Science.gov

Sample records for resolved energy dispersive

  1. Opportunities for Time Resolved Studies at the ID24 Energy Dispersive XAS Beamline of the ESRF

    SciTech Connect

    Mathon, O.; Aquilanti, G.; Guilera, G.; Labiche, J.-C.; Linden, P. van der; Newton, M. A.; Ponchut, C.; Trapananti, A.; Pascarelli, S.

    2007-01-19

    ID24 is the energy dispersive beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility dedicated to X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Thanks to the parallel acquisition mode that allows data in a large energy range to be collected simultaneously, XAS using dispersive optics is particularly suited for the study of time dependent processes. The techniques that can be used to study such systems vary according to the timescale of the phenomena under investigation. They take advantage of the temporal structure of the synchrotron radiation in case of time resolution of the order of the intrinsic duration of the x-ray pulse (100 ps), while for time scales above 100 {mu}s or below 100 ps, the x-ray beam can be considered continuous and the time resolution is determined by the different detection systems.

  2. In situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction system for time-resolved thin-film growth studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellmer, K.; Mientus, R.; Weiß, V.; Rossner, H.

    2003-03-01

    Energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) with synchrotron light can be used for in situ-structural analysis during polycrystalline thin-film growth, due to its fast data collection and the fixed diffraction angle. An in situ deposition and analysis set-up for the investigation of nucleation and growth of thin films during magnetron sputtering was constructed and installed at the synchrotron radiation source Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungs Labor (Hamburg). The polychromatic synchrotron beam passes the sputtering chamber through Kapton windows and hits the substrate with the growing film. The diffracted beam, observed under a fixed diffraction angle of between 1° and 10° was energy-analysed by a high-purity germanium detector. The measurement time for a single XRD spectrum can be as short as 10 s for a beam line at a bending magnet, which allows a time-resolved monitoring of film growth. The performance of the in situ EDXRD set-up is demonstrated for the growth of zinc oxide and tin-doped indium oxide films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering from ceramic and metallic targets. From the position and the width of the diffraction lines the internal mechanical strain and the grain size of the growing films can be derived. The prospects for thin-film growth investigations using such an instrument are assessed.

  3. Time-resolved and energy-dispersed spin excitation in ferromagnets and clusters under influence of femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartenstein, T.; Lefkidis, G.; Hübner, W.; Zhang, G. P.; Bai, Y.

    2009-04-01

    When an ultrafast laser impinges a magnetic material, it excites charge and then, via spin-orbit-coupling, spin. This holds great promise for the future magnetic storage. However, the coupling of the two dynamics is far from clear, which hampers the experimental effort in femtosecond magnetism. Since not every excitation induces the same spin excitation, a clear understanding of the correlation between charge and spin is crucial. In this paper we investigate in a complete first-principles manner the energy dispersion of the spin-moment change in ferromagnetic Ni and the effect of the distance between the magnetic centers upon the spin localization and local-spin-flip times in metallic chains. Thus we establish the missing link between the spin-momentum change and the density-of-states change, and derive rules-of-thumb for localized spin manipulation.

  4. Spatially resolved energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic method for in-situ evaluation of mechanical properties during the growth of a C - Pt composite nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Amit; Banerjee, S. S.

    2014-05-15

    A core-shell type C-Pt composite nanowire is fabricated using focused ion and electron beam induced chemical vapor deposition techniques. Using information from spatially resolved energy dispersive x-ray spectra, we detect the resonance vibration in the C-Pt composite nanowire. We use this method to measure the Young's moduli of the constituents (C, Pt) of the composite nanowire and also estimate the density of the FEB CVD grown Pt shell surrounding the C core. By measuring the resonance characteristics of the composite nanowire we estimate a Pt shell growth rate of ∼0.9 nms{sup −1}. The study is analyzed to suggest that the Pt shell growth mechanism is primarily governed by the sticking coefficient of the organometallic vapor on the C nanowire core.

  5. Spatially resolved energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic method for in-situ evaluation of mechanical properties during the growth of a C - Pt composite nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Amit; Banerjee, S. S.

    2014-05-01

    A core-shell type C-Pt composite nanowire is fabricated using focused ion and electron beam induced chemical vapor deposition techniques. Using information from spatially resolved energy dispersive x-ray spectra, we detect the resonance vibration in the C-Pt composite nanowire. We use this method to measure the Young's moduli of the constituents (C, Pt) of the composite nanowire and also estimate the density of the FEB CVD grown Pt shell surrounding the C core. By measuring the resonance characteristics of the composite nanowire we estimate a Pt shell growth rate of ˜0.9 nms-1. The study is analyzed to suggest that the Pt shell growth mechanism is primarily governed by the sticking coefficient of the organometallic vapor on the C nanowire core.

  6. Microsecond time-resolved energy-dispersive EXAFS measurement and its application to film the thermolysis of (NH4)2[PtCl6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Qingyu; Baudelet, Francois; Han, Jun; Chagnot, Sebastien; Barthe, Laurent; Headspith, Jon; Goldsbrough, Roger; Picca, Frederic E.; Spalla, Olivier

    2012-12-01

    Microsecond (μs) time-resolved extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) has been developed using an energy-dispersive EXAFS (EDE) setup equipped with a silicon Quantum Detector ULTRA. The feasibility was investigated with a prototypical thermally driven redox reaction, the thermal decomposition of (NH4)2[PtCl6]. EXAFS data were collected with snapshots every 60 μs during the course of the thermolysis reaction, then averaged for 100 times along the reaction to get better signal to noise ratio which reduces the time resolution to 6 millisecond (ms). Our results provide direct structural evidence of cis-PtCl2(NH3)2 as the intermediate, together with continuous electronic and geometric structure dynamics of the reactant, intermediate and final product during the course of the thermolysis of (NH4)2[PtCl6]. The thermal effect on EXAFS signals at high temperatures is considered in the data analysis, which is essential to follow the reaction process correctly. This method could also be applied to other reaction dynamics.

  7. Microsecond time-resolved energy-dispersive EXAFS measurement and its application to film the thermolysis of (NH4)2[PtCl6

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qingyu; Baudelet, Francois; Han, Jun; Chagnot, Sebastien; Barthe, Laurent; Headspith, Jon; Goldsbrough, Roger; Picca, Frederic E.; Spalla, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Microsecond (μs) time-resolved extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) has been developed using an energy-dispersive EXAFS (EDE) setup equipped with a silicon Quantum Detector ULTRA. The feasibility was investigated with a prototypical thermally driven redox reaction, the thermal decomposition of (NH4)2[PtCl6]. EXAFS data were collected with snapshots every 60 μs during the course of the thermolysis reaction, then averaged for 100 times along the reaction to get better signal to noise ratio which reduces the time resolution to 6 millisecond (ms). Our results provide direct structural evidence of cis-PtCl2(NH3)2 as the intermediate, together with continuous electronic and geometric structure dynamics of the reactant, intermediate and final product during the course of the thermolysis of (NH4)2[PtCl6]. The thermal effect on EXAFS signals at high temperatures is considered in the data analysis, which is essential to follow the reaction process correctly. This method could also be applied to other reaction dynamics. PMID:23264880

  8. Evaluation study of building-resolved urban dispersion models

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, Julia E.; Allwine, K Jerry; Brown, Mike J.; Coirier, WIlliam J.; Ericson, Shawn C.; Hansen, Olav R.; Huber, Alan H.; Kim, Sura; Leach, Martin J.; Mirocha, Jeff D.; Newsom, Rob K.; Patnaik, Gopal; Senocak, Inanc

    2007-09-10

    For effective emergency response and recovery planning, it is critically important that building-resolved urban dispersion models be evaluated using field data. Several full-physics computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and semi-empirical building-resolved (SEB) models are being advanced and applied to simulating flow and dispersion in urban areas. To obtain an estimate of the current state-of-readiness of these classes of models, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) funded a study to compare five CFD models and one SEB model with tracer data from the extensive Midtown Manhattan field study (MID05) conducted during August 2005 as part of the DHS Urban Dispersion Program (UDP; Allwine and Flaherty 2007). Six days of tracer and meteorological experiments were conducted over an approximately 2-km-by-2-km area in Midtown Manhattan just south of Central Park in New York City. A subset of these data was used for model evaluations. The study was conducted such that an evaluation team, independent of the six modeling teams, provided all the input data (e.g., building data, meteorological data and tracer release rates) and run conditions for each of four experimental periods simulated. Tracer concentration data for two of the four experimental periods were provided to the modeling teams for their own evaluation of their respective models to ensure proper setup and operation. Tracer data were not provided for the second two experimental periods to provide for an independent evaluation of the models. The tracer concentrations resulting from the model simulations were provided to the evaluation team in a standard format for consistency in inter-comparing model results. An overview of the model evaluation approach will be given followed by a discussion on the qualitative comparison of the respective models with the field data. Future model developments efforts needed to address modeling gaps identified from this study will also be discussed.

  9. Time-resolved energy-dispersive diffraction from X-FEL spontaneous emission: a proposal for sub-picosecond pumps & probe structural investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi Albertini, Valerio; Paci, Barbara; Perfetti, Paolo

    2004-11-01

    The forthcoming generation of X-ray machines, based on Free Electron Laser (X-FEL) technology, should provide ultra-short pulses that may be used to probe the real-time structural evolution of a system activated by an optical laser pump. Unfortunately, the sub-picosecond synchronization of the pump and probe pulses produced by two independent sources is, at present, one of the main obstacles that needs to be overcome. Here we propose a new approach for carrying out time-resolved diffraction studies of evolving systems, which aims to bypass the synchronization problem.

  10. Development of dispersive XAFS system for analysis of time-resolved spatial distribution of electrode reaction.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Misaki; Miyahara, Ryota; Watanabe, Toshiki; Yamagishi, Hirona; Yamashita, Shohei; Kizaki, Terue; Sugawara, Yoshimi; Inada, Yasuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Apparatus for a technique based on the dispersive optics of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) has been developed at beamline BL-5 of the Synchrotron Radiation Center of Ritsumeikan University. The vertical axis of the cross section of the synchrotron light is used to disperse the X-ray energy using a cylindrical polychromator and the horizontal axis is used for the spatially resolved analysis with a pixel array detector. The vertically dispersive XAFS (VDXAFS) instrument was designed to analyze the dynamic changeover of the inhomogeneous electrode reaction of secondary batteries. The line-shaped X-ray beam is transmitted through the electrode sample, and then the dispersed transmitted X-rays are detected by a two-dimensional detector. An array of XAFS spectra in the linear footprint of the transmitted X-ray on the sample is obtained with the time resolution of the repetition frequency of the detector. Sequential measurements of the space-resolved XAFS data are possible with the VDXAFS instrument. The time and spatial resolutions of the VDXAFS instrument depend on the flux density of the available X-ray beam and the size of the light source, and they were estimated as 1 s and 100 µm, respectively. The electrode reaction of the LiFePO4 lithium ion battery was analyzed during the constant current charging process and during the charging process after potential jumping. PMID:26289274

  11. Anomalous lattice expansion in yttria stabilized zirconia under simultaneous applied electric and thermal fields: A time-resolved in situ energy dispersive x-ray diffractometry study with an ultrahigh energy synchrotron probe

    SciTech Connect

    Akdogan, E. K.; Savkl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I ld Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I z, I.; Bicer, H.; Paxton, W.; Toksoy, F.; Tsakalakos, T.; Zhong, Z.

    2013-06-21

    Nonisothermal densification in 8% yttria doped zirconia (8YSZ) particulate matter of 250 nm median particle size was studied under 215 V/cm dc electric field and 9 Degree-Sign C/min heating rate, using time-resolved in-situ high temperature energy dispersive x-ray diffractometry with a polychromatic 200 keV synchrotron probe. Densification occurred in the 876-905 Degree-Sign C range, which resulted in 97% of the theoretical density. No local melting at particle-particle contacts was observed in scanning electron micrographs, implying densification was due to solid state mass transport processes. The maximum current draw at 905 Degree-Sign C was 3 A, corresponding to instantaneous absorbed power density of 570 W/cm{sup 3}. Densification of 8YSZ was accompanied by anomalous elastic volume expansions of the unit cell by 0.45% and 2.80% at 847 Degree-Sign C and 905 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The anomalous expansion at 905 Degree-Sign C at which maximum densification was observed is characterized by three stages: (I) linear stage, (II) anomalous stage, and (III) anelastic recovery stage. The densification in stage I (184 s) and II (15 s) was completed in 199 s, while anelastic relaxation in stage III lasted 130 s. The residual strains ({epsilon}) at room temperature, as computed from tetragonal (112) and (211) reflections, are {epsilon}{sub (112)} = 0.05% and {epsilon}{sub (211)} = 0.13%, respectively. Time dependence of (211) and (112) peak widths ({beta}) show a decrease with both exhibiting a singularity at 905 Degree-Sign C. An anisotropy in (112) and (211) peak widths of {l_brace} {beta}{sub (112)}/{beta}{sub (211)}{r_brace} = (3:1) magnitude was observed. No phase transformation occurred at 905 Degree-Sign C as verified from diffraction spectra on both sides of the singularity, i.e., the unit cell symmetry remains tetragonal. We attribute the reduction in densification temperature and time to ultrafast ambipolar diffusion of species arising from the

  12. The Time-resolved and Extreme-conditions XAS (TEXAS) facility at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility: the energy-dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline ID24.

    PubMed

    Pascarelli, S; Mathon, O; Mairs, T; Kantor, I; Agostini, G; Strohm, C; Pasternak, S; Perrin, F; Berruyer, G; Chappelet, P; Clavel, C; Dominguez, M C

    2016-01-01

    The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has recently made available to the user community a facility totally dedicated to Time-resolved and Extreme-conditions X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy--TEXAS. Based on an upgrade of the former energy-dispersive XAS beamline ID24, it provides a unique experimental tool combining unprecedented brilliance (up to 10(14) photons s(-1) on a 4 µm × 4 µm FWHM spot) and detection speed for a full EXAFS spectrum (100 ps per spectrum). The science mission includes studies of processes down to the nanosecond timescale, and investigations of matter at extreme pressure (500 GPa), temperature (10000 K) and magnetic field (30 T). The core activities of the beamline are centered on new experiments dedicated to the investigation of extreme states of matter that can be maintained only for very short periods of time. Here the infrastructure, optical scheme, detection systems and sample environments used to enable the mission-critical performance are described, and examples of first results on the investigation of the electronic and local structure in melts at pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the Earth's interior and in laser-shocked matter are given. PMID:26698085

  13. DNS of fully resolved spherical particles dispersed in isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucci, Francesco; Ferrante, Antonino; Elghobashi, Said

    2008-11-01

    Our DNS study concerns the interactions between decaying isotropic turbulence and solid spherical particles with diameter, d, larger than the Kolmogorov length scale, η. We employ an Immersed Boundary method similar to that of Uhlmann (JCP, 2005) to resolve the flow around 6400 spherical particles with a volume fraction of φv=0.1. The monosize particles have a diameter, d = 16 ηo. Our simulations, with 256^3 mesh points and Reλ0= 75, cover a range of 38 <=τp/τKo<=149, for the ratio of the particle response time to the initial Kolmogorov time scale. A Lagrangian approach is used to compute the frequency spectrum of the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) of the fluid phase. The effects of varying τp/τKo on the spectrum and the decay rate of TKE are discussed. The effects of the formation of the particle boundary layer on the viscous dissipation rate of TKE are also discussed.

  14. Energy-Resolved Positron Annihilation in Flight in Solid Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M. H.; Hunt, A. W.; Golovchenko, J. A.; Lynn, K. G.

    1999-11-01

    Energy-resolved two-quantum annihilation in flight of positrons with energies ranging from 10 to 71.6 keV was observed. An energy-dispersive two-detector coincidence system was used to observe the sum and difference energies of the γ rays from annihilating positron-electron pairs. For positrons penetrating carbon foils the c/v dependence of the annihilation cross section is confirmed. Spectra obtained from gold-coated carbon foils show evidence of in-flight annihilation with gold M-shell electrons.

  15. Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Thuering, T.; Stampanoni, M.; Barber, W. C.; Iwanczyk, J. S.; Seo, Y.; Alhassen, F.

    2013-05-13

    Although compatible with polychromatic radiation, the sensitivity in X-ray phase contrast imaging with a grating interferometer is strongly dependent on the X-ray spectrum. We used an energy resolving detector to quantitatively investigate the dependency of the noise from the spectral bandwidth and to consequently optimize the system-by selecting the best energy band matching the experimental conditions-with respect to sensitivity maximization and, eventually, dose. Further, since theoretical calculations of the spectrum are usually limited due to non-ideal conditions, an energy resolving detector accurately quantifies the spectral changes induced by the interferometer including flux reduction and beam hardening.

  16. Origin of the quasiparticle dispersion kinks in Bi-2212 determined from angle-resolved inelastic electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vig, Sean; Kogar, Anshul; Mishra, Vivek; Norman, Mike; Gu, Genda; Abbamonte, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The kink features in the low energy quasiparticle dispersion in cuprate superconductors have been extensively studied using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). The existence of these kinks is a signature of a renormalization of the fermionic quasiparticles due to coupling to some bosonic collective mode at a scale related to the kink energy. In this talk, I will present angle-resolved inelastic electron scattering studies of the bosonic collective excitations in optimally doped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. Performing a 2D momentum parameterization of these modes, we reconstruct the complete dynamical susceptibility, χ (q , ω) , which we use to perform a one-loop self energy correction to the quasiparticle dispersion. The result reproduces well the dispersion observed with ARPES, indicating that these excitations are the origin of the observed kinks. I will discuss the implications of our study for phonon vs. spin fluctuation interpretation of these effects. This work was supported as part of the Center for Emergent Superconductivity, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science.

  17. Time-Resolved Dispersive XAFS Instrument at NW2A Beamline of PF-AR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Niwa, Y.; Nomura, M.

    2007-01-01

    The configuration and performance of the time-resolved dispersive XAFS (DXAFS) instrument, which has been constructed at the NW2A beamline of PF-AR (KEK), are presented. The DXAFS instrument is mainly composed of a polychromator part, a position control part for sample, and a linear detector part. The Bragg- and Laue-type polychromator crystal (Si(111) or Si(311)) is bent using the holder with fixed bending radius, in which the thermostated water is circulated to prevent the temperature change of crystal due to the heat load. The photodiode array (PDA) with and without phosphor screen is used as the linear X-ray detector, and the minimum exposure time is 2 ms for the 1024-element PDA. The phosphor screen on the PDA detector prevents the damage of the chip especially for high energy X-rays but the existence reduces the energy resolution because of the scattering of the visible light converted on the phosphor. The DXAFS instrument was applied to the mechanistic study of the reduction processes of Cu supported on MFI zeolite, and the intermediate Cu(I) states have been successfully observed during the reduction from Cu(II) to Cu(0).

  18. Electromagnetic energy momentum in dispersive media

    SciTech Connect

    Philbin, T. G.

    2011-01-15

    The standard derivations of electromagnetic energy and momentum in media take Maxwell's equations as the starting point. It is well known that for dispersive media this approach does not directly yield exact expressions for the energy and momentum densities. Although Maxwell's equations fully describe electromagnetic fields, the general approach to conserved quantities in field theory is not based on the field equations, but rather on the action. Here an action principle for macroscopic electromagnetism in dispersive, lossless media is used to derive the exact conserved energy-momentum tensor. The time-averaged energy density reduces to Brillouin's simple formula when the fields are monochromatic. The time-averaged momentum density for monochromatic fields corresponds to the familiar Minkowski expression DxB, but for general fields in dispersive media the momentum density does not have the Minkowski value. The results are unaffected by the debate over momentum balance in light-matter interactions.

  19. Instrumentation for time-resolved dispersive studies at Advanced Photon Source beamline 1-BM

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, S.; Rodricks, B.

    1996-07-01

    We describe progress in optics and instrumentation at beamline 1-BM, designed in part for time-resolved dispersive x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements. The key optical element is a horizontally focusing curved-crystal monochromator that invokes a 4-point bending scheme and a liquid-metal cooling bath. The device has been designed for dispersive studies in the 5-24 keV range, with a horizontal focal spot size of {le}100 micrometers FWHM. To minimize thermal distortions and thermal equilibration time, the 355 {times} 32 {times} 0.8 mm crystal is nearly half submerged in a bath of Ga-In-Sn-Zn alloy, which thermally couples the crystal to the water-cooled Cu frame, while permitting the required crystal bending. Harmonic rejection, focusing schemes and the novel spectrometer positioning system will be described. For microsecond-resolution time-resolved studies, a fast CCD streak camera detector has been developed. Results from commissioning tests of the instrumentation are described. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  20. DISPERSION ANALYSIS OF RADIATION/THERMAL FRONTS WITH FULL RESOLVED SPECTRAL OPACITY VARIATION.

    SciTech Connect

    L. AUER; R. LOWRIE

    2000-12-01

    The radiation transport and linearized thermal energy equations have been analyzed to find the temporal dependence of the component modes in a radiation/thermal front. The fully resolved spectral variation of the opacity as a function of energy, as well as the exact time and angular dependence, is treated in this work. As we are able to study arbitrarily complicated opacity spectra, we stress the importance of the new results as a check on the effect of using opacity averages.

  1. Spatially Resolving Ocean Color and Sediment Dispersion in River Plumes, Coastal Systems, and Continental Shelf Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aurin, Dirk Alexander; Mannino, Antonio; Franz, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of ocean color in dynamic coastal, inland, and nearshorewaters is impeded by high variability in optical constituents, demands specialized atmospheric correction, and is limited by instrument sensitivity. To accurately detect dispersion of bio-optical properties, remote sensors require ample signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to sense small variations in ocean color without saturating over bright pixels, an atmospheric correction that can accommodate significantwater-leaving radiance in the near infrared (NIR), and spatial and temporal resolution that coincides with the scales of variability in the environment. Several current and historic space-borne sensors have met these requirements with success in the open ocean, but are not optimized for highly red-reflective and heterogeneous waters such as those found near river outflows or in the presence of sediment resuspension. Here we apply analytical approaches for determining optimal spatial resolution, dominant spatial scales of variability ("patches"), and proportions of patch variability that can be resolved from four river plumes around the world between 2008 and 2011. An offshore region in the Sargasso Sea is analyzed for comparison. A method is presented for processing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua and Terra imagery including cloud detection, stray lightmasking, faulty detector avoidance, and dynamic aerosol correction using short-wave- and near-infrared wavebands in extremely turbid regions which pose distinct optical and technical challenges. Results showthat a pixel size of approx. 520 mor smaller is generally required to resolve spatial heterogeneity in ocean color and total suspended materials in river plumes. Optimal pixel size increases with distance from shore to approx. 630 m in nearshore regions, approx 750 m on the continental shelf, and approx. 1350 m in the open ocean. Greater than 90% of the optical variability within plume regions is resolvable with

  2. Intermolecular energy-band dispersion in PTCDA multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Hiroyuki; Kera, Satoshi; Okudaira, Koji K.; Yoshimura, Daisuke; Seki, Kazuhiko; Ueno, Nobuo

    2003-07-01

    The electronic structure of a well-oriented perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid-dianhydride multilayer prepared on MoS2 single crystal surface were studied by angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. From the photon energy dependence of normal emission spectra, we observed an intermolecular energy-band dispersion of about 0.2 eV for the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) band of single π character. The observed energy-band dispersion showed a cosine curve, which originates from the intermolecular π-π interaction. Analyses using the tight-binding model gave that the transfer integral of about 0.05 eV for the π-π interaction, the effective mass of HOMO hole m*h=5.28m0, and the hole mobility μh>3.8 cm2/V s. This is the first observation of the intermolecular energy-band dispersion of a conventional single-component organic semiconductor only with the weak intermolecular van der Waals interaction.

  3. Characterization of Ultrafast Laser Pulses using a Low-dispersion Frequency Resolved Optical Grating Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, Hope; Bishop, Michael; Khosravi, Soroush; Obaid, Razib; Berrah, Nora

    2016-05-01

    A low dispersion frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) spectrometer was designed to characterize ultrashort (<50 femtosecond) laser pulses from a commercial regenerative amplifier, optical parametric amplifier, and a home-built non-colinear optical parametric amplifier. This instrument splits a laser pulse into two replicas with a 90:10 intensity ratio using a thin pellicle beam-splitter and then recombines the pulses in a birefringent medium. The instrument detects a wavelength-sensitive change in polarization of the weak probe pulse in the presence of the stronger pump pulse inside the birefringent medium. Scanning the time delay between the two pulses and acquiring spectra allows for characterization of the frequency and time content of ultrafast laser pulses, that is needed for interpretation of experimental results obtained from these ultrafast laser systems. Funded by the DoE-BES, Grant No. DE-SC0012376.

  4. Building-Resolved CFD Simulations for Greenhouse Gas Transport and Dispersion over Washington DC / Baltimore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, K.; Lopez-Coto, I.; Ghosh, S.; Mueller, K.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The North-East Corridor project aims to use a top-down inversion methodology to quantify sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions over urban domains such as Washington DC / Baltimore with high spatial and temporal resolution. Atmospheric transport of tracer gases from an emission source to a tower mounted receptor are usually conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. For such simulations, WRF employs a parameterized turbulence model and does not resolve the fine scale dynamics generated by the flow around buildings and communities comprising a large city. The NIST Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) is a computational fluid dynamics model that utilizes large eddy simulation methods to model flow around buildings at length scales much smaller than is practical with WRF. FDS has the potential to evaluate the impact of complex urban topography on near-field dispersion and mixing difficult to simulate with a mesoscale atmospheric model. Such capabilities may be important in determining urban GHG emissions using atmospheric measurements. A methodology has been developed to run FDS as a sub-grid scale model within a WRF simulation. The coupling is based on nudging the FDS flow field towards that computed by WRF, and is currently limited to one way coupling performed in an off-line mode. Using the coupled WRF / FDS model, NIST will investigate the effects of the urban canopy at horizontal resolutions of 10-20 m in a domain of 12 x 12 km. The coupled WRF-FDS simulations will be used to calculate the dispersion of tracer gases in the North-East Corridor and to evaluate the upwind areas that contribute to tower observations, referred to in the inversion community as influence functions. Results of this study will provide guidance regarding the importance of explicit simulations of urban atmospheric turbulence in obtaining accurate estimates of greenhouse gas emissions and transport.

  5. Coupling of WRF and Building-resolved CFD Simulations for Greenhouse Gas Transport and Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, K.; Hu, H.; McDermott, R.; Lopez-Coto, I.; Davis, K. J.; Whetstone, J. R.; Lauvaux, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) aims to use a top-down inversion methodology to quantify sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions over an urban domain with high spatial and temporal resolution. Atmospheric transport of tracer gases from an emission source to a tower mounted receptor are usually conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. WRF is used extensively in the atmospheric community to simulate mesoscale atmospheric transport. For such simulations, WRF employs a parameterized turbulence model and does not resolve the fine scale dynamics that are generated by the flow around buildings and communities that are part of a large city. Since the model domain includes the city of Indianapolis, much of the flow of interest is over an urban topography. The NIST Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) is a computational fluid dynamics model to perform large eddy simulations of flow around buildings, but it has not been nested within a larger-scale atmospheric transport model such as WRF. FDS has the potential to evaluate the impact of complex urban topography on near-field dispersion and mixing that cannot be simulated with a mesoscale atmospheric model, and which may be important to determining urban GHG emissions using atmospheric measurements. A methodology has been developed to run FDS as a sub-grid scale model within a WRF simulation. The coupling is based on nudging the FDS flow field towards the one computed by WRF, and is currently limited to one way coupling performed in an off-line mode. Using the coupled WRF / FDS model, NIST will investigate the effects of the urban canopy at horizontal resolutions of 2-10 m. The coupled WRF-FDS simulations will be used to calculate the dispersion of tracer gases in an urban domain and to evaluate the upwind areas that contribute to tower observations, referred to in the inversion community as influence functions. Predicted mixing ratios will be compared with tower measurements and WRF simulations

  6. Concept of proton radiography using energy resolved dose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentefour, El H.; Schnuerer, Roland; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Energy resolved dosimetry offers a potential path to single detector based proton imaging using scanned proton beams. This is because energy resolved dose functions encrypt the radiological depth at which the measurements are made. When a set of predetermined proton beams ‘proton imaging field’ are used to deliver a well determined dose distribution in a specific volume, then, at any given depth x of this volume, the behavior of the dose against the energies of the proton imaging field is unique and characterizes the depth x. This concept applies directly to proton therapy scanning delivery methods (pencil beam scanning and uniform scanning) and it can be extended to the proton therapy passive delivery methods (single and double scattering) if the delivery of the irradiation is time-controlled with a known time-energy relationship. To derive the water equivalent path length (WEPL) from the energy resolved dose measurement, one may proceed in two different ways. A first method is by matching the measured energy resolved dose function to a pre-established calibration database of the behavior of the energy resolved dose in water, measured over the entire range of radiological depths with at least 1 mm spatial resolution. This calibration database can also be made specific to the patient if computed using the patient x-CT data. A second method to determine the WEPL is by using the empirical relationships between the WEPL and the integral dose or the depth at 80% of the proximal fall off of the energy resolved dose functions in water. In this note, we establish the evidence of the fundamental relationship between the energy resolved dose and the WEPL at the depth of the measurement. Then, we illustrate this relationship with experimental data and discuss its imaging dynamic range for 230 MeV protons.

  7. Concept of proton radiography using energy resolved dose measurement.

    PubMed

    Bentefour, El H; Schnuerer, Roland; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2016-08-21

    Energy resolved dosimetry offers a potential path to single detector based proton imaging using scanned proton beams. This is because energy resolved dose functions encrypt the radiological depth at which the measurements are made. When a set of predetermined proton beams 'proton imaging field' are used to deliver a well determined dose distribution in a specific volume, then, at any given depth x of this volume, the behavior of the dose against the energies of the proton imaging field is unique and characterizes the depth x. This concept applies directly to proton therapy scanning delivery methods (pencil beam scanning and uniform scanning) and it can be extended to the proton therapy passive delivery methods (single and double scattering) if the delivery of the irradiation is time-controlled with a known time-energy relationship. To derive the water equivalent path length (WEPL) from the energy resolved dose measurement, one may proceed in two different ways. A first method is by matching the measured energy resolved dose function to a pre-established calibration database of the behavior of the energy resolved dose in water, measured over the entire range of radiological depths with at least 1 mm spatial resolution. This calibration database can also be made specific to the patient if computed using the patient x-CT data. A second method to determine the WEPL is by using the empirical relationships between the WEPL and the integral dose or the depth at 80% of the proximal fall off of the energy resolved dose functions in water. In this note, we establish the evidence of the fundamental relationship between the energy resolved dose and the WEPL at the depth of the measurement. Then, we illustrate this relationship with experimental data and discuss its imaging dynamic range for 230 MeV protons. PMID:27435446

  8. Ecological succession as an energy dispersal process.

    PubMed

    Würtz, Peter; Annila, Arto

    2010-04-01

    Ecological succession is described by the 2nd law of thermodynamics. According to the universal law of the maximal energy dispersal, an ecosystem evolves toward a stationary state in its surroundings by consuming free energy via diverse mechanisms. Species are the mechanisms that conduct energy down along gradients between repositories of energy which consist of populations at various thermodynamic levels. The salient characteristics of succession, growing biomass production, increasing species richness and shifting distributions of species are found as consequences of the universal quest to diminish energy density differences in least time. The analysis reveals that during succession the ecosystem's energy transduction network, i.e., the food web organizes increasingly more effective in the free energy reduction by acquiring new, more effective and abandoning old, less effective species of energy transduction. The number of species does not necessarily peak at the climax state that corresponds to the maximum-entropy partition of species maximizing consumption of free energy. According to the theory of evolution by natural selection founded on statistical physics of open systems, ecological succession is one among many other evolutionary processes. PMID:20097257

  9. Momentum and energy dependence of the anomalous high-energy dispersion in the electronic structure of high temperature superconductors.

    PubMed

    Inosov, D S; Fink, J; Kordyuk, A A; Borisenko, S V; Zabolotnyy, V B; Schuster, R; Knupfer, M; Büchner, B; Follath, R; Dürr, H A; Eberhardt, W; Hinkov, V; Keimer, B; Berger, H

    2007-12-01

    Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we have studied the momentum and photon energy dependence of the anomalous high-energy dispersion, termed waterfalls, between the Fermi level and 1 eV binding energy in several high-T_{c} superconductors. We observe strong changes of the dispersion between different Brillouin zones and a strong dependence on the photon energy around 75 eV, which we associate with the resonant photoemission at the Cu3p-->3d_{x;{2}-y;{2}} edge. We conclude that the high-energy "waterfall" dispersion results from a strong suppression of the photoemission intensity at the center of the Brillouin zone due to matrix element effects and is, therefore, not an intrinsic feature of the spectral function. This indicates that the new high-energy scale in the electronic structure of cuprates derived from the waterfall-like dispersion may be incorrect. PMID:18233401

  10. Momentum and Energy Dependence of the Anomalous High-Energy Dispersion in the Electronic Structure of High Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inosov, D. S.; Fink, J.; Kordyuk, A. A.; Borisenko, S. V.; Zabolotnyy, V. B.; Schuster, R.; Knupfer, M.; Büchner, B.; Follath, R.; Dürr, H. A.; Eberhardt, W.; Hinkov, V.; Keimer, B.; Berger, H.

    2007-12-01

    Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we have studied the momentum and photon energy dependence of the anomalous high-energy dispersion, termed waterfalls, between the Fermi level and 1 eV binding energy in several high-Tc superconductors. We observe strong changes of the dispersion between different Brillouin zones and a strong dependence on the photon energy around 75 eV, which we associate with the resonant photoemission at the Cu3p→3dx2-y2 edge. We conclude that the high-energy “waterfall” dispersion results from a strong suppression of the photoemission intensity at the center of the Brillouin zone due to matrix element effects and is, therefore, not an intrinsic feature of the spectral function. This indicates that the new high-energy scale in the electronic structure of cuprates derived from the waterfall-like dispersion may be incorrect.

  11. Source Inversion for contaminant plume dispersion in urban environments using building-resolving simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, F K; Kosovic, B; Chan, S T

    2005-11-04

    Flow in urban environments is complicated by the presence of buildings, which divert the flow into often unexpected directions. Contaminants released at ground level are easily lofted above tall ({approx} 100 m) buildings and channeled through urban canyons that are perpendicular to the wind direction (see e.g., IOP 9 in Chan, 2005). The path of wind and scalars in urban environments is difficult to predict even with building-resolving computational fluid dynamics codes, due to the uncertainty in the synoptic wind and boundary conditions and other errors in the models. Given the difficulties due to the complexity of urban flows, solving an inverse problem becomes quite challenging. That is, given measurements of concentration at sensors scattered throughout a city, is it possible to detect the source of the contaminant? The ability to locate a source and determine its characteristics in a complex environment is necessary for emergency response for accidental or intentional releases of contaminants in densely-populated urban areas. The goal of this work is to demonstrate a robust statistical inversion procedure that performs well even under the complex flow conditions and uncertainty present in urban environments. Much work has previously focused on direct inversion procedures, where an inverse solution is obtained using an adjoint advection-diffusion equation. The exact direct inversion approaches are strictly limited to processes governed by linear equations. In addition, they assume the system is steady-state and that the equations are linear (Enting, 2002). In addition to adjoint models, optimization techniques are also employed to obtain solutions to inverse problems. These techniques often give only a single best answer, or assume a Gaussian distribution to account for uncertainties. General dispersion related inverse problems, however, often include non-linear processes (e.g., dispersion of chemically reacting substances) or are characterized by non

  12. Correlation energy and dispersion interaction in the ab initio potential energy curve of the neon dimer.

    PubMed

    Bytautas, Laimutis; Ruedenberg, Klaus

    2008-06-01

    A close approximation to the empirical potential energy curve of the neon dimer is obtained by coupled-cluster singles plus doubles plus noniterative triples calculations by using nonaugmented correlation-consistent basis sets without counterpoise corrections and complementing them by three-term extrapolations to the complete basis set limit. The potential energy is resolved into a self-consistent-field Hartree-Fock contribution and a correlation contribution. The latter is shown to decay in the long-range region in accordance with the empirical dispersion expansion. PMID:18537423

  13. Correlation energy and dispersion interaction in the ab initio potential energy curve of the neon dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Bytautas, L.; Ruedenberg, K.

    2008-06-06

    A close approximation to the empirical potential energy curve of the neon dimer is obtained by coupled-cluster singles plus doubles plus noniterative triples calculations by using nonaugmented correlation-consistent basis sets without counterpoise corrections and complementing them by three-term extrapolations to the complete basis set limit. The potential energy is resolved into a self-consistent-field Hartree-Fock contribution and a correlation contribution. The latter is shown to decay in the long-range region in accordance with the empirical dispersion expansion.

  14. Low Energy Lorentz Violation from Modified Dispersion at High Energies.

    PubMed

    Husain, Viqar; Louko, Jorma

    2016-02-12

    Many quantum theories of gravity propose Lorentz-violating dispersion relations of the form ω=|k|f(|k|/M⋆), with recovery of approximate Lorentz invariance at energy scales much below M⋆. We show that a quantum field with this dispersion predicts drastic low energy Lorentz violation in atoms modeled as Unruh-DeWitt detectors, for any f that dips below unity somewhere. As an example, we show that polymer quantization motivated by loop quantum gravity predicts such Lorentz violation below current ion collider rapidities. PMID:26918976

  15. Deconstructing time-resolved optical rotatory dispersion kinetic measurements of cytochrome c folding: from molten globule to the native state.

    PubMed

    Chen, Eefei; Kliger, David S

    2012-01-01

    The far-UV time-resolved optical rotatory dispersion (TRORD) technique has contributed significantly to our understanding of nanosecond secondary structure kinetics in protein folding and function reactions. For reduced cytochrome c, protein folding kinetics have been probed largely from the unfolded to the native state. Here we provide details about sample preparation and the TRORD apparatus and measurements for studying folding from a partly unfolded state to the native secondary structure conformation of reduced cytochrome c. PMID:22760330

  16. Single Hit Energy-resolved Laue Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Shamim; Suggit, Matthew J.; Stubley, Paul G.; Ciricosta, Orlando; Wark, Justin S.; Higginbotham, Andrew; Hawreliak, James A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Eggert, Jon H.; Comley, Andrew J.; Foster, John M.

    2015-05-15

    In situ white light Laue diffraction has been successfully used to interrogate the structure of single crystal materials undergoing rapid (nanosecond) dynamic compression up to megabar pressures. However, information on strain state accessible via this technique is limited, reducing its applicability for a range of applications. We present an extension to the existing Laue diffraction platform in which we record the photon energy of a subset of diffraction peaks. This allows for a measurement of the longitudinal and transverse strains in situ during compression. Consequently, we demonstrate measurement of volumetric compression of the unit cell, in addition to the limited aspect ratio information accessible in conventional white light Laue. We present preliminary results for silicon, where only an elastic strain is observed. VISAR measurements show the presence of a two wave structure and measurements show that material downstream of the second wave does not contribute to the observed diffraction peaks, supporting the idea that this material may be highly disordered, or has undergone large scale rotation.

  17. Linear dispersion-diffusion analysis and its application to under-resolved turbulence simulations using discontinuous Galerkin spectral/hp methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, R. C.; Sherwin, S. J.; Peiró, J.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the potential of linear dispersion-diffusion analysis in providing direct guidelines for turbulence simulations through the under-resolved DNS (sometimes called implicit LES) approach via spectral/hp methods. The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) formulation is assessed in particular as a representative of these methods. We revisit the eigensolutions technique as applied to linear advection and suggest a new perspective to the role of multiple numerical modes, peculiar to spectral/hp methods. From this new perspective, "secondary" eigenmodes are seen to replicate the propagation behaviour of a "primary" mode, so that DG's propagation characteristics can be obtained directly from the dispersion-diffusion curves of the primary mode. Numerical dissipation is then appraised from these primary eigencurves and its effect over poorly-resolved scales is quantified. Within this scenario, a simple criterion is proposed to estimate DG's effective resolution in terms of the largest wavenumber it can accurately resolve in a given hp approximation space, also allowing us to present points per wavelength estimates typically used in spectral and finite difference methods. Although strictly valid for linear advection, the devised criterion is tested against (1D) Burgers turbulence and found to predict with good accuracy the beginning of the dissipation range on the energy spectra of under-resolved simulations. The analysis of these test cases through the proposed methodology clarifies why and how the DG formulation can be used for under-resolved turbulence simulations without explicit subgrid-scale modelling. In particular, when dealing with communication limited hardware which forces one to consider the performance for a fixed number of degrees of freedom, the use of higher polynomial orders along with moderately coarser meshes is shown to be the best way to translate available degrees of freedom into resolution power.

  18. Energy resolving CT systems using Medipix2 and MHSP detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carramate, L. F. N. D.; Nachtrab, F.; Firsching, M.; Silva, A. L. M.; da Silva, A. M.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Uhlmann, N.

    2013-03-01

    Energy resolved imaging has been possible with a newest generation of radiation detectors with photon counting and spectroscopic capabilities. This innovation gives the possibility to enhance the image quality by applying techniques using the energy information. In this work two X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) Systems were assembled with two different energy resolving detectors: Medipix2 and MicroHole & Strip Plate (MHSP). These detectors have the aforesaid characteristics and showed a good performance for X-ray imaging. The Energy Weighting Technique (EWT) and Basis Material Decomposition (BMD) techniques were applied with good results. An improvement of 31% in the CNR was achieved by applying the EWT in the MHSP data and, using Medipix2, two basis materials (Carbon based and Aluminium) were decomposed successfully with densities close to the real values.

  19. Using dense locality sampling resolves the subtle genetic population structure of the dispersive fish species Plecoglossus altivelis.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Hirohiko; Iguchi, Kei'ichiro; Hashiguchi, Yasuyuki; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2016-07-01

    In dispersive species with continuous distributions, genetic differentiation between local populations is often absent or subtle and thus difficult to detect. To incorporate such subtle differentiation into management plans, it may be essential to analyse many samples from many localities using adequate numbers of high-resolution genetic markers. Here, we evaluated the usefulness of dense locality sampling in resolving genetic population structure in the ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis), a dispersive fish important in Japanese inland fisheries. Genetic variability in, and differentiation between, ayu populations around the Japan-Ryukyu Archipelago were investigated in 4746 individuals collected from 120 localities by genotyping 12 microsatellite markers. These individuals represented the two subspecies of ayu, namely the Ryukyuan subspecies (Plecoglossus altivelis ryukyuensis) and both amphidromous and landlocked forms of the nominotypical subspecies (P. a. altivelis) along the archipelago. We successfully detected an absence of genetic differentiation within the landlocked form and subtle but significant differentiation and clear geographic patterns of genetic variation among populations of the amphidromous form, which had been considered genetically homogeneous. This suggests that dense locality sampling effectively resolves subtle differences in genetic population structure, reducing stochastic deviation in the detection of genetic differentiation and geographic patterns in local populations of this dispersive species. Resampling analyses based on empirical data sets clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of increasing the number of locality samples for stable and reliable estimations of genetic fixation indices. The genetic population structure observed within the amphidromous form provides useful information for identifying management or conservation units in ayu. PMID:27085501

  20. Resolving precipitation induced water content profiles by inversion of dispersive GPR data: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangel, Adam R.; Moysey, Stephen M. J.; van der Kruk, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Surface-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements have significant potential for monitoring dynamic hydrologic processes at multiple scales in time and space. At early times during infiltration into a soil, the zone above the wetting front may act as a low-velocity waveguide that traps GPR waves, thereby causing dispersion and making interpretation of the data using standard methods difficult. In this work, we show that the dispersion is dependent upon the distribution of water within the waveguide, which is controlled by soil hydrologic properties. Simulations of infiltration were performed by varying the n-parameter of the Mualem-van Genuchten equation using HYDRUS-1D; the associated GPR data were simulated to evaluate the influence of dispersion. We observed a notable decrease in wave dispersion as the sharpness of the wetting front profile decreased. Given the sensitivity of the dispersion effect to the wetting front profile, we also evaluated whether the water content distribution can be determined through inversion of the dispersive GPR data. We found that a global grid search combined with the simplex algorithm was able to estimate the average water content when the wetted zone is divided into 2 layers. This approach was incapable, however, of representing the gradational nature of the water content distribution behind the wetting front. In contrast, the shuffled complex evolution algorithm was able to constrain a piece-wise linear function to closely match the shallow gradational water content profile. In both the layered and piece-wise linear case, the sensitivity of the dispersive data dropped sharply below the wetting front, which in this case was around 20 cm, i.e., twice the average wavelength, for a 900 MHz GPR survey. This study demonstrates that dispersive GPR data has significant potential for capturing the early-time dynamics of infiltration that cannot be obtained with standard GPR analysis approaches.

  1. Inverting GPR Dispersion Curves to Resolve Water Content Profiles of Precipitation Induced Low-Velocity Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangel, A. R.; Moysey, S. M.; Van Der Kruk, J.

    2014-12-01

    Surface-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements have significant potential for monitoring dynamic hydrologic processes at multiple scales in time and space. At early times during infiltration into a soil, the zone behind the wetting front may act as a low-velocity waveguide that causes dispersion of GPR waves, thereby making interpretation of the data using standard methods difficult. In this work, we show that the dispersion is dependent upon the distribution of water within the waveguide, which is controlled by soil hydrologic properties. Simulations of infiltration were performed by varying the n-parameter of the Mualem-van Genuchten equation using HYDRUS-1D; the associated GPR data were simulated to evaluate the influence of dispersion. We observed a notable decrease in the "shingling" effect in the GPR data associated with wave dispersion as the sharpness of the wetting front profile decreased. Given the sensitivity of the dispersion effect to the wetting front profile, we also evaluated whether the water content distribution can be determined through inversion of the dispersive GPR data. We found that a global grid search combined with the simplex algorithm was able to estimate the average water content when the wetted zone is divided into 1-2 effective layers. This approach was incapable, however, of representing the gradational nature of the water content distribution behind the wetting front. In contrast, the shuffled complex evolution algorithm was able to constrain a piece-wise linear function to closely match the shallow gradational water content profile. In both the layered and piece-wise linear case, the sensitivity of the dispersive data dropped sharply below the wetting front, which in this case was around 20 cm for a 1000MHz GPR survey. This study demonstrates that dispersive GPR data has significant potential for capturing the early-time dynamics of infiltration that cannot be obtained with standard GPR analysis approaches.

  2. Complete momentum and energy resolved TOF electron spectrometerfor time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Zahid; Lebedev, G.; Tremsin, A.; Siegmund, O.; Chen, Y.; Shen, Z.X.; Hussain, Z.

    2007-08-12

    Over the last decade, high-resolution Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) has emerged as a tool of choice for studying the electronic structure of solids, in particular, strongly correlated complex materials such as cuprate superconductors. In this paper we present the design of a novel time-of-flight based electron analyzer with capability of 2D in momentum space (kx and ky) and all energies (calculated from time of flight) in the third dimension. This analyzer will utilize an improved version of a 2D delay linedetector capable of imaging with<35 mm (700x700 pixels) spatial resolution and better than 120 ps FWHM timing resolution. Electron optics concepts and optimization procedure are considered for achieving an energy resolution less than 1 meV and an angular resolution better than 0.11.

  3. X-ray characterization by energy-resolved powder diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, G.; Hooker, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    A method for single-shot, nondestructive characterization of broadband x-ray beams, based on energy-resolved powder diffraction, is described. Monte-Carlo simulations are used to simulate data for x-ray beams in the keV range with parameters similar to those generated by betatron oscillations in a laser-driven plasma accelerator. The retrieved x-ray spectra are found to be in excellent agreement with those of the input beams for realistic numbers of incident photons. It is demonstrated that the angular divergence of the x rays can be deduced from the deviation of the detected photons from the Debye-Scherrer rings which would be produced by a parallel beam. It is shown that the angular divergence can be measured as a function of the photon energy, yielding the angularly resolved spectrum of the input x-ray beam.

  4. Resolving high energy emission of jets using strong gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnacka, Anna

    2014-11-01

    Chandra observations of M87 in 2004 uncovered an outburst originating in distant knot along the jet hundreds of parsecs from the core. This discovery challenges our understanding of the origin of high energy flares. Current technology is inadequate to resolve jets at distances greater than M87, or observed at higher energies. We propose to use gravitationally lensed jets to investigate the structure of more distant sources. Photons emitted at different sites cross the lens plane at different distances, thus magnification ratios and time delays differ between the mirage images. Monitoring of flares from lensed jets reveals the origin of the emission. With detectors like Chandra, lensed systems are a tool for resolving the structure of the jets and for investigating their cosmic evolution.

  5. Angle resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy on graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, U.; Preisinger, A.; Schattschneider, P.; Varga, P.

    We report on angle resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in reflection mode with low primary energy on a graphite single crystal. Measurements with primary electron energy of 175 eV have been performed in off-Bragg-reflex geometry in two different directions within the (0001) surface plane of the graphite single crystal. In addition, EELS measurements in specular reflection mode with different primary energies and angles of incidence were done in order to distinguish between surface and bulk plasmon losses. The energy losses and the transferred momenta of the losses have been analyzed. The results are compared with the loss functions for bulk and surface excitations calculated from the dielectric function ɛ(ω, q) obtained from TEELS-data (EELS in transmission mode) [Springer Tracts Mod. Phys. 54 (1970) 77].

  6. Optimal ''image-based'' weighting for energy-resolved CT

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Taly Gilat

    2009-07-15

    This paper investigates a method of reconstructing images from energy-resolved CT data with negligible beam-hardening artifacts and improved contrast-to-nosie ratio (CNR) compared to conventional energy-weighting methods. Conceptually, the investigated method first reconstructs separate images from each energy bin. The final image is a linear combination of the energy-bin images, with the weights chosen to maximize the CNR in the final image. The optimal weight of a particular energy-bin image is derived to be proportional to the contrast-to-noise-variance ratio in that image. The investigated weighting method is referred to as ''image-based'' weighting, although, as will be described, the weights can be calculated and the energy-bin data combined prior to reconstruction. The performance of optimal image-based energy weighting with respect to CNR and beam-hardening artifacts was investigated through simulations and compared to that of energy integrating, photon counting, and previously studied optimal ''projection-based'' energy weighting. Two acquisitions were simulated: dedicated breast CT and a conventional thorax scan. The energy-resolving detector was simulated with five energy bins. Four methods of estimating the optimal weights were investigated, including task-specific and task-independent methods and methods that require a single reconstruction versus multiple reconstructions. Results demonstrated that optimal image-based weighting improved the CNR compared to energy-integrating weighting by factors of 1.15-1.6 depending on the task. Compared to photon-counting weighting, the CNR improvement ranged from 1.0 to 1.3. The CNR improvement factors were comparable to those of projection-based optimal energy weighting. The beam-hardening cupping artifact increased from 5.2% for energy-integrating weighting to 12.8% for optimal projection-based weighting, while optimal image-based weighting reduced the cupping to 0.6%. Overall, optimal image-based energy weighting

  7. Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy and Energy-Resolving Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhauer, Frank; Raab, Walfried

    2015-08-01

    Imaging spectroscopy has seen rapid progress over the past 25 years, leading to breakthroughs in many fields of astronomy that would not have been otherwise possible. This review overviews the visible/infrared imaging spectroscopy techniques as well as energy-resolving detectors. We introduce the working principle of scanning Fabry-Perot and Fourier transform spectrometers and explain the most common integral field concepts based on mirror slicers, lenslet arrays, and fibers. The main advantage of integral field spectrographs is the simultaneous measurement of spatial and spectral information. Although Fabry-Perot and Fourier transform spectrometers can provide a larger field of view, it is ultimately the higher sensitivity of integral field units that make them the technique of choice. This is arguably the case for image slicers, which make the most efficient use of the available detector pixels and have equal or higher transmission than lenslet arrays and fiber integral field units, respectively. We also address the more specific issues of large étendue operation, focal ratio degradation, anamorphic magnification, and diffraction-limited operation. This review also covers the emerging technology of energy-resolving detectors, which promise very simple and efficient instrument designs. These energy-resolving detectors are based on superconducting thin film technology and exploit either the very small superconducting energy to count the number of quasi-particles excited in the absorption of the photon or the extremely steep phase transition between the normal- and superconducting phase to measure a temperature increase. We have put special emphasis on an overview of the underlying physical phenomena as well as on the recent technological progress and astronomical path finder experiments.

  8. Site-specific intermolecular valence-band dispersion in α-phase crystalline films of cobalt phthalocyanine studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamane, Hiroyuki; Kosugi, Nobuhiro

    2014-12-14

    The valence band structure of α-phase crystalline films of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) grown on Au(111) is investigated by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) with synchrotron radiation. The photo-induced change in the ARPES peaks is noticed in shape and energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, C 2p) and HOMO-1 (Co 3d) of CoPc, and is misleading the interpretation of the electronic properties of CoPc films. From the damage-free normal-emission ARPES measurement, the clear valence-band dispersion has been first observed, showing that orbital-specific behaviors are attributable to the interplay of the intermolecular π-π and π-d interactions. The HOMO band dispersion of 0.1 eV gives the lower limit of the hole mobility for α-CoPc of 28.9 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at 15 K. The non-dispersive character of the split HOMO-1 bands indicates that the localization of the spin state is a possible origin of the antiferromagnetism.

  9. Nitrogenase FeMoco investigated by spatially resolved anomalous dispersion refinement

    PubMed Central

    Spatzal, Thomas; Schlesier, Julia; Burger, Eva-Maria; Sippel, Daniel; Zhang, Limei; Andrade, Susana L.A.; Rees, Douglas C.; Einsle, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The [Mo:7Fe:9S:C] iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMoco) of nitrogenase is the largest known metal cluster and catalyses the 6-electron reduction of dinitrogen to ammonium in biological nitrogen fixation. Only recently its atomic structure was clarified, while its reactivity and electronic structure remain under debate. Here we show that for its resting S=3/2 state the common iron oxidation state assignments must be reconsidered. By a spatially resolved refinement of the anomalous scattering contributions of the 7 Fe atoms of FeMoco, we conclude that three irons (Fe1/3/7) are more reduced than the other four (Fe2/4/5/6). Our data are in agreement with the recently revised oxidation state assignment for the molybdenum ion, providing the first spatially resolved picture of the resting-state electron distribution within FeMoco. This might provide the long-sought experimental basis for a generally accepted theoretical description of the cluster that is in line with available spectroscopic and functional data. PMID:26973151

  10. The Dark Energy Survey: Prospects for resolved stellar populations

    SciTech Connect

    Rossetto, Bruno M.; Santiago, Basílio X.; Girardi, Léo; Camargo, Julio I. B.; Balbinot, Eduardo; da Costa, Luiz N.; Yanny, Brian; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Makler, Martin; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Pellegrini, Paulo S.; Ramos, Beatriz; de Simoni, Fernando; Armstrong, R.; Bertin, E.; Desai, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lin, H.; Mohr, J. J.; Tucker, D. L.

    2011-05-06

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy.

  11. A continuum solvent model of the multipolar dispersion solvation energy.

    PubMed

    Duignan, Timothy T; Parsons, Drew F; Ninham, Barry W

    2013-08-15

    The dispersion energy is an important contribution to the total solvation energies of ions and neutral molecules. Here, we present a new continuum model calculation of these energies, based on macroscopic quantum electrodynamics. The model uses the frequency dependent multipole polarizabilities of molecules in order to accurately calculate the dispersion interaction of a solute particle with surrounding water molecules. It includes the dipole, quadrupole, and octupole moment contributions. The water is modeled via a bulk dielectric susceptibility with a spherical cavity occupied by the solute. The model invokes damping functions to account for solute-solvent wave function overlap. The assumptions made are very similar to those used in the Born model. This provides consistency and additivity of electrostatic and dispersion (quantum mechanical) interactions. The energy increases in magnitude with cation size, but decreases slightly with size for the highly polarizable anions. The higher order multipole moments are essential, making up more than 50% of the dispersion solvation energy of the fluoride ion. This method provides an accurate and simple way of calculating the notoriously problematic dispersion contribution to the solvation energy. The result establishes the importance of using accurate calculations of the dispersion energy for the modeling of solvation. PMID:23837890

  12. Energy-resolved computed tomography: first experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M.

    2008-10-01

    First experimental results with energy-resolved computed tomography (CT) are reported. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in CT has been improved with x-ray energy weighting for the first time. Further, x-ray energy weighting improved the CNR in material decomposition CT when applied to CT projections prior to dual-energy subtraction. The existing CT systems use an energy (charge) integrating x-ray detector that provides a signal proportional to the energy of the x-ray photon. Thus, the x-ray photons with lower energies are scored less than those with higher energies. This underestimates contribution of lower energy photons that would provide higher contrast. The highest CNR can be achieved if the x-ray photons are scored by a factor that would increase as the x-ray energy decreases. This could be performed by detecting each x-ray photon separately and measuring its energy. The energy selective CT data could then be saved, and any weighting factor could be applied digitally to a detected x-ray photon. The CT system includes a photon counting detector with linear arrays of pixels made from cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) semiconductor. A cylindrical phantom with 10.2 cm diameter made from tissue-equivalent material was used for CT imaging. The phantom included contrast elements representing calcifications, iodine, adipose and glandular tissue. The x-ray tube voltage was 120 kVp. The energy selective CT data were acquired, and used to generate energy-weighted and material-selective CT images. The energy-weighted and material decomposition CT images were generated using a single CT scan at a fixed x-ray tube voltage. For material decomposition the x-ray spectrum was digitally spilt into low- and high-energy parts and dual-energy subtraction was applied. The x-ray energy weighting resulted in CNR improvement of calcifications and iodine by a factor of 1.40 and 1.63, respectively, as compared to conventional charge integrating CT. The x-ray energy weighting was also applied

  13. Encapsulated Energy Transfer Cassettes with Extremely Well Resolved Fluorescent Outputs

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Yuichiro; Jose, Jiney; Loudet, Aurore; Pérez-Bolívar, César; Anzenbacher, Pavel; Burgess, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns the development of water-compatible fluorescent imaging-probes with tunable photonic properties that can be excited at a single wavelength. Bichromophoric cassettes 1a – 1c consisting of a BODIPY donor and a cyanine acceptor were prepared using a simple synthetic route, and their photophysical properties were investigated. Upon excitation of the BODIPY moiety at 488 nm the excitation energy is transferred through an acetylene bridge to the cyanine dye acceptor, which emits light at approximately 600, 700, and 800 nm, ie with remarkable dispersions. This effect is facilitated by efficient energy transfer that gives a ‘quasi-Stokes’ shift of between 86 – 290 nm opening a huge spectral window for imaging. The emissive properties of the cassettes depend on the energy transfer (ET) mechanism: the faster the transfer, the more efficient it is. Measurements of rates of energy transfer indicate that a through-bond energy transfer takes place in the cassettes 1a and 1b that is two orders of magnitude faster than the classical through-space, Förster, energy transfer (in the case of cassette 1c, however, both mechanisms are possible, and the rate measurements do not allow us to discern between them). Thus the cassettes 1a – 1c are well suited for multiplexing experiments in biotechnological methods that involve a single laser-excitation source. However, for widespread application of these probes their solubility in aqueous media must be improved. Consequently, the probes were encapsulated in calcium phosphate/silicate nanoparticles (diameter ca 22 nm) that are freely dispersible in water. This encapsulation process resulted in only minor changes in the photophysical properties of the cassettes. The system based on cassette 1a was chosen to probe how effectively these nanoparticles could be used to deliver the dyes into cells. Encapsulated cassette 1a permeated Clone 9 rat liver cells where it localized in the mitochondria and fluoresced through

  14. Electromagnetic energy flux vector for a dispersive linear medium.

    PubMed

    Crenshaw, Michael E; Akozbek, Neset

    2006-05-01

    The electromagnetic energy flux vector in a dispersive linear medium is derived from energy conservation and microscopic quantum electrodynamics and is found to be of the Umov form as the product of an electromagnetic energy density and a velocity vector. PMID:16803063

  15. Crossing statistic: Bayesian interpretation, model selection and resolving dark energy parametrization problem

    SciTech Connect

    Shafieloo, Arman

    2012-05-01

    By introducing Crossing functions and hyper-parameters I show that the Bayesian interpretation of the Crossing Statistics [1] can be used trivially for the purpose of model selection among cosmological models. In this approach to falsify a cosmological model there is no need to compare it with other models or assume any particular form of parametrization for the cosmological quantities like luminosity distance, Hubble parameter or equation of state of dark energy. Instead, hyper-parameters of Crossing functions perform as discriminators between correct and wrong models. Using this approach one can falsify any assumed cosmological model without putting priors on the underlying actual model of the universe and its parameters, hence the issue of dark energy parametrization is resolved. It will be also shown that the sensitivity of the method to the intrinsic dispersion of the data is small that is another important characteristic of the method in testing cosmological models dealing with data with high uncertainties.

  16. Single atom identification by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lovejoy, T. C.; Dellby, N.; Krivanek, O. L.; Ramasse, Q. M.; Falke, M.; Kaeppel, A.; Terborg, R.; Zan, R.

    2012-04-09

    Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, single, isolated impurity atoms of silicon and platinum in monolayer and multilayer graphene are identified. Simultaneously acquired electron energy loss spectra confirm the elemental identification. Contamination difficulties are overcome by employing near-UHV sample conditions. Signal intensities agree within a factor of two with standardless estimates.

  17. Dispersal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2001-01-01

    The ability of species to migrate and disperse is a trait that has interested ecologists for many years. Now that so many species and ecosystems face major environmental threats from habitat fragmentation and global climate change, the ability of species to adapt to these changes by dispersing, migrating, or moving between patches of habitat can be crucial to ensuring their survival. This book provides a timely and wide-ranging overview of the study of dispersal and incorporates much of the latest research. The causes, mechanisms, and consequences of dispersal at the individual, population, species and community levels are considered. The potential of new techniques and models for studying dispersal, drawn from molecular biology and demography, is also explored. Perspectives and insights are offered from the fields of evolution, conservation biology and genetics. Throughout the book, theoretical approaches are combined with empirical data, and care has been taken to include examples from as wide a range of species as possible.

  18. Imaging the Formation of High-Energy Dispersion Anomalies in the Actinide UCoGa5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Tanmoy; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Joyce, John J.; Sarrao, John L.; Graf, Matthias J.

    2012-10-01

    We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to image the emergence of substantial dispersion and spectral-weight anomalies in the electronic renormalization of the actinide compound UCoGa5 that was presumed to belong to a conventional Fermi-liquid family. Kinks or abrupt breaks in the slope of the quasiparticle dispersion are detected both at low (approximately 130 meV) and high (approximately 1 eV) binding energies below the Fermi energy, ruling out any significant contribution of phonons. We perform numerical calculations to demonstrate that the anomalies are adequately described by coupling between itinerant fermions and spin fluctuations arising from the particle-hole continuum of the spin-orbit-split 5f states of uranium. These anomalies resemble the “waterfall” phenomenon of the high-temperature copper-oxide superconductors, suggesting that spin fluctuations are a generic route toward multiform electronic phases in correlated materials as different as high-temperature superconductors and actinides.

  19. Modern electron microscopy resolved in space, energy and time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, F.

    2011-06-01

    Recent pioneering experiments combining ultrafast lasers with electron-based technology demonstrated the possibility to obtain real-time information about chemical bonds and their dynamics during reactions and phase transformation. These techniques have been successfully applied to several states of matter including gases, liquids, solids and biological samples showing a unique versatility thanks to the high sensitivity of electrons to tiny amounts of material and their low radiation damage. A very powerful tool, the time-resolved Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), is capable of delivering information on the structure of ordered and disordered matter through diffraction and imaging, with a spatial resolution down to the atomic limit (10-10 m); the same apparatus can distinguish dynamical phenomena happening on the time-scales between fs and ms, with a dynamic range of 12 orders of magnitude. At the same time, spectroscopic information can be obtained from the loss of kinetic energy of electrons interacting with specimens in the range of interband transitions and plasmons in solids, or charge transfers in molecules, all the way up to the atomic core levels with the same time-resolution. In this contribution, we focus on the recent advances in fs Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (FEELS), discussing the main results and their implications for future studies.

  20. Vacuum field energy and spontaneous emission in anomalously dispersive cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, Douglas H.; Di Rosa, Michael D.

    2011-05-15

    Anomalously dispersive cavities, particularly white-light cavities, may have larger bandwidth to finesse ratios than their normally dispersive counterparts. Partly for this reason, they have been proposed for use in laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO)-like gravity-wave detectors and in ring-laser gyroscopes. In this paper we analyze the quantum noise associated with anomalously dispersive cavity modes. The vacuum field energy associated with a particular cavity mode is proportional to the cavity-averaged group velocity of that mode. For anomalously dispersive cavities with group index values between 1 and 0, this means that the total vacuum field energy associated with a particular cavity mode must exceed ({h_bar}/2{pi}){omega}/2. For white-light cavities in particular, the group index approaches zero and the vacuum field energy of a particular spatial mode may be significantly enhanced. We predict enhanced spontaneous emission rates into anomalously dispersive cavity modes and broadened laser linewidths when the linewidth of intracavity emitters is broader than the cavity linewidth.

  1. Integrated assessment of dispersed energy resources deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Blanco, Raquel; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Kawaan, Cornelia P.; Osborn, Julie G.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2000-06-01

    The goal of this work is to create an integrated framework for forecasting the adoption of distributed energy resources (DER), both by electricity customers and by the various institutions within the industry itself, and for evaluating the effect of this adoption on the power system, particularly on the overall reliability and quality of electrical service to the end user. This effort and follow on contributions are intended to anticipate and explore possible patterns of DER deployment, thereby guiding technical work on microgrids towards the key technical problems. An early example of this process addressed is the question of possible DER adopting customer disconnection. A deployment scenario in which many customers disconnect from their distribution company (disco) entirely leads to a quite different set of technical problems than a scenario in which customers self generate a significant share or all of their on-site electricity requirements and additionally buy and sell energy and ancillary services (AS) locally and/or into wider markets. The exploratory work in this study suggests that the economics under which customers disconnect entirely are unlikely.

  2. Pulsed Magnetic Fields for an XAS Energy Dispersive Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, Peter van der; Mathon, Olivier; Neisius, Thomas

    2007-01-19

    Pulsed magnetic fields constitute an attractive alternative to superconducting magnets for many x-ray techniques. The ESRF ID24 energy dispersive beamline was used for pulsed magnetic field room temperature XMCD measurements on GdCo3. The signal has been measured up to a magnetic field of 5.5 Tesla without signs of deterioration.

  3. Identification of position isomers by energy-resolved mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Menachery, Sunil Paul M; Laprévote, Olivier; Nguyen, Thao P; Aravind, Usha K; Gopinathan, Pramod; Aravindakumar, Charuvila T

    2015-07-01

    This study reports an energy-resolved mass spectrometric (ERMS) strategy for the characterization of position isomers derived from the reaction of hydroxyl radicals ((●)OH) with diphenhydramine (DPH) that are usually hard to differentiate by other methods. The isomer analogues formed by (●)OH attack on the side chain of DPH are identified with the help of a specific fragment ion peak (m/z 88) in the collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectrum of the protonated molecule. In the negative ion mode, the breakdown curves of the deprotonated molecules show an order of stability (supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations) ortho > meta > para of the positional isomers formed by the hydroxylation of the aromatic ring. The gas phase stability of the deprotonated molecules [M - H](-) towards the benzylic cleavage depends mainly on the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and of the mesomeric effect of the phenol hydroxyl. The [M - H](-) molecules of ortho and meta isomers result a peak at m/z 183 with notably different intensities because of the presence/absence of an intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the OH group and C9 protons. The ERMS approach discussed in this report might be an effective replacement for the conventional methods that requires very costly and time-consuming separation/purification methods along with the use of multi-spectroscopic methods. PMID:26349650

  4. Energy Dispersive X-ray Tomography for 3D Elemental Mapping of Individual Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Slater, Thomas J A; Lewis, Edward A; Haigh, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy within the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) provides accurate elemental analysis with high spatial resolution, and is even capable of providing atomically resolved elemental maps. In this technique, a highly focused electron beam is incident upon a thin sample and the energy of emitted X-rays is measured in order to determine the atomic species of material within the beam path. This elementally sensitive spectroscopy technique can be extended to three dimensional tomographic imaging by acquiring multiple spectrum images with the sample tilted along an axis perpendicular to the electron beam direction. Elemental distributions within single nanoparticles are often important for determining their optical, catalytic and magnetic properties. Techniques such as X-ray tomography and slice and view energy dispersive X-ray mapping in the scanning electron microscope provide elementally sensitive three dimensional imaging but are typically limited to spatial resolutions of > 20 nm. Atom probe tomography provides near atomic resolution but preparing nanoparticle samples for atom probe analysis is often challenging. Thus, elementally sensitive techniques applied within the scanning transmission electron microscope are uniquely placed to study elemental distributions within nanoparticles of dimensions 10-100 nm. Here, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy within the STEM is applied to investigate the distribution of elements in single AgAu nanoparticles. The surface segregation of both Ag and Au, at different nanoparticle compositions, has been observed. PMID:27403838

  5. Imaging ultrasonic dispersive guided wave energy in long bones using linear radon transform.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tho N H T; Nguyen, Kim-Cuong T; Sacchi, Mauricio D; Le, Lawrence H

    2014-11-01

    Multichannel analysis of dispersive ultrasonic energy requires a reliable mapping of the data from the time-distance (t-x) domain to the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) or frequency-phase velocity (f-c) domain. The mapping is usually performed with the classic 2-D Fourier transform (FT) with a subsequent substitution and interpolation via c = 2πf/k. The extracted dispersion trajectories of the guided modes lack the resolution in the transformed plane to discriminate wave modes. The resolving power associated with the FT is closely linked to the aperture of the recorded data. Here, we present a linear Radon transform (RT) to image the dispersive energies of the recorded ultrasound wave fields. The RT is posed as an inverse problem, which allows implementation of the regularization strategy to enhance the focusing power. We choose a Cauchy regularization for the high-resolution RT. Three forms of Radon transform: adjoint, damped least-squares, and high-resolution are described, and are compared with respect to robustness using simulated and cervine bone data. The RT also depends on the data aperture, but not as severely as does the FT. With the RT, the resolution of the dispersion panel could be improved up to around 300% over that of the FT. Among the Radon solutions, the high-resolution RT delineated the guided wave energy with much better imaging resolution (at least 110%) than the other two forms. The Radon operator can also accommodate unevenly spaced records. The results of the study suggest that the high-resolution RT is a valuable imaging tool to extract dispersive guided wave energies under limited aperture. PMID:25282483

  6. Continuous energy diffraction spectroscopy: A new d-space matching technique for energy dispersive synchrotron radiation diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, P. L.; Beno, M. A.; Knapp, G. S.; Jennings, G.

    1994-07-01

    In this article, a new technique, continuous energy diffraction spectroscopy (CEDS) is described, for diffraction experiments using a synchrotron energy dispersive polychromatic beamline. This type of beamline uses a curved crystal monochromator (polychromator) to focus a range of x-ray energies (bandwidth ˜1 keV) into a narrow (100-120 μm) line image. With a sample at this image point, using an 2D detector, we are able to measure diffracted intensities for the entire energy range of the incident beam simultaneously with limited or no motion of the sample. This method allows the collection of anomalous scattering and diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS) data faster and more accurately than with conventional methods. Because of the speed with which these types of diffraction experiments can be done, this method creates new options for time resolved diffraction experiments and provides new data collection strategies.

  7. Pulse propagation, dispersion, and energy in magnetic materials.

    PubMed

    Scalora, Michael; D'Aguanno, Giuseppe; Mattiucci, Nadia; Akozbek, Neset; Bloemer, Mark J; Centini, Marco; Sibilia, Concita; Bertolotti, Mario

    2005-12-01

    We discuss pulse propagation effects in generic, electrically and magnetically dispersive media that may display large material discontinuities, such as a surface boundary. Using the known basic constitutive relations between the fields, and an explicit Taylor expansion to describe the dielectric susceptibility and magnetic permeability, we derive expressions for energy density and energy dissipation rates, and equations of motion for the coupled electric and magnetic fields. We then solve the equations of motion in the presence of a single interface, and find that in addition to the now-established negative refraction process an energy exchange occurs between the electric and magnetic fields as the pulse traverses the boundary. PMID:16486072

  8. Inverse energy dispersion of energetic ions observed in the magnetosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. H.; Sibeck, D. G.; Hwang, K.-J.; Wang, Y.; Silveira, M. V. D.; Fok, M.-C.; Mauk, B. H.; Cohen, I. J.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Kitamura, N.; Burch, J. L.; Giles, B. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Lester, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present a case study of energetic ions observed by the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) on the Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft in the magnetosheath just outside the subsolar magnetopause that occurred at 1000 UT on 8 December 2015. As the magnetopause receded inward, the EPD observed a burst of energetic (˜50-1000 keV) proton, helium, and oxygen ions that exhibited an inverse dispersion, with the lowest energy ions appearing first. The prolonged interval of fast antisunward flow observed in the magnetosheath and transient increases in the H components of global ground magnetograms demonstrate that the burst appeared at a time when the magnetosphere was rapidly compressed. We attribute the inverse energy dispersion to the leakage along reconnected magnetic field lines of betatron-accelerated energetic ions in the magnetosheath, and a burst of reconnection has an extent of about 1.5 RE using combined Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radar and EPD observations.

  9. Electromagnetic energy dispersion in a 5D universe

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnett, John G.

    2010-06-15

    Electromagnetism is analyzed in a 5D expanding universe. Compared to the usual 4D description of electrodynamics it can be viewed as adding effective charge and current densities to the universe that are static in time. These lead to effective polarization and magnetization of the vacuum, which is most significant at high redshift. Electromagnetic waves propagate but group and phase velocities are dispersive. This introduces a new energy scale to the cosmos. And as a result electromagnetic waves propagate with superluminal speeds but no energy is transmitted faster than the canonical speed of light c.

  10. Electromagnetic energy dispersion in a 5D universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnett, John G.

    2010-06-01

    Electromagnetism is analyzed in a 5D expanding universe. Compared to the usual 4D description of electrodynamics it can be viewed as adding effective charge and current densities to the universe that are static in time. These lead to effective polarization and magnetization of the vacuum, which is most significant at high redshift. Electromagnetic waves propagate but group and phase velocities are dispersive. This introduces a new energy scale to the cosmos. And as a result electromagnetic waves propagate with superluminal speeds but no energy is transmitted faster than the canonical speed of light c.

  11. Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and Quantitative Analysis Short Course. Introduction to X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and Quantitative Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Paul; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This course will cover practical applications of the energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) to x-ray microanalysis. Topics covered will include detector technology, advances in pulse processing, resolution and performance monitoring, detector modeling, peak deconvolution and fitting, qualitative and quantitative analysis, compositional mapping, and standards. An emphasis will be placed on use of the EDS for quantitative analysis, with discussion of typical problems encountered in the analysis of a wide range of materials and sample geometries.

  12. Energy dispersive photon counting detectors for breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, William C.; Wessel, Jan C.; Malakhov, Nail; Wawrzyniak, Gregor; Hartsough, Neal E.; Gandhi, Thulasidharan; Nygard, Einar; Iwanczyk, Jan S.

    2013-09-01

    We report on our efforts toward the development of silicon (Si) strip detectors for energy-resolved clinical breast imaging. Typically, x-ray integrating detectors based on scintillating cesium iodide CsI(Tl) or amorphous selenium (a- Se) are used in most commercial systems. Recently, mammography instrumentation has been introduced based on photon counting silicon Si strip detectors. Mammography requires high flux from the x-ray generator, therefore, in order to achieve energy resolved single photon counting, a high output count rate (OCR) for the detector must be achieved at the required spatial resolution and across the required dynamic range for the application. The required performance in terms of the OCR, spatial resolution, and dynamic range must be obtained with sufficient field of view (FOV) for the application thus requiring the tiling of pixel arrays and scanning techniques. Room temperature semiconductors, operating as direct conversion x-ray sensors, can provide the required speed when connected to application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) operating at fast peaking times with multiple fixed thresholds per pixel, provided that the sensors are designed for rapid signal formation across the x-ray energy ranges of the application at the required energy and spatial resolutions. We present our methods and results from the optimization of prototype detectors based on Si strip structures. We describe the detector optimization and the development of ASIC readout electronics that provide the required spatial resolution, low noise, high count rate capabilities and minimal power consumption.

  13. A universal high energy anomaly in angle resolved photoemissionspectra of high temperature superconductors -- possible evidence ofspinon and holon branches

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, J.; Gweon, G.-H.; McElroy, K.; Zhou, S.Y.; Jozwiak, C.; Rotenberg, E.; Bill, A.; Sasagawa, T.; Eisaki, H.; Uchida, S.; Takagi,H.; Lee, D.-H.; Lanzara A.

    2006-12-19

    A universal high energy anomaly in the single particlespectral function is reported in three different families of hightemperature superconductors by using angle-resolved photoemissionspectroscopy. As we follow the dispersing peak of the spectral functionfrom the Fermi energy to the valence band complex, we find dispersionanomalies marked by two distinctive high energy scales, E_1 approx 0.38eV and E_2 approx 0.8 eV. E_1 marks the energy above which the dispersionsplits into two branches. One is a continuation of the near parabolicdispersion, albeit with reduced spectral weight, and reaches the bottomof the band at the Gamma point at approx 0.5 eV. The other is given by apeak in the momentum space, nearly independent of energy between E_1 andE_2. Above E_2, a band-like dispersion re-emerges. We conjecture thatthese two energies mark the disintegration of the low energyquasiparticles into a spinon and holon branch in the high T_c cuprates.

  14. Energy-entropy dispersion relation in DNA sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, H.; Haeussler, P.

    2013-10-01

    For a number of virus- and bacterium genomes we use the concept of block entropy from information theory and compare it with the corresponding configurational energy, defined via the ionization energies of the nucleotides and a hopping term for their interactions in the sense of a tight-binding model. Additionally to the four-letter alphabet of the nucleotides we discuss a reduction to a two-letter alphabet. We find a well defined relation between block entropy and block energy for a not too large block length which can be interpreted as a generalized dispersion relation for all genome sequences. The relation can be used to look for enhanced interactions between virus and bacterium genomes. Well known examples for virus-virus and virus-bacterium interactions are analyzed along this line.

  15. In situ energy dispersive x-ray reflectometry measurements on organic solar cells upon working

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paci, B.; Generosi, A.; Albertini, V. Rossi; Perfetti, P.; de Bettignies, R.; Firon, M.; Leroy, J.; Sentein, C.

    2005-11-01

    The change in the morphology of plastic solar cells was studied by means of time-resolved energy dispersive x-ray reflectivity (XRR). This unconventional application of the XRR technique allowed the follow up of in situ morphological evolution of an organic photovoltaic device upon working. The study consisted of three steps: A preliminary set of XRR measurements on various samples representing the intermediate stages of cell construction, which provided accurate data regarding the electronic densities of the different layers; the verification of the morphological stability of the device under ambient condition; a real-time collection of XRR patterns, both in the dark and during 15h in artificial light conditions which allowed the changes in the system morphology at the electrode-active layer interface to be monitored. In this way, a progressive thickening of this interface, responsible for a reduction in the performances of the device, was observed directly.

  16. Bose gas with generalized dispersion relation plus an energy gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis, M. A.; Martinez, J. G.; Garcia, J.

    We report the critical temperature, the condensed fraction, the internal energy and the specific heat for a d-dimensional Bose gas with a generalized dispersion relation plus an energy gap, i.e., ɛ =ɛ0 for k = 0 and ɛ =ɛ0 + Δ +csks , for k > 0 , where ℏk is the particle momentum, ɛ0 the lowest particle energy, cs a constant with dimension of energy multiplied by a length to the power s > 0 . When Δ > 0 , a Bose-Einstein critical temperature Tc ≠ 0 exists for any d / s >= 0 at which the internal energy shows a peak and the specific heat shows a jump. The critical temperature and the specific heat jump increase as functions of the gap but they decrease as functions of d / s . Thermodynamic properties are ɛ0 independent since this is just a reference energy. For Δ = 0 we recover the results reported in Ref. [1]. V. C. Aguilera-Navarro, M. de Llano y M. A. Solís, Eur. J. Phys. 20, 177 (1999). We acknowledge partial support from Grants PAPIIT IN111613 and CONACyT 221030.

  17. Note: A new angle-resolved proton energy spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Y.; Su, L. N.; Liu, M.; Liu, B. C.; Shen, Z. W.; Fan, H. T.; Li, Y. T.; Chen, L. M.; Lu, X.; Ma, J. L.; Wang, W. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Wei, Z. Y.; Zhang, J.

    2013-09-15

    In typical laser-driven proton acceleration experiments Thomson parabola proton spectrometers are used to measure the proton spectra with very small acceptance angle in specific directions. Stacks composed of CR-39 nuclear track detectors, imaging plates, or radiochromic films are used to measure the angular distributions of the proton beams, respectively. In this paper, a new proton spectrometer, which can measure the spectra and angular distributions simultaneously, has been designed. Proton acceleration experiments performed on the Xtreme light III laser system demonstrates that the spectrometer can give angle-resolved spectra with a large acceptance angle. This will be conductive to revealing the acceleration mechanisms, optimization, and applications of laser-driven proton beams.

  18. Time-resolved study on dynamic chemical state conversion of SiO2-supported Co species by means of dispersive XAFS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chotiwan, S.; Tomiga, H.; Yamashita, S.; Katayama, M.; Inada, Y.

    2016-05-01

    The chemical state conversion of the Co species supported on SiO2 was investigated using the in-situ and the time-resolved XAFS techniques. The supported Co3O4 species was finally reduced to metallic Co with the stable intermediate state of CoO for both the temperature-programmed and time-course processes. The oxidation of Co0 traced the reverse route to Co3O4, whereas the relative stability of the Co3O4 species to the CoO intermediate under the oxidative environment diminished the composition of CoO. The time-resolved measurement for the oxidation reaction showed an additional intermediate at the early stage of the CoO intermediate formation suggesting the Co0 particle dispersion.

  19. Specific Energies for the Collisional Dispersion of Gravitational Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo Bagatin, Adriano; Davo, M.; Richardson, D. C.

    2009-09-01

    One of the most interesting problems in planetology is the one concerning the internal structure of asteroids and comets. Despite of the available experimental results about the fragmentation of cohesive bodies the size of a soccer ball, and the theoretical and numerical studies extending these results to larger objects, little is known about the response to collisions by objects that formed by the gravitational re-accumulation following shattering events. We are developing a systematic study of the effects of collisions on rocky and icy gravitational aggregates (GA) between 100 m and 100 km in size, under different conditions (mass and texture of targets and projectiles, impact angle, momentum of collision, rotation of target). The study is based on a numerical model of the N-body problem (PKDGRAV code). We present our results on the dependence of the threshold specific energy for the dispersion of targets (Q*D) as a function of their mass, obtaining the corresponding scaling law. All GA are made up by the same number of particles. We have chosen 7 different targets, scaling a factor of 3 in mass and we performed a number of head-on collisions on each target mass with different projectile masses. In this way, we are able to relate the impact energy with the fraction of mass reaccumulated after impacts (f_R), and derive the threshold specific energy for dispersion, Q*_D, by interpolating the corresponding fitted linear relationship. As the result of every single collision partly depends on impact location, a number of collisions is performed with a same target and projectile, changing the direction of impact (not the impact angle). We take the average and standard deviation of the corresponding mass fraction of each set of collisions. Finally a power law relationship between Q*_D and size is derived. The main results of this study are presented.

  20. Microcalorimeter-type energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer for a transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Hara, Toru; Tanaka, Keiichi; Maehata, Keisuke; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko Y; Ohsaki, Mitsuaki; Watanabe, Katsuaki; Yu, Xiuzhen; Ito, Takuji; Yamanaka, Yoshihiro

    2010-01-01

    A new energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) with a microcalorimeter detector equipped with a transmission electron microscope (TEM) has been developed for high- accuracy compositional analysis in the nanoscale. A superconducting transition-edge-sensor-type microcalorimeter is applied as the detector. A cryogen-free cooling system, which consists of a mechanical and a dilution refrigerator, is selected to achieve long-term temperature stability. In order to mount these detector and refrigerators on a TEM, the cooling system is specially designed such that these two refrigerators are separated. Also, the detector position and arrangement are carefully designed to avoid adverse affects between the superconductor detector and the TEM lens system. Using the developed EDS system, at present, an energy resolution of 21.92 eV full-width-at-half maximum has been achieved at the Cr K alpha line. This value is about seven times better than that of the current typical commercial Si(Li) detector, which is usually around 140 eV. The developed microcalorimeter EDS system can measure a wide energy range, 1-20 keV, at one time with this high energy resolution that can resolve peaks from most of the elements. Although several further developments will be needed to enable practical use, highly accurate compositional analysis with high energy resolution will be realized by this microcalorimeter EDS system. PMID:19717388

  1. Resolving shifting patterns of muscle energy use in swimming fish.

    PubMed

    Gerry, Shannon P; Ellerby, David J

    2014-01-01

    Muscle metabolism dominates the energy costs of locomotion. Although in vivo measures of muscle strain, activity and force can indicate mechanical function, similar muscle-level measures of energy use are challenging to obtain. Without this information locomotor systems are essentially a black box in terms of the distribution of metabolic energy. Although in situ measurements of muscle metabolism are not practical in multiple muscles, the rate of blood flow to skeletal muscle tissue can be used as a proxy for aerobic metabolism, allowing the cost of particular muscle functions to be estimated. Axial, undulatory swimming is one of the most common modes of vertebrate locomotion. In fish, segmented myotomal muscles are the primary power source, driving undulations of the body axis that transfer momentum to the water. Multiple fins and the associated fin muscles also contribute to thrust production, and stabilization and control of the swimming trajectory. We have used blood flow tracers in swimming rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to estimate the regional distribution of energy use across the myotomal and fin muscle groups to reveal the functional distribution of metabolic energy use within a swimming animal for the first time. Energy use by the myotomal muscle increased with speed to meet thrust requirements, particularly in posterior myotomes where muscle power outputs are greatest. At low speeds, there was high fin muscle energy use, consistent with active stability control. As speed increased, and fins were adducted, overall fin muscle energy use declined, except in the caudal fin muscles where active fin stiffening is required to maintain power transfer to the wake. The present data were obtained under steady-state conditions which rarely apply in natural, physical environments. This approach also has potential to reveal the mechanical factors that underlie changes in locomotor cost associated with movement through unsteady flow regimes. PMID:25165858

  2. Resolving Shifting Patterns of Muscle Energy Use in Swimming Fish

    PubMed Central

    Gerry, Shannon P.; Ellerby, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle metabolism dominates the energy costs of locomotion. Although in vivo measures of muscle strain, activity and force can indicate mechanical function, similar muscle-level measures of energy use are challenging to obtain. Without this information locomotor systems are essentially a black box in terms of the distribution of metabolic energy. Although in situ measurements of muscle metabolism are not practical in multiple muscles, the rate of blood flow to skeletal muscle tissue can be used as a proxy for aerobic metabolism, allowing the cost of particular muscle functions to be estimated. Axial, undulatory swimming is one of the most common modes of vertebrate locomotion. In fish, segmented myotomal muscles are the primary power source, driving undulations of the body axis that transfer momentum to the water. Multiple fins and the associated fin muscles also contribute to thrust production, and stabilization and control of the swimming trajectory. We have used blood flow tracers in swimming rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to estimate the regional distribution of energy use across the myotomal and fin muscle groups to reveal the functional distribution of metabolic energy use within a swimming animal for the first time. Energy use by the myotomal muscle increased with speed to meet thrust requirements, particularly in posterior myotomes where muscle power outputs are greatest. At low speeds, there was high fin muscle energy use, consistent with active stability control. As speed increased, and fins were adducted, overall fin muscle energy use declined, except in the caudal fin muscles where active fin stiffening is required to maintain power transfer to the wake. The present data were obtained under steady-state conditions which rarely apply in natural, physical environments. This approach also has potential to reveal the mechanical factors that underlie changes in locomotor cost associated with movement through unsteady flow regimes. PMID:25165858

  3. Spectrally resolved white light interferometry to measure material dispersion over a wide spectral band in a single acquisition.

    PubMed

    Arosa, Yago; Lago, Elena López; Varela, Luis Miguel; de la Fuente, Raúl

    2016-07-25

    In this paper we apply spectrally resolved white light interferometry to measure refractive and group index over a wide spectral band from 400 to 1000 nm. The output of a Michelson interferometer is spectrally decomposed by a homemade prism spectrometer with a high resolution camera. The group index is determined directly from the phase extracted from the spectral interferogram while the refractive index is estimated once its value at a given wavelength is known. PMID:27464179

  4. Photon backscattering tissue characterization by energy dispersive spectroscopy evaluations.

    PubMed

    Tartari, A; Casnati, E; Fernandez, J E; Felsteiner, J; Baraldi, C

    1994-02-01

    Techniques for in vivo tissue characterization based on scattered photons have usually been confined to evaluating coherent and Compton peaks. However, information can also be obtained from the energy analysis of the Compton scattered distribution. This paper looks at the extension of a technique validated by the authors for characterizing tissues composed of low-atomic-number elements. To this end, an EDXRS (energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry) computer simulation procedure was performed and applied to test the validity of a figure of merit able to characterize binary compounds. This figure of merit is based on the photon fluence values in a restricted energy interval of the measured distribution of incoherently scattered photons. After careful experimental tests with 59.54 keV incident photons at scattering angles down to 60degrees, the simulation procedure was applied to quasi-monochromatic and polychromatic high-radiance sources. The results show that the characterization by the figure of merit, which operates satisfactorily with monochromatic sources, is unsatisfactory in the latter cases, which seem to favour a different parameter for compound characterization. PMID:15552121

  5. Inter-phase heat transfer and energy coupling in turbulent dispersed multiphase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Y.; Balachandar, S.; Parmar, M.

    2016-03-01

    The present paper addresses important fundamental issues of inter-phase heat transfer and energy coupling in turbulent dispersed multiphase flows through scaling analysis. In typical point-particle or two-fluid approaches, the fluid motion and convective heat transfer at the particle scale are not resolved and the momentum and energy coupling between fluid and particles are provided by proper closure models. By examining the kinetic energy transfer due to the coupling forces from the macroscale to microscale fluid motion, closure models are obtained for the contributions of the coupling forces to the energy coupling. Due to the inviscid origin of the added-mass force, its contribution to the microscale kinetic energy does not contribute to dissipative transfer to fluid internal energy as was done by the quasi-steady force. Time scale analysis shows that when the particle is larger than a critical diameter, the diffusive-unsteady kernel decays at a time scale that is smaller than the Kolmogorov time scale. As a result, the computationally costly Basset-like integral form of diffusive-unsteady heat transfer can be simplified to a non-integral form. Conventionally, the fluid-to-particle volumetric heat capacity ratio is used to evaluate the relative importance of the unsteady heat transfer to the energy balance of the particles. Therefore, for gas-particle flows, where the fluid-to-particle volumetric heat capacity ratio is small, unsteady heat transfer is usually ignored. However, the present scaling analysis shows that for small fluid-to-particle volumetric heat capacity ratio, the importance of the unsteady heat transfer actually depends on the ratio between the particle size and the Kolmogorov scale. Furthermore, the particle mass loading multiplied by the heat capacity ratio is usually used to estimate the importance of the thermal two-way coupling effect. Through scaling argument, improved estimates are established for the energy coupling parameters of each

  6. Imaging Dispersive Energy Analyzer (IDEA) for Ionosphere-Thermosphere Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrstad, E. A.; Fenn, D.; Watson, M.; Schicker, S.; Smith, B.

    2011-12-01

    We present a new instrument concept for in situ satellite-based measurement of ion drifts / neutral winds, temperature, density, and composition. The Imaging Dispersive Energy Analyzer (IDEA) combines high-throughput dispersive energy analysis with 2-D imaging ion detection to provide complete characterization of the velocity distribution of a charged particle stream. The IDEA deflector operates at a small (<15 V) d.c. potential, with no voltage scanning necessary. All ions transmitted through the entrance collimator are deflected according to kinetic energy and detected by a microchannel plate (MCP) / imaging anode system (100% duty cycle). This produces a characteristic detector image from which the critical atmospheric parameters can be retrieved. Major species are separated by their mean kinetic energies according to the spacecraft velocity (e.g., 4.7 eV for O and 8.2 eV for N2). Spatial distributions are fit by maximal-likelihood routines, with centroid positions yielding each component of the neutral wind / ion drift velocity (assuming knowledge of the spacecraft pointing vector), and temperature determined from distribution width. The IDEA deflector consists of resistive glass side plates to propagate a linear potential gradient between copper end plates. The exit plane is a semi-transparent gate with parallel wires, with each wire at a unique voltage according to vertical position and contact point with the resistive glass. This design yields an 'ideal' electrostatic deflector, with no fringing or perturbed fields, in a very compact geometry. Thus, ions follow predictable trajectories, and straightforward data analysis produces highly accurate measurements of the ion velocity distribution function. Two recently proposed instrument suites, the Ion Drifts, Electric Fields, and Temperature (IDEFT) sensor and the Total Thermosphere Sensor (TTS), use orthogonally-oriented IDEA analyzers and a shared imaging detector to characterize the ionosphere and

  7. An online, energy-resolving beam profile detector for laser-driven proton beams.

    PubMed

    Metzkes, J; Zeil, K; Kraft, S D; Karsch, L; Sobiella, M; Rehwald, M; Obst, L; Schlenvoigt, H-P; Schramm, U

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a scintillator-based online beam profile detector for the characterization of laser-driven proton beams is presented. Using a pixelated matrix with varying absorber thicknesses, the proton beam is spatially resolved in two dimensions and simultaneously energy-resolved. A thin plastic scintillator placed behind the absorber and read out by a CCD camera is used as the active detector material. The spatial detector resolution reaches down to ∼4 mm and the detector can resolve proton beam profiles for up to 9 proton threshold energies. With these detector design parameters, the spatial characteristics of the proton distribution and its cut-off energy can be analyzed online and on-shot under vacuum conditions. The paper discusses the detector design, its characterization and calibration at a conventional proton source, as well as the first detector application at a laser-driven proton source. PMID:27587116

  8. Energy-resolved positron annihilation rates for molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, L. D.; Young, J. A.; Surko, C. M.

    2006-07-15

    The development of high resolution positron beams has enabled measurements of annihilation rates for molecules as a function of incident positron energy. Vibrational Feshbach resonances in these spectra provide evidence for the existence of positron-molecule bound states. In this paper we present further studies of this phenomenon. Evidence is presented for positronically excited bound states (i.e., in addition to the ground state) in C{sub 12}H{sub 26} and C{sub 14}H{sub 30}. Measurements of the annihilation spectra of the halomethanes, CH{sub 3}F, CH{sub 3}Cl, and CH{sub 3}Br, exhibit strong resonances that vary significantly with the substituted halogen. Annihilation spectra for linear alkanes and ring molecules are compared. Annihilation spectra and infrared absorption spectra are compared for a number of molecules. Finally, annihilation rate measurements are presented for a variety of molecules at energies {>=}0.5 eV (i.e., above the vibrational resonances). These provide a measure of the annihilation rates in the absence of vibrational resonances.

  9. Measuring Performance of Energy-Dispersive X-ray Systems.

    PubMed

    Statham

    1998-11-01

    : As Si(Li) detector technology has matured, many of the fundamental problems have been addressed in the competition among manufacturers and there is now an expectation, implied by many textbooks, that all energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) detectors are made and will perform in the same way. Although there has been some convergence in Si(Li) systems and these are still the most common, manufacturing recipes still differ and there are many alternative EDX devices, such as microcalorimeters and room temperature detectors, that have both advantages and disadvantages over Si(Li). Rather than emphasizing differences in technologies, performance measures should reveal benefits relevant to the intended application. The instrument is inevitably going to be a "black box" of integrated components; this article reviews some of the methods that have been applied and introduces some new techniques that can be used to assess performance without resorting to complex software or sophisticated mathematical algorithms. Sensitivity, resolution, artefacts, and stability are discussed with particular application to compositional analysis using electron beam excitation of X-rays in the 100-eV to 10-keV energy region. PMID:10087283

  10. Material separation in x-ray CT with energy resolved photon-counting detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaolan; Meier, Dirk; Taguchi, Katsuyuki; Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Patt, Bradley E.; Frey, Eric C.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to demonstrate that, in x-ray computed tomography (CT), more than two types of materials can be effectively separated with the use of an energy resolved photon-counting detector and classification methodology. Specifically, this applies to the case when contrast agents that contain K-absorption edges in the energy range of interest are present in the object. This separation is enabled via the use of recently developed energy resolved photon-counting detectors with multiple thresholds, which allow simultaneous measurements of the x-ray attenuation at multiple energies. Methods: To demonstrate this capability, we performed simulations and physical experiments using a six-threshold energy resolved photon-counting detector. We imaged mouse-sized cylindrical phantoms filled with several soft-tissue-like and bone-like materials and with iodine-based and gadolinium-based contrast agents. The linear attenuation coefficients were reconstructed for each material in each energy window and were visualized as scatter plots between pairs of energy windows. For comparison, a dual-kVp CT was also simulated using the same phantom materials. In this case, the linear attenuation coefficients at the lower kVp were plotted against those at the higher kVp. Results: In both the simulations and the physical experiments, the contrast agents were easily separable from other soft-tissue-like and bone-like materials, thanks to the availability of the attenuation coefficient measurements at more than two energies provided by the energy resolved photon-counting detector. In the simulations, the amount of separation was observed to be proportional to the concentration of the contrast agents; however, this was not observed in the physical experiments due to limitations of the real detector system. We used the angle between pairs of attenuation coefficient vectors in either the 5-D space (for non-contrast-agent materials using energy resolved photon

  11. Resolving the 180-degree ambiguity in vector magnetic field measurements: The 'minimum' energy solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    I present a robust algorithm that resolves the 180-deg ambiguity in measurements of the solar vector magnetic field. The technique simultaneously minimizes both the divergence of the magnetic field and the electric current density using a simulated annealing algorithm. This results in the field orientation with approximately minimum free energy. The technique is well-founded physically and is simple to implement.

  12. The SLcam: a full-field energy dispersive X-ray camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjeoumikhov, A.; Buzanich, G.; Langhoff, N.; Ordavo, I.; Radtke, M.; Reinholz, U.; Riesemeier, H.; Scharf, O.; Soltau, H.; Wedell, R.

    2012-11-01

    The color X-ray camera (SLcam®) is a full-field single photon imager. As stand-alone camera, it is applicable for energy and space-resolved X-ray detection measurements. The exchangeable poly-capillary optics in front of a beryllium entrance window conducts X-ray photons from the probe to distinguished energy dispersive pixels on a pnCCD. The dedicated software enables the acquisition and the online processing of the spectral data for all 69696 pixels, leading to a real-time visualization of the element distribution in a sample. No scanning system is employed. A first elemental composition image of the sample is visible within minutes while statistics is improving in the course of time. Straight poly-capillary optics allows for 1:1 imaging with a space resolution of 50 μm and no limited depth of sharpness, ideal to map uneven objects. Using conically shaped optics, a magnification of 6 times was achieved with a space resolution of 10 μm. We present a measurement with a laboratory source showing the camera capability to perform fast full-field X-ray Fluorescence (FF-XRF) imaging with an easy, portable and modular setup.

  13. MicroCT with energy-resolved photon-counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Meier, D.; Mikkelsen, S.; Maehlum, G. E.; Wagenaar, D. J.; Tsui, B. M. W.; Patt, B. E.; Frey, E. C.

    2011-05-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the benefits that could be realistically achieved on a microCT imaging system with an energy-resolved photon-counting x-ray detector. To this end, we built and evaluated a prototype microCT system based on such a detector. The detector is based on cadmium telluride (CdTe) radiation sensors and application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) readouts. Each detector pixel can simultaneously count x-ray photons above six energy thresholds, providing the capability for energy-selective x-ray imaging. We tested the spectroscopic performance of the system using polychromatic x-ray radiation and various filtering materials with K-absorption edges. Tomographic images were then acquired of a cylindrical PMMA phantom containing holes filled with various materials. Results were also compared with those acquired using an intensity-integrating x-ray detector and single-energy (i.e. non-energy-selective) CT. This paper describes the functionality and performance of the system, and presents preliminary spectroscopic and tomographic results. The spectroscopic experiments showed that the energy-resolved photon-counting detector was capable of measuring energy spectra from polychromatic sources like a standard x-ray tube, and resolving absorption edges present in the energy range used for imaging. However, the spectral quality was degraded by spectral distortions resulting from degrading factors, including finite energy resolution and charge sharing. We developed a simple charge-sharing model to reproduce these distortions. The tomographic experiments showed that the availability of multiple energy thresholds in the photon-counting detector allowed us to simultaneously measure target-to-background contrasts in different energy ranges. Compared with single-energy CT with an integrating detector, this feature was especially useful to improve differentiation of materials with different attenuation coefficient energy dependences.

  14. MicroCT with energy-resolved photon-counting detectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Meier, D; Mikkelsen, S; Maehlum, G E; Wagenaar, D J; Tsui, B M W; Patt, B E; Frey, E C

    2011-05-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the benefits that could be realistically achieved on a microCT imaging system with an energy-resolved photon-counting x-ray detector. To this end, we built and evaluated a prototype microCT system based on such a detector. The detector is based on cadmium telluride (CdTe) radiation sensors and application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) readouts. Each detector pixel can simultaneously count x-ray photons above six energy thresholds, providing the capability for energy-selective x-ray imaging. We tested the spectroscopic performance of the system using polychromatic x-ray radiation and various filtering materials with K-absorption edges. Tomographic images were then acquired of a cylindrical PMMA phantom containing holes filled with various materials. Results were also compared with those acquired using an intensity-integrating x-ray detector and single-energy (i.e. non-energy-selective) CT. This paper describes the functionality and performance of the system, and presents preliminary spectroscopic and tomographic results. The spectroscopic experiments showed that the energy-resolved photon-counting detector was capable of measuring energy spectra from polychromatic sources like a standard x-ray tube, and resolving absorption edges present in the energy range used for imaging. However, the spectral quality was degraded by spectral distortions resulting from degrading factors, including finite energy resolution and charge sharing. We developed a simple charge-sharing model to reproduce these distortions. The tomographic experiments showed that the availability of multiple energy thresholds in the photon-counting detector allowed us to simultaneously measure target-to-background contrasts in different energy ranges. Compared with single-energy CT with an integrating detector, this feature was especially useful to improve differentiation of materials with different attenuation coefficient energy dependences. PMID:21464527

  15. Spin polarized energy-resolved photoemission from Ni(111) using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudat, W.; Kisker, E.; Kuhlmann, E.; Campagna, M.

    1981-03-01

    We report on the first energy-resolved (retarding field mode) spin polarized photoemission measurement from a Ni(111) single crystal using synchrotron radiation from the ACO storage ring at LURE(ORSAY) It is shown that exchange effects can be detected for electron states well below the Fermi energy and that spin polarized, constant-initial-state spectroscopy of ferromagnets using synchrotron radiation is feasible.

  16. The role of x-ray Swank factor in energy-resolving photon-counting imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tanguay, Jesse; Kim, Ho Kyung; Cunningham, Ian. A.

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: Energy-resolved x-ray imaging has the potential to improve contrast-to-noise ratio by measuring the energy of each interacting photon and applying optimal weighting factors. The success of energy-resolving photon-counting (EPC) detectors relies on the ability of an x-ray detector to accurately measure the energy of each interacting photon. However, the escape of characteristic emissions and Compton scatter degrades spectral information. This article makes the theoretical connection between accuracy and imprecision in energy measurements with the x-ray Swank factor for a-Se, Si, CdZnTe, and HgI{sub 2}-based detectors. Methods: For a detector that implements adaptive binning to sum all elements in which x-ray energy is deposited for a single interaction, energy imprecision is shown to depend on the Swank factor for a large element with x rays incident at the center. The response function for each converter material is determined using Monte Carlo methods and used to determine energy accuracy, Swank factor, and relative energy imprecision in photon-energy measurements. Results: For each material, at energies below the respective K edges, accuracy is close to unity and imprecision is only a few percent. Above the K-edge energies, characteristic emission results in a drop in accuracy and precision that depends on escape probability. In Si, and to some extent a-Se, Compton-scatter escape also degrades energy precision with increasing energy. The influence of converter thickness on energy accuracy and imprecision is modest for low-Z materials but becomes important when using high-Z materials at energies greater than the K-edge energies. Conclusions: Accuracy and precision in energy measurements by EPC detectors are determined largely by the energy-dependent x-ray Swank factor. Modest decreases in the Swank factor (5%-15%) result in large increases in relative imprecision (30%-40%).

  17. Optimal conditions for high-fidelity dispersive readout of a qubit with a photon-number-resolving detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Andrii

    2016-03-01

    We determine the optimal parameters for a simple and efficient scheme of dispersive readout of a qubit. Depending on the qubit state (ground or excited), the resonance of a cavity is shifted either to the red or to the blue side. Qubit state is inferred by detecting the photon number transmitted through the cavity. It turns out that this kind of detection provides better measurement fidelity than the detection of the presence or absence of photons only. We show that radiating the cavity on either of the frequencies it shifts to results in a suboptimal measurement. The optimal frequency of the probe photons is determined, as well as the optimal ratio of the shift to the resonator leakage. It is shown that to maximize the fidelity of a long-lasting measurement, it is sufficient to use the parameters optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio in the photon count. One can reach 99% fidelity for a single-shot measurement in various physical realizations of the scheme.

  18. Vibrationally resolved electron-nuclear energy sharing in above-threshold multiphoton dissociation of CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xufei; Li, Min; Shao, Yun; Liu, Ming-Ming; Xie, Xiguo; Deng, Yongkai; Wu, Chengyin; Gong, Qihuang; Liu, Yunquan

    2016-07-01

    We study the photon energy sharing between the photoelectron and the nuclei in the process of above-threshold multiphoton dissociative ionization of CO molecules by measuring the joint energy spectra. The experimental observation shows that the electron-nuclear energy sharing strongly depends on the vibrational state. The experimental observation shows that both the energy deposited to the nuclei of C O+ and the emitted photoelectron decrease with increasing the vibrational level. Through studying the vibrationally resolved nuclear kinetic energy release and photoelectron energy spectra at different laser intensities, for each vibrational level of C O+ , the nuclei always tend to take the same amount of energy in every vibrational level regardless of the laser intensity, while the energy deposited to the photoelectron varies with respect to the laser intensity because of the ponderomotive shifted energy and the distinct dissociative ionization mechanisms.

  19. Energy-scaling characteristics of solitons in strongly dispersion-managed fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N. J.; Doran, N. J.; Knox, F. M.; Forysiak, W.

    1996-12-01

    We present an empirical scaling law that models the increased energy required for launching a soliton into an optical system with sections of both normal and anomalous dispersion fiber. It is shown that the inclusion of periodic attenuation and amplification can be handled as separate problems, provided that the interval between optical amplifiers is substantially different from the period of the dispersion map. These concepts are illustrated by reference to an example system comprising dispersion-shifted fiber combined with anomalous standard fiber.

  20. An edge-on charge-transfer design for energy-resolved x-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zaifeng; Yang, Haoyu; Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Ge

    2016-06-01

    As an x-ray beam goes through the human body, it will collect important information via interaction with tissues. Since this interaction is energy-sensitive, the state-of-the-art spectral CT technologies provide higher quality images of biological tissues with x-ray energy information (or spectral information). With existing energy-integrating technologies, a large fraction of energy information is ignored in the x-ray detection process. Although the recently proposed photon-counting technology promises to achieve higher image quality at a lower radiation dose, it suffers from limitations in counting rate, performance uniformity, and fabrication cost. In this paper, we focus on an alternative approach to resolve the energy distribution of transmitted x-ray photons. First, we analyze the x-ray attenuation in a silicon substrate and describe a linear approximation model for x-ray detection. Then, we design an edge-on architecture based on the proposed energy-resolving model. In our design, the x-ray-photon-induced charges are transferred sequentially resembling the working process of a CCD camera. Finally, we numerically evaluate the linear approximation of x-ray attenuation and derive the energy distribution of x-ray photons. Our simulation results show that the proposed energy-sensing approach is feasible and has the potential to complement the photon-counting technology.

  1. An edge-on charge-transfer design for energy-resolved x-ray detection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zaifeng; Yang, Haoyu; Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Ge

    2016-06-01

    As an x-ray beam goes through the human body, it will collect important information via interaction with tissues. Since this interaction is energy-sensitive, the state-of-the-art spectral CT technologies provide higher quality images of biological tissues with x-ray energy information (or spectral information). With existing energy-integrating technologies, a large fraction of energy information is ignored in the x-ray detection process. Although the recently proposed photon-counting technology promises to achieve higher image quality at a lower radiation dose, it suffers from limitations in counting rate, performance uniformity, and fabrication cost. In this paper, we focus on an alternative approach to resolve the energy distribution of transmitted x-ray photons. First, we analyze the x-ray attenuation in a silicon substrate and describe a linear approximation model for x-ray detection. Then, we design an edge-on architecture based on the proposed energy-resolving model. In our design, the x-ray-photon-induced charges are transferred sequentially resembling the working process of a CCD camera. Finally, we numerically evaluate the linear approximation of x-ray attenuation and derive the energy distribution of x-ray photons. Our simulation results show that the proposed energy-sensing approach is feasible and has the potential to complement the photon-counting technology. PMID:27192190

  2. Time-resolved energy spectrum measurement of a linear induction accelerator with the magnetic analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan; Jiang, Xiao-Guo; Yang, Guo-Jun; Chen, Si-Fu; Zhang, Zhuo; Wei, Tao; Li, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We recently set up a time-resolved optical beam diagnostic system. Using this system, we measured the high current electron beam energy in the accelerator under construction. This paper introduces the principle of the diagnostic system, describes the setup, and shows the results. A bending beam line was designed using an existing magnetic analyzer with a 300 mm-bending radius and a 60° bending angle at hard-edge approximation. Calculations show that the magnitude of the beam energy is about 18 MeV, and the energy spread is within 2%. Our results agree well with the initial estimates deduced from the diode voltage approach.

  3. Monochromated, spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopic measurements of gold nanoparticles in the plasmon range.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, B; Riegler, K; Kothleitner, G; Grogger, W; Hofer, F

    2009-02-01

    Gold nanoparticles show optical properties different from bulk material due to resonance phenomena which depend on local structure and geometry. Electron energy-loss spectrometry (EELS) in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows the spatially resolved measurement of these properties at a resolution of few nanometers. In this work, the first monochromated measurements of gold nanoparticles (spheres, rods and triangles) are presented. Due to the improved energy resolution of about 0.2 eV, surface plasmon excitations at energies below 1 eV could be accurately measured from raw experimental data. PMID:18722779

  4. Dispersion-Energy-Driven Wagner–Meerwein Rearrangements in Oligosilanes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The installation of structural complex oligosilanes from linear starting materials by Lewis acid induced skeletal rearrangement reactions was studied under stable ion conditions. The produced cations were fully characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy at low temperature, and the reaction course was studied by substitution experiments. The results of density functional theory calculations indicate the decisive role of attractive dispersion forces between neighboring trimethylsilyl groups for product formation in these rearrangement reactions. These attractive dispersion interactions control the course of Wagner–Meerwein rearrangements in oligosilanes, in contrast to the classical rearrangement in hydrocarbon systems, which are dominated by electronic substituent effects such as resonance and hyperconjugation. PMID:27195490

  5. Dispersion-Energy-Driven Wagner-Meerwein Rearrangements in Oligosilanes.

    PubMed

    Albers, Lena; Rathjen, Saskia; Baumgartner, Judith; Marschner, Christoph; Müller, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The installation of structural complex oligosilanes from linear starting materials by Lewis acid induced skeletal rearrangement reactions was studied under stable ion conditions. The produced cations were fully characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy at low temperature, and the reaction course was studied by substitution experiments. The results of density functional theory calculations indicate the decisive role of attractive dispersion forces between neighboring trimethylsilyl groups for product formation in these rearrangement reactions. These attractive dispersion interactions control the course of Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements in oligosilanes, in contrast to the classical rearrangement in hydrocarbon systems, which are dominated by electronic substituent effects such as resonance and hyperconjugation. PMID:27195490

  6. Focal construct geometry for high intensity energy dispersive x-ray diffraction based on x-ray capillary optics.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Jiang, Bowen; Zhu, Yu

    2016-03-14

    We presented a focal construct geometry (FCG) method for high intensity energy dispersive X-ray diffraction by utilizing a home-made ellipsoidal single-bounce capillary (ESBC) and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL). The ESBC was employed to focus the X-rays from a conventional laboratory source into a small focal spot and to produce an annular X-ray beam in the far-field. Additionally, diffracted polychromatic X-rays were confocally collected by the PPXRL attached to a stationary energy-resolved detector. Our FCG method based on ESBC and PPXRL had achieved relatively high intensity diffraction peaks and effectively narrowed the diffraction peak width which was helpful in improving the potential d-spacing resolution for material phase analysis. PMID:26979685

  7. Focal construct geometry for high intensity energy dispersive x-ray diffraction based on x-ray capillary optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Jiang, Bowen; Zhu, Yu

    2016-03-01

    We presented a focal construct geometry (FCG) method for high intensity energy dispersive X-ray diffraction by utilizing a home-made ellipsoidal single-bounce capillary (ESBC) and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL). The ESBC was employed to focus the X-rays from a conventional laboratory source into a small focal spot and to produce an annular X-ray beam in the far-field. Additionally, diffracted polychromatic X-rays were confocally collected by the PPXRL attached to a stationary energy-resolved detector. Our FCG method based on ESBC and PPXRL had achieved relatively high intensity diffraction peaks and effectively narrowed the diffraction peak width which was helpful in improving the potential d-spacing resolution for material phase analysis.

  8. Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy imaging using a high-resolution linear radon transform

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.; Liu, J.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) analysis is an efficient tool to obtain the vertical shear-wave profile. One of the key steps in the MASW method is to generate an image of dispersive energy in the frequency-velocity domain, so dispersion curves can be determined by picking peaks of dispersion energy. In this paper, we propose to image Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy by high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT). The shot gather is first transformed along the time direction to the frequency domain and then the Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy can be imaged by high-resolution LRT using a weighted preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. Synthetic data with a set of linear events are presented to show the process of generating dispersive energy. Results of synthetic and real-world examples demonstrate that, compared with the slant stacking algorithm, high-resolution LRT can improve the resolution of images of dispersion energy by more than 50%. ?? Birkhaueser 2008.

  9. Two types of ion energy dispersions observed in the nightside auroral regions during geomagnetically disturbed periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirahara, M.; Mukai, T.; Nagai, T.; Kaya, N.; Hayakawa, H.; Fukunishi, H.

    1996-04-01

    The Akebono satellite has observed two types of energy dispersion signatures of discrete ion precipitation event in the nightside auroral regions during active geomagnetic conditions. The charged particle experiments and electric and magnetic field detectors on board Akebono provide us with essential clues to characterize the source regions and acceleration and/or injection processes associated with these two types of ion signatures. The magnetic field data obtained simultaneously by the geosynchronous GOES 6 and 7 satellites and the ground magnetograms are useful to examine their relationships with geomagnetic activity. Mass composition data and pitch angle distributions show that different sources and processes should be attributed to two types (Types I and II) of energy dispersion phenomena. Type I consists of multiple bouncing ion clusters constituted by H+. These H+ clusters tend to be detected at the expansion phase of substorms and have characteristic multiple energy-dispersed signatures. Type II consists of O+ energy dispersion(s), which is often observed at the recovery phase. It is reasonable to consider that the H+ clusters of Type I are accelerated by dipolarization at the equator, are injected in the field-aligned direction, and bounce on closed field lines after the substorm onset. We interpret these multiple energy dispersion events as mainly due to the time-of-flight (TOF) effect, although the convection may influence the energy-dispersed traces. Based of the TOF model, we estimate the source distance to be 20-30 RE along the field lines. On the other hand, the O+ energy dispersion of Type II is a consequence of reprecipitation of terrestrial ions ejected as an upward flowing ion (UFI) beam from the upper ionosphere by a parallel electrostatic potential difference. The O+ energy dispersion is induced by the E×B drift during the field-aligned transport from the source region to the observation point.

  10. High-Energy Anomaly in the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectra of Nd2-xCexCuO4: Evidence for a Matrix Element Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rienks, E. D. L.; ńrrälä, M.; Lindroos, M.; Roth, F.; Tabis, W.; Yu, G.; Greven, M.; Fink, J.

    2014-09-01

    We use polarization-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the high-energy anomaly (HEA) in the dispersion of Nd2-xCexCuO4, x =0.123. We find that at particular photon energies the anomalous, waterfall-like dispersion gives way to a broad, continuous band. This suggests that the HEA is a matrix element effect: it arises due to a suppression of the intensity of the broadened quasiparticle band in a narrow momentum range. We confirm this interpretation experimentally, by showing that the HEA appears when the matrix element is suppressed deliberately by changing the light polarization. Calculations of the matrix element using atomic wave functions and simulation of the ARPES intensity with one-step model calculations provide further evidence for this scenario. The possibility to detect the full quasiparticle dispersion further allows us to extract the high-energy self-energy function near the center and at the edge of the Brillouin zone.

  11. High-energy anomaly in the angle-resolved photoemission spectra of Nd(2-x)Ce(x)CuO₄: evidence for a matrix element effect.

    PubMed

    Rienks, E D L; Ärrälä, M; Lindroos, M; Roth, F; Tabis, W; Yu, G; Greven, M; Fink, J

    2014-09-26

    We use polarization-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the high-energy anomaly (HEA) in the dispersion of Nd(2-x)Ce(x)CuO₄, x=0.123. We find that at particular photon energies the anomalous, waterfall-like dispersion gives way to a broad, continuous band. This suggests that the HEA is a matrix element effect: it arises due to a suppression of the intensity of the broadened quasiparticle band in a narrow momentum range. We confirm this interpretation experimentally, by showing that the HEA appears when the matrix element is suppressed deliberately by changing the light polarization. Calculations of the matrix element using atomic wave functions and simulation of the ARPES intensity with one-step model calculations provide further evidence for this scenario. The possibility to detect the full quasiparticle dispersion further allows us to extract the high-energy self-energy function near the center and at the edge of the Brillouin zone. PMID:25302914

  12. Unusual energy dispersion at the proton isotropy boundary: a statistical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyaeva, Sonya; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Sergeev, Viktor; Chernyaev, Ivan

    The regular appearance of equatorward boundary of the isotropic proton precipitation (isotropy boundary, IB) is interpreted as a manifestation of the boundary between adiabatic and non-adiabatic particle motion regimes. Accordingly, the energy dependence of IB latitude (energy dispersion, with lower latitude IB observed for higher energy protons in case of normal dispersion) carries the information about the real magnetic field gradients (or, sporadic appearance of other scattering mechanism, in case of anomalous dispersion). In this study we investigate statistically the IB energy dispersion of the >30 and >80 keV energetic protons using data from low-altitude polar satellites NOAA-19 and -18 in September 2009, when two spacecraft follow each other along the same orbit. We found that the events with normal dispersion at proton energies of 30 to 80 keV protons constitute less than 20% of the total number of events (regardless of geomagnetic activity). In other cases (80%) we see either the coincidence of the proton IB at different energies (within 0.2(°) ), or the precipitation pattern is complicated by the presence of isolated precipitation structures equatorward of the IB. In small amount of cases the anomalous (inverse) energy dispersion was also observed, suggesting the presence of different precipitation mechanisms. To help discriminate between current sheet scattering and other mechanisms we also obtained the average relationship between empirical ratios of trapped and precipitated proton fluxes at different energies near the IB for cases of normal dispersion. The near coincidence of the proton IBs can be observed in the case of sharp magnetic field Bz gradients (Bz jumps), whose amplitude should be about 60% of the Bz background value. Their existence is tested by considering magnetic field observations at radial passes of THEMIS spacecraft near the IB observation meridian in the near magnetosphere, supported by adaptive modeling and other relevant

  13. Time, Energy, and Spatially Resolved TEM Investigations of Defectsin InGaN

    SciTech Connect

    Jinschek, J.R.; Kisielowski, C.

    2005-10-01

    A novel sample preparation technique is reported to fabricate electron transparent samples from devices utilizing a FIB process with a successive wet etching step. The high quality of the obtained samples allows for band gap--and chemical composition measurements of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N quantum wells where electron beam induced damage can be controlled and shown to be negligible. The results reveal indium enrichment in nanoclusters and defects that cause fluctuations of the band gap energy and can be measured by low loss Electron Energy Spectroscopy with nm resolution. Comparing our time, energy, and spatially resolved measurements of band gap energies, chemical composition, and their related fluctuations with literature data, we find quantitative agreement if the band gap energy of InN is 1.5-2 eV.

  14. Dispersion of heavy ion deposited energy in nanometric electronic devices: Experimental measurements and simulation possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raine, M.; Gaillardin, M.; Paillet, P.; Duhamel, O.; Martinez, M.; Bernard, H.

    2015-12-01

    The dispersion of heavy ion deposited energy is explored in nanometric electronic devices. Experimental data are reported, in a large thin SOI diode and in a SOI FinFET device, showing larger distributions of collected charge in the nanometric volume device. Geant4 simulations are then presented, using two different modeling approaches. Both of them seem suitable to evaluate the dispersion of deposited energy induced by heavy ion beams in advanced electronic devices with nanometric dimensions.

  15. The Dosepix detector—an energy-resolving photon-counting pixel detector for spectrometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, A.; Anton, G.; Ballabriga, R.; Bisello, F.; Campbell, M.; Celi, J. C.; Fauler, A.; Fiederle, M.; Jensch, M.; Kochanski, N.; Llopart, X.; Michel, N.; Mollenhauer, U.; Ritter, I.; Tennert, F.; Wölfel, S.; Wong, W.; Michel, T.

    2015-04-01

    The Dosepix detector is a hybrid photon-counting pixel detector based on ideas of the Medipix and Timepix detector family. 1 mm thick cadmium telluride and 300 μm thick silicon were used as sensor material. The pixel matrix of the Dosepix consists of 16 x 16 square pixels with 12 rows of (200 μm)2 and 4 rows of (55 μm)2 sensitive area for the silicon sensor layer and 16 rows of pixels with 220 μm pixel pitch for CdTe. Besides digital energy integration and photon-counting mode, a novel concept of energy binning is included in the pixel electronics, allowing energy-resolved measurements in 16 energy bins within one acquisition. The possibilities of this detector concept range from applications in personal dosimetry and energy-resolved imaging to quality assurance of medical X-ray sources by analysis of the emitted photon spectrum. In this contribution the Dosepix detector, its response to X-rays as well as spectrum measurements with Si and CdTe sensor layer are presented. Furthermore, a first evaluation was carried out to use the Dosepix detector as a kVp-meter, that means to determine the applied acceleration voltage from measured X-ray tubes spectra.

  16. Development and characterization of a time-, position- and energy-resolved x-ray diagnostic for PBFA II target experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Derzon, M.S.; Filuk, A.B.; Pantuso, J.; Dukart, R.J.; Olsen, R.; Barber, T.; Bernard, M.

    1992-12-31

    A time-, position- and energy-resolved soft x-ray (100--500 eV) diagnostic is being developed for PBFA II target experiments. The diagnostic provides measurements of hydrodynamic motion and thermal gradients in light-ion fusion targets. A slit-image of the source is imprinted onto thin sheets (20{mu}m) of organic scintillator to create a one-dimensional image. The scintillator light is then proximity-coupled to a linear array of fiber-optics that transports the light to a streak camera that is operated without an intensifier. The streak camera output is recorded on a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera. We are characterizing the spatial and temporal resolutions of the systems. This is done by collecting data from as many as 90 individual fibers and correcting for variations in throughput and the effects of spatial resolution to roughly 5% standard deviation in their relative throughput. Spatial resolution of these systems at the source is approximately 0.4 mm. Timing resolution is nominally 2 ns and it is limited primarily by the scintillator response and dispersion in the 50-m-long fiber array. We describe the measurement techniques and the results of the characterization.

  17. Electron self-energy of high temperature superconductors as revealed by angle-resolved photoemission.

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, H.; Norman, M. R.; Randeria, M.

    1997-12-05

    In this paper, we review some of the work our group has done in the past few years to obtain the electron self-energy of high temperature superconductors by analysis of angle-resolved photoemission data. We focus on three examples which have revealed: (1) a d-wave superconducting gap, (2) a collective mode in the superconducting state, and (3) pairing correlations in the pseudogap phase. In each case, although a novel result is obtained which captures the essence of the data, the conventional physics used leads to an incomplete picture. This indicates that new physics needs to be developed to obtain a proper understanding of these materials.

  18. Investigation of dissimilar metal welds by energy-resolved neutron imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tremsin, Anton S.; Ganguly, Supriyo; Meco, Sonia M.; Pardal, Goncalo R.; Shinohara, Takenao; Feller, W. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    A nondestructive study of the internal structure and compositional gradient of dissimilar metal-alloy welds through energy-resolved neutron imaging is described in this paper. The ability of neutrons to penetrate thick metal objects (up to several cm) provides a unique possibility to examine samples which are opaque to other conventional techniques. The presence of Bragg edges in the measured neutron transmission spectra can be used to characterize the internal residual strain within the samples and some microstructural features, e.g. texture within the grains, while neutron resonance absorption provides the possibility to map the degree of uniformity in mixing of the participating alloys and intermetallic formation within the welds. In addition, voids and other defects can be revealed by the variation of neutron attenuation across the samples. This paper demonstrates the potential of neutron energy-resolved imaging to measure all these characteristics simultaneously in a single experiment with sub-mm spatial resolution. Two dissimilar alloy welds are used in this study: Al autogenously laser welded to steel, and Ti gas metal arc welded (GMAW) to stainless steel using Cu as a filler alloy. The cold metal transfer variant of the GMAW process was used in joining the Ti to the stainless steel in order to minimize the heat input. The distributions of the lattice parameter and texture variation in these welds as well as the presence of voids and defects in the melt region are mapped across the welds. The depth of the thermal front in the Al–steel weld is clearly resolved and could be used to optimize the welding process. A highly textured structure is revealed in the Ti to stainless steel joint where copper was used as a filler wire. The limited diffusion of Ti into the weld region is also verified by the resonance absorption. PMID:27504075

  19. Noise suppression for energy-resolved CT using similarity-based non-local filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Joe; Wang, Tonghe; Petrongolo, Michael; Zhu, Lei

    2016-03-01

    In energy-resolved CT, images are reconstructed independently at different energy levels, resulting in images with different qualities but the same structures. We propose a similarity-based non-local filtration method to extract structural information from these images for noise suppression. For each pixel, we calculate its similarity to other pixels based on CT number. The calculation is repeated on each image at different energy levels and similarity values are averaged to generate a similarity matrix. Noise suppression is achieved by multiplying the image vector by the similarity matrix. Multiple scans on a tabletop CT system are used to simulate 6-channel energy-resolved CT, with energies ranging from 75 to 125 kVp. Phantom studies show that the proposed method improves average contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of seven materials on the 75 kVp image by a factor of 22. Compared with averaging CT images for noise suppression, our method achieves a higher CNR and reduces the CT number error of iodine solutions from 16.5% to 3.5% and the overall image root of mean-square error (RMSE) from 3.58% to 0.93%. On the phantom with line-pair structures, our algorithm reduces noise standard deviation (STD) by a factor of 23 while maintaining 7 lp/cm spatial resolution. Additionally, anthropomorphic head phantom studies show noise STD reduction by a factor or 26 with no loss of spatial resolution. The noise suppression achieved by the similarity-based method is clinically attractive, especially for CNRs of iodine in contrast-enhanced CT.

  20. Finessing the fracture energy barrier in ballistic seed dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Deegan, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Fracture is a highly dissipative process in which much of the stored elastic energy is consumed in the creation of new surfaces. Surprisingly, many plants use fracture to launch their seeds despite its seemingly prohibitive energy cost. Here we use Impatiens glandulifera as model case to study the impact of fracture on a plant’s throwing capacity. I. glandulifera launches its seeds with speeds up to 4 m/s using cracks to trigger an explosive release of stored elastic energy. We find that the seed pod is optimally designed to minimize the cost of fracture. These characteristics may account for its success at invading Europe and North America. PMID:22431608

  1. Finessing the fracture energy barrier in ballistic seed dispersal.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Robert D

    2012-04-01

    Fracture is a highly dissipative process in which much of the stored elastic energy is consumed in the creation of new surfaces. Surprisingly, many plants use fracture to launch their seeds despite its seemingly prohibitive energy cost. Here we use Impatiens glandulifera as model case to study the impact of fracture on a plant's throwing capacity. I. glandulifera launches its seeds with speeds up to 4 m/s using cracks to trigger an explosive release of stored elastic energy. We find that the seed pod is optimally designed to minimize the cost of fracture. These characteristics may account for its success at invading Europe and North America. PMID:22431608

  2. Evaluating Chemical Dispersant Efficacy In An Experimental Wave Tank: 1, Dispersant Effectiveness As A Function Of Energy Dissipation Rate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous laboratory test systems have been developed for the comparison of efficacy between various chemical oil dispersant formulations. However, for the assessment of chemical dispersant effectiveness under realistic sea state, test protocols are required to produce hydrodynam...

  3. The calculation of surface orbital energies for specific types of active sites on dispersed metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, R.L.; Lahanas, K.M.; Cole, F.

    1992-11-01

    An angular overlap calculation has been used to determine the s, p, and d orbital energy levels of the different types of surface sites present on dispersed metal catalysts. These data can permit a Frontier Molecular Orbital treatment of specific site activities as long as the surface orbital availability for overlap with adsorbed substrates is considered along with its energy value and symmetry.

  4. The calculation of surface orbital energies for specific types of active sites on dispersed metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, R.L.; Lahanas, K.M.; Cole, F.

    1992-01-01

    An angular overlap calculation has been used to determine the s, p, and d orbital energy levels of the different types of surface sites present on dispersed metal catalysts. These data can permit a Frontier Molecular Orbital treatment of specific site activities as long as the surface orbital availability for overlap with adsorbed substrates is considered along with its energy value and symmetry.

  5. On an energy-latitude dispersion pattern of ion precipitation potentially associated with magnetospheric EMIC waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jun; Donovan, E.; Ni, B.; Yue, C.; Jiang, F.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2014-10-01

    Ion precipitation mechanisms are usually energy dependent and contingent upon magnetospheric/ionospheric locations. Therefore, the pattern of energy-latitude dependence of ion precipitation boundaries seen by low Earth orbit satellites can be implicative of the mechanism(s) underlying the precipitation. The pitch angle scattering of ions led by the field line curvature, a well-recognized mechanism of ion precipitation in the central plasma sheet (CPS), leads to one common pattern of energy-latitude dispersion, in that the ion precipitation flux diminishes at higher (lower) latitudes for protons with lower (higher) energies. In this study, we introduce one other systematically existing pattern of energy-latitude dispersion of ion precipitation, in that the lower energy ion precipitation extends to lower latitude than the higher-energy ion precipitation. Via investigating such a "reversed" energy-latitude dispersion pattern, we explore possible mechanisms of ion precipitation other than the field line curvature scattering. We demonstrate via theories and simulations that the H-band electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave is capable of preferentially scattering keV protons in the CPS and potentially leads to the reversed energy-latitude dispersion of proton precipitation. We then present detailed event analyses and provide support to a linkage between the EMIC waves in the equatorial CPS and ion precipitation events with reversed energy-latitude dispersion. We also discuss the role of ion acceleration in the topside ionosphere which, together with the CPS ion population, may result in a variety of energy-latitude distributions of the overall ion precipitation.

  6. Novel energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera on Alcator C-Moda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pablant, N. A.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bitter, M.; Brandstetter, S.; Eikenberry, E.; Ellis, R.; Hill, K. W.; Hofer, P.; Schneebeli, M.

    2012-10-01

    A new energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera has been recently installed on Alcator C-Mod. This diagnostic is capable of 1D or 2D imaging with a spatial resolution of ≈1 cm, an energy resolution of ≈1 keV in the range of 3.5-15 keV and a maximum time resolution of 5 ms. A novel use of a Pilatus 2 hybrid-pixel x-ray detector [P. Kraft et al., J. Synchrotron Rad. 16, 368 (2009), 10.1107/S0909049509009911] is employed in which the lower energy threshold of individual pixels is adjusted, allowing regions of a single detector to be sensitive to different x-ray energy ranges. Development of this new detector calibration technique was done as a collaboration between PPPL and Dectris Ltd. The calibration procedure is described, and the energy resolution of the detector is characterized. Initial data from this installation on Alcator C-Mod is presented. This diagnostic provides line-integrated measurements of impurity emission which can be used to determine impurity concentrations as well as the electron energy distribution.

  7. Characterization of a hybrid energy-resolving photon-counting detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, A.; Pelzer, G.; Anton, G.; Ballabriga Sune, R.; Bisello, F.; Campbell, M.; Fauler, A.; Fiederle, M.; Llopart Cudie, X.; Ritter, I.; Tennert, F.; Wölfel, S.; Wong, W. S.; Michel, T.

    2014-03-01

    Photon-counting detectors in medical x-ray imaging provide a higher dose efficiency than integrating detectors. Even further possibilities for imaging applications arise, if the energy of each photon counted is measured, as for example K-edge-imaging or optimizing image quality by applying energy weighting factors. In this contribution, we show results of the characterization of the Dosepix detector. This hybrid photon- counting pixel detector allows energy resolved measurements with a novel concept of energy binning included in the pixel electronics. Based on ideas of the Medipix detector family, it provides three different modes of operation: An integration mode, a photon-counting mode, and an energy-binning mode. In energy-binning mode, it is possible to set 16 energy thresholds in each pixel individually to derive a binned energy spectrum in every pixel in one acquisition. The hybrid setup allows using different sensor materials. For the measurements 300 μm Si and 1 mm CdTe were used. The detector matrix consists of 16 x 16 square pixels for CdTe (16 x 12 for Si) with a pixel pitch of 220 μm. The Dosepix was originally intended for applications in the field of radiation measurement. Therefore it is not optimized towards medical imaging. The detector concept itself still promises potential as an imaging detector. We present spectra measured in one single pixel as well as in the whole pixel matrix in energy-binning mode with a conventional x-ray tube. In addition, results concerning the count rate linearity for the different sensor materials are shown as well as measurements regarding energy resolution.

  8. Deterministic and stochastic algorithms for resolving the flow fields in ducts and networks using energy minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sochi, Taha

    2016-09-01

    Several deterministic and stochastic multi-variable global optimization algorithms (Conjugate Gradient, Nelder-Mead, Quasi-Newton and global) are investigated in conjunction with energy minimization principle to resolve the pressure and volumetric flow rate fields in single ducts and networks of interconnected ducts. The algorithms are tested with seven types of fluid: Newtonian, power law, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Ellis, Ree-Eyring and Casson. The results obtained from all those algorithms for all these types of fluid agree very well with the analytically derived solutions as obtained from the traditional methods which are based on the conservation principles and fluid constitutive relations. The results confirm and generalize the findings of our previous investigations that the energy minimization principle is at the heart of the flow dynamics systems. The investigation also enriches the methods of computational fluid dynamics for solving the flow fields in tubes and networks for various types of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.

  9. Energy dissipation in matrix-isolated silver atoms: A time-resolved fluorescence study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggenhauser, H.; Schroeder, W.; Kolb, D. M.

    1988-03-01

    The fluorescence from optically excited Ag atoms in Ar, Kr, and Xe matrices has been investigated in a time-resolved synchrotron-radiation study. A detailed energy dissipation model could be established from a systematic analysis of rise and decay times of all the observed fluorescence bands after pulsed excitation into the Ag (4d105p)2P1/2,3/2 levels, and by setting time windows between the excitation pulses in emission and emission-yield spectroscopy. Although the overall wavelength dependence of the decay time follows the λ3 law, the decay time is independent of λ within a given emission band. Finally, the role of energy transfer between Ag atoms and dimers for the evaluation of decay times is briefly addressed.

  10. Dynamics of chemical bonding mapped by energy-resolved 4D electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Fabrizio; Kwon, Oh-Hoon; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2009-07-10

    Chemical bonding dynamics are fundamental to the understanding of properties and behavior of materials and molecules. Here, we demonstrate the potential of time-resolved, femtosecond electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) for mapping electronic structural changes in the course of nuclear motions. For graphite, it is found that changes of milli-electron volts in the energy range of up to 50 electron volts reveal the compression and expansion of layers on the subpicometer scale (for surface and bulk atoms). These nonequilibrium structural features are correlated with the direction of change from sp2 [two-dimensional (2D) graphene] to sp3 (3D-diamond) electronic hybridization, and the results are compared with theoretical charge-density calculations. The reported femtosecond time resolution of four-dimensional (4D) electron microscopy represents an advance of 10 orders of magnitude over that of conventional EELS methods. PMID:19589997

  11. A tunable low-energy photon source for high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Harter, John W.; Monkman, Eric J.; Shai, Daniel E.; Nie Yuefeng; Uchida, Masaki; Burganov, Bulat; Chatterjee, Shouvik; King, Philip D. C.; Shen, Kyle M.

    2012-11-15

    We describe a tunable low-energy photon source consisting of a laser-driven xenon plasma lamp coupled to a Czerny-Turner monochromator. The combined tunability, brightness, and narrow spectral bandwidth make this light source useful in laboratory-based high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy experiments. The source supplies photons with energies up to {approx}7 eV, delivering under typical conditions >10{sup 12} ph/s within a 10 meV spectral bandwidth, which is comparable to helium plasma lamps and many synchrotron beamlines. We first describe the lamp and monochromator system and then characterize its output, with attention to those parameters which are of interest for photoemission experiments. Finally, we present angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data using the light source and compare its performance to a conventional helium plasma lamp.

  12. Non-pairwise additivity of the leading-order dispersion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hollett, Joshua W.

    2015-02-28

    The leading-order (i.e., dipole-dipole) dispersion energy is calculated for one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) infinite lattices, and an infinite 1D array of infinitely long lines, of doubly occupied locally harmonic wells. The dispersion energy is decomposed into pairwise and non-pairwise additive components. By varying the force constant and separation of the wells, the non-pairwise additive contribution to the dispersion energy is shown to depend on the overlap of density between neighboring wells. As well separation is increased, the non-pairwise additivity of the dispersion energy decays. The different rates of decay for 1D and 2D lattices of wells is explained in terms of a Jacobian effect that influences the number of nearest neighbors. For an array of infinitely long lines of wells spaced 5 bohrs apart, and an inter-well spacing of 3 bohrs within a line, the non-pairwise additive component of the leading-order dispersion energy is −0.11 kJ mol{sup −1} well{sup −1}, which is 7% of the total. The polarizability of the wells and the density overlap between them are small in comparison to that of the atomic densities that arise from the molecular density partitioning used in post-density-functional theory (DFT) damped dispersion corrections, or DFT-D methods. Therefore, the nonadditivity of the leading-order dispersion observed here is a conservative estimate of that in molecular clusters.

  13. Energy- and time-resolved detection of prompt gamma-rays for proton range verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verburg, Joost M.; Riley, Kent; Bortfeld, Thomas; Seco, Joao

    2013-10-01

    In this work, we present experimental results of a novel prompt gamma-ray detector for proton beam range verification. The detection system features an actively shielded cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide scintillator, coupled to a digital data acquisition system. The acquisition was synchronized to the cyclotron radio frequency to separate the prompt gamma-ray signals from the later-arriving neutron-induced background. We designed the detector to provide a high energy resolution and an effective reduction of background events, enabling discrete proton-induced prompt gamma lines to be resolved. Measuring discrete prompt gamma lines has several benefits for range verification. As the discrete energies correspond to specific nuclear transitions, the magnitudes of the different gamma lines have unique correlations with the proton energy and can be directly related to nuclear reaction cross sections. The quantification of discrete gamma lines also enables elemental analysis of tissue in the beam path, providing a better prediction of prompt gamma-ray yields. We present the results of experiments in which a water phantom was irradiated with proton pencil-beams in a clinical proton therapy gantry. A slit collimator was used to collimate the prompt gamma-rays, and measurements were performed at 27 positions along the path of proton beams with ranges of 9, 16 and 23 g cm-2 in water. The magnitudes of discrete gamma lines at 4.44, 5.2 and 6.13 MeV were quantified. The prompt gamma lines were found to be clearly resolved in dimensions of energy and time, and had a reproducible correlation with the proton depth-dose curve. We conclude that the measurement of discrete prompt gamma-rays for in vivo range verification of clinical proton beams is feasible, and plan to further study methods and detector designs for clinical use.

  14. Energy dispersive spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation: Intensity considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skelton, E. F.; Elam, W. T.; Qadri, S. B.; Webb, A. W.; Schiferl, D.

    Detailed considerations are given to the reliability of energy dependent integrated intensity data collected from the pressure cavity of a diamond-anvil pressure cell illuminated with heterochromatic radiation from a synchrotron storage ring. It is demonstrated that at least in one run, the electron beam current cannot be used to correct for energy-intensity variations of the incident beam. Rather there appears to be an additional linear relationship between the decay of the synchrotron beam and the magnitude of the background intensity.

  15. Energy dispersive spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation: Intensity considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skelton, E. F.; Elam, W. T.; Qadri, S. B.; Webb, A. W.; Schiferl, D.

    1986-05-01

    Detailed considerations are given to the reliability of energy dependent integrated intensity data collected from the pressure cavity of a diamond-anvil pressure cell illuminated with heterochromatic radiation from a synchrotron storage ring. It is demonstrated that, at least in one run, the electron beam current cannot be used to correct for energy-intensity variations of the incident beam. Rather, there appears to be an additional linear relationship between the decay of the synchrotron beam and the magnitude of the background intensity.

  16. Quantitative material decomposition using spectral computed tomography with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seungwan; Choi, Yu-Na; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2014-09-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (CT) techniques have been used to decompose materials and characterize tissues according to their physical and chemical compositions. However, these techniques are hampered by the limitations of conventional x-ray detectors operated in charge integrating mode. Energy-resolved photon-counting detectors provide spectral information from polychromatic x-rays using multiple energy thresholds. These detectors allow simultaneous acquisition of data in different energy ranges without spectral overlap, resulting in more efficient material decomposition and quantification for dual-energy CT. In this study, a pre-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique based on volume conservation was proposed for three-material decomposition. The technique was combined with iterative reconstruction algorithms by using a ray-driven projector in order to improve the quality of decomposition images and reduce radiation dose. A spectral CT system equipped with a CZT-based photon-counting detector was used to implement the proposed dual-energy CT technique. We obtained dual-energy images of calibration and three-material phantoms consisting of low atomic number materials from the optimal energy bins determined by Monte Carlo simulations. The material decomposition process was accomplished by both the proposed and post-reconstruction dual-energy CT techniques. Linear regression and normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) analyses were performed to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of decomposition images. The calibration accuracy of the proposed dual-energy CT technique was higher than that of the post-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique, with fitted slopes of 0.97-1.01 and NRMSEs of 0.20-4.50% for all basis materials. In the three-material phantom study, the proposed dual-energy CT technique decreased the NRMSEs of measured volume fractions by factors of 0.17-0.28 compared to the post-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique. It was concluded that the

  17. Quantitative material decomposition using spectral computed tomography with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungwan; Choi, Yu-Na; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2014-09-21

    Dual-energy computed tomography (CT) techniques have been used to decompose materials and characterize tissues according to their physical and chemical compositions. However, these techniques are hampered by the limitations of conventional x-ray detectors operated in charge integrating mode. Energy-resolved photon-counting detectors provide spectral information from polychromatic x-rays using multiple energy thresholds. These detectors allow simultaneous acquisition of data in different energy ranges without spectral overlap, resulting in more efficient material decomposition and quantification for dual-energy CT. In this study, a pre-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique based on volume conservation was proposed for three-material decomposition. The technique was combined with iterative reconstruction algorithms by using a ray-driven projector in order to improve the quality of decomposition images and reduce radiation dose. A spectral CT system equipped with a CZT-based photon-counting detector was used to implement the proposed dual-energy CT technique. We obtained dual-energy images of calibration and three-material phantoms consisting of low atomic number materials from the optimal energy bins determined by Monte Carlo simulations. The material decomposition process was accomplished by both the proposed and post-reconstruction dual-energy CT techniques. Linear regression and normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) analyses were performed to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of decomposition images. The calibration accuracy of the proposed dual-energy CT technique was higher than that of the post-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique, with fitted slopes of 0.97-1.01 and NRMSEs of 0.20-4.50% for all basis materials. In the three-material phantom study, the proposed dual-energy CT technique decreased the NRMSEs of measured volume fractions by factors of 0.17-0.28 compared to the post-reconstruction dual-energy CT technique. It was concluded that the

  18. Toward Femtosecond Time-Resolved Studies of Solvent-Solute Energy Transfer in Doped Helium Nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacellar, C.; Ziemkiewicz, M. P.; Leone, S. R.; Neumark, D. M.; Gessner, O.

    2015-05-01

    Superfluid helium nanodroplets provide a unique cryogenic matrix for high resolution spectroscopy and ultracold chemistry applications. With increasing photon energy and, in particular, in the increasingly important Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) regime, the droplets become optically dense and, therefore, participate in the EUV-induced dynamics. Energy- and charge-transfer mechanisms between the host droplets and dopant atoms, however, are poorly understood. Static energy domain measurements of helium droplets doped with noble gas atoms (Xe, Kr) indicate that Penning ionization due to energy transfer from the excited droplet to dopant atoms may be a significant relaxation channel. We have set up a femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron imaging experiment to probe these dynamics directly in the time-domain. Droplets containing 104 to 106 helium atoms and a small percentage (<10-4) of dopant atoms (Xe, Kr, Ne) are excited to the 1s2p Rydberg band by 21.6 eV photons produced by high harmonic generation (HHG). Transiently populated states are probed by 1.6 eV photons, generating time-dependent photoelectron kinetic energy distributions, which are monitored by velocity map imaging (VMI). The results will provide new information about the dynamic timescales and the different relaxation channels, giving access to a more complete physical picture of solvent-solute interactions in the superfluid environment. Prospects and challenges of the novel experiment as well as preliminary experimental results will be discussed.

  19. An empirical method for correcting the detector spectral response in energy-resolved CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Taly Gilat

    2012-03-01

    Energy-resolving photon-counting detectors have the potential for improved material decomposition compared to dual-kVp approaches. However, material decomposition accuracy is limited by the nonideal spectral response of the detectors. This work proposes an empirical method for correcting the nonideal spectral response, including spectrum-tailing effects. Unlike previous correction methods which relied on synchrotron measurements, the proposed method can be performed on the scanner. The proposed method estimates a spectral-response matrix by performing x-ray projection measurements through a range of known thicknesses of two or more calibration materials. Once estimated, the spectral-response matrix is incorporated into conventional material decomposition algorithms. A simulation study investigated preliminary feasibility of the proposed method. The spectral-response matrix was estimated using simulated projection measurements through PMMA, aluminum, and gadolinium. An energy-resolved acquisition of a thorax phantom with gadolinium in the blood pool was simulated assuming a five-bin detector with realistic spectral response. Energy-bin data was decomposed into Compton, photoelectric, and gadolinium basis projections with and without the proposed correction method. Basis images were reconstructed by filtered backprojection. Results demonstrated that the nonideal spectral response reduced the ability to distinguish gadolinium from materials such as bone, while images reconstructed with the proposed correction method successfully depicted the contrast agent. The proposed correction method reduced errors from 9% to 0.6% in the Compton image, 90% to 0.6% in the photoelectric image and from 40% to 6% in the gadolinium image when using a three-material calibration. Overall, results support feasibility of the proposed spectral-response correction method.

  20. Concepts for design of an energy management system incorporating dispersed storage and generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, H.; Koerner, T.; Nightingale, D.

    1981-01-01

    New forms of generation based on renewable resources must be managed as part of existing power systems in order to be utilized with maximum effectiveness. Many of these generators are by their very nature dispersed or small, so that they will be connected to the distribution part of the power system. This situation poses new questions of control and protection, and the intermittent nature of some of the energy sources poses problems of scheduling and dispatch. Under the assumption that the general objectives of energy management will remain unchanged, the impact of dispersed storage and generation on some of the specific functions of power system control and its hardware are discussed.

  1. Glucose Starvation-Induced Dispersal of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Is cAMP and Energy Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Tran T.; McDougald, Diane; Klebensberger, Janosch; Al Qarni, Budoor; Barraud, Nicolas; Rice, Scott A.; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Schleheck, David

    2012-01-01

    Carbon starvation has been shown to induce a massive dispersal event in biofilms of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa; however, the molecular pathways controlling this dispersal response remain unknown. We quantified changes in the proteome of P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm and planktonic cells during glucose starvation by differential peptide-fingerprint mass-spectrometry (iTRAQ). In addition, we monitored dispersal photometrically, as a decrease in turbidity/opacity of biofilms pre-grown and starved in continuous flow-cells, in order to evaluate treatments (e.g. inhibitors CCCP, arsenate, chloramphenicol, L-serine hydroxamate) and key mutants altered in biofilm development and dispersal (e.g. nirS, vfr, bdlA, rpoS, lasRrhlR, Pf4-bacteriophage and cyaA). In wild-type biofilms, dispersal started within five minutes of glucose starvation, was maximal after 2 h, and up to 60% of the original biomass had dispersed after 24 h of starvation. The changes in protein synthesis were generally not more than two fold and indicated that more than 100 proteins belonging to various classes, including carbon and energy metabolism, stress adaptation, and motility, were differentially expressed. For the different treatments, only the proton-ionophore CCCP or arsenate, an inhibitor of ATP synthesis, prevented dispersal of the biofilms. For the different mutants tested, only cyaA, the synthase of the intracellular second messenger cAMP, failed to disperse; complementation of the cyaA mutation restored the wild-type phenotype. Hence, the pathway for carbon starvation-induced biofilm dispersal in P. aeruginosa PAO1 involves ATP production via direct ATP synthesis and proton-motive force dependent step(s) and is mediated through cAMP, which is likely to control the activity of proteins involved in remodeling biofilm cells in preparation for planktonic survival. PMID:22905180

  2. Time-Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup for High Energy TNSA Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalino, Stephen; Simone, Angela; Turner, Ethan; Ginnane, Mary Kate; Dubois, Natalie; Sangster, Craig; Regan, Sean

    2014-10-01

    MTW and OMEGA EP Lasers at LLE utilize ultra-intense laser light to produce bursts of high-energy ions through Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA). A Time Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup (TFC) is being designed to collect and differentiate protons and alphas from heavy ions produced during TNSA. The TFC will be comprised of a replaceable thickness absorber capable of stopping a range of user-selectable heavy ions. Ions heavier than alphas emitted from the TNSA plasma will stop within the primary TFC, while less massive particles will continue through and deposit their remaining charge in the secondary TFC. The time-resolved beam current generated in each cup will be measured on a fast storage scope in multiple channels. Secondary electrons released from the impact of heavy ions with the cups will be suppressed by magnetic and electrostatic fields. A charge-exchange foil at the TFC entrance will modify the charge state distribution of the heavy ions produced by the plasma to a known distribution. Using the known distribution and the time of flight of the heavy ions, the total heavy ion current can be determined. Ultimately the TFC will be used to normalize a variety of nuclear physics cross sections and stopping power measurements. Funded in part by a LLE contract through the DOE.

  3. Energy dispersive CdTe and CdZnTe detectors for spectral clinical CT and NDT applications

    PubMed Central

    Barber, W. C.; Wessel, J. C.; Nygard, E.; Iwanczyk, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    We are developing room temperature compound semiconductor detectors for applications in energy-resolved high-flux single x-ray photon-counting spectral computed tomography (CT), including functional imaging with nanoparticle contrast agents for medical applications and non destructive testing (NDT) for security applications. Energy-resolved photon-counting can provide reduced patient dose through optimal energy weighting for a particular imaging task in CT, functional contrast enhancement through spectroscopic imaging of metal nanoparticles in CT, and compositional analysis through multiple basis function material decomposition in CT and NDT. These applications produce high input count rates from an x-ray generator delivered to the detector. Therefore, in order to achieve energy-resolved single photon counting in these applications, a high output count rate (OCR) for an energy-dispersive detector must be achieved at the required spatial resolution and across the required dynamic range for the application. The required performance in terms of the OCR, spatial resolution, and dynamic range must be obtained with sufficient field of view (FOV) for the application thus requiring the tiling of pixel arrays and scanning techniques. Room temperature cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) compound semiconductors, operating as direct conversion x-ray sensors, can provide the required speed when connected to application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) operating at fast peaking times with multiple fixed thresholds per pixel provided the sensors are designed for rapid signal formation across the x-ray energy ranges of the application at the required energy and spatial resolutions, and at a sufficiently high detective quantum efficiency (DQE). We have developed high-flux energy-resolved photon-counting x-ray imaging array sensors using pixellated CdTe and CdZnTe semiconductors optimized for clinical CT and security NDT. We have also fabricated high

  4. Energy dispersive CdTe and CdZnTe detectors for spectral clinical CT and NDT applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, W. C.; Wessel, J. C.; Nygard, E.; Iwanczyk, J. S.

    2015-06-01

    We are developing room temperature compound semiconductor detectors for applications in energy-resolved high-flux single x-ray photon-counting spectral computed tomography (CT), including functional imaging with nanoparticle contrast agents for medical applications and non-destructive testing (NDT) for security applications. Energy-resolved photon-counting can provide reduced patient dose through optimal energy weighting for a particular imaging task in CT, functional contrast enhancement through spectroscopic imaging of metal nanoparticles in CT, and compositional analysis through multiple basis function material decomposition in CT and NDT. These applications produce high input count rates from an x-ray generator delivered to the detector. Therefore, in order to achieve energy-resolved single photon counting in these applications, a high output count rate (OCR) for an energy-dispersive detector must be achieved at the required spatial resolution and across the required dynamic range for the application. The required performance in terms of the OCR, spatial resolution, and dynamic range must be obtained with sufficient field of view (FOV) for the application thus requiring the tiling of pixel arrays and scanning techniques. Room temperature cadmium telluride (CdTe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) compound semiconductors, operating as direct conversion x-ray sensors, can provide the required speed when connected to application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) operating at fast peaking times with multiple fixed thresholds per pixel provided the sensors are designed for rapid signal formation across the x-ray energy ranges of the application at the required energy and spatial resolutions, and at a sufficiently high detective quantum efficiency (DQE). We have developed high-flux energy-resolved photon-counting x-ray imaging array sensors using pixellated CdTe and CdZnTe semiconductors optimized for clinical CT and security NDT. We have also fabricated high

  5. Time-resolved energy dynamics after single electron injection into an interacting helical liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzona, Alessio; Acciai, Matteo; Carrega, Matteo; Cavaliere, Fabio; Sassetti, Maura

    2016-07-01

    The possibility of injecting a single electron into ballistic conductors is at the basis of the new field of electron quantum optics. Here, we consider a single electron injection into the helical edge channels of a topological insulator. Their counterpropagating nature and the unavoidable presence of electron-electron interactions dramatically affect the time evolution of the single wave packet. Modeling the injection process from a mesoscopic capacitor in the presence of nonlocal tunneling, we focus on the time-resolved charge and energy packet dynamics. Both quantities split up into counterpropagating contributions whose profiles are strongly affected by the interaction strength. In addition, stronger signatures are found for the injected energy, which is also affected by the finite width of the tunneling region, in contrast to what happens for the charge. Indeed, the energy flow can be controlled by tuning the injection parameters, and we demonstrate that, in the presence of nonlocal tunneling, it is possible to achieve a situation in which charge and energy flow in opposite directions.

  6. Energy resolved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for electronic structure mapping in organic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Nádaždy, V. Gmucová, K.; Schauer, F.

    2014-10-06

    We introduce an energy resolved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method to map the electronic density of states (DOS) in organic semiconductor materials. The method consists in measurement of the charge transfer resistance of a semiconductor/electrolyte interface at a frequency where the redox reactions determine the real component of the impedance. The charge transfer resistance value provides direct information about the electronic DOS at the energy given by the electrochemical potential of the electrolyte, which can be adjusted using an external voltage. A simple theory for experimental data evaluation is proposed, along with an explanation of the corresponding experimental conditions. The method allows mapping over unprecedentedly wide energy and DOS ranges. Also, important DOS parameters can be determined directly from the raw experimental data without the lengthy analysis required in other techniques. The potential of the proposed method is illustrated by tracing weak bond defect states induced by ultraviolet treatment above the highest occupied molecular orbital in a prototypical σ-conjugated polymer, poly[methyl(phenyl)silylene]. The results agree well with those of our previous DOS reconstruction by post-transient space-charge-limited-current spectroscopy, which was, however, limited to a narrow energy range. In addition, good agreement of the DOS values measured on two common π-conjugated organic polymer semiconductors, polyphenylene vinylene and poly(3-hexylthiophene), with the rather rare previously published data demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

  7. Energy transfer in Anabaena variabilis filaments under nitrogen depletion, studied by time-resolved fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Aya; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    Some filamentous cyanobacteria (including Anabaena) differentiate into heterocysts under nitrogen-depleted conditions. During differentiation, the phycobiliproteins and photosystem II in the heterocysts are gradually degraded. Nitrogen depletion induces changes in the pigment composition of both vegetative cells and heterocysts, which affect the excitation energy transfer processes. To investigate the changes in excitation energy transfer processes of Anabaena variabilis filaments grown in standard medium (BG11) and a nitrogen-free medium (BG110), we measured their steady-state absorption spectra, steady-state fluorescence spectra, and time-resolved fluorescence spectra (TRFS) at 77 K. TRFS were measured with a picosecond time-correlated single photon counting system. The pigment compositions of the filaments grown in BG110 changed throughout the growth period; the relative phycocyanin levels monotonically decreased, whereas the relative carotenoid (Car) levels decreased and then recovered to their initial value (at day 0), with formation of lower-energy Cars. Nitrogen starvation also altered the fluorescence kinetics of PSI; the fluorescence maximum of TRFS immediately after excitation occurred at 735, 740, and 730 nm after 4, 8, and 15 days growth in BG110, respectively. Based on these results, we discuss the excitation energy transfer dynamics of A. variabilis filaments under the nitrogen-depleted condition throughout the growth period. PMID:25596847

  8. Quantification of surface amorphous content using dispersive surface energy: the concept of effective amorphous surface area.

    PubMed

    Brum, Jeffrey; Burnett, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the use of dispersive surface energy in quantifying surface amorphous content, and the concept of effective amorphous surface area is introduced. An equation is introduced employing the linear combination of surface area normalized square root dispersive surface energy terms. This equation is effective in generating calibration curves when crystalline and amorphous references are used. Inverse gas chromatography is used to generate dispersive surface energy values. Two systems are investigated, and in both cases surface energy data collected for physical mixture samples comprised of amorphous and crystalline references fits the predicted response with good accuracy. Surface amorphous content of processed lactose samples is quantified using the calibration curve, and interpreted within the context of effective amorphous surface area. Data for bulk amorphous content is also utilized to generate a thorough picture of how disorder is distributed throughout the particle. An approach to quantifying surface amorphous content using dispersive surface energy is presented. Quantification is achieved by equating results to an effective amorphous surface area based on reference crystalline, and amorphous materials. PMID:21725707

  9. Time-resolved Förster-resonance-energy-transfer DNA assay on an active CMOS microarray

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, David Eric; Gong, Ping; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    We present an active oligonucleotide microarray platform for time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assays. In these assays, immobilized probe is labeled with a donor fluorophore and analyte target is labeled with a fluorescence quencher. Changes in the fluorescence decay lifetime of the donor are measured to determine the extent of hybridization. In this work, we demonstrate that TR-FRET assays have reduced sensitivity to variances in probe surface density compared with standard fluorescence-based microarray assays. Use of an active array substrate, fabricated in a standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process, provides the additional benefits of reduced system complexity and cost. The array consists of 4096 independent single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) pixel sites and features on-chip time-to-digital conversion. We demonstrate the functionality of our system by measuring a DNA target concentration series using TR-FRET with semiconductor quantum dot donors. PMID:18515059

  10. Investigation of energy transfer mechanisms between Bi(2+) and Tm(3+) by time-resolved spectrum.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Sharafudeen, Kaniyarakkal; Dong, Guoping; Ma, Zhijun; Qiu, Jianrong

    2013-11-01

    Here, we report for the first time the optical properties of Bi(2+) and Tm(3+) co-doped germanate glasses and elucidate the potential of this material as substrates to improve the performance of CdTe solar cell. A strong emission peak at 800nm is observed under the excitation of 450-700nm in this material. The energy transfer processes from the transitions of Bi(2+) [(2)P3/2(1)→(2)P1/2]: Tm(3+) [(3)H6→(3)H4] are investigated by time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. A cover glass exhibiting an ultra-broadband response spectrum covering the entire solar visible wavelength region is suggested to enhance the conversion efficiency of CdTe solar cells significantly. PMID:23850790

  11. First Mass-resolved Measurement of High-Energy Cosmic-Ray Antiprotons.

    PubMed

    Bergström; Boezio; Carlson; Francke; Grinstein; Khalchukov; Suffert; Hof; Kremer; Menn; Simon; Stephens; Ambriola; Bellotti; Cafagna; Ciacio; Circella; De Marzo C; Finetti; Papini; Piccardi; Spillantini; Bartalucci; Ricci; Casolino; De Pascale MP; Morselli; Picozza; Sparvoli; Bonvicini; Schiavon; Vacchi; Zampa; Mitchell; Ormes; Streitmatter; Bravar; Stochaj

    2000-05-10

    We report new results for the cosmic-ray antiproton-to-proton ratio from 3 to 50 GeV at the top of the atmosphere. These results represent the first measurements, on an event-by-event basis, of mass-resolved antiprotons above 18 GeV. The results were obtained with the NMSU-WIZARD/CAPRICE98 balloon-borne magnet spectrometer equipped with a gas-RICH (Ring-Imaging Cerenkov) counter and a silicon-tungsten imaging calorimeter. The RICH detector was the first ever flown that is capable of identifying charge-one particles at energies above 5 GeV. The spectrometer was flown on 1998 May 28-29 from Fort Sumner, New Mexico. The measured p&d1;/p ratio is in agreement with a pure secondary interstellar production. PMID:10813676

  12. Energy calibration of energy-resolved photon-counting pixel detectors using laboratory polychromatic x-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Hanbean; Han, Jong Chul; Kam, Soohwa; Yun, Seungman; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2014-10-01

    Recently, photon-counting detectors capable of resolving incident x-ray photon energies have been considered for use in spectral x-ray imaging applications. For reliable use of energy-resolved photon-counting detectors (ERPCDs), energy calibration is an essential procedure prior to their use because variations in responses from each pixel of the ERPCD for incident photons, even at the same energy, are inevitable. Energy calibration can be performed using a variety of methods. In all of these methods, the photon spectra with well-defined peak energies are recorded. Every pixel should be calibrated on its own. In this study, we suggest the use of a conventional polychromatic x-ray source (that is typically used in laboratories) for energy calibration. The energy calibration procedure mainly includes the determination of the peak energies in the spectra, flood-field irradiation, determination of peak channels, and determination of calibration curves (i.e., the slopes and intercepts of linear polynomials). We applied a calibration algorithm to a CdTe ERPCD comprised of 128×128 pixels with a pitch of 0.35 mm using highly attenuated polychromatic x-ray beams to reduce the pulse pile-up effect, and to obtain a narrow-shaped spectrum due to beam hardening. The averaged relative error in calibration curves obtained from 16,384 pixels was about 0.56% for 59.6 keV photons from an Americium radioisotope. This pixel-by-pixel energy calibration enhanced the signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios in images, respectively, by a factor of ~5 and 3 due to improvement in image homogeneity, compared to those obtained without energy calibration. One secondary finding of this study was that the x-ray photon spectra obtained using a common algorithm for computing x-ray spectra reasonably described the peaks in the measured spectra, which implies easier peak detection without the direct measurement of spectra using a separate spectrometer. The proposed method will be a useful alternative to

  13. Energy-resolved CT imaging with a photon-counting silicon-strip detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Mats; Huber, Ben; Karlsson, Staffan; Liu, Xuejin; Chen, Han; Xu, Cheng; Yveborg, Moa; Bornefalk, Hans; Danielsson, Mats

    2014-03-01

    Photon-counting detectors are promising candidates for use in the next generation of x-ray CT scanners. Among the foreseen benefits are higher spatial resolution, better trade-off between noise and dose, and energy discriminating capabilities. Silicon is an attractive detector material because of its low cost, mature manufacturing process and high hole mobility. However, it is sometimes claimed to be unsuitable for use in computed tomography because of its low absorption efficiency and high fraction of Compton scatter. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that high-quality energy-resolved CT images can nonetheless be acquired with clinically realistic exposure parameters using a photon-counting silicon-strip detector with eight energy thresholds developed in our group. We use a single detector module, consisting of a linear array of 50 0.5 × 0.4 mm detector elements, to image a phantom in a table-top lab setup. The phantom consists of a plastic cylinder with circular inserts containing water, fat and aqueous solutions of calcium, iodine and gadolinium, in different concentrations. We use basis material decomposition to obtain water, calcium, iodine and gadolinium basis images and demonstrate that these basis images can be used to separate the different materials in the inserts. We also show results showing that the detector has potential for quantitative measurements of substance concentrations.

  14. Energy-resolved CT imaging with a photon-counting silicon-strip detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Mats; Huber, Ben; Karlsson, Staffan; Liu, Xuejin; Chen, Han; Xu, Cheng; Yveborg, Moa; Bornefalk, Hans; Danielsson, Mats

    2014-11-01

    Photon-counting detectors are promising candidates for use in the next generation of x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanners. Among the foreseen benefits are higher spatial resolution, better trade-off between noise and dose and energy discriminating capabilities. Silicon is an attractive detector material because of its low cost, mature manufacturing process and high hole mobility. However, it is sometimes overlooked for CT applications because of its low absorption efficiency and high fraction of Compton scatter. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that silicon is a feasible material for CT detectors by showing energy-resolved CT images acquired with an 80 kVp x-ray tube spectrum using a photon-counting silicon-strip detector with eight energy thresholds developed in our group. We use a single detector module, consisting of a linear array of 50 0.5 × 0.4 mm detector elements, to image a phantom in a table-top lab setup. The phantom consists of a plastic cylinder with circular inserts containing water, fat and aqueous solutions of calcium, iodine and gadolinium, in different concentrations. By using basis material decomposition we obtain water, calcium, iodine and gadolinium basis images and demonstrate that these basis images can be used to separate the different materials in the inserts. We also show results showing that the detector has potential for quantitative measurements of substance concentrations.

  15. Rossby wave energy dispersion from tropical cyclone in zonal basic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wenli; Fei, Jianfang; Huang, Xiaogang; Liu, Yudi; Ma, Zhanhong; Yang, Lu

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates tropical cyclone energy dispersion under horizontally sheared flows using a nonlinear barotropic model. In addition to common patterns, unusual features of Rossby wave trains are also found in flows with constant vorticity and vorticity gradients. In terms of the direction of the energy dispersion, the wave train can rotate clockwise and elongate southwestward under anticyclonic circulation (ASH), which contributes to the reenhancement of the tropical cyclone (TC). The wave train even splits into two obvious wavelike trains in flows with a southward vorticity gradient (WSH). Energy dispersed from TCs varies over time, and variations in the intensity of the wave train components typically occur in two stages. Wave-activity flux diagnosis and ray tracing calculations are extended to the frame that moves along with the TC to reveal the concrete progress of wave propagation. The direction of the wave-activity flux is primarily determined by the combination of the basic flow and the TC velocity. Along the flux, the distribution of pseudomomentum effectively illustrates the development of wave trains, particularly the rotation and split of wave propagation. Ray tracing involves the quantitative tracing of wave features along rays, which effectively coincide with the wave train regimes. Flows of a constant shear (parabolic meridional variation) produce linear (nonlinear) wave number variations. For the split wave trains, the real and complex wave number waves move along divergent trajectories and are responsible for different energy dispersion ducts.

  16. Analysis of tincal ore waste by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalfa, Orhan Murat; Üstündağ, Zafer; Özkırım, Ilknur; Kagan Kadıoğlu, Yusuf

    2007-01-01

    Etibank Borax Plant is located in Kırka-Eskişehir, Turkey. The borax waste from this plant was analyzed by means of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The standard addition method was used for the determination of the concentration of Al, Fe, Zn, Sn, and Ba. The results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  17. X-ray photo-emission and energy dispersive spectroscopy of HA coated titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, J.L.; Steinberg, A.D.; Krauss, A.R.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition changes of hydroxyapatite (HA) coated titanium using surface analysis (x-ray photo-emission) and bulk analysis (energy dispersive spectroscopy). The specimens examined were controls, 30 minutes and 3 hours aged specimens in distilled water or 0.2M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) at room temperature. Each x-ray photo-emission cycle consisted of 3 scans followed by argon sputtering for 10 minutes for a total of usually 20 cycles, corresponding to a sampling depth of {approximately} 1500 {angstrom}. The energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis was on a 110 by 90 {mu}m area for 500 sec. Scanning electron microscopy examination showed crystal formation (3P{sub 2}O{sub 5}*2CAO*?H{sub 2}O by energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis) on the HA coating for the specimens aged in sodium phosphate buffer. The x-ray photo-emission results indicated the oxidation effect of water on the titanium (as TiO{sub 2}) and the effect of the buffer to increase the surface concentration of phosphorous. No differences in the chemical composition were observed by energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. The crystal growth was only observed for the sodium phosphate buffer specimens and only on the HA surface.

  18. Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry: A Long Overdue Addition to the Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Peter T.

    2011-01-01

    Portable Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzers have undergone significant improvements over the past decade. Salient advantages of XRF for elemental analysis include minimal sample preparation, multielement analysis capabilities, detection limits in the low parts per million (ppm) range, and analysis times on the order of 1 min.…

  19. The relative effect of behaviour in larval dispersal in a low energy embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Rémi M.; Chassé, Joël; Metaxas, Anna

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the relative importance of tidal phase, larval behaviour, release site, depth layer, and vertical swimming velocity on mean in-sea dispersal distance, retention, distance from shore, and population connectivity. Using a biophysical model, we simulated larval dispersal of marine benthic invertebrates for 6 taxonomic groups representing different combinations of swimming speed, and depth preference in St. George's Bay, NS, Canada, a shallow bay with low energy (e.g. lack of estuarine circulation). The biophysical model was run over a period of 3 months, from Jul to Sep, representing the period when larvae of the targeted species were present, and at each of 3 years. Overall, release site had the strongest effect of all factors on the dispersal metrics. Although less important than release site in our system, vertical distribution and swim speed had a significant effect which would likely be more pronounced in high (i.e. with features such as estuarine circulation or internal waves) than low energy environments. Retention and distance from shore were more responsive to our manipulations than dispersal distance, both in terms of the number of ecologically significant effects and the magnitudes of their effect size. These findings allow for the prioritization of biophysical model parameters and improved simulations of larval dispersal.

  20. Spatially and momentum resolved energy electron loss spectra from an ultra-thin PrNiO{sub 3} layer

    SciTech Connect

    Kinyanjui, M. K. Kaiser, U.; Benner, G.; Pavia, G.; Boucher, F.; Habermeier, H.-U.; Keimer, B.

    2015-05-18

    We present an experimental approach which allows for the acquisition of spectra from ultra-thin films at high spatial, momentum, and energy resolutions. Spatially and momentum (q) resolved electron energy loss spectra have been obtained from a 12 nm ultra-thin PrNiO{sub 3} layer using a nano-beam electron diffraction based approach which enabled the acquisition of momentum resolved spectra from individual, differently oriented nano-domains and at different positions of the PrNiO{sub 3} thin layer. The spatial and wavelength dependence of the spectral excitations are obtained and characterized after the analysis of the experimental spectra using calculated dielectric and energy loss functions. The presented approach makes a contribution towards obtaining momentum-resolved spectra from nanostructures, thin film, heterostructures, surfaces, and interfaces.

  1. Time-Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup Development for High Energy TNSA Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalino, S.; Simone, A.; Turner, E.; Ginnane, M. K.; Glisic, M.; Kousar, B.; Smith, A.; Sangster, C.; Regan, S.

    2015-11-01

    MTW and OMEGA EP Lasers at LLE utilize ultra-intense laser light to produce high-energy ion pulses through Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA). A Time Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup (TRTF) was designed and built to collect and differentiate protons from heavy ions (HI) produced during TNSA. The TRTF includes a replaceable thickness absorber capable of stopping a range of user-selectable HI emitted from TNSA plasma. HI stop within the primary cup, while less massive particles continue through and deposit their remaining charge in the secondary cup, releasing secondary electrons in the process. The time-resolved beam current generated in each cup will be measured on a fast storage scope in multiple channels. A charge-exchange foil at the TRTF entrance modifies the charge state distribution of HI to a known distribution. Using this distribution and the time of flight of the HI, the total HI current can be determined. Initial tests of the TRTF have been made using a proton beam produced by SUNY Geneseo's 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator. A substantial reduction in secondary electron production, from 70% of the proton beam current at 2MeV down to 0.7%, was achieved by installing a pair of dipole magnet deflectors which successfully returned the electrons to the cups in the TRTF. Ultimately the TRTF will be used to normalize a variety of nuclear physics cross sections and stopping power measurements. Based in part upon work supported by a DOE NNSA Award#DE-NA0001944.

  2. The 20 element HgI2 energy dispersive x ray array detector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwanczyk, J. A.; Dorri, N.; Wang, M.; Szczebiot, R. W.; Dabrowski, A. J.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K. O.; Patt, B. E.

    1991-11-01

    This paper describes recent progress in the development of HgI2 energy dispersive x-ray detector arrays and associated miniaturized processing electronics for synchrotron radiation research applications. The experimental results with a 20 element array detector were obtained under realistic synchrotron beam conditions at SSRL. An energy resolution of 250 eV (FWHM) at 5.9 keV (Mn-K(sub a)) was achieved. Energy resolution and throughput measurements versus input count rate and energy of incoming radiation have been measured. Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectra were taken from diluted samples simulating proteins with nickel.

  3. Feasibility of using energy-resolving detectors in differential phase-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturin, Pavlo

    2016-03-01

    In a common clinical setting, conventional absorption-based imaging provides relatively good contrast between bonelike and soft-tissue materials. The reliability of material differentiation, however, is hampered when materials with similar absorption properties are scanned. This problem can be addressed by utilizing a spectral imaging technique whereby multiple X-ray measurements are taken at different beam conditions. In this work, we discuss the possibility of using a spectral imaging approach in a grating-based, differential-phase contrast-imaging (DPCI) modality. Two approaches, dual exposure with a conventional flat-panel detector (FPD) and a single exposure with a photon-counting energy-resolving detector (PCD), were reviewed. The feasibility of a single-exposure DPCI and a two-bin PCD setup was assessed quantitatively by a least-squares minimization algorithm applied to an X-ray diffraction pattern. It was shown that a two-peak-shaped X-ray spectrum can allow PCDs to be placed unambiguously at single Talbot distances making it possible to simultaneously detect photons in each energy bin with comparable efficiencies. The results of this work can help build a bridge between two rapidly developing imaging modalities, X-ray spectral imaging and X-ray DPCI.

  4. Spatially resolving the very high energy emission from MGRO J2019+37 with VERITAS

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Aune, T.; Behera, B.; Chen, X.; Federici, S.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dumm, J.; Dwarkadas, V. V.; Falcone, A. E-mail: nahee@uchicago.edu; and others

    2014-06-10

    We present very high energy (VHE) imaging of MGRO J2019+37 obtained with the VERITAS observatory. The bright extended (∼2°) unidentified Milagro source is located toward the rich star formation region Cygnus-X. MGRO J2019+37 is resolved into two VERITAS sources. The faint, point-like source VER J2016+371 overlaps CTB 87, a filled-center remnant (SNR) with no evidence of a supernova remnant shell at the present time. Its spectrum is well fit in the 0.65-10 TeV energy range by a power-law model with photon index 2.3 ± 0.4. VER J2019+378 is a bright extended (∼1°) source that likely accounts for the bulk of the Milagro emission and is notably coincident with PSR J2021+3651 and the star formation region Sh 2–104. Its spectrum in the range 1-30 TeV is well fit with a power-law model of photon index 1.75 ± 0.3, among the hardest values measured in the VHE band, comparable to that observed near Vela-X. We explore the unusual spectrum and morphology in the radio and X-ray bands to constrain possible emission mechanisms for this source.

  5. Position and energy-resolved particle detection using phonon-mediated microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D. C.; Golwala, S. R.; Cornell, B.; Bumble, B.; Day, P. K.; LeDuc, H. G.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2012-06-04

    We demonstrate position and energy-resolved phonon-mediated detection of particle interactions in a silicon substrate instrumented with an array of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs). The relative magnitude and delay of the signal received in each sensor allow the location of the interaction to be determined with < or approx. 1mm resolution at 30 keV. Using this position information, variations in the detector response with position can be removed, and an energy resolution of {sigma}{sub E} = 0.55 keV at 30 keV was measured. Since MKIDs can be fabricated from a single deposited film and are naturally multiplexed in the frequency domain, this technology can be extended to provide highly pixelized athermal phonon sensors for {approx}1 kg scale detector elements. Such high-resolution, massive particle detectors would be applicable to rare-event searches such as the direct detection of dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay, or coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  6. Energy release in the solar corona from spatially resolved magnetic braids.

    PubMed

    Cirtain, J W; Golub, L; Winebarger, A R; De Pontieu, B; Kobayashi, K; Moore, R L; Walsh, R W; Korreck, K E; Weber, M; McCauley, P; Title, A; Kuzin, S; DeForest, C E

    2013-01-24

    It is now apparent that there are at least two heating mechanisms in the Sun's outer atmosphere, or corona. Wave heating may be the prevalent mechanism in quiet solar periods and may contribute to heating the corona to 1,500,000 K (refs 1-3). The active corona needs additional heating to reach 2,000,000-4,000,000 K; this heat has been theoretically proposed to come from the reconnection and unravelling of magnetic 'braids'. Evidence favouring that process has been inferred, but has not been generally accepted because observations are sparse and, in general, the braided magnetic strands that are thought to have an angular width of about 0.2 arc seconds have not been resolved. Fine-scale braiding has been seen in the chromosphere but not, until now, in the corona. Here we report observations, at a resolution of 0.2 arc seconds, of magnetic braids in a coronal active region that are reconnecting, relaxing and dissipating sufficient energy to heat the structures to about 4,000,000 K. Although our 5-minute observations cannot unambiguously identify the field reconnection and subsequent relaxation as the dominant heating mechanism throughout active regions, the energy available from the observed field relaxation in our example is ample for the observed heating. PMID:23344359

  7. Ocular dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Noojin, Gary D.; Thomas, Robert J.; Stolarski, David J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Welch, Ashley J.

    1999-06-01

    Spectrally resolved white-light interferometry (SRWLI) was used to measure the wavelength dependence of refractive index (i.e., dispersion) for various ocular components. The accuracy of the technique was assessed by measurement of fused silica and water, the refractive indices of which have been measured at several different wavelengths. The dispersion of bovine and rabbit aqueous and vitreous humor was measured from 400 to 1100 nm. Also, the dispersion was measured from 400 to 700 nm for aqueous and vitreous humor extracted from goat and rhesus monkey eyes. For the humors, the dispersion did not deviate significantly from water. In an additional experiment, the dispersion of aqueous and vitreous humor that had aged up to a month was compared to freshly harvested material. No difference was found between the fresh and aged media. An unsuccessful attempt was also made to use the technique for dispersion measurement of bovine cornea and lens. Future refinement may allow measurement of the dispersion of cornea and lens across the entire visible and near-infrared wavelength band. The principles of white- light interferometry including image analysis, measurement accuracy, and limitations of the technique, are discussed. In addition, alternate techniques and previous measurements of ocular dispersion are reviewed.

  8. Low-energy phonon dispersion in LaFe4Sb12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leithe-Jasper, Andreas; Boehm, Martin; Mutka, Hannu; Koza, Michael M.

    We studied the vibrational dynamics of a single crystal of LaFe4Sb12 by three-axis inelastic neutron spectroscopy. The dispersion of phonons with wave vectors q along [ xx 0 ] and [ xxx ] directions in the energy range of eigenmodes with high amplitudes of lanthanum vibrations, i.e., at ℏω < 12 meV is identified. Symmetry-avoided anticrossing dispersion of phonons is established in both monitored directions and distinct eigenstates at high-symmetry points and at the Brillouin-zone center are discriminated. The experimentally derived phonon dispersion and intensities are compared with and backed up by ab initio lattice dynamics calculations. results of the computer model match well with the experimental data.

  9. Diffraction applications using the energy dispersive beamline, X6A, at NSLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, P. L.; Beno, M. A.; Knapp, G. S.; Jennings, G.; Ogata, C. M.

    1994-08-01

    The energy dispersive beamline X6A, at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) employs a curved crystal monochromator (polychromator) which focuses a range (approximately 1 keV) of x-ray energies into a narrow (100-120 micron) line image. Although this beamline was constructed primarily for time dependent EXAFS experiments, the authors have begun to explore the use of this instrument for energy dispersive diffraction experiments with different types of sample including macromolecular crystals. The tunability (E = 6.5 keV to 21 keV) and flexibility ((Delta)E = 100-1,000 eV) of the instrument makes the beamline ideal as a test bed for the application of polychromatic single crystal diffraction techniques to different chemical or biological materials.

  10. Low-energy dispersion of dynamic charge stripes in La1.75Sr0.25NiO4 observed with inelastic neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ruidan; Tranquada, John; Gu, Genda; Reznik, Dmitry; Winn, Barry

    The dynamic stripe correlations have been the subject of intense research, owing to the possible links with high-Tc superconductivity. In light of a recently published, direct observation of charge-stripe fluctuations in La2-xSrxNiO4 using inelastic neutron scattering, we did a follow-up neutron experiment on a x=0.25 sample to characterize the low-energy dispersion of these dynamic charge stripes using the HYSPEC instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source. The scattering signals are collected in the vicinity of a charge-order peak with a large wave vector (4.4, 3, 0), where dynamic spin-stripe correlations are negligible. Mapping the low-energy charge-stripe fluctuations in a wide temperature range, we observe a finite dispersion along the stripe-modulation direction at T >=160K where the charge stripes become disordered, while the steep dispersion in the orthogonal direction is not resolved. Work at BNL supported by Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE, under Contract No. DE-SC00112704.

  11. Application of high-resolution linear Radon transform for Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy imaging and mode separating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Liu, J.; Xu, Y.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) analysis is an efficient tool to obtain the vertical shear-wave profile. One of the key steps in the MASW method is to generate an image of dispersive energy in the frequency-velocity domain, so dispersion curves can be determined by picking peaks of dispersion energy. In this paper, we image Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy and separate multimodes from a multichannel record by high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT). We first introduce Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy imaging by high-resolution LRT. We then show the process of Rayleigh-wave mode separation. Results of synthetic and real-world examples demonstrate that (1) compared with slant stacking algorithm, high-resolution LRT can improve the resolution of images of dispersion energy by more than 50% (2) high-resolution LRT can successfully separate multimode dispersive energy of Rayleigh waves with high resolution; and (3) multimode separation and reconstruction expand frequency ranges of higher mode dispersive energy, which not only increases the investigation depth but also provides a means to accurately determine cut-off frequencies.

  12. Time-domain electromagnetic energy in a frequency-dispersive left-handed medium

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Tiejun; Kong Jinau

    2004-11-15

    From Maxwell's equations and the Poynting theorem, the time-domain electric and magnetic energy densities are generally defined in the frequency-dispersive media based on the conservation of energy. As a consequence, a general definition of electric and magnetic energy is proposed. Comparing with existing formulations of electric and magnetic energy in frequency-dispersive media, the new definition is more reasonable and is valid in any case. Using the new definition and staring from the equation of motion, we have shown rigorously that the total energy density and the individual electric and magnetic energy densities are always positive in a realistic artificial left-handed medium (LHM) [R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001)], which obeys actually the Lorentz medium model, although such a LHM has negative permittivity and negative permeability simultaneously in a certain frequency range. We have also shown that the conservation of energy is not violated in LHM. The earlier conclusions can be easily extended to the Drude medium model and the cold plasma medium model. Through an exact analysis of a one-dimensional transient current source radiating in LHM, numerical results are given to demonstrate that the work done by source, the power flowing outwards a surface, and the electric and magnetic energy stored in a volume are all positive in the time domain.

  13. Computing dispersive, polarizable, and electrostatic shifts of excitation energy in supramolecular systems: PTCDI crystal.

    PubMed

    Megow, Jörg

    2016-09-01

    The gas-to-crystal-shift denotes the shift of electronic excitation energies, i.e., the difference between ground and excited state energies, for a molecule transferred from the gas to the bulk phase. The contributions to the gas-to-crystal-shift comprise electrostatic as well as inductive polarization and dispersive energy shifts of the molecular excitation energies due to interaction with environmental molecules. For the example of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-diimide (PTCDI) bulk, the contributions to the gas-to-crystal shift are investigated. In the present work, electrostatic interaction is calculated via Coulomb interaction of partial charges while inductive and dispersive interactions are obtained using respective sum over states expressions. The coupling of higher transition densities for the first 4500 excited states of PTCDI was computed using transition partial charges based on an atomistic model of PTCDI bulk obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. As a result it is concluded that for the investigated model system of a PTCDI crystal, the gas to crystal shift is dominated by dispersive interaction. PMID:27608991

  14. A homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for phosphatidylserine exposure on apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Jean-Philippe; Hehl, Michaela; Millward, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    A simple, "mix-and-measure" microplate assay for phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) exposure on the surface of apoptotic cells is described. The assay exploits the fact that annexin V, a protein with high affinity and specificity for PtdSer, forms trimers and higher order oligomers on binding to membranes containing PtdSer. The transition from soluble monomer to cell-bound oligomer is detected using time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer from europium chelate-labeled annexin V to Cy5-labeled annexin V. PtdSer detection is achieved by a single addition of a reagent mix containing labeled annexins and calcium ions directly to cell cultures in a 96-well plate, followed by a brief incubation before fluorescence measurement. The assay can be used to quantify PtdSer exposure on both suspension cells and adherent cells in situ. This method is simpler and faster than existing annexin V binding assays based on flow cytometry or microscopy, and it yields precise data with Z' values of 0.6-0.7. PMID:18835236

  15. Clausius-Clapeyron Scaling of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) in Cloud-Resolving Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeley, J.; Romps, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent work by Singh and O'Gorman has produced a theory for convective available potential energy (CAPE) in radiative-convective equilibrium. In this model, the atmosphere deviates from a moist adiabat—and, therefore, has positive CAPE—because entrainment causes evaporative cooling in cloud updrafts, thereby steepening their lapse rate. This has led to the proposal that CAPE increases with global warming because the strength of evaporative cooling scales according to the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation. However, CAPE could also change due to changes in cloud buoyancy and changes in the entrainment rate, both of which could vary with global warming. To test the relative importance of changes in CAPE due to CC scaling of evaporative cooling, changes in cloud buoyancy, and changes in the entrainment rate, we subject a cloud-resolving model to a suite of natural (and unnatural) forcings. We find that CAPE changes are primarily driven by changes in the strength of evaporative cooling; the effect of changes in the entrainment rate and cloud buoyancy are comparatively small. This builds support for CC scaling of CAPE.

  16. Production and destruction of eddy kinetic energy in forced submesoscale eddy-resolving simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sonaljit; Ramachandran, Sanjiv; Tandon, Amit; Mahadevan, Amala

    2016-09-01

    We study the production and dissipation of the eddy kinetic energy (EKE) in a submesoscale eddy field forced with downfront winds using the Process Study Ocean Model (PSOM) with a horizontal grid resolution of 0.5 km. We simulate an idealized 100 m deep mixed-layer front initially in geostrophic balance with a jet in a domain that permits eddies within a range of O(1 km-100 km). The vertical eddy viscosities and the dissipation are parameterized using four different subgrid vertical mixing parameterizations: the k - ɛ , the KPP, and two different constant eddy viscosity and diffusivity profiles with a magnitude of O(10-2m2s-1) in the mixed layer. Our study shows that strong vertical eddy viscosities near the surface reduce the parameterized dissipation, whereas strong vertical eddy diffusivities reduce the lateral buoyancy gradients and consequently the rate of restratification by mixed-layer instabilities (MLI). Our simulations show that near the surface, the spatial variability of the dissipation along the periphery of the eddies depends on the relative alignment of the ageostrophic and geostrophic shear. Analysis of the resolved EKE budgets in the frontal region from the simulations show important similarities between the vertical structure of the EKE budget produced by the k - ɛ and KPP parameterizations, and earlier LES studies. Such an agreement is absent in the simulations using constant eddy-viscosity parameterizations.

  17. Resolving Key Uncertainties in Subsurface Energy Recovery: One Role of In Situ Experimentation and URLs (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsworth, D.

    2013-12-01

    Significant uncertainties remain and influence the recovery of energy from the subsurface. These uncertainties include the fate and transport of long-lived radioactive wastes that result from the generation of nuclear power and have been the focus of an active network of international underground research laboratories dating back at least 35 years. However, other nascent carbon-free energy technologies including conventional and EGS geothermal methods, carbon-neutral methods such as carbon capture and sequestration and the utilization of reduced-carbon resources such as unconventional gas reservoirs offer significant challenges in their effective deployment. We illustrate the important role that in situ experiments may play in resolving behaviors at extended length- and time-scales for issues related to chemical-mechanical interactions. Significantly, these include the evolution of transport and mechanical characteristics of stress-sensitive fractured media and their influence of the long-term behavior of the system. Importantly, these interests typically relate to either creating reservoirs (hydroshearing in EGS reservoirs, artificial fractures in shales and coals) or maintaining seals at depth where the permeating fluids may include mixed brines, CO2, methane and other hydrocarbons. Critical questions relate to the interaction of these various fluid mixtures and compositions with the fractured substrate. Important needs are in understanding the roles of key processes (transmission, dissolution, precipitation, sorption and dynamic stressing) on the modification of effective stresses and their influence on the evolution of permeability, strength and induced seismicity on the resulting development of either wanted or unwanted fluid pathways. In situ experimentation has already contributed to addressing some crucial issues of these complex interactions at field scale. Important contributions are noted in understanding the fate and transport of long-lived wastes

  18. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues in LDEF tray clamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed optical scanning of tray clamps is being conducted in the Facility for the Optical Inspection of Large Surfaces at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns in diameter. Residues from selected impacts are then being characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis at CNES. Results from this analysis will be the initial step to classifying projectile residues into specific sources.

  19. Energy-latitude dispersion patterns near the isotropy boundaries of energetic protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, V. A.; Chernyaeva, S. A.; Apatenkov, S. V.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Dubyagin, S. V.

    2015-08-01

    Non-adiabatic motion of plasma sheet protons causes pitch-angle scattering and isotropic precipitation to the ionosphere, which forms the proton auroral oval. This mechanism related to current sheet scattering (CSS) provides a specific energy-latitude dispersion pattern near the equatorward boundary of proton isotropic precipitation (isotropy boundary, IB), with precipitation sharply decreasing at higher (lower) latitude for protons with lower (higher) energy. However, this boundary maps to the inner magnetosphere, where wave-induced scattering may provide different dispersion patterns as recently demonstrated by Liang et al. (2014). Motivated by the potential usage of the IBs for the magnetotail monitoring as well as by the need to better understand the mechanisms forming the proton IB, we investigate statistically the details of particle flux patterns near the proton IB using NOAA-POES polar spacecraft observations made during September 2009. By comparing precipitated-to-trapped flux ratio (J0/J90) at >30 and >80 keV proton energies, we found a relatively small number of simple CSS-type dispersion events (only 31 %). The clear reversed (wave-induced) dispersion patterns were very rare (5 %). The most frequent pattern had nearly coinciding IBs at two energies (63 %). The structured precipitation with multiple IBs was very frequent (60 %), that is, with two or more significant J0/J90 dropouts. The average latitudinal width of multiple IB structures was about 1°. Investigation of dozens of paired auroral zone crossings of POES satellites showed that the IB pattern is stable on a timescale of less than 2 min (a few proton bounce periods) but can evolve on a longer (several minutes) scale, suggesting temporal changes in some mesoscale structures in the equatorial magnetosphere. We discuss the possible role of CSS-related and wave-induced mechanisms and their possible coupling to interpret the emerging complicated patterns of proton isotropy boundaries.

  20. Generating an image of dispersive energy by frequency decomposition and slant stacking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Miller, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for calculating an image of dispersive energy in the frequency-velocity (f-v) domain. The frequency decomposition is first applied to a shot gather in the offset-time domain to stretch impulsive data into pseudo-vibroseis data or frequency-swept data. Because there is a deterministic relationship between frequency and time in a sweep used in the frequency decomposition, the first step theoretically completes the transform from time to frequency. The slant stacking is then performed on the frequency-swept data to complete the transform from offset to velocity. This simple two-step algorithm generates an image of dispersive energy in the f-v domain. The straightforward transform only uses offset information of data so that this algorithm can be applied to data acquired with arbitrary geophone-acquisition geometry. Examples of synthetic and real-world data demonstrate that this algorithm generates accurate images of dispersive energy of the fundamental as well as higher modes. ?? Birkha??user Verlag, Basel, 2007.

  1. The influence of the directional energy distribution on the nonlinear dispersion relation in a random gravity wave field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, N. E.; Tung, C.-C.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of the directional distribution of wave energy on the dispersion relation is calculated numerically using various directional wave spectrum models. The results indicate that the dispersion relation varies both as a function of the directional energy distribution and the direction of propagation of the wave component under consideration. Furthermore, both the mean deviation and the random scatter from the linear approximation increase as the energy spreading decreases. Limited observational data are compared with the theoretical results. The agreement is favorable.

  2. Conceptual understanding of climate change with a globally resolved energy balance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommenget, Dietmar; Flöter, Janine

    2011-12-01

    The future climate change projections are essentially based on coupled general circulation model (CGCM) simulations, which give a distinct global warming pattern with arctic winter amplification, an equilibrium land-sea warming contrast and an inter-hemispheric warming gradient. While these simulations are the most important tool of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predictions, the conceptual understanding of these predicted structures of climate change and the causes of their uncertainties is very difficult to reach if only based on these highly complex CGCM simulations. In the study presented here we will introduce a very simple, globally resolved energy balance (GREB) model, which is capable of simulating the main characteristics of global warming. The model shall give a bridge between the strongly simplified energy balance models and the fully coupled 4-dimensional complex CGCMs. It provides a fast tool for the conceptual understanding and development of hypotheses for climate change studies, which shall build a basis or starting point for more detailed studies of observations and CGCM simulations. It is based on the surface energy balance by very simple representations of solar and thermal radiation, the atmospheric hydrological cycle, sensible turbulent heat flux, transport by the mean atmospheric circulation and heat exchange with the deeper ocean. Despite some limitations in the representations of the basic processes, the models climate sensitivity and the spatial structure of the warming pattern are within the uncertainties of the IPCC models simulations. It is capable of simulating aspects of the arctic winter amplification, the equilibrium land-sea warming contrast and the inter-hemispheric warming gradient with good agreement to the IPCC models in amplitude and structure. The results give some insight into the understanding of the land-sea contrast and the polar amplification. The GREB model suggests that the regional inhomogeneous

  3. Direct Imaging of Transient Fano Resonances in N_{2} Using Time-, Energy-, and Angular-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Martin; Yang, Chung-Hsin; Frassetto, Fabio; Poletto, Luca; Sansone, Giuseppe; Vrakking, Marc J J; Kornilov, Oleg

    2016-04-22

    Autoionizing Rydberg states of molecular N_{2} are studied using time-, energy-, and angular-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. A femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulse with a photon energy of 17.5 eV excites the resonance and a subsequent IR pulse ionizes the molecule before the autoionization takes place. The angular-resolved photoelectron spectra depend on pump-probe time delay and allow for the distinguishing of two electronic states contributing to the resonance. The lifetime of one of the contributions is determined to be 14±1  fs, while the lifetime of the other appears to be significantly shorter than the time resolution of the experiment. These observations suggest that the Rydberg states in this energy region are influenced by the effect of interference stabilization and merge into a complex resonance. PMID:27152799

  4. Direct Imaging of Transient Fano Resonances in N2 Using Time-, Energy-, and Angular-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Martin; Yang, Chung-Hsin; Frassetto, Fabio; Poletto, Luca; Sansone, Giuseppe; Vrakking, Marc J. J.; Kornilov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    Autoionizing Rydberg states of molecular N2 are studied using time-, energy-, and angular-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. A femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulse with a photon energy of 17.5 eV excites the resonance and a subsequent IR pulse ionizes the molecule before the autoionization takes place. The angular-resolved photoelectron spectra depend on pump-probe time delay and allow for the distinguishing of two electronic states contributing to the resonance. The lifetime of one of the contributions is determined to be 14 ±1 fs , while the lifetime of the other appears to be significantly shorter than the time resolution of the experiment. These observations suggest that the Rydberg states in this energy region are influenced by the effect of interference stabilization and merge into a complex resonance.

  5. Application of decision tree algorithm for identification of rock forming minerals using energy dispersive spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkaş, Efe; Çubukçu, H. Evren; Artuner, Harun

    2014-05-01

    Rapid and automated mineral identification is compulsory in certain applications concerning natural rocks. Among all microscopic and spectrometric methods, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS) integrated with scanning electron microscopes produce rapid information with reliable chemical data. Although obtaining elemental data with EDS analyses is fast and easy by the help of improving technology, it is rather challenging to perform accurate and rapid identification considering the large quantity of minerals in a rock sample with varying dimensions ranging between nanometer to centimeter. Furthermore, the physical properties of the specimen (roughness, thickness, electrical conductivity, position in the instrument etc.) and the incident electron beam (accelerating voltage, beam current, spot size etc.) control the produced characteristic X-ray, which in turn affect the elemental analyses. In order to minimize the effects of these physical constraints and develop an automated mineral identification system, a rule induction paradigm has been applied to energy dispersive spectral data. Decision tree classifiers divide training data sets into subclasses using generated rules or decisions and thereby it produces classification or recognition associated with these data sets. A number of thinsections prepared from rock samples with suitable mineralogy have been investigated and a preliminary 12 distinct mineral groups (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, apatite, amphibole, plagioclase, K- feldspar, zircon, magnetite, titanomagnetite, biotite, quartz), comprised mostly of silicates and oxides, have been selected. Energy dispersive spectral data for each group, consisting of 240 reference and 200 test analyses, have been acquired under various, non-standard, physical and electrical conditions. The reference X-Ray data have been used to assign the spectral distribution of elements to the specified mineral groups. Consequently, the test data have been analyzed using

  6. Resolving issues at the Department of Energy/Oak Ridge Operations Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Row, T.H.; Adams, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    Waste management, like many other issues, has experienced major milestones. In 1971, the Calvert Cliff's decision resulted in an entirely different approach to the consideration of environmental impact analysis in reactor siting. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl have had profound effects on nuclear power plant design. The high-level waste repository program has had many similar experiences that have modified the course of events. The management of radioactive, hazardous chemical and mixed waste in all of the facilities of the Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE) took on an entirely different meaning in 1984. On April 13, 1984, Federal Judge Robert Taylor said that DOE should proceed 'with all deliberate speed' to bring the Y-12 plant into compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Clean Water Act. This decision resulted from a suit brought by the Legal Environmental Assistance Foundation (LEAF) and grew out of a continuing revelation of mercury spills and other problems related to the Oak Ridge plants of DOE. In this same time frame, other events occurred in Oak Ridge that would set the stage for major changes, to provide the supporting environment that allowed a very different and successful approach to resolving waste management issues at the DOE/ORO Facilities. This is the origin of the Oak Ridge Model which was recently adopted as the DOE Model. The concept is to assure that all stakeholders in waste management decisions have the opportunity to be participants from the first step. A discussion of many of the elements that have contributed to the success of the Model follows.

  7. The velocity dispersion profile of NGC 6388 from resolved-star spectroscopy: No evidence of a central cusp and new constraints on the black hole mass

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzoni, B.; Mucciarelli, A.; Ferraro, F. R.; Miocchi, P.; Dalessandro, E.; Pallanca, C.; Massari, D.; Valenti, E.

    2013-06-01

    By combining high spatial resolution and wide-field spectroscopy performed, respectively, with SINFONI and FLAMES at the ESO/VLT we measured the radial velocities of more than 600 stars in the direction of NGC 6388, a Galactic globular cluster which is suspected to host an intermediate-mass black hole. Approximately 55% of the observed targets turned out to be cluster members. The cluster velocity dispersion has been derived from the radial velocity of individual stars: 52 measurements in the innermost 2'', and 276 stars located between 18'' and 600''. The velocity dispersion profile shows a central value of ∼13 km s{sup –1}, a flat behavior out to ∼60'' and a decreasing trend outward. The comparison with spherical and isotropic models shows that the observed density and velocity dispersion profiles are inconsistent with the presence of a central black hole more massive than ∼2000 M {sub ☉}. These findings are at odds with recent results obtained from integrated light spectra, showing a velocity dispersion profile with a steep central cusp of 23-25 km s{sup –1} at r < 2'' and suggesting the presence of a black hole with a mass of ∼1.7 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}. We also found some evidence of systemic rotation with amplitude A {sub rot} ∼ 8 km s{sup –1} in the innermost 2'' (0.13 pc), decreasing to A {sub rot} = 3.2 km s{sup –1} at 18'' < r < 160''.

  8. A Monte Carlo simulation study of the effect of energy windows in computed tomography images based on an energy-resolved photon counting detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Young-Jin; Ryu, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2012-08-01

    The energy-resolved photon counting detector provides the spectral information that can be used to generate images. The novel imaging methods, including the K-edge imaging, projection-based energy weighting imaging and image-based energy weighting imaging, are based on the energy-resolved photon counting detector and can be realized by using various energy windows or energy bins. The location and width of the energy windows or energy bins are important because these techniques generate an image using the spectral information defined by the energy windows or energy bins. In this study, the reconstructed images acquired with K-edge imaging, projection-based energy weighting imaging and image-based energy weighting imaging were simulated using the Monte Carlo simulation. The effect of energy windows or energy bins was investigated with respect to the contrast, coefficient-of-variation (COV) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The three images were compared with respect to the CNR. We modeled the x-ray computed tomography system based on the CdTe energy-resolved photon counting detector and polymethylmethacrylate phantom, which have iodine, gadolinium and blood. To acquire K-edge images, the lower energy thresholds were fixed at K-edge absorption energy of iodine and gadolinium and the energy window widths were increased from 1 to 25 bins. The energy weighting factors optimized for iodine, gadolinium and blood were calculated from 5, 10, 15, 19 and 33 energy bins. We assigned the calculated energy weighting factors to the images acquired at each energy bin. In K-edge images, the contrast and COV decreased, when the energy window width was increased. The CNR increased as a function of the energy window width and decreased above the specific energy window width. When the number of energy bins was increased from 5 to 15, the contrast increased in the projection-based energy weighting images. There is a little difference in the contrast, when the number of energy bin is

  9. SU-E-I-77: A Noise Reduction Technique for Energy-Resolved Photon-Counting Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lam Ng, A; Ding, H; Cho, H; Molloi, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Finding the optimal energy threshold setting for an energy-resolved photon-counting detector has an important impact on the maximization of contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR). We introduce a noise reduction method to enhance CNR by reducing the noise in each energy bin without altering the average gray levels in the projection and image domains. Methods: We simulated a four bin energy-resolved photon-counting detector based on Si with a 10 mm depth of interaction. TASMIP algorithm was used to simulate a spectrum of 65 kVp with 2.7 mm Al filter. A 13 mm PMMA phantom with hydroxyapatite and iodine at different concentrations (100, 200 and 300 mg/ml for HA, and 2, 4, and 8 mg/ml for Iodine) was used. Projection-based and Image-based energy weighting methods were used to generate weighted images. A reference low noise image was used for noise reduction purposes. A Gaussian-like weighting function which computes the similarity between pixels of interest was calculated from the reference image and implemented on a pixel by pixel basis for the noisy images. Results: CNR improvement compared to different methods (Charge-Integrated, Photon-Counting and Energy-Weighting) and after noise reduction was highly task-dependent. The CNR improvement with respect to the Charge-Integrated CNR for hydroxyapatite and iodine were 1.8 and 1.5, respectively. In each of the energy bins, the noise was reduced by approximately factor of two without altering their respective average gray levels. Conclusion: The proposed noise reduction technique for energy-resolved photon-counting detectors can significantly reduce image noise. This technique can be used as a compliment to the current energy-weighting methods in CNR optimization.

  10. Energy Efficienct Processes for Making Tackifier Dispersions used to make Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Rakesh Gupta

    2006-07-26

    The primary objective of this project was to develop an energy efficient, environmentally friendly and low cost process (compared to the current process) for making tackifier dispersions that are used to make pressure-sensitive adhesives. These adhesives are employed in applications such as self-adhesive postage stamps and disposable diapers and are made by combining the tackifier dispersion with a natural or synthetic rubber latex. The current process for tackifier dispersion manufacture begins by melting a (plastic) resin and adding water to it in order to form a water-in-oil emulsion. This is then converted to an oil-in-water emulsion by phase inversion in the presence of continuous stirring. The resulting emulsion is the tackifier dispersion, but it is not concentrated and the remaining excess water has to be transported and removed. The main barrier that has to be overcome in the development of commercial quality tackifier dispersions is the inability to directly emulsify resin in water due to the very low viscosity of water as compared to the viscosity of the molten resin. In the present research, a number of solutions were proposed to overcome this barrier, and these included use of different mixer types to directly form the emulsion from the molten resin but without going through a phase inversion, the idea of forming a solid resin-in-water suspension having the correct size and size distribution but without melting of the resin, and the development of techniques of making a colloidal powder of the resin that could be dispersed in water just prior to use. Progress was made on each of these approaches, and each was found to be feasible. The most appealing solution, though, is the last one, since it does not require melting of the resin. Also, the powder can be shipped in dry form and then mixed with water in any proportion depending on the needs of the process. This research was conducted at Argonne National Laboratory, and it was determined the new process

  11. The elastic modulus correction term in creep activation energies Applied to oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malu, M.; Tien, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of elastic modulus and the temperature dependence of elastic modulus on creep activation energies for an oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base superalloy are investigated. This superalloy is commercially known as Inconel Alloy MA 753, strengthened both by gamma-prime precipitates and by yttria particles. It is shown that at intermediate temperatures, say below 1500 F, where elastic modulus is weakly dependent on temperature, the modulus correction term to creep activation energy is small. Accordingly, modulus corrections are insignificant for the superalloy considered, which shows high apparent creep activation energies at this temperature. On the contrary, at very high temperatures, the elastic modulus correction term can be significant, thus reducing the creep activation energy to that of vacancy self-diffusion. In order to obtain high-temperature creep resistance, a high-value elastic modulus with a weak dependence on temperature is required.

  12. Low-energy neutron direct capture by 12C in a dispersive optical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazawa, H.; Go, K.; Igashira, M.

    1998-01-01

    A dispersive optical potential for the interaction between low-energy neutrons and 12C nuclei is derived from a dispersion relation based on the Feshbach generalized optical model. The potential reproduces completely neutron total cross sections below 1.0 MeV and substantially reproduces the energy of the 3090 keV(1/2+) level in 13C which is of nearly pure 2s1/2 single-particle character. It is found that direct-capture model calculations with this potential explain quite successfully the observed off-resonance capture transitions to the ground (1/2-), 3090 keV(1/2+), 3685 keV(3/2-), and 3854 keV(5/2+) levels in 13C at neutron energies of 20-600 keV. Special emphasis is laid on the fact that in these model analyses, account should be taken of the spatial nonlocality of the neutron-nucleus interaction potential, in particular for negative energies.

  13. Low-energy neutron direct capture by {sup 12}C in a dispersive optical potential

    SciTech Connect

    Kitazawa, H.; Go, K.; Igashira, M.

    1998-01-01

    A dispersive optical potential for the interaction between low-energy neutrons and {sup 12}C nuclei is derived from a dispersion relation based on the Feshbach generalized optical model. The potential reproduces completely neutron total cross sections below 1.0 MeV and substantially reproduces the energy of the 3090keV(1/2{sup +}) level in {sup 13}C which is of nearly pure 2s{sub 1/2} single-particle character. It is found that direct-capture model calculations with this potential explain quite successfully the observed off-resonance capture transitions to the ground (1/2{sup {minus}}), 3090keV(1/2{sup +}), 3685keV(3/2{sup {minus}}), and 3854keV(5/2{sup +}) levels in {sup 13}C at neutron energies of 20{endash}600 keV. Special emphasis is laid on the fact that in these model analyses, account should be taken of the spatial nonlocality of the neutron-nucleus interaction potential, in particular for negative energies. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Determination of selenium in biological samples with an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Zhaoshui

    2016-05-01

    Selenium is both a nutrient and a toxin. Selenium-especially organic selenium-is a core component of human nutrition. Thus, it is very important to measure selenium in biological samples. The limited sensitivity of conventional XRF hampers its widespread use in biological samples. Here, we describe the use of high-energy (100kV, 600W) linearly polarized beam energy-dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) in tandem with a three-dimensional optics design to determine 0.1-5.1μgg(-1) levels of selenium in biological samples. The effects of various experimental parameters such as applied voltage, acquisition time, secondary target and various filters were thoroughly investigated. The detection limit of selenium in biological samples via high-energy (100kV, 600W) linearly polarized beam energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was decreased by one order of magnitude versus conventional XRF (Paltridge et al., 2012) and found to be 0.1μg/g. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe EDXRF measurements of Se in biological samples with important implications for the nutrition and analytical chemistry communities. PMID:26922394

  15. Characterization of high energy Xe ion irradiation effects in single crystal molybdenum with depth-resolved synchrotron microbeam diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Di; Miao, Yinbin; Xu, Ruqing; Mei, Zhigang; Mo, Kun; Mohamed, Walid; Ye, Bei; Pellin, Michael J.; Yacout, Abdellatif M.

    2016-04-01

    Microbeam X-ray diffraction experiments were conducted at beam line 34-ID of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) on fission fragment energy Xe heavy ion irradiated single crystal Molybdenum (Mo). Lattice strain measurements were obtained with a depth resolution of 0.7 μm, which is critical in resolving the peculiar heterogeneity of irradiation damage associated with heavy ion irradiation. Q-space diffraction peak shift measurements were correlated with lattice strain induced by the ion irradiations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterizations were performed on the as-irradiated materials as well. Nanometer sized Xe bubble microstructures were observed via TEM. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to help interpret the lattice strain measurement results from the experiment. This study showed that the irradiation effects by fission fragment energy Xe ion irradiations can be collaboratively understood with the depth resolved X-ray diffraction and TEM measurements under the assistance of MD simulations.

  16. Decoupling the contribution of dispersive and acid-base components of surface energy on the cohesion of pharmaceutical powders.

    PubMed

    Shah, Umang V; Olusanmi, Dolapo; Narang, Ajit S; Hussain, Munir A; Tobyn, Michael J; Heng, Jerry Y Y

    2014-11-20

    This study reports an experimental approach to determine the contribution from two different components of surface energy on cohesion. A method to tailor the surface chemistry of mefenamic acid via silanization is established and the role of surface energy on cohesion is investigated. Silanization was used as a method to functionalize mefenamic acid surfaces with four different functional end groups resulting in an ascending order of the dispersive component of surface energy. Furthermore, four haloalkane functional end groups were grafted on to the surface of mefenamic acid, resulting in varying levels of acid-base component of surface energy, while maintaining constant dispersive component of surface energy. A proportional increase in cohesion was observed with increases in both dispersive as well as acid-base components of surface energy. Contributions from dispersive and acid-base surface energy on cohesion were determined using an iterative approach. Due to the contribution from acid-base surface energy, cohesion was found to increase ∼11.7× compared to the contribution from dispersive surface energy. Here, we provide an approach to deconvolute the contribution from two different components of surface energy on cohesion, which has the potential of predicting powder flow behavior and ultimately controlling powder cohesion. PMID:25223493

  17. Low energy x-ray spectra measured with a mercuric iodide energy dispersive spectrometer in a scanning electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanczyk, J.S.; Dabrowski, A.J.; Huth, G.C.; Bradley, J.G.; Conley, J.M.; Albee, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    A mercuric iodide energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer, with Peltier cooling provided for the detector and input field effect transistor, has been developed and tested in a scanning electron microscope. X-ray spectra were obtained with the 15 keV electron beam. An energy resolution of 225 eV (FWHM) for Mn-K/sub ..cap alpha../ at 5.9 keV and 195 eV (FWHM) for Mg-K line at 1.25 keV has been measured. Overall system noise level was 175 eV (FWHM). The detector system characterization with a carbon target demonstrated good energy sensitivity at low energies and lack of significant spectral artifacts at higher energies. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Low energy X-ray spectra measured with a mercuric iodide energy dispersive spectrometer in a scanning electron microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwanczyk, J. S.; Dabrowski, A. J.; Huth, G. C.; Bradley, J. G.; Conley, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    A mercuric iodide energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, with Peltier cooling provided for the detector and input field effect transistor, has been developed and tested in a scanning electron microscope. X-ray spectra were obtained with the 15 keV electron beam. An energy resolution of 225 eV (FWHM) for Mn-K(alpha) at 5.9 keV and 195 eV (FWHM) for the Mg-K line at 1.25 keV has been measured. Overall system noise level was 175 eV (FWHM). The detector system characterization with a carbon target demonstrated good energy sensitivity at low energies and lack of significant spectral artifacts at higher energies.

  19. Influence of gravity level and interfacial energies on dispersion-forming tendencies in hypermonotectic Cu-Pb-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J. B.; Curreri, P. A.; Sandlin, A. C.

    1988-01-01

    Results on the nondirectional solidification of several hypermonotectic Cu-Pb-Al alloys were obtained aboard NASA's KC-135 zero-gravity aircraft in order to determine the influence of interfacial energies and gravity levels on dispersion-forming tendencies. The Al content was systematially varied in the alloys. The dispersion-forming ability is correlated with gravity level during solidification, the interfacial energy between the immiscible phases, and the tendency for the minority immiscible phase to wet the walls of the crucible.

  20. Energy Dispersive X-Ray and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopies for Performance and Corrosion Analysis of PEMWEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen, S. M., Iii; Zhang, F.-Y.

    2014-11-01

    Proton exchange membrane water electrolyzers (PEMWEs) are a promising energy storage technology due to their high efficiency, compact design, and ability to be used in a renewable energy system. Before they are able to make a large commercial impact, there are several hurdles facing the technology today. Two powerful techniques for both in-situ and ex- situ characterizations to improve upon their performance and better understand their corrosion are electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, respectively. In this paper, the authors use both methods in order to characterize the anode gas diffusion layer (GDL) in a PEMWE cell and better understand the corrosion that occurs in the oxygen electrode during electrolysis.

  1. High-energy femtosecond Yb-doped dispersion compensation free fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Ortaç, B; Schmidt, O; Schreiber, T; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A; Hideur, A

    2007-08-20

    We report on a mode-locked high energy fiber laser operating in the dispersion compensation free regime. The sigma cavity is constructed with a saturable absorber mirror and short-length large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber. The laser generates positively-chirped pulses with an energy of 265 nJ at a repetition rate of 10.18 MHz in a stable and self-starting operation. The pulses are compressible down to 400 fs leading to a peak power of 500 kW. Numerical simulations accurately reflect the experimental results and reveal the mechanisms for self consistent intracavity pulse evolution. With this performance mode-locked fiber lasers can compete with state-of-the-art bulk femtosecond oscillators for the first time and pulse energy scaling beyond the muJ-level appears to be feasible. PMID:19547427

  2. New software to model energy dispersive X-ray diffraction in polycrystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghammraoui, B.; Tabary, J.; Pouget, S.; Paulus, C.; Moulin, V.; Verger, L.; Duvauchelle, Ph.

    2012-02-01

    Detection of illicit materials, such as explosives or drugs, within mixed samples is a major issue, both for general security and as part of forensic analyses. In this paper, we describe a new code simulating energy dispersive X-ray diffraction patterns in polycrystalline materials. This program, SinFullscat, models diffraction of any object in any diffractometer system taking all physical phenomena, including amorphous background, into account. Many system parameters can be tuned: geometry, collimators (slit and cylindrical), sample properties, X-ray source and detector energy resolution. Good agreement between simulations and experimental data was obtained. Simulations using explosive materials indicated that parameters such as the diffraction angle or the energy resolution of the detector have a significant impact on the diffraction signature of the material inspected. This software will be a convenient tool to test many diffractometer configurations, providing information on the one that best restores the spectral diffraction signature of the materials of interest.

  3. Determination of carrier yields for neutron activation analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.G.; Wandless, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A new method is described for determining carrier yield in the radiochemical neutron activation analysis of rare-earth elements in silicate rocks by group separation. The method involves the determination of the rare-earth elements present in the carrier by means of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis, eliminating the need to re-irradiate samples in a nuclear reactor after the gamma ray analysis is complete. Results from the analysis of USGS standards AGV-1 and BCR-1 compare favorably with those obtained using the conventional method. ?? 1984 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  4. Distinction between entrance and exit wounds by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naoko; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Takakura, Ayaka; Jamal, Mostofa; Ito, Asuka; Kumihashi, Mitsuru; Tsutsui, Kunihiko; Kimura, Shoji; Ameno, Kiyoshi

    2016-09-01

    We investigated gunshot wounds in two autopsy cases using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Lead and copper were detected in the entrance wound of one case and lead, antimony, and copper were detected in that of the other case. In the exit wounds of both cases, lead, antimony, and copper were below detection limits. These findings indicate that the detection of metallic elements, such as lead, antimony, and copper, which are found in bullets, may be useful for differentiating entrance from exit wounds using EDX. PMID:27591531

  5. Energy transfer between rhodamine 3B and oxazine 4 in synthetic-saponite dispersions and films.

    PubMed

    Czímerová, A; Iyi, N; Bujdák, J

    2007-02-15

    The objective of this study was the investigation of energy transfer between the laser dyes rhodamine 3B (R3B) and oxazine 4 (Ox4) adsorbed on the surface of synthetic Sumecton saponite (Sum). The process of energy transfer was studied for both saponite dispersions and oriented solid films. The electronic properties, luminescence, and the energy transfer process were described by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. For the efficiency of the energy transfer process, the concentrations of energy donor and acceptor components on a clay mineral surface were found to be essential. A side reaction of the molecular assembly formation reduced both the luminescence and energy-transfer yields, mainly due to fluorescence quenching. The quenching was more problematic for the solid film specimens, where an appropriate modification of the inorganic host with hydrophobic alkylammonium cations was used to achieve a higher luminescence. Due to the higher tendency of Ox4 to form nonluminescent aggregates at higher concentrations, the lowering of the Ox4 concentration further improved the luminescent properties of the films. In this case, the energy transfer occurring in the solid film from R3B to Ox4 was clearly proven. PMID:17118384

  6. Determination of time- and height-resolved volcanic ash emissions and their use for quantitative ash dispersion modeling: the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Prata, A. J.; Eckhardt, S.; Clarisse, L.; Durant, A.; Henne, S.; Kristiansen, N. I.; Minikin, A.; Schumann, U.; Seibert, P.; Stebel, K.; Thomas, H. E.; Thorsteinsson, T.; Tørseth, K.; Weinzierl, B.

    2011-05-01

    The April-May, 2010 volcanic eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland caused significant economic and social disruption in Europe whilst state of the art measurements and ash dispersion forecasts were heavily criticized by the aviation industry. Here we demonstrate for the first time that large improvements can be made in quantitative predictions of the fate of volcanic ash emissions, by using an inversion scheme that couples a priori source information and the output of a Lagrangian dispersion model with satellite data to estimate the volcanic ash source strength as a function of altitude and time. From the inversion, we obtain a total fine ash emission of the eruption of 8.3 ± 4.2 Tg for particles in the size range of 2.8-28 μm diameter. We evaluate the results of our model results with a posteriori ash emissions using independent ground-based, airborne and space-borne measurements both in case studies and statistically. Subsequently, we estimate the area over Europe affected by volcanic ash above certain concentration thresholds relevant for the aviation industry. We find that during three episodes in April and May, volcanic ash concentrations at some altitude in the atmosphere exceeded the limits for the "Normal" flying zone in up to 14 % (6-16 %), 2 % (1-3 %) and 7 % (4-11 %), respectively, of the European area. For a limit of 2 mg m-3 only two episodes with fractions of 1.5 % (0.2-2.8 %) and 0.9 % (0.1-1.6 %) occurred, while the current "No-Fly" zone criterion of 4 mg m-3 was rarely exceeded. Our results have important ramifications for determining air space closures and for real-time quantitative estimations of ash concentrations. Furthermore, the general nature of our method yields better constraints on the distribution and fate of volcanic ash in the Earth system.

  7. Better resolved low frequency dispersions by the apt use of Kramers-Kronig relations, differential operators and all-in-1 modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnhout, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The dielectric spectra of colloidal systems often contain a typical low frequency dispersion, which usually remains unnoticed, because of the presence of strong conduction losses. The KK relations offer a means for converting ɛ' into ɛ'' data. This allows us to calculate conduction free ɛ'' spectra in which the l.f. dispersion will show up undisturbed. This interconversion can be done on line with a moving frame of logarithmically spaced ɛ' data. The coefficients of the conversion frames were obtained by kernel matching and by using symbolic differential operators. Logarithmic derivatives and differences of ɛ' and ɛ'' provide another option for conduction free data analysis. These difference-based functions actually derived from approximations to the distribution function, have the additional advantage of improving the resolution power of dielectric studies. A high resolution is important because of the rich relaxation structure of colloidal suspensions. The development of all-in-1 modelling facilitates the conduction free and high resolution data analysis. This mathematical tool allows the apart-together fitting of multiple data and multiple model functions. It proved also useful to go around the KK conversion altogether. This was achieved by the combined approximating ɛ' and ɛ'' data with a complex rational fractional power function. The all-in-1 minimization turned out to be also highly useful for the dielectric modelling of a suspension with the complex dipolar coefficient. It guarantees a secure correction for the electrode polarization, so that the modelling with the help of the differences ɛ' and ɛ'' can zoom in on the genuine colloidal relaxations.

  8. Better Resolved Low Frequency Dispersions by the Apt Use of Kramers-Kronig Relations, Differential Operators, and All-In-1 Modeling.

    PubMed

    van Turnhout, J

    2016-01-01

    The dielectric spectra of colloidal systems often contain a typical low frequency dispersion, which usually remains unnoticed, because of the presence of strong conduction losses. The KK relations offer a means for converting ε' into ε″ data. This allows us to calculate conduction free ε″ spectra in which the l.f. dispersion will show up undisturbed. This interconversion can be done on line with a moving frame of logarithmically spaced ε' data. The coefficients of the conversion frames were obtained by kernel matching and by using symbolic differential operators. Logarithmic derivatives and differences of ε' and ε″ provide another option for conduction free data analysis. These difference-based functions actually derived from approximations to the distribution function, have the additional advantage of improving the resolution power of dielectric studies. A high resolution is important because of the rich relaxation structure of colloidal suspensions. The development of all-in-1 modeling facilitates the conduction free and high resolution data analysis. This mathematical tool allows the apart-together fitting of multiple data and multiple model functions. It proved also useful to go around the KK conversion altogether. This was achieved by the combined approximating ε' and ε″ data with a complex rational fractional power function. The all-in-1 minimization turned out to be also highly useful for the dielectric modeling of a suspension with the complex dipolar coefficient. It guarantees a secure correction for the electrode polarization, so that the modeling with the help of the differences ε' and ε″ can zoom in on the genuine colloidal relaxations. PMID:27242997

  9. Better Resolved Low Frequency Dispersions by the Apt Use of Kramers-Kronig Relations, Differential Operators, and All-In-1 Modeling

    PubMed Central

    van Turnhout, J.

    2016-01-01

    The dielectric spectra of colloidal systems often contain a typical low frequency dispersion, which usually remains unnoticed, because of the presence of strong conduction losses. The KK relations offer a means for converting ε′ into ε″ data. This allows us to calculate conduction free ε″ spectra in which the l.f. dispersion will show up undisturbed. This interconversion can be done on line with a moving frame of logarithmically spaced ε′ data. The coefficients of the conversion frames were obtained by kernel matching and by using symbolic differential operators. Logarithmic derivatives and differences of ε′ and ε″ provide another option for conduction free data analysis. These difference-based functions actually derived from approximations to the distribution function, have the additional advantage of improving the resolution power of dielectric studies. A high resolution is important because of the rich relaxation structure of colloidal suspensions. The development of all-in-1 modeling facilitates the conduction free and high resolution data analysis. This mathematical tool allows the apart-together fitting of multiple data and multiple model functions. It proved also useful to go around the KK conversion altogether. This was achieved by the combined approximating ε′ and ε″ data with a complex rational fractional power function. The all-in-1 minimization turned out to be also highly useful for the dielectric modeling of a suspension with the complex dipolar coefficient. It guarantees a secure correction for the electrode polarization, so that the modeling with the help of the differences ε′ and ε″ can zoom in on the genuine colloidal relaxations. PMID:27242997

  10. Gamma-to-electron magnetic spectrometer (GEMS): An energy-resolved {gamma}-ray diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.; Herrmann, H. W.; Mack, J. M.; Young, C. S.; Barlow, D. B.; Schillig, J. B.; Sims, J. R. Jr.; Lopez, F. E.; Mares, D.; Oertel, J. A.; Hayes-Sterbenz, A. C.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Wu, W.; Moy, K.; Stoeffl, W.

    2012-10-15

    The gamma-to-electron magnetic spectrometer, having better than 5% energy resolution, is proposed to resolve {gamma}-rays in the range of E{sub o}{+-} 20% in single shot, where E{sub o} is the central energy and is tunable from 2 to 25 MeV. Gamma-rays from inertial confinement fusion implosions interact with a thin Compton converter (e.g., beryllium) located at approximately 300 cm from the target chamber center (TCC). Scattered electrons out of the Compton converter enter an electromagnet placed outside the NIF chamber (approximately 600 cm from TCC) where energy selection takes place. The electromagnet provides tunable E{sub o} over a broad range in a compact manner. Energy resolved electrons are measured by an array of quartz Cherenkov converters coupled to photomultipliers. Given 100 detectable electrons in the energy bins of interest, 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} minimum deuterium/tritium (DT) neutrons will be required to measure the 4.44 MeV {sup 12}C {gamma}-rays assuming 200 mg/cm{sup 2} plastic ablator areal density and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} minimum DT neutrons to measure the 16.75 MeV DT {gamma}-ray line.

  11. Gamma-to-electron magnetic spectrometer (GEMS): An energy-resolved γ-ray diagnostic for the National Ignition Facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Moy, K.; Stoeffl, W.; Mack, J. M.; Young, C. S.; Wu, W.; Barlow, D. B.; Schillig, J. B.; Sims, J. R.; Lopez, F. E.; Mares, D.; Oertel, J. A.; Hayes-Sterbenz, A. C.

    2012-10-01

    The gamma-to-electron magnetic spectrometer, having better than 5% energy resolution, is proposed to resolve γ-rays in the range of Eo ± 20% in single shot, where Eo is the central energy and is tunable from 2 to 25 MeV. Gamma-rays from inertial confinement fusion implosions interact with a thin Compton converter (e.g., beryllium) located at approximately 300 cm from the target chamber center (TCC). Scattered electrons out of the Compton converter enter an electromagnet placed outside the NIF chamber (approximately 600 cm from TCC) where energy selection takes place. The electromagnet provides tunable Eo over a broad range in a compact manner. Energy resolved electrons are measured by an array of quartz Cherenkov converters coupled to photomultipliers. Given 100 detectable electrons in the energy bins of interest, 3 × 1014 minimum deuterium/tritium (DT) neutrons will be required to measure the 4.44 MeV 12C γ-rays assuming 200 mg/cm2 plastic ablator areal density and 3 × 1015 minimum DT neutrons to measure the 16.75 MeV DT γ-ray line.

  12. Practical applications of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in diagnostic oral pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, T.D.; Gibson, D. )

    1990-03-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis is a powerful tool that can reveal the presence and relative quantities of elements in minute particles in biologic materials. Although this technique has been used in some aspects of dental research, it has rarely been applied to diagnostic oral pathology. The purpose of this paper is to inform practicing dentists and oral specialists about the diagnostic potential of this procedure by presenting three case reports. The first case involved the identification of flakes of a metallic material claimed by a 14-year-old girl to appear periodically between her mandibular molars. In the second case, a periodontist was spared a lawsuit when a freely mobile mass in the antrum of his patient was found to be a calcium-phosphorus compound not related to the periodontal packing that had been used. The third case involved the differential diagnosis of amalgam tattoo and graphite tattoo in a pigmented lesion of the hard palate mucosa. The results of the analyses were significant and indicate a role for this technique in the assessment of selected cases. Potential for wider use of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in diagnostic oral pathology exists as research progresses.

  13. Alternating magnetic field energy absorption in the dispersion of iron oxide nanoparticles in a viscous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolkova, Ilona S.; Kazantseva, Natalia E.; Babayan, Vladimir; Smolka, Petr; Parmar, Harshida; Vilcakova, Jarmila; Schneeweiss, Oldrich; Pizurova, Nadezda

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a coprecipitation method in a controlled growth process leading to the formation of uniform highly crystalline nanoparticles with average size of 13 nm, which corresponds to the superparamagnetic state. Nanoparticles obtained are a mixture of single-phase nanoparticles of magnetite and maghemite as well as nanoparticles of non-stoichiometric magnetite. The subsequent annealing of nanoparticles at 300 °C in air during 6 h leads to the full transformation to maghemite. It results in reduced value of the saturation magnetization (from 56 emu g-1 to 48 emu g-1) but does not affect the heating ability of nanoparticles. A 2-7 wt% dispersion of as-prepared and annealed nanoparticles in glycerol provides high heating rate in alternating magnetic fields allowed for application in magnetic hyperthermia; however the value of specific loss power does not exceed 30 W g-1. This feature of heat output is explained by the combined effect of magnetic interparticle interactions and the properties of the carrier medium. Nanoparticles coalesce during the synthesis and form aggregates showing ferromagnetic-like behavior with magnetization hysteresis, distinct sextets on Mössbauer spectrum, blocking temperature well about room temperature, which accounts for the higher energy barrier for magnetization reversal. At the same time, low specific heat capacity of glycerol intensifies heat transfer in the magnetic dispersion. However, high viscosity of glycerol limits the specific loss power value, since predominantly the Neel relaxation accounts for the absorption of AC magnetic field energy.

  14. Quantitative energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction for identification of counterfeit medicines: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, Chiaki C. E.; O'Flynn, Daniel; Sidebottom, Aiden; Speller, Robert D.

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of counterfeit and substandard medicines has been growing rapidly over the past decade, and fast, nondestructive techniques for their detection are urgently needed to counter this trend. In this study, energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) combined with chemometrics was assessed for its effectiveness in quantitative analysis of compressed powder mixtures. Although EDXRD produces lower-resolution diffraction patterns than angular-dispersive X-ray diffraction (ADXRD), it is of interest for this application as it carries the advantage of allowing the analysis of tablets within their packaging, due to the higher energy X-rays used. A series of caffeine, paracetamol and microcrystalline cellulose mixtures were prepared with compositions between 0 - 100 weight% in 20 weight% steps (22 samples in total, including a centroid mixture), and were pressed into tablets. EDXRD spectra were collected in triplicate, and a principal component analysis (PCA) separated these into their correct positions in the ternary mixture design. A partial least-squares (PLS) regression model calibrated using this training set was validated using both segmented cross-validation, and with a test set of six samples (mixtures in 8:1:1 and 5⅓:2⅓:2⅓ ratios) - the latter giving a root-mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.30, 2.25 and 2.03 weight% for caffeine, paracetamol and cellulose respectively. These initial results are promising, with RMSEP values on a par with those reported in the ADXRD literature.

  15. X-ray coherent scattering form factors of tissues, water and plastics using energy dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, B. W.; Landheer, K. A.; Johns, P. C.

    2011-07-01

    A key requirement for the development of the field of medical x-ray scatter imaging is accurate characterization of the differential scattering cross sections of tissues and phantom materials. The coherent x-ray scattering form factors of five tissues (fat, muscle, liver, kidney, and bone) obtained from butcher shops, four plastics (polyethylene, polystyrene, lexan (polycarbonate), nylon), and water have been measured using an energy-dispersive technique. The energy-dispersive technique has several improvements over traditional diffractometer measurements. Most notably, the form factor is measured on an absolute scale with no need for scaling factors. Form factors are reported in terms of the quantity x = λ-1sin (θ/2) over the range 0.363-9.25 nm-1. The coherent form factors of muscle, liver, and kidney resemble those of water, while fat has a narrower peak at lower x, and bone is more structured. The linear attenuation coefficients of the ten materials have also been measured over the range 30-110 keV and parameterized using the dual-material approach with the basis functions being the linear attenuation coefficients of polymethylmethacrylate and aluminum.

  16. Unified dispersive approach to real and virtual photon-photon scattering at low energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussallam, B.

    2013-09-01

    Previous representations of pion-pair production amplitudes by two real photons at low energy, which combine dispersion theoretical constraints with elastic unitarity, chiral symmetry and soft-photon constraints are generalised to the case where one photon is virtual. The constructed amplitudes display explicitly the dependence on the ππ phase-shifts, on pion form factors and on pion polarisabilities. They apply both for space-like and time-like virtualities despite the apparent overlap of the left- and right-hand cuts, by implementing a definition of resonance exchange amplitudes complying with analyticity and consistent limiting prescriptions for the energy variables. Applications are made to the pion generalised polarisabilies, to vector-meson radiative decays, and to the σγ electromagnetic form factor. Finally, an evaluation of the contribution of γππ states in the hadronic vacuum polarisation to the muon g-2 is given, which should be less model dependent than previous estimates.

  17. Superconducting Detector System for High-Resolution Energy-Dispersive Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S; Niedermayr, T; Drury, O; Funk, T; Frank, M; Labov, S E; Cramer, S

    2001-02-21

    Synchrotron-based soft x-ray spectroscopy is often limited by detector performance. Grating spectrometers have the resolution, but lack the efficiency for the analysis of dilute samples. Semiconducting Si(Li) or Ge detectors are efficient, but often lack the resolution to separate weak signals from strong nearby lines in multi-element samples. Superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) operated at temperatures below 1 K can be used as high-resolution high-efficiency x-ray detectors. They combine high energy resolution around 10 eV FWHM with the broad band efficiency of energy-dispersive detectors. We have designed a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate STJ detectors in x-ray fluorescence measurements at beam line 4 of the ALS. We demonstrate the capabilities of such a detector system for fluorescence analysis of dilute metal sites in proteins and inorganic model compounds.

  18. Coulomb Interaction Effect in Weyl Fermions with Tilted Energy Dispersion in Two Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, Hiroki; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2016-03-01

    Weyl fermions with tilted linear dispersions characterized by several different velocities appear in some systems including the quasi-two-dimensional organic semiconductor α -(BEDT -TTF )2I3 and three-dimensional WTe2 . The Coulomb interaction between electrons modifies the velocities in an essential way in the low-energy limit, where the logarithmic corrections dominate. Taking into account the coupling to both the transverse and longitudinal electromagnetic fields, we derive the renormalization group equations for the velocities of the tilted Weyl fermions in two dimensions, and found that they increase as the energy decreases and eventually hit the speed of light c to result in the Cherenkov radiation. Especially, the system restores the isotropic Weyl cone even when the bare Weyl cone is strongly tilted and the velocity of electrons becomes negative in certain directions.

  19. Coulomb Interaction Effect in Weyl Fermions with Tilted Energy Dispersion in Two Dimensions.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Hiroki; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2016-03-18

    Weyl fermions with tilted linear dispersions characterized by several different velocities appear in some systems including the quasi-two-dimensional organic semiconductor α-(BEDT-TTF)_{2}I_{3} and three-dimensional WTe_{2}. The Coulomb interaction between electrons modifies the velocities in an essential way in the low-energy limit, where the logarithmic corrections dominate. Taking into account the coupling to both the transverse and longitudinal electromagnetic fields, we derive the renormalization group equations for the velocities of the tilted Weyl fermions in two dimensions, and found that they increase as the energy decreases and eventually hit the speed of light c to result in the Cherenkov radiation. Especially, the system restores the isotropic Weyl cone even when the bare Weyl cone is strongly tilted and the velocity of electrons becomes negative in certain directions. PMID:27035318

  20. Determination of time- and height-resolved volcanic ash emissions for quantitative ash dispersion modeling: the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Prata, A. J.; Eckhardt, S.; Clarisse, L.; Durant, A.; Henne, S.; Kristiansen, N. I.; Minikin, A.; Schumann, U.; Seibert, P.; Stebel, K.; Thomas, H. E.; Thorsteinsson, T.; Tørseth, K.; Weinzierl, B.

    2011-02-01

    The April-May 2010 volcanic eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland caused significant economic and social disruption in Europe whilst state of the art measurements and ash dispersion forecasts were heavily criticized by the aviation industry. Here we demonstrate for the first time that dramatic improvements can be made in quantitative predictions of the fate of volcanic ash emissions, by using an inversion scheme that couples a priori source information and the output of a Lagrangian dispersion model with satellite data to estimate the volcanic ash source strength as a function of altitude and time. From the inversion, we obtain a total fine ash emission of the eruption of 8.3 ± 4.2 Tg for particles in the size range of 2.8-28 μm diameter and extrapolate this to a total ash emission of 11.9 ± 5.9 Tg for the size range of 0.25-250 μm. We evaluate the results of our a posteriori model using independent ground-based, airborne and space-borne measurements both in case studies and statistically. Subsequently, we estimate the area over Europe affected by volcanic ash above certain concentration thresholds relevant for the aviation industry. We find that during three episodes in April and May, volcanic ash concentrations at some altitude in the atmosphere exceeded the limits for the "normal" flying zone in up to 14% (6-16%), 2% (1-3%) and 7% (4-11%), respectively, of the European area. For a limit of 2 mg m-3 only two episodes with fractions of 1.5% (0.2-2.8%) and 0.9% (0.1-1.6%) occurred, while the current "no-fly" zone criterion of 4 mg m-3 was rarely exceeded. Our results have important ramifications for determining air space closures and for real-time quantitative estimations of ash concentrations. Furthermore, the general nature of our method yields better constraints on the distribution and fate of volcanic ash in the Earth system.

  1. Construction and operation of parallel electric and magnetic field spectrometers for mass/energy resolved multi-ion charge exchange diagnostics on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S.S.; Roquemore, A.L.

    1998-07-01

    A novel charge exchange spectrometer using a dee-shaped region of parallel electric and magnetic fields was developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for neutral particle diagnostics on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The E{parallel}B spectrometer has an energy range of 0.5{le}Athinsp(amu)Ethinsp(keV){le}600 and provides mass-resolved energy spectra of H{sup +}, D{sup +}, and T{sup +} (or {sup 3}He{sup +}) ion species simultaneously during a single discharge. The detector plane exhibits parallel rows of analyzed ions, each row containing the energy dispersed ions of a given mass-to-charge ratio. The detector consists of a large area microchannel plate (MCP) which is provided with three rectangular, semicontinuous active area strips, one coinciding with each of the mass rows for detection of H{sup +}, D{sup +}, and T{sup +} (or {sup 3}He{sup +}) and each mass row has 75 energy channels. To suppress spurious signals attending operation of the plate in the magnetic fringe field of the spectrometer, the MCP was housed in a double-walled iron shield with a wire mesh ion entrance window. Using an accelerator neutron generator, the MCP neutron detection efficiency was measured to be 1.7{times}10{sup {minus}3} and 6.4{times}10{sup {minus}3}thinspcounts/neutron/cm{sup 2} for 2.5 MeV-DD and 14 MeV-DT neutrons, respectively. The design and calibration of the spectrometer are described in detail, including the effect of MCP exposure to tritium, and results obtained during high performance D{endash}D operation on TFTR are presented to illustrate the performance of the E{parallel}B spectrometer. The spectrometers were not used during D{endash}T plasma operation due to the cost of providing the required radiation shielding. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. The H + OCS hot atom reaction - CO state distributions and translational energy from time-resolved infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickolaisen, Scott L.; Cartland, Harry E.

    1993-01-01

    Time-resolved infrared diode laser spectroscopy has been used to probe CO internal and translational excitation from the reaction of hot H atoms with OCS. Product distributions should be strongly biased toward the maximum 1.4 eV collision energy obtained from 278 nm pulsed photolysis of HI. Rotations and vibrations are both colder than predicted by statistical density of states theory, as evidenced by large positive surprisal parameters. The bias against rotation is stronger than that against vibration, with measurable population as high as v = 4. The average CO internal excitation is 1920/cm, accounting for only 13 percent of the available energy. Of the energy balance, time-resolved sub-Doppler line shape measurements show that more than 38 percent appears as relative translation of the separating CO and SH fragments. Studies of the relaxation kinetics indicate that some rotational energy transfer occurs on the time scale of our measurements, but the distributions do not relax sufficiently to alter our conclusions. Vibrational distributions are nascent, though vibrational relaxation of excited CO is unusually fast in the OCS bath, with rates approaching 3 percent of gas kinetic for v = 1.

  3. Communication: A combined periodic density functional and incremental wave-function-based approach for the dispersion-accounting time-resolved dynamics of {sup 4}He nanodroplets on surfaces: {sup 4}He/graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Lara-Castells, María Pilar de; Stoll, Hermann; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Causà, Mauro; Voloshina, Elena; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O.; Pi, Martí

    2014-10-21

    In this work we propose a general strategy to calculate accurate He–surface interaction potentials. It extends the dispersionless density functional approach recently developed by Pernal et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 263201 (2009)] to adsorbate-surface interactions by including periodic boundary conditions. We also introduce a scheme to parametrize the dispersion interaction by calculating two- and three-body dispersion terms at coupled cluster singles and doubles and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) level via the method of increments [H. Stoll, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8449 (1992)]. The performance of the composite approach is tested on {sup 4}He/graphene by determining the energies of the low-lying selective adsorption states, finding an excellent agreement with the best available theoretical data. Second, the capability of the approach to describe dispersionless correlation effects realistically is used to extract dispersion effects in time-dependent density functional simulations on the collision of {sup 4}He droplets with a single graphene sheet. It is found that dispersion effects play a key role in the fast spreading of the {sup 4}He nanodroplet, the evaporation-like process of helium atoms, and the formation of solid-like helium structures. These characteristics are expected to be quite general and highly relevant to explain experimental measurements with the newly developed helium droplet mediated deposition technique.

  4. Energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction using an annular beam.

    PubMed

    Dicken, A J; Evans, J P O; Rogers, K D; Greenwood, C; Godber, S X; Prokopiou, D; Stone, N; Clement, J G; Lyburn, I; Martin, R M; Zioupos, P

    2015-05-18

    We demonstrate material phase identification by measuring polychromatic diffraction spots from samples at least 20 mm in diameter and up to 10 mm thick with an energy resolving point detector. Within our method an annular X-ray beam in the form of a conical shell is incident with its symmetry axis normal to an extended polycrystalline sample. The detector is configured to receive diffracted flux transmitted through the sample and is positioned on the symmetry axis of the annular beam. We present the experiment data from a range of different materials and demonstrate the acquisition of useful data with sub-second collection times of 0.5 s; equating to 0.15 mAs. Our technique should be highly relevant in fields that demand rapid analytical methods such as medicine, security screening and non-destructive testing. PMID:26074592

  5. The Role of Energy Dispersion in the Genesis and Life Cycle of African Easterly Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Michael

    This dissertation uses energy dispersion and wave packet concepts to provide a better conceptual model of the genesis and life cycle of African Easterly Waves and to better understand the instability of the African Easterly Jet (AEJ). The existence of an upstream (eastward) group velocity for AEWs is shown based on single-point lag regressions using gridded reanalysis data from 1990 to 2010. The eastward energy dispersion is consistent with the direction of ageostrophic geopotential flux vectors. A local eddy kinetic energy (EKE) budget reveals that, early in the life cycle of AEWs, growth rate due to geopotential flux convergence exceeds baroclinic and barotropic growth rates. Later in the life cycle, EKE decay due to geopotential flux divergence cancels or exceeds baroclinic and barotropic growth. A potential vorticity (PV) budget is used to diagnose tendencies related to group propagation. Although both upstream and downstream group speeds are possible because of the reversal in the mean meridional PV gradient, upstream propagation associated with the positive poleward PV gradient dominates wave packet evolution. Analogous to the concept of downstream development of midlatitude baroclinic waves, new AEWs develop preferentially upstream of the older ones, thus providing a mechanism for seeding new waves. The usefulness of upstream development as a genesis mechanism for AEWs is demonstrated by performing a case study of the AEW which ultimately produced hurricane Alberto (2000). The case study uses the ERA-interim reanalysis combined with surface observations and TRMM data. Using a local EKE budget, we attribute its genesis to energy dispersion from a preceding AEW. After genesis, baroclinic and barotropic conversion dominated the energetics of this AEW. Some strengths and weaknesses of upstream development as a paradigm for AEW genesis are discussed with respect to other potential mechanisms. The stability of the AEJ is examined applying the concept of absolute

  6. Surface energy changes and their relationship with the dispersibility of salmeterol xinafoate powders for inhalation after storage at high RH.

    PubMed

    Das, Shyamal; Larson, Ian; Young, Paul; Stewart, Peter

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the relationship between surface energy of micronized lactose, coarse lactose and salmeterol xinafoate and dispersibility from a mixture after storage at 75% RH. Surface energies, dispersibility, morphology, and the presence of amorphous domains were determined by inverse gas chromatography, twin stage impinger, scanning electron microscope and dynamic vapour sorption, respectively. The fine particle fraction of mixture decreased significantly in 4 weeks (P<0.05), reaching a static level in 3 months. Amorphous content was not detected in the micronized lactose, coarse lactose and salmeterol xinafoate. After conditioning stored samples at 75% RH for 2h, dispersive surface energy of both micronized and coarse lactose significantly decreased (P<0.05), while the polar surface energy of all significantly increased (P<0.05) resulting in significant increase in total surface energy after storage. After conditioning stored samples at 0% RH for 2h, no significant difference was observed in any surface energy parameter. This study concluded that the total surface energy increased during storage at high RH due to the adhered surface moisture. The mechanism of decreased dispersibility was related to increased capillary/solid bridging interactions and to possible increased interaction of contiguous particles due to increased polar surface energy. PMID:19732829

  7. Influence of argon and oxygen on charge-state-resolved ion energy distributions of filtered aluminum arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosén, Johanna; Anders, André; Mráz, Stanislav; Atiser, Adil; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2006-06-01

    The charge-state-resolved ion energy distributions (IEDs) in filtered aluminum vacuum arc plasmas were measured and analyzed at different oxygen and argon pressures in the range of 0.5-8.0 mTorr. A significant reduction of the ion energy was detected as the pressure was increased, most pronounced in an argon environment and for the higher charge states. The corresponding average charge state decreased from 1.87 to 1.0 with increasing pressure. The IEDs of all metal ions in oxygen were fitted with shifted Maxwellian distributions. The results show that it is possible to obtain a plasma composition with a narrow charge-state distribution as well as a narrow IED. These data may enable tailoring thin film properties through selecting growth conditions that are characterized by predefined charge state and energy distributions.

  8. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K. W. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A.; Lu, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/ΔE of order 10 000 and spatial resolution better than 10 μm. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  9. Time-resolved photoemission apparatus achieving sub-20-meV energy resolution and high stability

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Y.; Togashi, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tanaka, M.; Kiss, T.; Otsu, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Shin, S.

    2014-12-15

    The paper describes a time- and angle-resolved photoemission apparatus consisting of a hemispherical analyzer and a pulsed laser source. We demonstrate 1.48-eV pump and 5.92-eV probe measurements at the ⩾10.5-meV and ⩾240-fs resolutions by use of fairly monochromatic 170-fs pulses delivered from a regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire laser system operating typically at 250 kHz. The apparatus is capable to resolve the optically filled superconducting peak in the unoccupied states of a cuprate superconductor, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. A dataset recorded on Bi(111) surface is also presented. Technical descriptions include the followings: A simple procedure to fine-tune the spatio-temporal overlap of the pump-and-probe beams and their diameters; achieving a long-term stability of the system that enables a normalization-free dataset acquisition; changing the repetition rate by utilizing acoustic optical modulator and frequency-division circuit.

  10. Size-resolved global emission inventory of primary particulate matter from energy-related combustion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winijkul, E.; Yan, F.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Bond, T. C.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-04-01

    Current emission inventories provide information about the mass emissions of different chemical species from different emitting sources without information concerning the size distribution of primary particulate matter (PM). The size distribution information, however, is an important input into chemical transport models that determine the fate of PM and its impacts on climate and public health. At present, models usually make rather rudimentary assumptions about the size distribution of primary PM emissions in their model inputs. In this study, we develop a global and regional, size-resolved, mass emission inventory of primary PM emissions from source-specific combustion components of the residential, industrial, power, and transportation sectors for the year 2010. Uncertainties in the emission profiles are also provided. The global size-resolved PM emissions show a distribution with a single peak and the majority of the mass of particles in size ranges smaller than 1 μm. The PM size distributions for different sectors and world regions vary considerably, due to the different combustion characteristics. Typically, the sizes of particles decrease in the order: power sector > industrial sector > residential sector > transportation sector. Three emission scenarios are applied to the baseline distributions to study the likely changes in size distribution of emissions as clean technologies are implemented.

  11. An Overview of High-Resolution, Non-Dispersive, Imaging Spectrometers for High-Energy Photons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy has become a powerful tool for studying the evolving universe. The grating spectrometers on the XMM and Chandra satellites initiated a new era in x-ray astronomy. Despite their successes, there is still need for instrumentation that can provide higher spectral resolution with high throughput in the Fe-K band and for extended sources. What is needed is a non-dispersive imaging spectrometer - essentially a 14-bit x-ray color camera. And a requirement for a nondispersive spectrometer designed to provide eV-scale spectral resolution is a temperature below 0.1 K. The required spectral resolution and the constraints of thermodynamics and engineering dictate the temperature regime nearly independently of the details of the sensor or the read-out technology. Low-temperature spectrometers can be divided into two classes - - equilibrium and non-equilibrium. In the equilibrium devices, or calorimeters, the energy is deposited in an isolated thermal mass and the resulting increase in temperature is measured. In the non-equilibrium devices, the absorbed energy produces quantized excitations that are counted to determine the energy. The two approaches have different strong points, and within each class a variety of optimizations have been pursued. I will present the basic fundamentals of operation and the details of the most successful device designs to date. I will also discuss how the measurement priorities (resolution, energy band, count rate) influence the optimal choice of detector technology.

  12. ENERGY-DEPENDENT LIGHT CURVES AND PHASE-RESOLVED SPECTRA OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAYS FROM THE CRAB PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Zhang, L.

    2010-12-20

    Energy-dependent light curves and phase-resolved spectra of high-energy {gamma}-ray emission from the Crab pulsar have been detected recently by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Within the framework of a two-pole, three-dimensional outer gap model, we calculate the energy-dependent light curves and phase-resolved spectra in the inertial observer's frame. Our results show that (1) the observed {gamma}-ray properties from both Fermi LAT and MAGIC can be reproduced well in this model; (2) the first peak of the light curves in the energy region less than {approx}10 GeV comes from the sum of emissions from both the north and south poles, and the second peak comes only from the emission from the south pole; however, the relative contribution of the two poles to the first peak changes with increasing {gamma}-ray energy, and the light curve in the energy region greater than {approx}20 GeV comes completely from the emission of the south pole; and (3) {gamma}-rays in the energy region greater than 100 MeV are produced through inverse Compton scattering from secondary pairs and the survival curvature photons, where the latter dominate over {gamma}-ray emission in the energy region greater than several GeV.

  13. Compositional analysis of Ceramic Glaze by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khedr, A.; Abdel-kareem, O.; Elnabi, S. H.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied for the analysis of Egyptian Islamic glaze ceramic sample. The sample dating back to Fatimid period (969-1169AD), and collected from Al-Fustat excavation store in Cairo. The analysis of contaminated pottery sample has been performed to draw mapping for the elemental compositions by LIBS technique. LIBS measurements have been done by the fundamental wavelength (1064 nm) of Nd: YAG laser for the elemental analysis and performing the cleaning processes of the pottery sample. In addition, complementary analyses were carried out by scanning electron microscopy linked with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX) to obtain verification of chemical results. The morphological surfaces before and after cleaning has been done by Optical Microscopy (OM).

  14. Energy dispersive x-ray diffraction of charge density waves via chemical filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Yejun; Somayazulu, M. S.; Jaramillo, R.; Rosenbaum, T.F.; Isaacs, E.D.; Hu Jingzhu; Mao Hokwang

    2005-06-15

    Pressure tuning of phase transitions is a powerful tool in condensed matter physics, permitting high-resolution studies while preserving fundamental symmetries. At the highest pressures, energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXD) has been a critical method for geometrically confined diamond anvil cell experiments. We develop a chemical filter technique complementary to EDXD that permits the study of satellite peaks as weak as 10{sup -4} of the crystal Bragg diffraction. In particular, we map out the temperature dependence of the incommensurate charge density wave diffraction from single-crystal, elemental chromium. This technique provides the potential for future GPa pressure studies of many-body effects in a broad range of solid state systems.

  15. Nano-sized Lithium Manganese Oxide Dispersed on Carbon Nanotubes for Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, S.B.

    2009-08-01

    Nano-sized lithium manganese oxide (LMO) dispersed on carbon nanotubes (CNT) has been synthesized successfully via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal reaction at 200 C for 30 min using MnO{sub 2}-coated CNT and an aqueous LiOH solution. The initial specific capacity is 99.4 mAh/g at a 1.6 C-rate, and is maintained at 99.1 mAh/g even at a 16 C-rate. The initial specific capacity is also maintained up to the 50th cycle to give 97% capacity retention. The LMO/CNT nanocomposite shows excellent power performance and good structural reversibility as an electrode material in energy storage systems, such as lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors. This synthetic strategy opens a new avenue for the effective and facile synthesis of lithium transition metal oxide/CNT nanocomposite.

  16. Energy dispersive-EXAFS of Pd nucleation at a liquid/liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S.-Y.; Booth, S. G.; Uehara, A.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Cibin, G.; Pham, V.-T.; Nataf, L.; Dryfe, R. A. W.; Schroeder, S. L. M.

    2016-05-01

    Energy dispersive extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EDE) has been applied to Pd nanoparticle nucleation at a liquid/liquid interface under control over the interfacial potential and thereby the driving force for nucleation. Preliminary analysis focusing on Pd K edge-step height determination shows that under supersaturated conditions the concentration of Pd near the interface fluctuate over a period of several hours, likely due to the continuous formation and dissolution of sub-critical nuclei. Open circuit potential measurements conducted ex-situ in a liquid/liquid electrochemical cell support this view, showing that the fluctuations in Pd concentration are also visible as variations in potential across the liquid/liquid interface. By decreasing the interfacial potential through inclusion of a common ion (tetraethylammonium, TEA+) the Pd nanoparticle growth rate could be slowed down, resulting in a smooth nucleation process. Eventually, when the TEA+ ions reached an equilibrium potential, Pd nucleation and particle growth were inhibited.

  17. Soil characterization by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence: sampling strategy for in situ analysis.

    PubMed

    Custo, Graciela; Boeykens, Susana; Dawidowski, L; Fox, L; Gómez, D; Luna, F; Vázquez, Cristina

    2005-07-01

    This work describes a sampling strategy that will allow the use of portable EDXRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence) instruments for "in situ" soil analysis. The methodology covers a general approach to planning field investigations for any type of environmental studies and it was applied for a soil characterization study in the zone of Campana, Argentina, by evaluating data coming from an EDXRF spectrometer with a radioisotope excitation source. Simulating non-treated sampled as "in situ" samples and a soil characterization for Campana area was intended. "In situ" EDXRF methodology is a powerful analytical modality with the advantage of providing data immediately, allowing a fast general screening of the soil composition. PMID:16038489

  18. Evaluation on determination of iodine in coal by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, B.; Jackson, J.C.; Palmer, C.; Zheng, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    A quick and inexpensive method of relative high iodine determination from coal samples was evaluated. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provided a detection limit of about 14 ppm (3 times of standard deviations of the blank sample), without any complex sample preparation. An analytical relative standard deviation of 16% was readily attainable for coal samples. Under optimum conditions, coal samples with iodine concentrations higher than 5 ppm can be determined using this EDXRF method. For the time being, due to the general iodine concentrations of coal samples lower than 5 ppm, except for some high iodine content coal, this method can not effectively been used for iodine determination. More work needed to meet the requirement of determination of iodine from coal samples for this method. Copyright ?? 2005 by The Geochemical Society of Japan.

  19. Quantitative atomic resolution elemental mapping via absolute-scale energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Weyland, M; Sang, X; Xu, W; Dycus, J H; LeBeau, J M; D'Alfonso, A J; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative agreement on an absolute scale is demonstrated between experiment and simulation for two-dimensional, atomic-resolution elemental mapping via energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This requires all experimental parameters to be carefully characterized. The agreement is good, but some discrepancies remain. The most likely contributing factors are identified and discussed. Previous predictions that increasing the probe forming aperture helps to suppress the channelling enhancement in the average signal are confirmed experimentally. It is emphasized that simple column-by-column analysis requires a choice of sample thickness that compromises between being thick enough to yield a good signal-to-noise ratio while being thin enough that the overwhelming majority of the EDX signal derives from the column on which the probe is placed, despite strong electron scattering effects. PMID:27258645

  20. Characterization of small noble metal electrodes by voltammetry and energy dispersive x ray analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strein, Timothy G.; Ewing, Andrew G.

    1993-01-01

    Construction and characterization of platinum and gold electrodes with total structural diameters of 1-2 micrometers is described. These small voltammetric probes have been constructed by direct electroreduction of noble metals onto the tips of etched carbon fiber microdisk electrodes. Voltammetry, electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and pulsed amperometric detection have been used to characterize these electrodes. Dopamine concentrations have been determined over a range of 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -3) M in the biological buffer system which contains 25 mM glucose, a compound known to adsorb strongly to electrodes. Amperometric monitoring at a constant potential with these small results in signal decay of 20% to 40% in a ten minute experiment. Pulsed amperometric detection minimizes electrode fouling, resulting in 5% or less signal decay over the same ten minute period.

  1. Development of an energy dispersive spectrometer for a transmission electron microscope utilizing a TES microcalorimeter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Hara, Tom; Maehata, Keisuke; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Odawara, Akikazu; Nagata, Atsushi; Watanabe, Katsuaki; Takei, Yoh

    2009-12-01

    A high-energy-resolution energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) utilizing a TES (transition edge sensor) microcalorimeter array is developed for a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The goals of the development are (1) an energy range of 0.3-10 keV, (2) an energy resolution of FWHM <10 eV, (3) a maximum counting rate of 3 kcps, and (4) a cryogen-free cooling system. We adopted a dilution refrigerator (DR) pre-cooled by a Gifford-McMahon (GM) refrigerator to cool the TES microcalorimeter to ˜100 mK. In order to avoid micro phonics of GM fridge to propagate to the TEM, pressurized He gas is circulated between the DR and the GM to reject heat from the DR. The GM is mechanically well isolated from the TEM. In oder to obtain 3 kcps counting rate, we utilize a ten pixel TES array and read out the signals in parallel wtih ten analog signal channels from cryogenic to room temperature electronics. One of the pixels can be always irradiated by a radio isotope for energy calibration. As the first step, we have attached a single pixel TES system cooled by the cryogen-free cooling system to the TEM and obtained an energy resolution of 8 eV at 1.8 keV without degrading the spatial resolution of the TEM at a 2 Å level. A ten pixel TES system is also being developed from the front-end detector assembly to the room temperature digital electronics. We describe the signal processing system and packaging of the detector assembly.

  2. Lattice vibrations in the Frenkel-Kontorova model. I. Phonon dispersion, number density, and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Qingping; Wu, Lijun; Welch, David O.; Zhu, Yimei

    2015-06-17

    We studied the lattice vibrations of two inter-penetrating atomic sublattices via the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model of a linear chain of harmonically interacting atoms subjected to an on-site potential, using the technique of thermodynamic Green's functions based on quantum field-theoretical methods. General expressions were deduced for the phonon frequency-wave-vector dispersion relations, number density, and energy of the FK model system. In addition, as the application of the theory, we investigated in detail cases of linear chains with various periods of the on-site potential of the FK model. Some unusual but interesting features for different amplitudes of the on-site potential of the FK model are discussed. In the commensurate structure, the phonon spectrum always starts at a finite frequency, and the gaps of the spectrum are true ones with a zero density of modes. In the incommensurate structure, the phonon spectrum starts from zero frequency, but at a non-zero wave vector; there are some modes inside these gap regions, but their density is very low. In our approximation, the energy of a higher-order commensurate state of the one-dimensional system at a finite temperature may become indefinitely close to the energy of an incommensurate state. This finding implies that the higher-order incommensurate-commensurate transitions are continuous ones and that the phase transition may exhibit a “devil's staircase” behavior at a finite temperature.

  3. UV-curable low surface energy fluorinated polycarbonate-based polyurethane dispersion.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyeon-Deuk; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2011-10-15

    UV-curable low surface energy fluorinated polycarbonate-based polyurethane dispersions were synthesized by incorporating a hydroxy-terminated perfluoropolyether (PFPE) into the soft segment of polyurethane. The effects of the PFPE content on the UV-curing behavior, physical, surface, thermal properties and refractive index were investigated. The UV-curing behavior was analyzed by photo-differential scanning calorimetry. The surface free energy of the UV-cured film, which is related to the water or oil repellency, was calculated from contact angle measurements using the Lewis acid-base three liquids method. The surface free energy decreased significantly with increasing fluorine concentration because PFPE in the soft segment was tailored to the surface and produced a UV-cured film with a hydrophobic fluorine enriched surface, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. With increasing the fluorine content, the refractive indices of UV-cured films decreased. However, the UV-curing rate and final conversion was decreased with increasing contents of PFPE, which resulted in the decrease of the glass transition temperature (T(g)), crosslink density, tensile strength and surface hardness. PMID:21788027

  4. Lattice vibrations in the Frenkel-Kontorova model. I. Phonon dispersion, number density, and energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingping; Wu, Lijun; Welch, David O.; Zhu, Yimei

    2015-06-01

    We studied the lattice vibrations of two interpenetrating atomic sublattices via the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model of a linear chain of harmonically interacting atoms subjected to an on-site potential using the technique of thermodynamic Green's functions based on quantum field-theoretical methods. General expressions were deduced for the phonon frequency-wave-vector dispersion relations, number density, and energy of the FK model system. As the application of the theory, we investigated in detail cases of linear chains with various periods of the on-site potential of the FK model. Some unusual but interesting features for different amplitudes of the on-site potential of the FK model are discussed. In the commensurate structure, the phonon spectrum always starts at a finite frequency, and the gaps of the spectrum are true ones with a zero density of modes. In the incommensurate structure, the phonon spectrum starts from zero frequency, but at a nonzero wave vector; there are some modes inside these gap regions, but their density is very low. In our approximation, the energy of a higher-order commensurate state of the one-dimensional system at a finite temperature may become indefinitely close to the energy of an incommensurate state. This finding implies that the higher-order incommensurate-commensurate transitions are continuous ones and that the phase transition may exhibit a "devil's staircase" behavior at a finite temperature.

  5. Lattice vibrations in the Frenkel-Kontorova model. I. Phonon dispersion, number density, and energy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meng, Qingping; Wu, Lijun; Welch, David O.; Zhu, Yimei

    2015-06-17

    We studied the lattice vibrations of two inter-penetrating atomic sublattices via the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model of a linear chain of harmonically interacting atoms subjected to an on-site potential, using the technique of thermodynamic Green's functions based on quantum field-theoretical methods. General expressions were deduced for the phonon frequency-wave-vector dispersion relations, number density, and energy of the FK model system. In addition, as the application of the theory, we investigated in detail cases of linear chains with various periods of the on-site potential of the FK model. Some unusual but interesting features for different amplitudes of the on-site potential of themore » FK model are discussed. In the commensurate structure, the phonon spectrum always starts at a finite frequency, and the gaps of the spectrum are true ones with a zero density of modes. In the incommensurate structure, the phonon spectrum starts from zero frequency, but at a non-zero wave vector; there are some modes inside these gap regions, but their density is very low. In our approximation, the energy of a higher-order commensurate state of the one-dimensional system at a finite temperature may become indefinitely close to the energy of an incommensurate state. This finding implies that the higher-order incommensurate-commensurate transitions are continuous ones and that the phase transition may exhibit a “devil's staircase” behavior at a finite temperature.« less

  6. Towards hybrid pixel detectors for energy-dispersive or soft X-ray photon science.

    PubMed

    Jungmann-Smith, J H; Bergamaschi, A; Brückner, M; Cartier, S; Dinapoli, R; Greiffenberg, D; Huthwelker, T; Maliakal, D; Mayilyan, D; Medjoubi, K; Mezza, D; Mozzanica, A; Ramilli, M; Ruder, Ch; Schädler, L; Schmitt, B; Shi, X; Tinti, G

    2016-03-01

    JUNGFRAU (adJUstiNg Gain detector FoR the Aramis User station) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel detector for photon science applications at free-electron lasers and synchrotron light sources. The JUNGFRAU 0.4 prototype presented here is specifically geared towards low-noise performance and hence soft X-ray detection. The design, geometry and readout architecture of JUNGFRAU 0.4 correspond to those of other JUNGFRAU pixel detectors, which are charge-integrating detectors with 75 µm × 75 µm pixels. Main characteristics of JUNGFRAU 0.4 are its fixed gain and r.m.s. noise of as low as 27 e(-) electronic noise charge (<100 eV) with no active cooling. The 48 × 48 pixels JUNGFRAU 0.4 prototype can be combined with a charge-sharing suppression mask directly placed on the sensor, which keeps photons from hitting the charge-sharing regions of the pixels. The mask consists of a 150 µm tungsten sheet, in which 28 µm-diameter holes are laser-drilled. The mask is aligned with the pixels. The noise and gain characterization, and single-photon detection as low as 1.2 keV are shown. The performance of JUNGFRAU 0.4 without the mask and also in the charge-sharing suppression configuration (with the mask, with a `software mask' or a `cluster finding' algorithm) is tested, compared and evaluated, in particular with respect to the removal of the charge-sharing contribution in the spectra, the detection efficiency and the photon rate capability. Energy-dispersive and imaging experiments with fluorescence X-ray irradiation from an X-ray tube and a synchrotron light source are successfully demonstrated with an r.m.s. energy resolution of 20% (no mask) and 14% (with the mask) at 1.2 keV and of 5% at 13.3 keV. The performance evaluation of the JUNGFRAU 0.4 prototype suggests that this detection system could be the starting point for a future detector development effort for either applications in the soft X-ray energy regime or for an energy-dispersive

  7. Identifying and Resolving Issues in EnergyPlus and DOE-2 Window Heat Transfer Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Booten, C.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.

    2012-08-01

    Issues in building energy software accuracy are often identified by comparative, analytical, and empirical testing as delineated in the BESTEST methodology. As described in this report, window-related discrepancies in heating energy predictions were identified through comparative testing of EnergyPlus and DOE-2. Multiple causes for discrepancies were identified, and software fixes are recommended to better align the models with the intended algorithms and underlying test data.

  8. Development of a Schottky CdTe Medipix3RX hybrid photon counting detector with spatial and energy resolving capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez, E. N.; Astromskas, V.; Horswell, I.; Omar, D.; Spiers, J.; Tartoni, N.

    2016-07-01

    A multichip CdTe-Medipix3RX detector system was developed in order to bring the advantages of photon-counting detectors to applications in the hard X-ray range of energies. The detector head consisted of 2×2 Medipix3RX ASICs bump-bonded to a 28 mm×28 mm e- collection Schottky contact CdTe sensor. Schottky CdTe sensors undergo performance degrading polarization which increases with temperature, flux and the longer the HV is applied. Keeping the temperature stable and periodically refreshing the high voltage bias supply was used to minimize the polarization and achieve a stable and reproducible detector response. This leads to good quality images and successful results on the energy resolving capabilities of the system.

  9. Energy-resolved neutron SEU measurements from 22 to 160 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, K.; Dyreklev, P.; Granbom, B.; Olsson, N.; Blomgren, J.; Renberg, P.U.

    1998-12-01

    The energy dependence of the neutron- induced single-event upset (NSEU) cross section for Static RAMs have been measured, using quasi-monoenergetic neutrons of five different energies from 22 to 160 MeV. The measured SEU cross sections were corrected for the low-energy neutron tail by an iterative folding procedure. A clear energy dependence has been found. The SEU rate has been compared both with results from testing with a neutron spallation spectrum up to 800 MeV and the measured SEU rate from In-Flight experiments at 10 km.

  10. Digital performance improvements of a CdTe pixel detector for high flux energy-resolved X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbene, L.; Gerardi, G.; Principato, F.

    2015-03-01

    Photon counting detectors with energy resolving capabilities are desired for high flux X-ray imaging. In this work, we present the performance of a pixelated Schottky Al/p-CdTe/Pt detector (4×4) coupled to a custom-designed digital readout electronics for high flux measurements. The detector (4×4×2 mm3) has an anode layout based on an array of 16 pixels with a geometric pitch of 1 mm (pixel size of 0.6 mm). The 4-channel readout electronics is able to continuously digitize and process the signals from each pixel, performing multi-parameter analysis (event arrival time, pulse shape, pulse height, pulse time width, etc.) even at high fluxes and at different throughput and energy resolution conditions. The spectroscopic response of the system to monochromatic X-ray sources, at both low and high rates, is presented with particular attention to the mitigation of some typical spectral distortions (pile-up, baseline shifts and charge sharing). At a photon counting rate of 520 kcps/pixel, the system exhibits an energy resolution (FWHM at 59.5 keV) of 4.6%, 7.1% and 9% at throughputs of 0.9%, 16% and 82%, respectively. Measurements of Ag-target X-ray spectra also show the ability of the system to perform accurate estimation of the input counting rate up to 1.1 Mcps/pixel. The aim of this work is to point out, beside the appealing properties of CdTe detectors, the benefits of the digital approach in the development of high-performance energy resolved photon counting (ERPC) systems for high flux X-ray imaging.