guidelines from November 2012 through July 2014. An update committee reviewed the identified abstracts. Results Of the 53 publications identified and reviewed, none prompted a change in the 2013 recommendations. Recommendations Most hospitalized patients with active cancer require thromboprophylaxis throughout hospitalization. Routine thromboprophylaxis is not recommended for patients with cancer in the outpatient setting. It may be considered for selected high-risk patients. Patients with multiple myeloma receiving antiangiogenesis agents with chemotherapy and/or dexamethasone should receive prophylaxis with either low–molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or low-dose aspirin. Patients undergoing major surgery should receive prophylaxis starting before surgery and continuing for at least 7 to 10 days. Extending prophylaxis up to 4 weeks should be considered in those undergoing major abdominal or pelvic surgery with high-risk features. LMWH is recommended for the initial 5 to 10 days of treatment for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism as well as for long-term secondary prophylaxis (at least 6 months). Use of novel oral anticoagulants is not currently recommended for patients with malignancy and VTE because of limited data in patients with cancer. Anticoagulation should not be used to extend survival of patients with cancer in the absence of other indications. Patients with cancer should be periodically assessed for VTE risk. Oncology professionals should educate patients about the signs and symptoms of VTE. PMID:25605844

  20. Joining the patient on the path to customized prophylaxis: one hemophilia team explores the tools of engagement

    PubMed Central

    Gue, Deborah; Squire, Sandra; McIntosh, Kam; Bartholomew, Claude; Summers, Nicole; Sun, Haowei; Yang, Ming; Jackson, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between hemophilia team interventions and achievement of optimal clinical outcomes remains to be elucidated. The British Columbia Hemophilia Adult Team has previously reported results of a comprehensive approach to individualize prophylaxis that has resulted in substantially reduced bleeding rates. In order to facilitate knowledge exchange and potential replication, it was important to gain a thorough understanding of the team’s approach. Methods A focus group of the British Columbia Hemophilia Adult Team was conducted to identify specific roles and processes that might be contributing to the prophylaxis regimen outcomes in this clinic. The focus group consisted of two workshops; one to describe the individual and collective roles of the clinic team in providing clinical care and guiding patients toward individualized prophylaxis; and the other to describe the patient journey from initial contact through reaching a successful engagement with the clinic. Results Analysis of the results revealed team roles and processes that underpinned a shared decision-making relationship with the patient with a particular focus on supporting the patient’s autonomy. Within this relationship, team focus shifts away from “adherence” toward the process whereby patients design and implement prophylaxis regimens resulting in reduction or elimination of bleeding episodes. Limitations Using the current methodology, it is not possible to demonstrate a causal link between specific team processes and improved bleeding rates in patients. Conclusion Through the active support of patient autonomy in all aspects of decisions related to hemophilia management, the British Columbia Hemophilia Adult Team approach de-emphasizes “adherence” as the primary goal, and focuses on a prophylaxis plan that is customized by the patient and aligned with his priorities. Adoption of this comprehensive team approach facilitates shared goals between the patient and the team

  1. Post-discharge compliance to venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in high-risk orthopaedic surgery: results from the ETHOS registry.

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, David; Arcelus, Juan I; Felicissimo, Paulo

    2012-02-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk persists for several weeks following high-risk orthopaedic surgery (HROS). The ETHOS registry evaluated post-operative VTE prophylaxis prescribed, and actual VTE prophylaxis received, compared with the 2004 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines in HROS patients. We performed a subanalysis of ETHOS to assess patient compliance with ACCP-adherent prophylaxis after discharge and the factors predicting poor compliance. Consecutive patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, total hip arthroplasty, or knee arthroplasty were enrolled at discharge from 161 centres in 17 European countries if they had received adequate in-hospital VTE prophylaxis. Data on prescribed and actual prophylaxis received were obtained from hospital charts and patient post-discharge diaries. Good compliance was defined as percentage treatment intake ≥80% with no more than two consecutive days without treatment. A total of 3,484 patients (79.4%) received ACCP-adherent anticoagulant prescription at discharge and 2,999 (86.0%) had an evaluable patient diary. In total, 87.7% of evaluable patients were compliant with prescribed treatment after discharge. The most common reason for non-compliance (33.4%) was "drug was not bought". Injection of treatment was not a barrier to good compliance. Main factors affecting compliance related to purchase of and access to treatment, patient education, the person responsible for administering injections, country, and type of hospital ward at discharge. Within our study population, patient compliance with ACCP-adherent thromboprophylaxis prescribed at discharge was good. Improvements in patient education and prescribing practices at discharge may be important in further raising compliance levels in high-risk orthopaedic surgery patients. PMID:22186771

  2. Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide versus conventional graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis in mismatched unrelated donor haematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rohtesh S; Saliba, Rima M; Chen, Julianne; Rondon, Gabriela; Hammerstrom, Aimee E; Alousi, Amin; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Bashir, Qaiser; Ahmed, Sairah; Popat, Uday; Hosing, Chitra; Khouri, Issa; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Champlin, Richard E; Ciurea, Stefan O

    2016-05-01

    Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is an effective strategy to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after haploidentical haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We determined the efficacy of PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis in human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) HCT. We analysed 113 adult patients with high-risk haematological malignancies who underwent one-antigen MMUD transplantation between 2009 and 2013. Of these, 41 patients received PTCy, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for GVHD prophylaxis; 72 patients received conventional prophylaxis with anti-thymocyte globulin, tacrolimus and methotrexate. Graft source was primarily bone marrow (83% PTCy vs. 63% conventional group). Incidence of grade II-IV (37% vs. 36%, P = 0·8) and grade III-IV (17% vs. 12%, P = 0·5) acute GVHD was similar at day 100. However, the incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD by day 30 was significantly lower in the PTCy group (0% vs. 15%, P = 0·01). Median time to neutrophil (18 days vs. 12 days, P < 0·001) and platelet (25·5 days vs. 18 days, P = 0·05) engraftment was prolonged in PTCy group. Rates of graft failure, chronic GVHD, 2-year non-relapse mortality, relapse, progression-free survival or overall survival were similar. Our results demonstrate that PTCy, tacrolimus and MMF for GVHD prophylaxis is safe and produced similar results as conventional prophylaxis in patients with one antigen HLA-MMUD HCT. PMID:26947769

  3. Intrathecal chemotherapy alone is inadequate central nervous system prophylaxis in patients with intermediate-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Chua, S L; Seymour, J F; Streater, J; Wolf, M M; Januszewicz, E H; Prince, H M

    2002-09-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) relapse of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is usually fatal despite therapy and effective prophylaxis is desirable. Patients at high-risk usually receive intrathecal (i.t.) prophylaxis, although its efficacy is unproven. We therefore analyzed the outcome of all patients with newly diagnosed "intermediate-grade" NHL receiving i.t. prophylaxis from 1991 to 1999. Twenty-six patients were identified and analyzed. All were free of CNS involvement at diagnosis with negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology. Disease stage was IE in 7, and IV in 19, with a median of two extranodal sites involved. Serum lactate dehydrogenase was elevated in 65%, and the median International Prognostic Factors Index score was 3 (range 0-5). Anthracycline-based chemotherapy was used in all cases and included high-dose methotrexate +/- ara-C in six patients. The median number of i.t. treatments was 5 (range 1-12) and comprised methotrexate +/- steroid in 15, together with ara-C in 11. The actuarial 3-year CNS-relapse rate was 26 +/- 10%. Six CNS-relapses were observed and involved the spinal cord or brain parenchyma in two cases each, and the leptomeninges in four patients. Treatment-related variables associated with higher CNS-relapse rates (34-50%) were: delay of > or = 14 days from diagnosis to first i.t. injection, < 5 i.t. treatments, delay of i.t. prophylaxis until after attaining CR and systemic treatment lacking high-dose methotrexate +/- ara-C (each P < or = 0.17). I.t. CNS prophylaxis, as used here, was inadequate. Alternative approaches should be pursued. PMID:12685832

  4. Cost-effectiveness of enoxaparin versus warfarin prophylaxis against deep-vein thrombosis after total hip replacement.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, B J; Anderson, D R; Goeree, R

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of enoxaparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin derivative, with that of low-dose warfarin in the prevention of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) after total hip replacement. DATA SOURCES: English-language articles on enoxaparin and warfarin prophylaxis is patients undergoing total hip replacement published from January 1982 to December 1992. STUDY SELECTION: Four trials of enoxaparin (involving 567 patients) and six trials of warfarin (involving 630) met the following criteria: randomized controlled trial, prophylaxis started no later than 24 hours after surgery and continued for at least 7 days, warfarin dose monitored and adjusted appropriately, enoxaparin dosage 30 mg twice daily, and DVT confirmed by bilateral venography. DATA EXTRACTION: Rates of DVT, cost of prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment per patient, rate of pulmonary embolism (PE), number of deaths and incremental cost-effectiveness (cost per life-year gained). DATA SYNTHESIS: The pooled rate of DVT was 13.6% with enoxaparin (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.9% to 16.3%) and 20.6% with warfarin (95% CI 17.4% to 23.8%). At a cost of $19.55 per day for enoxaparin the total cost per patient, including prophylaxis and management of DVT, exceeded that per patient receiving warfarin by about $121. For every 10,000 patients treated the use of enoxaparin will prevent 47 cases of DVT, 3 cases of PE and 4 deaths. Thus, the estimated incremental cost-effectiveness of enoxaparin is $29 120 per life-year gained. CONCLUSION: On the basis of current Canadian cost-effectiveness guidelines the results of this study would be considered moderate to strong evidence to adopt enoxaparin prophylaxis against DVT after total hip replacement. However, because of the limited data the estimates are uncertain. Future trials should compare enoxaparin and warfarin and incorporate a prospective economic appraisal. PMID:8137188

  5. [Diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of central nervous system involvement by non-Hodgkin lymphoma in HIV-infected patients].

    PubMed

    Miralles, Pilar; Berenguer, Juan; Ribera, Josep-Maria

    2010-09-18

    With the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) the incidence of systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has declined. HAART has also modified the clinical manifestations of these tumors, with a lower frequency of involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). Currently, the frequency of meningeal involvement at the time of diagnosis of NHL in HIV-infected patients varies between 3% and 5%. These figures are similar to those observed among immunocompetent hosts. The diagnosis of meningeal lymphoma relies in clinical findings, imaging techniques, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination. Flow cytometry is a diagnostic technique with a higher sensitivity and specificity than conventional cytology for the diagnosis of meningeal lymphoma. However, flow cytometry is not yet considered to be the gold standard for this purpose. Until recently, most experts recommended neuromeningeal prophylaxis for all HIV-infected patients with aggressive NHL. However, at present this prophylaxis is recommended only in patients with higher risk of CNS relapse according to different sites of involvement, stage and histological subtype. There are different regimens of prophylaxis and treatment for meningeal lymphoma. The drugs most commonly used for this purpose are methotrexate and cytosine arabinoside. However, there are other alternatives such as liposomal cytosine arabinoside that requires fewer spinal taps for drug administration and whose results are very promising. In summary, in the context of an effective HAART, HIV infected patients with NHL have a frequency of CNS involvement by lymphoma similar to that found among immunocompetent hosts. Consequently, indications and regimens for CNS prophylaxis in HIV-infected patients with NHL should not be different than those employed in the general population. Universal CNS prophylaxis should be reserved for the few patients unable to receive an

  6. [Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn/HDFN/timing in pregnant women and prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Kulinska, R

    2014-01-01

    Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn/HDFN/is a condition in which the lifespan of the fetal or newborn infants red cells is shortened by the action of maternal antibodies against antigens present on the infants red cells. The most common routes of maternal sensitization are via blood transfusion or fetomaternal hemorrhage. With the institution of antenatal Rhesus (Rh) D immunoglobulin prophylaxis, the frequency of maternal alloimmunization in Rh D-negative women has decreased significantly. The prevention and treatment of Rh D alloimmunization is a true success story in obstetrics. This article present the reasons for the persistence of the anti-D alloimmunization, protocol for the prevention and diagnosis of HDFN, immunohematological management of all pregnant women, critical titre, protocol and timing in alloimmunized pregnant women. PMID:25098112

  7. [Search for new modes of antibiotic prophylaxis of septic complications after percutaneous nephrolithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Perepanova, T S; Zyrianov, S K; Sokolov, A V; Tishchenkova, I F; Merinov, D S; arustamov, D L; Kruglov, A N; Radzhabov, Y A

    2014-01-01

    The risk of infectious and inflammatory complications after PNL is based on presence of microorganisms in the form of biofilms inside the stone. Destruction of stones during surgery or lithotripsy may be a trigger for the growth of microorganisms that are integrated into the biofilms, and the migration of bacteria and their toxins in the blood flow under pressure of irrigation fluid can cause septic complications. The danger of infectious and inflammatory complications after percutaneous interventions for kidney stones requires a search for specific antibiotics for antimicrobial prophylaxis and efficient modes of their administration. The results of a comparative study of pharmacokinetic parameters of ciprofloxacin, and the effectiveness of two modes of administration (bolus dosing and prolonged intravenous administration) at a dose of 1000 mg are presented. PMID:25799735

  8. Inclusion of trans women in pre-exposure prophylaxis trials: a review.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Daniel J; Kerr, Thomas; Operario, Don; Socías, Maria E; Sued, Omar; Marshall, Brandon D L

    2015-01-01

    Trans women are at high risk of HIV infection. We conducted a review to determine the extent to which trans women were eligible for inclusion in and enrolled into pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) efficacy trials. Out of seven trials analyzing PrEP efficacy, we found that trans women comprised only 1.2% of one trial and 0.2% of total trial enrollments. Although an additional PrEP trial to determine efficacy among trans women may not be warranted, further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of PrEP in this marginalized population, through observational and feasibility studies. These studies should focus on unique barriers that trans women may experience while obtaining access to PrEP, such as gender discrimination, transphobia, and violence. PMID:25430940

  9. A validated measure of adherence to antibiotic prophylaxis in children with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Natalie A; Kronenberger, William G; Hampton, Kisha C; Bloom, Ellen M; Rampersad, Angeli G; Roberson, Christopher P; Shapiro, Amy D

    2016-01-01

    Background Antibiotic prophylaxis is a mainstay in sickle cell disease management. However, adherence is estimated at only 66%. This study aimed to develop and validate a Sickle Cell Antibiotic Adherence Level Evaluation (SCAALE) to promote systematic and detailed adherence evaluation. Methods A 28-item questionnaire was created, covering seven adherence areas. General Adherence Ratings from the parent and one health care provider and medication possession ratios were obtained as validation measures. Results Internal consistency was very good to excellent for the total SCAALE (α=0.89) and four of the seven subscales. Correlations between SCAALE scores and validation measures were strong for the total SCAALE and five of the seven subscales. Conclusion The SCAALE provides a detailed, quantitative, multidimensional, and global measurement of adherence and can promote clinical care and research. PMID:27354768

  10. Non-Occupational Post-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV: 10-Year Retrospective Analysis in Seattle, Washington

    PubMed Central

    McDougal, Sarah J.; Alexander, Jeremiah; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Harrington, Robert D.; Stekler, Joanne D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite treatment guidelines in place since 2005, non-occupational post-exposure HIV prophylaxis (nPEP) remains an underutilized prevention strategy. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients presenting to a publicly-funded HIV clinic in Seattle, Washington for nPEP between 2000 and 2010 (N = 360). nPEP prescriptions were provided for 324 (90%) patients; 83% of prescription decisions were appropriate according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, but only 31% (N = 111/360) of patients were considered “high risk.” In order to use limited resources most efficiently, public health agencies should target messaging for this high-cost intervention to individuals with high-risk HIV exposures. PMID:25140868

  11. [Prophylaxis and treatment of side effects due to iodinated contrast media relevant to radiological practice].

    PubMed

    Becker, C

    2007-09-01

    Increased utilization of iodinated contrast media may be associated with increased incidence of adverse events. The most important side effects include contrast-induced nephropathy, anaphylactoid reaction, thyrotoxicosis, and extravasation. In patients with moderate renal dysfunction, saline hydration and reduction of contrast media volume are recommended. No regime to prevent anaphylactoid reactions has yet proven to be efficient. If subclinical hyperthyroidism has been determined, prophylaxis with sodium perchlorate is advised. Contrast-induced nephropathy is commonly transient and needs to be followed over time. Mild general anaphylactoid reactions may be treated with antihistaminic drugs and corticosteroids. Furthermore the choice of the X-ray contrast media might influence the risk of any adverse effects. PMID:17768601

  12. Health education policy 1916-1926: venereal disease and the prophylaxis dilemma.

    PubMed

    Towers, B A

    1980-01-01

    This paper seeks to account for the development of a public health education policy with respect to venereal disease during the period 1916-1926. Two competing pressure groups, the National Council for Combatting Venereal Disease and the Society for the Prevention of Venereal Disease, defended opposing programmes; the one based on moral education (NCCVD) and the other (SPVD) on medical prophylaxis. Many of the interests represented by the groups and the political dimensions that they took, were influenced by factors only very tangentially connected to health education. Any account of the development of policy in this field needs placing in the context of the early history of nineteenth-century anti-vice crusades; the role of the Army Medical Corps during the 1914-18 war; and the bureaucratic protectionism of the Ministry of Health personnel. PMID:6990122

  13. Antibody and Antiretroviral Preexposure Prophylaxis Prevent Cervicovaginal HIV-1 Infection in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Gruell, Henning; Bournazos, Stylianos; Ravetch, Jeffrey V.; Ploss, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The development of an effective vaccine preventing HIV-1 infection remains elusive. Thus, the development of novel approaches capable of preventing HIV-1 transmission is of paramount importance. However, this is partly hindered by the lack of an easily accessible small-animal model to rapidly measure viral entry. Here, we report the generation of a human CD4- and human CCR5-expressing transgenic luciferase reporter mouse that facilitates measurement of peritoneal and genitomucosal HIV-1 pseudovirus entry in vivo. We show that antibodies and antiretrovirals mediate preexposure protection in this mouse model and that the serum antibody concentration required for protection from cervicovaginal infection is comparable to that required to protect macaques. Our results suggest that this system represents a model for the preclinical evaluation of prophylactic or vaccine candidates. It further supports the idea that broadly neutralizing antibodies should be evaluated for use as preexposure prophylaxis in clinical trials. PMID:23720722

  14. Pathophysiology of sepsis and recent patents on the diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis for sepsis.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yasumasa; Matsukawa, Akihiro

    2009-01-01

    Despite advances in the development of powerful antibiotics and intensive care unit, sepsis is still life threatening and the mortality rate remains unchanged for the past three decades. Recent prospective trials with biological response modifiers have shown a modest clinical benefit. The pathological basis of sepsis is initially an excessive inflammatory response against invading pathogens, leading to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Evidence reveals that a variety of inflammatory mediators orchestrate the intense inflammation through complicated cellular interactions. More recent data indicate that most septic patients survive this stage and then subjected to an immunoparalysis phase, termed compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS), which is more fatal than the initial phase. Sepsis is a complicated clinical syndrome with multiple physiologic and immunologic abnormalities. In this review, we summarize the recent understandings of the pathophysiology of sepsis, and introduce recent patents on diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis for sepsis. PMID:19149743

  15. Protection against dengue disease by synthetic nucleic acid antibody prophylaxis/immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Flingai, Seleeke; Plummer, Emily M; Patel, Ami; Shresta, Sujan; Mendoza, Janess M; Broderick, Kate E; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Muthumani, Kar; Weiner, David B

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most important mosquito-borne viral infection in humans. In recent years, the number of cases and outbreaks has dramatically increased worldwide. While vaccines are being developed, none are currently available that provide balanced protection against all DENV serotypes. Advances in human antibody isolation have uncovered DENV neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) that are capable of preventing infection from multiple serotypes. Yet delivering monoclonal antibodies using conventional methods is impractical due to high costs. Engineering novel methods of delivering monoclonal antibodies could tip the scale in the fight against DENV. Here we demonstrate that simple intramuscular delivery by electroporation of synthetic DNA plasmids engineered to express modified human nAbs against multiple DENV serotypes confers protection against DENV disease and prevents antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of disease in mice. This synthetic nucleic acid antibody prophylaxis/immunotherapy approach may have important applications in the fight against infectious disease. PMID:26220099

  16. Planning for pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV transmission: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    There are currently several ongoing or planned trials evaluating the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a preventative approach to reducing the transmission of HIV. PrEP may prove ineffective, demonstrate partial efficacy, or show high efficacy and have the potential to reduce HIV infection in a significant way. However, in addition to the trial results, it is important that issues related to delivery, implementation and further research are also discussed. As a part of the ongoing discussion, in June 2009, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation sponsored a Planning for PrEP conference with stakeholders to review expected trial results, outline responsible educational approaches, and develop potential delivery and implementation strategies. The conference reinforced the need for continued and sustained dialogue to identify where PrEP implementation may fit best within an integrated HIV prevention package. This paper identifies the key action points that emerged from the Planning for PrEP meeting. PMID:20624303

  17. Health education policy 1916-1926: venereal disease and the prophylaxis dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Towers, Bridget A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper seeks to account for the development of a public health education policy with respect to venereal disease during the period 1916-1926. Two competing pressure groups, the National Council for Combatting Venereal Disease and the Society for the Prevention of Venereal Disease, defended opposing programmes; the one based on moral education (NCCVD) and the other (SPVD) on medical prophylaxis. Many of the interests represented by the groups and the political dimensions that they took, were influenced by factors only very tangentially connected to health education. Any account of the development of policy in this field needs placing in the context of the early history of nineteenth-century anti-vice crusades; the role of the Army Medical Corps during the 1914-18 war; and the bureaucratic protectionism of the Ministry of Health personnel. PMID:6990122

  18. [Diphtheria in the military forces: lessons and current status of prophylaxis, prospects of epidemiological control process].

    PubMed

    Belov, A B; Ogarkov, P I

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the epidemiological situation of diphtheria in the world and in Russia and experience of mass vaccination of military personnel and civil population with diphtheria toxoid for the last 50 years. Early diagnosis of diphtheria in military personnel has a prognostic value. Authors described the peculiarities of epidemiological process of diphtheria in military personnel in 80-90 years of 20th century and organizational aspects of mass vaccination with diphtheria toxoid. Authors analyzed current problems of epidemiology and prophylaxis of diphtheria in military personnel and civil population and possible developments. According to long-term prognosis authors mentioned the increase of morbidity and came to conclusion that it is necessary enhance the epidemiological surveillance. Authors presented prospect ways of improvement of vaccination and rational approaches to immunization of military personnel under positive long-term epidemiological situation. PMID:24734433

  19. Recurrent cellulitis with benzathine penicillin prophylaxis is associated with diabetes and psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Karppelin, M; Siljander, T; Huhtala, H; Aromaa, A; Vuopio, J; Hannula-Jouppi, K; Kere, J; Syrjänen, J

    2013-03-01

    Risk factors for recurrent cellulitis were assessed in a case-control study including 398 patients receiving prophylactic treatment with benzathine penicillin and 8,005 controls derived from a national population-based health survey. In the multivariate analysis, psoriasis [odds ratio (OR) 3.69], other chronic dermatoses (OR 4.14), diabetes (OR 1.65), increasing body mass index (OR 1.17), increasing age (OR 1.06) and history of previous tonsillectomy (OR 6.82) were independently associated with recurrent cellulitis. Forty percent of the patients reported a cellulitis recurrence, despite ongoing benzathine penicillin prophylaxis. The role of previous tonsillectomy in recurrent cellulitis needs further evaluation. PMID:23007460

  20. Complex Etiology, Prophylaxis and Hygiene Control in Mycotoxic Nephropathies in Farm Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Stoev, Stoycho D.

    2008-01-01

    Various etiological factors contributing to the development of mycotoxic nephropathy in farm animals and humans are reviewed. The possible synergistic effect between ochratoxin A (OTA) and other mycotoxins, as penicillic acid (PA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1), contributing to this nephropathy is also considered and discussed. The most convenient ways of prophylaxis and various preventive measures against OTA contamination of feeds or foods are reviewed. A reference is made concerning the most successful methods of veterinary hygiene control in the slaughterhouses in order to prevent the entering of OTA in commercial channels with a view to human health. The economic efficacy of these prophylactic procedures is also considered. An evaluation of human exposure to OTA is made. PMID:19325772

  1. Protection against dengue disease by synthetic nucleic acid antibody prophylaxis/immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Flingai, Seleeke; Plummer, Emily M.; Patel, Ami; Shresta, Sujan; Mendoza, Janess M.; Broderick, Kate E.; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Muthumani, Kar; Weiner, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most important mosquito-borne viral infection in humans. In recent years, the number of cases and outbreaks has dramatically increased worldwide. While vaccines are being developed, none are currently available that provide balanced protection against all DENV serotypes. Advances in human antibody isolation have uncovered DENV neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) that are capable of preventing infection from multiple serotypes. Yet delivering monoclonal antibodies using conventional methods is impractical due to high costs. Engineering novel methods of delivering monoclonal antibodies could tip the scale in the fight against DENV. Here we demonstrate that simple intramuscular delivery by electroporation of synthetic DNA plasmids engineered to express modified human nAbs against multiple DENV serotypes confers protection against DENV disease and prevents antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of disease in mice. This synthetic nucleic acid antibody prophylaxis/immunotherapy approach may have important applications in the fight against infectious disease. PMID:26220099

  2. UK guideline for the use of HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Following Sexual Exposure, 2015.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Fiona; Waters, Laura; Briggs, Eleanor; Fox, Julie; Harbottle, Justin; Hawkins, David; Murchie, Martin; Radcliffe, Keith; Rafferty, Paul; Rodger, Alison; Fisher, Martin

    2016-08-01

    We present the updated British Association for Sexual Health and HIV guidelines for HIV post-exposure prophylaxis following sexual exposure (PEPSE). This document includes a review of the current data to support the use of PEPSE, considers how to calculate the risks of infection after a potential exposure, and provides recommendations on when PEPSE should and should not be considered. We also review which medications to use for PEPSE, provide a checklist for initial assessment, and make recommendations for monitoring individuals receiving PEPSE. Special scenarios, cost-effectiveness of PEPSE, and issues relating to service provision are also discussed. Throughout the document, the place of PEPSE within the broader context of other HIV prevention strategies is considered. PMID:27095790

  3. A community outreach influenza vaccination drive as a model for mass disaster prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Lawrenz, Joshua; Puetz, Joseph; Kuschel, Stephanie; Rudzinski, John

    2013-01-01

    In October 2012, more than 120 student and faculty volunteers from six different health professional schools (medical, pharmacy, and nursing) vaccinated 430 individuals against influenza at five point of distribution sites in Winnebago County, IL, at no cost to the recipients. In total, 18 organizations, including faith-based and nonprofit groups, organized this vaccination drive, targeting an at-risk population of homeless and impoverished individuals. Preclinical students were provided just-in-time training in vaccine administration and Incident Command System methodology. This community-wide collaborative effort uniquely demonstrates the effectiveness of student volunteerism in emergency preparedness, as well as providing a model for mass prophylaxis in a disaster scenario. PMID:24481894

  4. Clinician outreach to improve the quality of rabies postexposure prophylaxis administration: Maryland's experience, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Kis; Feldman, Katherine

    2014-06-01

    Errors in the administration of rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) are known to occur despite guidelines promulgated by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). In addition to elevating a patient's PEP failure risk, errors in administration increase medical expenses. A record review conducted at a local health department in Maryland revealed that ∼8% of reported PEPs deviated from ACIP guidelines. Physicians surveyed at a local hospital also demonstrated knowledge gaps concerning use of rabies immune globulin and special indications for the five-dose PEP series. In response, we implemented an intervention to raise clinician awareness and adherence to recommended protocols. Activities included development of a patient fact sheet, hospital-based poster, and online training course targeted to a diverse group of healthcare providers. We also explored the use of hospital informatics in delivering PEP guidance. Clinician outreach by using a multipronged approach might increase adherence to recommended protocols. PMID:24754462

  5. Safety of apixaban for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis: the evidence to date

    PubMed Central

    Trkulja, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Apixaban, a direct orally active anticoagulant (selective, direct factor Xa inhibitor) is approved for (primary) prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing elective total-hip or total-knee arthroplasty, for acute treatment/prevention of recurrent events in patients with VTE, and extended prophylaxis in patients with a history of VTE. Another approved use is prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. The present overview focuses on the safety of apixaban specifically in the VTE setting. Apixaban displays favorable pharmacokinetic properties: simple twice-daily dosing, low inter- and intrasubject variability, dose and time linearity, and multiple elimination pathways not critically dependent on either renal or metabolic mechanisms. An extensive nonclinical program and the overall clinical development program (all approved and tested indications) provided no signal that would indicate any particular specific safety concern related to apixaban apart from the increased risk of bleeding. With regard to the approved VTE indications, safety (and efficacy) was assessed in five large pivotal Phase III trials. In comparison to currently recommended standard treatments, apixaban shows superior efficacy, while at the same time no excess risk of bleeding in patients undergoing total-hip or total-knee arthroplasty. In treatment of VTE, apixaban shows noninferior efficacy and a reduced risk of bleeding, whereas in extended prophylaxis it reduced the risk of VTE/VTE-related deaths, with no increased risk of relevant bleedings in comparison to placebo. Documented clinical experience with apixaban in daily practice is currently sparse. However, its use is progressively increasing, and there has been no signal so far that would materially change the perception of its safety profile as defined in the premarketing trials. PMID:26937206

  6. Catalytic Bioscavengers Against Toxic Esters, an Alternative Approach for Prophylaxis and Treatments of Poisonings

    PubMed Central

    Rochu, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Bioscavengers are biopharmaceuticals that specifically react with toxicants. Thus, enzymes reacting with poisonous esters can be used as bioscavengers for neutralization of toxic molecules before they reach physiological targets. Parenteral administration of bioscavengers is, therefore, intended for prophylaxis or pre-treatments, emergency and post-exposure treatments of intoxications. These enzymes can also be used for application on skin, mucosa and wounds as active components of topical skin protectants and decontamination solutions. Human butyrylcholinesterase is the first stoichiometric bioscavenger for safe and efficient prophylaxis of organophosphate poisoning. However, huge amounts of a costly enzyme are needed for protection. Thus, the bioscavenger approach will be greatly improved by the use of catalytic bioscavengers. Catalytic bioscavengers are enzymes capable of degrading toxic esters with a turnover. Suitable catalytic bioscavengers are engineered mutants of human enzymes. Efficient mutants of human butyrylcholinesterase have been made that hydrolyze cocaine at a high rate. Mutants of human cholinesterases capable of hydrolyzing OPs have been made, but so far their activity is too low to be of medical interest. Human paraoxonase a promiscuous plasma enzyme is certainly the most promising phosphotriesterase. However, its biotechnology is still in its infancy. Other enzymes and proteins from blood and organs, and secondary biological targets of OPs and carbamates are potential bioscavengers, in particular serum albumin that reacts with OPs and self-reactivates. Lastly, non-human enzymes, phosphotriesterases and oxidases from various bacterial and eukaryotic sources could be used for external use against OP poisoning and for internal use after modifications for immunological compatibility. PMID:22649587

  7. Appropriate Enoxaparin Dose for Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Patients with Extreme Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shelkrot, Max; Miraka, Jonida

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the appropriate dose of enoxaparin for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in patients with extreme obesity. Methods: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE (1950-April 2013) to analyze all English-language articles that evaluated incidence of VTE and/or anti-Xa levels with enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis in patients with extreme obesity. Results: Eight studies were included in the analysis. Six of the studies were done in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Mean body mass index ranged from 44.9 to 63.4 kg/m2 within studies. Studies done with bariatric surgery patients utilized doses of enoxaparin that ranged from the standard dose of 30 mg subcutaneous (SQ) every 12 hours to 60 mg SQ every 12 hours. Other studies evaluated doses ranging from 40 mg SQ every 24 hours to 0.5 mg/kg/day. Only 3 studies evaluated the incidence of VTE as the primary endpoint; the other studies evaluated anti-Xa levels. The studies showed that appropriate anti-Xa levels were achieved more often with higher than standard doses of enoxaparin. One study showed that enoxaparin 40 mg SQ every 12 hours decreased the incidence of VTE in patients undergoing bariatric surgery compared to standard doses. Overall risk of bleeding was similar between study groups. Conclusions: Higher than standard doses of enoxaparin may be needed for patients with extreme obesity. Patients undergoing bariatric surgery may benefit from enoxaparin 40 mg SQ every 12 hours. Additional large randomized, controlled trials are needed to determine the efficacy and safety of higher than standard doses of enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis in patients with extreme obesity. PMID:25477599

  8. Reducing the incidence of infection after caesarean section: implications of prophylaxis with antibiotics for hospital resources.

    PubMed Central

    Mugford, M.; Kingston, J.; Chalmers, I.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To estimate the cost effectiveness of giving prophylactic antibiotics routinely to reduce the incidence of wound infection after caesarean section. DESIGN--Estimation of cost effectiveness was based, firstly, on a retrospective overview of 58 controlled trials and, secondly, on evidence about costs derived from data and observations of practice. SETTING--Trials included in the overview were from obstetric units in several different countries, including the United Kingdom. The costing study was based on data referring to the John Radcliffe Maternity Hospital, Oxford. SUBJECTS--A total of 7777 women were included in the 58 controlled trials comparing the effects of giving routine prophylactic antibiotics at caesarean section with either treatment with a placebo or no treatment. Cost estimates were based on data on 486 women who had caesarean sections between January and September 1987. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Cost effectiveness of prophylaxis with antibiotics. RESULTS--The odds of wound infection are likely to be reduced by between about 50 and 70% by giving antibiotics routinely at caesarean section. Forty one (8.4%) women who had caesarean section were coded by the Oxford obstetric data system as having developed wound infection. The additional average cost of hospital postnatal care for women with wound infection (compared with women who had had caesarean section and no wound infection) was estimated to be 716 pounds; introducing routine prophylaxis with antibiotics would reduce average costs of postnatal care by between 1300 pounds and 3900/100 pounds caesarean sections (at 1988 prices), depending on the cost of the antibiotic used and its effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS--The results suggest that giving antibiotics routinely at caesarean section will not only reduce rates of infection after caesarean section but also reduce costs. PMID:2511938

  9. The pharmacokinetics of ampicillin-sulbactam in anuric patients: dosing optimization for prophylaxis during cardiovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yuta; Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Ikawa, Kazuro; Watanabe, Erika; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Imoto, Yutaka; Morikawa, Norifumi; Takeda, Yasuo

    2016-08-01

    Background The administration of antibiotic prophylaxis during cardiothoracic surgery can reduce the rate of surgical site infections. Trials of cardiothoracic antibiotic prophylaxis have found it to be beneficial in preventing postoperative wound infections. Objective To determine the more appropriate timing of repeated doses of ampicillin-sulbactam to maintain adequate antibiotic concentrations during cardiovascular surgery in anuric patients. Method Five adult anuric dialysis patients who received ampicillin-sulbactam during cardiovascular surgery at Kagoshima University Hospital, the total plasma concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam were monitored after ampicillin (1 g)-sulbactam (0.5 g) administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated and used to predict the free plasma concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam. Results The mean values for the volume of distribution, total clearance, elimination rate constant and the elimination half-life for ampicillin were 8.9 ± 2.4 L, 1.69 ± 0.93 L/h, 0.180 ± 0.059 h(-1) and 4.23 ± 1.48 h, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to those of sulbactam. When ampicillin (1 g)-sulbactam (0.5 g) was intravenously administered at 8, 12 and 24 h intervals, the predicted free trough plasma concentrations of ampicillin were 28.72, 12.06 and 1.25 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion We suggest that ampicillin (1 g)-sulbactam (0.5 g) should be intravenously administered every 12 h in order to maintain a free ampicillin concentration of more than 12 μg/mL in anuric patients during cardiovascular surgery. PMID:27001408

  10. Imported Episodic Rabies Increases Patient Demand for and Physician Delivery of Antirabies Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Lardon, Zélie; Watier, Laurence; Brunet, Audrey; Bernède, Claire; Goudal, Maryvonne; Dacheux, Laurent; Rotivel, Yolande

    2010-01-01

    Background Imported cases threaten rabies reemergence in rabies-free areas. During 2000–2005, five dog and one human rabies cases were imported into France, a rabies-free country since 2001. The Summer 2004 event led to unprecedented media warnings by the French Public Health Director. We investigated medical practice evolution following the official elimination of rabies in 2001; impact of subsequent episodic rabies importations and national newspaper coverage on demand for and delivery of antirabies prophylaxis; regular transmission of epidemiological developments within the French Antirabies Medical Center (ARMC) network; and ARMC discussions on indications of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP). Methodology/Principal Findings Annual data collected by the National Reference Center for Rabies NRCR (1989–2006) and the exhaustive database (2000–2005) of 56 ARMC were analyzed. Weekly numbers of patients consulting at ARMC and their RPEP- and antirabies-immunoglobulin (ARIG) prescription rates were determined. Autoregressive integrated moving-average modeling and regression with autocorrelated errors were applied to examine how 2000–2005 episodic rabies events and their related national newspaper coverage affected demand for and delivery of RPEP. A slight, continuous decline of rabies-dedicated public health facility attendance was observed from 2000 to 2004. Then, during the Summer 2004 event, patient consultations and RPEP and ARIG prescriptions increased by 84%, 19.7% and 43.4%, respectively. Moreover, elevated medical resource use persisted in 2005, despite communication efforts, without any secondary human or animal case. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated appropriate responsiveness to reemerging rabies cases and effective newspaper reporting, as no secondary case occurred. However, the ensuing demand on medical resources had immediate and long-lasting effects on rabies-related public health resources and expenses. Henceforth, when facing such an

  11. Aspirin use for primary prophylaxis: Adverse outcomes in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Souk, Karina M; Tamim, Hani M; Abu Daya, Hussein A; Rockey, Don C; Barada, Kassem A

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare outcomes of patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) taking aspirin for primary prophylaxis to those not taking it. METHODS: Patients not known to have any vascular disease (coronary artery or cerebrovascular disease) who were admitted to the American University of Beirut Medical Center between 1993 and 2010 with NVUGIB were included. The frequencies of in-hospital mortality, re-bleeding, severe bleeding, need for surgery or embolization, and of a composite outcome defined as the occurrence of any of the 4 bleeding related adverse outcomes were compared between patients receiving aspirin and those on no antithrombotics. We also compared frequency of in hospital complications and length of hospital stay between the two groups. RESULTS: Of 357 eligible patients, 94 were on aspirin and 263 patients were on no antithrombotics (control group). Patients in the aspirin group were older, the mean age was 58 years in controls and 67 years in the aspirin group (P < 0.001). Patients in the aspirin group had significantly more co-morbidities, including diabetes mellitus and hypertension [25 (27%) vs 31 (112%) and 44 (47%) vs 74 (28%) respectively, (P = 0.001)], as well as dyslipidemia [21 (22%) vs 16 (6%), P < 0.0001). Smoking was more frequent in the aspirin group [34 (41%) vs 60 (27%), P = 0.02)]. The frequencies of endoscopic therapy and surgery were similar in both groups. Patients who were on aspirin had lower in-hospital mortality rates (2.1% vs 13.7%, P = 0.002), shorter hospital stay (4.9 d vs 7 d, P = 0.01), and fewer composite outcomes (10.6% vs 24%, P = 0.01). The frequencies of in-hospital complications and re-bleeding were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSION: Patients who present with NVUGIB while receiving aspirin for primary prophylaxis had fewer adverse outcomes. Thus aspirin may have a protective effect beyond its cardiovascular benefits. PMID:27462392

  12. Adherence to prophylaxis and quality of life in children and adolescents with severe haemophilia A.

    PubMed

    García-Dasí, M; Aznar, J A; Jiménez-Yuste, V; Altisent, C; Bonanad, S; Mingot, E; Lucía, F; Giménez, F; López, M Fernanda; Marco, P; Pérez, R; Fernández, M Á; Paloma, M J; Galmes, B; Herrero, S; García-Talavera, J A

    2015-07-01

    Treatment adherence in adolescents with chronic diseases is around 50%, and failure is more common in preventive therapy. In haemophilia, contradictory results are reported by the published studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate adherence with factor VIII (FVIII) prophylaxis in Spanish patients with severe haemophilia A between age 6 and 20 years. Data were collected retrosp-ectively in the previous 2 years. The primary endpoint was the absolute adherence index (AAI), and the endpoints were related to clinical status, age, prophylaxis regimen, responsibility for factor administration and quality of life (QoL), assessed by the Haemo-QoL questionnaires. A total of 78 patients from 14 Spanish hospitals were recruited. Adherence ranged between -64.4 and 66.7 (mean -3.08). No differences were observed between children and adolescents (7.11 vs. 6.39; P = 0.809). A statistically significant association (P < 0.010) between infra adherent group and target joint was found, as was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.010) between the number of bleeding episodes experienced by the adherent group (mean 1.4) and by infra adherents (mean 4.5). There was no significant difference between AAI and prophylactic regimen (6.35 vs. 6.96, P = 0.848), neither between AAI and the person responsible for factor administration (5.57 vs. 8.79, P = 0.326). The Haemo-QoL scores (8-12 years) were related to adherence level (P < 0.05). Adherence was approximately ideal and patients perceived a high QoL. Because of the repercussions for compliance, it is essential to work during puberty on emotional and self-acceptance aspects of the disease, as well as coping, and the patient's family, school and health team relationships. PMID:25649244

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Long-Acting Tenofovir Alafenamide (GS-7340) Subdermal Implant for HIV Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardana, Manjula; Remedios-Chan, Mariana; Miller, Christine S.; Fanter, Rob; Yang, Flora; Marzinke, Mark A.; Hendrix, Craig W.; Beliveau, Martin; Moss, John A.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Oral or topical daily administration of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs to HIV-1-negative individuals in vulnerable populations is a promising strategy for HIV-1 prevention. Adherence to the dosing regimen has emerged as a critical factor determining efficacy outcomes of clinical trials. Because adherence to therapy is inversely related to the dosing period, sustained release or long-acting ARV formulations hold significant promise for increasing the effectiveness of HIV-1 preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by reducing dosing frequency. A novel, subdermal implant delivering the potent prodrug tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) with controlled, sustained, zero-order (linear) release characteristics is described. A candidate device delivering TAF at 0.92 mg day−1 in vitro was evaluated in beagle dogs over 40 days for pharmacokinetics and preliminary safety. No adverse events related to treatment with the test article were noted during the course of the study, and no significant, unusual abnormalities were observed. The implant maintained a low systemic exposure to TAF (median, 0.85 ng ml−1; interquartile range [IQR], 0.60 to 1.50 ng ml−1) and tenofovir (TFV; median, 15.0 ng ml−1; IQR, 8.8 to 23.3 ng ml−1), the product of in vivo TAF hydrolysis. High concentrations (median, 512 fmol/106 cells over the first 35 days) of the pharmacologically active metabolite, TFV diphosphate, were observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells at levels over 30 times higher than those associated with HIV-1 PrEP efficacy in humans. Our report on the first sustained-release nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) for systemic delivery demonstrates a successful proof of principle and holds significant promise as a candidate for HIV-1 prophylaxis in vulnerable populations. PMID:25896688

  14. Very early initiation of chemical venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after blunt solid organ injury is safe

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Patrick B.; Sothilingam, Niroshan; Stewart, Tanya Charyk; Batey, Brandon; Moffat, Brad; Gray, Daryl K.; Parry, Neil G.; Vogt, Kelly N.

    2016-01-01

    Background The optimal timing of initiating low–molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in patients who have undergone nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt solid organ injuries (SOIs) remains controversial. We describe the safety of early initiation of chemical venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis among patients undergoing NOM of blunt SOIs. Methods We retrospectively studied severely injured adults who sustained blunt SOI without significant intracranial hemorrhage and underwent an initial NOM at a Canadian lead trauma hospital between 2010 and 2014. Safety was assessed based on failure of NOM, defined as the need for operative intervention, in patients who received early (< 48 h) or late LMWH (≥48 h, or early discharge [< 72 h] without LMWH). Results We included 162 patients in our analysis. Most were men (69%), and the average age was 42 ± 18 years. The median injury severity score was 17, and splenic injuries were most common (97 [60%], median grade 2), followed by liver (57 [35%], median grade 2) and kidney injuries (31 [19%], median grade 1). Combined injuries were present in 14% of patients. A total of 78 (48%) patients received early LMWH, while 84 (52%) received late LMWH. The groups differed only in percent of high-grade splenic injury (14% v. 32%). Overall 2% of patients failed NOM, none after receiving LMWH. Semielective angiography was performed in 23 (14%) patients. The overall rate of confirmed VTE on imaging was 1.9%. Conclusion Early initiation of medical thromboembolic prophylaxis appears safe in select patients with isolated SOI following blunt trauma. A prospective multicentre study is warranted. PMID:26820318

  15. Prophylaxis of intra- and postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients during cesarean section in spinal anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Matthias; Fröhlich, Christian W.; Hüttel, Christiane; Kranke, Peter; Mennen, Jan; Boessneck, Oliver; Lenz, Christian; Erbes, Thalia; Ernst, Jürgen; Kerger, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper describes a randomized prospective study conducted in 308 patients undergoing caesarean section in spinal anaesthesia at a single hospital between 2010 and 2012 to find a suitable anti-emetic strategy for these patients. Material/Methods Spinal anesthesia was performed in left prone position, at L3/L4 with hyperbaric 0.5% Bupivacaine according to a cc/cm body height ratio. There were no opioids given peri-operatively. The patients received either no prophylaxis (Group I) or tropisetron and metoclopramide (Group II) or dimenhydrinate and dexamethasone (Group III), or tropisetron as a single medication (Group IV). The primary outcome was nausea and/or vomiting (NV) in the intraoperative, early (0–2 h) or late (2–24 h) postoperative period. Multivariate statistical analysis was conducted with a regression analysis and a backward elimination of factors without significant correlation. Results All prophylactic agents significantly reduced NV incidence intraoperatively. Relative risk reduction for NV by prophylaxis was most effective (59.5%) in Group II (tropisetron and metoclopramide). In Group III (dimenhydrinate and dexamethasone), NV risk was reduced by 29.9% and by 28.7% in Group IV (tropisetron mono-therapy). The incidence of NV in the early (0–2 h) and the late (2–24 h) postoperative period was low all over (7.8%), but the relative risk reduction of NV in the early postoperative period was 54.1% (Group IV), 45.1% (Group III), and 34.8% (Group II), respectively. In the late postoperative period, there was no significant difference between the 4 groups. Conclusions We recommend a prophylactic medication with tropisetron 2 mg and metoclopramide 20 mg for patients during caesarean section. These agents are safe, reasonably priced, and highly efficient in preventing nausea and vomiting. PMID:24226381

  16. The Safety of Tenofovir–Emtricitabine for HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Individuals With Active Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, Mauro; Liu, Albert Y.; McManhan, Vanessa M.; Guanira, Juan V.; Hance, Robert J.; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Grant, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with daily oral emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) prevents HIV infection. The safety and feasibility of HIV PrEP in the setting of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were evaluated. Methods: The Iniciativa Profilaxis Pre-Exposición study randomized 2499 HIV-negative men and transgender women who have sex with men to once-daily oral FTC/TDF versus placebo. Hepatitis serologies and transaminases were obtained at screening and at the time PrEP was discontinued. HBV DNA was assessed by polymerase chain reaction, and drug resistance was assessed by population sequencing. Vaccination was offered to individuals susceptible to HBV infection. Results: Of the 2499 participants, 12 (0.5%; including 6 randomized to FTC/TDF) had chronic HBV infection. After stopping FTC/TDF, 5 of the 6 participants in the active arm had liver function tests performed at follow-up. Liver function tests remained within normal limits at post-stop visits except for a grade 1 elevation in 1 participant at post-stop week 12 (alanine aminotransferase = 90, aspartate aminotransferase = 61). There was no evidence of hepatic flares. Polymerase chain reaction of stored samples showed that 2 participants in the active arm had evidence of acute HBV infection at enrollment. Both had evidence of grade 4 transaminase elevations with subsequent resolution. Overall, there was no evidence of TDF or FTC resistance among tested genotypes. Of 1633 eligible for vaccination, 1587 (97.2%) received at least 1 vaccine; 1383 (84.7%) completed the series. Conclusions: PrEP can be safely provided to individuals with HBV infection if there is no evidence of cirrhosis or substantial transaminase elevation. HBV vaccination rates at screening were low globally, despite recommendations for its use, yet uptake and efficacy were high when offered. PMID:26413853

  17. Determinants of poor adherence to secondary antibiotic prophylaxis for rheumatic fever recurrence on Lifou, New Caledonia: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Incidence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in the Pacific region, including New Caledonia, are amongst the highest in the world. The main priority of long-term management of ARF or RHD is to ensure secondary prophylaxis is adhered to. The objectives of this study were to evaluate rates of adherence in people receiving antibiotic prophylaxis by intramuscular injections of penicillin in Lifou and to determine the factors associated with a poor adherence in this population. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study and we included 70 patients receiving injections of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent ARF recurrence on the island of Lifou. Patients were classified as “good-adherent” when the rate of adherence was ≥80% of the expected injections and as “poor-adherent” when it was <80%. Statistical analysis to identify factors associated with adherence was performed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Our study showed that 46% of patients from Lifou receiving antibiotic prophylaxis for ARF or RHD had a rate of adherence <80% and were therefore at high risk of recurrence of ARF. Three independent factors were protective against poor adherence: a household with more than five people (odds ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08 to 0.75), a previous medical history of symptomatic ARF (odds ratio, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.98) and an adequate healthcare coverage (odds ratio, 0.21; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.72). Conclusions To improve adherence to secondary prophylaxis in Lifou, we therefore propose the following recommendations arising from the results of this study: i) identifying patients receiving antibiotic prophylaxis without medical history of ARF to strengthen their therapeutic education and ii) improving the medical coverage in patients with ARF or RHD. We also recommend that the nurse designated for the ARF prevention program in Lifou coordinate an active recall system based

  18. Perinatal acquisition of drug-resistant HIV-1 infection: mechanisms and long-term outcome

    PubMed Central

    Delaugerre, Constance; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Blanche, Stephane; Warszawski, Josiane; Cornet, Dorine; Dollfus, Catherine; Schneider, Veronique; Burgard, Marianne; Faye, Albert; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Tubiana, Roland; Rouzioux, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Background Primary-HIV-1-infection in newborns that occurs under antiretroviral prophylaxis that is a high risk of drug-resistance acquisition. We examine the frequency and the mechanisms of resistance acquisition at the time of infection in newborns. Patients and Methods We studied HIV-1-infected infants born between 01 January 1997 and 31 December 2004 and enrolled in the ANRS-EPF cohort. HIV-1-RNA and HIV-1-DNA samples obtained perinatally from the newborn and mother were subjected to population-based and clonal analyses of drug resistance. If positive, serial samples were obtained from the child for resistance testing. Results Ninety-two HIV-1-infected infants were born during the study period. Samples were obtained from 32 mother-child pairs and from another 28 newborns. Drug resistance was detected in 12 newborns (20%): drug resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was seen in 10 cases, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in two cases, and protease inhibitors in one case. For 9 children, the detection of the same resistance mutations in mothers' samples (6 among 10 available) and in newborn lymphocytes (6/8) suggests that the newborn was initially infected by a drug-resistant strain. Resistance variants were either transmitted from mother-to-child or selected during subsequent temporal exposure under suboptimal perinatal prophylaxis. Follow-up studies of the infants showed that the resistance pattern remained stable over time, regardless of antiretroviral therapy, suggesting the early cellular archiving of resistant viruses. The absence of resistance in the mother of the other three children (3/10) and neonatal lymphocytes (2/8) suggests that the newborns were infected by a wild-type strain without long-term persistence of resistance when suboptimal prophylaxis was stopped. Conclusion This study confirms the importance of early resistance genotyping of HIV-1-infected newborns. In most cases (75%), drug resistance was archived in

  19. Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Antibiotic Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... these products really help. To Learn More about Antibiotic Resistance Get Smart About Antibiotics (Video) Fact Sheets and ...

  20. Host Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concepts covered in this chapter (for an undergraduate text book) • Disease resistance is a crucial trait for any crop plant. • The degree of disease resistance varies within plant populations. Much of this variation has a genetic basis. • Plant disease resistance can be broadly categorized into s...

  1. RESISTIVITY METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistivity methods were among the first geophysical techniques developed. The basic concept originated with Conrad Schlumberger, who conducted the initial resistivity field tests in Normandy, France during 1912. The resistivity method, employed in its earliest and most conventional form, uses an ex...

  2. Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    Antibiotics are medicines that fight bacterial infections. Used properly, they can save lives. But there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance. It happens when bacteria change and become able to resist the effects of an antibiotic. Using antibiotics can lead to resistance. ...

  3. [Prophylaxis against respiratory viral disease in pediatric and adult patients undergoing solid organ and hematopoietic stem cells transplantation].

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Ana M; Catalán, Paula; Alba, Andrea; Zubleta, Marcela

    2012-09-01

    Respiratory viruses have been identified as a cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing SOT and HSCT, specially in children. The most frequent are respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza (FLU), parainfluenza (PI) and adenovirus (ADV). These infections are associated with progression to severe lower respiratory tract infections in up to 60% of the cases. It is advised to apply universal protection recommendations for respiratory viruses (A2) and some specific measures for FLU and AD. FLU: Annual anti-influenza vaccination (from 4-6 months post-transplantation in SOT, 6 months in HSCT (A2)); post- exposure prophylaxis in FLU (oseltamivir for 10 days (B2)). In lung transplantion, the prophylaxis should last as long as the risk period (B2). ADV: There is no vaccine nor valid chemoprophylaxis strategy to prevent ADV disease. In some specific HSCT recipients, weekly PCR monitoring is recommended until day+100 (A3). PMID:23282554

  4. From subjects to relations: Bioethics and the articulation of postcolonial politics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jenna M

    2016-04-01

    Controversies about global clinical trials, particularly HIV trials, tend to be framed in terms of ethics. In this article, I explore debates about ethics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial, which was designed to test the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as a prevention for HIV infection. Bringing together studies of public participation in science with studies of bioethics, I show how activists around the Cambodian Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial circulated and provoked debates about standards of research ethics, as opposed to research methodology. This postcolonial bioethics was configured through the circulation of and debate about ethics guidelines, and historically and culturally specific relations of vulnerability and responsibility between foreigners and Cambodians and between Cambodian leaders and Cambodian subjects. I argue that this shift in the object of ethical concern, from the experimental human subject to the relation between subjects and researchers, illustrates how a postcolonial field of articulation reformulates classical bioethics. PMID:27263238

  5. Is Primary Mycobacterium avium Complex Prophylaxis Necessary in Patients with CD4 < 50 Cells/μL Who Are Virologically Suppressed on cART?

    PubMed Central

    Yangco, Bienvenido G.; Buchacz, Kate; Baker, Rose; Palella, Frank J.; Armon, Carl; Brooks, John T.

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed 369 patients with no prior Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection and CD4 < 50 cells/ μL (baseline), while on combination antiretroviral therapy(cART), for incidence rates of primary MAC infection during the 6 months after baseline, by prophylaxis status. Of participants (median age, 40 years old), most were male (81%) and about half were non-white; at baseline, 81% of participants were on cART > 60 days and 19% had HIV RNA < 1000 copies/mL, whereas 65% had HIV RNA > 10,000 copies/mL. Eleven patients had MAC infection within 6 months baseline (rate = 0.6/100 person months): 4/175 on MAC prophylaxis vs. 7/194, no MAC prophylaxis (p = 0.64). Of the 11 patients, seven had HIV RNA > 10,000, and three > 1000–9999 copies/mL at baseline (one missing). Median time to MAC infection was 62 days (IQR 43–126, maximum 139 days). No MAC infection occurred among 71 (19%) patients virologically suppressed (HIV RNA < 1000 copies/mL) at baseline, including 41 patients with no MAC prophylaxis during follow-up. A small number of eligible virologically suppressed participants and the lack of data on cART/MAC prophylaxis adherence limited our observational nonrandomized study. Primary MAC prophylaxis may not be required for cART-virologically suppressed patients with CD4 < 50 cells/mL. PMID:24833016

  6. Is primary mycobacterium avium complex prophylaxis necessary in patients with CD4 <50 cells/μL who are virologically suppressed on cART?

    PubMed

    Yangco, Bienvenido G; Buchacz, Kate; Baker, Rose; Palella, Frank J; Armon, Carl; Brooks, John T

    2014-06-01

    We analyzed 369 patients with no prior Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection and CD4 <50 cells/μL (baseline), while on combination antiretroviral therapy(cART), for incidence rates of primary MAC infection during the 6 months after baseline, by prophylaxis status. Of participants (median age, 40 years old), most were male (81%) and about half were non-white; at baseline, 81% of participants were on cART >60 days and 19% had HIV RNA <1000 copies/mL, whereas 65% had HIV RNA >10,000 copies/mL. Eleven patients had MAC infection within 6 months baseline (rate=0.6/100 person months): 4/175 on MAC prophylaxis vs. 7/194, no MAC prophylaxis (p=0.64). Of the 11 patients, seven had HIV RNA >10,000, and three >1000-9999 copies/mL at baseline (one missing). Median time to MAC infection was 62 days (IQR 43-126, maximum 139 days). No MAC infection occurred among 71 (19%) patients virologically suppressed (HIV RNA <1000 copies/mL) at baseline, including 41 patients with no MAC prophylaxis during follow-up. A small number of eligible virologically suppressed participants and the lack of data on cART/MAC prophylaxis adherence limited our observational nonrandomized study. Primary MAC prophylaxis may not be required for cART-virologically suppressed patients with CD4 <50 cells/mL. PMID:24833016

  7. Dihydropteroate synthase mutations in Pneumocystis pneumonia: impact of applying different definitions of prophylaxis, mortality endpoints and mutant in a single cohort.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Christina; Subramanian, Anuradha; Chi, Amy; Crothers, Kristina; Meshnick, Steven R; Taylor, Steve M; Beard, Charles B; Jarlsberg, Leah G; Lawrence, Gena G; Avery, Melissa; Swartzman, Alexandra; Fong, Serena; Roth, Brenna; Huang, Laurence

    2013-08-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene mutations are well-reported. Although sulfa prophylaxis generally is associated with DHPS mutant infection, whether mutant infection is associated with poorer clinical outcomes is less clear. The differing definitions of sulfa prophylaxis and the different mortality endpoints used in these studies may be one explanation for the conflicting study results. Applying different definitions of prophylaxis, mortality endpoints and DHPS mutant to 301 HIV-infected patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia, we demonstrate that prophylaxis, irrespective of definition, increased the risk of infection with pure mutant (any prophylaxis: AOR 4.00, 95% CI: 1.83-8.76, P < 0.001) but not mixed genotypes (any prophylaxis: AOR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.26-2.36, P = 0.65). However, infection with mutant DHPS, irrespective of definition, was not associated with increased mortality (all-cause or PCP death) at the three time-intervals examined (all P > 0.05). Future studies should standardize key variables associated with DHPS mutant infection as well as examine DHPS mutant subtypes (pure mutant vs. mixed infections) - perhaps even individual DHPS mutant genotypes - so that data can be pooled to better address this issue. PMID:23470037

  8. Malaria drug resistance: new observations and developments

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Juliana M.; Chong, Jason L.; Wellems, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Drug-resistant micro-organisms became widespread in the 20th Century, often with devastating consequences, in response to widespread use of natural and synthetic drugs against infectious diseases. Antimalarial resistance provides one of the earliest examples, following the introduction of new medicines that filled important needs for prophylaxis and treatment around the globe. In the present chapter, we offer a brief synopsis of major antimalarial developments from two natural remedies, the qinghaosu and cinchona bark infusions, and of synthetic drugs inspired by the active components of these remedies. We review some contributions that early efficacy studies of antimalarial treatment brought to clinical pharmacology, including convincing documentation of atebrine-resistant malaria in the 1940s, prior to the launching of what soon became first-choice antimalarials, chloroquine and amodiaquine. Finally, we discuss some new observations on the molecular genetics of drug resistance, including delayed parasite clearances that have been increasingly observed in response to artemisinin derivatives in regions of South-East Asia. PMID:22023447

  9. The planning, execution, and evaluation of a mass prophylaxis full-scale exercise in cook county, IL.

    PubMed

    Kilianski, Andy; O'Rourke, Amy T; Carlson, Crystal L; Parikh, Shannon M; Shipman-Amuwo, Frankie

    2014-01-01

    Increasing threats of bioterrorism and the emergence of novel disease agents, including the recent international outbreaks of H7N9 influenza and MERS-CoV, have stressed the importance and highlighted the need for public health preparedness at local, regional, and national levels. To test plans that were developed for mass prophylaxis scenarios, in April 2013 the Cook Country Department of Public Health (CCDPH) and the Triple Community (TripCom) Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) executed a full-scale mass prophylaxis exercise in response to a simulated anthrax bioterrorism attack. The exercise took place over 2 days and included the TripCom Point-of-Dispensing (POD) Management Team, volunteers from the TripCom MRC, and neighboring public health departments and MRCs. Individuals from the community volunteered as actors during the exercise, while local municipal, police, and fire personnel coordinated their responses to create the most realistic simulation possible. The exercise was designed to test the capacity of TripCom and CCDPH to implement plans for organizing municipal staff and volunteers to efficiently distribute prophylaxis to the community. Based on results from POD clinic flow, accuracy of prophylaxis distribution, and observations from evaluators, the exercise was successful in demonstrating areas that were operationally efficient as well as identifying areas that can be improved on. These include improvements to the just-in-time training for POD staff, the health screening and consent forms handed out to patients, the physical setup of the POD, and the command structure and communication for the management of POD operations. This article demonstrates the need for full-scale exercises and identifies gaps in POD planning that can be integrated into future plans, exercises, and emergency response. PMID:24697783

  10. Adherence to stress-related mucosal damage prophylaxis guideline in patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Rafinazari, Niloofar; Abbasi, Saeed; Farsaei, Shadi; Mansourian, Marjan; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Concern about adverse effects of the inconsistent use of stress-related mucosal damage prophylaxis in intensive care unit (ICU) is increasing. Hence, this study was designed to prospectively evaluate the rate of inappropriate stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) administration upon ICU admission, at ICU discharge and determine the adherence to American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) guideline during ICU stay. Methods: In this study, 200 patients were randomly selected from all ICU admissions during 9 months. Risk factors of stress ulcer were recorded daily during ICU stay and appropriateness of SUP administration was assessed according to the ASHP criteria. Findings: Of all 160 (80%) patients who received SUP, 44.4% did not have indication; and among 95 patients with an indication for SUP administration, 6.3% did not receive it upon ICU admission. Consequently, 77 (38.5%) of 200 patients received inappropriate prophylaxis on ICU admission. In addition, 53.5% of patients had appropriate adherence to ASHP guideline during all days of ICU stay (44% and 2.5% of patients received SUP more than 120% and <80% of appropriate SUP duration, respectively). Moreover, 81.2% were continued on inappropriate prophylaxis upon transfer from the ICU. Conclusion: We concluded that although SUP administration included both overutilization and underutilization in this ICU, but high prevalence of SUP overutilization caused unnecessary hospital costs, personal monetary burden, and may increase adverse drug reactions. Therefore, educating physicians and cooperation of clinical pharmacists regarding implementing standard protocols could improve patterns of SUP administration. PMID:27512710

  11. Acyclovir susceptibilities of herpes simplex virus strains isolated from solid organ transplant recipients after acyclovir or ganciclovir prophylaxis.

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, G; Erice, A; Crane, D D; Dunn, D L; Balfour, H H

    1993-01-01

    We determined the acyclovir (ACV) susceptibilities of herpes simplex virus (HSV) isolates (n = 18) recovered from solid organ transplant patients after antiviral prophylaxis with ACV or ganciclovir. All isolates tested were susceptible to ACV (50% inhibitory concentration, < 1 microM). A clinical review of patients with HSV disease showed that all improved with specific anti-HSV therapy, and no recurrences were reported. PMID:8383946

  12. Influence of iodine deficiency and iodine prophylaxis on thyroid cancer histotypes and incidence in endemic goiter area.

    PubMed

    Huszno, B; Szybiński, Z; Przybylik-Mazurek, E; Stachura, J; Trofimiuk, M; Buziak-Bereza, M; Gołkowski, F; Pantoflinski, J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between thyroid cancer histotype and incidence rate (IR) and iodine nutrition level in two endemic goiter areas: the districts of Krakow and Nowy Sacz. The suspension of iodine prophylaxis in Poland in 1980 resulted in increased goiter prevalence in schoolchildren and adults and elevated TSH levels in newborns in the early 1990s. Since 1992 a rise in thyroid cancer IR was observed. Thyroid cancer IR in the Krakow population was 2.22 in 1986; 3.62 in 1995 and 6.02 in 2001; in Nowy Sacz: 1.52; 2.59 and 3.88 respectively. In 1986 papillary/follicular cancer ratio in both areas was about 1.0--the value typical of iodine deficient areas. After restoring the obligatory iodine prophylaxis in 1997, a significant decrease in elevated TSH concentration in newborns and urinary iodine concentration increase in schoolchildren were observed. A relative rise in the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer and decrease in follicular cancer, resulting in rise in papillary/follicular thyroid cancer ratio up to 5.9 in 2001 was also observed. Since 1999 no further thyroid cancer IR increase was noted. In conclusion, a significant increase in differentiated thyroid cancer IR was observed in association with the iodine prophylaxis suspension. Changes in thyroid cancer histotypes in 1986-2001 and a significant decrease in incremental rate of differentiated thyroid cancer probably reflect the influence of effective iodine prophylaxis. The significant difference between IR of thyroid cancer incidence in the districts of Krakow and Nowy Sacz may be related to differences in the exposure to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. PMID:12762644

  13. In Situ Investigation of the Remineralizing Effect of Saliva and Fluoride on Enamel Following Prophylaxis Using Sodium Bicarbonate

    PubMed Central

    Grazziotin, Gladis Benjamina; Rios, Daniela; Honório, Heitor Marques; Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio; Lima, José Eduardo Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This in situ study evaluated the effect of saliva, associated or not with fluoride, on enamel previously submitted to prophylaxis using sodium bicarbonate. Methods: The study was conducted on enamel blocks submitted to in vitro prophylaxis using sodium bicarbonate. The blocks were randomly divided into 2 groups (G1/G2) and mounted on intraoral appliances wore by 10 volunteers. G1 blocks were directly exposed to saliva in situ, while blocks in G2 were exposed to saliva with fluoride (rinsing with 0.2% NaF solution during the initial minute). Enamel alterations were evaluated using surface microhardness and profilometry. Enamel hardness data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey tests and surface wear was evaluated using paired t test (P<.05). Results: No significant differences were found between G1 and G2 for enamel hardness and wear. The wear after prophylaxis was not different from the wear after the in situ stage. Baseline mean values of enamel hardness, after prophylaxis and after the in situ stage were 340±16.6, 329±35.7 and 354±37.8 for G1 and 338±15.6, 312±46.3 and 340±21.8 for G2, respectively. Conclusions: It was concluded that saliva alone exhibited a similar effect to saliva associated with fluoride; after 4h of in situ remineralization, there was no recovery in height of the enamel structure that had been lost due to the application of sodium bicarbonate. PMID:21228955

  14. Prophylaxis with povidone-iodine against induction of oral mucositis by radiochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Adamietz, I A; Rahn, R; Böttcher, H D; Schäfer, V; Reimer, K; Fleischer, W

    1998-07-01

    Oral mucositis is a frequent complication of radiochemotherapy. The origin of radiation-induced mucosal lesions is iatrogenic in nature, although further development of mucositis is essentially influenced by infection. It can be assumed that disinfection measures should decrease the severity of mucositis induced by radiochemotherapy. Therefore, in a prospective randomised study the efficacy of prophylactic oral rinsing with a disinfection agent was investigated. A randomised, prospective comparative trial was conducted with 40 patients undergoing radiochemotherapy of the head and neck region because of malignant disease. The treatment scheme consisted of irradiation to the tumour region and adjacent lymph nodes, with a total dose of 71.3 Gy, and simultaneous chemotherapy with carboplatin (60 mg/m2) on days 1-5 and 29-34. In all patients mucositis prophylaxis with nystatin, rutosides, panthenol and immunoglobulin was undertaken. In addition, 20 patients rinsed the oral cavity 4 times daily with povidone-iodine solution, while the group for comparison rinsed with sterile water. Clinical examination of the oral mucosa was performed weekly. Onset, grading and duration of mucositis were used as the main variables. Clinically manifest oral mucositis was observed in 14 patients in the iodine group (mean grading: 1.0) and in all 20 patients in the control group (mean grading: 3.0). The total duration (mean) of clinically observed mucositis was 2.75 weeks in treatment patients and 9.25 weeks in control patients. Median AUC (area under curve for grade vs duration) was 2.5 in the iodine rinsing patients and 15.75 in control patients. All differences found between the two groups were statistically significant. Increased iodine incorporation was not observed. A pathologic rise in thyroid hormone levels was not found in the iodine group. The results obtained indicate that incidence, severity and duration of radiochemotherapy-induced mucositis can be significantly reduced by oral

  15. Cancer risk estimates from radiation therapy for heterotopic ossification prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Berris, Theoharris; Damilakis, John; Lyraraki, Efrossyni

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication following total hip arthroplasty. This study was conducted to calculate the radiation dose to organs-at-risk and estimate the probability of cancer induction from radiotherapy for HO prophylaxis.Methods: Hip irradiation for HO with a 6 MV photon beam was simulated with the aid of a Monte Carlo model. A realistic humanoid phantom representing an average adult patient was implemented in Monte Carlo environment for dosimetric calculations. The average out-of-field radiation dose to stomach, liver, lung, prostate, bladder, thyroid, breast, uterus, and ovary was calculated. The organ-equivalent-dose to colon, that was partly included within the treatment field, was also determined. Organ dose calculations were carried out using three different field sizes. The dependence of organ doses upon the block insertion into primary beam for shielding colon and prosthesis was investigated. The lifetime attributable risk for cancer development was estimated using organ, age, and gender-specific risk coefficients.Results: For a typical target dose of 7 Gy, organ doses varied from 1.0 to 741.1 mGy by the field dimensions and organ location relative to the field edge. Blocked field irradiations resulted in a dose range of 1.4–146.3 mGy. The most probable detriment from open field treatment of male patients was colon cancer with a high risk of 564.3 × 10{sup −5} to 837.4 × 10{sup −5} depending upon the organ dose magnitude and the patient's age. The corresponding colon cancer risk for female patients was (372.2–541.0) × 10{sup −5}. The probability of bladder cancer development was more than 113.7 × 10{sup −5} and 110.3 × 10{sup −5} for males and females, respectively. The cancer risk range to other individual organs was reduced to (0.003–68.5) × 10{sup −5}.Conclusions: The risk for cancer induction from radiation therapy for HO prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty varies considerably by the

  16. Effect of fluconazole prophylaxis on candidiasis and mortality in premature infants: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Daniel K.; Hudak, Mark L.; Duara, Shahnaz; Randolph, David A.; Bidegain, Margarita; Mundakel, Gratias T.; Natarajan, Girija; Burchfield, David J.; White, Robert D.; Shattuck, Karen E.; Neu, Natalie; Bendel, Catherine M.; Kim, M. Roger; Finer, Neil N.; Stewart, Dan L.; Arrieta, Antonio C.; Wade, Kelly C.; Kaufman, David A.; Manzoni, Paolo; Prather, Kristi O.; Testoni, Daniela; Berezny, Katherine Y.; Smith, P. Brian

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Invasive candidiasis in premature infants causes mortality and neurodevelopmental impairment. Fluconazole prophylaxis reduces candidiasis, but its effect on mortality and the safety of fluconazole is unknown. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fluconazole in preventing death or invasive candidiasis in extremely low-birth-weight infants. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS This study was a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial of fluconazole in premature infants. Infants weighing less than 750 g at birth (N = 361) from 32 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the United States were randomly assigned to receive either fluconazole or placebo twice weekly for 42 days. Surviving infants were evaluated at 18 to 22 months corrected age for neurodevelopmental outcomes. The study was conducted between November 2008 and February 2013. INTERVENTIONS Fluconazole (6 mg/kg of body weight) or placebo. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary end point was a composite of death or definite or probable invasive candidiasis prior to study day 49 (1 week after completion of study drug). Secondary and safety outcomes included invasive candidiasis, liver function, bacterial infection, length of stay, intracranial hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, chronic lung disease, patent ductus arteriosus requiring surgery, retinopathy of prematurity requiring surgery, necrotizing enterocolitis, spontaneous intestinal perforation, and neurodevelopmental outcomes—defined as a Bayley-III cognition composite score of less than 70, blindness, deafness, or cerebral palsy at 18–22-months corrected age. RESULTS Among infants receiving fluconazole, the composite primary end point of death or invasive candidiasis was 16% (95% CI, 11%–22%) vs 21% in the placebo group (95% CI, 15%–28%; odds ratio 0.73 [95% CI 0.43–1.23]; P=.24; treatment difference −5% [95% CI, −13%–3%]). Invasive candidiasis occurred less frequently in the fluconazole group (3% [95% CI, 1%

  17. Effect of two antimicrobial rinses and oral prophylaxis on preoperative degerming of saliva.

    PubMed

    Altonen, M; SAXEN, L; Kosunen, T; Ainamo, J

    1976-12-01

    Two degerming mouthrinses, a 1% povidone-iodine and a 0.2% aqueous solution of chlorhexidine gluconate, were tested with regard to their degerming effect on the saliva. The study comprised two parts. In the first part 19 dental students with good oral hygiene rinsed their mouths at weekly intervals with 10 ml of the povidone-iodine and 10 ml of the chlorhexidine solution. A control group of 12 students and nurses with healthy teeth and gums rinsed their mouths with 10 ml of plain water. In the second part 11 adult patients with periodontal disease used the two test rinses at weekly intervals both before and after periodontal prophylaxis including scaling of the teeth. Non-stimulated saliva was simpled immediately before and 5, 30, 60, and 120 min after each rinse. Part of the saliva was cultured on blood agar plates to show the growth of aerobic microbes. The remainder of the saliva was poured over a Dentocult dip-slide for determination of the number of acidophilic bacteria. The results showed that in the water control group the bacterial count increased in spite of the rinse. When compared with the prerinse values, both test rinses clearly reduced the amounts of bacteria. Chlorhexidine reduced the bacterial count 5 min after the rinse about one logarithm more than povidone-iodine, did, and the degerming effect of chlorhexidine was also of longer duration than that of the povidone-iodine solution. The periodontal prophylaxis in the adult group did not seem to lower the pre-rinse bacterial counts but did slightly improve the duration of the effect of both test solutions. The dip-slide tests showed that 28% of the subjects had no growth of acidophilic bacteria. This absence was not dependent on the other bacterial flora of the saliva. In the cases with a positive dip-slide test, the number of acidophilic bacteria decreased with both test solutions according to the pattern revealed by the blood agar plate cultures. PMID:826491

  18. Non-toxigenic penicillin-resistant cutaneous C. diphtheriae infection: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Rosemarie Philippa; Rosser, Andrew J; Perera, Dona Nelun

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a case of non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae in a previously healthy 14-year-old girl that was acquired in Ethiopia and presented locally. This is the first clinical case of penicillin-resistant C. diphtheriae in the UK. This is significant finding because penicillin is the recommended first-line agent for the prophylaxis against and treatment of C. diphtheriae in patients who are not allergic to penicillin. PMID:25027172

  19. Esophageal capsule endoscopy is not the optimal technique to determine the need for primary prophylaxis in patients with cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Krok, Karen L.; Wagennar, Rebecca Rankin; Kantsevoy, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Capsule endoscopy has been suggested as a potential alternative to endoscopy for detection of esophagogastric varices and severe portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG). The aim of the study was to determine whether PillCam esophageal capsule endoscopy could replace endoscopy for screening purposes. Material and methods Sixty-two patients with cirrhosis with no previous variceal bleeding had PillCam capsule endoscopy and video endoscopy performed on the same day. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) of capsule endoscopy were compared to endoscopy for the presence and severity of esophageal and gastric varices, PHG and the need for primary prophylaxis. Patients’ preference was assessed by a questionnaire. Results Four (6%) patients were unable to swallow the capsule. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of capsule endoscopy for detecting any esophageal varices (92%, 50%, 92%, 50%), large varices (55%, 91%, 75%, 80%), variceal red signs (58%, 87%, 69%, 80%), PHG (95%, 50%, 95%, 50%), and the need for primary prophylaxis (91%, 57%, 78%, 80%) were not optimal, with only moderate agreement (κ) between capsule and upper GI endoscopy. Had only a capsule endoscopy been performed, 12 (21.4%) patients would have received inappropriate treatment. Capsule endoscopy also failed to detect (0/13) gastric varices. The majority of patients ranked capsule endoscopy as more convenient (69%) and their preferred (61%) method. Conclusions Despite the preference expressed by patients for capsule endoscopy, we believe that upper GI endoscopy should remain the preferred screening method for primary prophylaxis. PMID:27186182

  20. Safety and Immunogenicity of purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine (VaxiRab N) administered intradermally as post exposure prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Ravish, Hardanahalli S; Vijayashankar, Veena; Madhusudana, Shampur N; Sudarshan, Mysore K; Narayana, Doddabele HA; Andanaiah, Gangaboraiah; Ashwin, Belludi Y; Rachana, Annadani R; Shamanna, Manjula

    2014-01-01

    The affordability to rabies vaccine for intramuscular administration in post exposure prophylaxis is a major constraint. Therefore, in countries, where there are financial constraints, World Health Organization recommends intradermal rabies vaccination that reduces the quantity and cost of vaccination. This study was done to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of indigenously developed rabies vaccine (VaxiRab N) in comparison to a WHO recommended rabies vaccine (Rabipur) with demonstrated efficacy when administered by intradermal route using updated Thai Red Cross regimen. Eighty-six dog bite cases were randomly given either VaxiRab N (n = 43) or Rabipur (n = 43) as post exposure prophylaxis. The rabies virus neutralizing antibody concentrations on days 14, 28, 90, and 180 were tested by modified rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. The geometric mean RVNA concentration of both the groups were compared using t- test and was found that, P value > 0.05 on all days, thus showing no significant difference between the 2 groups. The adverse drug events were also compared using Z-test and was found to be not statistically significant (Z = 1.476, P = 0.139). In conclusion, VaxiRab N was found to be safe and effective in post exposure prophylaxis by intradermal route and was similar to the WHO recommended rabies vaccine (Rabipur) of demonstrated efficacy. PMID:25424951

  1. Invasive fungal infections in AML/MDS patients treated with azacitidine: a risk worth considering antifungal prophylaxis?

    PubMed

    Pomares, Helena; Arnan, Montserrat; Sánchez-Ortega, Isabel; Sureda, Anna; Duarte, Rafael F

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the risk of invasive fungal infection (IFI) and the need for antifungal prophylaxis in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes (AML/MDS) treated with azacitidine. We retrospectively analysed the incidence of IFI according to EORTC-MSG criteria in 121 consecutive AML/MDS patients receiving 948 azacitidine courses (median 5, range 1-43) between June 2007 and June 2015. Four cases of IFI (two possible, one probable aspergillosis and one proven candidemia) occurred in this series. The incidence rate of proven/probable IFI was 0.21% per treatment cycle and 1.6% per patient treated for the whole series, and 0.73% per treatment cycle and 4.1% per patient treated in those with severe neutropenia. Two patients died from IFI, leading to an IFI-attributable mortality rate of 1.65% per patient and 0.21% per treatment cycle. The numbers needed to treat with prophylaxis to prevent one case of IFI are 238 azacitidine cycles or 30 patients throughout their whole treatment course, and 137 azacitidine cycles or 24 patients among those with severe neutropenia. AML/MDS patients treated with azacitidine, including those with severe prolonged neutropenia, have a very low risk of IFI which does not justify the use of antifungal prophylaxis. PMID:27027972

  2. Risk factors of Pneumocystis pneumonia in solid organ recipients in the era of the common use of posttransplantation prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Iriart, X; Challan Belval, T; Fillaux, J; Esposito, L; Lavergne, R-A; Cardeau-Desangles, I; Roques, O; Del Bello, A; Cointault, O; Lavayssière, L; Chauvin, P; Menard, S; Magnaval, J-F; Cassaing, S; Rostaing, L; Kamar, N; Berry, A

    2015-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients becomes rare in the immediate posttransplantation period thanks to generalized prophylaxis. We aimed to identify the predictive factors for PCP in the era of universal prophylaxis and to propose a strategy for preventing PCP beyond the first year after transplantation. In a retrospective case-control study, 33 SOT cases with PCP diagnosed between 2004 and 2010 were matched with two controls each to identify risk factors for PCP by uni- and multivariate analysis. All the patients benefited from 6 months of posttransplantation trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis. Most PCP in SOT patients occurred during the second year posttransplantation (33%). By univariate analysis, age, nonuse of tacrolimus, total and CD4 lymphocyte counts, gamma-globulin concentration and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection appeared to be PCP risk factors. In the final multivariate analysis, age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-10.4), CMV infection (OR: 5.2, 95% CI: 1.8-14.7) and total lymphocyte count (OR: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.4-10.7) were found to be independently associated with PCP. The second year posttransplantation appeared to be the new period of highest risk of PCP. Age, CMV viremia and lymphocytes were the most pertinent predictive criteria to evaluate the risk of PCP in clinical practice. PMID:25496195

  3. Development of aminoglycoside and β-lactamase resistance among intestinal microbiota of swine treated with lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian; Li, Liang; Liu, Baotao; Xia, Jing; Liao, Xiaoping; Liu, Yahong

    2014-01-01

    Lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin are commonly used antimicrobials for growth promotion and infectious disease prophylaxis in swine production. In this study, we investigated the shifts and resistance development among intestinal microbiota in pregnant sows before and after lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin treatment by using phylogenetic analysis, bacterial enumeration, and PCR. After the antimicrobial treatment, shifts in microbial community, an increased proportion of resistant bacteria, and genes related to antimicrobial resistance as compared to the day before antimicrobial administration (day 0) were observed. Importantly, a positive correlation between antimicrobial resistance gene expression in different categories, especially those encoding aminoglycoside and β-lactamase and antimicrobial resistance, was observed. These findings demonstrate an important role of antimicrobial usage in animals in the development of antimicrobial resistance, and support the notion that prudent use of antimicrobials in swine is needed to reduce the risk of the emergence of multi-drug resistant zoonotic pathogens. PMID:25408688

  4. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Antibiotic-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) Multidrug-Resistant Neisseria ...

  5. HIV Prophylaxis in High Risk Newborns: An Examination of Sociodemographic Factors in an Inner City Context

    PubMed Central

    Alidina, Zenita; Wormsbecker, Anne E.; Urquia, Marcelo; MacGillivray, Jay; Taerk, Evan; Yudin, Mark H.; Campbell, Douglas M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Perinatal HIV transmission is less than 1% with antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis. Transmission risk appears higher in “high risk” dyads, yet this is not well defined, possibly exposing more infants to combination ARV compared with standard care. Objective. To describe characteristics of mother-infant dyads where infants received ARVs and how these characteristics relate to specific ARV regimens. Methods. Retrospective chart review of ARV-receiving newborns at St. Michael's Hospital from 2007 to 2012 (and their mothers). Numerical and categorical variables were analyzed using t-tests/ANOVA F-tests and Fisher's exact tests, respectively. Results. Maternal HIV status at delivery was as follows: 69% positive and 24% unknown. Maternal factors significantly associated with newborn-triple therapy are Canadian origin, substance abuse, unstable housing, lost custody of previous children, and sex work. Neonatal factors are child protective services involvement, NICU, and lengthier admission. Maternal factors associated with monotherapy are African origin, HIV-positive, employment, and education. Further analysis based on maternal presentation at delivery demonstrated unequal distribution of many aforementioned factors. Discussion. This cohort revealed associations between particular factors and newborn-monotherapy or triple therapy that exist, suggesting that sociodemographic factors may influence the choice of ARV regimen. Canadian perinatal HIV transmission guidelines should qualify how to risk stratify newborns and consider use of rapid HIV antibody testing. PMID:27366161

  6. HIV Prophylaxis in High Risk Newborns: An Examination of Sociodemographic Factors in an Inner City Context.

    PubMed

    Alidina, Zenita; Wormsbecker, Anne E; Urquia, Marcelo; MacGillivray, Jay; Taerk, Evan; Yudin, Mark H; Campbell, Douglas M

    2016-01-01

    Background. Perinatal HIV transmission is less than 1% with antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis. Transmission risk appears higher in "high risk" dyads, yet this is not well defined, possibly exposing more infants to combination ARV compared with standard care. Objective. To describe characteristics of mother-infant dyads where infants received ARVs and how these characteristics relate to specific ARV regimens. Methods. Retrospective chart review of ARV-receiving newborns at St. Michael's Hospital from 2007 to 2012 (and their mothers). Numerical and categorical variables were analyzed using t-tests/ANOVA F-tests and Fisher's exact tests, respectively. Results. Maternal HIV status at delivery was as follows: 69% positive and 24% unknown. Maternal factors significantly associated with newborn-triple therapy are Canadian origin, substance abuse, unstable housing, lost custody of previous children, and sex work. Neonatal factors are child protective services involvement, NICU, and lengthier admission. Maternal factors associated with monotherapy are African origin, HIV-positive, employment, and education. Further analysis based on maternal presentation at delivery demonstrated unequal distribution of many aforementioned factors. Discussion. This cohort revealed associations between particular factors and newborn-monotherapy or triple therapy that exist, suggesting that sociodemographic factors may influence the choice of ARV regimen. Canadian perinatal HIV transmission guidelines should qualify how to risk stratify newborns and consider use of rapid HIV antibody testing. PMID:27366161

  7. Early infant diagnosis and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV- exposed infants.

    PubMed

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    Recent scientific evidence suggests that early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among infants exposed perinatally to HIV has beneficial effects on their health and survival, and may even induce remission. This has led to the roll-out of early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV and early treatment. Also, there is talk of using ART as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to prevent mother-to-child transmission. EID involves carrying out diagnostic tests before initiating ART. In India, current programme design of centralised diagnosis has been resulting in poor access to diagnosis and treatment. To save the lives of HIV-infected infants, it is important to prevent delay. Another issue to be kept in mind is that the results of HIV tests may turn negative after the initiation of ART. This could be due to viral remission induced by ART or false positive initial results. Differentiating between the two is difficult. To deal with such cases, we need to develop a clinical algorithm and tools for capacity-building in counselling. The use of ART as PEP is expected to encounter further challenges. Between ART as PEP and EID, the later has advantages from an ethical perspective. There is a need to address the ethical issues within the EID programme by strengthening the current mechanisms for protecting the rights of HIV-exposed infants. PMID:26827263

  8. Epilepsy in Adults with Supratentorial Glioblastoma: Incidence and Influence Factors and Prophylaxis in 184 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shuli; Zhang, Junchen; Zhang, Shaohui; Fu, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Aim To analyze the incidence of epilepsy in adult patients with supratentorial glioblastoma, assess the factors influencing the development of epilepsy in these cases, and evaluate patients’ response to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a series of 184 patients. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the 184 adult patients diagnosed with supratentorial glioblastoma. All subjects were treated within our hospital and subsequently died between 2003 and 2013. The incidence of epilepsy was assessed before and after initial resection and reexamined every 2 months thereafter. We evaluated the efficacy of prophylactic AEDs in this patient population based on the gathered incidence data. Results Of 184 patients, 43 (23.37%) were diagnosed with epilepsy before their initial resection. The total incidence of epilepsy (both pre- and postoperative) was 68.48%. The prevalence of active epilepsy reached over 80% in patients with epilepsy and survival of greater than 13 months postoperatively. Patients with glioblastoma in the frontal and/or temporal lobes had a higher prevalence of epilepsy. In the 43 patients with preoperative epilepsy, total resection of glioblastoma resulted in significantly lower seizure frequency. Patients who received epilepsy prophylaxis with AEDs for at least 6 months had significantly fewer seizures and higher Karnofsky scores than those receiving AEDs for less than one month or not at all. Conclusion The incidence of epilepsy in adult patients with glioblastoma was high and responded poorly to AEDs in the short term. However, when taken for longer periods, AEDs can reduce the frequency of seizures in patients with glioblastoma. PMID:27438472

  9. Tensions between the Epidemiology and Psychology of HIV Risk: Implications for Pre-exposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Sarit A.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on psychological differences in risk-taking patterns and their association with risk compensation motivations in the context of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Participants were 257 HIV-negative MSM and transgender women recruited in New York City. The majority of participants (89.5%, n = 230), could be classified as either: Intimates (40%), who report UAI only with a main partner believed to be HIV-negative; Trusters (34%), who engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) only with casual partners believed to be HIV-negative; and Gamblers (26%) who report UAI with partners of unknown serostatus. Partner-based classifications were better predictors of HIV risk perception and other traditional correlates of risk-taking (e.g. impulsivity, sexual compulsivity) than rates of UAI. The three groups differed significantly in PrEP-related risk compensation motivations: sexual pleasure (Gamblers), intimacy (Trusters) and partner pressure (Intimates). These data underscore the importance of focusing the psychological dynamics of risk perception and sexual decision-making. PMID:24719201

  10. Therapeutic Targeting of CPT-11 Induced Diarrhea: A Case for Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Swami, Umang; Goel, Sanjay; Mani, Sridhar

    2014-01-01

    CPT-11 (irinotecan), a DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor is one of the main treatments for colorectal cancer. The main dose limiting toxicities are neutropenia and late onset diarrhea. Though neutropenia is manageable, CPT-11 induced diarrhea is frequently severe, resulting in hospitalizations, dose reductions or omissions leading to ineffective treatment administration. Many potential agents have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies to prevent or ameliorate CPT-11 induced late onset diarrhea. It is predicted that prophylaxis of CPT-11 induced diarrhea will reduce sub-therapeutic dosing as well as hospitalizations and will eventually lead to dose escalations resulting in better response rates. This article reviews various experimental agents and strategies employed to prevent this debilitating toxicity. Covered topics include schedule/dose modification, intestinal alkalization, structural/chemical modification, genetic testing, anti-diarrheal therapies, transporter (ABCB1, ABCC2, BCRP2) inhibitors, enzyme (β-glucuronidase, UGT1A1, CYP3A4, carboxylesterase, COX-2) inducers and inhibitors, probiotics, antibiotics, adsorbing agents, cytokine and growth factor activators and inhibitors and other miscellaneous agents. PMID:23597015

  11. State of the science of adherence in pre-exposure prophylaxis and microbicide trials

    PubMed Central

    Muchomba, Felix M.; Gearing, Robin E.; Simoni, Jane M.; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-01-01

    For pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and microbicides to effectively prevent HIV, optimal treatment adherence is required. Adherence to these strategies, however, has not been sufficiently studied. This investigation systematically reviews oral PrEP and microbicide trials across 4 domains of adherence: 1) definition and measures used; 2) risks for non-adherence; 3) promotion strategies; and 4) effects on outcomes. Nineteen (n = 19) trials, with 47157 participants, published between 1987 and 2012 were identified. Reported mean adherence to microbicides was 79% and to oral PrEP 87%. Common risks for microbicide nonadherence were decreased motivation over time, sex with primary (noncommercial/casual) partners, and insufficient supply. Oral PrEP non-adherence risks were older age and medication side effects. Psychoeducation and outreach to participants and communities were frequently utilized promotion strategies. Most trials failed to systematically identify barriers and monitor and promote adherence, although adherence moderated outcomes. Recommendations for attending to adherence in future trials are provided. PMID:22932322

  12. HIV knowledge, risk perception and pre-exposure prophylaxis interest among Thai university students.

    PubMed

    Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Chunloy, Krongtip; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha

    2015-12-01

    To assess HIV risk perception and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) interest among university students, an anonymous survey was conducted among students from a large public university in Thailand. There were 641 participants; 118 (18%) were categorised into moderate or high-risk group. Of these 118 participants, 111 (94%) perceived themselves as no or low risk. Despite high levels of knowledge about HIV transmission risks, rates of consistent condom use with vaginal, oral and anal sex were all low (43%, 18% and 33%, respectively). The low rates of consistent condom use were significantly associated with false perception of low HIV risk (P < 0.05). Independent factors associated with the false perception were male gender (P < 0.001), living with a domestic partner (P = 0.004), being homosexual or bisexual (P = 0.02) and being students from a non-medicine faculty (P = 0.04). Of the 641 participants, 211 (33%) were not interested in PrEP. Consistent condom use with oral sex (P = 0.004), consistent condom use with vaginal sex (P = 0.04) and being heterosexual (P = 0.02) were independently associated with no PrEP interest. Our study suggests the need for enhanced interventions to improve HIV risk perception and safe sex practices among the university students. PMID:25505047

  13. Immunomodulating effects of antibiotics used in the prophylaxis of bacterial infections in advanced cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zapater, Pedro; González-Navajas, José Manuel; Such, José; Francés, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    The use of norfloxacin either as primary or secondary prophylaxis of bacterial infections in advanced cirrhosis has improved patient’s survival. This may be explained not only due to a significant decrease in the number of infections, but also because of a direct immunomodulatory effect. Selective intestinal decontamination with norfloxacin reduces translocation of either viable bacteria or bacteria-driven products from the intestinal lumen. In addition, norfloxacin directly modulates the systemic inflammatory response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine profile secreted by neutrophils from these patients shows a close, significant, and inverse correlation with serum norfloxacin levels. Similar effects have been described with other quinolones in different clinical conditions. Although the underlying mechanisms are not well defined for most of the antibiotics, the pathways triggered for norfloxacin to induce such immunomodulatory effects involve the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and NF-κB and the up-regulation of heme-oxygenase 1 and IL-10 expression. The knowledge of these immunomodulatory effects, additional to their bactericidal role, improves our comprehension of the interaction between antibiotics and the cellular host response and offer new possibilities for the development of new therapeutic strategies to manage and prevent bacterial infections in cirrhosis. PMID:26556982

  14. Propagation of Information About Preexposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention Through Twitter.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Margaret L; Hou, Jinghui; Meng, Jingbo; Hu, Chih-Wei; An, Zheng; Park, Mina; Nam, Yujung

    2016-08-01

    Previous literature has suggested that examining Twitter messages can be productive for studying how the public shares and spreads health information on social media. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising approach to HIV prevention, yet there are many issues that may influence its effective implementation. This study examined social representations of PrEP on Twitter. One thousand four hundred and thirty-five Tweets were collected and 774 English Tweets were content-analyzed to explore propagation of various issues around daily oral PrEP, as well as characteristics of the sources of those Tweets. We also examined how Twitter message content influenced information propagation. Our findings revealed that PrEP-related information on Twitter covered a wide range of issues, and individual users constituted the majority of the Tweet creators among all the sources, including news media, nonprofit and academic groups, and commercial entities. Using Poisson regression, we also found that a Tweet's affective tone was a significant predictor of message propagation frequency. Implications for health practitioners are discussed. PMID:26756069

  15. Does Haloperidol Prophylaxis Reduce Ketamine-Induced Emergence Delirium in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Amr, Mostafa A. M.; Shams, Tarek; Al-Wadani, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Ketamine is a non-barbiturate agent with rapid action onset that induces profound sedation; however, some emergency physicians tend not to use ketamine because of the risk of emergence delirium (ED). This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of haloperidol prophylaxis in postoperative ketamine delirium in children. Methods: Prospective data relating to any emergence dreams, delirium, hallucinations, agitation, crying, altered perceptions, and necessary interventions were recorded in consecutive cases of ketamine delirium in patients attending Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt, from June 2010 to May 2011. Results: A total of 537 records were available for analysis. Of those, 267 received prophylactic haloperidol (49.7%). There were significant differences between the two groups regarding post-anaesthetic care unit behaviour. The ketamine-haloperidol groups included more patients who were sleepy, calm (P ≤0.01) and less irritable (P ≤0.01), with a lower incidence of crying (P ≤0.01) and disorientation (P ≤0.01). Conclusion: We found that preoperative administration of haloperidol decreases the incidence of postoperative delirium in a sample of Egyptian children undergoing minor surgery. This is congruent with earlier work conducted in adults. This work carries great hope to decrease and even prevent ED in hospitalised, non-surgical patients. PMID:23862031

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Universal Prophylaxis in Pregnancy with Prior Group B Streptococci Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Turrentine, Mark A.; Ramirez, Mildred M.; Mastrobattista, Joan M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To estimate the costs and outcomes of rescreening for group B streptococci (GBS) compared to universal treatment of term women with history of GBS colonization in a previous pregnancy. Study Design. A decision analysis model was used to compare costs and outcomes. Total cost included the costs of screening, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP), treatment for maternal anaphylaxis and death, evaluation of well infants whose mothers received IAP, and total costs for treatment of term neonatal early onset GBS sepsis. Results. When compared to screening and treating, universal treatment results in more women treated per GBS case prevented (155 versus 67) and prevents more cases of early onset GBS (1732 versus 1700) and neonatal deaths (52 versus 51) at a lower cost per case prevented ($8 805 versus $12 710). Conclusion. Universal treatment of term pregnancies with a history of previous GBS colonization is more cost-effective than the strategy of screening and treating based on positive culture results. PMID:20052397

  17. Meningosis prophylaxis with intrathecal /sup 198/Au-colloid and methotrexate in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, O.; Stoll, W.; Plenert, W.

    1982-01-15

    Since 1972, telecobalt irradiation plus intrathecal methotrexate (ITMTX) has been successfully replaced in Jena by intrathecal colloidal radioactive gold (/sup 198/Au) plus ITMTX for meningosis prophylaxis in leukemia. Seventy-three children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) were given 1.24-4.89 mCi (45.8-181 MBq) of colloidal 198Au IT after successful initiation of remission. During cytostatic therapy, the following relapses occurred: meningosis leucaemica, five patients (6.8%); bone-marrow relapse and the meningosis leucaemica, one patient; and bone-marrow relapse, 20 patients (27.4%). In 18 children, combination chemotherapy was terminated after two and a half or three years of treatment. After that time, one meningeal relapse and six bone-marrow relapses occurred. Within the first 24 hours after application of radioactive gold, headaches, vomiting, and fever occurred in less than 10% of the children. An apathy syndrome, leukecephalopathy, or severe infections, were not observed in a single case. Radioactive gold spreads in the subarachnoid space and is phagocytized by the arachnoidea. The tumoricide effect extends selectively over the space of distribution of the latent meningosis leucaemia. The cerebral parenchyma remains unaffected by radiation. Thus, radioactive gold may be preferable to telecobalt irradiation in preventing central nervous system leukemia.

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus postexposure prophylaxis for occupational exposure in a medical school hospital in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hiransuthikul, N; Hiransuthikul, P; Kanasuk, Y

    2007-12-01

    This is a retrospective review of occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and subsequent postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) among healthcare workers (HCWs) in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital (KCMH), Bangkok, Thailand. From January 2002 to December 2004, data were collected from incident reports, the hospital's infectious diseases unit and the emergency department. There were 315 reported episodes of occupational exposure among 306 HCWs. Nurses (34.0%) were the HCWs most frequently exposed and percutaneous injury (91.4%) was the most common type of exposure. One-third of the source patients tested were infected with HIV. PEP was initiated following 200 (63.5%) of the 315 exposures and was started within 24h in >95% of cases. The most commonly prescribed PEP regimen was zidovudine, lamivudine and nelfinavir. Fifty-six percent of HCWs given PEP completed a four-week course but the remainder discontinued PEP prematurely due to side-effects, or after negative results from the source, or following informed risk reassessment or from their own accord. No exposed HCW acquired HIV during the study period. Appropriate counselling and careful risk assessment are important in achieving effective HIV PEP among HCWs. PMID:18023920

  19. Postexposure prophylaxis for Lassa fever: Experience from a recent outbreak in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Isa, Samson E.; Okwute, Attah; Iraoyah, Kelly O.; Nathan, Shehu Y.; Simji, Gomerep S.; Okolo, Mark O.; Anejo-Okopi, Joseph; Spicola, Daria; Isa, Daisy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Secondary transmission of Lassa fever (LF) occurs in the community and in health-care facilities, and is associated with high fatality in Nigeria. We investigated the role of oral ribavirin postexposure prophylaxis (orPEP) in preventing LF among the primary contacts of confirmed cases from December 2015 to March 2016. Materials and Methods: Epidemiological and clinical data of LF contacts were prospectively collected. However, information regarding ribavirin adverse effects (AEs) were collected retrospectively through a telephone interview. High-risk contacts were clinically monitored ΁ orPEP. Results: Thirty-five (94.6%) out of the 37 individuals enrolled in the study were contacts of confirmed LF cases, and friends and family members (54%) constituted the largest group. However, only 29 (83%) individuals were classified as high-risk contacts. Twenty-one (60%) of contacts were prescribed ribavirin with 6 (28.6%) of them reporting AEs. Body weakness (33%) was the most frequent AE, but there was no incidence of treatment discontinuation due to AE. Furthermore, there were no reported cases of LF among all respondents (0%), whether they had orPEP or not. Conclusion: Secondary transmission of LF seems uncommon and the benefit of orPEP is uncertain. Although AEs of ribavirin may not be uncommon, they are rarely serious enough to cause treatment interruption. More emphasis should be on supporting persons looking after LF cases adopt measures that minimize the risks of exposure.

  20. [Tetanus prophylaxis after an injury; check the need for vaccination and immunoglobulin].

    PubMed

    te Wierik, Margreet J M; Hahné, Susan J M; van Ooik, Paula C; van Lier, Ans M C; Swaan, Corien M

    2013-01-01

    Tetanus can occur after an injury and is caused by the exotoxin of Clostridium tetani. Characteristics of generalised tetanus include spasms in the back and other muscles, trismus, risus sardonicus and difficulty in breathing caused by laryngospasms. Vaccination through the National Vaccination Programme of the Netherlands has resulted in 94% of the population being protected against tetanus; certain groups, however, have a low rate of vaccination. In the Netherlands, 5 patients were reported to have generalised tetanus in 2011. This figure is relatively high in comparison with previous years. Of these 5 patients, 3 did not receive post-exposure-prophylaxis (PEP) after their injuries, or received it incompletely. PEP may be comprised of 1 or more vaccinations with the tetanus toxoid and/or the administration of tetanus immunoglobulin. Patients who have sustained an injury should be evaluated in accordance with the guideline 'Tetanus' by the Landelijke Coördinatie Infectieziekten (National Coordination Centre for communicable disease control), and to assess whether PEP is indicated. PMID:24330787

  1. Toxoplasma gondii Myocarditis after Adult Heart Transplantation: Successful Prophylaxis with Pyrimethamine

    PubMed Central

    Strabelli, Tania Mara V.; Siciliano, Rinaldo Focaccia; Vidal Campos, Silvia; Bianchi Castelli, Jussara; Bacal, Fernando; Bocchi, Edimar A.; Uip, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii primary infection/reactivation after solid organ transplantation is a serious complication, due to the high mortality rate following disseminated disease. We performed a retrospective study of all cases of T. gondii infections in 436 adult patients who had received an orthotopic cardiac transplant at our Institution from May 1968 to January 2011. Six patients (1.3%) developed T. gondii infection/reactivation in the post-operative period. All infections/reactivations occurred before 1996, when no standardized toxoplasmosis prophylactic regimen or co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was used. Starting with the 112th heart transplant, oral pyrimethamine 75 mg/day was used for seronegative transplant recipients whose donors were seropositive or unknown. Two patients (33.3%) presented with disseminated toxoplasmosis infection, and all patients (100%) had myocarditis. Five patients (83.3%) were seronegative before transplant and one patient did not have pre-transplant serology available. Median time for infection onset was 131 days following transplantation. Three patients (50%) died due to toxoplasmosis infection. After 1996, we did not observe any additional cases of T. gondii infection/reactivation. In conclusion, toxoplasmosis in heart allographs was more frequent among seronegative heart recipients, and oral pyrimethamine was highly effective for the prevention of T. gondii infection in this population. PMID:23209479

  2. Phosphatidylglycerol provides short-term prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Numata, Mari; Nagashima, Yoji; Moore, Martin L.; Berry, Karin Z.; Chan, Mallory; Kandasamy, Pitchaimani; Peebles, R. Stokes; Murphy, Robert C.; Voelker, Dennis R.

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory tract infections in young children, and significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly, immunosuppressed, and immunocompromised patients and in patients with chronic lung diseases. Recently, we reported that the pulmonary surfactant phospholipid palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) inhibited RSV infection in vitro and in vivo by blocking viral attachment to epithelial cells. Simultaneous application of POPG along with an RSV challenge to mice markedly attenuated infection and associated inflammatory responses. Based on these findings, we expanded our studies to determine whether POPG is effective for prophylaxis and postinfection treatment for RSV infection. In vitro application of POPG at concentrations of 0.2–1.0 mg/ml at 24 h after RSV infection of HEp-2 cells suppressed interleukin-8 production up to 80% and reduced viral plaque formation by 2–6 log units. In vivo, the turnover of POPG in mice is relatively rapid, making postinfection application impractical. Intranasal administration of POPG (0.8–3.0 mg), 45 min before RSV inoculation in mice reduced viral infection by 1 log unit, suppressed inflammatory cell appearance in the lung, and suppressed virus-elicited interferon-γ production. These findings demonstrate that POPG is effective for short-term protection of mice against subsequent RSV infection and that it has potential for application in humans. PMID:23749985

  3. Risks, dangers and competing clinical decisions on venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in hospital care.

    PubMed

    Boiko, Olga; Sheaff, Rod; Child, Susan; Gericke, Christian A

    2014-07-01

    Drawing on wider sociologies of risk, this article examines the complexity of clinical risks and their management, focusing on risk management systems, expert decision-making and safety standards in health care. At the time of this study preventing venous thromboembolism (VTE) among in-patients was one of the top priorities for hospital safety in the English National Health Service (NHS). An analysis of 50 interviews examining hospital professionals' perceptions about VTE risks and prophylaxis illuminates how National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines influenced clinical decision-making in four hospitals in one NHS region. We examine four themes: the identification of new risks, the institutionalisation and management of risk, the relationship between risk and danger and the tensions between risk management systems and expert decision-making. The implementation of NICE guidelines for VTE prevention extended managerial control over risk management but some irreducible clinical dangers remained that were beyond the scope of the new VTE risk management systems. Linking sociologies of risk with the realities of hospital risk management reveals the capacity of these theories to illuminate both the possibilities and the limits of managerialism in health care. PMID:24635764

  4. Evaluation of antimicrobial prophylaxis against postoperative infection after spine surgery: Limit of the first generation cephem.

    PubMed

    Iida, Yasuaki; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Keiji; Tsuge, Shintaro; Yokoyama, Yuichirou; Nakamura, Kazumasa; Fukano, Ryoichi; Takamatsu, Ryo; Wada, Akihito; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    In our department, first-generation cephem (CEZ) are generally administered for 2 days as antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) for spinal surgery. However, the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) has recently increased, particularly cases involving coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) as an etiologic agent. The objective was to elucidate the problems with the current AMP and the risk factors of SSI through a retrospective investigation of affected cases. The subjects were patients who underwent spine surgery at our department between August 2007 and June 2013. The subjects were divided into those who developed SSI (S group) and who did not develop SSI (non-SSI (N) group), patients who developed CNS infection in the S group was subdivided as C group, and the risk factors were investigated. The significance of each factor was analyzed using cross tabulation, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed with 22 of the investigation factors as explanatory variables. The incidence of SSI was 2.55%, and the etiologic agent was CNS in 17 patients. Upon comparison between the S and N groups, the presence of 3 or more underlying diseases and blood loss were extracted as significant risk factors. Upon comparison between the C and N groups, emergency surgery and intra- and postoperative steroid administration were extracted as significant risk factors, in addition to the presence of 3 or more underlying diseases and blood loss. The effect of the current AMP using first generation cephem is limited, and reconsideration of the protocol may be necessary. PMID:26806151

  5. [Current state of knowledge and developments in the prophylaxis and acute treatment of migraine].

    PubMed

    Schriever, J; Bühlen, M; Broich, K

    2014-08-01

    For the acute treatment of the headache phase of a migraine attack, a variety of different pharmacotherapeutic treatment options exist. These range from nonspecifically acting non-opioid analgesics (e.g., paracetamol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory substances (e.g., acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac) to agents specifically interfering with the serotonin system (ergot alkaloids such as ergotamine and its derivatives, triptans). In patients with significant emesis co-occurring during an attack, additional antiemetics such as metoclopramide or domperidone may be administered. In migraine prophylaxis, largely divergent agents, e.g., β-adrenoceptor antagonists, Ca-antagonists, or anticonvulsants, are commonly used. The diversity of these compounds may help the treating physician to tailor prophylactic treatment to the patient's individual needs. The treatment success of the individual patient is difficult to predict both in acute and prophylactic migraine treatment. Apart from contraindications or associated side effects of a particular substance, the individual patient's response to treatment is therefore a major determinant in selecting the suitable medication. PMID:25028243

  6. Tensions between the epidemiology and psychology of HIV risk: implications for pre-exposure prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Golub, Sarit A

    2014-09-01

    This study focuses on psychological differences in risk-taking patterns and their association with risk compensation motivations in the context of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Participants were 257 HIV-negative MSM and transgender women recruited in New York City. The majority of participants (89.5 %, n = 230), could be classified as either: Intimates (40 %), who report unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) only with a main partner believed to be HIV-negative; Trusters (34 %), who engaged in UAI only with casual partners believed to be HIV-negative; and Gamblers (26 %) who report UAI with partners of unknown serostatus. Partner-based classifications were better predictors of HIV risk perception and other traditional correlates of risk-taking (e.g. impulsivity, sexual compulsivity) than rates of UAI. The three groups differed significantly in PrEP-related risk compensation motivations: sexual pleasure (Gamblers), intimacy (Trusters) and partner pressure (Intimates). These data underscore the importance of focusing the psychological dynamics of risk perception and sexual decision-making. PMID:24719201

  7. Influenza: the virus and prophylaxis with inactivated influenza vaccine in "at risk" groups, including COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Hovden, Arnt-Ove; Cox, Rebecca Jane; Haaheim, Lars Reinhardt

    2007-01-01

    Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen, which exerts a huge human and economic toll on society. Influenza is a vaccine preventable disease, however, the vaccine strains must be annually updated due to the continuous antigenic changes in the virus. Inactivated influenza vaccines have been used for over 50 years and have an excellent safety record. Annual vaccination is therefore recommended for all individuals with serious medical conditions, like COPD, and protects the vaccinee against influenza illness and also against hospitalization and death. In COPD patients, influenza infection can lead to exacerbations resulting in reduced quality of life, hospitalization and death in the most severe cases. Although there is only limited literature on the use of influenza vaccination solely in COPD patients, there is clearly enough evidence to recommend annual vaccination in this group. This review will focus on influenza virus and prophylaxis with inactivated influenza vaccines in COPD patients and other "at risk" groups to reduce morbidity, save lives, and reduce health care costs. PMID:18229561

  8. [Nuclear accidents and iodine prophylaxis. Part 1: Risks due to irradiation of the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Smeesters, P; Frühling, J; Van Bladel, L; Wambersie, A

    1998-12-01

    In the frame of the emergency procedures in the case of an accident in a nuclear plant, this paper presents a survey of the information available on the risks related to the irradiation of the thyroid gland. Attention is focused on thyroid cancer resulting from an exposure to radioactive isotopes of iodine and especially and iodine-131. The consequences of the medical exposures as well as of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki irradiations are recalled first. Then the recently available informations on the effects on the populations exposed after the Tchernobyl accident are analysed more in details. Ten years after the accident, the most striking and the least questionable effects is a significant increase of the incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer in children, in the areas most exposed to the initial radioactive clouds. Young children are particularly vulnerable to this type of cancer which is of aggressive nature and shows a short latency period. These observations justify an iodine prophylaxis for the populations living in the vicinity of nuclear plants. Special attention should be paid to the protection of young children. PMID:9916494

  9. Antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent local infection in Oral Surgery: use or abuse?

    PubMed

    Sancho-Puchades, Manuel; Herráez-Vilas, José María; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2009-01-01

    Antibiotics have a well-documented efficacy in the treatment of established infections and as prophylactic agents in medically compromised patients. However, the systematic administration of antibiotics to prevent local infections in fit patients is much more controversial. The aim of this paper is to reflect on the justification for prophylactic usage of antibiotics to prevent wound infection and to reason out the most appropriate antibiotic guidelines taking into account available scientific data and studies by other authors. Numerous clinical trials question the efficacy of antibiotics in preventing wound infection. While some studies establish that antibiotics reduce the incidence of postoperative infections, others compare their efficacy to that of placebo. Thus, scientific literature suggests that every oral surgical intervention is not tributary of systematic antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent local infections. Intrinsic surgical risk factors and the patient's individual circumstances must be taken into account. Even though the efficacy of other antibiotics cannot be ruled out due to our limited comprehension of the bacteriologic interrelations intervening in the pathogenesis of postextraction local infection, the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination theoretically covers the complete odontogenic bacterial spectrum in Spain. When the prophylactic use of antibiotics is indicated, this should be performed preoperatively, at high doses, and its extent should not exceed 24 hours. Special attention should be paid to antiinfectious local measures that can minimize infection risk during the wound's healing period. PMID:19114952

  10. Awareness and knowledge of prophylaxis for infective endocarditis in patients with severe rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, B; Vayej, A C

    2013-03-01

    Prevention of infective endocardit s (IE) is mportant because it has a high mortalty rate.This study sets out to to gather information from patients who were at risk of developing IE of their knowledge of the need for prophylaxis for the disease. Forty-one black patients suffering from severe rheumatic heart disease (RHD) were interviewed. Only one patient (2.4%) was regularly visiting a dentist to maintain good oral health and only five (12.2%) had received advice about the need for antibiotic cover prior to dental extraction. The vast majority of patients (97.5%) visited a dentist only when driven by dental pain, 36.6 % had to travel for more than an hour to reach their nearest dentist, and 87.8% indicated that they brushed their teeth. It may be concluded that in this group of black patients with severe RHD there was a lack of knowledge of the need for and of measures recommended for prophylaxs against IE. In addition, attempts by the health care team to ensure good oral health and access to dental care for these patients were inadequate, if not non-existent. PMID:23951767

  11. Critical Appraisal of the Quality of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhi-Kang; Liu, Ying; Cui, Xiang-Li; Liu, Li-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Inappropriate use of stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) is common in many hospitals. High-quality clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) produce better patient outcomes and promote cost-effective clinical care. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of CPGs for SUP. Methods A search was conducted for SUP CPGs using PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM), guideline websites and Google (until March 1, 2015). The quality of CPGs was independently assessed by two assessors using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument, and the specific recommendations in the CPGs were summarized and evaluated. Results A total of 7 CPGs for SUP were included. The highest median scores were in the clarity of presentation domain (89%), and the lowest median scores were in the editorial independence domain (0%). The rigor of development, stakeholder involvement, and applicability domains all scored below 40%. The specific recommendations for SUP varied, and the recommendations were inconsistent with the supporting evidence. Conclusions The overall quality of CPGs for SUP was relatively low, and no specific SUP CPG can be recommended. Not only should the AGREE II instrument be used to determine the quality of CPGs, but also the recommendations should be appraised based on supporting evidence, which would contribute to the development of high-quality CPGs. PMID:27152836

  12. Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Risks and Prophylaxis Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shunsuke; Sugimoto, Mineharu

    2015-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii infection causes fulminant interstitial pneumonia (Pneumocystis pneumonia, PCP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who are receiving biological and/or nonbiological antirheumatic drugs. Recently, we encountered a PCP outbreak among RA outpatients at our institution. Hospital-acquired, person-to-person transmission appears to be the most likely mode of this cluster of P. jirovecii infection. Carriage of P. jirovecii seems a time-limited phenomenon in immunocompetent hosts, but in RA patients receiving antirheumatic therapy, clearance of this organism from the lungs is delayed. Carriers among RA patients can serve as sources and reservoirs of P. jirovecii infection for other susceptible patients in outpatient facilities. Development of PCP is a matter of time in such carriers. Considering the poor survival rates of PCP cases, prophylactic antibiotics should be considered for RA patients who are scheduled to receive antirheumatic therapy. Once a new case of PCP occurs, we should take prompt action not only to treat the PCP patient but also to prevent other patients from becoming new carriers of P. jirovecii. Short-term prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is effective in controlling P. jirovecii infection and preventing future outbreaks of PCP among RA patients. PMID:26396551

  13. Role of medication therapy management in preexposure prophylaxis therapy for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, Kelli W; Woodard, Laresa M; Woodard, Todd J

    2015-02-01

    Patient medication adherence is a long-standing problem and is one that raises serious issues for patient health, public health, and health care quality. Medication nonadherence costs the US economy an estimated US$290 billion in avoidable medical spending every year. One of the most costly health conditions is HIV disease, which continues to be a serious health issue for parts of the world. About 34 million people are living with HIV around the world. With the emerging preventative treatment against HIV, known as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), come concerns surrounding the potential impact of nonadherence to this newly approved medication therapy. Nonadherence to antiretroviral treatments are commonly the root cause for patients not reaching their treatment goals, putting them at risk of progression and worsening of their disease and complications, such as increased risk of opportunistic infections. Therefore, it is essential to improve antiretroviral medication adherence. By identifying members who are nonadherent to their prescribed antiretroviral medications and working collaboratively with patients, physicians, and pharmacists, Medication Therapy Management (MTM) can potentially increase medication adherence by helping patients identify, resolve, and prevent issues that may affect their decision not to take a medication as intended. PMID:25500557

  14. RHD sequencing: a new tool for decision making on transfusion therapy and provision of Rh prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Legler, T J; Maas, J H; Köhler, M; Wagner, T; Daniels, G L; Perco, P; Panzer, S

    2001-10-01

    The serological differentiation of weak D from partial D, D-negative and D-positive is not always unequivocal. Therefore, sequencing of the RHD gene is required in some cases. Very recently, several new differences between RHD and RHCE have been identified which permitted us to design primers close to the exon/intron boundaries of the RHD-exons. We evaluated these primers in 83 D-positive and 18 D-negative blood donors and applied the new method for the characterization of the RHD gene in six individuals with weak D phenotype. The amplification reactions were concordant with serological findings in 100 of 101 donors (99.0%). In one D-positive donor the PCR for exons 2 and 5 gave a negative result, while the sequence of the remaining eight exons was unchanged. By sequencing samples with very weak D serological reactions, we identified weak D type 4.2.2 and weak D type 15, both previously reported to be associated with anti-D-alloimmunization. Consequently, we recommended the selection of D-negative blood in the weak D type 4.2.2 patient, and the provision of Rh prophylaxis for pregnant women with weak D type 15. In summary, a new RHD sequencing method was developed which can be applied if serological reactions are inconclusive. PMID:11696232

  15. First Attempt to Implement Ophthalmia Neonatorum Prophylaxis in Angola: Microorganisms, Efficacy, and Obstacles

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Isabel; Justel, Mar; Martinez, Prudencio; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raul; Pastor, J. Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the efficacy of povidone-iodine (P-I) prophylaxis for ophthalmia neonatorum (ON) in Angola and to document maternal prevalence and mother-to-child transmission rates. Methods. Endocervical samples from mothers (n = 317) and newborn conjunctival smears (n = 245) were analysed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG). Newborns were randomized into a noninterventional group and an interventional group that received a drop of P-I 2.5% bilaterally after conjunctival smear collection. Mothers were trained to identify signs of ON and attend a follow-up visit. Results. Forty-two newborns had ocular pathology, and 11 (4.4%) had clinical signs of ON at the time of delivery. Maternal PCR was positive for MG (n = 19), CT (n = 8), and NG (n = 2). Six newborns were positive for CT (n = 4), MG (n = 2), and NG (n = 1). Mother-to-child transmission rates were 50% for CT and NG and 10.5% for MG. Only 16 newborns returned for follow-up. Conclusions. Lack of maternal compliance prevented successful testing of prophylactic P-I efficacy in ON prevention. Nevertheless, we documented the prevalence and mother-to-child transmission rates for CT, NG, and MG. These results emphasize the need to develop an effective Angolan educational and prophylactic ON program. PMID:25785190

  16. [Acute rheumatic fever and infectious-inflammatory diseases of the pharynx: the relationship, treatment, and prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Belov, B S

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between pharyngeal infections, such as tonsillitis and pharyngitis, caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (BHSA) and acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a well-established fact confirmed by numerous studies carried out along the following lines: epidemiological, immunological, therapeutic, and prophylactic. The currently available data provide an opportunity to discuss the existence of «rheumatogenic» BHSA strains exhibiting a number of characteristic clinical and morphological properties. According to the current recommendations penicillins remain the means of first-line therapy for the treatment of acute forms of BHSA-induced tonsillitis and pharyngitis, whereas the macrolides should be applied only as the alternative medications in the patients with intolerance to beta-lactam antibiotics. This article contains characteristics of BHSA-carrier state and the principal indications for the prescription of antibiotics to the patients with these conditions. The key principle of secondary medicamental prophylaxis of acute respiratory infections are expounded along with the main fines of future research on the problems associated with BHSA-induced pharyngeal infections. PMID:26870861

  17. Defining success with HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis: A prevention-effective adherence paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Haberer, Jessica E.; Bangsberg, David R.; Baeten, Jared M.; Curran, Kathryn; Koechlin, Florence; Amico, K. Rivet; Anderson, Peter; Mugo, Nelly; Venter, Francois; Goicochea, Pedro; Caceres, Carlos; O’Reilly, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trial data have shown that oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is efficacious when taken as prescribed; however, PrEP adherence is complex and must be understood within the context of variable risk for HIV infection and use of other HIV prevention methods. Different levels of adherence may be needed in different populations to achieve HIV prevention, and the optimal methods for achieving the necessary adherence for both individual and public health benefits are unknown. Guidance for PrEP use must consider these questions to determine the success of PrEP-based HIV prevention programs. In this article, we propose a new paradigm for understanding and measuring PrEP adherence, termed prevention-effective adherence, which incorporates dynamic HIV acquisition risk behaviors and the use of HIV alternative prevention strategies. We discuss the need for daily PrEP use only during periods of risk for HIV exposure, describe key issues for measuring and understanding relevant behaviors, review lessons from another health prevention field (i.e., family planning), and provide guidance for prevention-effective PrEP use. Moreover, we challenge emerging calls for sustained, near perfect PrEP adherence regardless of risk exposure and offer a more practical and public health-focused vision for this prevention intervention. PMID:26103095

  18. [ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF EPIDEMIOLOGIC CONTROL, LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS AND PROPHYLAXIS OF CHOLERA IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    PubMed

    Onischenko, G G; Popova, A Yu; Kutyrev, V V; Smirnova, N I; Scherbakova, S A; Moskvitina, E A; Titova, S V

    2016-01-01

    Main problems of system of epidemiologic control for cholera active in Russian Federation, as well as laboratory diagnostics and vaccine prophylaxis of this especially dangerous infection, that had emerged in the contemporary period of the ongoing 7th pandemic of cholera, are discussed. Features of the genome of natural strains of Vibrio cholerae of El Tor biovar, that possess a poten- tial epidemic threat, as well as problems, that have emerged during isolation of these strains from samples of water of surface water bodies during their monitoring, are also examined. The main direction of enhancement of the system of epidemiologic control for cholera consist in develop- ment of a new algorithm of differentiation of administrative territories of Russian Federation by types of epidemic manifestations, as well as optimization of monitoring of environment objects. Integration of modern highly informative technologies into practice, as well as development of new generation diagnostic preparations based on DNA-chips and immunechips is necessary to increase effectiveness of the conducted operative and retrospective diagnostics in the contemporary period. Creation of national cholera vaccine, ensuring simultaneous protection from cholera causative agents of both O1 and O139 serogroups, is also required. PMID:27029123

  19. Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Risks and Prophylaxis Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Shunsuke; Sugimoto, Mineharu

    2015-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii infection causes fulminant interstitial pneumonia (Pneumocystis pneumonia, PCP) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who are receiving biological and/or nonbiological antirheumatic drugs. Recently, we encountered a PCP outbreak among RA outpatients at our institution. Hospital-acquired, person-to-person transmission appears to be the most likely mode of this cluster of P. jirovecii infection. Carriage of P. jirovecii seems a time-limited phenomenon in immunocompetent hosts, but in RA patients receiving antirheumatic therapy, clearance of this organism from the lungs is delayed. Carriers among RA patients can serve as sources and reservoirs of P. jirovecii infection for other susceptible patients in outpatient facilities. Development of PCP is a matter of time in such carriers. Considering the poor survival rates of PCP cases, prophylactic antibiotics should be considered for RA patients who are scheduled to receive antirheumatic therapy. Once a new case of PCP occurs, we should take prompt action not only to treat the PCP patient but also to prevent other patients from becoming new carriers of P. jirovecii. Short-term prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is effective in controlling P. jirovecii infection and preventing future outbreaks of PCP among RA patients. PMID:26396551

  20. [Two imported and relapsed of Plasmodium vivax malaria cases and primaquine prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Hatipoğlu, Mustafa; Ulçay, Asım; Turhan, Vedat; Karagöz, Ergenekon; Erdem, Hakan; Acar, Ali; Oncül, Oral; Görenek, Levent

    2014-06-01

    Malaria is a worldwide infection causing serious health and financial problems. Turkey is in the elimination phase, and malaria cases have been observed in patients who have come from abroad recently. In this study, 2 relapsed Plasmodium vivax (Pv) cases that returned from Afghanistan to our country at least 6 months ago were presented. The first case had received irregular chemoprophylaxis during travel, 6 months after returning to Turkey occurred malaria clinic. The second case had not received chemoprophlaxis during his travel, and he had experienced 2 previous episodes of malaria. He had used inappropriate anti-malarial drugs before returning to Turkey. Two separate incubation periods for P. vivax and P. ovale have been described. One of them is defined as late infection, or relapse, which is maturation of dormant bacilli in the liver, known as the hypnozoite stage. We thought that relapses of Pv infection could result from activation of hypnozoites in these cases. These 2 cases were treated with chloroquine and primaquine. The purpose of presenting these 2 cases is that primaquine should be considered for primer prophylaxis in short travels, especially after traveling to endemic areas, and the patient's relapse should be considered. PMID:25016120

  1. Clinical experience with nimodipine in the prophylaxis of neurological deficits after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kazner, E; Sprung, C; Adelt, D; Ammerer, H P; Karnick, R; Baumann, H; Böker, D K; Grotenhuis, J A; Jaksche, H; Istaitih, A R

    1985-05-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist nimodipine (BAY e 9736) in the prophylaxis of ischemic neurological deficits after subarachnoid hemorrhage were investigated in 171 patients in an open, prospective, multicenter study. 68 of the patients had to be excluded from the efficacy assessment as they had failed to satisfy important inclusion criteria. The efficacy assessment was based on 104 patients of Hunt and Hess grades I-III. In 86 patients the ruptured aneurysm was clipped before or during the nimodipine therapy, while 18 patients did not undergo surgery owing to failure to detect an aneurysm, continuous deterioration of the clinical condition, or for other reasons. At the end of the nimodipine treatment 74 of the patients (71%) were completely free from symptoms or had only very slight neurological deficits. There were 10 patients (10%) with moderate and 10 with a severe disablement, 4 patients were apallic, and 6 (6%) died during the nimodipine treatment. In 4 patients (3.8%) cerebral vasospasm was the sole cause of severe neurological deficits or death, while in a further 3 patients (2.7%) vasospasm and other serious complications were responsible for poor outcome. 22 of the 171 patients (12.9%) died during or shortly after nimodipine therapy. Rebleeding occurred during nimodipine therapy in 7 of the 143 preoperatively treated cases (4.9%). PMID:4010865

  2. State of the science of adherence in pre-exposure prophylaxis and microbicide trials.

    PubMed

    Muchomba, Felix M; Gearing, Robin E; Simoni, Jane M; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2012-12-01

    For pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and microbicides to effectively prevent HIV, optimal treatment adherence is required. Adherence to these strategies, however, has not been sufficiently studied. This investigation systematically reviews oral PrEP and microbicide trials across 4 domains of adherence: (1) definition and measures used, (2) risks for nonadherence, (3) promotion strategies, and (4) effects on outcomes. Nineteen (n = 19) trials, with 47,157 participants, published between 1987 and 2012 were identified. Reported mean adherence to microbicides was 79% and to oral PrEP 87%. Common risks for microbicide nonadherence were decreased motivation over time, sex with primary (noncommercial/casual) partners, and insufficient supply. Oral PrEP nonadherence risks were older age and medication side effects. Psychoeducation and outreach to participants and communities were frequently used promotion strategies. Most trials failed to systematically identify barriers and monitor and promote adherence, although adherence moderated outcomes. Recommendations for attending to adherence in future trials are provided. PMID:22932322

  3. Implementation science of pre-exposure prophylaxis: preparing for public use.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Kristen; Operario, Don; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Skeer, Margie R; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2010-11-01

    As efficacy trials of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) continue, a growing literature has begun anticipating the potential challenges of implementing PrEP for HIV prevention. These efforts coincide with a shift toward combination interventions for preventing HIV, which integrate biomedical, behavioral, and structural components. The optimal implementation of PrEP would exemplify this combination model, incorporating not only PrEP drugs, but also HIV testing, safety screening, behavioral interventions addressing adherence and risk behavior, and long-term monitoring. Efforts to plan for PrEP implementation therefore present an opportunity to advance the science of implementation and delivery in HIV prevention, in order to better address the challenges of scaling up combination approaches. We review the published and unpublished literature on PrEP implementation, organizing themes into five categories: scientific groundwork, regulatory and policy groundwork, stakeholder and infrastructure groundwork, delivery, and long-term monitoring. The lessons from PrEP planning can benefit the scale-up of future combination interventions. PMID:20820971

  4. The role of nerve growth factor in the prophylaxis and treatment of diabetic foot ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Tiaka, Elisavet K; Papanas, Nikolaos; Manolakis, Anastassios C; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are still particularly difficult to heal. Therefore, preventing and therapeutic adjuncts are increasingly being explored. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a promising agent exhibiting beneficial actions on both diabetic peripheral neuropathy, one of the main causes of foot ulcers, and on ulcer healing. Indeed, preclinical research in animal models of diabetes has revealed the trophic effect of NGF on small C-fibres, while phase 2 human trials have provided evidence for a favourable effect on sensory neuropathy. However, the results of a phase 3 trial were moderate and, therefore, not enough to encourage widespread use of NGF in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Available literature on the role of NGF on diabetic wound healing is sparse but encouraging. Exogenous supplementation of NGF or the use of alternative techniques to increase its endogenous expression could emerge as a protective and therapeutic modality for diabetic foot ulcers in addition to standard treatment and other growth factors. The present review provides an outlook on the role of NGF in the prophylaxis and treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. PMID:22928161

  5. Development of broad-spectrum human monoclonal antibodies for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    De Benedictis, Paola; Minola, Andrea; Rota Nodari, Elena; Aiello, Roberta; Zecchin, Barbara; Salomoni, Angela; Foglierini, Mathilde; Agatic, Gloria; Vanzetta, Fabrizia; Lavenir, Rachel; Lepelletier, Anthony; Bentley, Emma; Weiss, Robin; Cattoli, Giovanni; Capua, Ilaria; Sallusto, Federica; Wright, Edward; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Bourhy, Hervé; Corti, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Currently available rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for use in humans includes equine or human rabies immunoglobulins (RIG). The replacement of RIG with an equally or more potent and safer product is strongly encouraged due to the high costs and limited availability of existing RIG. In this study, we identified two broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies that represent a valid and affordable alternative to RIG in rabies PEP. Memory B cells from four selected vaccinated donors were immortalized and monoclonal antibodies were tested for neutralizing activity and epitope specificity. Two antibodies, identified as RVC20 and RVC58 (binding to antigenic site I and III, respectively), were selected for their potency and broad-spectrum reactivity. In vitro, RVC20 and RVC58 were able to neutralize all 35 rabies virus (RABV) and 25 non-RABV lyssaviruses. They showed higher potency and breath compared to antibodies under clinical development (namely CR57, CR4098, and RAB1) and commercially available human RIG. In vivo, the RVC20-RVC58 cocktail protected Syrian hamsters from a lethal RABV challenge and did not affect the endogenous hamster post-vaccination antibody response. PMID:26992832

  6. Malaria prophylaxis with proguanil and sulfisoxazole in children living in a malaria endemic area.

    PubMed Central

    Pang, L. W.; Limsomwong, N.; Singharaj, P.; Canfield, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of three separate antimalarial prophylactic regimens (proguanil, sulfisoxazole, and proguanil plus sulfisoxazole) and of vitamins in a control group were compared in a study population of 380 children living in a malaria endemic area along the Thai-Burmese border. The subjects, aged 5-16 years, were matched for age, weight, and presence of splenomegaly, then randomly assigned to one of the four groups. All medications were administered daily by the investigators and malaria smears were performed on a weekly basis. Among 99 subjects taking proguanil plus sulfisoxazole for a total of 1464 man-weeks, there was only one case of falciparum and no vivax malaria. Statistically, this regimen proved superior to each of the other groups against both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. The data show that proguanil alone, as a causal or suppressive prophylatic, has poor efficacy against P. falciparum. Side-effects were infrequent and generally mild, except for two subjects whose sulfisoxazole prophylaxis was discontinued because of urticarial rash. PMID:2706727

  7. The prevention and management of infections due to multidrug resistant organisms in haematology patients.

    PubMed

    Trubiano, Jason A; Worth, Leon J; Thursky, Karin A; Slavin, Monica A

    2015-02-01

    Infections due to resistant and multidrug resistant (MDR) organisms in haematology patients and haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are an increasingly complex problem of global concern. We outline the burden of illness and epidemiology of resistant organisms such as gram-negative pathogens, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), and Clostridium difficile in haematology cohorts. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing the impact of these organisms are reviewed: infection prevention programmes, screening and fluoroquinolone prophylaxis. The role of newer therapies (e.g. linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline) for treatment of resistant and MDR organisms in haematology populations is evaluated, in addition to the mobilization of older agents (e.g. colistin, pristinamycin and fosfomycin) and the potential benefit of combination regimens. PMID:24341410

  8. Provider Attitudes Toward Oral Preexposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention Among High-Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Eric C.; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E.; Shu, Eileen; Gonzales, Pedro; Sanchez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was the first biomedical intervention to demonstrate efficacy in preventing HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM). Healthcare providers' attitudes toward PrEP will be critical in translating this finding into effective public health rollout programs. In a convenience sample of 186 healthcare providers in Peru, we assessed knowledge, barriers, and attitudes to prescribe and monitor HIV PrEP for high-risk MSM and transgender women, the populations with the highest HIV incidence in this setting. A total of 57.5% reported awareness of PrEP, and awareness was independently associated with caring for more than 50 MSM (OR: 3.67, p<0.002). Lack of local guidelines, concern about increased high-risk behavior, antiretroviral drug resistance, and limited availability of antiretrovirals for HIV-infected individuals were the most common barriers to prescribing PrEP. Of all physicians 44.6% indicated that they would be likely to prescribe oral PrEP now; likelihood to prescribe was higher if PrEP were supported by local guidelines (70.3%, p<0.001), if more trials supported its effectiveness (68.5%, p<0.001), and if intermittent use were shown to be effective (62.2%, p=0.019). Physicians were more likely to prescribe PrEP now if they care for more than 50 MSM (OR: 6.62, p=0.010). Infectious disease specialists were less likely to prescribe PrEP (OR: 0.10, p=0.003) than nonspecialists. Successful large-scale implementation of PrEP in Peru will require focused educational campaigns to increase awareness and address concerns among healthcare providers. PMID:24319983

  9. Provider attitudes toward oral preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among high-risk men who have sex with men in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed<